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Sample records for external casing packer

  1. Swelling packer technology : case histories in open hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkens, A. [Easywell, Woodlands, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented case histories of swelling packer technology open hole innovations. Challenges such as fluid flow management and the restriction of solids entering the well bore were discussed. Other challenges included the need to reduce well construction costs, long-term reliability, production optimization methods and positive economic returns. In order to simplify production methods, minimize pay zone damage and eliminate moving parts, it is advisable to return to the simpler open hole well-bore method. Zonal isolation issues were discussed. The role of oil swelling packer was described with reference to its flexibility attributes such as the fact that rubber swells in hydrocarbons, activates in oil but not pure water, and creates an effective seal in open hole. Swell packer for oil-based mud was examined, along with details of successful applications. Functionality issues were discussed. The advantages of swell pack for oil-based mud is that it is rugged, self-repairing and has no environmental impact. It also has a good track record and is more flexible than concrete, more durable than Hydrogenated Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (HNBR) and regains integrity after failure. Various well construction advances, completion advances and global installations were discussed. Reservoir, well construction and completion challenges were reviewed. Economic challenges were discussed. Various features of the Constrictor swell packer, which enables annular fluid flow management, were presented. The Oil Selector, a product that enables automatic water control, was also reviewed. 7 figs.

  2. A reba-based analysis of packers workload: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej M. Lasota

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the elements of a logistics system is the subsystem of production, which is a system composed of physical elements such as machinery, tools and (most importantly people. In addition, system-dependent human operators are particularly prone to problems related to discomfort, which can affect production quality and increase training costs and absenteeism. The aim of this study was to assess the workload and risk of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD's in the process of order fulfillment for the position of packer and to conduct an analysis of risk factors. Methods: The Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA evaluation method was used. Activities related to the fulfillment of an order were assessed for three workstations. Results: Five postures qualified for action category (AC 2, seven postures for AC 3 and one posture for AC 4. The main factors affecting the risk of a negative assessment of posture were keeping the back bent and twisted, keeping the arms raised above the trunk, working in a standing position and the weight of packaged carton. Conclusions: Packers working on research positions face a high level of exposure to the risk of MSD's, therefore corrective actions should be carried out as soon as possible. Ergonomic intervention should be linked to redesigning workstations and methods of working. After making changes to the research workstations, re-evaluation using the REBA method is recommended to verify the effectiveness of the changes.

  3. Design, build, develop, and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, C.

    1992-01-01

    A new method for sealing casing is currently under development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. This method has been assessed by the Department of Energy, and the magnitude of the oilfield need and the technology are described in a DoE report entitled, Downhole Casing Repair System'' (OERI Number 013152). In this report, the cost savings to the nation's energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are overcome.

  4. Design and Research on the Plastic Packaging Fruit Milk Integrated Case Packer%塑封果奶装箱一体机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周东; 刘凤臣; 陈书琼; 刘黎明; 陈凯; 尤晨

    2012-01-01

    针对果奶生产线后道包装中塑封果奶装箱一直由人工完成,存在着效率低、可靠性差、成本高等问题,本文提出了一种塑封果奶装箱机一体机设计的方法.主要设计理念为纸箱供给与塑封果奶瓶组输送两线并行,塑封果奶瓶组经过分瓶后,通过电缸推入成型后的纸箱,再通过步进式链条输送至封箱工位,完成整个循环,运行可靠,生产率高.%As the end of fruit milk production line, plastic fruit milk usually has been packed by manual operation with low efficiency, poor reliability and high cost, this paper put forward a kind of plastic fruit milk integrated case packer design method. The main design concept is that carton supplying and plastic fruit bottle group conveying are working simultaneously, after the fruit milk bottle group separated, pushing them into the molding carton through the electric cylinder,then transport them to sealing location by stepping type chain, complete the whole cycle with reliable operation and high productivity. [Ch,10 fig. 13 ref.

  5. External ophthalmomyiasis: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amry, Mohammad; Al-Saikhan, Fahad I.; Al-Dahmash, Saad

    2013-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis is an infestation of the eye with larvae of most common sheep nasal botfly (Oestrus ovis). We describe a case of ophthalmomyiasis in a 50-year-old man who presented with ocular foreign body sensation, redness and tearing. The causative larvae were removed in the emergency room and sent to laboratory for identification. The patient symptoms improved after topical treatment with antibiotics–steroid combination therapy. PMID:25473352

  6. Design, build, develop, and test a fieldworthy spiral tool and packer for casing repair. Quarterly report, June 16, 1992--September 15, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, C.

    1992-10-01

    A new method for sealing casing is currently under development by Nu-Bore Systems. The method involves internally lining a section of the wellbore with a multi-layer spiral wrapping of a high strength, corrosion resistant metal interleaved with a high bond strength, resilient epoxy. The high strength metal is preferably a copper based alloy hardened to a very high strength in order to resist the internal and external pressures of downhole environments. The epoxy adhesive formulation is one that forms a bond between the steel inner wall of the casing and copper alloy strip. The copper alloy strip spiral wraps are interleaved with epoxy, and the whole system provides a high level of outward directed spring force and, thus, resists both internal and externally directed forces. This method has been assessed by the Department of Energy, and the magnitude of the oilfield need and the technology are described in a DoE report entitled, ``Downhole Casing Repair System`` (OERI Number 013152). In this report, the cost savings to the nation`s energy program was estimated to be in the range of hundreds of millions of dollars per year, and the method was judged technically feasible once certain well defined engineering obstacles are overcome.

  7. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014.......EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014....

  8. Asymptomatic body packers should be treated conservatively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glovinski, Peter V; Lauritsen, Morten L; Bay-Nielsen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Body packing takes advantage of the human storage capacity within the alimentary tract. Body packing is used for the smuggling of drugs such as heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, hashish and ecstasy. Most body packers are asymptomatic. However, packets may rupture or obstruct the alimentary tract...

  9. Unilateral external ophthalmoplegia in Miller Fisher syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severn Philip

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A description of the diagnostic features of Miller Fisher syndrome. Case presentation The clinical presentation, investigation, and subsequent progress of our patient with clinical unilateral external ophthalmoplegia. Conclusion Our case demonstrates the presentation of clinical unilateral external ophthalmoplegia as part of the full triad of Miller Fisher syndrome.

  10. Sudden Cardiac Death of a Body Packer Due to Cocaine Cardiotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Parthasarathi Pramanik; Raghvendra Kumar Vidua

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a case of sudden cardiac death due to the effects of cocaine concealed in the body of a male drug smuggler in his 40s, a so-called body packer. A total of 57 body packets filled with cocaine powder were discovered in his body cavities. The detailed autopsy examination, including histopathology and toxicology findings, is discussed with the aim of describing the mechanism of cocaine intoxication in the body packer and an analysis of cocaine-induced cardiotoxicity and sudd...

  11. Melanoacanthoma of external ear: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Patnayak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma is a rare lesion. Melanoacanthoma of external ear is still rarer . We present two cases of melanoacanthoma of external ear in adults which presented as pigmented growths and clinically were suspected as malignant lesions. Histopathology was diagnostic as it demonstrated the characteristic elevated lesion with abundant melanin pigment. No recurrence of the lesion was reported after four years of initial diagnosis. These cases have been presented because of their uncommon location, highlighting the differential diagnoses.

  12. Esthesioneuroblastoma treated with external radiotherapy. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tramacere, F; Bambace, S; De Luca, M C; Castagna, R; Francavilla, M C; Leone, A; Monastero, S; Fucilli, F; Pili, G; Portaluri, M

    2008-08-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare tumour arising from the olfactory epithelium of the nasal vault which frequently invades the cranial base and orbit. Esthesioneuroblastoma has a bimodal age distribution between 11 and 20 years and between 51 and 60 years. Esthesioneuroblastoma accounts for approximately 1-5% of intranasal cancers. The case is reported of a 79-year-old female patient with a Kadish stage C tumour with a one-year history of headache, nasal obstruction, anosmia, rhinorrhoea and epistaxis. Aim of this study is to analyse the natural history, treatment and prognosis of this tumour, based on a review of the literature.

  13. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  14. EU external relations law : text, cases and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vooren, Bart; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2014-01-01

    This major new textbook for students in European law uses a text, cases and materials approach to explore the law, politics, policy and practice of EU external relations, and navigates the complex questions at the interface of these areas. The subject is explored by explaining major constitutional p

  15. External Evaluation of Education and Teacher Work: The Brazilian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothen, José Carlos; da Cunha Malheiros Santana, Andréia

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to discuss whether external evaluations are instruments to ensure increased quality of public school education. It is part of a research that investigated how evaluation results and the resulting indices were used in two schools in the state of São Paulo (Brazil). The methodology adopted was the case study, using different…

  16. Lupus anticoagulant : case-based external quality assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Besselaar, A. M. H. P.; Devreese, K. M. J.; de Groot, P. G.; Castel, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: A model for presenting case histories with quality assessment material is to be developed for the Dutch external quality assessment (EQA) scheme for blood coagulation testing. The purpose of the present study was to assess the performance of clinical laboratories in casebased EQA using the cas

  17. EU external relations law : text, cases and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vooren, Bart; Wessel, Ramses A.

    2014-01-01

    This major new textbook for students in European law uses a text, cases and materials approach to explore the law, politics, policy and practice of EU external relations, and navigates the complex questions at the interface of these areas. The subject is explored by explaining major constitutional

  18. Lupus vulgaris of external nose--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunkumar, J S; Naveen, K N; Prasad, K C; Santhosh, S G; Hegde, J S

    2013-02-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the most common morphological variant of cutaneous tuberculosis accounting for approximately 59% of cases of cutaneous tuberculosis in India. We present a case of lupus vulgaris of external nose diagnosed early and treated with CAT-3 RNTCP regimen for six months without any nasal deformity except for a small scar over the dorsum of the nose. Patient followed up for one year after completion of the prescribed regimen, there being no recurrence of the lesion.

  19. Development and application of a packer-type drilling-free liner hanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In liner cementing, the upper cement plug and inner components of a common hanger needs to be drilled out after cementing, which will result in a poor cementing quality or even gas leakage at the flare opening. Therefore, a new packer-type drilling-free liner hanger has been developed, and a hydraulic setting-control packer, a flexible drilling-free seal box, and an auxiliary bearing back-off mechanism that go with the line hanger have been designed at the same time. Specific operation procedures include: (1 run in the liner string to the designed depth, then fully circulate the drilling fluid, finally drop the ball. When the tripping ball gets into the seat, the pressure will go up to cut off the hanging control pin and set the hanger; (2 continue to hold the pressure and cut off the ball seat pin to form circulation; (3 trip in the drill pipe to exert pressure on the hanger, back off to release the hanger from the running tool; (4 lower the drill pipe plug upon the completion of cement injection, cut off the releasing control pin of hollow casing plug, and run down further to bump with the bumping assembly; (5 remove the cementing head and connect the kelly driver, hold pressure again, then slowly pull up the drill tools, exert hydraulic pressure on the setting hydraulic cylinder of the packer assembly to cut off the setting control pin and set the packer; and (6 pull up the tools to the flare opening and wash out excessive cement slurry by circulating to realize free drilling of the whole hole. The successful application of the liner hanger in 127 mm diameter liner in Well BQ203-H1 indicates that the packer-type liner hanger has such advantages as easy hanging and back-off, accurate bumping, simple setting, and sound sealing performance.

  20. Book Review: EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Butler

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This latest textbook contributing to the field of EU external relations law is unique in that it is the first such book in the post-Treaty of Lisbon environment to take a wide-angled look on as many aspects of the growing area as it continues to develop within the legal parameters as set by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated issues that are at play.

  1. External rhinoplasty: a critical analysis of 500 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2003-06-01

    The study presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a series of 500 consecutive rhinoplasties of which 380 (76 per cent) were primary and 120 (24 per cent) were secondary cases. All cases were operated upon using the external rhinoplasty technique; simultaneous septal surgery was performed in 350 (70 per cent) of the cases. Deformities of the upper two-thirds of the nose that occurred significantly more in the secondary cases included; dorsal saddling, dorsal irregularities, valve collapse, open roof and pollybeak deformities. In the lower third of the nose; secondary cases showed significantly higher incidences of depressed tip, tip over-rotation, tip asymmetry, retracted columella, and alar notching. Suturing techniques were used significantly more in primary cases, while in secondary cases grafting techniques were used significantly more. The complications encountered intra-operatively included; septal flap tears (2.8 per cent) and alar cartilage injury (1.8 per cent), while post-operative complications included; nasal trauma (one per cent), epistaxis (two per cent), infection (2.4 per cent), prolonged oedema (17 per cent), and nasal obstruction (0.8 per cent). The overall patient satisfaction rate was 95.6 per cent and the transcolumellar scar was found to be unacceptable in only 0.8 per cent of the patients.

  2. Surgical treatment in cocaine body packers and body pushers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, Andreas; Hofmann, Rainer; Bargain, Philippe; Desel, Herbert; Ebbecke, Martin; Langer, Claus

    2007-12-01

    Body packers smuggle cocaine by swallowing containers filled with the drugs, whilst body pushers conceal the containers in the rectum or vagina. In a collaborative effort between the Department of General Surgery, two major airports and Poisons Centre, we performed a retrospective study to develop an algorithm for the treatment of ruptured cocaine-filled containers. The data of all cocaine body packers and body pushers who were identified at the airports of Frankfurt and Paris from 1985 to 2002 were evaluated concerning incidence, demographics and surgical aspects. From 1985 to 2002, 312 body pushers and 4,660 body packers were identified. The sex ratio was 1:1. Sixty-four "mules" (1.4%) developed life-threatening symptoms of cocaine overdose after the rupture of a container. In 20 patients, an emergency laparotomy was performed and the containers were removed; all of these patients survived. Forty-four body packers died before surgical treatment could be performed. Only one body pusher required medical attention. Cocaine overdose can be life-threatening. If the cause is the rupture of a container in a body packer, the only possible treatment is immediate laparotomy for the removal of the container.

  3. 9 CFR 201.29 - Market agencies, packers and dealers required to file and maintain bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... packer purchasing livestock, directly or through an affiliate or employee or a wholly-owned subsidiary... bond. In the event a packer maintains a wholly-owned subsidiary or affiliate to conduct its livestock buying, the wholly-owned subsidiary or affiliate shall be registered as a packer buyer for its...

  4. 9 CFR 201.67 - Packers not to own or finance selling agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packers not to own or finance selling... STOCKYARDS ACT Trade Practices § 201.67 Packers not to own or finance selling agencies. No packer subject to the Act shall have an ownership interest in, finance, or participate in the management or operation of...

  5. 7 CFR 58.317 - Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers... and Grading Service 1 Equipment and Utensils § 58.317 Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers. Bulk butter trucks, boats, texturizers, and packers shall be constructed of aluminum,...

  6. Plastic Sealed Thermal Expansion Packer for Thermal Recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Li; Jiang Hua

    1995-01-01

    @@ According to the requirements of wellbore heatinsulation technique and selective zonal steaminjection technique in heavy-oil steam-injection recovery process, the Oil Recovery Technique Department of Liaohe Petroleum Exploration and Production Bureau and Shuguang Oil Recovery Plant have cooperatively designed and developed a plastic sealed thermal expansion packer for thermal recovery.

  7. Verrucous Carcinoma in External Auditory Canal – A Rare Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumour, other sites are larynx, oesophagus and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45 years old woman who came to the ENT & Head Neck Surgery department of Delta medical college, Dhaka, Bangladesh with discharging left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed a mass occupying almost whole of the external auditory canal and the overlying skin was thickened, papillary and blackish. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. External auditory canal bone was found eroded at some parts. Excision of the mass was done under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The mass was diagnosed as verrucous carcinoma on histopathological examination. Afterwards she was given radiotherapy. Six months follow up showed no recurrence and healthy epithelialization of external auditory canal.

  8. Worst-case efficient external-memory priority queues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Katajainen, Jyrki

    1998-01-01

    . In this paper a priority-queue implementation is given which is efficient with respect to the number of block transfers or I/Os performed between the internal and external memories of a computer. Let B and M denote the respective capacity of a block and the internal memory measured in elements. The developed...

  9. Management of the proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixation: A case series of 30 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar K Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of high velocity trauma is a challenging problem because of morbidity of trauma and sometime residual problems of failure of proper healing of fractures with the restriction of movements of knee, shortening, and added risk of compartment syndrome in the proximal tibia fracture. There is always risk of post-operative infection and infected non-union in extensive open surgical procedure and internal fixation. Hence, there is always look out for the middle path procedure for a solution to the above said problems with the added advantage of less hospital stay and early return to work by minimal invasive procedure and stabilization of fracture reduction by multiple K-wire fixation with a frame applied externally. Stabilization of fracture with reduced pain allows early movements of neighbouring joint knee and ankle; hence, reduces the chances of fracture diseases. With this we have been stimulated to take-up the study of managing the proximal tibia fracture by mini external fixator. Aim: The aim of this study was to manage proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixator and evaluate the results and efficacy of this method. Material and Method: A total of 30 patients having proximal tibial fractures admitted at our center between 2008 and 2010 were taken and the procedure carried out was closed manipulative reduction and stabilization with mini external fixator. All acute proximal tibia fractures including tibial plateau fractures above 17 years of age of either sex were included in the study. Fracture more than 3 weeks old were excluded from the study. Result: Out of 30 cases 13 were excellent, 14 cases good, and 3 showed fair. It was found that type 5 and 6 of Schatzker′s classification have lesser outcome type of fractures Conclusion: We have found that management of the proximal tibia fractures by mini external fixation method has a better outcome. Early mobilization of knee in the proximal tibia fractures after

  10. EXTERNAL FACTORS INFLUENCE ON INFLATION: THE CASE OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihnatov Iulian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we try to assess the main external determinants of inflation dynamics in Romania. The literature in the field of measuring inflation dynamics is wealthy and various. There are many developing country - level studies that examine inflation dynamics: Blavy (2004 - Guinea, Duma (2008 - Sri Lanka, Gottschalk et al (2008 - Sierra Leone, Moriyama (2008 - Sudan, Mwase (2006 - Tanzania, Williams and Adedeji (2004 - Dominican Republic, Hossain (2005 - Indonesia, Almounsor (2010 - Yemen. The issue of Romanian inflation dynamics is present in many and various studies, like Hammermann (2007, Pelinescu and Dospinescu (2006, Budina et al (2006 etc. There are no other recent studies that analyze the external determinants on Romanian inflation dynamics. In our paper we estimate an OLS single equation model, using a methodology derived from Almounsor (2010. The empirical analysis uses monthly data from August 2005 to January 2011. The start point of the data series is the moment of a major change in the National Bank of Romania (NBR monetary policy: adoption of the inflation targeting regime. The independent variables used in our research are: harmonized consumer price index of EU-25 countries, EUR/RON exchange rate, crude oil price index (for analyzing the external shocks effect and M2 monetary aggregate (intermediate money supply as a control variable. The outcomes suggest that inflation in Romania is driven mainly by international price shocks - harmonized consumer price index of EU-25 countries. The EUR/RON exchange rate depreciation has a small influence on domestic inflation. In the short run, the effect of the international oil price is insignificant. Money supply, used here as a control variable, is shown to have a very small effect on inflation in Romania when using OLS regressions. The results show that 66% of the domestic inflation variance is explained by the independent variables in our model.

  11. Ultra high-temperature solids-free insulating packer fluid for oil and gas production, steam injection and geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezell, R.G.; Harrison, D.J. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Canadian Section, Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    Uncontrolled heat transfer from production/injection tubing during thermal oil recovery via steam injection can be detrimental to the integrity of the casing and to the quality of the steam that is injected into the reservoir. An aqueous-based insulating packer fluid (IPF) was introduced to improve the steam injection process by controlling the total heat loss from the produced fluids to the surrounding wellbore, internal annuli and formation. The IPF was developed for elevated temperature environments through extensive investigation across multidisciplinary technology. The innovative system delivers performance beyond conventional systems of comparable thermal conductivity. Its density range and conductivity measurements were presented in this paper. High-temperature static aging tests showed superior gel integrity without any phase separation after exposure to temperatures higher than 260 degrees C. The new fluids are hydrate inhibitive, non-corrosive and pass oil and grease testing. They are considered to be environmentally sound by Gulf of Mexico standards. It was concluded that the new ultra high-performance insulating packer fluid (HTIPF) reduced the heat loss significantly by both conduction and convection. Heat transfer within the aqueous-based HTIPF was 97 per cent less than that of pure water. It was concluded that the HTIPF can be substituted for conventional packer fluids without compromising any well control issues. 21 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document presents two case studies of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) used (1) to remove arsenic from drinking water and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The draft case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental asses...

  13. Nanomaterial Case Studies: Nanoscale Titanium Dioxide (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document presents two case studies of nanoscale titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) used (1) to remove arsenic from drinking water and (2) as an active ingredient in topical sunscreen. The draft case studies are organized around a comprehensive environmental asses...

  14. “Tomato packers recess, Copiah County, 1936”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Mazzari

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available “Tomato packers recess, Copiah County, 1936,” Photographs, p. 31, with the gracious permission of the Eudora Welty FoundationAs well as any photo I know, Eudora Welty here embodies music in sight. She has caught a moment of music as it ripples through these men. The music swirls around and through the casual grace of its listeners’ lounging the way a clothesline of billowing laundry captures the shape of the wind.There’s a magic tension in the composition. The relaxed throw of these bodies an...

  15. Low level termination of external carotid artery and its clinical significance: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Devadasa Shetty

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The external carotid arterial system is a complex vascular system providing nourishment to the territorial areas of the head and neck. The branches of the external carotid artery are the key landmarks for adequate exposure and appropriate placement of cross-clamps on the carotid arteries during carotid endarterectomy. Knowledge of anatomical variation of the external carotid artery is important in head and neck surgeries. Variations in the branching pattern of the external carotid artery are well known and documented. We report a rare case of low-level termination of the external carotid artery. It terminated by dividing into maxillary and superficial temporal arteries deep into the posterior belly of the digastric muscle, one inch below the angle of the mandible. The occipital and posterior auricular arteries arose from a common trunk given off by the external carotid artery. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2015; 4(3.000: 160-163

  16. Treatment of neglected elbow dislocations with the help of hinged external fixator: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Karakoyun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Elbow dislocations are cases that have to be treated in emergency conditions. Neglected elbow dislocations are seen very rarely and the treatment of such cases are more complicated than acute cases. We present two cases of neglected elbow dislocations treated with open reduction and hinged external fixators. Case 1: 23 year old female patient had a neglected posterior dislocation of left elbow with ipsilateral humeral shaft fracture caused by car accident. The patient was treated after 3 months of initial trauma. We have performed open reduction for the joint. After that we fixed the joint whit a hinged external fixator. The humeral shaft fracture was also fixed with the components of the external fixator. Case 2: 33 year male patient had a large bone and soft tissue defect around the left elbow accompanying with neglected medial elbow dislocation. He presented to our clinic with a delay of 2 months. The patient was treated with open reduction and hinged external fixator after reconstruction of bone defect of distal humerus. Conclusion: The treatment of neglected cases is quite challenging. Open reduction and external fixation has satisfactory results in treatment of late cases of elbow dislocation with the possibility of early rehabilitation. This method can be considered as an option for such cases. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 443-446

  17. Radial nerve injury following elbow external fixator: report of three cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Luis; Sarasquete, Juan; Noguera, Laura; Proubasta, Ignacio; Lamas, Claudia

    2017-07-01

    Radial nerve palsy is a rare but serious complication following elbow external fixation. Only 11 cases have been reported in the literature to date, but the incidence may be underreported. We present three new cases of this complication. We analyzed the three cases of radial palsy seen in our center following the application of an external fixator as treatment for complex elbow injuries. Mean patient age at surgery was 50 years. Two patients were female and one was male. In the three cases, the initial lesion was a posterior elbow dislocation, associated with a fracture of the radial shaft in one and a radial head fracture and coronoid fracture, respectively, in the other two. Due to persistent elbow instability, an external fixator was applied in all three cases. The fixator pins were introduced percutaneously in two cases and under direct vision in an open manner in the third case. Radial palsy was noted immediately postoperatively in all cases. It was permanent in two cases and temporary in the third. Radial nerve palsy after placement of an external elbow fixator was resolved in only 1 of our 3 cases and in 6 of the 11 cases in the literature to date. Although the event is rare, these alarming results highlight the need for recommendations to avoid this complication.

  18. 16 CFR 503.3 - Name and place of business of manufacturer, packer, or distributor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... retains its separate corporate identity, is not the manufacturer of the consumer commodities manufactured... manufacturer, packer, or distributor. To clarify the identity of a manufacturer, packer, or distributor for the... by the addition of any substance which changes the identity of the bulk, ceases to be...

  19. External Fixation of Unstable Distal Radius Fracture. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniel Truffin Rodríguez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Unstable fracture of the distal radius is a common injury. If not properly treated, it can cause major disturbance in the radiocarpal joint and impaired hand function. A case of a 42-year-old patient of rural origin without a history of previous conditions treated at the Gustavo Aldereguía Lima Hospital in Cienfuegos is presented. He suffered a fall on the outstretched hand, which led to an unstable fracture of the left distal radius. Emergency surgery consisting of manual fracture reduction under general anesthesia and fixation with RALCA minifixator plus a percutaneously placed Kirschner wire was performed. Since this fracture is often inadequately treated, the presentation of this case can be helpful to many orthopedic surgeons.

  20. 9 CFR 201.94 - Information as to business; furnishing of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of by packers, swine contractors, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and... poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies, and dealers. Each packer, swine contractor, live poultry dealer, stockyard owner, market agency, and dealer, upon proper request, shall give to...

  1. [Surgical complications in drug body-packers: an uncommon but potentially lethal emergency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Llano, Laura; Rey Valcárcel, Cristina; Mohamed Al-Lal, Yusef; Sánchez Rodríguez, Teresa; García Marín, Andrés; Pérez Díaz, María Dolores; Turégano Fuentes, Fernando

    2012-11-01

    Drug trafficking by means of introducing packets of illegal substances in body cavities carries a risk of suffering from a gastrointestinal obstruction and/or severe poisoning in the person who transports them. Spain is considered as the port of entry to Europe for drugs, and some Spanish hospitals have experience in managing these types of patients. Two hospitals in Madrid, including the Gregorio Marañón University General Hospital (HGUGM), received these potential patients from the Madrid Barajas airport. To analyse the results of the conservative treatment and the need for surgery in "body-packers". A retrospective, observational study of patients diagnosed as a body-packer between January 2000 and December 2008. Those with gastrointestinal symptoms, signs of poisoning, or positive for drugs of abuse, were admitted to the Custodial Unit of our hospital. The conservative treatment consisted of digestive rest and imaging studies until expulsion from the body. Asymptomatic patients were discharged from the Emergency Department. A total of 549 patients, with a median age of 31 years, and of whom 81% were males, were hospitalised during this period. Less than half (40%) showed positive for drugs in the urine, with cocaine in 80% of the cases. Of the 549 patients with initial conservative treatment, 27 (4.9%) had serious complications (16, bowel obstruction, and 11 with signs of poisoning). Of these, 23 required surgery (the 16 obstructions and 7 of the poisonings); 2 were successfully treated in ICU, and 2 died before surgery (0.4%) of the cases. The most frequent surgical treatment was enterotomy and/or gastrostomy to extract the packets. Thirteen (56%) of those operated on had associated morbidity (11 abdominal infections and 2 nosocomial infections). Conservative treatment is safe in 95% of the patients. A small percentage required surgical treatment, basically for gastrointestinal obstruction or severe poisoning. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier

  2. Xanthogranuloma of the External Auditory Canal Mimicking a Benign Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Yoshihama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exostosis, osteoma, and adenoma are the most commonly encountered benign lesions in the external auditory canal. Herein, we report a case of the mass arising from the external auditory canal in a 24-year-old Japanese man. CT revealed the soft tissue mass without bony erosion, and MRI revealed that the mass showed a homogenous, iso signal intensity on a both T1- and T2-weighted image, suggesting that the mass is a benign tumor such as adenoma. Pathological examination showed that the specimen demonstrated xanthogranuloma in the external auditory canal. Although xanthogranuloma of the external auditory canal is extremely rare, otolaryngologists should recognize this condition during the inspection of the external auditory canal.

  3. 9 CFR 203.4 - Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers, stockyard owners, market agencies and dealers. 203.4... STOCKYARDS ACT § 203.4 Statement with respect to the disposition of records by packers, live poultry dealers... Stockyards Act (7 U.S.C. 221) provides, in part, that every packer, live poultry dealer, stockyard...

  4. Explosion approach for external safety assessment: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D. Michael; Halford, Ann [Germanischer Lloyd, Loughborough (United Kingdom); Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Several questions related to the potential for explosions are explored as this became an important subject during an enterprise risk analysis. The understanding of explosions underwent a substantial evolution in the final 20 years of the 20{sup th} century following international research projects in Europe involving several research institutes, as well gas and oil companies. This led to the development of techniques that could be used to assess the potential consequences of explosions on oil, gas and petrochemical facilities. This paper presents an overview of the potential for explosions in communities close to industrial sites or pipelines right of way (RoW), where the standard explosion assessment methods cannot be applied. With reference to experimental studies, the potential for confined explosions in buildings and Vapor Cloud Explosions is explored. Vapor Cloud Explosion incidents in rural or urban areas are also discussed. The method used for incorporating possible explosion and fire events in risk studies is also described using a case study. Standard explosion assessment methodologies and a revised approach are compared as part of an on going evaluation of risk (author)

  5. Case Report: Management of unusual site for contrast media extravasation in right external jugular vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Imam Abdel Aleem Taha Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media extravasation is well known complication during power/pressure injection of contrast material. Despite reports of many cases of extravasation few consequences have been reported. We present a very rare case of contrast media extravasation in the neck after right external jugular vein cannulation which mandated early surgical intervention. On literature search, we did not find any similar report of such unique case.

  6. Adult-onset juvenile xanthogranuloma of the external auditory canal: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Joon Ho; Kim, Jae Kyun; Seo, Gi Young; Choi, Woo Sun; Byun, Jun Soo; Lee, Woong Jae; Lee, Tae Jin [Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Chung-Ang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Na Ra [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a benign, spontaneously regressing lesion that usually occurs during the first year of life, but may also occur in adulthood. Although the most common presentation of JXG is the cutaneous lesion, it can also manifest in various visceral organs. JXG of the external auditory canal is extremely rare, and there have been only a few reports of those cases in the English literature. In this study, we present a case of pathologically proven JXG that occurred in the external auditory canal with a symptomatic clinical presentation.

  7. Cavernous Hemangioma of the External Canal, Tympanic Membrane, and Middle Ear Cleft: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Haitham; Al-Qudah, Mohannad; Al-Qudah, Mohammad A

    2016-06-01

    Cavernous hemangioma involving the external canal, tympanic membrane, and middle ear cavity is extremely rare. We present a case of a 45-year-old woman who had progressive right sided decreased hearing, pulsatile tinnitus, and aural fullness of 7 months duration. Microscopic examination, imaging studies, surgical treatment, and histological evaluation are reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of cavernous hemangioma with simultaneous involvement of the external ear, tympanic membrane, middle ear, and attic reported in English literature.

  8. Temporization of penetrating abdominal-pelvic trauma with manual external aortic compression: a novel case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, Matthew; Smith, Katherine E; Brindley, Peter G

    2014-07-01

    A young civilian man experienced multiple gunshots to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and thigh. These were not amenable to direct compression by a single rescuer. This report outlines the first case in the peer-reviewed literature of manual external aortic compression after severe trauma. This technique successfully temporized external bleeding for more than 10 minutes and restored consciousness to the moribund victim. Subsequently, external bleeding could not be temporized by a second smaller rescuer, or during ambulance transfer. Therefore, we also gained insights about the possible limits of bimanual compression and when alternates, such as pneumatic devices, may be required. Research is needed to test our presumption that successful bimanual compression requires larger-weight rescuers, smaller-weight victims, and a hard surface. It is therefore unclear whether manual external aortic compression is achievable by most rescuers or for most victims. However, it offers an immediate and equipment-free life-sustaining strategy when there are limited alternatives.

  9. Bilateral external ear canal osteomas – discussion on a clinical case

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC, Gheorghe; AE, Stanciu; A, Ulici; A, Zamfir-Chiru-Anton

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas of the external ear are uncommon benign tumors that need to be differentiated from the external ear canal exostoses, bony proliferations that are linked mainly to cold-water exposure. Clinical manifestations vary from no symptoms to recurrent local infections and external ear cholesteatoma. Objective: presenting a rare case that we did not find described in the published literature. A patient with multiple long-term asymptomatic osteomas of both external ear canals presented to our department. Material: Data recorded from the patient’s medical record was reviewed and analyzed. Surgery was performed and histology confirmed the presumptive diagnosis. Results: There was a discrepancy between the local severity of the disease, with a complete obstruction of his ear canals, and the long-term disease-free status of the patient. Conclusion: We hypothesized about the etiology of these multiple bilateral osteomas of the EAC, in light of the clinical and surgical findings. PMID:27928451

  10. [A case of carcinoma adenoides cysticum in the external auditory canal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboczyński, R; Wojnowski, W

    2001-01-01

    The authors present a case of a woman aged 31 with carcinoma adenoides cysticum at external auditory canal. The tumor was surgically removed; after 9 month a recrudescence was ascertained but there were no metastasis to other organs. The tumor was once more surgically removed. Now it has been a year of observation and no renewal of neoplastic process was noticed.

  11. TREATMENT OF 62 CASES OF EXTERNAL HUMERAL EPICONDYLITIS WITH STILETTO NEEDLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jian-xin; WEN Zhi-hua

    2006-01-01

    @@ External humeral epicondylitis, also known as brachioradial bursitis, popularly called "tennis elbow" refers to the acute or chronic myofascitis, the injury of the common extensor tendon of the humeral epicondyle. The authors have recently treated 62 cases of the disease by means of stiletto needle, the therapeutic effect of the treatment is so satisfactory, following is the report of the treatment.

  12. Assessing the Epidemiological Data and Management Methods of Body Packers Admitted to a Referral Center in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour-Faz, Athena; Shadnia, Shahin; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Hadi; Peyvandi, Maryam; Oroei, Mahbobeh; Shafagh, Omid; Peyvandi, Hassan; Peyvandi, Ali Asghar

    2016-05-01

    The incidence of smuggling and transporting illegal substances by internal concealment, also known as body packing, is on the rise. The clinical approach to such patients has been changed significantly over the past 2 decades. However, despite a recorded increase in body packing in general, there are controversies in the management of these patients. We aimed to gather data regarding the demographic characteristics, treatment, and outcome of body packers, which were that referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran.The data of all body packers admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital during 2010 to 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Data regarding the demographic characteristics of the patients, findings of clinical imaging, treatment, and outcome were recorded.In this study, 175 individuals with a mean age of 31 ± 10 years were assessed. The most common concealed substances were crack (37%), crystal (17%), opium (13%), and heroin (6%). According to the results of surgery and imaging (abdominal radiography or computed tomography), the most common place for concealment was stomach in 33.3% and 12% of cases, respectively. Imaging findings were normal in 18% of the individuals. Forty-eight (27%) patients underwent surgery. The main indications for surgery were clinical manifestations of toxicity (79%) and obstruction of the gastro-intestinal tract (17%). The most common surgical techniques were laparotomy and gastrotomy (50%). The mean duration of hospitalization was 3.8 ± 4 days. The mortality rate was 3%.Conservative treatment of body packers seems to be the best treatment method. Careful monitoring of the patients for possible signs and symptoms of intoxication and gastro-intestinal obstruction is strongly recommended.

  13. Borehole testing methods using a new temporary polyacrylamide packers technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepikova, Maria V.; Roques, Clement; Selker, John

    2017-04-01

    Range of options for investigation of hydraulic behavior of aquifers from boreholes has been limited to rigid, cumbersome packers, and inflatable sleeves. Here we propose a new temporary polyacrylamide packers (TAMP) technology that uses soft grains of polyacrylamide gel as a borehole sealing material and discuss its possible applications. Polyacrylamide gel, also called hydrogel or water-absorbing polymer, consists of long chains of molecules that can absorb over a hundred times their weight in liquids. Soft gel grains are mainly made of water, but the water inside these particles does not contribute to the flow of the suspension. The gel packing (permeability similar to open gravel) placed to a well suppresses free convection, allowing for local temperature and chemical sampling through free-flowing gel. Minimizing the effect of free convection within the well column would be beneficial for active thermal tests where free convection often dominate flow and create thermal disequilibrium between the water in the borehole and the surrounding media. Preliminary laboratory experiments and the literature suggests that as the polyacrylamide pack is subject to modest compressive stress to the gel media (of order 0.1 ATM), the permeability transitions from of the order of 10 to 7 millidarcys to 0.01 millidarcys, illustrating the remarkable ability to transition from highly permeable to nearly impermeable grouting. Though yet to be confirmed in the field, by locally injecting water at pressure greater than the compressive stress, local voids can be formed which can act as local pump test sources, with all other locations in the borehole hydraulically isolated where local response pressure from the formation can be measured. This arrangement could be valuable for tomographic study of aquifers wherein hundreds of injection zones could be tested by simply pulling an injection pipe vertically through the packed borehole. The gel grains can be of the scale of cm, so do not pass

  14. Two unusual cases of external rotator muscle pathology producing hip pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Thompson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Two unusual cases of inflammation of the external rotator muscles of the hip are presented. In each case, the patient presented with acute hip pain. The diagnoses of acute calcific periarthritis involving the gluteus medius muscle, and pyomyositis of the obturator internus muscle secondary to a perianal fistula, were made with the aid of diagnostic imaging and histology. The importance of reviewing the pelvic viscera is highlighted.

  15. Fracture Detection: Interpretation of Well Logs to Select Packer Seats and Locate Injection Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesen, D.S.; Burns, K.L.; Chavez, P.; Dash, Z.V.; Kelkar, S.; Kolar, J.; Levy, S.S.

    1986-01-21

    A wireline and mud logging program has been conducted in conjunction with redrilling operations in well EE-3 at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) site near Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The trajectory for the new bore, EE-3A, penetrated a fractured zone stimulated from adjacent well EE-2 and thereby established hydraulic communication. To test and stimulate selected zones in EE-3A inflatable open hole packers designed for high temperature service were used. Proper identification and selection of packer seats was crucial to the success of the project. The logging program successfully identified five competent packer seats in six attempts. Wireline temperature, caliper, sonic televiewer and natural gamma ray logs were used in conjunction with mud logs, drill cuttings and drilling parameter data to locate fractures, out-of-gage hole, temperature anomalies and mineralized zones which were avoided in selection of the packer seats.

  16. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and

  17. Inter-firm coordination in the Mexican avocado (Persea americana) industry: the packer-buyer relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arana Coronado, J.J.; Bijman, J.; Omta, S.W.F.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Vertical coordination is an effective response to uncertainties in marketing environments. This article presents evidence relating the influence of transaction characteristics on interfirm coordination to respond what conditions determine the level of inter-firm coordination between packers and buye

  18. Field application. Selective stimulation of reservoirs or perforated intervals with use of coiled tubing equipped with real-time data communication system in combination with straddle packer assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberascher, R.; Breimer, G. [GDF SUEZ E and P Deutschland GmbH, Lingen (Germany); Jonge, R.M. de [Baker Hughes (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    In two German gas wells a decline in production and wellhead pressures had been observed. Production logging data obtained by PLT surveys were evaluated, which showed that certain intervals within the reservoir section did not contribute, or showed a restricted contribution to the overall gas production. The restricted contribution was suspected to be caused by near-wellbore damage. To restore or enhance the production of the perforated intervals an acid treatment was considered in these wells in order to remove skin damage. To restore or enhance the production of the wells, an acid treatment of the perforated intervals was designed. For obtaining the required selective placement of the acid across the zones of interest, the use of coiled tubing (CT) in combination with a resettable straddle packer assembly was selected. The accuracy of the setting depth of the straddle packer was a critical issue for the execution of the well intervention operations. In order to obtain the required depth accuracy, the CT string was equipped with an intelligent CT communication system, which transfers real-time downhole data to surface. For the first time, a reservoir stimulation project was executed by combining CT equipped with a real-time data communication system (TeleCoil) and the Inflatable Straddle Acidizing Packer (ISAP) assembly. Inside the CT an encapsulated monoconductor cable was installed to transmit real-time data from the CT Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) to surface. The BHA consists of a Casing Collar Locator (CCL) and downhole pressure and temperature gauges. Due to the protective jacket of the monoconductor cable, there are no restrictions in the use of different fluids in combination with the system. Information provided by the CCL monitoring tool ensures accurate depth correlations, whereas differential pressure measurements from the down-hole pressure gauges provide positive information about the setting and sealing conditions of the straddle packer assembly. The

  19. Seventy Cases of External Humeral Epicondylitis Treated by Local Blocking and Massotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴峰

    2001-01-01

    @@External humeral epicondylitis or tennis elbow, is a commonly encountered disease in orthopaedics and traumatology. The curative effect is not satisfactory as far as its treatment by western and traditional Chinese medicine is concerned, which has a long course of treatment and a high recurrent rate. 70 cases of external humeral epicondylitis were treated by massotherapy after local blocking from August 1995 to October 1997 at this hospital with satisfactory therapeutic effects. Clinical Data Of the 70 cases in this series treated by massotherapy after local blocking, 30 were males and 40 females, ranging in age from 19 to 65 years. 55 cases were 30 to 50 years old, 20 had the left elbow affected and 50 the right elbow. 7 cases had a history of trauma, 50 a history of chronic strain, and 13 the cause unknown. The shortest duration of disease was 15 days and the longest 24 months. Among 50 cases in the control group treated by massotherapy, 20 cases were males and 30 females, ranging in age from 16 to 58 years. 40 cases were 30 to 50 years old. 15 cases were affected on the left elbow and 35 on the right elbow. 6 cases had a history of trauma, 32 a history of chronic strain, and 12 the cause unknown. The shortest duration of diseases was 7 days and the longest 22 months.

  20. Demodex treatment in external ocular disease: the outcomes of a Tasmanian case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Stephen G; Oakley, Carmen L; Tan, Andrea; Vote, Brendan J

    2016-10-01

    Demodex species (spp.) have previously been implicated in the pathogenesis of blepharitis. This study aims to correlate improvement in symptoms of external ocular disease with treatment of underlying Demodex spp. This is a prospective, observational case series of patients with chronic external ocular disease. Demodicosis was confirmed by microscopic examination of epilated eyelashes. The main outcome measure was response to the treatment (5 % tee tree oil) in regard to change in subjective symptoms utilising a symptom-based patient questionnaire assessment. Overall patients had a good response to the treatment in terms of improvement or resolution of symptoms, with 91 % of patients reporting at least some improvement in symptoms. The treatment of underlying Demodex spp. appears to result in improvement of symptoms in patients with long standing external ocular disease and underlying Demodex spp. infestation.

  1. External Ophthalmomyiasis due to Oestrus Ovis: A Case Report from Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelhassan, Abdelhameed A.

    2010-01-01

    Human myiasis has been reported from various regions in the world. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larvae of a sheep nasal botfly oestrus ovis from Wadi Alhawasna, North Batina, Oman. A 9-years-old boy presented with symptoms of acute conjunctivitis. Five larvae were removed from his eye and sent for identification. The patient recovered completely after removal of the larvae. PMID:28845217

  2. Fibroepithelial Polyp of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and a Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki Tanaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first case of fibroepithelial polyp arising independently of the external auditory canal. A 16-year-old female patient presented to our clinic for aural fullness of the left side. Physical examination revealed a papillomatous tumor at the posterior wall of the inlet of the left external auditory canal. After biopsy, which yielded a diagnosis of benign papilloma, the patient underwent tumor excision. Final diagnosis was fibroepithelial polyp. One week after resection, aural fullness had resolved. Fibroepithelial polyp is a benign lesion and occurs mainly in the skin, ureteropelvic system, and genitals. In the head and neck area, there are reports on fibroepithelial polyp of the tongue, piriform fossa, inferior nasal turbinate, and tonsil, in addition to the skin, but none on independent fibroepithelial polyp of the external auditory canal. Excision of fibroepithelial polyp of the external auditory canal is advisable, especially in the presence of any symptoms, and should be preceded by confirmation of nonmalignancy by biopsy, if possible.

  3. Externalizing behavior and impulsivity in the children of alcoholics: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayyanar Sugaparaneetharan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Reduced behavioural inhibition, characterized by impulsivity and disruptive behaviour disorders, has been identified as a developmental precursor of alcoholism with a considerable genetic component. Aims: The present study aimed to assess whether children of fathers with alcohol dependence have high impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. Setting and Design: Observational case-control study, done in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Southern India. Materials and Methods: The present case-control study recruited 50 children aged 7 to 14 years of fathers with alcohol dependence and 50 age- and gender-matched children of fathers without alcohol dependence. The two groups were compared using the DSM-IV-TR criteria for ADHD, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics used to summarise the study findings. Cases and controls were compared on BIS and CBCL scores using a general linear model (GLM. All analyses were two tailed and test P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: The children of fathers with alcohol dependence were more likely to meet criteria for ADHD (30% versus 10%, χ2 = 6.250, P = 0.012. After controlling for age and gender, impulsivity scores on the BIS tended to be higher in the cases (F = 2.410, P = 0.055 than controls, mainly in the non-planning domains (F = 3.650, P = 0.008. Similarly, externalizing behaviours on CBCL were more common in the cases than controls (F = 2.817, P = 0.029. Conclusions: Children of fathers with alcohol dependence had greater impulsivity and externalizing behaviours. This may represent a behavioural phenotype as well as a potential target for early intervention.

  4. A case report of a crisis caused by external radiation in the malignant pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanabe, Akiyo; Tena, Shinichi; Nomura, Kaoru; Demura, Hiroshi [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-08-01

    A case of a severe complication not described hitherto was reported, which was caused by external radiation to bone metastasis of malignant pheochromocytoma to resolve pain. The patient, a female of 59 y, with multiple bone metastasis gave MRI findings of tumor lesion and osteolysis at thoracic vertebra. Internal radiation was thought to be ineffective since the uptake of {sup 131}I-MIBG was insufficient in the tumor. Alpha-methyl tyrosine, phentolamine and propranolol were treated. After external irradiation of total dose of 20 Gy/week to thoracic vertebra was done at a single dose of 4 Gy to resolve pain, a crisis of hypertension (200/110 mmHg) was caused accompanying with tachycardia (160/min), perspiration, cold feeling of limb, dehydration and increase of serum LDH, ALP and K. The symptom was improved by the dose increase of alpha-methyltyrosine and other above drugs. This case indicates that even a small dose of external radiation can cause a crisis described above in pheochromocytoma and alpha- and beta-blockers together with inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis should be given before radiation. (K.H.)

  5. [Three cases of external auditory exostoses in a habitual sauna user].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Takashi; Tono, Tetsuya; Nakanishi, Haruka; Matsuda, Keiji; Ganaha, Akira; Suzuki, Mikio

    2013-11-01

    Exostoses are benign bony excrescences of the external auditory canal, commonly encountered in people who avidly engage in aquatic activities, hence the name "surfer's ear". Exostoses are more prevalent in cold water surfers, and additional years of surfing increase one's risk not only for developing an exostosis but also for developing more severe lesions. Exostoses remain clinically silent until they become large enough to impair the egress of epithelial debris and water from the canal, in which case there may be an associated external otitis and fluctuating hearing loss. Histologically, they demonstrate a laminated structure consistent with a periodic growth pattern. They may also cause a hearing loss by impinging upon the tympanic membrane and manubrium. Symptomatic relief is attained by surgical removal and skin grafting of the epithelially denuded areas of the bony walls of the external auditory canal. We report herein on 3 cases of exostoses which developed in patients who had a habit of taking a cold water bath after a hot sauna for more than 15 years: in spite of the limited time of exposure to cold water stimulation, alternating exposure to the hot environment of the sauna and cold water baths seemed to have acceralated the formation of the exostoses.

  6. Prolonged Unilateral Disuse Osteopenia 14 Years Post External Fixator Removal: A Case History and Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M. Knapp

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Disuse osteopenia is a complication of immobilisation, with reversal generally noted upon remobilisation. This case report focuses on a patient who was seen 18 years following a road traffic collision when multiple fractures were sustained. The patient had an external fixator fitted for a tibia and fibula fracture, which remained in situ for a period of 4 years. Following removal, the patient was mobilised but, still required a single crutch to aid walking. Fourteen years post removal of the fixator, the patient had a DXA scan which, demonstrated a T-score 2.5 SD lower on the affected hip. This places the patient at an increased risk of hip fracture on this side, which requires monitoring. There appear to be no current studies investigating prolonged disuse-osteopenia in patients following removal of long-term external fixators. Further research is required to quantify unilateral long-term effects to bone health and fracture risk in this population.

  7. Treatment of inflammatory external root resorption resulting from dental avulsion and pulp necrosis: clinical case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Abe, Flavia Casale; Araujo, Roberta Aranha; Fregnani, Eduardo Rodrigues; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveiro

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to present a treatment for severe inflammatory external root resorption. The condition developed due to the patient's neglect to seek adequate treatment following replantation of an avulsed maxillary left central incisor. Following diagnosis, treatment consisted of conventional endodontic therapy with calcium hydroxide dressings and definitive filling of the root canal after the resorption was controlled radiographically. A 24-month follow-up showed that the resorption process had stabilized and the patient was free of symptoms. Successful tooth replantation requires following the indicated therapy effectively. Nevertheless, when an inflammatory external root resorption occurs, adequate endodontic treatment to remove the necrotic content and bacteria is required, as is the use of calcium hydroxide dressings.

  8. [Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial anomalies. Clinical, histological, biochemical and genetic analysis (9 cases)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouet, A

    1996-01-01

    We report the clinical signs and histological findings in nine patients with mitochondrial ocular myopathies. There were four males and five females. Of age ranging from 47 to 82 years. A more often asymetrical ptosis was in all cases of chronic progressive external ophtalmoplegia (CPEO), but muscle weakness in limbs was not usual. The prognosis in this group was good, but ubidecarenone (150 mg/d) used for two cases, did not improve ophtalmoplegia. The serum creatine kinase was normal in eight of nine cases and electromyography showed myopathic changes in three cases. Histoenzymatic analysis of the muscle biopsy and biochemical studies of mitochondria isolated from the muscle sample demonstrated mitochondrial myopathy associated with partial deficiency of complexes I and/or IV of the electron transfer chain. One of seven patients studied had single deletion by Southern blot analysis, in a heteroplasmic state and another an A-->G transition at position 3243 within the mitochondrial tRNA leu (UUR) gene. Chronic progressive external ophtalmoplegia, without large deletion, may have abnormality in other coding regions of mt DNA such as tRNA, rRNA or protein genes.

  9. Open hole packer for high pressure service in a five hundred degree fahrenheit precambrian wellbore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesen, D.S.; Miller, J.R.; Halbardier, F.A.; Nicholson, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) from a lower wellbore (EE-2) created a large man-made reservoir which did not intersect the upper well (EE-3). To create a heat extraction flow loop, the upper well was sidetracked and redrilled (EE-3A) down into a microseismic cloud around EE-2 mapped during the MHF. The potential to intersect numerous fracture zones in the redrilled bore was apparent from seismicity. To economically and effectively isolate and test these microseismic zones required that a functional open hole packer be developed. The packer would be exposed to soak temperatures as high as 500/sup 0/F (260/sup 0/C) with cool down to 100/sup 0/F (40/sup 0/C) at differential pressures exceeding 5000 psi (35 Mpa). A functional packer has been designed, manufactured, and successfully used for the creation of a hot dry rock (HDR) reservoir. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Multiple idiopathic external and internal resorption: Case report with cone-beam computed tomography findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Kurt, Hakan [Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-12-15

    Root resorption is loss of dental hard tissue as a result of clastic activities. The dental hard tissue of permanent teeth does not normally undergo resorption, except in cases of inflammation or trauma. However, there are rare cases of tooth resorption of an unknown cause, known as 'idiopathic root resorption.' This report would discuss a rare case of multiple idiopathic resorption in the permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth of an otherwise healthy 36-year-old male patient. In addition to a clinical examination, the patient was imaged using conventional radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The examinations revealed multiple external and internal resorption of the teeth in all four quadrants of the jaws with an unknown cause. Multiple root resorption is a rare clinical phenomenon that should be examined using different radiographic modalities. Cross-sectional CBCT is useful in the diagnosis and examination of such lesions.

  11. Multiple idiopathic external and internal resorption: Case report with cone-beam computed tomography findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Kurt, Hakan

    2014-12-01

    Root resorption is loss of dental hard tissue as a result of clastic activities. The dental hard tissue of permanent teeth does not normally undergo resorption, except in cases of inflammation or trauma. However, there are rare cases of tooth resorption of an unknown cause, known as "idiopathic root resorption." This report would discuss a rare case of multiple idiopathic resorption in the permanent maxillary and mandibular teeth of an otherwise healthy 36-year-old male patient. In addition to a clinical examination, the patient was imaged using conventional radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The examinations revealed multiple external and internal resorption of the teeth in all four quadrants of the jaws with an unknown cause. Multiple root resorption is a rare clinical phenomenon that should be examined using different radiographic modalities. Cross-sectional CBCT is useful in the diagnosis and examination of such lesions.

  12. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    by the Treaties, and it is suitably placed to become the core text for teaching this expanding EU policy field. In their book, EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Van Vooren and Wessel seek to fill the gap in up-to-date literature from a legal standpoint in the field of external relations...

  13. Charcot foot reconstruction with combined internal and external fixation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zgonis Thomas

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Charcot neuroarthropathy is a destructive and often-limb threatening process that can affect patients with peripheral neuropathy of any etiology. Early recognition and appropriate management is crucial to prevention of catastrophic outcomes. Delayed diagnosis and subsequent pedal collapse often preclude successful conservative management of these deformities and necessitate surgical intervention for limb salvage. We review the current literature on surgical reconstruction of Charcot neuroarthropathy and present a case report of foot reconstruction with combined internal and external fixation methods.

  14. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by Oestrus ovis: A Rare Case Report from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madan, Molly; Asthana, Ashish K.; Das, Anupam; Kumar, Sandeep; Jain, Kirti

    2009-01-01

    Myiasis of different organs has been reported off and on from various regions in the world. We report a human case of external ophthalmomyiasis caused by the larvae of a sheep nasal botfly, Oestrus ovis, for the first time from Meerut city in Western Uttar Pradesh, India. A 25-year-old farmer presented with severe symptoms of conjunctivitis. The larvae, 3 in number, were observed in the bulbar conjunctiva, and following removal the symptoms of eye inflammation improved within a few hours. PMID:19290093

  15. NEGLECTED POSTERIOR KNEE DISLOCATION TREATED WITH CLOSED MANIPULATION AND UNIPLANAR EXTERNAL FIXATOR : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manikumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Neglected traumatic posterior knee dislocations were rare in orthopaedic literature more so after a surgical intervention . Majority of the injuries are associated with vascular trauma and distal or proximal fractures and complete disruption of anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments and nerve traction injuries. Traumatic knee dislocations are therefore treated as an orthopaedic emergency. There were no definitive guide lines to open reduction as well as conservative methods of treatment. The end results of functional recovery are still controversial with residual posterior subluxation. Here we present a case of neglected posterior knee dislocation treated with closed manipulation and uni planar external fixator

  16. Adventitial cystic disease of the left external iliac vein: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Hee; Shin, Hyun Woong; Lee, Yil Gi; Koo, Mi Jin [Daegu Fatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-10-15

    Adventitial cystic disease (ACD) is a rare, but well-characterized vascular disease. It is most commonly seen in the popliteal artery, but it has also been reported in the venous system. The most commonly involved segment has been the common femoral vein; the disease resulted in luminal compromise and extremity swelling. We report here on a case of adventitial cystic disease of the left external iliac vein that was initially misdiagnosed as deep vein thrombosis in a 68-years-old man who presented with a painless swelling of his left leg.

  17. [External stability of the elbow after surgical treatment of epicondylitis. Presentation of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop-Corbacho, A; Romero-Ruiz, J; Denia-Alarcón, N

    2014-01-01

    Elbow instability is a difficult to diagnose condition in certain cases, and could lead to some problems that limit daily functioning, such as joint blocks, bumps, projections, muscle weakness, and persistent pain. A case is presented of a patient with a clinical picture of epicondylitis, with a previous history of a fall on the affected arm. As there was no improvement after performing conventional non-aggressive treatment, surgery was performed on the affected tendon. The outcome of this was persistent pain and clinical instability of the elbow that ended up requiring surgery to reconstruct the ligament over the external complex. In follow-up 6 months after the operation, the clinical instability had disappeared, but there was still external discomfort and a 30° extension deficit. When faced with a picture of epicondylitis with a previous injury that does not respond to conventional therapies, it is important to take into account the possibility of an underlying elbow instability, ruling this out with a correct physical examination and, where necessary, with the appropriate complementary tests.

  18. Effects of Qi therapy (external Qigong) on symptoms of advanced cancer: a single case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M S; Yang, S H; Lee, K K; Moon, S-R

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of Qi therapy (external Qigong) in the management of symptoms of advanced cancer in a man. We used a single case study design to evaluate the effectiveness of Qi therapy (external Qigong) in a 35-year-old man with advanced cancer (Stage IV) involving metastases in the stomach, lung and bone (Karnofsky performance scale: KPS, 40: requires special care and assistance, disabled). Treatment involved six days of pre-assessment, eight treatment sessions on alternate days over 16 days, and a two-week follow-up phase. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to assess the patient's self-reported symptoms of cancer over the intervention and follow-up periods. Following treatment, VAS scores' analysis revealed beneficial effects on pain, vomiting, dyspnoea, fatigue, anorexia, insomnia, daily activity and psychological calmness. These improvements were maintained over the two-week follow-up phase. After the first Qi therapy session, the patient discontinued medication and could sit by himself; after the fourth session, the patient was able to walk and use the toilet without assistance (improvement in KPS: 70: care for self, unable to perform normal activity or to do active work). Although limited by the single case study approach, our results support previous studies on this topic and provide reasons to conduct controlled clinical trials.

  19. Temporomandibular Joint Herniation Into the External Auditory Canal: Two Cases Involving a Persistent Foramen Tympanicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jung Eun; Jeong, Kyung-Hwa; Ahn, Sung Hwan; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2015-06-01

    A congenital bony defect of the external auditory canal (EAC) may cause temporomandibular joint (TMJ) herniation into the EAC. This rare condition is known as persistent foramen tympanicum. We report 2 cases of symptomatic TMJ herniation through a patent foramen tympanicum. The patients complained of mastication-induced tinnitus. Otoscopic examination revealed that a whitish protruding mass at the anterior wall of the EAC bulged when the patients closed their mouths. After conservative managements such as avoidance of chewing foods on the affected side for 2 months, mastication-induced tinnitus disappeared and the size of protruding mass was decreased in one of the patients. Surgical repair of the bony defect has been the treatment of choice. In cases when symptoms are trivial and patients do not want surgical treatment, however, conservative management would be a sound alternative.

  20. PACKER: a switchbox router based on conflict elimination by local transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerez, Sabih H.; Herrmann, O.E.

    1989-01-01

    PACKER is an algorithm for switchbox routing, based on a novel approach. In an initial phase, the connectivity of each net is established without taking the other nets into account. In general, this gives rise to conflicts (short circuits). In the second stage, the conflicts are removed iteratively

  1. Detection of residual packets in cocaine body packers: low accuracy of abdominal radiography - a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousset, Pascal; Vadrot, Dominique; Revel, Marie-Pierre [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Chaillot, Pierre-Fleury [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Audureau, Etienne [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Paris (France); Universite Paris-Descartes, Paris (France); Rey-Salmon, Caroline; Becour, Bertrand [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Hotel Dieu, Department of Forensic, Paris (France); Fitton, Isabelle [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, Paris (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2013-08-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of abdominal radiography (AXR) for the detection of residual cocaine packets by comparison with computed tomography (CT). Over a 1-year period unenhanced CT was systematically performed in addition to AXR for pre-discharge evaluation of cocaine body packers. AXR and CT were interpreted independently by two radiologists blinded to clinical outcome. Patient and packet characteristics were compared between the groups with residual portage and complete decontamination. Among 138 body packers studied, 14 (10 %) had one residual packet identified on pre-discharge CT. On AXR, at least one reader failed to detect the residual packet in 10 (70 %) of these 14 body packers. The sensitivity and specificity of AXR were 28.6 % (95 % CI: 8.4-58.1) and 100.0 % (95 % CI: 97.0-100.0) for reader 1 and 35.7 % (95 % CI: 12.8-64.9) and 97.6 % (95 % CI: 93.1-99.5) for reader 2. There were no significant patient or packet characteristics predictive of residual portage or AXR false negativity. All positive CT results were confirmed by delayed expulsion or surgical findings, while negative results were confirmed by further surveillance. Given the poor performance of AXR, CT should be systematically performed to ensure safe hospital discharge of cocaine body packers. (orig.)

  2. A case of the hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with external radiation. Efficacy and severe side effect of external radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andoh, Hideaki; Yasui, Ouki; Ise, Norihito [Akita Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Hepatic hilar bile duct cancer was difficult to cure by surgical treatment and its prognosis was very poor. We present the case of non-curative resection of hepatic hilar bile duct cancer, controlled with external radiation. 72 years-old-female, she complained jaundice and diagnosed hepatic hilar bile duct cancer with abdominal ultrasonography. Hepatic hilar resection was performed but curative resection could not be done, because cancer was diffusely spreaded to the hepatic and duodenal ends of the bile duct. After surgery, external radiation (1.8 Gy/day; total 50.4 Gy) was performed. Three months after operation, sometimes, cholangitis was occurred but we could not detect the intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and improved with antibiotics. After seven months, she was dead for sepsis, liver abscess and biliary cirrhosis. From autopsy findings, severe hepatic hilar fibrosis around the irradiation area, stenosis of the hepatico-jejunostomy and portal vein were existed but could not detect the remnant cancer cells. External radiation was sometimes effective, especially for this case. But we should consider the side effect of fibrosis and preventive treatments such as biliary stenting or early biliary drainage. (author)

  3. A hybrid approach to appendicitis with right external iliac artery pseudo aneurysm: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Benjamin T; Ryer, Evan J; Keyser, Benjamin M; Elmore, James R

    2017-01-01

    While acute appendicitis is a common surgical problem, the simultaneous occurrence of appendicitis and an infected iliac artery pseudoaneurysm is exceedingly rare. We report the successful treatment of an infected right external iliac artery pseudo aneurysm in the 1setting of acute appendicitis. The patient is an 83-year-old male who presents with severe sepsis, right lower quadrant and right leg pain. Additional past medical history is significant for rectal cancer status post resection and radiation therapy in 1997. Computed tomography (CT) on admission revealed a right iliopsoas muscle abscess, an inflamed Appendix and a pseudo aneurysm arising from the right external iliac artery. After consultations by multiple specialties, the plan was to proceed with percutaneous drainage of the abscess, antibiotic therapy and subsequent repair of the pseudoaneurysm. CT guided drainage of the iliopsoas abscess was performed with return of hemorrhagic fluid. Due to the concern of contained pseudoaneurysm rupture, the patient was taken for expedited repair. Due to the patient's frailty and hostile abdomen, we performed embolization of the right external iliac artery pseudoaneurysm with Amplatzer I plugs (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul MN) and left common femoral to right superficial femoral bypass with cryopreserved cadaveric femoral vein. Following pseudoaneurysm exclusion, continued percutaneous drainage and antibiotic therapy, the patient has done well with no further evidence of infection. Repair of infected pseudo aneurysms can prove challenging. Ongoing infection, a hostile surgical abdomen and patient frailty further complicates the treatment of these patients. This case displays a minimally invasive approach to this rare but morbid condition. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Main steam inlet sleeves on steam turbines: External ultrasonic test and external sleeve replacement (closed HP-IP casing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauro, M.; Arrighi, L.; Gaibazzi, I.

    1996-12-31

    ENEL has gained extensive experience on turbines with bell seals in relation to defect diagnosis and the conducting of on-site repairs on the main steam inlet sleeves. Several cases of cracking in the trepan radius area, and of retainer nut breakage, on this type of sleeve have caused very significant levels of turbine downtime that have demanded costly unscheduled work in order to open the HP-IP housing. These are related phenomena which were initially diagnosed by using temperature sensing at the IP turbine exhaust. As a consequence of the above, a technique was developed for detecting defects from outside the turbine by using non-destructive ultrasonic inspection (UT). A procedure for replacing the sleeves while the casing is closed was developed in conjunction with the manufacturer. The time required and the scope of operation are both of a limited nature. Initial trials were held with inspections carried out on an open turbine when there was a planned outage and then on a real case. Since completing these trials, periodic UT inspections have been made on (all) the sleeves and this check is being carried out on a continuing basis. Any changes in relevant indications are noted during these inspections, thereby allowing any replacement operation to be planned on site and at any time.

  5. The Common Agricultural Policy Role in Addressing External Shocks - The Case of Russian Import Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREEA DRĂGOI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP is one of the oldest and most controversial common policies and it is financed directly from the European Union budget. Some critics of CAP argue that especially in the context of the challenges brought by the international crisis, this policy represents a “burden” for the European budget. Our research aims to responds those critics by showing that CAP may represent an important tool for addressing the external shocks impact on agricultural sector of EU. In this view, we will highlight the role of CAP in sustaining the European farmer during the crisis generated by the Russian import ban, adopted as a response to the sanctions imposed by EU to the Russian Federation in the context of Ukrainian crisis. Using a quantitative and qualitative analysis we will assess how the CAP has supported the European agricultural sector and also the future measures that could be adopted to create a more flexible response in the case of other external shocks.

  6. Duplication of the External Auditory Canal: Two Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Goudakos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present paper is to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic process, surgical treatment, and outcome of 2 patients with first branchial cleft anomaly. The first case was an 8-year-old girl presented with an elastic lesion located in the left infra-auricular area, in close relation with the lobule, duplicating the external auditory canal. The magnetic resonance imaging revealed a lesion, appearing as a rather well-circumscribed mass within the left parotid gland and duplicating the ear canal. A superficial parotidectomy was subsequently performed, with total excision of the cyst. The second patient was a 15-year-old girl presented with a congenital fistula of the right lateral neck. At superficial parotidectomy, a total excision of the fistula was performed. During the operation the tract was recorded to lay between the branches of the facial nerve, extending with a blind ending canal parallel to the external acoustic meatus. Conclusively, first branchial cleft anomalies are rare malformations with cervical, parotid, or auricular clinical manifestations. Diagnosis of first branchial cleft lesions is achieved mainly through careful physical examination. Complete surgical excision with wide exposure of the lesion is essential in order to achieve permanent cure and avoid recurrence.

  7. Inequalities and externalities of power sector. A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed. (author)

  8. Inequalities and externalities of power sector: A case of Broadlands hydropower project in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, U.A.D. Prasanthi, E-mail: prasanthigunawardena@yahoo.co [Department of Forestry and Environmental Science, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda (Sri Lanka)

    2010-02-15

    The objective of the paper is to estimate environmental externalities related to a run of river project in Sri Lanka and to investigate inequity in distribution of impacts among different social groups. Diversion of the river resulted in loss of water sports (for high-income groups both local and remote), loss of historical monuments (for remote high-income groups) and recreation losses (for local poor). Removal of forest cover leads to loss of non-timber products (for local poor) and carbon storage (for remote high- and low-income groups). Loss of home garden productivity was borne by local poor groups. Benefit of the project, generation of 145 GWh annually, was a gain for the grid connected groups. The impacts were valued using various valuation methods. The base case of the cost benefit analysis resulted in NPV of US$ 11,335,730. When distributional weights are applied for different income groups, both the sign and magnitude of net benefits change. In order to be viable, the project needs diversion of at least 9% of generated electricity to the poorest households in the country. Implications for energy policy towards reducing externality and inequality impacts are also discussed.

  9. A Case of Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the External Auditory Canal Previously Treated for Verrucous Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soo Jung; Yang, Chan Joo; Chung, Jong Woo

    2016-12-01

    Carcinoma in the external auditory canal (EAC) is a rare malignancy with an annual incidence of one per one million people, accounting for less than 0.2% of all head and neck cancers. The most common histopathological type of EAC cancer is squamous cell carcinoma. Verrucous carcinoma is a well-differentiated, low-grade variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is a locally destructive, invasive, and slow growing tumor that rarely metastasizes. Verrucous carcinoma occurs predominantly in the oral cavity and larynx, and its occurrence in the EAC is extremely rare. In this report, we present a histologically confirmed case of verrucous carcinoma in the EAC and temporal bone, which for several years had been classified as epithelial hyperplasia. Two-and-a-half years after diagnosis of verrucous carcinoma, a recurrent mass was found and the lesion was then confirmed to be squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Prediction of pressure between packers of staged fracturing pipe strings in high-pressure deep wells and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuxiang Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Addressing to the deteriorated load conditions of working string and packers caused by annular pressure drop between packers during the staged stimulation of high-pressure deep well, one 2D temperature field transient prediction model for borehole under injecting conditions which considers such influences as friction heat, convection heat exchange was set up, based on energy conservation principle and borehole heat transfer theory. By means of analyzing the influences of borehole temperature and pressure changes on the annular volume between packers, and in combination with borehole temperature transient prediction model, annular fluid PVT equations of state, radial deformation model of tubing and formation transient seepage equation, a typical high-pressure deep well inter-packer annular pressure prediction model was established. Taking a high-pressure gas well in Tarim Oilfield for example, the inter-packer annular pressure prediction was conducted, on which, the mechanical analysis on packers and working strings was carried out. The analysis results show that although the pipe string is safe in the viewpoint of conventional design methods, it is still susceptible to failure after the annular pressure drop between packers was taken into consideration. Such factor should be fully considered in the design of staged stimulation pipe strings, and this prediction model provides new thoughts for the optimal design of high-pressure deep well staged stimulation pipe strings.

  11. Incorporating environmental externalities into the capacity expansion planning: An Israeli case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Nir, E-mail: nbecker@telhai.ac.i [Department of Economics and Management, Tel-Hai College (Israel); Soloveitchik, David, E-mail: david_soloveitchik@yahoo.co [Energy and Economic Models, Jerusalem (Israel); Olshansky, Moshe, E-mail: olshansky@wehi.edu.a [Walter and Eliza Hall Institute, Melbourne (Australia)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: {yields} Long term energy-environmental planning problems for the electricity sector. {yields} Environmental considerations in the capacity expansion plan. {yields} Modified version of WASP-IV as a multiple objective programming model. {yields} Multi-objective analysis of trade-offs between costs and pollutants reduction. -- Abstract: In this paper we use the WASP-IV model and develop methodology to estimate the impact of several environmental externality costs on the electricity sector development plan. For this purpose, 22 cases were generated which were later on reduced to only seven non-dominated cases by considering this problem as a dynamic multiple objective programming model. The major impact of internalizing the external cost is on fuel use. In the electricity generation system more natural gas and less coal has been used. A cost benefit analysis (CBA) of three scenarios has been performed focusing on taxing only one pollutant while looking at its overall implication. The benefit cost ratio was about 4.5 while the net benefit was about 200 million USD (depending on the scenario). Multi-objective analysis among the different scenarios was carried in a dynamic setting. Seven scenarios appear in the non-dominated set. Out of them five appears in every year and those should have a higher weight placed on them by policy makers. Out of those five, two are a single tax on one pollutant. Thus, policy makers might want to consider a mixture of taxes but for the sake of simplicity can also use a simple one tax on a given pollutant.

  12. Effectiveness of Pyridoxine and Pyridostigmine in the Treatment of Vincristine-Induced Bilateral Ptosis and External Ophthalmoplegia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Okan Olcaysu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this manuscript, we present the case of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed vincristine-induced bilateral ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia and who was treated successfully with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine. Pyridostigmine and pyridoxine are promising treatment option in cases of vincristine-induced neuropathy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 330-1

  13. Effectiveness of Pyridoxine and Pyridostigmine in the Treatment of Vincristine-Induced Bilateral Ptosis and External Ophthalmoplegia: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present the case of a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed vincristine-induced bilateral ptosis and external ophthalmoplegia and who was treated successfully with pyridoxine and pyridostigmine. Pyridostigmine and pyridoxine are promising treatment option in cases of vincristine-induced neuropathy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 330-1)

  14. Life-saving automated external defibrillation in a teenager: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rey Corsino

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent sudden death during sport participation is commonly due to cardiac causes. Survival is more likely when an automated external defibrillator (AED is used soon after collapse. Case presentation We describe a case of sudden death in a 14 year old boy with two remarkable points, successful resuscitation at school using an AED and diagnosis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC. Bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR was immediately started by a witness and 5 minutes after the event the child was placed on an AED monitor that determined he was in a non shockable rhythm, therefore CPR was continued. Two minutes later, the AED monitor detected a shockable rhythm and recommended a shock, which was then administered. One minute after the shock, a palpable pulse was detected and the child began to breathe by himself. Four days after cardiac arrest, the boy was conversing and self-caring. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of ARVC. Conclusion Ventricular fibrillation secondary to ARVC may be a devastating event and places young patients and athletes at high risk of sudden death. Immediate CPR and AED have been demonstrated to be lifesaving in such events. Therefore, we suggest that schools should have teachers skilled in CPR and accessible AEDs.

  15. Stimulating a barefoot completion with multiple sand fracture treatments using an inflatable Packer Straddle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C. [Pinnacle Wellsite Consultants (Canada); Brooks, R. T.; Davis, T. [Society of Petroleum Engineers (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    There is always a need for efficient multi-stage fracture treatments as well as for ways to reduce completion costs. A novel method for producing multiple fractures in a barefoot completion with sand fracture treatment has been successfully implemented in Canada. This paper presents the stimulation of a barefoot completion with multiple sand fracture treatments using an inflatable packer straddle system. This system allows all possible pay intervals to be effectively stimulated. It also stimulates the open hole without the need for permanent packers and frac sleeves, which reduces completion costs and improves production results. A barefoot completion can add incremental production from naturally fractured intervals that otherwise would be sealed with cement. This also provides flexibility. The considerations taken into account during development and operation of the tool are discussed. The study cited shows a 60% reduction in completion and stimulation costs.

  16. Design, Development and Testing of a Drillable Straddle Packer for Lost Circulation Control in Geothermal Drilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabaldon, J.; Glowka, D.A.; Gronewald, P.; Knudsen, S.D.; Raymond, D.W.; Staller, G.E.; Westmoreland, J.J.; Whitlow, G.L.; Wise, J.L.; Wright, E.K.

    1999-04-01

    Lost Circulation is a widespread problem encountered when drilling geothermal wells, and often represents a substantial portion of the cost of drilling a well. The U.S. Department of Energy sponsors research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these lost circulation expenditures. Sandia has developed a down hole tool that improves the effectiveness and reduces th cost of lost circulation cement treatment while drilling geothermal wells. This tool, the Drillable Straddle Packer, is a low-cost disposable device that is used to isolate the loss zone and emplace the cement treatment directly into the region of concern. This report documents the design and development of the Drillabe Straddle Packer, the laboratory and field test results, and the design package that is available to transfer this technology to industry users.

  17. Cutaneous Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of the External Auditory Canal: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ke Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous neuroendocrine carcinoma (cNEC is rarely seen in the external ear. In this paper, we newly describe a patient with cNEC in his right external auditory canal, followed by a further discussion on the clinical features, diagnosis, and treatments of cNEC of the external ear. A review of the literature showed that cNEC of the external auditory canal generally presents as asymptomatic and that pathology yields the most confirmative diagnosis. A wide resection with adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy is recommended. The overall prognosis of this condition is poor.

  18. Characterization of Bricks Used in the External Casing of Roman Bath Walls "Gadara Jordan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gohary, A. M.; Al Naddaf, M. M.

    The use of sub-soil materials have been used in buildings long time ago, for more than 10,000 years. This study investigates the different characteristics of brick units used in one of the Roman baths in Gadara archaeological site. This is achieved by studying the raw materials and the different technological measurements of brick units: shapes,dimensions and visual description. Moreover, it studies the construction techniques and deterioration problems, by using some scientific techniques and analytical procedures such as EDX for defining the elemental and chemical characteristics of brick samples,Polarizing microscope and XRD for studying the mineralogical components, in addition to the use of SEM that was used for studying the morphological characteristics of the samples. Furthermore, this study determines the different physical, mechanical and thermal properties of the collected samples according to different scientific techniques and standard tools such as digital camera, magnifying glass and mechanical sieves. The results of the study prove that the brick units are divided into two types cubit square and rectangular shapes which are used as external casing layers. They are characterized by homogeneous chemical characteristics and different visual appearances according to the firing degrees and firing conditions (oxidizing or reduction). On the other hand the differences of these physical properties play specific roles in the deterioration cycles,and their mechanisms affect the brick units. Finally, the study provides a definition of the effective methods, materials and preservation measurements for restoring and maintaining the investigated monument.

  19. Successful new product development through external collaboration : the case of SMEs in the medical devices sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pullen, A.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on the challenges faced by small and medium sized companies (SMEs) in New Product Development and the importance of the external network in this situation. The literature clearly identifies the internal and external organization as two factors that influence innovation performa

  20. Fifty Cases of External Humeral Epicondylitis Treated by Moxibustion and Point-injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋理萍

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effects of moxibustion and point-injection on external humeral epicondylitis. Method: The disease is treated with the combined method of moxibustion and effect. The total effective rate was 96%. Conclusion: The combined method of moxibustion and point-injection is a cure indicated for external humeral epicondylitis.

  1. Dynamical Responses to External Stimuli for Both Cases of Excitatory and Inhibitory Synchronization in A Complex Neuronal Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    For studying how dynamical responses to external stimuli depend on the synaptic-coupling type, we consider two types of excitatory and inhibitory synchronization (i.e., synchronization via synaptic excitation and inhibition) in complex small-world networks of excitatory regular spiking (RS) pyramidal neurons and inhibitory fast spiking (FS) interneurons. For both cases of excitatory and inhibitory synchronization, effects of synaptic couplings on dynamical responses to external time-periodic stimuli $S(t)$ (applied to a fraction of neurons) are investigated by varying the driving amplitude $A$ of $S(t)$. Stimulated neurons are phase-locked to external stimuli for both cases of excitatory and inhibitory couplings. On the other hand, the stimulation effect on non-stimulated neurons depends on the type of synaptic coupling. The external stimulus $S(t)$ makes a constructive effect on excitatory non-stimulated RS neurons (i.e., it causes external phase lockings in the non-stimulated sub-population), while $S(t)$ m...

  2. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal: Presentation of an extremely rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zillur Rahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Verrucous carcinoma is a variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is of low grade malignancy and rarely present with distant metastasis. Oral cavity is the commonest site of this tumor, other sites are larynx, oesophagus, and genitalia. Verrucous carcinoma in external auditory canal is extremely rare. This is the presentation of a 45-year-old woman who came to the ENT and Head Neck Surgery department of Delta Medical College with discharg from left ear and impairment of hearing on the same side for 7 years. Otoscopic examination showed that the skin of external auditory canal was thickened, papillary and blackish. External auditory canal bone was found eroded. Cytology from external auditory canal scrap showed hyperkeratosis and parakeratosis. Excision of the external auditory canal mass was done under G/A. Whole skin from external auditory canal was excised under microscope. Split thickness skin grafting was done in external auditory canal. The specimen was sent for histopathological examination which revealed as verrucous carcinoma. Subsequently, she was treated by radiotherapy. Six months follow-up shows no recurrence.

  3. Internal standard versus external standard calibration: an uncertainty case study of a liquid chromatography analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elcio Cruz de Oliveira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in the cigarettes industry, the determination of ammonium ion in the mainstream smoke is performed by ion chromatography. This work studies this determination and compares the results of this technique with the use of external and internal standard calibration. A reference cigarette sample presented measurement uncertainty of 2.0 μg/cigarette and 1.5 μg/cigarette, with external and internal standard, respectively. It is observed that the greatest source of uncertainty is the bias correction factor and that it is even more significant when using external standard, confirming thus the importance of internal standardization for this correction.

  4. Falling parts of external walls claddings in case of fire – ITB test method – results comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinowski Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents ITB methodology of testing and assessment of buildings with regard to falling of external walls claddings in case of fire. In the ITB methodology of impact on the facade (external claddings was assumed in form of flames, generated from a specially designed propane, sand burner with a defined fuel flow rate and laminar airflow from the inside of the furnace resulting in determined temperature and height of the flame. Evaluated criterion is also discussed. Test results of several different types of claddings is analysed and presented in relation to the national Polish regulation along with some technical assessment regarding individual.

  5. Increasing Absorptive Capacity to Improve Internal and External Knowledge Transfer in Multinational Companies: A Multiple Case Study Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla-Gergely RÁCZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates how the absorptive capacity could be increased to improve internal and external knowledge transfer in subsidiaries of multinational companies. We look at the way in which the literature on absorptive capacity has evolved, and how it links the internal and external knowledge transfer. Based on 3 case studies conducted at Romanian subsidiaries of multinational companies, we find some patterns, which could explain how the successful knowledge flows should be managed within the multinational company and outside of it, in the supply chain network.

  6. Integrated torrefaction vs. external torrefaction - A thermodynamic analysis for the case of a thermochemical biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    Integrated and external torrefaction is analyzed and compared via thermodynamic modeling. In this paper, integrated torrefaction is defined as torrefaction integrated with entrained flow gasification. External torrefaction is defined as the decentralized production of torrefied wood pellets...... and centralized conversion of the pellets by entrained flow gasification. First, the syngas production of the two methods was compared. Second, the two methods were compared by considering complete biorefineries with either integrated torrefaction or external torrefaction. The first part of the analysis showed...... that the biomass to syngas efficiency can be increased from 63% to 86% (LHV-dry) when switching from external torrefaction to integrated torrefaction. The second part of the analysis showed that the total energy efficiency (biomass to methanol + net electricity) could be increased from 53% to 63% when switching...

  7. Cholesteatoma associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Ben Gamra

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: SCC of the external auditory canal can mimic cholesteatoma. A precise diagnosis of the disease is important to predict the treatment outcome. Optimal management relies on early surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, thus offering the greatest chance of cure.

  8. External bone remodeling after injectable calcium-phosphate cement in benign bone tumor: two cases in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, S; Vaiss, L; Acciaro, A L; Facca, S; Liverneaux, P

    2015-12-01

    Bone remodeling commonly occurred after fracture and curettage benign bone tumor. A lot of previous articles reported "internal" trabecular bone remodeling. There were no previous clinical reports about "external" cortical bone remodeling. We present here 2 clinical cases of "external" bone remodeling after injectable calcium-phosphate in benign bone tumor in the hand. In two cases of benign bone tumor, we performed complete removal of the tumor and immediate filling of the metacarpal bone with injectable calcium-phosphate cement Arexbone(®) from the mechanical viewpoint. With respect to the shape of the calcium-phosphate, by using an injection-type, calcium-phosphate is adhered uniformly to the bone cortex by injecting, remodeling has been promoted. After 5 and 8years, both cases were no recurrences, and the shape of the metacarpal looked close to the contralateral side. These findings supposed to be concerned with potential self-healing and self-protection mechanism in human body.

  9. Treatment of congenital radial head dislocation with a computer-assisted hexapod external fixator: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Karakoyun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital dislocation of the radial head (CDRH, a congenital anomaly of the elbow, can cause symptoms such as joint stiffness, snapping, locking, or pain, however the diagnosis is sometimes made incidentally from x-rays. The treatment goal is to ameliorate the symptoms and obtain a joint with a full range of motion. This paper presents a case of unilateral CDRH that was asymptomatic until adolescence, when locking and snapping developed. Several treatment options are described in the literature. Although the conventional and computer-assisted external fixator systems are used in several clinical pictures such as extremity deformities, joint contractures and fixation of acute fractures etc a computer-assisted external fixator system has not been used for CDRH. We successfully performed ulnar dorsal translation and a lengthening osteotomy with a computer-assisted external fixator to reduce the radial head indirectly and had satisfactory functional and clinical results. J Clin Exp Invest 2015; 6 (3: 301-305

  10. Absent external oblique musculo-aponeurotic complex during inguinal hernioplasty: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsouza, Royson; Shankar, Nachiket; Gurubatham, Rohin; Rajaleelan, Wesley; Menon, Nandakumar

    2017-03-03

    The external oblique musculo-aponeurotic complex is an important contributor to the strength of the inguinal canal. The present case report describes the bilateral absence of the external oblique muscle in a patient. A 40-year-old male patient presented with a history of intermittent lower abdominal pain for 15 years which had increased over the past 2 years. Abdominal examination revealed bilateral reducible, incomplete, direct inguinal hernia. Elective bilateral Lichtenstein's mesh hernioplasty was planned for the patient. Intraoperatively, there was no evidence of the external oblique aponeurosis and the spermatic cord was noted deep to the membranous fascial layer. The inguinal ligament was thin and atrophic and was attached to the pubic tubercle medially and anterior superior iliac spine laterally. There was no evidence of any superior aponeurotic connection to the inguinal ligament. A postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdomen confirmed the bilateral absence of the external oblique musculo-aponeurotic complex. The isolated absence of the external oblique musculo-aponeurotic complex in adults is an exceedingly rare anomaly. The possibility of such an anomaly should be considered in patients without other risk factors for hernia.

  11. External Communication and Its Influence on Secondary Schools Corporate Image: A Case Study of Kitale Academy Secondary School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloys Nyagechi Kiriago

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Communication by schools with their external publics is crucial for both parties. Stakeholders need to know what happens in schools where their children learn. This study sought to examine the influence of external communication on the corporate image of secondary schools.The research design adopted was a case study of Kitale Academy Secondary. The target population was 420 people from which a sample of 47 was selected using random sampling and non random sampling. The sample included school administrators, heads of departments, teachers, support staff and students. Data was collected using questionnaires. Analysis was done using basic descriptive statistics.From the findings of the research it was evident that word of mouth was the channel that was very frequently used by the students, administrators, and heads of departments, teachers and support staff to external target audience. The findings also indicated a strong relationship between feedbacks from external communication on the image of school. Respondents saw their school’s cooperate image as very positive while also perceiving others outside as seeing the schools image as positive. The researcher recommended that secondary schools to put in place a public relations policy so as to interact positively with their external audience.

  12. The dangers of damage control orthopedics: a case report of vascular injury after femoral fracture external fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staeheli Gregory R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placement of external fixation frames is an expedient and minimally invasive method of achieving bone and joint stability in the setting of severe trauma. Although anatomic safe zones are established for placement of external fixation pins, neurovascular structures may be at risk in the setting of severe trauma. Case report We present a case of a 21-year-old female involved in a high speed motorcycle accident who sustained a Type IIIB open segmental femur fracture with significant thigh soft tissue injury. Damage control orthopedic principals were applied and a spanning external fixator placed for provisional femoral stabilization. Intraoperative vascular examination noted absent distal pulses, however an intraoperative angiogram showed arterial flow distal to the trifurcation. Immediately postoperatively the dorsalis pedis pulse was detected using Doppler ultrasound but was then non-detectable over the preceding 12-hours. Femoral artery CT angiogram revealed iatrogenic superficial femoral artery occlusion due to kinking of the artery around an external fixator pin. Although the pin causing occlusion was placed under direct visualization, the degree of soft tissue injury altered the appearance of the local anatomy. The pin was subsequently revised allowing the artery to travel in its anatomic position, restoring perfusion. Conclusion This case highlights the dangers associated with damage control orthopedics, especially when severe trauma alters normal local anatomy. Careful assessment of external fixator pin placement is crucial to avoiding iatrogenic injury. We recommend a thorough vascular examination pre-operatively and prior to leaving the operating room, which allows any abnormalities to be further evaluated while the patient remains in a controlled environment. When an unrecognized iatrogenic injury occurs, serial postoperative neurovascular examinations allow early recognition and corrective actions.

  13. The Balance between Internally and Externally Oriented CSR - A case study of Danish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Lemmergaard, Jeanette

    , suppliers and other stakeholders, the internal CSR integration is explained and measured through the level of employee involvement and the content and the effects of internal oriented CSR activities and communication. The diagonal integration is understood as integration with the business strategy.......-sized companies, SMEs. This study explores how four Danish SMEs have integrated CSR, and how the levels of external, internal and diagonal integration affect the qualitative and quantitative results of CSR. Whereas external CSR integration constitutes the external CSR communication and involvement of customers......Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an acknowledged and well-established strategic approach in both theory and practice. A large majority of the existing literature emphasises CSR integration within larger corporations, although CSR also plays a pivotal role in small to medium...

  14. A Case Study of Using External DEM in InSAR DEM Generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Chunxia; GE Linlin; E Dongchen; CHANG Hsingchung

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) has been used as an innovative technique for digital elevation model (DEM) and topographic map generation. In this paper, external DEMs are used for InSAR DEM generation to reduce the errors in data processing. The DEMs generated from repeat-pass InSAR are compared. For steep slopes and severe changes in topography, phase unwrapping quality can be improved by subtracting the phase calculated from an external DEM. It is affirmative that the absolute height accuracy of the InSAR DEM is improved by using external DEM. The data processing was undertaken without the use of ground control points and other manual operation.

  15. External recommendations versus internal satisfaction in health care: a case study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henthorne, Tony L; Salgaonkar, Pradeep; George, Babu P

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the relative roles of external recommendations and internal satisfaction in influencing patient loyalty to physicians in India. The results indicate that recommendations result in preliminary loyalty formation by the patient toward the physician, but only until the patient formulates individual loyalty based upon their own personal experiences. At that point, the significance of external sources of recommendation in the determination of patient loyalty becomes insignificant. Physicians should strive at fostering bonds of emotional attachment in their present patients so they become strongly loyal and spread positive word-of-mouth, which, in turn, may result in new patients to the physician.

  16. Recruitment and selection for the packer position in a supermarket network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Moraes Cardoso

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The method of personnel recruitment and selection is a common practice to hire people in organizations. The goal of this study is to report and to reflect about this process in a supermarket chain, which operates in food and non-food retail in the state of Sao Paulo. The purpose of the present intervention was to facilitate the recruitment and selection process for the packer position. After the intervention, we noticed an improvement on the hiring process, on the working conditions and a turnover reduction in this position.

  17. Mechanical Behavior Simulation of the Packer Rubber of Deep Gas Well%深层气井封隔器胶筒力学行为仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁亮亮; 练章华; 彭建云; 张宝; 曾努; 马亚琴

    2012-01-01

    Taking the RTTS packer commonly used in deep gas well testing operation as the object of study, the ANSYS software was adopted to establish the mechanical model for analyzing the large deformation contact problem of packer rubber nonlinear material. The law of force and deformation of the rubber after setting was studied. The sensitivity analysis of the effect of various structural parameters and material parameters on packer sealability was conducted. The simulation analysis shows that the longer the rubber, and the smaller the rubber hardness, the easier the rubber is set; the thinner and longer the rubber thickness, the smaller the rubber friction factor and the larger the contact force between rubber and casing. It is necessary to point out that there exists a medium thickness for the rubber to set most easily and a rubber hardness for the maximum contact force between rubber and casing inner wall. With the increase of friction factor, the contact force between rubber and casing inner wall decreases and the friction force rises.%以深层气井测试作业过程中常用的RTTS封隔器为对象,采用ANSYS软件建立了封隔器胶筒非线性材料大变形接触问题的力学模型,开展了坐封后胶筒的受力与变形规律研究,并对影响封隔器密封性能的各种结构参数和材料参数进行了敏感性分析。分析结果表明,胶筒高度越高、胶筒硬度越小,越易坐封;胶筒厚度越小、胶筒高度越高、胶筒摩擦因数越小,胶筒与套管间接触力越大。需要特别指出的是,存在一个胶筒坐封最容易的中等厚度,存在一个胶筒与套管内壁接触力最大的胶筒硬度,随着摩擦因数的增大,胶筒与套管内壁间接触力减小,摩擦力增大。

  18. Integrated torrefaction vs. external torrefaction - A thermodynamic analysis for the case of a thermochemical biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    and centralized conversion of the pellets by entrained flow gasification. First, the syngas production of the two methods was compared. Second, the two methods were compared by considering complete biorefineries with either integrated torrefaction or external torrefaction. The first part of the analysis showed...

  19. Effects of Decreasing External Incentives on Higher Education--Reflections from the Case of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-feng

    2016-01-01

    Widened participation in post-compulsory and higher education is generally regarded as a result of the growing recognition of the internal and external benefits of higher education, which are categorised either as a private or public good. However, a question can be raised: once these incentives become less promising or less evident, will a strong…

  20. External Reporting Lines of Academic Special Libraries: A Health Sciences Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Amy G.; Ferree, Nita; Cataldo, Tara T.; Tennant, Michele R.

    2010-01-01

    Very little literature exists on the nature of external reporting lines and funding structures of academic special libraries. This study focuses on academic health sciences libraries. The authors analyze information gathered from statistics published by the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) from 1977 through 2007; an…

  1. SPECT imaging in evaluating extent of malignant external otitis: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, R.J.; Tu' Meh, S.S.; Piwnica-Worms, D.; Holman, B.L.

    1987-03-01

    Otitis externa, a benign inflammatory process of the external auditory canal, is general responsive to local therapy. Some patients however, develop a less controllable disease leading to chondritis and osteomyelitis of the base of the skull. The direct invasive characteristic of the disease has led to the descriptive term malignant external otitis (MEO), more appropriately called necrotizing or invasive external otitis. Malignant external otitis is caused by an aggressive pseudomonas or proteus infection that almost exclusively occurs in elderly diabetic patients. The primary imaging modalities previously used in the diagnosis and evaluation of MEO were standard planar scintigraphic techniques with technetium-99M (/sup 99m/Tc) bone agents and gallium-67 (/sup 67/Ga), and pluridirectional tomography. The advent of high resolution computed tomography (CT) effectively allowed demonstration of the soft tissue extension and bone destruction associated with MEO, but still suffered from the low sensitivity constraints of all radiographic techniques in determining early inflammatory bone involvement. Recent work suggests that scintigraphic detection of MEO with /sup 99m/Tc-MDP and /sup 67/Ga, combined with the cross-sectional resolution of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) may be of value in planning treatment of this inflammatory condition.

  2. External Cost Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Accident considering Public Risk Aversion Behavior: the Korean Case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The conventional approach for monetary valuation of NPP accident consequence consists of calculating the expected value of various accident scenarios. However, the main criticism of the conventional approach is that there is a discrepancy between the social acceptability of the risk and the estimated expected value of NPP accident. Therefore, an integrated framework for the estimation of the external cost associated with an NPP accident considering the public risk aversion behavior was proposed in this study based on the constructed theoretical framework for estimating both the value of statistical life (VSL) and the risk aversion coefficient associated with an NPP accident to take account of the accident cost into the unit electricity generation cost of NPP. To estimate both parameters, an individual-level survey was conducted on a sample of 1,364 participants in Korea. Based on the collected survey responses, both parameters were estimated based on the proposed framework and the external cost of NPP accident was estimated based on the consequence analysis and considering the direct cost factors for NPP accident. Internalization of external costs into the comprehensive energy production cost has been considered as a potentially efficient policy instrument for a more sustainable energy supply and use. However, the internalization of externalities, such as public health damage, have raised a number of generic policy issues in a nuclear energy sector, with specific challenges resulting from the distinct characteristics of external cost estimation. Especially, the major challenge remained to address the public safety concerns regarding a nuclear accident, which can be specified as low-probability high-consequence accident, driven by the aspects of public risk aversion.

  3. Surgical treatment of tibial nonunion after wounding by high velocity missile and external fixators: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The missiles of modern firearms can cause severe fractures of the extremity. High velocity missile fractures of the tibia are characterized by massive tissue destruction and primary contamination with polymorphic bacteria. Treatment of these fractures is often complicated by delayed healing, poor position healing, nonhealing and bone tissue infection. Case Outline. We present the management of tibial nonunion after wounding by high velocity missile and primary treatment by external fixation in a 25-year-old patient. The patient was primarily treated with external fixation and reconstructive operations of the soft tissue without union of the fracture. Seven months after injury we placed a compression-distraction external fixator type Mitkovic and started with compression and distraction in the fracture focus after osteotomy of the fibula and autospongioplasty. We recorded satisfactory fracture healing and good functional outcome. Conclusion. Contamination and devitalization of the softtissue envelope increase the risk of infection and nonunion in fractures after wounding by high velocity missile. The use of the compression-distraction external fixator type Mitkovic may be an effective method in nonunions of the tibia after this kind of injury. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41004

  4. Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid: a prospective pilot study of eight consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Rubens Camargo; Jorge, Rodrigo; Scott, Ingrid Ursula

    2007-01-01

    To describe an alternative surgical technique for the management of retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B) using transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. In a prospective, interventional study, eight consecutive patients with retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B) underwent transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. Transconjunctival external drainage of subretinal fluid was achieved by using a 29 gauge needle placed in the subretinal space under indirect ophthalmoscopic monitoring. Active suction was performed (500 mmHg vacuum) using a vitrectomy line coupled to the needle. After retinal reattachment, cryotherapy was applied to the scleral region corresponding to the area of the retinal break(s). In all cases there was retinal attachment at the end of surgery. Retinal redetachment occurred in four pseudophakic patients who then underwent pars plana vitrectomy. The four phakic patients maintained retinal attachment during follow-up (13-20 months). Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid represents a useful, faster, and cheaper alternative to scleral buckling for retinal detachments with no or minimal proliferative retinopathy in phakic patients and, unlike scleral buckling, is not associated with induced myopia.

  5. Comparison of the Ability of Various Imaging Modalities (CT & Plain X- Ray in Detecting Drug Transport in Body Packers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sanei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "ndrugs within the human body. In our country due to vast common border with Afghanistan which is the biggest Opium producer in the world and has the second place in Heroine production, drug smuggling has potential national threat and besides it has a global impact as using our territory as the major smuggling route to the west. Furthermore, in recent years new generations of African smugglers of new types of drugs are using our country as a transit route to transport drugs to Europe or Africa. In this way handmade or automatically produced packets are swallowed, rectally or vaginally inserted, and then transported. The first choice modality is plain x-ray of the abdomen in upright and supine positions. Recently abdominal and pelvic CT without contrast has shown a great success rate in the detection of body packers with changing window modality to detect different types of drugs. "nMaterials and Methods: Plain x-ray and abdominal and pelvic CT without contrast were performed for 12 cases who confessed to drug packet ingestion. The presence, number and location of the packets were evaluated in different modalities and the density of the packets were also measured in Hounsfield units (HU. "nResults: The mean age of our cases was 28.2±5.9 years (range, 17-35 years. Eleven (91.6 % patients were male and only one case was female. All patients had characteristic findings in plain x-ray and also all packets were visualized in all patients "nConclusion: Plain x-ray has a distinctive position in detecting packets in intestines especially when oral contrast materials are used. It is cheaper and more accessible than CT, but using different Hounsfield units in CT windows can even characterize different types of drugs even before extracting them.  

  6. Management of External Invasive Cervical Resorption Tooth with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Ikhar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is entirely uncommon entities and the etiology is poorly understood. A 19 year old patient presented with fractured upper left central incisor and sinus tract opening on the distobuccal aspect in cervical region. Radiographic examination shows irregular radiolucency over the coronal one-third and it extended externally towards the external invasive resorption. After sectional obturation, the defect was accessed surgically. The resorption area was chemomechanically debrided using irrigant solution. Fibre post placement using flowable composite resin and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA was used to fill the resorptive defect, and the coronal access was temporarily sealed. Composite restoration was subsequently replaced with ceramic crown after 4 years. Radiographs at 1 and 4 years showed adequate repair of the resorption and endodontic success. Clinically and radiographically the tooth was asymptomatic, and no periodontal pocket was found after a 4-year followup.

  7. Ensuring Professionalism of the External Evaluation Commission: The Slovenian Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Rodman

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2006–2007, the Slovenian higher education (HE system took the first steps toward building a national model of institutional external evaluation (IEE, which would be comparable with other European models. In the first part of the article, the authors discuss the main tendencies within the European he area. This is followed by an outline of the developments in the field of quality assurance within Slovenian he, stressing the years 2006 and 2007. The scientific contribution of the article lies in the evaluation outcomes of the national pilot IEES, with focus on the professional competences of the External evaluation commission (EEC members. Observation results stress the importance of the proper training of EEC members. The authors propose that a systematic follow-up on the EEC work needs to be established and a code of ethics drawn up, highlighting the preferred values and principles of EEC members.

  8. Abductor hallucis muscle flap with circular external fixation for Charcot foot osteomyelitis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Zgonis, Thomas; Ramanujam, Crystal L.; Facaros, Zacharia

    2011-01-01

    Complicated soft tissue defects of the diabetic foot often call for alternative methods to traditional primary closure. Despite the popularity of microvascular free flaps, local muscle flaps can offer reliable reconstruction for these challenging wounds with shorter surgical times and reduced complication rates. In this article, the authors describe the successful use of the abductor hallucis muscle flap and external fixation for soft tissue reconstruction of a chronic Charcot foot wound and ...

  9. Abductor hallucis muscle flap with circular external fixation for Charcot foot osteomyelitis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L. Ramanujam

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Complicated soft tissue defects of the diabetic foot often call for alternative methods to traditional primary closure. Despite the popularity of microvascular free flaps, local muscle flaps can offer reliable reconstruction for these challenging wounds with shorter surgical times and reduced complication rates. In this article, the authors describe the successful use of the abductor hallucis muscle flap and external fixation for soft tissue reconstruction of a chronic Charcot foot wound and osteomyelitis in a diabetic patient.

  10. Regional Labor Markets, Network Externalities and Migration: The Case of German Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Uhlig, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years after German reunification, the facts about slow regional convergence have born out the prediction of Barro (1991), except that migration out of East Germany has not slowed down. I document that in particular the 18-29 year old are leaving East Germany, and that the emigration has accelerated in recent years. To understand these patterns, I provide an extension of the standard labor search model by allowing for migration and network externalities. In that theory, two equilibria ...

  11. External Ocular Manifestations in Autosomal Dominant Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manizheh Mahdavi

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available

    PURPOSE: To present a case of autosomal dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa with symblepharon formation due to eye rubbing. CASE REPORT: A 10-year-old girl suffering from blistering and ulcerative lesions of the trunk and palms and dystrophic nails since childhood was referred to our clinic with a symblepharon connecting the medial portion of the right upper lid to the superonasal quadrant of the cornea. The central cornea in both eyes exhibited mild subepithelial opacification. She had history of eye rubbing due to foreign body sensation in the right eye, resulting in red eye and blister-like conjunctival lesions since three years ago. She had previously undergone surgical symblepharon removal leading to more severe recurrence of the condition. CONCLUSION: Dominant dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa may be accompanied by external ocular manifestations. Protection of the eye from minor trauma such as rubbing may help prevent ocular complications.

  1. 9 CFR 203.18 - Statement with respect to packers engaging in the business of custom feeding livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... places of production, but are also important marketing centers, and in connection with the operation of a... Stockyards Programs) has sought to promote and maintain open and fair competition in the livestock and... the opinion of the Administration that the ownership or operation of custom feedlots by packers...

  2. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document presents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant sprays. This case study is organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which combines a ...

  3. Nanomaterial Case Study: Nanoscale Silver in Disinfectant Spray (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document presents a case study of engineered nanoscale silver (nano-Ag), focusing on the specific example of nano-Ag as possibly used in disinfectant sprays. This case study is organized around a comprehensive environmental assessment (CEA) framework, which combines a ...

  4. Management of external invasive cervical resorption of tooth with Biodentine: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranwal, Akash Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) of a tooth is relatively uncommon and the etiology is not very clear. It is sometimes misdiagnosed and can lead to improper management or tooth loss. Correct diagnosis and proper management can result in a successful outcome. The treatment should aim toward the complete suppression of all resorbing tissues and the reconstruction of resorptive defect by the placement of a suitable filling material or some biological systems. One of the most significant developments of the past decade, i.e. the operating microscope used for surgical endodontics, helps the surgeon to assess pathological changes more precisely and to remove pathological lesions with far greater precision, thus minimizing tissue damage. The aim of this article was to show the management of maxillary left central incisor diagnosed with external ICR using Biodentine under dental operatory microscope (DOM).

  5. Management of external invasive cervical resorption of tooth with Biodentine: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Baranwal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption (ICR of a tooth is relatively uncommon and the etiology is not very clear. It is sometimes misdiagnosed and can lead to improper management or tooth loss. Correct diagnosis and proper management can result in a successful outcome. The treatment should aim toward the complete suppression of all resorbing tissues and the reconstruction of resorptive defect by the placement of a suitable filling material or some biological systems. One of the most significant developments of the past decade, i.e. the operating microscope used for surgical endodontics, helps the surgeon to assess pathological changes more precisely and to remove pathological lesions with far greater precision, thus minimizing tissue damage. The aim of this article was to show the management of maxillary left central incisor diagnosed with external ICR using Biodentine under dental operatory microscope (DOM.

  6. Governance reform, external support, and environmental regulation enforcement in rural China: the case of Guangdong province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Shui-Yan; Lo, Carlos Wing-Hung; Fryxell, Gerald E

    2010-10-01

    This paper examines how configurations of external support factors have evolved alongside governance reform in recent years and how these evolving configurations have affected regulatory enforcement in four counties in Guangdong Province in China. Based on in-depth interviews with leading officials in the local environmental protection bureaus (EPBs), we show that there have been increases in government and societal support for local EPBs in their regulatory work, thanks partly to a number of recent governance reform efforts, but many problems have remained. Based on a questionnaire survey of enforcement officials, we examine how the perceptions of government and societal support are related to EPB officials' self-perception of effectiveness. It is found that both local government support and societal support have an influence on enforcement officials' self-assessment of effectiveness, but the relationships varied considerably depending on various dimensions of effectiveness and the patterns of interactions between government and societal support.

  7. Combined Internal and External Fixation for Diabetic Charcot Reconstruction: A Retrospective Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegewald, Kenneth W; Wilder, Megan L; Chappell, Todd M; Hutchinson, Byron L

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy is a complex, limb-threatening disease process with major lifestyle-altering repercussions for patients. When Charcot neuroarthropathy leads to unstable deformity, ulceration, and potential infection despite conservative therapies, foot and ankle surgeons often consider reconstructive limb salvage procedures to restore function. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of diabetic Charcot reconstruction using combined internal and external fixation. A total of 22 patients were reviewed; 16 (72.73%) midfoot and 6 (27.27%) tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis procedures were consecutively performed from March 2009 to May 2013. All surgical procedures were performed in nonacute phases of the Charcot process in patients with diagnosed diabetes mellitus and documented peripheral neuropathy. Patients were excluded from the study if they were not diabetic despite having undergone Charcot reconstruction, regardless of the fixation method, or if they did not complete radiographic imaging. During a mean follow-up period of 58.60 ± 42.37 (range 16 to 164) weeks, limb salvage was achieved in 20 patients (90.91%), and 2 (9.09%) required below-the-knee amputation at a mean of 42 ± 14.14 weeks. Wound dehiscence occurred in 8 (36.36%), pin tract infection in 10 (45.45%), and superficial wound infection in 9 (40.91%) and peaked in bimodal fashion at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively. Radiographic analysis of the pre- versus postoperative alignment showed statistically significant changes in the lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (p = .02) and lateral talar declination angle (p = .01). The limb salvage rates with diabetic Charcot reconstruction are improving in part because of the continued development of increasingly superior modalities for both internal and external fixation.

  8. Improving the external validity of clinical trials: the case of multiple chronic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Fortin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services vision and strategic framework on multiple chronic conditions (MCCs incorporates recommendations designed to facilitate research that will improve our knowledge about interventions and systems that will benefit individuals with MCCs (or multimorbidity. The evidence base supporting the management of patients with MCCs will be built both through intervention trials specifically designed to address multimorbidity and identification of MCCs in participants across the clinical trial range. This article specifically focuses on issues relating to external validity with specific reference to trials involving patients with MCCs. The exclusion of such patients from clinical trials has been well documented. Randomized control trials (RCTs are considered the “gold standard” of evidence, but may have drawbacks in relation to external validity, particularly in relation to multimorbidity. It may, therefore, be necessary to consider a broader range of research methods that can provide converging evidence on intervention effects to address MCCs. Approaches can also be taken to increase the usefulness of RCTs in general for providing evidence to inform multimorbidity management. Additional improvements to RCTs would include better reporting of inclusion and exclusion criteria and participant characteristics in relation to MCCs. New trials should be considered in terms of how they will add to the existing evidence base and should inform how interventions may work in different settings and patient groups. Research on treatments and interventions for patients with MCCs is badly needed. It is important that this research includes patient-centered measures and that generalizability issues be explicitly addressed.

  9. Improved barometric and loading efficiency estimates using packers in monitoring wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Scott B.; Timms, Wendy A.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Barbour, S. Lee

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of barometric efficiency (BE) from open monitoring wells or loading efficiency (LE) from formation pore pressures provides valuable information about the hydraulic properties and confinement of a formation. Drained compressibility ( α) can be calculated from LE (or BE) in confined and semi-confined formations and used to calculate specific storage ( S s). S s and α are important for predicting the effects of groundwater extraction and therefore for sustainable extraction management. However, in low hydraulic conductivity ( K) formations or large diameter monitoring wells, time lags caused by well storage may be so long that BE cannot be properly assessed in open monitoring wells in confined or unconfined settings. This study demonstrates the use of packers to reduce monitoring-well time lags and enable reliable assessments of LE. In one example from a confined, high- K formation, estimates of BE in the open monitoring well were in good agreement with shut-in LE estimates. In a second example, from a low- K confining clay layer, BE could not be adequately assessed in the open monitoring well due to time lag. Sealing the monitoring well with a packer reduced the time lag sufficiently that a reliable assessment of LE could be made from a 24-day monitoring period. The shut-in response confirmed confined conditions at the well screen and provided confidence in the assessment of hydraulic parameters. A short (time-lag-dependent) period of high-frequency shut-in monitoring can therefore enhance understanding of hydrogeological systems and potentially provide hydraulic parameters to improve conceptual/numerical groundwater models.

  10. Improved barometric and loading efficiency estimates using packers in monitoring wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Scott B.; Timms, Wendy A.; Kelly, Bryce F. J.; Barbour, S. Lee

    2017-02-01

    Measurement of barometric efficiency (BE) from open monitoring wells or loading efficiency (LE) from formation pore pressures provides valuable information about the hydraulic properties and confinement of a formation. Drained compressibility (α) can be calculated from LE (or BE) in confined and semi-confined formations and used to calculate specific storage (S s). S s and α are important for predicting the effects of groundwater extraction and therefore for sustainable extraction management. However, in low hydraulic conductivity (K) formations or large diameter monitoring wells, time lags caused by well storage may be so long that BE cannot be properly assessed in open monitoring wells in confined or unconfined settings. This study demonstrates the use of packers to reduce monitoring-well time lags and enable reliable assessments of LE. In one example from a confined, high-K formation, estimates of BE in the open monitoring well were in good agreement with shut-in LE estimates. In a second example, from a low-K confining clay layer, BE could not be adequately assessed in the open monitoring well due to time lag. Sealing the monitoring well with a packer reduced the time lag sufficiently that a reliable assessment of LE could be made from a 24-day monitoring period. The shut-in response confirmed confined conditions at the well screen and provided confidence in the assessment of hydraulic parameters. A short (time-lag-dependent) period of high-frequency shut-in monitoring can therefore enhance understanding of hydrogeological systems and potentially provide hydraulic parameters to improve conceptual/numerical groundwater models.

  11. Preservation of the External Jugular Vein in Bilateral Radical Neck Dissections: Technique in Two Cases and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Lima Bastos da Rocha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Context. The possibility of cephalic venous hypertension with the resultant facial edema and elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure continues to challenge head and neck surgeons who perform bilateral radical neck dissections during simultaneous or staged procedures. Case Report. The staged procedure in patients who require bilateral neck dissections allows collateral venous drainage to develop, mainly through the internal and external vertebral plexuses, thereby minimizing the risks of deleterious consequences. Nevertheless, this procedure has disadvantages, such as a delay in definitive therapy, the need for a second hospitalization and anesthesia, and the risk of cutting lymphatic vessels and spreading viable cancer cells. In this paper, we discuss the rationale and feasibility of preserving the external jugular vein. Considering the limited number of similar reports in the literature, two cases in which this procedure was accomplished are described. The relevant anatomy and technique are reviewed and the patients’ outcomes are discussed. Conclusion. Preservation of the EJV during bilateral neck dissections is technically feasible, fast, and safe, with clinically and radiologically demonstrated patency.

  12. Casing Tier 529.887-020; Sausage Packer; Skin Peeler 525.884-050; Sliced-Bacon Packer II; Packer 920.887-114 -- Technical Report on Standardization of the General Aptitude Test Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  13. External validation of a COPD prediction model using population-based primary care data: a nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaru, Bright I; Simpson, Colin R; Sheikh, Aziz; Kotz, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Emerging models for predicting risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) require external validation in order to assess their clinical value. We validated a previous model for predicting new onset COPD in a different database. We randomly drew 38,597 case-control pairs (total N = 77,194) of individuals aged ≥35 years and matched for sex, age, and general practice from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink database. We assessed accuracy of the model to discriminate between COPD cases and non-cases by calculating area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROCAUC) for the prediction scores. Analogous to the development model, ever smoking (OR 6.70; 95%CI 6.41–6.99), prior asthma (OR 6.43; 95%CI 5.85–7.07), and higher socioeconomic deprivation (OR 2.90; 95%CI 2.72–3.09 for highest vs. lowest quintile) increased the risk of COPD. The validated prediction scores ranged from 0–5.71 (ROCAUC 0.66; 95%CI 0.65–0.66) for males and 0–5.95 (ROCAUC 0.71; 95%CI 0.70–0.71) for females. We have confirmed that smoking, prior asthma, and socioeconomic deprivation are key risk factors for new onset COPD. Our model seems externally valid at identifying patients at risk of developing COPD. An impact assessment now needs to be undertaken to assess whether this prediction model can be applied in clinical care settings. PMID:28304375

  14. A new case of semicircular lipoatrophy associated with repeated external microtraumas and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Espejo, C; Pérez-Bernal, A; Camacho-Martínez, F

    2005-07-01

    We present a new case of semicircular lipoatrophy whose lesions disappeared after 2 months of avoiding a repeated trauma in that area. It seems that this is the only associated aetiological factor, and this entity is perhaps a consequence of certain postural habits. The repeated microtraumas would damage the fatty tissue giving rise to the histopathological findings described, which are compatible with traumatic panniculitis. In conclusion, repeated microtraumas may be the aetiological factor in these cutaneous lesions. Other data in favour of this hypothesis are the disappearance of the lesions after avoiding the mechanical trauma, the fact that there were other affected people at work, and that this factor has also been identified in the majority of cases reported previously.

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal in young: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of temporal bone has been traditionally considered as the rare disease of elderly with a prolonged history of otorrhoea with a reported incidence of about 2-4 cases per million per year. The same disease in young individuals is very rare. We present a case of SCC of temporal bone in young male of Indian origin with short history of otalgia and very short history of otorrhoea without any history facial palsy. This gives us an insight about the aetiopathogenesis of SCC of temporal bone from prolonged otitis media and radiation exposure to genetic factors as for any other SCC of head and neck. Before presenting to authors this patient visited otorhinologist several times for otalgia and possibly due to short history and young age he was not subjected to any radiological investigations or biopsy and was treated symptomatically as otitis externa.

  16. Isolated Multiple Fragmented Cricoid Fracture Associated with External Blunt Neck Trauma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Yong Hoon; Seo, Jung Wook; Cho, Hyeon Je; Kim, Yeon Soo [Inje University School of Medicine, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    Blunt laryngeal trauma is a relatively uncommon but possibly life-threatening injury. An isolated cricoid fracture associated with blunt trauma is rare. We report a case of an isolated multiple fragmented cricoid cartilage fracture that developed in a 20-year-old man after a blunt neck trauma that occurred during a baseball game and was diagnosed by 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT)

  17. Abscess of the iliopsoas muscle associated external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Shigeru; Imazu, Hiroki; Matubara, Toshiki; Sakurai, Yoichi; Ochiai, Masahiro; Funabiki, Takahiko [Fujita Health Univ., Toyoake, Aichi (Japan). School of Medicine

    1999-12-01

    This paper deals with a case of abscess of the iliopsoas muscle, an intractable external fistula of the rectum caused by radiation proctitis in a 68-year-old man. There were previous histories of undergoing an A-C bypass operation for coronary stricture 10 years before; and undergoing aportial resection of the bladder with radiation therapy for urinary bladder cancer, followed by colostomy for hemorrhage and stricture of the rectum for radiation proctitis 2 years before admission. In April, 1997 when he had been treated at outpatient clinic, exhumation of pusfrom the sacurred that was diagnosed external fistula of the rectum on a fistulography and he was continuously treated on an ambulant basis. On November 17, 1997, the patient had a temperature 38.7deg C, the white blood cell count increased to 35 x 10{sup 4} /ml, inflammation reaction increased, and unconsciousness appeared. An emergency CT revealed retention of fluid in the retroperitoneum covering from the fistulation through the iliopsoas muscle to pelvis. An abscess of the iliopsoas muscle was diagnosed. It was determined that any operations under general anesthesia were impossible due to poor general condition, and an emergency incision drainage was performed under local anesthesia. Thereafter, the patient developed MRSA septicemia which demanded redrainage and strict general management, but he was successfully freed from the management. Although the intractable fistula in persistently present, he was discharged after a resection of sequestrum and is followed on an ambulant basis. (author)

  18. [Gingival hypertrophy during orthodontic treatment: contribution of external bevel gingivectomy. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoist, H M; Ngom, P I; Seck-Diallo, A; Diallo, P D

    2007-12-01

    Gingival enlargement is a condition that commonly develops during orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic appliances are irritation and retention plaque factors holding up oral hygiene and control of gingival inflammation. Two cases of gingival hypertrophy in young Senegalese females undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances are described and treated by gingivectomy. This surgical procedure have led to morphological conditions of gingiva allowing better plaque control and the orthodontic treatment going on. Periodical controls in child and adolescent are required for healthy periodontium during orthodontic therapy. Collaboration between orthodontist and periodontist is one of the most important keys to successful treatment.

  19. First Italian Ebola virus disease case: management of hospital internal and external communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salce, Lorella; Barbato, Simona; Renna, Daniela; Bianchini, Francesco; Vaccaro, Paola; Mazzeo, Fabio; Gasparini, Annunziatina; Rizza, Claudio; Lanfranchi, Emanuele; Petrosillo, Nicola; Nicastri, Emanuele; Di Caro, Antonino; Capobianchi, Maria R; Puro, Vincenzo; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    On November 25, 2014, an Italian physician infected by Ebola virus in Sierra Leone was admitted to the "Lazzaro Spallanzani" National Institute for Infectious Diseases in Rome, Italy. He was the first Italian case and was successfully cured in 38 days. The staff responsible for communication had a critical role ensuring that this challenging mission went smoothly. The Institutional Press Office working together with the press offices of the Ministry of Health was able to provide the high level of expertise necessary within both medical and communication contexts. Communication strategy, tools and procedures adopted before and after the arrival of the patient are summarized.

  20. In Situ Local Fracture Flow Measurement by the Double Packer Dilution Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englert, A.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Klepikova, M.; Lavenant, N.

    2011-12-01

    For prediction of flow and transport in fractured media, prior estimation of the fracture network is essential, but challenging. Recent developments in hydraulic tomography have shown promising results for understanding connectivities between boreholes. However, as the hydraulic tomographic survey is typically based on the propagation of head only, it becomes a strongly non unique problem. To reduce the non uniqueness of tomographic surveys point conditioning has been found beneficial. Just as well, measurement of local flow in a fracture can serve as point conditioning for hydraulic and tracer tomographic surveys. Nevertheless, only few measurements of local fracture flow have been performed since this type of measurements implies several important technical issues. Dilution test in a packed off interval is a possible method for measuring fracture flow (e.g. Drost et al. 1968, Novakowski et al., 2005). However, a key issue for estimating flow with dilution tests is to ensure a full mixing of the tracer in the packed interval. This is typically done by including a mixing system within the packer. The design of such system can be challenging for deep wells and small diameters. Here, we propose a method where mixing is ensured by a recirculation loop including a surface tank. This method is adapted from the design proposed by Brouyere et al. (2008), who measured dilution in open wells. Dilution is quantified by measuring the concentration in the surface barrel as function of time. Together with the measurement of the circulating flow and the water filled volume in the surface barrel, the measured tracer dilution allows for calculation of the fracture flow. Since the method can be applied using a classical double packer system, it may provide a broader application of local flow measurements in heterogeneous media. We tested the approach on the Ploemeur fractured crystalline rock site. A one meter interval at depth 80 m with a single flowing fracture was isolated with

  1. Cholesteatoma of the external ear canal: etiological factors, symptoms and clinical findings in a series of 48 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaihede, Michael Lyhne

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate symptoms, clinical findings, and etiological factors in external ear canal cholesteatoma (EECC). METHOD: Retrospective evaluation of clinical records of all consecutive patients with EECC in the period 1979 to 2005 in a tertiary referral centre. Main outcome...... measures were incidence rates, classification according to causes, symptoms, extensions in the ear canal including adjacent structures, and possible etiological factors. RESULTS: Forty-five patients were identified with 48 EECC. Overall incidence rate was 0.30 cases per year per 100,000 inhabitants. Twenty...... into nearby structures. Whereas the aetiology of secondary EECC can be explained, the origin of primary EECC remains uncertain; smoking and minor trauma of the ear canal may predispose....

  2. A case of a cholesterol granuloma occluding the external auditory canal in a 12-year-old girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Mee-Seon; Lee, Kyu-Yup

    2014-09-01

    Cholesterol granulomas are benign granulomatous lesions caused by tissue reaction to a foreign body such as cholesterol crystals. These crystals have been are associated with pathological conditions of pneumatized spaces, including those causing inadequate aeration, obstruction of drainage, and hemorrhage in pneumatized spaces, and where materials trapping materials, such as hemosiderin or cholesterol become trapped, and then forming a cholesterol granuloma. Cholesterol granulomas are frequently found in the temporal bones, with the middle ear, mastoid caverna, and petrous apex being the most commonly affected sites. As there have been few reported cases of cholesterol granulomas presenting as a mass in the external acoustic canal (EAC), a cholesterol granuloma occluding the entire EAC in a pediatric patient is considered quite rare. We encountered a large cholesterol granuloma occupying the entire EAC, resulting in total EAC occlusion in a 12-year-old girl. The granuloma was diagnosed via medical imaging and surgically excised.

  3. External Beam Radiotherapy for Focal Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma in the Urinary Bladder: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Kushida

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoepithelioma is a malignant epithelial tumor in the nasopharynx characterized by prominent lymphoid infiltration. Carcinomas that resemble lymphoepitheliomas have been called lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas and have been reported in other organs. A tumor in the bladder is categorized by the percentage of the total area occupied by the lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma pattern, with the prognosis dependent on the percentage. We present an 81-year-old man with stage 3 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a history of aortic aneurysm repair. The computed tomography scans indicated thickening and irregularity of the bladder wall, with left external iliac lymph node metastasis. His diagnosis was bladder cancer, and the clinical stage was evaluated as T3N1M0. Transurethral resection of the bladder tumor was performed, and the pathological specimen showed that the tumor was composed of undifferentiated malignant cells with sheets and nests arranged in a syncytial pattern, as well as an urothelial carcinoma lesion. A prominent lymphoid reaction accompanied the tumor. The pathological diagnosis was focal-type lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma containing a component of urothelial carcinoma G3>G2. His general condition was such that he could not tolerate radical cystectomy or systemic chemotherapy. External beam radiotherapy (total 60 Gy was given to the bladder, including the lymph node metastatic lesion. No cancer recurrence was detected by regular follow-up computed tomography and cystoscopy. He eventually died of other causes 48 months later. Although treatment for focal lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma generally requires multifocal therapies, in the present case, the bladder became tumor free. We also summarize previously reported lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma cases treated with radiotherapy.

  4. Bullet embolization to the external iliac artery after gunshot injury to the abdominal aorta: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaha Luan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Abdominal vascular trauma is fairly common in modern civilian life and is a highly lethal injury. However, if the projectile is small enough, if its energy is diminished when passing through the tissue and if the arterial system is elastic enough, the entry wound into the artery may close without exsanguination and therefore may not be fatal. A projectile captured may even travel downstream until it is arrested by the smaller distal vasculature. The occurrence of this phenomenon is rare and was first described by Trimble in 1968. Case presentation Here we present a case of a 29-year-old Albanian man who, due to a gunshot injury to the back, suffered fracture of his twelfth thoracic and first lumbar vertebra, injury to the posterior wall of his abdominal aorta and then bullet embolism to his left external iliac artery. It is interesting that the signs of distal ischemia developed several hours after the exploratory surgery, raising the possibility that the bullet migrated in the interim or that there was a failure to recognize it during the exploratory surgery. Conclusion In all cases where there is a gunshot injury to the abdomen or chest without an exit wound and with no projectile in the area, there should be a high index of suspicion for possible bullet embolism, particularly in the presence of the distal ischemia.

  5. Rehabilitation considerations for a patient with external hemipelvectomy and hemisacrectomy for recurrent soft tissue pelvic sarcoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal Wilson, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    External hemipelvectomy (EHP) is an uncommon procedure involving surgical amputation of the lower extremity and hemipelvis. Soft tissue sarcomas of the pelvis are rare and accompanied by a high risk of disease progression after surgical intervention. The purpose of this case report is to describe the rehabilitation considerations and importance of interdisciplinary collaboration to achieve functional goals to allow discharge with improved independence and decreased caregiver burden. A 58-year-old Caucasian male patient underwent a hemipelvectomy and hemisacrectomy for treatment of a recurrent pelvic soft tissue sarcoma following 4 months of bed confinement secondary to pain and weakness of the involved lower extremity. This report outlines the physical therapy interventions during 3 weeks of inpatient rehabilitation. This case demonstrates that continuous interdisciplinary care of a complex patient with EHP and hemisacrectomy contributes to significant improvement in functional mobility exceeding prior level of function. This case is particularly interesting because in addition to having a rare diagnosis and undergoing an uncommon surgical procedure, this patient was confined to bed for 4 months prior to surgical intervention, and thus began rehabilitation with a baseline of limited functional mobility and high caregiver burden.

  6. ANALYSIS OF PACKERS\\' WORKLOAD ON THE PACKING LINE - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Marek Lasota

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the elements of the logistics system is the subsystem of production, which is a system composed of physical elements such as machinery and equipment, tools, and (most importantly people. In addition, systems dependent on the human operator are particularly prone to problems related to: discomfort, ensuring production quality and increases in training costs and absenteeism. Material and methods: The study was conducted in an establishment in the furniture industry, in the product packing department. The system under assessment included a position located at the conveyor belt. The aim of the study was to evaluate the load and the risk of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD's among workers and conduct an analysis of risk factors. For the evaluation method, the Ovako Working posture Analysing System (OWAS was used. The evaluated activities related to the sequential packing of furniture in positions located at the conveyor belt. Results: The result was 7 tasks qualifying for action category (AC 1, 4 tasks for AC 2 and 5 activities for AC 4. The main risk factors influencing the negative assessment of posture were keeping the back sloped and twisted, work in a standing position and shifting weight onto one leg. Conclusions and recommendations: On each of the evaluated positions where AC 4 occurred, employees back and legs were particularly vulnerable while retrieving elements. Corrective action in these positions should be carried out as soon as possible. Ergonomic intervention should be linked to: reorganizing positions with particular emphasis on retrieving items as well as the storage of packed products; introduction of employee rotation on such positions to ensure load variation of the musculoskeletal system. After making changes on the test positions, reassessment with the OWAS method is recommended in order to verify the effectiveness of the changes.  

  7. Decreasing Complications of Quadricepsplasty for Knee Contracture after Femoral Fracture Treatment with an External Fixator: Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Kashiwagi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In performing quadricepsplasty for contracture that develops after application of an external fixator for femoral fractures, surgeons must be aware of the potential risk for re-fracture and pin-related problems. The purpose of this report is to highlight these not well-detailed complications and to discuss specific findings and treatment suggestions.Case Report: 4 men (mean age, 40 years presenting with secondary to contracture that developed after application of an external fixator for femoral fractures were included in this study. The radiographs showed union across the fracture site however two of these patients couldn't stand on one leg raising suspicion about the union status. A computed tomographic image indeed demonstrated limited continuity of the cortex. Bone grafting was performed prior to quadricepsplasty. The mean extension and flexion before the quadricepsplasty were 0o and 570 , respectively. At the final follow-up examination, the mean active flexion of the knee had increased to 98o.Results: The incidence of re-fracture during and after quadricepsplasty has been reported to be between 10 and 25%. There are 2 preoperative features that may mislead surgeons into believing that complete union of the fractures has been attained: one is the patient's ability to stand on a single leg, and the other is the fact that plain radiographs may lend themselves to different interpretations. In such cases, computed tomography will provide evidence of the continuity of the cortical bone. Bone grafting in 2 of our patients is thought to have prevented the postoperative complications of re-fracture. Complications at pin sites induce contracture at surrounding structures. When extreme tightness of the skin is noted, a tension-releasing procedure such as a skin graft should be performed.Conclusion: In conclusion, re-fracture or pin-site contracture should be carefully managed before quadricepsplasty, because the patients who need a

  8. OBSERVATION ON THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE OF CHONGYANG ACUPOINT PLUS MOXIBUSTION FOR TREATMENT OF 30 CASES OF EXTERNAL HUMERAL EPICONDYLITIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李万婷; 崔丽琴

    2003-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors stmmnarize their results of 30 cases of external humeral epicondylitis treated with thermal acupuncture of Chongyang (ST 42) and Ashi-points. After 3- 15 sessions of treatment, of the 30cases, 24 (80%) were cured, and the rest 6 (20%) responded with apparent improvement in their symptoms.

  9. The Tensions between Internal and External Multilateralism in the Case Law of the Court of Justice of the European Union Concerning International Agreements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cebulak, Pola

    2016-01-01

    the framework of EU external relations (Council of the European Union 2003; European Commission 2006 and 2014). This commitment might seem natural, the EU being a multilateral organization itself. However, this intuition that the EU – as an internally multilateral actor – should also display more commitment...... to multilateralism externally appears problematic. This chapter examines the articulation between this internal and external multilateralism of the EU in the case-law of the Court of Justice of the EU (CJEU). It asks the question whether the main tool of legal interpretation deployed by the Court – teleological...

  10. External hydrocephalus (benign extra-axial collections of infancy) - review of 15 cases; Hidrocefalia externa colecao extra-axial benigna da infancia - revisao de 15 casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Junior, Marcos Alberto da Costa; Matos, Paulo Engracio de; Barbosa, Veronica Aline [Fundacao Monte Tabor, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Hospital Sao Rafael. Servico de Bioimagem; Vieira, Naiara Argollo [Hospital Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vieira, Lauro Conceicao Nascimento [Fundacao Monte Tabor, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Hospital Sao Rafael. Servico de Ressonancia Magnetica; Puglio, Nadja; Bacelar, Aroldo [Fundacao Monte Tabor, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Hospital Sao Rafael

    1997-03-01

    The authors studied 15 cases of external hydrocephalus over a 7-year period (September 1987 to May 1995). External hydrocephalus is a condition in which infants with rapidly enlarging heads are found to have a MRI showing widening of subarachnoid space with mild or no ventricular dilatation. Some of the MRI were compared with those of patients with cerebral atrophy and some etiopathogenic hypothesis are presented. These findings indicate that external hydrocephalus is an age-related self-limited condition occurring in infants with open cranial sutures and that it usually resolves without intervention after the second or third year of age. (author) 21 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  12. Organizational Adaptation to the Rapidly Changing External Environment: A Case Study of Strategic Marketing at Notre Dame College in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shawn M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examined the role of strategic marketing in organizational adaptation to a rapidly changing and competitive external environment among institutions of higher education. Colleges and universities adapt to external pressures as open systems operating within a broader external environment (Bess & Dee, 2008; Keller, 1983). How does…

  13. Vertically transmitted HPV-dependent squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Case report of a child

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snietura, Miroslaw; Pakulo, Slawomir; Kopec, Agnieszka; Piglowski, Wojciech; Stanek-Widera, Agata [Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Tumor Pathology Department, Gliwice (Poland); Chelmecka-Wiktorczyk, Liliana [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Drabik, Grazyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Pathology Department, Cracow (Poland); Kosowski, Bogdan [NZOZ Prosmed, Cracow (Poland); Wyrobek, Lukasz [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Radiology, Cracow (Poland); Balwierz, Walentyna [University Children' s Hospital of Cracow, Department of Oncology and Hematology, Cracow (Poland); Jagiellonian University in Cracow, Clinic of Oncology and Hematology, Polish-American Pediatric Institute, Cracow (Poland)

    2017-02-15

    There is much evidence that high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) plays a causative role in a subset of head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) in adults. HPV-positive tumors behave differently even in their response to treatment and are therefore a distinct subset. Both HPV-positive and HPV-negative tumors of the head and neck region are usually in the domain of adults and cases in children are rare; thus when a 2-year-old child was diagnosed with this cancer in the external auditory canal, an in-depth assessment of the tumor was considered necessary. A 2-year-old girl was born to a HPV-positive mother who was diagnosed with cervical cancer during pregnancy. The child was delivered by caesarean section and the mother died of her cancer 7 months after delivery. After the diagnosis of locally invasive HPV-positive squamous cell cancer of the external auditory canal, the child was treated surgically, and with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Full remission was obtained lasting up to 325 weeks since treatment was started, resulting in over 6 years of disease-free survival. This is the first case of advanced, HPV-related HNSCC in a 2-year-old child, in whom the tumor was located in the external auditory canal and who made a dramatic recovery after treatment with nonradical surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The child has currently been disease free for 6 years. This case supports the observation that HPV-related HNSCC tumors appear to respond favorably to treatment despite the patient's young age and the clinically advanced stage of the tumor. (orig.) [German] Es gibt reichlich Belege dafuer, dass das menschliche Papillomavirus vom Hochrisikotyp (HR-HPV) in einigen Faellen von Plattenepithelkarzinomen des Kopf- und Halsbereichs (HNSCC) eine Schluesselrolle spielt. HPV-positive Tumoren verhalten sich anders, auch bezueglich des Ansprechens auf die Behandlung. Deswegen stellen sie eine separate biologische Gruppe dar. Sowohl HPV-positive als auch HPV

  14. Human health-related externalities in energy system modelling the case of the Danish heat and power sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses methodology of energy system modelling when reduction of local externalities, such as damage to the human health from energy production-related air pollution, is in focus. Ideally, the local energy externalities should be analysed by adopting the impact pathway approach...... of ExternE study, and following the pollutants from their release to the personal uptake and resulting health effects. This would require inclusion of air pollution modelling and monetary valuation of the impacts into an energy system optimisation process. However, this approach involves a complex study...... and power sector verifies that it is cheaper for the society to include externalities in the planning of an energy system than to pay for the resulting damages later. Total health costs decrease by around 18% and total system costs decrease by nearly 4% when health externalities are included...

  15. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: The case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laes, Erik, E-mail: erik.laes@vito.be [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Meskens, Gaston, E-mail: gaston.meskens@sckcen.be [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Sluijs, Jeroen P. van der, E-mail: j.p.vandersluijs@uu.nl [Copernicus Institute, Department of Science Technology and Society, Utrecht University, Budapestlaan 6, 584 CD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The contribution of nuclear power to a sustainable energy future is a contested issue. This paper presents a critical review of an attempt to objectify this debate through the calculation of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident in the ExternE project. A careful dissection of the ExternE approach resulted in a list of 30 calculation steps and assumptions, from which the 6 most contentious ones were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. The policy robustness and relevance of these key assumptions were then assessed in a workshop using the concept of a 'pedigree of knowledge'. Overall, the workshop outcomes revealed the stakeholder and expert panel's scepticism about the assumptions made: generally these were considered not very plausible, subjected to disagreement, and to a large extent inspired by contextual factors. Such criticism indicates a limited validity and useability of the calculated nuclear accident externality as a trustworthy sustainability indicator. Furthermore, it is our contention that the ExternE project could benefit greatly - in terms of gaining public trust - from employing highly visible procedures of extended peer review such as the pedigree assessment applied to our specific case of the external costs of a potential large-scale nuclear accident. - Highlights: > Six most contentious assumptions were selected through a stakeholder internet survey. > Policy robustness of these assumptions was assessed in a pedigree assessment workshop. > Assumptions were considered implausible, controversial, and inspired by contextual factors. > This indicates a limited validity and useability as a trustworthy sustainability indicator.

  16. External hemipelvectomy as treatment for solitary coxofemoral metastasis from endometrial carcinoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzielli, Giuseppe; Fanfani, Francesco; Costantini, Barbara; Gallotta, Valerio; Scambia, Giovanni; Fagotti, Anna

    2012-05-01

    The best treatment for bone metastasis from endometrial cancer as a presenting feature is unclear. We report the first case in the literature of coxofemoral metastases from endometrial cancer treated by surgical approach. Then, after a careful review of the literature, we discuss the best therapeutic option for this subset of patients. A 62-year-old woman with pain, erythema and swelling of the left leg and no history of postmenopausal bleeding underwent biopsy of the leg, which revealed a moderately differentiated endometrial carcinoma, infiltrating muscle and adipose tissues. There were no other sites of distal spread. A literature review was conducted by searching the items 'endometrial cancer' and 'bone metastasis' in MEDLINE and EnBase up to September 2010. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, but she did not show a clinical response. By considering her prognosis and quality of life, we decided to perform for the first time a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy in addition to an external hemipelvectomy with a limb amputation and partial ilium and pubic preservation. Thirty months after the procedure the patient is still alive. No other similar results are present in the literature. Patients in good clinical condition with a single bone metastasis of endometrial cancer should be treated aggressively with surgery, as survival can be extended with an acceptable quality of life.

  17. Changes in basal dip and frictional properties controlling orogenic wedge propagation and frontal collapse: the External central Betics case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Bonilla, Alejandro; Torvela, Taija; Balanyá, Juan-Carlos; Díaz-Azpiroz, Manuel; Expósito, Inmaculada

    2016-04-01

    Orogenic wedges and their key component, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts (FTBs), have been extensively studied through both field examples and modelling. The overall dynamics of FTBs are, therefore, well understood. One of the less understood aspects is: what is the combined influence of across-strike changes in the detachment properties and the basement topography on the behaviour of an orogenic wedge, as the deformation progresses towards the foreland? In this study, we use field data combined with reflection seismic interpretation and well data from the External Zones of the Central Betics FTB, S Spain, to identify a basement "threshold" coinciding with a thinning out of a weak substrate (Triassic evaporites) in the wedge basal detachment. The basal changes influenced the tempo-spatial (4D) local wedge dynamics at ~Early Langhian times, leading to stagnation of FTB propagation, topographic build-up and subsequent collapse of the FTB front, which was enhanced by arc-parallel stretching. This development led to a formation of an important depocentre filled with a thick Langhian mélange unit and later sediments deposited in the NW-migrating foreland basin. This case study illustrates the importance of across-strike changes in wedge basal properties to the stability of the FTB front, especially in terms of the collapse/extensional structures.

  18. Seroprevalence of Cutaneous Human Papillomaviruses and the Risk of External Genital Lesions in Men: A Nested Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shams; Rollison, Dana E.; Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Waterboer, Tim; Michel, Angelika; Pawlita, Michael; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano Ponce, Eduardo; Wang, Wei; Borenstein, Amy R.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    Background A variety of cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPV) are detectable in genital epithelial lesions in men and non-melanoma skin cancer patients. It remains unclear whether these viruses are associated causally with skin lesions. To date, no study has prospectively examined the association between cutaneous HPV seropositivity and development of external genital lesions (EGLs) in men. Objectives To examine the association between seropositivity to cutaneous HPV types and the risk of subsequent development of EGLs. Methods A nested case-control study including 163 incident EGL cases and 352 EGL-free controls in the HPV Infection in Men (HIM) Study cohort was conducted. Cases were ascertained at each of up to 10 biannual clinical visits and verified through biopsy and pathological diagnoses. EGLs were categorized as condyloma, suggestive of condyloma, penile intraepithelial neoplasia (PeIN), and other EGLs. Archived serum specimens collected at baseline were tested for antibodies against 14 cutaneous HPV types (β types (5, 8, 12, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24, 38, and 47), α type 27, γ type 4, μ type 1, and ν type 41) using a GST L1-based multiplex serology assay. Socio-demographic and sexual behavior data were collected through a questionnaire. Using logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated. Results Overall, seropositivity to ≥1 cutaneous HPV type (any-HPV) and ≥1 β types (any-β) was 58.3% and 37.5% among other EGL cases, 71.6% and 46.8% among condyloma, 66.8% and 50.0% among PeIN, and 71.9% and 38.4% among controls, respectively. Type-specific seropositivity was most common for ɤ-HPV 4, μ-HPV 1, and β-HPV 8. No statistically significant association was observed between any-HPV, any-β, and type-specific HPV seropositivity and subsequent development of EGLs across all pathological diagnoses. Conclusions Overall, seropositivity to cutaneous HPV was common among men; however, it appears that cutaneous

  19. The risk of body packing: a case of a fatal cocaine overdose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Steven A; Ladham, Shaun; Rozin, Leon; Shakir, Abdulrezak; Omalu, Bennet; Dominick, Joseph; Wecht, Cyril H

    2005-06-30

    The process of swallowing or inserting illegal packets of drugs for the purpose of evading law enforcement officers carries risks other than criminal charges. It can be fatal. Individuals engaged in such activities are called "Body Packers" or "Mules". The most frequent cause of the death among body packers is acute drug intoxication due to rupture of the package(s) within the gastrointestinal tract. We present the first documented case of a body packer that died from cocaine intoxication following the rupture of packets of cocaine in Western Pennsylvania.

  20. A case of central diabetes insipidus after ketamine infusion during an external to internal carotid artery bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffar, Sharib; Eskander, Jonathan P; Beakley, Burton D; McClure, Brian P; Amenta, Peter; Pierre, Nakeisha

    2017-02-01

    We report the first teenage case of ketamine-induced transient central diabetes insipidus. The patient was an 18-year-old woman with moyamoya disease undergoing an external carotid to internal carotid bypass and given a low-dose ketamine infusion. After approximately 2 hours in the supine position, with 0.5 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane, a propofol infusion at 50 μg/kg/min, a remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min, and a ketamine infusion at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min, this patient had an excessive urine output. Initially, the Foley catheter contained 50 mL of urine. She was given 1500 mL of crystalloid during the case but produced 2700 mL of urine output. Increasing urine output was noted 1 hour into the procedure around the time that the patient experienced a 2-minute Cushing-like response characterized by bradycardia and hypertension. Several I-Stat samples revealed a worsening hypernatremia. The decision was made to check the urine osmolality and treat the patient with 4 μg of desmopressin (DDAVP). Urine output began to slow down to a normal rate of 2 mg/kg/h, as the patient was transferred from the operating room to the computed tomographic (CT) scanning room for a CT and CT angiogram; both were unremarkable. The neurosurgery team waited until the next day to complete the procedure. The procedure was completed successfully and uneventfully the next day without a ketamine infusion as part of the general anesthetic plan. The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction score of 4 suggested a possible relationship between the patient's ketamine infusion and subsequent central diabetes insipidus. The 2 previous cases on this topic have suggested that ketamine, as an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist, inhibits vasopressin release in the neurohypophysis. Urine output, urine osmolarity, and serum osmolarity should be monitored in patients given ketamine anesthetic; desmopressin should be present to prevent dangerous long-term sequela. Copyright © 2016

  1. MALIGNANT EXTERNAL OTITIS

    OpenAIRE

    Massoud Moghaddam

    1993-01-01

    Two case reports of malignant external otitis in the elderly diabetics and their complications and management with regard to our experience at Amir Alam Hospital, Department of ENT will be discussed here.

  2. An unusual case: right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein and distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Ibrahim Serin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 32-years old woman presented to the emergency room of Bozok University Research Hospital with right renal colic. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT showed compression of the proximal ureter by the right ovarian vein and compression of the right distal ureter by the right external iliac vein. To the best of our knowledge, right proximal ureteral compression by the ovarian vein together with distal ureteral compression by the external iliac vein have not been reported in the literature. Ovarian vein and external iliac vein compression should be considered in patients presenting to the emergency room with renal colic or low back pain and a dilated collecting system.

  3. Long-tunnelled external ventricular drain as a long-term treatment option for hydrocephalus in a child with an unresectable low-grade supratentorial tumor: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelifeonwu, John A; Sokol, Drahoslav; Gallo, Pasquale; Kandasamy, Jothy; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    The authors report a case of a child with hypothalamic-origin pilocytic astrocytoma and hydrocephalus, which was refractory to treatment with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt due to high CSF protein content. With parental education, the child's hydrocephalus was managed long-term in the community with a long-tunnelled external ventricular drain, which was maintained by his parents. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of this management option as a long-term measure. No harm has come to the patient. The authors propose long-term, long-tunnelled external ventricular drain as a viable treatment option for such patients.

  4. The Influence external signals on perceived quality and purchase intention products of high involvement (case study: Laptop)

    OpenAIRE

    MOHSEN NAZARI; ROGHAYEH REZAEE ARAB

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, increasing competition in supplying and complexity of products caused information asymmetry between buyers and manufacturers that will eventually lead to adverse selection by purchasers. Thus, the role of external signals that are independent of the actual features of products become more important in quality perception and purchase intention of consumers. In this study, the effect of external signal (price, brand, Store brand, advertising, packaging, country of origin, friends, pre...

  5. Ascending colon cancer with synchronous external iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases but without regional lymph node metastasis: a case report and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Yuki; Kuramoto, Masafumi; Masuda, Toshiro; Kuroda, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kenichiro; Ikeshima, Satoshi; Iyama, Ken-Ichi; Shimada, Shinya; Baba, Hideo

    2017-12-01

    Lymph node metastasis to the iliac or inguinal region of colon cancer is extremely rare. We experienced a case of ascending colon cancer with synchronous isolated right external iliac and inguinal lymph node metastases but without any regional lymph node metastasis. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital due to anemia. Colonoscopy and computed tomography revealed an ascending colon cancer and also right external iliac and inguinal lymph node swelling. Further examination by F-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography strongly suggested that these lymph nodes were metastatic. Right hemicolectomy with lymph node dissection along the superior mesenteric artery, and right external iliac and inguinal lymph node dissection were performed. Histological examination revealed that both lymph nodes were metastasized from colon cancer, and there was no evidence of regional lymph node metastasis. The patient has shown no sign of recurrence at 27 months after surgery.

  6. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  7. Casing selection and correlation technology for ultra-deep, ultra-high pressure, high H{sub 2}S gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan, Sichuan (China); Southwest Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation; Lin, Y.; Taihe, S. [Southwest Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation; Liao, P.; Shen, X. [Southwest Oil and Gas Co., Daxian (China). Northeast Sichuan Gas Field; Liu, H.; Zhao, H. [CCDC Drilling and Production Technology Research Inst., Guanghan, Sichuan (China)

    2010-07-01

    This poster highlighted some economical and suitable methods of choosing well casings for ultra-deep, ultra-high pressure, ultra-high temperature wells where acid gas injection is used for enhanced recovery. In China's northern Sichuan province, such wells tend to be sour. Casing failures have occurred at well temperatures below 90 degrees C due to the severity of the sour environment and sulphide stress cracking (SSC) of carbon and low-alloy steels. The plastic creep of rock salt, gypsum and clay shale may create high external collapse pressure on the outside surface of the casing. Sulphur resistant casings, such as C110 are required to meet ultra-high pressure criteria of more than 100 MPa, and also to meet high sulphur resistance criteria. This poster outlined an economical and suitable method of string design combined with sulphur resistance packer completion technology to address this current problem. tabs., figs.

  8. An unusual case of multiple aortic abnormalities: total occlusion of aortic arch, left external iliac artery, and bicuspid aortic valve in a 21-year-old man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanindi, Asli; Tavil, Yusuf; Mutluay, Ruya; Taktak, Hacer; Cengel, Atiye

    2007-03-01

    An unusual case of total occlusion of aorta just distal to the left subclavian artery, bicuspid aortic valve, and occluded left external iliac artery in a 21-year-old man who was admitted with headache and severe hypertension is presented. We wish to report this case because so far there have been none reported with such multiple aortic abnormalities, although several documented cases of isolated total occlusion of aorta exist. Our patient underwent a successful surgical correction, i.e., patch plasty to the coarcted segment and end to side - end to side aortal-aortal bypass with Dacron graft.

  9. Estimating External Costs of Transportation in Regional Areas: Using Available Statistical Data the Case of the Region of Campania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gallo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper simplified methods for estimating the external costs due to transportation in regional areas are proposed. The methods are based on data available by national and regional statistical sources and do not need specific surveys; they allow obtaining approximate estimates useful for a preliminary evaluation of transportation plans, policies and projects. In more detail, a negative externality is defined as a cost that is produced by subject A and is borne by subject B; moreover, subject A does not consider the effects of his/her behavior on subject B and does not compensate subject B for the costs that this last one is forced to bear. In this paper after a literature review on methodologies proposed for estimating external costs, in national and international ambits, the main external costs produced by transportation systems in the Region of Campania are estimated. The main external costs considered are: greenhouse gas emissions, air pollution, noise, accidents and congestion. In the paper the secondary external costs are neglected; the main ones are: water and soil pollution; landscape and nature damages; upstream and downstream effects; visual intrusion; separation effects; soil occupancy. In this paper the external costs estimated are the ones produced not only by road traffic, that anyway is the main “culprit”, but also by rail and air transportation systems. The evaluation of external costs has required the collection of several data on the regional mobility and the estimation of veh-kms per year produced in Campania by cars and freight vehicles. The estimation of veh-kms per year is based on circulating vehicles, subdivided by the COPERT classification, and on average yearly distances covered by each vehicle class. Other regional statistical data are collected about regional rail transport and air services at the main airports of the region. Moreover, since the evaluation of some external costs is based on damages on human

  10. T-Stenting-and-Small-Protrusion Technique for Bifurcation Stenoses After End-to-Side Anastomosis of Transplant Renal Artery and External Iliac Artery: Report of Two Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yong, E-mail: cheny102@163.com; Ye, Peng, E-mail: thomas19871223@163.com [Southern Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital (China); Jiang, Wen-jin, E-mail: 18653501187@163.com [Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital (China); Ma, Shuo-yi, E-mail: mazelong123456789@126.com; Zhao, Jian-bo, E-mail: zhaojianbohgl@163.com; Zeng, Qing-le, E-mail: doctorzengqingle@126.com [Southern Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanfang Hospital (China)

    2015-10-15

    Bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of transplant renal artery (TRA) and external iliac artery (EIA), including stenoses at the anastomosis and the iliac artery proximal to the TRA, are rare. In the present article, we report two successfully managed cases of bifurcation stenoses after end-to-side anastomosis of the TRA and EIA using the technique of T-stenting and small protrusion (TAP stenting)

  11. Life-threatening rupture of an external iliac artery pseudoaneurysm caused by necrotizing fasciitis following laparoscopic radical cystectomy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hata, Shinro; Satoh, Ryuta; Shin, Toshitaka; Mori, Kenichi; Sumino, Yasuhiro; Satoh, Fuminori; Mimata, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudoaneurysms are caused by trauma, tumors, infections, vasculitis, atherosclerosis and iatrogenic complications. In this paper, we report about a patient with rupture of an external iliac artery pseudoaneurysm, which lead to hemorrhagic shock, after undergoing laparoscopic radical cystectomy and extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Case presentation The patient was a 68-year-old Japanese male diagnosed with invasive bladder cancer. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy and extended pelvic...

  12. Open Admissions and the Ph.D.: A Case Study of the External Doctorate Degree Program of Walden University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Robert H.

    In recent years a number of institutions have offered the doctoral degree through nontraditional, external programs. The state of Florida has produced a disproportionate number of such graduate programs, including Heed University (Hollywood), Nova University (Fort Lauderdale), and Walden University (Naples). This paper discusses only the Walden…

  13. EU External Relations Law: Text, Cases and Materials, Bart Van Vooren and Ramses A. Wessel, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2014-01-01

    of the EU, with a book that is suitable for delivery as a core textbook for students of all levels. Their analysis covering fifteen long chapters offers the reader a comprehensive insight into the world of EU external relations law, and allows for a thoroughly better understanding of all the encapsulated...

  14. Making Room for Children's Autonomy: Maria Montessori's Case for Seeing Children's Incapacity for Autonomy as an External Failing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick R.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external (or combined) capacities to better specify possible locations for children's "incapacity" for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls "normalization", which involves a release of children's capacities for…

  15. Making Room for Children's Autonomy: Maria Montessori's Case for Seeing Children's Incapacity for Autonomy as an External Failing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frierson, Patrick R.

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on Martha Nussbaum's distinction between basic, internal, and external (or combined) capacities to better specify possible locations for children's "incapacity" for autonomy. I then examine Maria Montessori's work on what she calls "normalization", which involves a release of children's capacities for…

  16. External And Internal Work Of A T-6 Paraplegic Propelling A Wheelchair And Arm Cranking A Cycle Ergometer: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Charles W.

    1982-02-01

    In this, the International Year of the Disabled, attention is directed among other areas toward rehabilitation and sports participation of wheelchair users. As an application of movement analysis in medicine and rehabilitation and as an application of sports research using biomechanics, this investigation was performed to compare the results of two methods of gathering data on the stress of wheelchair propelling at equivalent work loads and to account for differences in physiological responses with a mechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling. Physiological data collected were heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and rate-pressure product. A biomechanical cinematography analysis was used to determine external work in wheelchair propelling and to determine the extent to which modifications in segment actionsoccurred during increasing magnitude of work. A cycle ergometer was adjusted to replicate external work loads performed during wheelchair propelling. A t-test of equivalent external work loads indicated that heart rate was not different between the two exercise modes at the .05 level of significance. The t-test did indicate a significant difference in systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product at the .05 level of significance. The biomechanical analysis of wheelchair propelling established that an increase in external work was accomplished by a decrease in the range of motion and an increase in the speed of movement. During cycle ergometry the range and speed of movement remained the same while resistance was increased. Results of the study established that while heart rate for equivalent external work loads was the same for wheelchair propelling and arm cranking cycle ergometry, systolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product were not the same. The suggestion was that some means of propelling a wheelchair other than that which is con-sidered "standard" might be considered which produces less stressful responses in wheelchair users.

  17. Intrathecal/intraventricular colistin in external ventricular device-related infections by multi-drug resistant Gram negative bacteria: case reports and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargiacchi, O; Rossati, A; Car, P; Brustia, D; Brondolo, R; Rosa, F; Garavelli, P L; De Rosa, F G

    2014-10-01

    We report three cases of external ventricular derivation infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative rods and treated successfully with intraventricular colistin. The intrathecal or intraventricular use of colistin have been reported in more than 100 cases without any consensus on dosage, duration and type (monotherapy or combination therapy) of treatment. Based on our comprehensive review of the relevant literature relating to both clinical and pharmacokinetic data, we conclude that the intrathecal/intraventricular administration of colistin is a safe and effective option to treat central nervous system infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

  18. Measuring the Externality Effects of Commercial Land Use on Residential Land Value: A Case Study of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting theories purport to explain the effects of neighborhood non-residential use on residential property values. In traditional zoning theory, separating land from commercial land use is considered to protect residential environments from negative externalities such as noise, litter, and congestion. By contrast, contemporary planning principles including Smart Growth emphasize positive impacts of mixed land use on residential environment, which lead to more walkable and sustainable communities. This study attempts to empirically investigate how positive and negative externalities of commercial land use, referred to as “proximity effects” and “disamenity effects” respectively, affect residential land values. Using data gathered in Seoul, we pay attention to two particular aspects of commercial land use: spatial concentration and neighborhood scale. Spatial concentration is determined by the number of commercial employees present in the buffer zone around an individual residential parcel. We model four geographically distinct neighborhood scales as we compare spatial concentrations in and across commercial zones. Quadratic regression analyses of our data show the trade-off relationship that a higher spatial concentration of commercial land use in a neighborhood initially results in increased residential land values, but drops off beyond a threshold level by excessive noise or crowding.

  19. [Principles and stakes of external communication of healthcare networks: the case of heathcare networks for health services accessibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plu, Isabelle; Gignon, Maxime; Emery, Sophie; Purssell-François, Irène; Moutel, Grégoire; Hervé, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare networks which purpose is to manage patients through better coordination of the care, need to develop a communication strategy to be recognized by the public and by healthcare professionals and to be inserted in the healthcare landscape. We firstly will present legal requirements related to external communication of healthcare networks. Then, we will describe the different tools which can be used to communicate about healthcare networks in its area, with the example from a healthcare network for health services accessibility. In the French Public health code, the legal status and the ethical charter of the healthcare network have to be delivered to the healthcare professionals in its area and to the patients. Moreover, the example healthcare network informed collectively and individually the healthcare professionals of its area about its activities. It made it known to the public by the way of departmental prevention manifestations and health education sessions in community social associations. From these examples, we will conduct an ethical reflection on the modalities and stakes of the external communication of healthcare networks.

  20. Does external pleural suction reduce prolonged air leak after lung resection? Results from the AirINTrial after 500 randomized cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, Francesco; Duranti, Leonardo; Girelli, Lara; Furia, Simone; Billè, Andrea; Garofalo, Giuseppe; Scanagatta, Paolo; Giovannetti, Riccardo; Pastorino, Ugo

    2013-10-01

    External pleural suction is used after lung resection to promote lung expansion and minimize air leak duration. Published randomized trials failed to prove this advantage but they are limited in number and underpowered in many cases. The aim of the AirINTrial study was to test the hypothesis that external pleural suction may reduce the rate of prolonged air leak in a large, randomized cohort. All candidates for lung resection (with the exception of pneumonectomy) were considered eligible for this single-center study. At the end of operation, patients were stratified by the type of resection (anatomic versus nonanatomic) and randomly allocated into the external suction arm (-15 cmH2O, group A) or into the no external suction arm (control arm, group B) in a 1:1 ratio. Chest drains were maintained for 3 days and then they were either removed or connected to an Heimlich valve, when an air leak was present. The main endpoint was to compare groups in terms of prolonged air leak (defined as the rate of patients having a chest drain still in place by postoperative day 7). Starting on February 2011, 500 patients were randomized over a 21-month period, 250 in group A and 250 in group B. Twenty-one patients in group B (8.4%) required pleural suction owing to large pneumothorax or diffuse subcutaneous emphysema. On postoperative day 7, the chest drain was still in place in 25 patients in group A and in 34 patients in group B (10% and 14%, respectively; p = 0.2). Subgroup analysis showed that external pleural suction reduced the prolonged air leak rate in the subgroup of patients who underwent anatomic resection (n = 296, 9.6% in group A and 16.8% in group B; p = 0.05). Results from the AirINTrial showed that the routine use of external suction reduces the rate of prolonged air leak after anatomic lung resection. More accurate strategies of pleural suction based on the amount of air flow and the degree of lung expansion should be probably established to improve its

  1. External impacts on traditional commons and present-day changes: a case study of iriai forests in Yamaguni district, Kyoto, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisaku Shimada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Japanese iriai forests have been regarded as a model of institutions for collective action in the sustainable use of resources in studies on commons, as pointed out by Ostrom (1990 and McKean (1996. However, present-day iriai forests that have survived decades of legal and even greater economic and social challenges have undergone significant alteration. While we know that external conditions such as foreign competition from low-cost timber have depressed the Japanese forestry industry and thus reduced the health of Japanese forests as a whole, we do not know about the current state of the iriai forests in particular. Adaptation to external impacts is crucial for the survival of the commons in a modern industrialized society. This study examines external impacts on traditional commons and the resultant institutional changes in current Japan. We cannot easily track the changes in traditional commons without deep understanding of many cases, because the factors affecting their functioning are complex and diverse. Therefore, we opted to use the case study method to improve the empirical foundations for analyzing these complex phenomena. Our goal was to examine the institutional changes resulting from one source of pressure found in many commons near urbanizing areas in postwar Japan – an increase in newcomers – as well as from the pressure of foreign competition in forest products. We chose eleven villages in the Yamaguni district in Kyoto city that manage their own common forests and studied the documented rules in these communities. We used participant observation and also conducted interviews with villagers to obtain their sense of change over time, the impact of globalization, and the current status of the commons. This paper derived the following conclusions. First, the village community can adapt its institutions to external influences by supporting continuous institutional change. Second, although village communities can overcome most

  2. The external dimension of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice: The case of local consular cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mar Fernández Pasarín

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, local consular cooperation has become a priority on the European agenda. The new challenges (expressed in terms of security and public order through phenomena such as the increase in migration flows and international terrorism have emphasised the strategic role played by local consular cooperation as a means to improve the integrated management of the EU’s external borders. This article analyses the development and the institutional modalities of this type of cooperation that has been developed outside the borders of the EU, and questions the contribution of same to the construction of an Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ within the Union.

  3. Multiple external root resorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, W Z; Ghazali, M N

    1989-04-01

    Presented is an unusual case of multiple external root resorption. Although the cause of this resorption was not determined, several possibilities are presented. Trauma from occlusion, periodontal and pulpal inflammation, and resorption of idiopathic origin are all discussed as possible causes.

  4. Vidi, vini, vinci: External ophthalmomyiasis infection that occurred, and was diagnosed and treated in a single day: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamlesh Thakur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ophthalmomyiasis is an infestation of eye with larvae or maggots of certain flies. Oestrus ovis (sheep nasal botfly belonging to family Oestridae is the most common cause of human myiasis. We describe here an acute presentation of a case of external ophthalmomyiasis, i.e., infestation of conjunctiva due to first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis. In this case report the occurrence, diagnosis and treatment all took place in the setting of a single day. Prompt treatment by removal of larvae mechanically followed by instillation of antibiotic and steroid eye drops helped to prevent serious complications. The taxonomic identification of fly is also important as some fly species are capable of penetrating deeper tissues of eyes, which is sight threatening.

  5. Vidi, vini, vinci: External ophthalmomyiasis infection that occurred, and was diagnosed and treated in a single day: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Kamlesh; Singh, Gagandeep; Chauhan, Smriti; Sood, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    Ophthalmomyiasis is an infestation of eye with larvae or maggots of certain flies. Oestrus ovis (sheep nasal botfly) belonging to family Oestridae is the most common cause of human myiasis. We describe here an acute presentation of a case of external ophthalmomyiasis, i.e., infestation of conjunctiva due to first instar larvae of Oestrus ovis. In this case report the occurrence, diagnosis and treatment all took place in the setting of a single day. Prompt treatment by removal of larvae mechanically followed by instillation of antibiotic and steroid eye drops helped to prevent serious complications. The taxonomic identification of fly is also important as some fly species are capable of penetrating deeper tissues of eyes, which is sight threatening. PMID:20927210

  6. Sixty-one Cases of Angina Pectoris due to Coronary Heart Disease Treated by External Use of the Paste of Nitrum and Realgar Powder on Zhiyang (GV 9)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 马鸿斌; 李朝平; 崔庆荣; 郭月季; 汪龙德; 李培杰; 骆力

    2002-01-01

    In order to inquire into the therapeutic effects of Xiao Shi Xiong Huang San (硝石雄黄散the Nitrum and Realgar Powder), one of the Dunhuang Prescription, on angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease (APCHD), the authors have treated 61 cases of APCHD by externally applying paste of the powder on Zhiyang (GV 9), with another 30 cases of APCHD treated with the nitroglycerin paste on Zhiyang as the controls. The results showed that the total effective rate was 82% and markedly effective rate 31.2% in the treatment group (the Paste of Nitrum and Realgar Powder), and the total effective rate was 46.6% and markedly effective rate 23.2% in the control group (the nitroglycerin paste). The difference in therapeutic effects between the two groups was very significant (P<0.01), indicating that the therapeutic effect of the former was significantly superior to that of the latter.

  7. Case report: endodontic and surgical treatment of an upper central incisor with external root resorption and radicular cyst following a traumatic tooth avulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lux, Hans-Christian; Goetz, Falko; Hellwig, Elmar

    2010-11-01

    In the age group between 6 and 12 years, trauma to the upper incisors happens frequently. In the case of avulsion, a replantation is the state-of-the-art treatment; however, it may lead to several complications, particularly if suitable posttraumatic management is not carried out. External cervical resorptions as well as apical granuloma and cysts due to microbial contamination of the root canal are common complications. In the presented trauma case, a conservative approach was chosen to treat a large cystic lesion combined with cervical and apical resorptions. After initial placement of Ledermix and calcium hydroxide into the root canal, a marsupialization with the temporary insertion of an obturator was performed. The gradual reduction led to a fast recovery of the bony defect and a root canal filling was placed. The 2-year follow-up showed an improved condition. All adjacent teeth remained vital during the course of the treatment.

  8. Evaluating Internal and External Factors of Chain Store for Improvement in Iran: A Case Study (Etka Chain Stores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aghaei

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to extract main indicators for review the internal and external dimensions of Etka chain stores and after the studying the organizational documentation and with using of the customer reviews, was determined the position of Etka chain stores in attractiveness and capabilities matrix. For any organization in any level, it is important to determine its position compared to competitors in terms of attractiveness and capabilities. Considering now that the "Etka chain stores" are the largest supplier of goods and services in Iran and in order to its mission tries to improve the processes of supply, storage, distribution, sales and after sales services company with an economic approach. According to peripheral changes in different dimensions of economic, political, social and also with the emergence fundamental paradigm in business such as service businesses, penetration of IT in business like E-commerce, the answer to this question is important “Where is the position of Etka chain stores in this industry?”. The data collection method is using the questionnaires. Finally the customer reviews have been analyzed.

  9. On the contribution of external cost calculations to energy system governance: the case of a potential large-scale nuclear accident

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laes, E.; Meskens, G.; van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The European Commission's ExternE Project has made major advances in the quantification of external costs of electricity. Although some impacts cannot be valued, important conclusions are possible. This paper outlines some provisional implications for energy policy. External costs are technology dep

  10. Process evaluation to explore internal and external validity of the "Act in Case of Depression" care program in nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leontjevas, R.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.; Smalbrugge, M.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A multidisciplinary, evidence-based care program to improve the management of depression in nursing home residents was implemented and tested using a stepped-wedge design in 23 nursing homes (NHs): "Act in case of Depression" (AiD). OBJECTIVE: Before effect analyses, to evaluate AiD proc

  11. Externality or sustainability economics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Economics and Economic History and Institute for Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  12. Surgical treatment of tibial nonunion after wounding by high velocity missile and external fixators: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. The missiles of modern firearms can cause severe fractures of the extremity. High velocity missile fractures of the tibia are characterized by massive tissue destruction and primary contamination with polymorphic bacteria. Treatment of these fractures is often complicated by delayed healing, poor position healing, nonhealing and bone tissue infection. Case Outline. We present the management of tibial nonunion after wounding by high velocity missile and primary treatment by...

  13. [Case-control study on close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction for the treatment of pediatric Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yu-Xiang; Wei, Xiao-Chun; Li, Hai-Ming

    2014-07-01

    To compare the therapeutic effects between close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction and operation for the treatment of pediatric closed Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures without neurovascular injury complications. From June 2009 to June 2012, 151 children with closed Gartland III supracondylar humerus fractures were retrospectively studied and divided into two groups, including 87 boys and 64 girls, ranging in age from 1 to 12 years old with an average of 5.3 years old. Among them, 76 children (conservative group) were treated with close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction; 75 children (operation group) underwent surgical operation. The time of elbow joint function exercise, the healing time of fracture, the function recovery of elbow joint and carrying angle was recorded and analyzed. The therapeutic effects were evaluated by the Flynn criteria system. All patients were followed up from 6 to 36 months (18.3 months on average). The average time of fracture healing and elbow joint functional exercise of the conservative group was shorter than those of operation group (P 0.05). According to Flynn criteria system, in conservative group, the result was excellent in 31 cases, good in 35, fair in 7, and poor in 3; in operation group, 27 in excellent, 30 in good, 17 in fair and 1 in poor; there was no significant difference between two groups in therapeutic effects (P > 0.05). Close reduction and plaster slab fixation combined with plaster external traction in treatment of pediatric closed Gartland type III supracondylar humerus fractures without neurovascular injury complications,which has similar effect to surgical treatment, and the time of fracture healing and elbow joint function exercise are significantly shorter.

  14. Subluxation of the Cricoarytenoid Joint After External Laryngeal Trauma: A Rare Case and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Eviatar; Pascual, Paula Martínez; Da Costa Belisario, Julia; Serafini, Daniel Poletti

    2017-03-01

    Cricoarytenoid joint subluxation is rare condition. There are <200 cases reported in the English literature. The most frequent cause of this condition is a traumatic tracheal intubation which account for approximately 80 % of all cases. The most common symptoms are dysphonia and pain of the anterior region of the neck which appear after upper airway manipulation or cervical trauma. In this report we present a well-documented case of a 31 year old male that was referred to the outpatient clinic because of acute dysphonia and pain that appeared immediately after receiving a blow of a soccer ball. Diagnosis was suspected after patient reported the acute onset of symptoms after the traumatic event along with findings in flexible fiberoptic laryngoscopy and videostroboscopy. A CT scan of the larynx was done where the injury of the left cricoarytenoid joint was seen. The patient was informed of the condition and was given the option of surgical reduction or speech therapy. Speech therapy was done for 3 month and the patient was satisfied with the result, although the anatomical abnormality persisted. We reviewed the literature and we discuss the diagnosis process and possible treatment options.

  15. [Case-control study on T-shaped locking internal fixation and external fixation for the treatment of dorsal Barton's fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan-qing; Wen, Xi-le; Li, Yang-ming; Wen, Cong-you

    2015-06-01

    To compare clinical effect of T-shaped locking internal fixation and external fixation in treating dorsal Barton's fracture,and investigate selective strategy of internal fixation. From January 2008 to January 2013, 100 patients with dorsal Barton's fracture were randomly divided into two groups. In treatment group, there were 30 males and 20 females with an average age of (33.8±3.6) years old;30 cases were type B, 20 cases were type C;and treated with T-shaped locking internal fixation. In control group, there were 32 male and 18 females with an average age of (32.9±3.4) years old; 29 cases were type B, 21 cases were type C; and treated with external fixation. Volar tilt, ulnar deviation and radial height at 3 months after operation were detected and compared between two groups. Mechara functional evaluation were used to evaluate postoperative clinical effects. Clinical cure time, postoperative complications,joint mobility and function score were recorded and compared between two groups. In treatment group,volar tilt was (11.9±2.7)°, ulnar deviation was (20.8+ 2.9)°,and radial height was (10.9±1.8) mm; while volar tilt was (9.1±1.6)°, ulnar deviation was (17.1±2.9)°, and radial height was (8.1±1.5) mm in control group. Treatment group was better than control group in volar tilt, ulnar deviation and radial height. Clinical cure time in treatment group was(12.0±2.3) weeks, shorter than control group (18.0±4.1) weeks. The incidence of complications in treatment group was lower than control group. According to Mehara functional evaluation,20 cases got excellent results, 25 good, 3 moderate and 2 poor in treatment group; 16 cases got excellent results, 14 good, 10 moderate and 10 poor in control group. Treatment group was better than control group in clinical effects. T-shaped locking internal fixation with postoperative functional exercise for the treatment of dorsal Barton's fracture fits for biomechanics demands,and has advantages of stable fixation

  16. Treatment of 70 Cases of Shoulder Periarthritis by Puncturing "Taijian Acupoint" plus External Application of Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhan-hui; KUAI Le

    2005-01-01

    用纱布醮白芥子膏在肩前,肩后及三角肌处用力擦至皮肤发红后,再按摩肩关节5~10 min.嘱患者上臂外展30°~45°选取抬肩穴,用直径0.5~1 mm、长90~100 mm针,由下向上直刺至触及骨头,将针稍后退少许捻针,边捻针边嘱患者抬肩待臂举过头时停止捻针.应用本法治疗了70例肩周炎患者,结果35例疼痛消失,肩关节功能恢正常;25例疼痛明显减轻,肩关节功能明显改善;8例疼痛减轻,肩关节功能略有改善;2例疼痛无减轻,肩关节功能改善不明显.%The doctor used gauze with Semen Sinapis ( 白芥子) mastic to scrape emphatically on pro-shoulder, post- shoulder and deltoid muscle. After the skin became red, the shoulder was massaged for 5-10 min. When the patient was asked to abduce the upper arm 30°-45°,Taijian- raising shoulder acupoint was selected. The needle 0.5-1 mm in diameter and 90-100 mm in length was inserted vertically from down to up till touching bone. After backed off slightly, the needle was twisted a little. The patient was asked to raise shoulder when the needle was twisted. The needle was stopped twisting after the arm was raised overhead.Seventy patients with shoulder periarthritis were treated by this method. The result showed that pain disappeared and the function of shoulder recovered to normal in 35 cases, pain alleviated obviously and the function of shoulder improved distinctly in 25 cases, pain alleviated and the function of shoulder improved slightly in 8 cases and pain didn't alleviated and the function of shoulder didn't improved distinctly in 2 cases.

  17. The role of ultrasonography in the imaging of body packers comparison with CT: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Ferhat; Bulakci, Mesut; Selcuk, Tuba; Savas, Yildiray; Ceyhan, Muhammet; Kocak, Ayhan; Bilgili, Cigdem Ozkara

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the sonographic properties of drug packets containing narcotic drugs and the diagnostic role of ultrasonography in detecting body packing in comparison with CT. Forty-five suspects admitted to our hospital for diagnosis and management were routinely evaluated by non-contrast CT for the presence of drug packets. A single radiologist blind to CT data independently performed the abdominal ultrasonographic scans. Thirty-five of 45 suspects were carrying packets. In positive cases, two types of packets with different properties were noted. Twenty-eight cases had type 1 packets (solid form drug) and 7 had type 2 packets (liquid form cocaine). The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of ultrasonography for detecting drug packets were 91%, 70%, 91%, and 70%, respectively. Ultrasonography accurately determined the presence or absence of packs in 39 of 45 suspects. Ultrasonography was found to have a high sensitivity but a low specificity in suspected cases. A negative ultrasonography cannot rule out the diagnosis of body packing. However, it may be preferred as the initial imaging method or for follow-up of suspected cases as a radiation-free, easy-to-use, and inexpensive technique.

  18. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...... how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area...

  19. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution (DK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment (Denmark); Willumsen, E.; Kristensen, N.B. [COWI (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AiGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Inititally, a brief description of the ExternE Transport methodology is given and it is summarised how the methodology has been applied so far in a previous Danish study. Finally, results of a case study are reported. Exposure factors have been calculated for various urban categories in the Greater Copenhagen Area. (au)

  20. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Pneumococcal Vaccine Additional Content Medical News External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) By Bradley W. Kesser, MD, Associate ... the Outer Ear Ear Blockages Ear Tumors External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear) Malignant External Otitis Perichondritis External otitis ...

  1. Selected case from the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Series: Mitochondrial myopathy presenting with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisceglia, Michele; Crociani, Paola; Fogli, Danilo; Centola, Antonio; Galliani, Carlos A; Pasquinelli, Gianandrea

    2014-11-01

    A 43-year-old female patient diagnosed with chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) because of mitochondrial myopathy documented by muscle biopsy is presented. The chief complaints were represented by blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia. The muscle biopsy was evaluated by histology, using the appropriate histochemical and histoenzimological stains. Ragged red fibers with Gomori trichrome stain were seen, which showed cytochrome c oxydase deficiency and abnormal succinate dehydrogenase staining in around 20% of muscle fibres. Electron microscopy was also performed which demonstrated abnormal, hyperplastic, pleomorphic, and hypertrophic mitochondria, characterized by paracrystalline inclusions arranged in parallel rows ("parking-lot" inclusions), consisting of rectangular arrays of mitochondrial membranes in a linear or grid-like pattern. In conclusion, mitochondrial myopathy was definitely diagnosed. Although molecular analysis, which was subsequently carried out, failed to reveal mutations in the mitochondrial DNA or in selected nuclear genes, the pathologic diagnosis was not changed. The differential diagnosis of CPEO with other forms of ocular myopathies as well as the possible association of CPEO with systemic syndromes is discussed. Ophtalmologists and medical internists should always suspect CPEO when dealing with patients affected by ocular myopathy, either in its pure form or in association with other myopathic or systemic signs.

  2. Valgus and varus deformity after wide-local excision, brachytherapy and external beam irradiation in two children with lower extremity synovial cell sarcoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Thomas E

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limb-salvage is a primary objective in the management of extremity soft-tissue sarcoma in adults and children. Wide-local excision combined with radiation therapy is effective in achieving local tumor control with acceptable morbidity and good functional outcomes for most patients. Case Presentation Two cases of deformity after wide-local excision, brachytherapy and external beam irradiation for lower-extremity synovial cell sarcoma are presented and discussed to highlight contributing factors, time course of radiation effects and orthopedic management. In an effort to spare normal tissues from the long-term effects of radiation therapy, more focal irradiation techniques have been applied to patients with musculoskeletal tumors including brachytherapy and conformal radiation therapy. As illustrated in this report, the use of these techniques results in the asymmetric irradiation of growth plates and contributes to the development of valgus or varus deformity and leg-length discrepancies. Conclusions Despite good functional outcomes, progressive deformity in both patients required epiphysiodesis more than 3 years after initial management. There is a dearth of information related to the effects of radiation therapy on the musculoskeletal system in children. Because limb-sparing approaches are to be highlighted in the next generation of cooperative group protocols for children with musculoskeletal tumors, documentation of the effects of surgery and radiation therapy will lead to improved decision making in the selection of the best treatment approach and in the follow-up of these patients.

  3. Excision of extensive midfoot pigmented villonodular synovitis with microvascular anastamosis of iliac crest bone graft using external fixation: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloff, Lawrence; Miller, Kevin

    2011-10-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a relatively rare lesion in the foot and ankle, most commonly involving the ankle joint and atypically, the subtalar and midtarsal joints. It is a benign proliferative disease characterized by an increase in villous or nodular synovium in joints. Resection of the tumor is often indicated in most cases because of the potentially aggressive joint destructive nature of this lesion. This report presents a case of chronic enlarging pervasive midtarsal and metatarsal-cuneiform joint PVNS in a 28-year-old male. This patient had a midtarsal mass that enlarged over a period of 2 years, causing increased pain, deformity, and difficulty with ambulation. Cross-sectional imaging studies identified evidence of erosive disease through much of the midfoot articulations, with biopsy confirming the mass as PVNS. The dimensions of the mass approximated 5.5 cm × 4.1 cm × 2.8 cm. Simple resection was problematic because of the size and multiple joints involved. Amputation was most commonly advised by multiple consultants. The patient preferred attempt at limb salvage. En bloc resection and placement of a revascularized iliac crest bone graft was used to fill the defect. The graft was microvascularly anastamosed and fixated with standard external fixation. Pathologic and histologic specimens from surgical biopsy reconfirmed the diagnosis of PVNS postoperatively. Second-stage arthrodesis was performed when the patient was stable and disease free. The patient was followed postoperatively for 10 years without recurrence and was able to return to full function and partake in moderate athletic activity at last visit. This case describes a retrospective review of the procedure and reconstruction, as well as an overview of current surgical management of PVNS.

  4. External skeletal fixator intramedullary pin tie-in for the repair of tibiotarsal fractures in raptors: 37 cases (1995-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Irene; Redig, Patrick T; Rendahl, Aaron K

    2015-11-15

    To evaluate the outcome of the application of an external skeletal fixator intramedullary pin tie-in (TIF) to tibiotarsal fractures in raptors. Retrospective case series. Thirty-four raptors with 37 tibiotarsal fractures. Medical records and radiographs for raptors with tibiotarsal fractures that were treated at The Raptor Center at the University of Minnesota between 1995 and 2011 were reviewed. Descriptive statistics were generated and univariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess whether age, sex, body weight, location and nature of the fracture, and type of surgical reduction were significantly associated with whether the fracture healed following surgical reduction and TIF application. 31 of 37 (84%) tibiotarsal fractures successfully healed following surgical reduction and TIF application. The mean healing time was 38 days (range, 15 to 70 days). None of the variables assessed were significantly associated with whether the tibiotarsal fracture healed. Twenty of the 34 (59%) raptors were eventually rehabilitated and released. Results indicated that most tibiotarsal fractures were successfully managed by surgical reduction and stabilization with a TIF. However, other comorbidities (eg, systemic infections and visual deficits) negatively affected the rehabilitation of raptors and sometimes resulted in euthanasia despite the fact that the tibiotarsal fracture had healed, and those comorbidities, along with the variables evaluated (eg, age, sex, and nature of the fracture), should be used as triage criteria and prognostic indicators.

  5. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  6. External Application of Chinese Drugs on Acupoint Shenque Combined with Salpingostomy for Treatment of Sterility Caused by Obstruction of the Fallopian Tube-A Clinical Report of 45 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Jianmei; Wang Wei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of external application of Chinese drugs on acupoint Shenque (CV 8) combined with salpingostomy for treatment of sterility caused by obstruction of the fallopian tube.Method: 75 cases were randomly divided into the following 2 groups. Forty-five patients in the treatment group were treated with external application of Chinese drugs on acupoint Shenque (CV 8) combined with salpingostomy, while 30 patients in the control group were treated with salpingostomy only. Results: The results showed that in the treatment group, 26 cases were cured, 11 cases improved, and 8 cases failed, with a total effective rate of 82.22%; while in the control group, 14 cases were cured, 7 cases improved, and 9 cases failed, with a total effective rate of 70.00%. There is a significant difference in the total effective rate between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: The therapeutic effect of external application of Chinese drugs on acupoint Shenque combined with salpingostomy is better than that of salpingostomy only.

  7. Cutaneous human papillomavirus types detected on the surface of male external genital lesions: A case series within the HPV Infection in Men Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce Campbell, Christine M.; Messina, Jane L.; Stoler, Mark H.; Jukic, Drazen M.; Tommasino, Massimo; Gheit, Tarik; Rollison, Dana E.; Sichero, Laura; Sirak, Bradley A.; Ingles, Donna J.; Abrahamsen, Martha; Lu, Beibei; Villa, Luisa L.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) may be associated with cutaneous epithelial lesions and non-melanoma skin cancers. No study has systematically evaluated the presence of genus beta [β]-HPV in male genital skin or external genital lesions (EGLs). Objectives To examine cutaneous β-HPV types detected on the surface of EGLs in men and describe their presence prior to EGL development. Study design A retrospective case series was conducted among 69 men with pathologically confirmed EGLs (n=72) who participated in the HPV Infection in Men Study. Archived exfoliated cells collected from the surface of each EGL and normal genital skin specimens 6–12 months preceding EGL development were tested for β-HPV DNA using a type-specific multiplex genotyping assay. Results β-HPV DNA was detected on 61.1% of all EGLs, with types 38 (16.7%), 5 (15.3%), and 12 (12.5%) most commonly identified. HPV prevalence differed across pathological diagnoses, with the largest number of β-HPV types detected on condylomas. Most β-HPV types were detected on normal genital skin prior to EGL development, though the prevalence was lower on EGLs compared to preceding normal genital skin. Conclusions EGLs and the normal genital skin of men harbor a large number of β-HPV types; however, it appears that β-HPVs are unrelated to EGL development in men. Despite evidence to support a causal role in skin carcinogenesis at UVR-exposed sites, cutaneous HPV appears unlikely to cause disease at the UVR-unexposed genitals. PMID:24210970

  8. Comparison of Management Styles in Organic and Conventional Farming with Respect to Disruptive External Influences. The Case of Organic Dairy Farming and Conventional Horticulture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Gremmen, H.G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional Dutch farming systems are constantly improving their technology to withstand disruptive external influences, while organic farming tends to focus on methods that stress conservation of natural and nonrenewable resources. We hypothesize that management styles to withstand disruptive exte

  9. The External Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    This book examines the external degree in relation to the extremes of attitudes, myths, and data. Emphasis is placed on the emergence of the American external degree, foreign external-degree programs, the purpose of the external degree, the current scene, institutional issues, and problems of general policy. (MJM)

  10. Why an Unbiased External R&D Evaluation System is Important for the Progress of Social Sciences—the Case of a Small Social Science Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franc Mali

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the impact of external R&D evaluations as one of the institutional factors that can encourage (or discourage the progress of the social sciences. A critical overview is presented of the increasing use of bibliometric indicators in the external R&D evaluation procedures employed by the Slovenian Research Agency, which is the leading research council for financing the public sector of social sciences in Slovenia. We attempt to establish that, in order to ensure a good external R&D evaluation practice for a small social science community, it is insufficient to only have reliable bibliometric meta-databases. It is argued that it is equally important to formulate very precise criteria to ascertain their validity.

  11. Lupus vulgaris of external nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Satheesh Kumar; Ranganna, B Usha

    2008-12-01

    Lupus vulgaris is the commonest form of cutaneous tuberculosis which commonly involve trunk and buttocks. Lupus vulgaris affecting nose and face, are rarely reported in India. This study reports an unusual case of lupus vulgaris involving the external nose that showed dramatic outcome after six months of anti- tubercular treatment.

  12. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  13. “Drug mules” as a radiological challenge: Sensitivity and specificity in identifying internal cocaine in body packers, body pushers and body stuffers by computed tomography, plain radiography and Lodox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flach, Patricia M., E-mail: patricia.flach@irm.uzh.ch [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Department of Neuroradiology, Inselspital Bern, University of Bern, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, University Hospital USZ, University of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Ross, Steffen G. [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Ampanozi, Garyfalia; Ebert, Lars [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Germerott, Tanja; Hatch, Gary M. [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Thali, Michael J. [Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Bern, Buehlstrasse 20, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Centre for Forensic Imaging and Virtopsy, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190/52, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Patak, Michael A. [Department of Radiology, Inselspital Bern, University of Bern, 3010 Bern (Switzerland); Department of Radiology, University Hospital USZ, University of Zurich, Raemistrasse 100, 8091 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of computed tomography (CT), digital radiography (DR) and low-dose linear slit digital radiography (LSDR, Lodox{sup ®}) in the detection of internal cocaine containers. Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained. The study collectively consisted of 83 patients (76 males, 7 females, 16–45 years) suspected of having incorporated cocaine drug containers. All underwent radiological imaging; a total of 135 exams were performed: nCT = 35, nDR = 70, nLSDR = 30. An overall calculation of all “drug mules” and a specific evaluation of body packers, pushers and stuffers were performed. The gold standard was stool examination in a dedicated holding cell equipped with a drug toilet. Results: There were 54 drug mules identified in this study. CT of all drug carriers showed the highest diagnostic accuracy 97.1%, sensitivity 100% and specificity 94.1%. DR in all cases was 71.4% accurate, 58.3% sensitive and 85.3% specific. LSDR of all patients with internal cocaine was 60% accurate, 57.9% sensitive and 63.4% specific. Conclusions: CT was the most accurate test studied. Therefore, the detection of internal cocaine drug packs should be performed by CT, rather than by conventional X-ray, in order to apply the most sensitive exam in the medico-legal investigation of suspected drug carriers. Nevertheless, the higher radiation applied by CT than by DR or LSDR needs to be considered. Future studies should include evaluation of low dose CT protocols in order to address germane issues and to reduce dosage.

  14. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  15. Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: computed tomography findings in six cases; Carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo: estudo por tomografia computadorizada de seis casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Fabio Mota; Paes Junior, Ademar Jose de Oliveira; Tornin, Olger de Souza [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: fmg961@yahoo.com.br; Souza, Ricardo Pires de [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Programa de Residencia Medica em Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2005-05-15

    Objective: to evaluate the role of computed tomography in the assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. Materials and methods: in the period between May 1995 and December 2003 six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal were submitted to computed tomography scan at 'Hospital Heliopolis', Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, including axial and coronal slices with soft tissue and bone algorithms. Results: thickening of the soft tissue of the external auditory canal was seen in all patients, bone erosion and invasion of the middle ear in five (83.3%), invasion of the mastoid and parotid gland in four (66.7%), invasion of the temporomandibular joint in three (50%), and invasion of the middle cranial fossa, carotid canal and cervical lymph node enlargement in two (33.3%) patients. Conclusion: assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal using computed tomography is useful for clinical staging of the disease allowing better therapeutic planning for these patients. (author)

  16. What Do Biochemistry Students Pay Attention to in External Representations of Protein Translation? Tthe Case of the Shine-Dalgarno Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussey, Thomas J.; Orgill, MaryKay

    2015-01-01

    Biochemistry instructors often use external representations--ranging from static diagrams to dynamic animations and from simplistic, stylized illustrations to more complex, realistic presentations--to help their students visualize abstract cellular and molecular processes, mechanisms, and components. However, relatively little is known about how…

  17. Attitudes of Academic Staff towards Their Own Work and towards External Evaluation, from the Perspective of Self-Determination Theory: Estonian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seema, Riin; Udam, Maiki; Mattisen, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the attitudes of academic staff towards their own work as well as towards external evaluations. The study was based on (1) an analysis of assessment reports of institutional accreditations conducted by the Estonian Quality Agency for Higher and Vocational Education and (2) self-determination theory on…

  18. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  19. Thermodynamic cost of external control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo

    2017-07-01

    Artificial molecular machines are often driven by the periodic variation of an external parameter. This external control exerts work on the system of which a part can be extracted as output if the system runs against an applied load. Usually, the thermodynamic cost of the process that generates the external control is ignored. Here, we derive a refined second law for such small machines that include this cost, which is, for example, generated by free energy consumption of a chemical reaction that modifies the energy landscape for such a machine. In the limit of irreversible control, this refined second law becomes the standard one. Beyond this ideal limiting case, our analysis shows that due to a new entropic term unexpected regimes can occur: the control work can be smaller than the extracted work and the work required to generate the control can be smaller than this control work. Our general inequalities are illustrated by a paradigmatic three-state system.

  20. Clinical analysis of implantation of allogeneic sclera in operations of the external eye repair in 35 cases%同种异体巩膜移植在外眼整复术中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莹; 王秀兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical effect of implantation of allogeneic sclera in operations of the external eye repair.Methods Allogeneic sclera was used for eyelid reconstruction,Hydroxyapatite ceramics implantation and early expose,correction ptosis,treating minor degree eyeball atrophy etc in 35 case.The effect was observed.Results There was no rejection and had a full function.and external appearance improved in all case.Conclusion Allogeneic sclera is easy to gain and simply preserved ; it should be used widely in the external eye repair.%目的 分析并探讨同种异体巩膜移植在外眼整复术中应用的临床效果.方法 对35例(35眼)应用同种异体巩膜分别行替代睑板重建眼睑、羟基磷灰石义眼台植入及早期暴露修复、上睑下垂的矫正、轻度眼球萎缩等术式,并观察其效果.结果 35例均未发生排斥反应,功能恢复良好,外观改善.结论 异体巩膜取材简单,保存方便,移植效果好,在外眼整复术中应用广泛.

  1. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results; Externaliteter - en analys utifraan EU:s ExternE-resultat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case.

  2. Post-external dacryocystorhinostomy lagophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odat, Thabit A; Odat, Haitham A; Khraisat, Heba; Odat, Mohannad A; Alzoubi, Firas Q

    2015-06-01

    To describe lagophthalmos and eyelid closure abnormality after external dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). A retrospective review of medical records and postoperative photographs of 79 patients who underwent external DCR for nasolacrimal duct obstruction and developed eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos with or without exposure keratopathy was conducted. Collected data included age, sex, indication for surgery, laterality, length and type of incision, length of follow-up duration, presence of punctate epithelial keratopathy, and time for resolution of eyelid closure abnormalities. Twenty-seven patients with 28 external dacryocystorhinostomy had postoperative eyelid closure abnormalities. Male to female ratio was 1:6. The mean age was 40.1 years (range 9-80 years). All surgeries were performed through diagonal skin incision. Lagophthalmos involving the medial third of the palpebral fissure was noticed in 28.6 % of cases. All patients had hypometric blink mainly of the upper eyelid. One patient had punctate epithelial keratopathy. Resolution of lagophthalmos was noticed over a period of 1-5 weeks with an average of 3 weeks. None of the patients continued to have residual hypometric blink or punctate keratopathy at the last follow-up time. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 months (range 3-6 months). Eyelid closure abnormality and lagophthalmos after external DCR are underestimated problems. Spontaneous resolution is seen in all cases weeks to months after surgery.

  3. Massage Cooperated with High Potential Therapeutic Apparatus in Treatment of 65 Cases of External Humeral Epicondylitis%推拿配合高电位治疗仪治疗肱骨外上髁炎65例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏振君; 李旭华

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To discuss the efficacy of massage cooperated with high potential thera-peutic apparatus in treatment of external humeral epicondylitis. Methods:65 patients with external humeral epicondylitis were treated by technique of rolling manipulation, kneading method, grasping manipulation, single-finger meditation pushing therapy, flipping and poking, pronation-traction and high potential therapeutic apparatus. The efficacy was observed. Results: 48 cases were excellent, 14 cases were good, 2 cases were middle, 1 case was bad. The total effective rate was 98.5%. Con-clusion:Massage cooperated with high potential therapeutic apparatus in treatment of external hu-meral epicondylitis has marked effect, and it is worthy of popularization and application.%  目的:探讨中医推拿配合高电位治疗仪治疗肱骨外上髁炎的疗效.方法:65例确诊为肱骨外上髁炎的患者,运用滚、揉、拿、一指禅、弹拨、旋前牵拉等手法配合高电位治疗仪治疗后统计疗效.结果:临床疗效优48例,良14例,中2例,差1例,总有效率98.5%.结论:中医推拿配合高电位治疗仪治疗肱骨外上髁炎效果显著,值得推广应用.

  4. Cost-Effective Abatement of Multiple Production Externalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Jeffery D.; Perry, Gregory M.; Adams, Richard M.

    1995-07-01

    This article explores the issue of multiple externalities through a case study of irrigated agricultural production in eastern Oregon. A mathematical programming model is used to demonstrate the manner in which a policy directed at one externality (soil erosion) may influence the incidence of another externality (groundwater pollution). A key determinant of multiple externality outcomes is interdependence in the processes producing agricultural commodities and externalities. Potential benefits from coordinating a policy to address multiple environmental objectives are discussed.

  5. Carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo: estudo por tomografia computadorizada de seis casos Squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: computed tomography findings in six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Mota Gonzalez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a importância da avaliação tomográfica da extensão profunda dos carcinomas espinocelulares do conduto auditivo externo. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram realizados exames tomográficos com cortes axiais e coronais com janelas para partes moles e óssea em seis pacientes com carcinoma espinocelular do conduto auditivo externo, com idade variando entre 55 e 71 anos, internados no Hospital Heliópolis, no período entre maio de 1995 e dezembro de 2003. RESULTADOS: Dos seis pacientes, todos apresentavam aumento de partes moles no conduto auditivo externo, cinco (83,3% tinham erosão óssea e invasão da orelha média, quatro (66,7% possuíam comprometimento da mastóide e da glândula parótida, três (50% apresentavam invasão da articulação temporomandibular, dois (33,3% tinham invasão da fossa média, do canal carotídeo e linfonodomegalia júgulo-carotídea alta ipisilateral. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação da extensão tumoral profunda fornecida pela tomografia computadorizada é importante no estadiamento clínico, possibilitando um planejamento terapêutico mais eficaz.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of computed tomography in the assessment of deep extension of squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the period between May 1995 and December 2003 six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal were submitted to computed tomography scan at "Hospital Heliópolis", São Paulo, SP, Brazil, including axial and coronal slices with soft tissue and bone algorithms. RESULTS: Thickening of the soft tissue of the external auditory canal was seen in all patients, bone erosion and invasion of the middle ear in five (83.3%, invasion of the mastoid and parotid gland in four (66.7%, invasion of the temporomandibular joint in three (50%, and invasion of the middle cranial fossa, carotid canal and cervical lymph node enlargement in two (33.3% patients. CONCLUSION: Assessment of

  6. Olfactory Neuroblastoma Treated by Endoscopic Surgery Followed by Combined External Beam Radiation and Gamma Knife for Optic Nerve and Chiasm Sparing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansi Z. Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the multimodality treatment regimen of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with olfactory neuroblastoma (Kadish stage C in the right nasal cavity extending into the ethmoid sinus and across the cribriform plate. Endoscopic surgery for tumor resection was followed by a combination of external beam radiotherapy and stereotactic radiosurgery boost with concurrent chemotherapy. The novel combination of dual radiation therapies allowed for the preservation of the nearby optic structures while providing an adequate dosage to a sufficient volume of the afflicted tissue.

  7. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical signs in cases of isolated supination-external rotation-type lateral malleolar fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nortunen, S; Flinkkilä, T; Lantto, I; Kortekangas, T; Niinimäki, J; Ohtonen, P; Pakarinen, H

    2015-08-01

    We prospectively assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the gravity stress test and clinical findings to evaluate the stability of the ankle mortise in patients with supination-external rotation-type fractures of the lateral malleolus without widening of the medial clear space. The cohort included 79 patients with a mean age of 44 years (16 to 82). Two surgeons assessed medial tenderness, swelling and ecchymosis and performed the external rotation (ER) stress test (a reference standard). A diagnostic radiographer performed the gravity stress test. For the gravity stress test, the positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 5.80 with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of 2.75 to 12.27, and the negative LR was 0.15 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.35), suggesting a moderate change from the pre-test probability. Medial tenderness, both alone and in combination with swelling and/or ecchymosis, indicated a small change (positive LR, 2.74 to 3.25; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47), whereas swelling and ecchymosis indicated only minimal changes (positive LR, 1.41 to 1.65; negative LR, 0.38 to 0.47). In conclusion, when gravity stress test results are in agreement with clinical findings, the result is likely to predict stability of the ankle mortise with an accuracy equivalent to ER stress test results. When clinical examination suggests a medial-side injury, however, the gravity stress test may give a false negative result.

  9. 放血疗法治疗顽固性肱骨外上髁炎15例%Treating 15 cases of refractory external humeral epicondylitis with blood-letting therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of blood-letting therapy on refractory external humeral epicondylitis. Methods:15 patients were given routine treatment and blood-letting therapy as well. Results:9 cases were cured, occupying 60%, 5 cases were significantly effective, occupying 33% and 1 case was effective, occupying 7%, with the total effective rate 100%. Conclusion:Blood-letting therapy was significantly effective on refractory external humeral epicondylitis.%  目的:探讨放血疗法对顽固性肱骨外上髁炎的治疗效果。方法:15例患者在基础治疗的基础上,给予放血疗法。结果:9例痊愈,占60%;5例显效,占33%;1例有效,占7%。结论:放血疗法是治疗顽固性肱骨外上髁炎比较理想的方法。

  10. 眼外肌麻痹患者257例的临床特征及病因分析%Analysis the clinical characteristic and etiology of external ophthalmoplegia 257 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷涛; 李正仪; 刘轩; 王润生; 洪舟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discussion the clinical characteristics and etiology of external ophthalmoplegia. Methods Collected and retrospectively analyzed the etiology and clinical characteristic of 257 external ophthalmoplegia patients. Records of the patient history, clinical manifestations and corresponding neurological department of internal medicine, Ophthalmology, Endocrinology and Radiographic examination. Results Simple ptosis in 80 cases, 131 cases of simple binocular diplopia, ptosis and diplopia in 39 cases, 7 cases of eyeball fixation. 223 cases of unilateral paralysis of extraocular muscle, 32 cases of bilateral extraocular muscle paralysis. The levator paralysis in 119 cases, unilateral put on 98 cases of eyelid muscle paralysis, bilateral put on 21 cases of eyelid muscle paralysis. 84 cases of lateral rectus muscle palsy, 56 cases of unilateral lateral rectus muscle palsy, 6 cases of bilateral lateral rectus paralysis.178 cases of extraocular ophthalmoplegia of oculomotor control, 40 cases with complete paralysis, 117 cases with incomplete paralysis, combined with other extraocular ophthalmoplegia in 21 cases. Superior oblique palsy in 24 cases, alone of superior oblique palsy in 17 cases, combined with other extraocular ophthalmoplegia in 7 cases. 82 cases with orbital local pain, 12 cases with mydriasis. In 163 cases of ocular motor neuropathy patients, single oculomotor nerve palsy in 148 cases, accounting for 90.8%, 15 cases of multiple oculomotor nerve paralysis, 9.2%. Eye movement nerve injury in 110 cases, accounting for 67.5%, 16 cases, nuclear damage was 9.8%, between nuclear damage in 13 cases, accounting for 8%, nuclear damage 24 cases accounted for 14.7%.There are 14 kinds of external ophthalmoplegia etiology in this group. including myasthenia gravis, diabetic oculomotor nerve injury, atherosclerosis and ischemic ocular motor nerve injury, local nonspecific inflammatory, traumatic, local space-occupying lesions, thyroid disease, Increased

  11. Otite externa necrotizante com paralisia facial periférica bilateral: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Necrotizing external otitis with periferic bilateral facial palsy: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Antunes

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A otite externa necrotizante (OEN, conhecida no passado como otite externa maligna, é uma infecção potencialmente letal que começa usualmente no conduto auditivo externo e se estende à base do crânio ocorrendo, principalmente, em pacientes diabéticos idosos e que a despeito de antibioticoterapia prolongada está associada à morbidade elevada e mortalidade significante. Os autores apresentam o caso de um paciente adulto, diabético, com OEN e paralisia facial periférica bilateral que evoluiu com cura da infecção, porém sem melhora da paralisia.Necrotizing external otitis (NEO, known in the past as malignant external otitis, is a potencial letal infection which begins usually in the external ear canal and spreads to the base of the skull. It occurs mainly in diabetic elderly patients who despite prolonged antibioticotherapy is associated to high morbidity and significant mortality. The authors present a case of an adult diabetic patient who developed NOE associated with bilateral periferic facial palsy evoluting with cure of the infection but without facial improvement.

  12. Clinical observation of 80 cases of needle knife type in the treatment of external humeral epicondylitis%针刀分型治疗肱骨外上髁炎80例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬珍

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of needle knife type in the treatment of external humeral epicondylitis. Methods:80 patients with external humeral epicondylitis were selected from March 2012 to February 2014.They were given needle knife type treatment.The effects were observed.Results:42 cases were cured after one time treatment,and 27 cases were cured after two times treatment.The cure rate was 87.5%,and the effective rate was 100%.Conclusion:The needle knife type in the treatment of external humeral epicondylitis has the effect of releasing soft tissue,reduction,decompression,releasing conglutination,and it helps to build new blood circulation.%目的:观察针刀分型治疗肱骨外上髁炎的临床疗效。方法:2012年3月-2014年2月收治肱骨外上髁炎患者80例,采用针刀分型治疗,观察疗效。结果:1次治疗后痊愈42例,2次治疗痊愈27例,治愈率87.5%,有效率达100%。结论:针刀分型在肱骨外上髁炎患者中具有松解软组织,减张、减压、松解粘连的作用,有利于重新建立新的血液循环。

  13. ENDOSCOPIC DCR VERSUS EXTERNAL DCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukma

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To compare success rates of endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR and external DCR for acquired nasolacrimal duct obstruction (NLDO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective comparative non randomized study of 64 patients who presented with acquired NLD obstruction to a tertiary hospital. They were fully evaluated to ascertain the site of obstruction and patients with distal obstruction were included in the study. 34 patients underwent endoscopic DCR and 30 patients underwent external DCR RESULTS: 64 patients were included in the study and 72 procedures carried out. Success was achieved in 65 cases and failure in 7. Of the 7 failed cases, anatomical obstruction at the fistula site was found in 3, whereas functional failure was found in 4. In our patients, endoscopic DCR had a significantly higher success rate than external DCR, 95.23% versus 83.33% (P = 0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The success rate of Endoscopic DCR for acquired NLDO in our group of patients was 95.23%, with endoscopic surgery showing better results.

  14. 37 Cases of Shoulder Joint Dislocation Treatment by Hippocrates Combined with Traditional Chinese Medicine External Treatment%Hippocrates 法结合中药外敷治疗肩关节脱位37例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆中杰; 王昌兴

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结运用手牵足蹬手法结合中药外敷治疗37例肩关节脱位的临床疗效。方法:采用手牵足蹬手法结合本科室骨伤熏洗2号方治疗肩关节脱位37例,其中喙突下脱位25例,盂下脱位11例,锁骨下脱位1例;单纯脱位33例,合并肱骨大结节小片撕脱骨折4例,所有患者均根据临床表现和肩关节X线片确诊。结果:本组病例痊愈30例,显效5例,好转2例,总有效率为100%。结论:手法整复结合本院自制骨伤熏洗2号方外敷治疗肩关节脱位疗效可靠,方法简单,经济实惠,值得临床推广。%Objective:to summarize the clinical efficacy of using Hippocrates combined with Chinese medicine external treatment of 37 cases of shoulder joint dislocation .Methods: from April 2012 to February 2013 by Hippocrates combining fractures fumigation Ⅱ in treating of 37 cases whose shoulder joint dislocation ,including 30 cases of male, 7 cases of female; Aged from 15 to 72 years, mean age (36.1 ±4.9) years;The shortest duration after 0.5 h, the longest 3 d;under coronoid process dislocation in 25 cases, jar dislo-cation in 11 cases, subclavian dislocation in 1 case;Pure dislocation in 33 cases, small footprint of the merger of the greater tuberosity avulsion fractures in 4 cases, all patients according to clinical manifestations and shoulder joint X -ray diagnosis.Results: all cases healed 30 cases, accounting for 81.08%;5 cases were markedly improved (13.51%), Improvement in 2 cases, accounting for 5. 41%;0 case ineffective;Total efficiency of 100%.Conclusion:Manual reduction combined with our homemade fractures fumigationⅡreally reliable curative effect , topical treatment of shoulder joint dislocation and the treatment method is simple , economical and practical, is worth popularization and application in the clinical practice .

  15. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western Europ...... show that estimated damages due to the greenhouse effect are predominant, however, the uncertainty is high. The predominant damage at the local and regional level is related to emission of NOx, which results in effects on public health....... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...... the use of a software package, EcoSence, having an environmental database at both a local and regional level including population, crops, building materials and forest. The system also incorporates two air transport models, allowing local and regional scale modelling. The results of the Danish case study...

  16. Deglutition of Shengfa Decoction Powder Combined with External Application of Drynaria in Treating 13 Cases of Alopecia Areata%吞服生发汤散剂合骨碎补外用治疗斑秃13例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志清; 叶明

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of deglutition of Shengfa decoction powder combined with external appli -cation of drynaria in treating alopecia areata. Methods:Thirteen patients suffered from alopecia areata patients received treatment of de -glutition of Shengfa decoction powder as well as external application of Drynaria soaked in rice vinegar . Patients were given 3 times of deglutition of Shengfa decoction , 3 to 6 grams each time. Besides, external application were given 3 to 4 times a day on the affected areas which were made from 50 grams of drynaria powder soaked in 250 ml of rice vinegar for 24 hours. Results: Among the 13 cases of alopecia areata patients, 11 cases was effective , and 2 were invalid with a total effective rate of 84. 6%. Conclusion: Deglutition of Shengfa decoction powder combined with external application of drynaria in treating alopecia areata shows satisfactory therapeutic effect , especially on those who cannot be applied with oral administration of decoctions . The therapy is convenient and economical , which is worth generalizing.%目的:观察吞服生发汤散剂合骨碎补外用治疗斑秃的临床疗效.方法:13例斑秃患者均采取吞服生发汤散剂合骨碎补浸泡米醋外用的方法,每日吞服生发汤散剂3次,每次3~6 g,外治以50g骨碎补粉浸泡于250 mL米醋中,24 h后取浸液擦患处,每日擦3~4次.结果:13例斑秃患者中有效11例,无效2例,总有效率为84.6%.结论:吞服生发汤散剂合骨碎补外用治疗斑秃疗效好,尤其适用于不能坚持服用汤药及不便应用汤剂的患者.该法应用方便,且极具药物经济学意义,值得推广.

  17. Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube and Decabromodiphenyl Ether Flame-Retardant Coatings Applied to Upholstery Textiles (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft document is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and, more importantly, what is not yet known that could be of value in assessing the broad implications of specific nanomaterials. Like previous case studies (see History/ Chronology below), ...

  18. Nanomaterial Case Study: A Comparison of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube and Decabromodiphenyl Ether Flame-Retardant Coatings Applied to Upholstery Textiles (External Review Draft)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The draft document is intended to be used as part of a process to identify what is known and, more importantly, what is not yet known that could be of value in assessing the broad implications of specific nanomaterials. Like previous case studies (see History/ Chronology below), ...

  19. An association of external and internal enamel pearls.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan S; Charan C

    2005-01-01

    We report a rare case of an association of external enamel pearl with internal enamel pearl on the root of a molar. To the best of our knowledge, association of external and internal enamel pearls has not been previously reported. We discussed the histogenesis of enamel pearls and proposed that internal enamel pearl formation may be a continuation of formation of external enamel pearl.

  20. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  1. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Prostate Cancer Treatment Brain Tumor Treatment Why is ... Radiation Oncology) Breast Cancer Treatment Esophageal Cancer Treatment Lung Cancer Treatment Images related to External Beam Therapy (EBT) Sponsored ...

  2. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke;

    2014-01-01

    RATIONALE, AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The quality of the current literature on external validity varies considerably. An improved checklist with validated items on external validity would aid decision-makers in judging similarities among circumstances when transferring evidence from a study setting...... to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...

  3. Impairment of 40-km time-trial performance but not peak power output with external iliac kinking: a case study in a world-class cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamberts, Robert P; Mann, T N; Rietjens, Gerard J; Tijdink, Hendrik H

    2014-07-01

    Iliac blood-flow restrictions causing painful and "powerless" legs are often attributed to overtraining and may develop for some time before being correctly diagnosed. In the current study, differences between actual performance parameters and performance parameters predicted from the Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT) were studied in a world-class cyclist with bilateral kinking of the external iliac artery before and after surgery. Two performance-testing sessions, including a peak-power-output (PPO) test and a 40-km time trial (TT) were conducted before surgery, while 1 testing session was conducted after the surgery. Actual vs LSCT-predicted performance parameters in the world-class cyclists were compared with 82 symptom-free trained to elite male cyclists. No differences were found between actual and LSCT-predicted PPO before and after surgical intervention. However, there were differences between actual and LSCT-predicted 40-km TT time in the tests performed before the surgery (2:51and 2:55 min:s, respectively). These differences were no longer apparent in the postsurgery 40-km TT (2 s). This finding suggests that iliac blood-flow restrictions seem to mainly impair endurance performance rather than peak cycling performance. A standard PPO test without brachial ankle blood-pressure measurements might not be able to reflect iliac blood-flow restrictions. Differences between actual and LSCT-predicted 40-km TT time may assist in earlier referral to a cardiovascular specialist and result in earlier detection of iliac blood-flow restrictions.

  4. IMPORTANCE OF DELIVERY CONDITIONS IN THE EXTERNAL PRICE CALCULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta ISAI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The delivery conditions of the merchandise at export, established by the rules INCOTERMS2000, influence the external price structure. There are some conditions in which the external priceincludes only the value of the merchandise and other conditions in which, besides the value of themerchandise, the price includes also the external transport and insurance. In the case of the exportson commercial credit, when it appears the notion of external interest, this one may be included in theprice or may be invoiced separately, thus defining gross external prices and net external prices.

  5. Operating with External Arguments of Douady and Hubbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Pastor

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The external arguments of the external rays theory of Douady and Hubbard is a valuable tool in order to analyze the Mandelbrot set, a typical case of discrete dynamical system used to study nonlinear phenomena. We suggest here a general method for the calculation of the external arguments of external rays landing at the hyperbolic components root points of the Mandelbrot set. Likewise, we present a general method for the calculation of the external arguments of external rays landing at Misiurewicz points.

  6. Migration with fiscal externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hercowitz, Z; Pines, D

    1991-11-01

    "This paper analyses the distribution of a country's population among regions when migration involves fiscal externalities. The main question addressed is whether a decentralized decision making [by] regional governments can produce an optimal population distribution...or a centralized intervention is indispensable, as argued before in the literature.... It turns out that, while with costless mobility the fiscal externality is fully internalized by voluntary interregional transfers, with costly mobility, centrally coordinated transfers still remain indispensable for achieving the socially optimal allocation."

  7. Sen cycles and externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Piggins, Ashley; Salerno, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    It has long been understood that externalities of some kind are responsible for Sen’s (1970) theorem on the impossibility of a Paretian liberal. However, Saari and Petron (2006) show that for any social preference cycle generated by combining the weak Pareto principle and individual decisiveness, every decisive individual must suffer at least one strong negative externality. We show that this fundamental result only holds when individual preferences are strict. Building on their contribution,...

  8. A case control study on the treatment of unstable distal radius fractures with internal and external fixation%内外固定治疗桡骨远端不稳定骨折的临床对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵勇; 崔秀仁; 关继超; 张兴平; 闫安; 张宽; 桑志成; 何冀川; 谢澄诚

    2011-01-01

    reduction and steel plate internal fixation (internal fixation group) or closed reduction and external fixation (external fixation group) .including 8 males and 52 females,with an average age of 60.27 years ranging from 34 to 85 years. Left side was in 33 cases and right side was in 27 cases. All fractures were closed and caused by hand supporting when falling down. According to AO classification,type A3 was in 22 cases,type B2 was in 4 cases,type B3 was in 2 cases,type Cl was in 20 cases,type C2 was in 8 cases,type C3 was in 4 cases. Palmar flexion,dorsiflexion,radial deviation,ulnar deviation, prona-tion,supination,grip strength, radial angle, radial length, volar tilt were observed before and after operation. Results-.All the patients were followed up from 12 to 18 months with an average of 15.4 months. The radial length was (4.85±2.75) mm,volar tilt (14.66±10.77)°,radial angle (7.90±4.70)° in the external fixation group,while those were (4.29±1.53) mm, (14.39± 5.01)°, (6.19±3.15)° in the internal fixation group, but with no statistical significance(P>0.05). Function comparison of internal and external fixation group, P-value of every function is more than 0.05 or equal to 0.05, with no statistical significance except for supination and radial deviation. The functions of wrist joints were evaluated according to Batra scoring system at 1 year after operation. The average radiological scores of external fixation group was 86.27, in which 15 cases were excellent, 11 good, 1 fair,3 poor,while the average functional scores was 94.93,and all the cases were excellent. The average radiological scores of internal fixation group was 91.27,16 cases were excellent, 12 good,2 fair,while the average functional scores was 94.23,in which all the cases were excellent. Conclusion;Compared with the open reduction and steel plate fixation,the unstable fractures of distal radius treating by diaplastic external fixator can be achieved a similar result, with no statistical

  9. Leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Wakako; Taniguchi, Satoshi; Fukuda, Ikuo

    2012-06-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of the iliac vein is an uncommon tumor. We report a case of a 63-year-old Japanese woman with leiomyosarcoma of the right external iliac vein. The patient complained of right inguinal pain and swelling. Computed tomography demonstrated a mass surrounding the right external iliac artery and vein. Metastases in the lungs and liver were found. Complete resection of the tumor along with the involved vessels was performed. Polytetrafluoroethylene grafts were used to reconstruct the vessels. Pathological examination revealed leiomyosarcoma of the external iliac vein. Although the prognosis of leiomyosarcoma is poor, en bloc tumor resection is the treatment of choice.

  10. 50例儿童髁上骨折石膏外固定术的临床疗效%Clinical effect of plaster external fixation in 50 cases of pediatric supracondylar fracture of humerus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞红梅

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析石膏外固定治疗小儿肱骨髁上骨折的临床疗效。方法50例采用手法复位石膏托外固定治疗肱骨髁上骨折的患儿,分析术前术后骨折复位情况、术后近期和远期并发症的发生以及肘关节功能恢复的评定。结果所有病例均获得随访,随访时间3~6个月,平均4.7个月。全部病例手法复位成功,未有前臂骨筋膜室综合征,肱动脉、正中神经、桡神经及尺神经损伤发生,优良率74%。结论肱骨髁上骨折的手法复位石膏外固定治疗是小儿肱骨髁上骨折的重要治疗方法。%Objective To analyzed the clinical effect of plaster external fixation in the treatment of pediatric supracondylar fracture of humerus. Methods There were 50 pediatric supracondylar fracture of humerus cases, who received manual reposition with plaster external fixation. The analysis was made on fracture reduction, short-term and long-term postoperative complications, and elbow rehabilitation. Results Follow-up was taken on all cases for 3~6 months, with an average time of 4.7 months. All the fractures were manual reposited successfully. Cubital compartment syndrome, injury of brachial artery, median nerve, musculospiral nerve and ulnar nerve were not found in any of the cases, and the good rate was 74%. Conclusion The application of manual reposition with plaster external fixation is an important treatment method for pediatric supracondylar fracture of humerus.

  11. TheTreatment of 120cases of Chloasma by Chinese Herb for External Application%中药外用治疗黄褐斑90例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈黎明; 霍峥; 姜方敏; 宋翔

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察自制的中药面膜并配合中药洗剂治疗黄褐斑临床疗效及安全性.方法:将120例黄褐斑患者随机分为2组,治疗组90例用自制中药面膜并配合中药洗剂治疗;对照组30例用归白药膜治疗.结果:治疗组有效率为95.56%;对照组有效率为10%.两组无明显毒副反应.结论:中药面膜并配合中药洗剂治疗黄褐斑有较好的疗效和安全性,值得推广.%Objective: To observe the clinical efficacy and safety of melasma that was treated by herbal mask and with herbal lotion. Methods; 120cases of patients of melasma were randomly divided into 2groups. 90cases of treatment group were treated by herbal mask and herbal lotion. 30cases of control group were treated by Angelica facial mask. Results; The effective rate of treatment group was 95. 56% and control group was 10% . There was no apparent side effects. Conclusions: Chloasma was treated by herbal mask and herbal lotion have a good efficacy and it is safe. It is worth promoting.

  12. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  13. [Treatment for central corneal ulcer in the presence of lagophthalmos by autoconjunctivoplasty in combination with optic iridectomy and external blepharorrhaphy a clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasparov, A A; Kasparova, E A; Sobkova, O I

    2010-01-01

    The outcomes of keratitis in lagophthalmos occurring due to various causes despite therapeutic measures are generally poor. The influence of factors, such as drying of the cornea, impairment of its trophism, and infection, leads to the development of rough leukomas, and occasionally to eye death due to occurring endophthalmitis. The paper describes a clinical case of deep trophic central corneal ulcer on the single seeing eye with lagophthalmos, as well as ulcer treatment by the authors' procedure, by simultaneously affecting both elements of the pathology (lagophthalmos and trophic ulcerative keratitis of central localization) and creating an artificial pupil. This allows one to increase visual acuity, to cure keratitis, and to close a palpebral fissure.

  14. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  15. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst and external drainage through a lumbar surgical scar in a male patient with cervical spinal cord injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan Subramanian

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst is a rare event. Spontaneous rupture with drainage to the exterior through a surgical scar has not been reported previously. Case presentation A 49-year-old male with tetraplegia had undergone extended right pyelolithotomy in 1999. Deroofing and marsupialisation of a cyst in the upper pole of the right kidney was performed in 2003. Subsequently there was recurrence of a thick-walled cystic space-occupying lesion in the upper pole of the right kidney. Thick pus was aspirated from the renal cyst on six occasions between September 2003 and November 2004. In March 2006, ultrasound examination revealed a cyst measuring 6.2 cm in diameter in the upper pole of the right kidney. Aspiration was planned when the renal cyst reached 7.5 cm in diameter. However, 11 months later, the cyst ruptured spontaneously and drained through the previous surgical scar in the flank, while the patient was recovering from a severe chest infection in the spinal unit. Ultrasound examination showed a fistulous tract running between the renal cyst and the abdominal wall. Repeated minor trauma sustained during turning, hoisting and chest physiotherapy all may have contributed to the rupture of the infected renal cyst and drainage through a weak spot in the abdominal wall. Conclusion In hindsight, we might have prevented rupture of the renal cyst had we considered aspiration of the renal cyst before it reached 7.5 cm in diameter, although this 7.5 cm diameter, as the threshold for percutaneous aspiration, is an arbitrary setting. This patient could have been advised to wear an abdominal corset to protect the right flank from pressure applied unintentionally during turning, hoisting or assisted coughing.

  16. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  17. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... change in different types of firms and sectors of the economy...

  18. External Orientation Management Innovation Modes:An Exploratory Case Study%外部取向管理创新模式——一个探索性案例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏敬勤; 崔淼; 张竟浩

    2011-01-01

    构建高不确定环境下中国企业外部取向管理创新模式选择机理的组织创新氛围-企业家精神维度的研究框架,通过质性数据分析方法,辅以ATLAS.ti质性数据分析软件,使用16家企业的数据对两个影响维度的测量指标进行细化和量化,在此基础上采用案例研究小组评分法,基于对组织创新氛围和企业家精神维度指标的测量,选取淘宝的商业模式创新以及绿盛、天翼咨询和正泰电器的营销模式创新的多案例分析对研究框架进行探索性分析.研究结果表明,高不确定环境下外部取向管理创新模式主要包括激进式、元素式、结构式和渐进式4类,外部取向管理创新模式的选择是在组织创新氛围和企业家精神的主导作用下进行的,而当两者均较弱时外部环境成为渐进式外部取向管理创新模式的主要推动因素.%Selection mechanism of external orientation management innovation mode with two dimensions-organizational innovation climate and entrepreneurship under high uncertainty environment of Chinese enterprises was constructed. Measurements of the two influencing dimensions were refined and quantification, using qualitative data analysis method, associated by ATLAS. ti, a qualitative data analysis software. An exploratory analysis of the research framework was conducted by a multiple-case study,consisted of four single eases of business mode innovation of Taobao, and marketing innovation of Lvsheng, Tianyi Consultant,and Zhengtai Electric, based on measuring their organizational innovation climate and entrepreneunship by ease study group.Conclusions are: Firstly, there are four types of external orientation management innovation mode under high uncertainty environment, including radical mode, architectural mode, component mode and incremental mode. secondly, mode selection of external orientation management innovation mode under high uncertainty environment is determined by the

  19. Construction and Application of Cigarette Packer Data Acquisition and Management System%卷包数据采集管理系统的构建和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童宗祥

    2016-01-01

    Through the deep integration of informatization and industrialization under the informatization planning and Industry 4.0 of cigarette manufacturers, and the description of the goal to establish a digital factory, the necessity is discussed to create the cigarette packer data acquisition and management system. Subject to the manufacturing status quo and informationization level of most domestic cigarette manufacturers, the goals, ideas and principles are proposed for the construction of data acquisi-tion and management system. In combination with the construction contents of the data acquisition system, the function frame-work and technical architecture of such system are planned and discussed with the Service-oriented Architecture(SOA)/OLE for Process Control(OPC)/ Extensible Markup Language(XML)and the hierarchical design method. Finally, it is concluded that the successful construction of such system will provide strong technical support to build a superior factory integrated with digitalization, informatization and intelligentization.%通过对卷烟生产企业的信息化规划和工业4.0时代下两化深度融合,以及建设数字化工厂目标的描述,论述了构建卷包数据采集管理系统的必要性;根据国内大多数卷烟企业生产制造现状和信息化水平,提出了数据采集管理系统的建设目标、思路和原则;通过运用SOA/OPC/XML等技术,以及分层设计的思想和方法,结合数采系统的建设内容,对系统的功能框架、技术架构进行了规划和探讨,并总结得出系统的成功建设将为打造一个数字化、信息化、智能化的优秀工厂提供强有力的技术支撑。

  20. Clinical observation of 36 cases of modified small incision external route dacryocystorhinostomy%改良小切口外路泪囊鼻腔吻合术36例临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓霞; 田超伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of modified small incision external route dacryocystorhinostomy for chronic dacryocystitis.Methods The medical records of 36 cases of chronic dacryocystitis treated with modified small incision external route dacryocystorhinostomy were retrospectively analyzed.There were 7 male and 29 female patients,aged 15 ~26 years.The duration of diseases ranged from 3 months to 4 years.All cases were diagnosed as chronic dacryocystitis with obstructed nasolacrimal duct and the overflowing of pus.Seven cases had undergone lacrimal laser treatment,and 6 cases had received repeated irrigations of lacrimal passage before surgery.The surgery adopted modified small incision external route dacryocystorhinostomy with 10 mm skin incision.The operative field was exposed by small eye lid retractor or stitches.The subcutaneous tissue was separated by blunt dissection.The 10-mm bone window was made by mosquito forceps and rongeur forceps,without cutting off the canthal ligament.After the bleeding was stopped,H-shaped incisions were made on the lacrimal sac and nasal mucosa.The front and rear flaps of both incisions were sutured each other with 6-0 silk suture with the front flaps suspended in the subcutaneous tissue.Results The patients were followed for 1 to 4 years.34 cases had good clinical effect.The proliferation of granulation tissue in the bone hole occurred in one patient who had epiphora but no pyorrhea at 3 months postoperatively.One case had epiphora with patent lacrimal duct.The surgical success rate was 94.4%.The skin healed well without scarring in all cases.Conclusion For chronic dacryocystitis,modified small incision external route dacryocystorhinostomy can increase surgical success rate and decrease the incidence of surgical complications.%目的 观察改良小切口外路泪囊鼻腔吻合术治疗慢性泪囊炎的临床效果.方法 回顾性分析小切口手术治疗的慢性泪囊炎36例(36眼)的临床资料.男7

  1. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summaris...

  2. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism......, Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building...... Action in Public Environments with Diverse Semiotic Resources by Charles Goodwin pp. 169-182 How Marking in Dance Constitutes Thinking with the Body by David Kirsh pp. 183-214 Ambiguous Coordination: Collaboration in Informal Science Education Research by Ivan Rosero, Robert Lecusay, Michael Cole pp. 215-240...

  3. External-Memory Multimaps

    CERN Document Server

    Angelino, Elaine; Mitzenmacher, Michael; Thaler, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many data structures support dictionaries, also known as maps or associative arrays, which store and manage a set of key-value pairs. A \\emph{multimap} is generalization that allows multiple values to be associated with the same key. For example, the inverted file data structure that is used prevalently in the infrastructure supporting search engines is a type of multimap, where words are used as keys and document pointers are used as values. We study the multimap abstract data type and how it can be implemented efficiently online in external memory frameworks, with constant expected I/O performance. The key technique used to achieve our results is a combination of cuckoo hashing using buckets that hold multiple items with a multiqueue implementation to cope with varying numbers of values per key. Our external-memory results are for the standard two-level memory model.

  4. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature.

  5. External cervical resorption: diagnostic and treatment tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT External cervical resorption is caused, almost exclusively, by dental trauma - especially those characterized by concussion - and is a dental disease to be diagnosed and treated accurately by endodontists. However, the vast majority of the cases is initially diagnosed by an orthodontist, due to the imaging possibilities in standardized documentations. Among the causes of external cervical resorption, it is common to mistakenly attribute it to orthodontic treatment, traumatic occlusion or even to chronic inflammatory periodontal disease. External cervical resorption is associated to dental trauma in several situations mentioned in this paper. In old cases, and eventually still nowadays, it may have been induced by internal tooth bleaching, which is increasingly less frequent in endodontically treated teeth. There are some tips to be followed and some care that must be taken during the diagnosis and treatment of external cervical resorption clinical cases. The present study lists foundations that will allow the professional to perform safely and accurately in each specific case. Some of these tips and care measures are of orthodontic nature. PMID:27901225

  6. Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid: a prospective pilot study of eight consecutive cases Retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa do fluido sub-retiniano: um estudo piloto prospectivo de oito casos consecutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Camargo Siqueira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe an alternative surgical technique for the management of retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B using transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. METHODS: In a prospective, interventional study, eight consecutive patients with retinal detachment with no or minimal proliferative vitreoretinopathy (grade B underwent transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid. Transconjunctival external drainage of subretinal fluid was achieved by using a 29 gauge needle placed in the subretinal space under indirect ophthalmoscopic monitoring. Active suction was performed (500 mmHg vacuum using a vitrectomy line coupled to the needle. After retinal reattachment, cryotherapy was applied to the scleral region corresponding to the area of the retinal break(s. RESULTS: In all cases there was retinal attachment at the end of surgery. Retinal redetachment occurred in four pseudophakic patients who then underwent pars plana vitrectomy. The four phakic patients maintained retinal attachment during follow-up (13-20 months. CONCLUSION: Transconjunctival retinopexy with active external drainage of subretinal fluid represents a useful, faster, and cheaper alternative to scleral buckling for retinal detachments with no or minimal proliferative retinopathy in phakic patients and, unlike scleral buckling, is not associated with induced myopia.OBJETIVO: Descrever uma técnica cirúrgica alternativa para o tratamento de descolamento da retina sem ou com mínima vitreorretinopatia proliferativa (grau B usando uma retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa do fluido sub-retiniano. MÉTODOS: Prospectivo estudo intervencional, com oito pacientes consecutivos com descolamento da retina com nenhum ou mínima vitreorretinopatia proliferativa (grau B que foram submetidos a retinopexia transconjuntival com drenagem externa ativa do fluido sub

  7. Imaging findings in external snapping hip syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Connolly, Bairbre L. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Image Guided Therapy, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada); Narayanan, Unni [The Hospital for Sick Children, Pediatric Orthopedic Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Babyn, Paul S. [The Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging, Toronto (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    We describe a case of external snapping hip diagnosed by dynamic sonography. The case prompted us to retrospectively review the imaging findings of children who clinically had presented with snapping hip. From this review we identified the features on MRI and CT of either thickening of the iliotibial band or thickening of the anterior edge of the gluteus maximus muscle as the cause of snapping and atrophy of the bulk of gluteus maximus muscle as an important secondary sign associated with snapping. (orig.)

  8. 水平井裸眼封隔器密封结构优化研究%Research on Optimization of Sealing Structure of Open-hole Packer in Horizontal Wells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李斌; 沈桓宇; 陈海涛; 马强; 李强

    2015-01-01

    Aimed at some problems of compression-type open-hole packer of horizontal wells such as poor sealing per-formance,low setting force and gap existed between rubber and well wall,a new sealing structure composed of convex spherical spacer rings and concave spherical rubbers was put forward by optimizing and improving the conventional packer sealing structure.The setting situation of sealing structure of packer spherical rubbers was simulated by ABAQUS software, the distribution regularities of contact pressure of the rubbers in axial direction were obtained,and the effects of hardness of rubber and friction coefficient on contact pressure were analyzed.The results show that the new sealing structure of convex spherical spacer ring plays a role in radial compression and axial compression of rubber at same time,so the contact pres-sure of rubber and well wall,rubber and central tube is improved,the sealing performance of packer is enhanced.The con-tact pressure of rubber and well wall is increased along with the increasing of hardness of rubber and friction coefficient. However,too big friction coefficient will lead to the decrease of contact pressure of the lower rubber,so rubber with appro-priate hardness and friction coefficient must be chosen,in order to ensure the reliability of sealing packer.%针对水平井压缩式裸眼封隔器存在的密封性差、坐封力低、胶筒与井壁间存在间隙等问题,对其密封结构进行改进与优化,设计出一种凸球形隔环和凹球形胶筒组相结合的新型密封结构。运用 ABAQUS 软件模拟密封结构封隔器胶筒的坐封情况,获得胶筒组轴向接触压力的分布规律,并分析胶筒硬度和摩擦因数对接触压力的影响。结果表明:新型密封结构凸球形隔环在轴向压缩胶筒的同时也起径向压缩作用,提高了胶筒与井壁和中心管间的接触压力,增强了封隔器的密封性能;胶筒与井壁间的接触压力随着胶筒硬度

  9. Regularization by External Variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossolini, Elena; Edwards, R.; Glendinning, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Regularization was a big topic at the 2016 CRM Intensive Research Program on Advances in Nonsmooth Dynamics. There are many open questions concerning well known kinds of regularization (e.g., by smoothing or hysteresis). Here, we propose a framework for an alternative and important kind of regula...... of regularization, by external variables that shadow either the state or the switch of the original system. The shadow systems are derived from and inspired by various applications in electronic control, predator-prey preference, time delay, and genetic regulation....

  10. External fixation and gradual limb lengthening for complicated delayed calcaneal fractures: report of 12 cases%距下关节截骨缓慢延长治疗陈旧性跟骨骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范伟力; 王子明; 赵玉峰; 吴思宇; 王雨; 孙红振; 王爱民

    2011-01-01

    目的 伴有距下关节损伤的陈旧性跟骨骨折,目前主要是采用距下关节原位融合术和距下关节牵伸骨块植入融合术治疗,在此介绍一种新手术方式,距下关节截骨外固定支架缓慢延长手术,并评估其疗效.方法 12例15足(单足9例,双足3例)陈旧性跟距关节骨折脱位,年龄16~53岁,平均33.6岁.闭合性7例(10足),开放型性5例(5足).开放性损伤中3例严重多发伤病人手术时伤口已愈合2个月以上,2例伤口仍未愈合.均采用距下关节截骨牵伸融合新方法治疗,术中行内、外侧骨突切除、距下关节截骨与植骨、Orthofix外固定支架固定,术后7~10天延长,至距下关节间隙牵开1~2cm、跟骨高度和Bohler角基本恢复正常时结束延长,2~3个月后距下关节骨性融合后取出外固定支架开始负重行走.结果 12例(15足)得到了6~50个月的随访,伤口均愈合,无皮肤坏死.距下关节在3~6个月(平均3.7个月)得到骨性融合.采用美国骨科足踝外科学会(AOFAS)评分标准,平均由术前的24.2分提高到术后随访时的76.8分.结论 距下关节截骨缓慢延长治疗陈旧性跟骨骨折是一种新的有效治疗方法;无皮肤坏死、无需植骨和内固定;用于开放性陈旧性跟骨骨折的治疗可明显缩短疗程.%Objective For delayed calcaneal fractures accompanied by subtalar joint injury, the most common treatment is the use of in situ subtalar arthrodesis and subtalar distraction bone-hlock arthrodesis. In this study,we introduced a novel surgical treatment, subtalar osteotomy with external fixation and limb lengthening, and assessed its efficacy. Methods Totally 12 cases ( 15 feet) of delayed calcaneal fractures accompanied by severe subtalar joint injury were treated with this method. The patients ranged in age from 16 to 54 years, with an average age of 33. 6 years. And seven cases were closed injury, others were opened injury. The protruding lateral calcaneus was

  11. Sistema Basado en Casos para el diseño de engranajes cilíndricos con contacto exterior//Case based system for the design spur and helical external gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hernández-Ortega

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue obtener un sistema Basado en Casos mediante la combinación del Razonamiento Basado en Casos y de las técnicas CAD CAE (Computer Aided Design, Computer Aided Engineering, para mejorar la utilización de la experiencia acumulada por los diseñadores, en la realización de nuevos diseños de transmisiones por engranajes cilíndricos con contacto exterior. La basede casos se obtuvo de la información almacenada en el archivo de diseño de una empresa de producciones mecánicas. La recuperación de las transmisiones se realiza combinando una consulta de selección y la técnica Vecino más Cercano. Como índices se utilizan los datos iniciales del diseño cuya importancia relativa se estableció mediante criterio de Experto. De esta manera, con la combinación de unsistema de gestión de bases de datos y un sistema CAD CAE resulta posible la reutilización de transmisiones diseñadas anteriormente, con o sin modificación, en nuevas aplicaciones.Palabras claves: razonamiento basado en casos, engranajes, diseño._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe aim of this work is to obtain a Case Based System by means of the combination of the Case Based Reasoning and CAD CAE (Computer Aided Design Computer Aided Engineering technique to improve the use of the accumulated experience by the designers in the realization of new spur and helical cylindrical external gear designs. The case base was obtained from the information stored in the design files of the mechanical productions company. The recovery of the transmissions is carried out combining a selection query and the nearest neighboring technique. The initial data of the design are used as indexeswhose relative importance settled down by means of Experts criteria. This way, the combination of database management system and CAD CAE system makes possible to use again previously designed transmissions, with or without

  12. Performance Targets and External Market Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan; Friis, Ivar; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    In this paper we explore the processes of ‘bringing the market inside the firm’ to set performance targets and benchmark production workers productivity. We analyze attempts to use external suppliers’ bids in target setting in a Danish manufacturing company. The case study illustrates how...... the implementation of external market information in target setting – well known in transfer pricing, relative performance evaluation, beyond budgeting, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management – relate to challenging motivation and information problem. The analysis and discussion of those...... problems, in particular those related to accounting for the internal performance (that are going to be compared with the external target), calculating the ‘inside’ costs and defining controllability, contributes to the management accounting as well as the piece-rate literature....

  13. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  14. Spontaneous External Endometriosis in a Gorilla (Gorilla gorilla)

    OpenAIRE

    Doré, Monique; Lagacé, Andre

    1985-01-01

    The present report describes a case of external endometriosis in a 28 year old female gorilla (Gorilla gorilla). Microscopical examination of a pelvic mass observed at necropsy revealed ovarian tissue together with uterine glands and stroma, fibrous tissue and many siderophages. Theories of pathogenesis of external endometriosis are briefly reviewed.

  15. External Representations for Data Distributions: In Search of Cognitive Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghana, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Data distributions can be represented using different external representations, such as histograms and boxplots. Although the role of external representations has been extensively studied in mathematics, this is less the case in statistics. This study helps to fill this gap by systematically varying the representation that accompanies a task…

  16. Cutting Under Pressure Technology for the Tubing String with Dual Packer in Gas Well%带压切割气井双封分压管柱工艺技术∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢涛; 杨红斌; 徐迎新

    2015-01-01

    复杂多个大直径工具管柱、腐蚀管柱和带喷砂器的管柱带压起钻工艺尚无有效方法,为此,研发了带压切割气井双封分压管柱工艺技术。该工艺技术采用专门的带压切割装置,利用切割刀具在装置内逐段切割,带压起出切割掉的油管,下带压密封捞矛打捞切割掉的油管鱼头,逐级起出复杂管柱。现场试验结果表明,气井带压切割工艺可以实现ø73�0 mm N80油管双封分压管柱的带压切割;对于腐蚀穿孔和双封分压以上复杂管柱可以采取装置内分段切割、密封打捞及分级起出的技术方案。%There is still no effective method of tripping out complex multiple large diameter tool string, corro⁃sion string and string with sandblast under pressure, to address the issue, a technology of cutting dual packer iso⁃lation string in gas well has been developed�A special device capable of cutting string under pressure is used to cut the string by cutter�After tripping out the cut tubing string section, run fishing spear for snubbing operation to fish the tubing string in well, thus, tripping out the complex string piece by piece�Field tests show that the cutting un⁃der pressure technology for gas well is fully capable of cutting the ø73�0 mm N80 tubing string with dual packer un⁃der pressure�For corrosion perforation and the complex string upper dual packer, cutting into piece, fishing with sealing and tripping out piece by piece could be a solution.

  17. Application of Indexing Curved Cam Mechanism in Packaging Wheel of YB47 Hard Packer%弧面分度凸轮机构在YB47型硬盒包装机包装轮中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国胜; 戎磊杰

    2011-01-01

    YB47型硬盒包装机包装轮的间歇运动对机器造成的冲击,易使包装轮包装过程产生铝箔纸破损或铝箔纸缺失现象.为此,利用弧面分度凸轮机构在高速运动中的高精度分度功能,应用于3号包装轮的驱动机构中,采用弧面分度凸轮机构代替槽轮机构,以减少分度机构对机器造成的冲击.应用效果表明,采用该机构的3号包装轮分度精度高,定位准确,传动平稳,结构紧凑,装配弧面分度凸轮机构步骤简化,操作方便.与YB45型硬盒包装机3号包装轮相比,YB47型包装机中的弧面分度凸轮机构有效减少了3号轮在高速运动中的振动和对机器的冲击;与YB45小包铝箔纸缺陷数据相比(5~9包/月),改进后YB47在3号轮包装过程中未出现铝箔纸破损或铝箔纸缺失现象,提高了烟包包装质量.%The impact caused by the intermittent movement of packaging wheels in YB47 hard packer sometimes resulted in foil breakage or out of place, therefore the actuator was replaced by an indexing curved cam mechanism in No. 3 packaging wheel of YB47 to reduce the impact. The practical application indicated that the improved No. 3 packaging wheel featured high indexing precision, accurate positioning, smooth transmission, and it is compact in structure, simple in assembling the indexing cam mechanism and convenient in operation. Comparing with the No. 3 packaging wheel in YB45 hard packer,the improved cam mechanism in YB47 packer effectively decreased the vibration and impact caused by No. 3 packaging wheel at high running speed, and the number of foil-related defective packs reduced to zero from 5-9 pack/month for YB45.

  18. FIFTY-THREE CASES OF EXTERNAL HUMERAL EPICONDYLITIS TREATED WITH WARM ACUPUNCTURE AND TRIPLE PUNCTURE%温针齐刺治疗肱骨外上髁炎53例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌渊

    2007-01-01

    @@ The author has treated external humeral epicondylitis with triple puncture recorded in Miraculous Pivot: Official Needles (), combined with warm acupuncture and won good therapeutic effects, following is the report.

  19. External fixators in haemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, V; Srivastava, A; PalaniKumar, C; Daniel, A J; Mathews, V; Babu, N; Chandy, M; Sundararaj, G D

    2004-01-01

    External fixators (EF) are not commonly used for patients with haemophilia. We describe the use of EF (Ilizarov, AO- uni- and bi-planar fixators and Charnley clamp) in nine patients (mean age: 19.2 years; range: 9-37) with haemophilia for the following indications - arthrodesis of infected joints, treatment of open fractures and osteoclasis. EF required an average of nine skin punctures [range: 4-17 were maintained for a period of 15 weeks (range: 8-29.5), without regular factor replacement, till bone healing was adequate and were removed with a single dose of factor infusion]. The mean preoperative factor level achieved was 85% (range: 64-102%). Much lower levels were subsequently maintained till wound healing. The average total factor consumption was 430 IU kg(-1) (range: 240-870), administered over a period of 17 days (range: 9-44). There were no major complications related to EF except in a patient who developed inhibitors. In conclusion, EF can be used safely in haemophilic patients who do not have inhibitors and does not require prolonged factor replacement.

  20. Application of 13Cr Steel in CO2 Gas Well Completion Packer%13Cr 钢在含 CO2气井用完井封隔器上的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志扬; 罗君; 姜建平; 焦阳

    2016-01-01

    CO2腐蚀是世界石油工业中常见的腐蚀类型,CO2溶于水后对钢铁具有极强的腐蚀性,会对油套管及井下工具产生严重腐蚀。13Cr 钢具有良好的抗 CO2腐蚀性能,可以满足含 CO2气井用完井封隔器的使用要求。本文主要讲述了13Cr 钢在含 CO2气井用完井封隔器上的应用情况,说明了含 CO2气井用完井封隔器材料选用原则,针对13Cr 钢在加工过程中发生的问题,给出了解决方案,并介绍了这种完井封隔器的室内试验情况。%CO2 corrosion is a common type of corrosion in petroleum industry. However, with excellent CO2 corrosion resistance, the 13Cr steel can satisfy the requirements of CO2 gas well completion packer. This paper mainly described the application of 13Cr steel in CO2 gas well completion packer, explained the material selection principle, provided solutions for processing problems, and introduced the indoor test results.

  1. External legitimation in international new ventures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores within the framework of new venture legitimation how and why international new ventures acquire external legitimacy and strive for survival in the face of critical events. Following a longitudinal multiple-case study methodology that was adopted for the purpose of theory...... threshold, and on the valuation of the venture are discussed and respective propositions are put forward to guide future research....

  2. Skepticism, contextualism, externalism and modality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-01-01

    .... However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated...

  3. External iliac artery dissection secondary to endofibrosis in a cyclist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Thomas D; Revesz, Elizabeth; Podbielski, Francis J; Blecha, Matthew J

    2010-07-01

    Endofibrosis of the external iliac artery is an uncommon disease affecting primarily young, otherwise healthy, endurance athletes. Thigh pain during maximal exercise with quick resolution postexercise is characteristic of the so-called cyclist's iliac syndrome. We report an unusual case in which the typical endofibrotic plaque was accompanied by dissection of the external iliac artery. The patient was treated surgically with excision of the affected artery segment and placement of an interposition graft. This case highlights an unusual finding in association with external iliac artery endofibrosis and provides an opportunity to briefly review the literature on the subject.

  4. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-04-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis.

  5. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  6. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  7. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  8. CT findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ha Young; Song, Chang Joon; Yoon, Chung Dae; Park, Mi Hyun; Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University, School of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    We wanted to report the CT image findings of the osteoma of the external auditory canal. Temporal bone CT scanning was performed on eight patients (4 males and 4 females aged between 8 and 41 years) with pathologically proven osteoma of the external auditory canal after operation, and the findings of the CT scanning were retrospectively reviewed. Not only did we analyze the size, shape, distribution and location of the osteomas, we also analyzed the relationship between the lesion and the tympanosqumaous or tympanomastoid suture line, and the changes seen on the CT scan images for the patients who were able to undergo follow-up. All the lesions of the osteoma of the external auditory canal were unilateral, solitary, pedunculated bony masses. In five patients, the osteomas occurred on the left side and for the other three patients, the osteomas occurred on the right side. The average size of the osteoma was 0.6 cm with the smallest being 0.5 cm and the largest being 1.2 cm. Each of the lesions was located at the osteochondral junction in the terminal part of the osseous external ear canal. The stalk of the osteoma of the external auditory canal was found to have occurred in the anteroinferior wall in five cases (63%), in the anterosuperior wall (the tympanosqumaous suture line) in two cases (25%), and in the anterior wall in one case. The osteoma of the external auditory canal was a compact form in five cases and it was a cancellous form in three cases. One case of the cancellous form was changed into a compact form 35 months later due to the advanced ossification. Osteoma of the external auditory canal developed in a unilateral and solitary fashion. The characteristic image findings show that it is attached to the external auditory canal by its stalk. Unlike our common knowledge about its occurrence, osteoma mostly occurred in the tympanic wall, and this is regardless of the tympanosquamous or tympanomastoid suture line.

  9. Holographic Interferometry Applications In External Osteosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquot, P.; Rastogi, P. K.; Pflug, L.

    1985-08-01

    In order to maintain fragments of fractured bones in a state of immobilization, the use of an external rigid frame has proved to be very advantageous. Confronted by contradictory requirements, the conception of external fixation has, however, been a difficult task. The present paper aims to show, through three examples of varied bearings, the interest of holographic interferometry in external osteosynthesis. The first example deals with the mechanical behavior of a key element of the fixation device the ball joint submitted to realistic loads. The last two examples compare two models of ball joints as to their characteristics of rigidity and of resistance to slipping. Whereas in the former case holographic interferometry primarily fulfills the function of a prelude to the modelization work, in the latter cases it serves to formulate an engineering diagnostic. The findings relate to the remarkable elastic behavior of the ball joint, to the effectiveness of a lightened bowl design, and to the fact that cousin models may behave quite differently as to their resistance to slipping rotations of the bar. In comparison with other experimental methods, holographic interferometry appears to be very competitive and result-oriented and, as such, is expected to multiply applications in similar evaluation tasks.

  10. Socio-economic research on fusion. SERF 1997-98. Macro Tast E2: External costs and benefits. Task 2: Comparison of external costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte; Korhonen, Riitta

    1998-12-01

    This report is part of the SERF (Socio-Economic Research on Fusion) project, Macro Task E2, which covers External Costs and Benefits. The report is the documentation of Task 2, Comparison of External Costs. The aim of Task 2 Comparison of External Costs, has been to compare the external costs of the fusion energy with those from other alternative energy generation technologies. In this task identification and quantification of the external costs for wind energy and photovoltaic have been performed by Risoe, while identification and quantification of the external cost for nuclear fission and fossil fuels have been discussed by VTT. The methodology used for the assessment of the externalities of the fuel cycles selected has been the one developed within the ExternE Project. First estimates for the externalities of fusion energy have been under examination in Macrotask E2. Externalities of fossil fuels and nuclear fission have already been evaluated in the ExternE project and a vast amount of material for different sites in various countries is available. This material is used in comparison. In the case of renewable wind energy and photovoltaic are assessed separately. External costs of the various alternatives may change as new technologies are developed and costs can to a high extent be avoided (e.g. acidifying impacts but also global warming due to carbon dioxide emissions). Also fusion technology can experience major progress and some important cost components probably can be avoided already by 2050. (EG) 36 refs.

  11. External fuel thermionic reactor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondt, J. F.; Peelgren, M. L.

    1971-01-01

    Thermionic reactors are prime candidates for nuclear electric propulsion. The national thermionic reactor effort is concentrated on the flashlight concept with the external-fuel concept as the backup. The external-fuel concept is very adaptable to a completely modular power subsystem which is attractive for highly reliable long-life applications. The 20- to 25-cm long, externally-fueled converters have been designed, fabricated, and successfully tested with many thermal cycles by electrical heating. However, difficulties have been encountered during encapsulation for nuclear heated tests and none have been started to date. These nuclear tests are required to demonstrate the concept feasibility.

  12. Dissemination of CERN Technologies Through External Entrepreneurs

    CERN Document Server

    Lande, Bjørnulf Visdal; Huuse, Henning

    2008-01-01

    This study focuses on dissemination of innovations through external entrepreneurs. The innovations studied are developed at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and commercialized by entrepreneurs establishing spin-off companies on the outside of the Organization. The objective of this study is to provide knowledge to facilitate future external entrepreneurs to increase dissemination of CERN technologies. The research questions looks at the timeline from preparations for creating the spin-off company, until having a product for commercialization in the market. A qualitative cross case investigation was conducted to assess the experiences of four spin-off companies. A framework was created to structure the discussion by finding and categorizing impeding- and success factors seen from the entrepreneurs point of view. The findings where structured in three phases respectively, the time before starting the company, the beginning of the company and the final development before selling products. Th...

  13. Composite Vector Particles in External Electromagnetic Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Davoudi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can be additionally obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasi-static response of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within t...

  14. Combination of external loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S.; Tarp Johansen, N.J.; Joergensen, H. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Gravesen, H.; Soerensen, S.L. [Carl Bro, Glostrup (Denmark); Pedersen, J. [Elsam Engineering, Fredericia (Denmark); Zorn, R.; Hvidberg Knudsen, M. [DHI Water and Environment, Hoersholm (Denmark); Voelund, P. [Energi E2, Koebenhavn (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    The project onbectives have been: To improve and consequently opimise the basis for design of offshore wind turbines. This is done through 1) mapping the wind, wave ice and current as well as correlations of these, and 2) by clarifyring how these external conditions transform into loads. A comprehensive effort has been made to get a thorough understanding of the uncertainties that govern the reliability of wind turbines with respect to wind and wave loading. One of the conclusions is that the reliability of wind turbines is generally lower, than the average reliability of building structures that are subject not only to environmental loads, which are very uncertain, but also imposed loads and self weight, which are less uncertain than the environmental loads. The implication is that, at the moment lower load partial safety factors for onshore wind turbines cannot be recommended. For the combination of wind and wave design loads the problem is twofold: 1). A very conservative design will be generated by simply adding the individual wind and wave design loads disregarding the independence of the short-term fluctuations of wind and wave loads. 2). Characteristic values and partial safety factors for wind and wave loads are not defined similarly. This implies that the reliability levels of turbine support structures subject to purely aerodynamic loads and subject to purely hydrodynamic loads are not identical. For the problem of combining aerodynamic design loads and hydrodynamic design loads two results have been obtained in the project: 1). By simple means a site specific wave load safety factor rendering the same safety level for hydrodynamic loads as for aerodynamic loads is derived, and next, by direct square summation of extreme fluctuations, the wind and wave load safety factors are weighted. 2). Under the assumptions that a deep water site is considered and that the wave loading is a fifty-fifty mix of drag and inertia the same wind and wave load safety factor

  15. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, David

    2016-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

  16. Bilateral Mandibular Condylar Fractures with Associated External Auditory Canal Fractures and Otorrhagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, David

    2007-01-01

    A rare case of bilateral mandibular condylar fractures associated with bilateral external auditory canal fractures and otorrhagia is reported. The more severe external auditory canal fracture was present on the side of high condylar fracture, and the less severe external auditory canal fracture was ipsilateral to the condylar neck fracture. A mechanism of injury is proposed to account for such findings.

  17. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P. [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  18. 基于压水试验的深部煤层底板岩层阻渗性能研究∗%Study on permeability barrier performance of deep coal seam floor based on packer permeability test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓倩; 张冬; 张新武; 王言剑

    2014-01-01

    In situ field packer permeability test,being a reliable method to obtain the param-eters of permeability barrier performance of strata,was used to explore this performance of deep coal seam floor. A large amount of measured data were obtained after the test on two layers of floor strata. The test results showed that these two layers of floor strata could not seep in initial state due to stronger barrier performance until the fracture and connection led to seepage. Co MPared with the first and repeated packer permeability tests on these two layers of floor strata, the variation of water pressure in measured pore was associated with that in water injection hole, but the seepage pressure in the first time was higher than that in second time,showing that the permeability barrier performance of strata turned weaker after first packer permeability test and was easy to form seepage. Using permeability coefficient and permeability barrier strength as in-dexes,the permeability barrier performance of floor strata has been quantitatively evaluated,and the results showed that the tested strata was characterized with high barrier performance and weak permeability.%原位现场压水试验是获取岩层阻渗性能参数的可靠方法,为探究某煤矿深部煤层底板阻渗能力,采用现场压水试验方法对底板两段岩层进行了测试并获取了大量的实测数据。结果分析表明:该底板两测试段岩层在原始状态均不导渗,阻渗性较强,直至压裂导通才形成导渗条件;对两段岩层均进行了初次和重复两个压水过程,对比两次试验可知,测渗孔水压力与注水孔水压力的关联变化趋势大致相同,但初次压水的起始导渗水压明显高于重复压水,表明在初次压水后岩层的阻渗能力降低,更易形成导渗;采用渗透系数和阻渗强度作为指标,对底板岩层的阻渗性能进行了量化评价,结果表明测试岩层表现出明显的高阻弱渗的特点。

  19. Externality and burnout among dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Yves, A; Freeston, M H; Godbout, F; Poulin, L; St-Amand, C; Verret, M

    1989-12-01

    This study investigates the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory and locus of control as measured by the Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External Locus of Control (ANS-IE) for 82 dentists. Significant Pearson correlations between two Maslach subscales and locus of control show Personal Accomplishment to be negatively associated -.31 and Emotional Exhaustion to be positively correlated .21 to externality.

  20. Relatie interne en externe audit

    OpenAIRE

    Ghys, Emelie

    2011-01-01

    In het eerste hoofdstuk wordt de probleemstelling van deze eindverhandeling besproken. Interne en externe audit worden de laatste jaren internationaal en nationaal meer en meer erkend in het bedrijfsleven. Aanleiding voor de toenemende belangstelling van de interne en externe auditfunctie zijn de verschillende boekhoudschandalen rond corporate governance of deugdelijk bestuur. Deze financiële mislukkingen leidden wereldwijd tot diverse wetten, nieuwe regels en verbeterde standaarden om zo een...

  1. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... towards the conditions for the use of the external benchmarks we provide more insights to some of the issues and challenges that are related to using this mechanism for performance management and advance competitiveness in organizations....

  2. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  3. Assessment of Environmental External Effects in Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Henrik Jacob; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1996-01-01

    to the production of electricity based on a coal fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas.In the report the individual externalities from...... technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared...

  4. Dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Shirol

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever case to be reported of a dumbbell-shaped neurofibroma over the external ear and only the fourth case of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 to be associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  5. Endovascular exclusion of a large external iliac vein aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Mina; Hernandez, Diego

    2013-07-01

    Iliac vein aneurysms are uncommon, and there is no consensus on optimal treatment. We present a case of venous exclusion using an endovascular approach. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a large external iliac vein aneurysm treated endovascularly. We have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach with satisfactory 1-year follow-up.

  6. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  7. External Costs Related to Power Production Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1997-01-01

    The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective of...

  8. Stabilization of unstable pelvic fractures with a novel internal-external fixator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zan-li; Gary Chen

    2011-01-01

    An internal-external fixator for stabilization in three cases with unstable pelvic fractures were reported.Compared with external fixation,the internal-external fixator,which is placed in the subcutaneous layer,decreased the risk of pin-track infection,pin site pain,and bowel obstruction; meanwhile,it had the advantage of external fixation:it was easy to apply,controlled damage,and resulted in minimal injury.

  9. External iliac vein thrombosis in an athletic cyclist with a history of external iliac artery endofibrosis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kelly M; Skeik, Nedaa; Shepherd, Roger F; Wennberg, Paul W

    2011-11-01

    External iliac artery endofibrosis describes an intimal subendothelial fibrosis leading to wall thickening and stenosis that has been described in high-performance athletes. There are anatomical, mechanical, and probably metabolic factors that may contribute to this pathology. Ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurement with exercise testing, duplex ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) angiogram, and ultimately arteriography help to make the diagnosis. Management can be conservative, but most cases require surgical intervention. External iliac vein stenosis and thrombosis in cyclists has rarely been described in the literature. We report a case of extensive left lower limb deep venous thrombosis (DVT) including the external iliac vein diagnosed in a 57-year-old athletic cyclist with a history of external iliac artery thrombosis.

  10. External Otitis: An Unusual Presentation in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute otitis externa (AOE is an infection of the external auditory canal, the auricle, and the outer surface of the tympanic membrane. Although AOE is one of the most common otologic conditions encountered in pediatric population, it is known to primarily affect children older than 2 years. We report a case of AOE caused by Staphylococcus aureus in a 23-day-old neonate. A 23-day-old female infant presented to our neonatology clinic with irritability and discharge from the right ear. There were yellow otorrhea, mild erythema, and edema of right external ear canal. There was no sign of otitis media on otoscopy. The results of laboratory tests were insignificant. The discharge culture grew colonies of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus. After 48 hours of treatment with intravenous cloxacillin, significant improvement was observed. The present case highlights an unusual presentation of staphylococcal infection in a neonate. This is the first case of methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus otitis externa in an immunocompetent newborn.

  11. A STUDY OF CONGENITAL MALFORMATIONS OF THE EXTERNAL EAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubi Saikia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Congenital external ear malformations like Microtia, Anotia, Preauricular skin tags, etc. cause severe psychological problems in children. If accompanied with atresia of the external auditory canal and the middle ear; hearing loss, developmental delays are also associated with such malformations. AIM The aim of the present study is to evaluate the commonly occurring congenital external ear defects in this part of India. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was undertaken in patients attending the Plastic Surgery OPD at Assam Medical College Hospital and Smile Train Centre at Srishti Hospitals and Research Centre at Dibrugarh, Assam, from July 2013 to July 2016. We did an analysis of 25 patients with visibly noticeable external ear deformities and recorded the findings as per proforma and took photographs. RESULTS Among the 25 cases, 9 (36% were males and 16 (64% were females. The most common congenital anomaly that we found was microtia 7 (28%. Of these, 1 (4% was isolated microtia and 6 (24% were associated with hemifacial microsomia. The second common finding was preauricular skin tags 5 (20%. 3 of the microtia cases also presented with external auditory canal atresia and hearing loss. CONCLUSION Congenital anomalies of the external ear can seriously change a child’s personality. Proper diagnosis and treatment of such cases will definitely reduce the possible psychological, physical and financial problems of the patient and family as most of them are surgically correctable.

  12. External Debt and Economic Growth in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasfi Fkili Wahiba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to identify the effect of external debt on economic growth; we used the debt service as percentage of exports and debt indicators in the first and second degree. The econometric estimation showed that the sign of the coefficient of debt is positive and the debt squared is negative, and beyond a certain stock, the impact of debt on growth becomes negative and Tunisia must control its debts as additional increases will have adverse impacts on the economic performance of the country. Therefore, the borrowing should remain a necessity in cases of extreme emergency, not a solution to all economic problems experienced by the country.

  13. Cancer of the external auditory canal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyrop, Mette; Grøntved, Aksel

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcome of surgery for cancer of the external auditory canal and relate this to the Pittsburgh staging system used both on squamous cell carcinoma and non-squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective case series of all patients who had surgery between 1979 and 2000....... PATIENTS: Ten women and 10 men with previously untreated primary cancer. Median age at diagnosis was 67 years (range, 31-87 years). Survival data included 18 patients with at least 2 years of follow-up or recurrence. INTERVENTION: Local canal resection or partial temporal bone resection. MAIN OUTCOME...

  14. Endoscopic versus external approach dacryocystorhinostomy: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinki Saha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR consists of creating a lacrimal drainage pathway to the nasal cavity to restore permanent drainage of previously obstructed excreting system. Aim: To compare the result and advantages of both endonasal endoscopic and external DCR regarding the patency rate, patient compliance and complications. Study Design: Prospective non-randomized comparative study. Materials and Methods: Study was conducted for 16 months duration in a teaching hospital with 50 cases of endoscopic and 30 cases of external DCR with a follow-up of minimum 6 months. Data regarding surgical outcome and complications were analysed and compared using χ2 test. Results: Total 72 patients were included in the study with six having bilateral involvement, out of which 20 were male and 52 were female. The mean age for endoscopic and external DCR was 33.6 years and 46.0 years, respectively. Right eye (63.8% was involved more commonly than left eye (36.2%. Epiphora was the commonest presenting symptom (63.7%. Mean duration of surgery was much lengthier in external (mean 119.6 minutes than endoscopic (mean 49.0 minutes DCR. Bleeding was the most common immediate postoperative complication seen in 33.3% and 10.0% of external and endoscopic DCR cases, respectively. Primary surgical success rate was 90% and 96.7% for endoscopic and external DCR, respectively ( P = 0.046. Among the endoscopic DCR group, four patients underwent revision surgery giving a total successful surgical outcome of 98% at third month of follow-up. However, at 6 month of follow-up, success rate was 92% for endoscopic DCR and 93.3% for external DCR. The difference was not statistically significant ( P = 0.609. Conclusion: Intranasal endoscopic DCR is a simple, minimally invasive, day care procedure and had comparable result with conventional external DCR.

  15. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews research on open innovation that considers how and why firms commercialize external sources of innovations. It examines both the “outside-in” and “coupled” modes of open innovation. From an analysis of prior research on how firms leverage external sources of innovation...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  16. Optimal Auctions with Financial Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maasland, E.; Onderstal, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    We construct optimal auctions when bidders face financial externalities.In a Coasean World, in which the seller cannot prevent a perfect resale market, nor withhold the object, the lowest-price all-pay auction is optimal.In a Myersonean World, in which the seller can both prevent resale after the au

  17. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings...

  18. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  19. [Treatment by external insulin pump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Sylvaine

    2010-12-01

    Since the recent recommendations by the French speaking association for research on diabetes and metabolic illnesses (Alfediam), treatment by insulin pump has found itself in competition with basal-bolus, a procedure using similar injections of insulin which has become a benchmark treatment. The latest Alfediam guidelines focus on defining ways of treating diabetics with an external insulin pump.

  20. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal;

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  1. Femoral Reconstruction Using External Fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniy Palatnik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of an external fixator for the purpose of distraction osteogenesis has been applied to a wide range of orthopedic problems caused by such diverse etiologies as congenital disease, metabolic conditions, infections, traumatic injuries, and congenital short stature. The purpose of this study was to analyze our experience of utilizing this method in patients undergoing a variety of orthopedic procedures of the femur. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed our experience of using external fixation for femoral reconstruction. Three subgroups were defined based on the primary reconstruction goal lengthening, deformity correction, and repair of nonunion/bone defect. Factors such as leg length discrepancy (LLD, limb alignment, and external fixation time and complications were evaluated for the entire group and the 3 subgroups. Results. There was substantial improvement in the overall LLD, femoral length discrepancy, and limb alignment as measured by mechanical axis deviation (MAD and lateral distal femoral angle (LDFA for the entire group as well as the subgroups. Conclusions. The Ilizarov external fixator allows for decreased surgical exposure and preservation of blood supply to bone, avoidance of bone grafting and internal fixation, and simultaneous lengthening and deformity correction, making it a very useful technique for femoral reconstruction.

  2. Complex Normal-mode Frequencies of External Perturbations in Generalized Schwarzschild Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Ning-Yi; LI Xin-Zhou

    2000-01-01

    A moditied Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approach is used to determine the complex normal-mode frequencies of external perturbations in generalized Schwarzschild geometry. In the λ= 1 case (Schwarzschild geometry), the agreement with other methods is excellent for the low-lying modes. On the contrary, the λ ≠ 1 case of this geometry is unstable against external perturbations

  3. Ship emissions and their externalities for Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzannatos, Ernestos

    2010-06-01

    The existing and emerging international and European policy framework for the reduction of ship exhaust emissions dictates the need to produce reliable national, regional and global inventories in order to monitor emission trends and consequently provide the necessary support for future policy making. Furthermore, the inventories of ship exhaust emissions constitute the basis upon which their external costs are estimated in an attempt to highlight the economic burden they impose upon the society and facilitate the cost-benefit analysis of the proposed emission abatement technologies, operational measures and market-based instruments prior to their implementation. The case of Greece is of particular interest mainly because the dense ship traffic within the Greek seas directly imposes the impact of its exhaust emission pollutants (NO x, SO 2 and PM) upon the highly populated, physically sensitive and culturally precious Greek coastline, as well as upon the land and seas of Greece in general, whereas the contribution of Greece in the global CO 2 inventory at a time of climatic change awareness cannot be ignored. In this context, this paper presents the contribution of Greece in ship exhaust emissions of CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM from domestic and international shipping over the last 25 years (1984-2008), utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) emission methodology. Furthermore, the ship exhaust emissions generated within the Greek seas and their externalities are estimated for the year 2008, through utilizing the fuel-based (fuel sales) approach for domestic shipping and the activity-based (ship traffic) approach for international shipping. On this basis, it was found that during the 1984 to 2008 period the fuel-based (fuel sales) ship emission inventory for Greece increased at an average annual rate of 2.85%. In 2008, the CO 2, NO x, SO 2 and PM emissions reached 12.9 million tons (of which 12.4 million tons of CO 2) and their externalities were found to be around 3

  4. Assessment of environmental external effects in power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Schleisner, L. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Meyer, N.I.; Nielsen, P.S.; Nielsen, V. [The Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    1996-12-01

    This report summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark in 1994 concerning externalities. The main objective was to identify, quantify and - if possible - monetize the external effects in the production of energy, especially in relation to renewable technologies. The report compares environmental externalities in the production of energy using renewable and non-renewable energy sources, respectively. The comparison is demonstrated on two specific case studies. The first case is the production of electricity based on wind power plants compared to the production of electricity based on a coal-fired conventional plant. In the second case heat/power generation by means of a combined heat and power plant based on biomass-generated gas is compared to that of a combined heat and power plant fuelled by natural gas. In the report the individual externalities from the different ways of producing energy are identified, the stress caused by the effect is assessed, and finally the monetary value of the damage is estimated. The method is applied to the local as well as the regional and global externalities. (au) 8 tabs., 7 ills., 4 refs.

  5. Defensive externality and blame projection following failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochreich, D J

    1975-09-01

    This study focuses upon the relationship between internal-external control and defensive blame projection. Trust was used as a moderator variable for making differential predictions concerning the behavior of two subgroups of externals: defensive externals, whose externality is presumed to reflect primarily a verbal technique of defense, and congruent externals, whose externality reflects a more genuine belief that most outcomes are determined by forces beyond their personal control. As predicted, defensive externals showed a stronger tendency than did congruent externals and internals to resort to blame projection following failure at an achievement task. There were no group differences in attribution following task success. Defensive externals were found to be more responsive to negative feedback than were congruent externals.

  6. Improvement and Simulation of Stirring Device in Cigarette Hopper in FOCKE 800 Hard Packer%FOCKE 800硬盒包装机烟库搅动块装置的改进与仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建娟; 蒋文瑛; 吴旭; 张东旭; 黄自萍

    2015-01-01

    为解决FOCKE 800硬盒包装机烟库内烟支堵塞、下烟不顺畅等问题,通过分析烟库形状、烟支流动等因素对烟支下落速度的影响,对烟库搅动块装置进行了改进。将烟库中静止的4个分流圆柱改为两个活动的圆形搅动块,由原驱动搅动辊电机通过四连杆机构驱动圆形搅动块搅动烟支,实现烟支分流。采用离散元仿真模型模拟烟库中烟支流、搅动块的搅动情况。结果表明:①建立的虚拟烟库仿真模型,符合烟支流的实际要求,仿真结果与实际值相比较,二者基本吻合。②将烟库中的搅动块由固定改为运动状态,变形烟支率明显减少;当搅动块摆动频率1.6 Hz,摆动角度11.2°,运行时间9.0 s时,变形烟支率减少2.5%,变形烟支率最小。烟库内烟支流动平稳,受力均匀,包装机运行状态良好。利用该离散元仿真模型可有效分析烟库中烟支分流情况,减小产品开发成本,缩短产品研发周期。%To solve the problems of cigarette jam and staggering falling in discharge channel of cigarette hopper in FOCKE 800 hard packer, the stirring device in cigarette hopper was modified via analyzing the factors, such as hopper shape and cigarette flowing, influencing cigarette falling. The four fixed deflectors were replaced by two round movable stirring parts, which were driven by the driving motor of original stirring rollers via a four-linkage mechanism, to stir cigarettes and split cigarette flow. The cigarette flow in cigarette hopper and the stirring action of stirring parts were simulated with a discrete element simulating model. The results showed that: 1) The established simulation model of virtual cigarette hopper met the actual requirements of cigarette flow, and the simulated results basically agreed with actual values. 2) The amount of distorted cigarettes reduced obviously once the stirring parts in cigarette hopper became movable. When

  7. Dipolar fluids under external perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Sabine H L [Stranski-Laboratorium fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie Sekretariat TC7, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Strasse des 17. Juni 124, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-04-20

    We discuss recent developments and present new findings on the structural and phase properties of dipolar model fluids influenced by various external perturbations. We concentrate on systems of spherical particles with permanent (point) dipole moments. Starting from what is known about the three-dimensional systems, particular emphasis is given to dipolar fluids in different confining situations involving both simple and complex (disordered) pore geometries. Further topics concern the effect of quenched positional disorder, the influence of external (electric or magnetic) fields, and the fluid-fluid phase behaviour of various dipolar mixtures. It is demonstrated that due to the translational-orientational coupling and due to the long range of dipolar interactions even simple perturbations such as hard walls can have a profound impact on the systems. (topical review)

  8. External observer reflections on QBism

    CERN Document Server

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    In this short review I present my personal reflections on QBism. I have no intrinsic sympathy neither to QBism nor to subjective interpretation of probability in general. However, I have been following development of QBism from its very beginning, observing its evolution and success, sometimes with big surprise. Therefore my reflections on QBism can be treated as "external observer" reflections. I hope that my representation of this interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) has some degree of objectivity. It may be useful for researchers who are interested in quantum foundations, but do not belong to the QBism-community, because I tried to analyze essentials of QBism critically (i.e., not just emphasizing its advantages, as in a typical publication of QBists). QBists may be interested as well - in comments of an external observer who monitored development of this approach to QM during last 16 years. The second part of the paper is devoted to interpretations of probability, objective versus subjective, and view...

  9. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  10. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Booth

    1999-11-06

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses.

  11. Development of a Special Application Coiled Tubing Applied Plug for Geothermal Well Casing Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STALLER,GEORGE E.; KNUDSEN,STEVEN D.; SATTLER,ALLAN R.

    1999-10-01

    Casing deformation in producing geothermal wells is a common problem in many geothermal fields, mainly due to the active geologic formations where these wells are typically located. Repairs to deformed well casings are necessary to keep the wells in production and to occasionally enter a well for approved plugging and abandonment procedures. The costly alternative to casing remediation is to drill a new well to maintain production and/or drill a well to intersect the old well casing below the deformation for abandonment purposes. The U.S. Department of Energy and the Geothermal Drilling Organization sponsored research and development work at Sandia National Laboratories in an effort to reduce these casing remediation expenditures. Sandia, in cooperation with Halliburton Energy Services, developed a low cost, bridge-plug-type, packer for use in casing remediation work in geothermal well environments. This report documents the development and testing of this commercially available petal-basket packer called the Special Application Coiled Tubing Applied Plug (SACTAP).

  12. Network externalities across financial institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Iragorri, Carlos Alberto; Preciado Pua, Sergio Andrés; Ordóñez Herrera, Juan Sebastián

    2016-01-01

    We propose and estimate a financial distress model that explicitly accounts for the interactions or spill-over effects between financial institutions, through the use of a spatial continuity matrix that is build from financial network data of inter bank transactions. Such setup of the financial distress model allows for the empirical validation of the importance of network externalities in determining financial distress, in addition to institution specific and macroeconomic covariates. The re...

  13. Externe Kosten in der Energiewirtschaft

    OpenAIRE

    Voß, Alfred; Friedrich, Rainer

    1994-01-01

    Als externe Effekte werden unbeteiligte Dritte betreffende Zusatzkosten oder Zusatznutzen verstanden, die sich in den jeweiligen Güterpreisen nicht wiederfinden und denen die Betroffenen nicht indifferent gegenüberstehen. Die gegenwärtige Energiebereitstellung und -nutzung ist in vielen Bereichen eine wesentliche Quelle der Belastung von Umwelt und Natur. Begriffe und Schlagworte wie Waldsterben, Tankerunglücke, Tschernobyl und Treibhauseffekt seien in diesem Zusammenhang erwähnt.

  14. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas......, optimistic, and pessimistic behaviour, and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  15. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii) The relev......We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii......) The relevance and efficiency of different instruments for internalisation and compensation; and iii) Implementing internalisation over large geographical and temporal distances. We find taxation to be a more relevant and efficient tool for internalisation than insurance and litigation. With increasing...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  16. Individuals' insight into intrapersonal externalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Stillwell

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available An intrapersonal externality exists when an individual's decisions affect the outcomes of her future decisions. It can result in decreasing or increasing average returns to the rate of consumption, as occurs in addiction or exercise. Experimentation using the Harvard Game, which models intrapersonal externalities, has found differences in decision making between drug users and control subjects, leading to the argument that these externalities influence the course of illicit drug use. Nevertheless, it is unclear how participants who behave optimally conceptualise the problem. We report two experiments using a simplified Harvard Game, which tested the differences in contingency knowledge between participants who chose optimally and participants who did not. Those who demonstrated optimal performance exhibited both a pattern of correct responses and systematic errors to questions about the payoff schedules. The pattern suggested that they learned explicit knowledge of the change in reinforcement on a trail-by-trial basis. They did not have, or need, a full knowledge of the historical interaction leading to each payoff. We also found no evidence of choice differences between participants who were given a guaranteed payment and participants who were paid contingent on their performance, but those given a guaranteed payment were able to report more contingency knowledge as the experiment progressed, suggesting that they explored more rather than settling into a routine. Experiment 2 showed that using a fixed inter-trial interval did not change the results.

  17. Statistical Analysis of External Causes about 15343 Cases of Injury and Poisoning%15343例损伤与中毒的外部原因统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐晓兰

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyze external reasons and the causes of death and harm of injury and poisoning patients. To devebp preventive measures, reduce the incidence of injury and poisoning, reduce 1he m ortality. M ethods Analyzing external reasons of injury and poisoning patients from 2006 to 2010 by ICD-10 . Results There were 15343 injury and poisoning patients which accounting for 8 .6% of the total discharge. There were 153 patients w ith death, accounting for 9 .0% . C onclusion T raffic accidents, accidental falls, hom icide, fell, suicide and self-injury w ere prim ary causes of injury and poisoning and death . Traffic supervision, safe protection consciousness should be strengthened to reduce the occurrence of in jury and poisoning.%目的 分析损伤中毒患者的外部原因及死亡原因及其对人群的危害,制定防范措施,减少损伤中毒的发生,降低病死率.方法 对某院2006年-2010年收治入院的损伤与中毒病例,按ICD-10以第一诊断进行损伤中毒的外部原因统计分析.结果 损伤中毒患者15343例,占出院总数的8.6%,其中死亡153例,占总死亡人数的9.0%.两者分别位居该院疾病构成及死亡的前四位.结论 交通事故、意外跌伤、他杀和他伤、自高处坠落、自杀和自伤是造成损伤中毒及死亡的主要原因.应加大交通监管力度,增强人群的安全防护意识,减少损伤中毒的发生.

  18. THE PROBLEM OF EXTERNAL DEBT OF DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    to be not very profitable, or even unprofitable at all, and in some cases, external ... of trade for debtor countries on the international commodity market did not evoke ... 2) Protectionist policy on the market of developed countries,. 3) Wavering ...

  19. Composite vector particles in external electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudi, Zohreh; Detmold, William

    2016-01-01

    Lattice quantum chromodynamics (QCD) studies of electromagnetic properties of hadrons and light nuclei, such as magnetic moments and polarizabilities, have proven successful with the use of background field methods. With an implementation of nonuniform background electromagnetic fields, properties such as charge radii and higher electromagnetic multipole moments (for states of higher spin) can additionally be obtained. This can be achieved by matching lattice QCD calculations to a corresponding low-energy effective theory that describes the static and quasistatic responses of hadrons and nuclei to weak external fields. With particular interest in the case of vector mesons and spin-1 nuclei such as the deuteron, we present an effective field theory of spin-1 particles coupled to external electromagnetic fields. To constrain the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the composite spin-1 field, the single-particle Green's functions in a linearly varying electric field in space are obtained within the effective theory, providing explicit expressions that can be used to match directly onto lattice QCD correlation functions. The viability of an extraction of the charge radius and the electric quadrupole moment of the deuteron from the upcoming lattice QCD calculations of this nucleus is discussed.

  20. VAC® for external fixation of flail chest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikke Winge

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A large anterior chest wall defect following tumor resection was reconstructed with a Gore- Tex® membrane and a combined musculocutaneous rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae free flap. Subsequent paradoxical respiration impeded weaning from the ventilator. Appliance of Vacuum Assisted Closure® (VAC® resulted in immediate chest wall stability and a decrease in the patient’s need for respiratory support. Shortly thereafter, the VAC® was discontinued and the patient was discharged from the intensive care unit (ICU. This case report is the first to describe the successful use of VAC® as an adjuvant to a one-stage procedure for large thoracic wall reconstruction, allowing sufficient temporary external fixation to eliminate paradoxical respiration and plausibly shorten the stay in the ICU. No adverse effects on flap healing or haemodynamics were recorded. It is likely that external VAC® can improve thoracic stability and pulmonary function in a patient with flail chest and decrease the need for mechanical ventilation.

  1. Magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2017-07-01

    We obtain a family of exact solutions describing magnetized black holes in an external gravitational field. Locally the solutions can be interpreted as representing the near-horizon region of a black hole, which interacts with a surrounding matter distribution producing a strong magnetic field. Thus, the solutions reflect the influence of both a gravitational and an electromagnetic external potential in the strong field regime. The static members in the family are generalizations of the Schwarzschild solution in the described environment, while the rotating ones generalize the magnetized Reissner-Nordström solution when the influence of an external gravitational source is also taken into account. Technically, the solutions are obtained by means of a Harrison transformation, applied on the (electro-)vacuum distorted black holes constructed by Bretón et al. We examine the thermodynamical properties of the solutions, and compare them with the corresponding isolated black holes, and with the particular cases when the interaction with only one of the external potentials is taken into account. For the static black holes the influence of the external gravitational and magnetic fields is factorized in a sense, both affecting different properties, and leaving the rest intact. For the rotating solutions the external gravitational and magnetic fields are coupled through the conditions for avoiding conical singularities. The Meissner effect is observed for extremal rotating solutions only in the zero-charge limit, similar to the magnetized Reissner-Nordström black hole.

  2. Influence of external potentials on heterogeneous diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakevičius, Rytis; Ruseckas, Julius

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we consider heterogeneous diffusion processes with the power-law dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the position and investigate the influence of external forces on the resulting anomalous diffusion. The heterogeneous diffusion processes can yield subdiffusion as well as superdiffusion, depending on the behavior of the diffusion coefficient. We assume that not only the diffusion coefficient but also the external force has a power-law dependence on the position. We obtain analytic expressions for the transition probability in two cases: when the power-law exponent in the external force is equal to 2 η -1 , where 2 η is the power-law exponent in the dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the position, and when the external force has a linear dependence on the position. We found that the power-law exponent in the dependence of the mean square displacement on time does not depend on the external force; this force changes only the anomalous diffusion coefficient. In addition, the external force having the power-law exponent different from 2 η -1 limits the time interval where the anomalous diffusion occurs. We expect that the results obtained in this paper may be relevant for a more complete understanding of anomalous diffusion processes.

  3. Fixação esquelética externa em fratura tarsometatársica de seriema (Cariama cristata: relato de caso External skeletal fixation in tarsumetatarsus fracture of red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.J. Torres

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma seriema (Cariama cristata adulta foi atendida com histórico de traumatismo por tentativa de captura. A ave apresentava dificuldade de apoio do membro pélvico direito, dor à manipulação e fratura exposta do osso tarsometatarso. Optou-se pelo tratamento cirúrgico com redução fechada, utilizando-se fixador esquelético externo tipo II, com barra de conexão acrílica. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada foi satisfatória para o tratamento da fratura, possibilitando reparação óssea e retorno funcional do membro 60 dias após a cirurgia.An adult red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata was referred for examination with history of trauma by capture. The physical examination revealed lameness in the right pelvic limb, sensibility to touch and open fracture of tarsumetatarsus. The treatment was done with surgical closed reduction using a external skeletal fixator type II with acrylic connecting bar. The surgical technique applied was satisfactory for the treatment of the fracture of tarsumetatarsus, since there was bone healing and functional return of the limb at 60 days after surgery.

  4. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysack, John T.; Soboleski, Don [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart Street, K7L 2V7, Kingston, Ont. (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. (orig.)

  5. A Comparison between External versus Internal Lateral Osteotomy in Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hashemi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lateral osteotomy is a major part of rhinoplasty for remodeling external facet of the nose and narrowing of nasal base and dorsum after removal of the hump. There are two techniques for lateral osteotomy known as external and internal. Each of these provide advantages and impose limitations. The purpose of our study was to compare the severity of postoperative edema and ecchymosis between internal and external osteotomy techniques. Methods: This study was designed as a clinical trial on 30 cases. With randomization, one side of the nasal bone was selected for internal approach, and the other side, for external approach. Then, on the 1st and 7th days after surgery, the patients were scored for the severity of edema and ecchymosis. Results: On the first day after surgery, not only edema, but also ecchymosis was lower with the external osteotomy than with the internal approach (P = 0.037, P = 0.002, respectively. The severity of ecchymosis, on the 7th postoperative day, was lower with the external approach, and the difference was significant (P = 0.011. The severity of both edema and ecchymosis on the first postoperative day was evaluated higher in females, with statistically significant differences (P = 0.05 for edema and P = 0.003 for ecchymosis. The extension of ecchymosis on the 7th postoperative day was higher in women (P = 0.05. There were no significant differences between the two approaches in medialization of the involved bones and no apparent asymmetries either. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, external osteotomy seems to be the approach of choice, provided that the surgeon has enough experience in doing it. Keywords: Rhinoplasty, Internal osteotomy, External osteotomy, Ecchymosis, Edema

  6. Externalization and Border-induced Displacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemberg-Pedersen, Martin

    This multidisciplinary Ph.D. dissertation engages with the timely and much debated topic of European border control. The first two chapters discuss several moral arguments claiming that border control facilitates solidarity and autonomy. These are assessed with reference to central debates in pol...... in-depth research of the privatization of border control through the cases of G4S, Finmeccanica and the EU’s EUROSUR system. The chapter links externalization of border control with European state-driven export markets and shows how states’ export credit agencies, the arms industry...... and the international banking sector all have overlapping interests in privatized border control. Chapter five identifies the multiple flows, technological, personnel, funds and data, maintaining Europe’s border infrastructure, As migrants are circulated between detention camps and countries, dumped in deserts...

  7. External Cylindrical Nozzle with Controlled Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a developed design of the external cylindrical nozzle with a vacuum camera. The paper studies the nozzle controllability of flow rate via regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere through an air throttle. Working capacity of the nozzle with inlet round or triangular orifice are researched. The gap is provided in the nozzle design between the external wall of the inlet orifice and the end face of the straight case in the nozzle case. The presented mathematical model of the nozzle with the evacuated chamber allows us to estimate the expected vacuum amount in the compressed section of a stream and maximum permissible absolute pressure at the inlet orifice. The paper gives experimental characteristics of the fluid flow process through the nozzle for different values of internal diameter of a straight case and an extent of its end face remoteness from an external wall of the inlet orifice. It estimates how geometry of nozzle constructive elements influences on the volume flow rate. It is established that the nozzle capacity significantly depends on the shape of inlet orifice. Triangular orifice nozzles steadily work in the mode of completely filled flow area of the straight case at much more amounts of the limit pressure of the flow. Vacuum depth in the evacuated chamber also depends on the shape of inlet orifice: the greatest vacuum is reached in a nozzle with the triangular orifice which 1.5 times exceeds the greatest vacuum with the round orifice. Possibility to control nozzle capacity through the regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere was experimentally estimated, thus depth of flow rate regulation of the nozzle with a triangular orifice was 45% in comparison with 10% regulation depth of the nozzle with a round orifice. Depth of regulation calculated by a mathematical model appeared to be much more. The paper presents experimental dependences of the flow coefficients of nozzle input orifice

  8. The suitability of internal versus external successors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Royer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    of family business succession in order to understand when family successors are preferred because of their family-specific experiential knowledge. A case study analysis from the German-Danish border region explores how a family firm has used internal successors for the last 12 successions. We argue...... that in industries where tacit knowledge forms the basis for competitive advantage, the use of internal successors can help family firms excel after a transition of power has occurred. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed to enhance the long-term perspective for family businesses.......Understanding knowledge transfer in family firm succession is important for the survival of family firms. Previous research has begun to explore the suitability of internal versus external successor in family firms with regard to relevant knowledge types. This paper builds on the contingency model...

  9. Clinical observation of 72 cases ofsmall needle knife combined withcupping treating external humeral epicondylitis%小针刀结合拔火罐治疗肱骨外上髁炎72例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇翔; 唐华谋

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨治疗肱骨外上髁炎的有效方法。方法:72例肱骨外上髁炎的患者按照所患疾病给予小针刀联合拔火罐治疗。结果:41例症状完全或基本消除,23例好转,8例无效,总有效率为88.9%。结论:肱骨外上髁炎大多慢性劳损致肱骨外上髁处形成急、慢性炎症等引起,采用小针刀联合拔火罐治疗效果显著。%To explore effective ways of humeral epicondylitis treatment.Methods:72 cases of humeral epicondylitis of patients given a smal knife combined cupping therapy according to the ilness.Results:41 cases symptoms completely or substantialy eliminated, 23 cases improved, 8 cases ineffective, the total effective rate was 88.9%. Conclusion:humeral epicondylitis mostly caused by chronic fatigue epicondyle of the humerus formed acute and chronic inflammation caused by using a smal knife cupping therapy combined effect is remarkable.

  10. The effect of an external hip joint stabiliser on gait function after surgery for tumours located around the circumference of the pelvis: analysis of seven cases of internal hemipelvectomy or proximal femur resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Toru; Saita, Kazuo; Ogura, Koichi; Kawai, Akira; Imanishi, Jungo; Yazawa, Yasuo; Kawashima, Noritaka; Ogata, Toru

    2016-03-01

    Limb-sparing resection of malignant pelvic tumours provides the opportunity for patients to obtain better post-operative mobility. However, because few studies have examined in detail the gait function of patients following pelvic tumour resection, the factors affecting gait performance remain to be clarified. Here, with the laboratory-based computer-assisted gait analysis, we evaluated these patients' gait objectively and the impact of a hip-stabilising supporter on gait improvement was simultaneously examined. Three-dimensional gait analysis was performed to obtain cross-sectional data for seven post-operative patients (mean age, 42.7 years; range, 20-61 years) who underwent various types of resection, including P1/4 internal hemipelvectomy (IH), P1/2/3 IH, and proximal femur resection with prosthetic reconstruction. To assess the immediate effects of a hip joint stabiliser, we instructed subjects to walk at their self-selected preferred speed and compared gait parameters with and without use of the hip stabiliser. At baseline, the average walking speed was 0.75 m/s (95% CI 0.53-0.97). As shown by the intra-subject comparison, the hip stabiliser increased walking speed in all but one subject, increasing both temporal and spatial parameters. Ground reaction force of operated limbs increased for some subjects, while step length increased on at least one side in all subjects. Improvement in the gait parameters is indicative of better control provided by the external hip stabiliser over the affected limb. Moreover, our findings show the potential of a biomechanical approach to improve gait function following pelvic tumour resection.

  11. The Degree of Lipiodol Accumulation Can Be an Indicator of Successful Treatment for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) Patients - in the Case of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization (TACE) and External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Zeng, Zhao-Chong; Wang, Bin-Liang; Zhang, Jian-Ying; Fan, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) in combination with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) results in improved survival due to better local control in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The purpose of this study was to investigate lipiodol accumulation, as it reflects tumor burden and is a potential prognostic factor, in HCC patients treated with TACE/EBRT. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied 147 patients with unresectable HCC treated with TACE and EBRT. Clinical features, adverse reactions, and prognostic factors were analyzed. All patients were treated with TACE 1-6 times in combination with EBRT (44-66 Gy) in dose of 2 Gy/fraction given once a day five times a week. Tumor status and laboratory findings were followed. The degree of lipiodol accumulation was assessed by computed tomography before EBRT, and was categorized as either complete/intense or low/moderate. Results: The response rate of tumor size after EBRT was 68.2%, median survival was 23.1 months, and overall survival rates were 86.6%, 49.2%, and 28.2% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that lower hemoglobin levels, higher alkaline phosphatase levels, Child-Pugh B, negative alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) response after EBRT, poor treatment response after EBRT, tumor diameter >10 cm, and poor lipiodol accumulation were unfavorable prognostic factors. On multivariate analysis, higher hemoglobin levels, Child-Pugh A, decreased AFP levels after treatment, Helical Tomotherapy (HT) and intense lipiodol accumulation after TACE were significant favorable predictors. Conclusions: The degree of lipiodol accumulation before EBRT is a prognostic factor in patients with unresectable HCC. Increased AFP levels after EBRT are always associated with poor survival. HT is recommended as a potentially better EBRT modality than three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT). PMID:27471557

  12. Intensity Tuning in Single Mode Microchip Nd:YAG Laser with External Cavity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Yi-Dong; ZHANG Shu-Lian

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the characteristics of intensity tuning in a single mode microchip Nd:YAG laser with an external cavity. The undulation of laser intensity in a period of λ/2 change of the internal cavity length is observed.Two different optical feedback cases are performed. One is an external cavity reflector perfectly aligned and the other is an external cavity reflector tilted. However, the fluctuation frequency of laser intensity in a period of λ/2 change of the internal cavity length in these two cases is found to be determined by the ratio of external cavity length to internal cavity length. Meanwhile, for the tilted external cavity, the fluctuation frequency is also related to multiple feedbacks in the tilted external cavity.

  13. Skepticism, Contextualism, Externalism and Modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I argue for the following claims. Contextualist strategies to tame or localize epistemic skepticism are hopeless if contextualist factors are construed internalistically. However, because efforts to contextualize externalism via subjunctive conditional analysis court circularity, it is only on an internalistic interpretation that contextualist strategies can even be motivated. While these claims do not give us an argument for skepticism, they do give us an argument that contextualism, as such, is not likely to provide us with an argument against skepticism.

  14. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    own specific set of mechanisms and conditions. Integrating innovations has been mostly studied from an absorptive capacity perspective, with less attention given to the impact of competencies and culture (including “not invented here”). Commercializing innovations puts the most emphasis on how......” in a way inconsistent with earlier definitions in innovation management. The paper concludes with recommendations for future research that include examining the end-to-end innovation commercialization process, and studying the moderators and limits of leveraging external sources of innovation....

  15. External Beam Radiation in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Billan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC is surgery followed in some cases by adjuvant treatment, mostly with radioactive iodine (RAI. External beam radiotherapy (EBRT is less common and not a well-established treatment modality in DTC. The risk of recurrence depends on three major prognostic factors: extra-thyroid extension, patient’s age, and tumor with reduced iodine uptake. Increased risk for recurrence is a major factor in the decision whether to treat the patient with EBRT. Data about the use of EBRT in DTC are limited to small retrospective studies. Most series have demonstrated an increase in loco-regional control. The risk/benefit from giving EBRT requires careful patient selection. Different scoring systems have been proposed by different investigators and centers. The authors encourage clinicians treating DTC to become familiarized with those scoring systems and to use them in the management of different cases. The irradiated volume should include areas of risk for microscopic disease. Determining those areas in each case can be difficult and requires detailed knowledge of the surgery and pathological results, and also understanding of the disease-spreading pattern. Treatment with EBRT in DTC can be beneficial, and data support the use of EBRT in high-risk patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed for better confirmation of the role of EBRT.

  16. EXTERNAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY VERSUS ENDOSCOPIC ENDONASAL DACRYOCYSTORHINOSTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dacryocystitis is the inflammation of the lacrimal sac due to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Chronic dacryocystitis is a constant threat to cornea and orbital soft tissue & always dictates surgery for correction of symptomatology. The gold standard procedure of choice for the treatment of epiphora is Dacryocystorhinostomy. This study proposes to evaluate and compare the surgical outcome of external DCR and endoscopic endonasal DCR. METHODS: A Retrospective, comparative, randomized interventional study was conducted from January 2012 to December 2013. 40 diagnosed cases of chronic dacryocystitis were randomized into two groups. Group A included 20 patients who underwent external Dacryocystorhinostomy and group B included the rest of the 20 patients who underwent endoscopic endonasal Dacryocystorhinostomy. RESULTS: In group A patients, 9 cases had bleeding during surgery, tearing of the anterior nasal flap was seen in 5 cases and punctal laceration in 4 cases. In group B patients 3 cases had bleeding, 5 cases had Trauma to the middle turbinate while accidental entry into anterior ethmoidal cells was in 4 cases. In 8 cases there was difficulty in making a bone window. In group A patients, duration of surgery is comparatively more than in group B. In post-operative period group A patients, had epistaxis, rhinostomy site closure, hypertrophied external scar and medial canthi damage as its complication while group B epistaxis, nasal Synechea, intra nasal granulation at the ostium are major complication. After a period of 3months by syringing the lacrimal sac of the patients in group A patients, 18 patients had a patent sac (success rate is 90%. In group B patients, 16 patients had a patent sac (success rate being 80%. CONCLUSION: DCR either by external or endonasal route can be considered for treatment of nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The external route has an easy and short learning curve with reduced cost of equipment. Whereas

  17. Empirical Evaluation On External Debt Of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nor’Aznin Abu Bakar; Sallahuddin Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the effects of external debts on economic growth in Malaysia. The analysis is conducted both at aggregate and disaggregate levels. The empirical results are based on VAR estimates using GDP, external debts, capital accumulation, labor force and human capital. Estimation results at the aggregate level indicate that total external debts affect economic growth positively. In particular, one percentage point increase in total external debts generates 1.29 percentage point of e...

  18. Validação de variáveis de declarações de óbito por causas externas, Recife, PE, Brasil Validity of death certificate variables in cases of death from external causes, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dilma de A Barros

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Validar, nas declarações de óbitos por causas externas de menores de 20 anos residentes no Recife em 1995, outras variáveis que não a causa básica dos óbitos. MÉTODOS: Pesquisaram-se os documentos existentes no Instituto de Medicina Legal de Recife para validar variáveis das declarações de óbitos constantes nos dados oficiais de mortalidade. Analisou-se a concordância pelos índices de Kappa e da sensibilidade. Tendo em vista a metodologia utilizada, os dados da pesquisa foram considerados mais exatos e, como tais, tomados como padrão. RESULTADOS: Para as variáveis que os peritos do Instituto de Medicina Legal entenderam como de sua responsabilidade direta, os resultados mostraram concordância ótima -- sexo, idade e tipo de violência -- ou boa -- tipo de acidente. Porém, para as entendidas como de sua responsabilidade indireta ou como não sendo de sua responsabilidade, importantes discordâncias foram observadas -- local e município de ocorrência do óbito, assistência médica e local do acidente. CONCLUSÃO: Os dados revelam a dissociação entre o objetivo da inclusão das variáveis nas declarações de óbito e seu uso social e a estratégia para obtê-las.OBJECTIVE: To validate variables other than the basic cause of death on death certificates from external causes of residents younger than 20 years old living in Recife, Brazil, in 1995. METHODS: A survey of death records of the Institute of Forensic in Recife was carried out in order to validate death certificate variables included in official mortality registries. Agreement analysis was performed using Kappa indexes and sensitivity. As a result of the methodology used, the study data was considered to be more consistent and therefore regarded as standard. RESULTS: Those variables forensic specialists indicated as their direct responsibility showed an excellent (gender, age, and category of violence and good (type of accident agreement. However, there were

  19. Avaliação Externa do Projovem: o Caso de Áreas e Volumes External Evaluation of the ProJovem Program: the Case of Areas and Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraão Juvêncio de Araújo

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Esse trabalho tomou por objetivo analisar o comportamento dos alunos do Programa ProJovem na resolução dos itens do Exame Nacional Externo , realizado em 2007, sobre as grandezas geométricas área e volume. Além das respostas dos alunos, foi realizada também a análise praxeológica do Manual do Aluno do Programa sobre tais grandezas. Os resultados, além de mostrarem um desempenho bastante sofrível, por parte dos sujeitos, permitem perceber que eles apresentam muitas dificuldades em construir significado para o enunciado dos problemas. Pode-se perceber a forte tendência em não buscar se apropriar destes significados. De fato, sempre que as alternativas permitem, a estratégia privilegiada por eles consiste em efetuar uma operação com os dados numéricos do problema. Uma hipótese explicativa para tais dificuldades pode estar no trabalho desenvolvido no Manual do Aluno, na medida em que os resultados da análise praxeológica mostram que as técnicas previstas para realizar os diferentes tipos de tarefas propostas são deixadas para serem elaboradas ou sistematizadas pelo próprio aluno. Palavras-chave: Educação Matemática. ProJovem. Praxeologia. Áreas. Volumes. Avaliação.The objective of this study was to analyze the behavior of students in the ProJovem Program in the solution of items on the National External Examination , carried out in 2007. The mathematical subjects considered were area and volume. In addition to the students’ answers, praxiological analysis the Students’ Program Manual on these topics was also carried out of. The results, in addition to showing very poor performance on the part of the students, also show that they have many difficulties in constructing meanings for the statement of the problems. It can be noted that they generally do not make an effort to construct these meanings. In fact, whenever possible, they privilege the strategy of effecting an operation with the numerical data of the problem

  20. Quantum Electrodynamics on background external fields

    CERN Document Server

    Marecki, P

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  1. 46 CFR 154.452 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 154.452 Section 154.452 Shipping... Independent Tank Type C and Process Pressure Vessels § 154.452 External pressure. The design external pressure...) for tanks without a vacuum relief valve. P2=0, or the pressure relief valve setting for an enclosed...

  2. 46 CFR 64.19 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 64.19 Section 64.19 Shipping COAST... HANDLING SYSTEMS Standards for an MPT § 64.19 External pressure. (a) A tank without a vacuum breaker must be designed to withstand an external pressure of 71/2 psig or more. (b) A tank with a vacuum breaker...

  3. 49 CFR 195.108 - External pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false External pressure. 195.108 Section 195.108 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.108 External pressure. Any external pressure that will be exerted on the...

  4. Quantum electrodynamics on background external fields

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The quantum electrodynamics in presence of background external fields is developed. Modern methods of local quantum physics allow to formulate the theory on arbitrarily strong possibly time-dependent external fields. Non-linear observables which depend only locally on the external field are constructed. The tools necessary for this formulation, the parametrices of the Dirac operator, are investigated.

  5. Metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma of the external auditory canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a rare case of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) presenting a huge mass in the left external auditory canal (EAC). The patient was a 55-year-old man with hepatitis B virus-related HCC.He presented to our department with a three-month history of increasing left otalgia, and hearing loss with recent fresh aural bleeding. Histopathologic examination indicated that the tumor was secondary to HCC. Although external irradiation was not effective, the tumor was treated with surgical debulking and high dose rate 192 Ir remote afterloading system (RALS) for postoperative intracavitary irradiation. A review of the literature revealed only five other cases of HCC metastasis to the temporal bone, all of which mainly metastasteed in the internal acoustic meatus. The present case is the first report of HCC metastasis to the EAC.

  6. Dynamic ultrasound of the external snapping hip syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Sun; Song, Baek Yong; Paik, Sang Hyun; Lee, Tae Gyu; Yoon, Yong Kyu [Eulji Hospital, Eulji University School of Medicine, Deajeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Moon [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Deagu (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-09-15

    Snapping hip syndrome has been described as a hip pain accompanied by an audible snapping during motion of the hip or while walking. The variable causes of its external, internal, and intra-articular origins have been described. The most common extemal snapping hip has been associated with a thickened posterior border of the iliotibial band or of the anterior border of the gluteus maximus muscle slipping over the greater trochanter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamic ultrasound findings of external snapping hip syndrome with review of the literature. We studied 5 patients (7 cases) with external snapping hip and pain over the greater trochanter during walking or hip motion (3 males and 2 females, age range, 14-32 years; mean, 19 years). Two patients reported bilateral snapping hips.

  7. Servitization in China via an External Service Partner Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad; Frandsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a European manufacturer providing...... services in China in order to develop a better understanding of the challenges. An in-depth multiple case study approach was taken to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network. Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China....... The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also congruent within the external service partner network. Furthermore, the findings suggest that an external service partner may not be able...

  8. EO Model for Tacit Knowledge Externalization in Socio-Technical Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreyas Suresh Rao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Purpose: A vital business activity within socio-technical enterprises is tacit knowledge externalization, which elicits and explicates tacit knowledge of enterprise employees as external knowledge. The aim of this paper is to integrate diverse aspects of externalization through the Enterprise Ontology model. Background: Across two decades, researchers have explored various aspects of tacit knowledge externalization. However, from the existing works, it is revealed that there is no uniform representation of the externalization process, which has resulted in divergent and contradictory interpretations across the literature. Methodology\t: The Enterprise Ontology model is constructed step-wise through the conceptual and measurement views. While the conceptual view encompasses three patterns that model the externalization process, the measurement view employs certainty-factor model to empirically measure the outcome of the externalization process. Contribution: The paper contributes towards knowledge management literature in two ways. The first contribution is the Enterprise Ontology model that integrates diverse aspects of externalization. The second contribution is a Web application that validates the model through a case study in banking. Findings: The findings show that the Enterprise Ontology model and the patterns are pragmatic in externalizing the tacit knowledge of experts in a problem-solving scenario within a banking enterprise. Recommendations for Practitioners\t: Consider the diverse aspects (what, where, when, why, and how during the tacit knowledge externalization process. Future Research:\tTo extend the Enterprise Ontology model to include externalization from partially automated enterprise systems.

  9. FOCKE700S硬盒包装机烟库分烟隔板的改进%Improvement of Spacer Plates in Cigarette Hopper of FOCKE 700S Hard Packer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建娟; 马文静

    2013-01-01

    为解决FOCKE 700S硬盒包装机烟库下烟通道内烟支堵塞、下烟不顺畅等问题,通过分析烟支分布、烟库形状、烟支所受摩擦力等因素对烟支下落速度的影响,对烟库下烟通道内分烟隔板和导烟板的结构进行了改进,以减少与烟支的接触面积,进而减少烟支下落时与分烟隔板的摩擦力;通过增加排烟丝槽使散落的烟丝及时排出下烟通道等措施,提高了烟支下落速度,保证了烟支下落顺畅.改进后FOCKE 700S硬盒包装机烟库因烟支在下烟通道发生堵塞导致的故障停机率由原来的50%~60%降低为25%~35%,有效提高了设备作业率.%To solve the problems of cigarette jam and staggering falling movement in discharge channel of cigarette hopper in FOCKE 700S hard packer, the spacer plates and discharge guide plates in the discharge channel was modified via analyzing the factors, which affect the movement, such as cigarette distribution, hopper shape and friction force acting on the cigarettes. The contact area between cigarettes and those plates was minimized, and the friction between cigarette and the spacer plates reduced accordingly. A tobacco discharge slot was added to discharge scattered tobacco out of discharge channel timely and ensure a free cigarette falling. After improvement, the rate of machine failure caused by cigarette jam in hopper reduced from 50%-60% to 25%-35%, and the machine efficiency was effectively improved.

  10. Improvement of Dustproof Device for Linear Motor in Cigarette Hopper in GDH1000 Packer%GDH1000包装机组烟库线性电机防尘装置的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑丛; 赵亮; 周奎田; 师尚华; 赵建斌

    2013-01-01

    为解决GDH1000包装机组烟库线性电机轴部位易积尘、磨损快、电机更换频次高等问题,对线性电机防尘装置进行了改进.采用压缩空气防尘方式,通过在电机轴端制作并安装环状气腔引入压缩空气,在电机轴周围形成环状气帘和气垫,以隔绝和清洁散落在电机轴上的烟尘.应用效果表明,改进后的防尘装置有效解决了电机轴套部位积尘问题,清洁效果良好,避免了因积尘导致电机轴与轴套磨损的现象.电机更换频次由6个月更换18件减少到更换1件,延长了电机使用寿命,半年节省费用20多万元,提高了设备运行效率.%The dust buildup on the shaft of linear motor in cigarette hopper in GDH1000 packer accelerated the elements' wear and reduced motor' s life.Therefore,the dustproof device for linear motor was improved by making and installing a cavity ring around the end of motor shaft and introducing compressed air to form an annular air curtain and cushion around motor shaft to prevent dust buildup.The results of application showed that the new dustproof device effectively eliminated the dust buildup on motor shaft sleeve,the wear between motor shaft and sleeve caused by dust buildup was avoided.Motor replacement reduced to once from 18 times per 6 months,which saved more than 200 thousand RMB yuan in cost.And the machine efficiency was increased.

  11. Improvement of Second Pusher in YB618 Carton/Overwrap Packer%YB618型硬条及条外透明纸包装机第二推进器的改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建军; 施忠兵; 陈祁华

    2014-01-01

    To improve the lubrication of the second pusher in YB618 carton/overwrap packer and prevent lubricant from leaking, by analyzing the kinetic characteristics of the mechanism, the second pusher was improved with a mechanism of straight reciprocating motion based on epicyclical gear train and a fully sealed lubrication system. According to the transmission ratio of gears and the stroke of the mechanism, the kinematics of the second pusher was analyzed, and the improvement effect was validated by a Pro/E simulation model at an angular velocity of 80 r/min. The results showed that: 1) The straight reciprocating motion of the pushing hand in the second pusher was able to push cigarette packets into packing drum at low production speed. 2) The movement of the mechanism followed a cosine curve, it improved the performance of the equipment. 3) After running for 1200 hours, no lubricant leak was found, the second pusher was effectively lubricated, and the equipment ran well.%为改善YB618型硬条及条外透明纸包装机第二推进器的润滑环境,避免润滑剂外泄和被污染,通过分析机构的运动特点,采用周转轮系式直线往复运动机构对第二推进器进行改进,润滑机构采用全封闭式设计;根据计算的齿轮传动比和机构行程,对机构进行运动学性能分析,以角速度ω=80 r/min为条件建立Pro/E运动仿真模型,验证改进效果。结果表明:①该机构实现了第二推进器推手的直线往复运动,可以满足在低速生产时烟包被推入包装轮的要求。②机构运动学性能符合余弦运动特性,改善了设备的运动性能。③第二推进器采用全封闭式设计,机器运行1200 h仍无漏油和润滑污染现象,有效改善了第二推进器的润滑环境,保证了设备的良好运行。

  12. External fixation in early treatment of unstable pelvic fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU San-bao; XU Hong; GUO Heng-bing; SUN Tong; WANG Chang-jun

    2012-01-01

    Background Patients with pelvic fractures are often treated in hospitals without the capacity to implement an open reduction internal fixation (ORIF).This often leads to pelvic malunion in patients with unstable pelvic fracture,shock or even death due to uncontrollable pelvic hemorrhage and unstable hemodynamics.This study explored the role of early external fixation (within 7 days) for patients with unstable pelvic fractures.Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted on 32 patients with unstable pelvic fractures treated with early external fixation from January 2005 to January 2010 (file type B:18 cases; C:14 cases).The study comprised 28 males and 4 females,with a mean age of (32±8) years (range,21-56 years).Of these patients,22 were treated with emergency pelvic external fixation and 10 were treated with external fixation within 1-7 days.Fifteen cases suffered traumatic hemorrhagic shock.A statistical analysis was conducted to compare fluid infusion and blood transfusion volumes within the first 24 hours of these shock patients with another cohort of patients treated without early external fixation from January 1993 to January 1998.Results The average follow-up was (34.7±14.6) months (range,6-66 months).Six to eight weeks after external fixation,patients could walk with crutches; by 12 weeks,external fixation was removed and all fractures had healed.Seven patients presented with sequelae,including 3 patients with long-term lumbosacral pain,3 patients with erectile dysfunction and 1 patient with Morel-Lavallee lesion and other complications.The 15 shock patients in this study (2005-2010 group) required significantly lower volumes of fluid infusion and blood transfusion (Pfluid=0.000;Ptransfusion=0.000) as compared to the 1993-1998 cohort.Conclusions The early application of external fixation in unstable pelvic fracture patients positively affects hemodynamic stability,with outstanding efficacy as a final fixation option for unstable pelvic fractures.

  13. Externally Wetted Ionic Liquid Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, P.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Lopez-Urdiales, J. M.

    2004-10-01

    This paper presents initial developments of an electric propulsion system based on ionic liquid ion sources (ILIS). Propellants are ionic liquids, which are organic salts with two important characteristics; they remain in the liquid state at room temperature and have negligible vapor pressure, thus allowing their use in vacuum. The working principles of ILIS are similar to those of liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), in which a Taylor cone is electrostatically formed at the tip of an externally wetted needle while ions are emitted directly from its apex. ILIS have the advantage of being able to produce negative ions that have similar masses than their positive counterparts with similar current levels. This opens up the possibility of achieving plume electrical neutrality without electron emitters. The possible multiplexing of these emitters is discussed in terms of achievable thrust density for applications other than micro-propulsion.

  14. External symmetry in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cotaescu, I I

    2000-01-01

    We propose a generalization of the isometry transformations to the geometric context of the field theories with spin where the local frames are explicitly involved. We define the external symmetry transformations as isometries combined with suitable tetrad gauge transformations and we show that these form a group which is locally isomorphic with the isometry one. We point out that the symmetry transformations that leave invariant the equations of the fields with spin have generators with specific spin terms which represent new physical observables. The examples we present are the generators of the central symmetry and those of the maximal symmetries of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spacetimes derived in different tetrad gauge fixings. Pacs: 04.20.Cv, 04.62.+v, 11.30.-j

  15. Narrative Therapy and Non-Suicidal-Self-Injurious Behavior: Externalizing the Problem and Internalizing Personal Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Rachel M.; Kress, Victoria E.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present an intervention, the externalization of client problems, which can be used to address non-suicidal-self-injurious behavior. Specific externalization techniques are discussed, including naming the problem, letter writing, and drawing. A case application and implications for practice are presented.

  16. Quantifying the synchronizability of externally driven oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefański, Andrzej

    2008-03-01

    This paper is focused on the problem of complete synchronization in arrays of externally driven identical or slightly different oscillators. These oscillators are coupled by common driving which makes an occurrence of generalized synchronization between a driving signal and response oscillators possible. Therefore, the phenomenon of generalized synchronization is also analyzed here. The research is concentrated on the cases of an irregular (chaotic or stochastic) driving signal acting on continuous-time (Duffing systems) and discrete-time (Henon maps) response oscillators. As a tool for quantifying the robustness of the synchronized state, response (conditional) Lyapunov exponents are applied. The most significant result presented in this paper is a novel method of estimation of the largest response Lyapunov exponent. This approach is based on the complete synchronization of two twin response subsystems via additional master-slave coupling between them. Examples of the method application and its comparison with the classical algorithm for calculation of Lyapunov exponents are widely demonstrated. Finally, the idea of effective response Lyapunov exponents, which allows us to quantify the synchronizability in case of slightly different response oscillators, is introduced.

  17. Genetics Reasoning with Multiple External Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Chi-Yan; Treagust, David F.

    2003-02-01

    This paper explores a case study of a class of Year 10 students (n=24) whose learning of genetics involved activities of BioLogica, a computer program that features multiple external representations (MERs). MERs can be verbal/textual, visual-graphical, or in other formats. Researchers claim that the functions of MERs in supporting student learning are to complement information or processes, to constrain the interpretation of abstract concepts, and to construct new viable conceptions. Over decades, research has shown that genetics remains linguistically and conceptually difficult for high school students. This case study using data from multiple sources enabled students'' development of genetics reasoning to be interpreted from an epistemological perspective. Pretest-posttest comparison after six weeks showed that most of the students (n=20) had improved their genetics reasoning but only for easier reasoning types. Findings indicated that the MERs in BioLogica contributed to students'' development of genetics reasoning by engendering their motivation and interest but only when students were mindful in their learning. Based on triangulation of data from multiple sources, MERs in BioLogica appeared to support learning largely by constraining students'' interpretation of phenomena of genetics.

  18. The destabilizing effect of external damping: Singular utter boundary for the Pfluger column with vanishing external dissipation

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, Mirko; Misseroni, Diego; Bigoni, Davide

    2016-01-01

    Elastic structures loaded by nonconservative positional forces are prone to instabilities induced by dissipation: it is well-known in fact that internal viscous damping destabilizes the marginally stable Ziegler's pendulum and Pfluger column (of which the Beck's column is a special case), two structures loaded by a tangential follower force. The result is the so-called 'destabilization paradox', where the critical force for flutter instability decreases by an order of magnitude when the coefficient of internal damping becomes infinitesimally small. Until now external damping, such as that related to air drag, is believed to provide only a stabilizing effect, as one would intuitively expect. Contrary to this belief, it will be shown that the effect of external damping is qualitatively the same as the effect of internal damping, yielding a pronounced destabilization paradox. Previous results relative to destabilization by external damping of the Ziegler's and Pfluger's elastic structures are corrected in a defi...

  19. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux implant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jungkim, S

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of T-Flux implant in nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery. METHODS: This clinical interventional case series study included 35 eyes of 35 patients with medically uncontrolled primary open angle glaucoma. External trabeculectomy with T-Flux (ETTF) is a technique of nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery, in which after removing deep scleral tissue and un-roofing the canal of Schlemn (CS) the external trabecular tissue is peeled off to enhance the aqueous drainage without opening the anterior chamber. A non-absorbable T-Flux implant (IOL TECH Laboratories, France) was sutured in deep intrascleral space to keep it patent. Snellen\\'s best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, intraocular pressure (IOP), gonioscopy, funduscopy, and optic disc assessment were performed preoperatively and postoperatively at 1 day, 1 week, and 1, 3 , 6, and 12 months. Visual field testing was performed preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. RESULTS: For three eyes, surgery was converted to standard trabeculectomy owing to the perforation of trabeculo-Descemet\\'s membrane and iris prolapse and excluded from the study. The results of the remaining 32 eyes were included in the study. Preoperative IOP (mean +\\/- SD) of 32.88 +\\/- 5.7 mmHg decreased to 15.44 +\\/- 1.6 mmHg after 12 months. Ten eyes (28.6%) had microhyphema that resolved spontaneously; 3 eyes (8.6%) had microperforation without iris prolapse so ETTF was proceeded routinely. The preoperative number of antiglaucoma medications per patient reduced from (mean +\\/- SD) 2.74 +\\/- 0.61 to 0.11 +\\/- 0.32 postoperatively at 12 months. Visual acuity and visual fields remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: ETTF appears to provide significant control of IOP and have low incidence of complications.

  20. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  1. Does external funding help adaptation? Evidence from community-based water management in the Colombian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtinho, Felipe; Eakin, Hallie; López-Carr, David; Hayes, Tanya M

    2013-11-01

    Despite debate regarding whether, and in what form, communities need external support for adaptation to environmental change, few studies have examined how external funding impacts adaptation decisions in rural resource-dependent communities. In this article, we use quantitative and qualitative methods to assess how different funding sources influence the initiative to adapt to water scarcity in the Colombian Andes. We compare efforts to adapt to water scarcity in 111 rural Andean communities with varied dependence on external funding for water management activities. Findings suggest that despite efforts to use their own internal resources, communities often need external support to finance adaptation strategies. However, not all external financial support positively impacts a community's abilities to adapt. Results show the importance of community-driven requests for external support. In cases where external support was unsolicited, the results show a decline, or "crowding-out," in community efforts to adapt. In contrast, in cases where communities initiated the request for external support to fund their own projects, findings show that external intervention is more likely to enhance or "crowds-in" community-driven adaptation.

  2. 中医内外合治法治疗小儿厌食症50例%Treating 50 cases of children anorexia by TCM internal and external therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆膑

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察内服中药、针灸与推拿相结合的中医内外合治法治疗小儿厌食症的临床效果。方法:将100例厌食症患儿随机分为观察组与对照组,每组各50例。2组家长均给予患儿常规健康教育,观察组给予内服中药、针灸与推拿的内外合治法,对照组给予口服复方赖氨酸颗粒,观察2组的临床疗效。结果:观察组疗效优于对照组。结论:内服中药、针灸与推拿相结合的中医内外合治法治疗小儿厌食症具有较好的临床疗效。%Objective:To observe clinical efficacy of TCM medicine and acupuncture plus massage on children anorexia. Methods:100 patients with anorexia were divided into the observed group and the control group, each group for 50 cases. The parents in both groups received conventional healthy education. The observed group took TCM medicine and acupuncture plus massage and the other group took compound lysine granules, to observe clinical efficacy. Results: Efficacy in the observed group was better. Conclusion: Treating child anorexia with TCM medicine and acupuncture plus massage could gain good clinical efficacy.

  3. On the limiting behavior of a harmonic oscillator with random external disturbance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Kulinich

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the limiting behavior of a harmonic oscillator under the external random disturbance that is a process of the white noise type. Influence of noises is investigated in resonance and non-resonance cases.

  4. Secondary rhinoplasty: reconstitution of the allar cartillages by a rhinoplasty with an external incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ishida

    Full Text Available Presentation of 62 cases of secondary nasal deformities treated by external incision. Several types of endonasal deformities were observed, properly classified and repaired. When excessive ressection was observed, local cartillage graft, septonasal or conchal types were employed.

  5. ANALYSIS OF EXTERNAL FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRICING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kiseleva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The external factors influencing the process of formation of tariffs of commercial services are considered in the article. External environment is known to be very diverse and changeable. Currently, pricing has become one of the key processes of strategic development of a company. Pricing in the service sector, in turn, is highly susceptible to changes in the external environment. Its components directly or indirectly affect the market of services, changing it adopted economic processes. As a rule, firms providing services can’t influence the changes in external factors. However, the service market is very flexible, which enables businesses to reshape pricing strategy, to adapt it to the new environment.

  6. External auditory canal stenosis due to the use of powdered boric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dündar, Riza; Soy, Fatih Kemal; Kulduk, Erkan; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Cingi, Cemal

    2014-09-01

    Acquired stenosis of the external auditory canal (EAC) may occur because of chronic external otitis, recurrent chronic catarrhal otitis media associated with tympanic membrane perforation, chronic dermatitis, tumors, and trauma. Stenosis occurs generally at the one-third bone part of the external auditory canal. In this article, we present 3 cases of acquired EAC stenosis due to the previous powdered boric acid application. Besides the presentation of surgical intervetions in these cases, we want to notify the physicians not to use or carefully use powdered boric acid because of the complication of EAC stenosis.

  7. Uso de fijador externo en la inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior (volet esternal: Presentación de un caso Use of the external fixative in the instability of the anterior thoraxic wall (sternal volet: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes N Mederos Curbelo

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un paciente con inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior y esternón tratado previamente con un dispositivo creado por los autores en 1995 para el volet costal. Las costillas artificiales externas del dispositivo, diseñado para el cerclaje subperióstico, actúan como elemento de fijación y han conseguido resultados satisfactorios. Se presenta un paciente, que producto de un accidente automovilístico, sufre lesiones en cráneo, tórax, abdomen y extremidades, entre las que resaltan contusión cerebral, lesión hepática, fractura de fémur e inestabilidad de la pared torácica anterior. Esta última requirió de prioridad extrema, pues habría llevado rápidamente al paciente a la insuficiencia respiratoria de no ser solucionado el problema. Se realizó la estabilización externa mediante un equipo que se utiliza en nuestro hospital, reutilizable y aplicable en cualquier inestabilidad torácica independientemente de la localización de esta. El fijador se confecciona con láminas de duraluminio maleables que permiten su adaptabilidad e introduce una forma de tratamiento en las lesiones torácicas bilaterales con inestabilidad esternal, situación compleja en la que puede resultar un instrumento valioso de tratamientoA patient with instability of the anterior thoracic wall and sternum previously treated with a device created by the authors in 1995 for the costal volet, is presented. The artificial external ribs of the device designed for subperiosteous cerclage act as a fixation element with satisfactory results. The case of a patient that due to a car accident suffers from lesions in the cranium, thorax, abdomen and limbs, among which cerebral contusion, liver lesion, femur fracture and instability of the anterior thoracic wall stand out, is reported. Maximum priority was given to the instability of the anterior thoracic wall, since it could have rapidly led to respiratory failure if the problem would have not been solved. The

  8. Control of External Kink Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Gerald

    2004-11-01

    A fundamental pressure and current limiting phenomenon in magnetically confined plasmas for fusion energy is the long wavelength ideal-MHD kink mode. These modes have been extensively studied in tokamak and reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. They are characterized by significant amplitude on the boundary of the confined plasma and can therefore be controlled by manipulation of the external boundary conditions. In the past ten years, the theoretically predicted stabilizing effect of a nearby conducting wall has been documented in experiments, which opens the possibility of a significant increase in maximum stable plasma pressure. While these modes are predicted to remain unstable when the stabilizing wall is resistive, their growth rates are greatly reduced from the hydrodynamic time scale to the time scale of magnetic diffusion through the resistive wall. These resistive wall slowed kink modes have been identified as limiting phenomena in tokamak (DIII-D, PBX-M, HBT-EP, JT-60U, JET, NSTX) and RFP (HBTX, Extrap, T2R) devices. The theoretical prediction of stabilization to nearly the ideal wall pressure limit by toroidal plasma rotation and/or active feedback control using coils has recently been realized experimentally. Sustained, stable operation at double the no-wall pressure limit has been achieved. Discovery of the phenomenon of resonant field amplification by marginally stable kink modes and its role in the momentum balance of rotationally stabilized plasmas has emerged as a key feature. A theoretical framework, based on an extension of the very successful treatment of the n=0 axisymmetric mode developed in the early 1990's, to understand the stabilization mechanisms and model the performance of active feedback control systems is now established. This allows design of kink control systems for burning plasma experiments like ITER.

  9. App-assisted external ventricular drain insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Behzad

    2016-09-01

    The freehand technique for insertion of an external ventricular drain (EVD) is based on fixed anatomical landmarks and does not take individual variations into consideration. A patient-tailored approach based on augmented-reality techniques using devices such as smartphones can address this shortcoming. The Sina neurosurgical assist (Sina) is an Android mobile device application (app) that was designed and developed to be used as a simple intraoperative neurosurgical planning aid. It overlaps the patient's images from previously performed CT or MRI studies on the image seen through the device camera. The device is held by an assistant who aligns the images and provides information about the relative position of the target and EVD to the surgeon who is performing EVD insertion. This app can be used to provide guidance and continuous monitoring during EVD placement. The author describes the technique of Sina-assisted EVD insertion into the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle and reports on its clinical application in 5 cases as well as the results of ex vivo studies of ease of use and precision. The technique has potential for further development and use with other augmented-reality devices.

  10. Holographic fermions in external magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gubankova, E; Cubrovic, M; Schalm, K; Schijven, P; Zaanen, J

    2011-01-01

    We study the Fermi level structure of 2+1-dimensional strongly interacting electron systems in external magnetic field using the AdS/CFT correspondence. The gravity dual of a finite density fermion system is a Dirac field in the background of the dyonic AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. In the probe limit the magnetic system can be reduced to the non-magnetic one, with Landau-quantized momenta and rescaled thermodynamical variables. We find that at strong enough magnetic fields, the Fermi surface vanishes and the quasiparticle is lost either through a crossover to conformal regime or through a phase transition to an unstable Fermi surface. In the latter case, the vanishing Fermi velocity at the critical magnetic field triggers the non-Fermi liquid regime with unstable quasiparticles and a change in transport properties of the system. We associate it with a metal-"strange metal" phase transition. Next we compute compute the DC Hall and longitudinal conductivities using the gravity-dressed fermion propagators....

  11. Blast effects of external explosions

    OpenAIRE

    Sochet, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Security considerations for industrial production and storage require characterization of the mechanical effects caused by blast waves resulting from a detonation or deflagration. This paper evaluates current analytical methods to determine the characteristic parameters of a blast wave with respect to the pressure, impulse and duration of the positive phase of the blast. In the case of a detonation, the trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalent-based method determines the mass ...

  12. Superficial Venous Thrombosis complicated with Deep Venous Thrombosis in 66 Cases Treated by Inter-nal and External Treatment%内外合治血栓性浅静脉炎并发深静脉血栓形成66例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜振; 张玥; 李华文; 张玉冬

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察内外合治血栓性浅静脉炎(SVT)并发深静脉血栓形成(DVT)的疗效。方法:选取66例SVT合并DVT患者,调查其发病的一般资料,给予基础的抗凝、溶栓治疗,并根据中医辨证给予不同汤剂,同时配合马黄酊涂擦和冰硝散外敷,监测D-二聚体、纤维蛋白原水平,用彩超评价静脉再通情况。结果:本组治愈38例,显效23例,有效5例,显愈率92.42%。D-二聚体、纤维蛋白原水平较治疗前降低(P<0.05)。SVT、DVT静脉通畅度评分治疗后14 d分别为(1.06±0.24)、(3.08±2.70),28 d分别为(0.88±0.37)、(2.03±2.0),与治疗前比较显著降低(P<0.01)。结论:静脉曲张和SVT是DVT不可忽视的危险因素。针对SVT合并DVT采取内外合治的中西医结合治疗方案,可取得满意的疗效,明显改善患肢静脉再通情况。%Objective To observe the curative effect of internal and external treatment on superficial ve⁃nous thrombosis(SVT) complicated with deep venous thrombosis(DVT). Methods Sixty-six patients of SVT complicated with DVT were given the treatment of basic anticoagulation, thrombolysis, and different herbal medi⁃cine based on syndrome differentiation. At same time, Mahuang tincture was rubbed and Bingxiao powder agent was used for external application. D-dimer, fibrinogen and vein colour Doppler ultrasonography were periodical⁃ly monitored. Results In this group, 38 cases were cured, 23 cases were markedly effective, 5 cases were ef⁃fective, and the cured and markedly effective rate was 92.42%. D-dimer and fibrinogen were decreased significantly than before treatment(P<0.05). SVT and DVT venous patency score after treatment were 1.06 ± 0.24, 3.08 ± 2.70 at 14 days and 0.88 ± 0.37, 2.03±2.0 at 28 days, respectivelly. There were signifi⁃cant differences compared with before treatment. Conclusion Varicose and SVT are the risk factors of DVT that cannot be ignored. The

  13. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    de, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A.

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  14. Dynamical theory of active cellular response to external stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rumi; Safran, Samuel A

    2008-09-01

    We present a comprehensive, theoretical treatment of the orientational response to external stress of active, contractile cells embedded in a gel-like elastic medium. The theory includes both the forces that arise from the deformation of the matrix as well as forces due to the internal regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions of the cell. We calculate the time-dependent response of both the magnitude and the direction of the elastic dipole that characterizes the active forces exerted by the cell, for various situations. For static or quasistatic external stress, cells orient parallel to the stress while for high frequency dynamic external stress, cells orient nearly perpendicular. Both numerical and analytical calculations of these effects are presented. In addition we predict the relaxation time for the cellular response for both slowly and rapidly varying external stresses; several characteristic scaling regimes for the relaxation time as a function of applied frequency are predicted. We also treat the case of cells for which the regulation of the stress fibers and focal adhesions is controlled by strain (instead of stress) and show that the predicted dependence of the cellular orientation on the Poisson ratio of the matrix can differentiate strain vs stress regulation of cellular response.

  15. Externalities and Compensation : Primeval Games and Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.; Borm, P.E.M.

    2005-01-01

    The classical literature (Pigou (1920), Coase (1960), Arrow (1970)) and the relatively recent studies (cf.Varian (1994)) associate the externality problem with efficiency.This paper focuses explicitly on the compensation problem in the context of externalities.To capture the features of inter-indivi

  16. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...

  17. Crossing boundaries : Involving external parties in innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    To improve the return on investments in innovation, firms increasingly open up their new product development (NPD) processes by inviting external parties to participate. This dissertation focuses on the involvement of three different types of external parties in the NPD process: suppliers, customers

  18. Computing betweenness centrality in external memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Goodrich, Michael T.; Walderveen, Freek van

    2013-01-01

    Betweenness centrality is one of the most well-known measures of the importance of nodes in a social-network graph. In this paper we describe the first known external-memory and cache-oblivious algorithms for computing betweenness centrality. We present four different external-memory algorithms...

  19. Lattice Planar QED in external magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Cea, Paolo; Giudice, Pietro; Papa, Alessandro

    2011-01-01

    We investigate planar Quantum ElectroDynamics (QED) with two degenerate staggered fermions in an external magnetic field on the lattice. Our preliminary results indicate that in external magnetic fields there is dynamical generation of mass for two-dimensional massless Dirac fermions in the weak coupling region. We comment on possible implications to the quantum Hall effect in graphene.

  20. Internal and External Forces in Language Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Charles D.

    2000-01-01

    Develops a model of language change characterizing the dynamic interaction between internal universal grammar and external linguistic evidence, as mediated by language acquisition. Borrows insights from the study of biological evolution, where internal and external forces interact in similar fashion. Applies the model to explore the loss of the…

  1. Forms of Spanking and Children's Externalizing Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansford, Jennifer E.; Wager, Laura B.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that corporal punishment is related to higher levels of child externalizing behavior, but there has been controversy regarding whether infrequent, mild spanking predicts child externalizing or whether more severe and frequent forms of corporal punishment account for the link. Mothers rated the frequency with which they spanked…

  2. External quality assurance in nongynecologic cytology: The Australasian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Paul W; Frost, Felicity; Finnimore, Jo L; Wright, R Gordon; Cummings, Margaret C

    2017-05-01

    The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Cytopathology Quality Assurance Program has operated an external quality assurance program in nongynecologic cytopathology since 1993. Glass slide preparations of a wide range of nongynecologic cases were circulated to approximately 200 cytopathology laboratories in 16 countries. General nongynecologic cytology cases were manufactured from residual specimens after routine diagnosis. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cases were made by sampling fresh tissue and making direct specimens. The majority of cases consisted of both air-dried and fixed preparations. Results returned to laboratories included illustrated case discussions highlighting diagnostic features, key differential diagnoses, and useful adjunctive tests. The current study reviewed >22,000 results for 123 nongynecologic cases. Cases found to cause the most diagnostic difficulties included serous effusion cases with metastatic carcinoma in a dispersed pattern, well-differentiated carcinoma, and cellular reactive cases; urine specimens with sparse malignant cells; reactive pneumocytes in a bronchoalveolar lavage; breast FNA cases with papillary lesions; gestational specimens; and fibroadenoma. FNA specimens from the lung and thyroid, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, generally were well reported. The use of multiple preparations of the same specimen has allowed interlaboratory comparison, and the quality assurance program has played an educational role as well as informing the laboratory accreditation process. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:349-361. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Association of Dermatological Conditions of External Ear with the Use of Cotton Buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahuddin Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The habit of cleaning the external auditory canal with cotton buds is a common practice of the masses. It has strong association with neurodermatitis and contact dermatitis of the external ear. It is also associated with acute otitis externa, rupture of tympanic membrane causing bleeding and temporary hearing loss in some cases. In many cases the injury will heal but damage to minuscule bones deep inside the ear can cause permanent deafness. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the association of dermatological condition of external ear with the use of cotton buds. Materials and Methods: This case control study was done from January to October 2012 in the Ear Nose Throat Department of Pakistan Level III Hospital, Darfur, Sudan. Sixty seven patients with dermatological diseases of external ear were cases and 83 subjects without dermatological diseases of external ear were selected as controls. Results: Among 67 cases, 58 were cotton bud users and among 83 controls only 29 were cotton bud users. Different types of dermatological diseases were neurodermatitis (34.32%, otitis externa (28.36%, contact dermatitis (26.87% and wax impaction (8.95%. Ninety three percent of cotton bud users were ignorant of harmful effects of this bad habit. Conclusion: There is a strong association of dermatological diseases of external ear with the use of cotton bud which should be discouraged by fortifying the warning by manufacturers and health education at various educational levels.

  4. Facilitating Endotracheal Intubation in Difficult Cases Using an External Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Difficult airway is conventionally defined as a medical scenario in which a trained examiner faces difficulty in either facemask ventilation or tracheal intubation (1. Unlike difficult intubation, the incidence of difficult mask ventilation in adults is considerable (2, 3. Anesthesiologists and those who practice intubation should be familiar with the management of airway and be able to recognize and identify potentially difficult airways including congenital craniofacial deformities with micrognathia (e.g. Pier Robin, Treacher Collins, Goldenhar's, and Crouzon's syndromes and metabolic diseases causing the deposition of accumulated by-products (e.g., Hurler's, Morquio's, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes. Cormack and Lehane grades 3 and 4 at laryngoscopy are an indication for advanced techniques for intubation. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA and fiberscope with a directable tip are useful and important modalities in handling difficult airway and intubation (5. Even normal pediatric airway could become critical due to the anatomical and physiological differences between pediatric and adult airway; this particularly becomes a concern in infants, i.e. children younger than one year old. This hazard is augmented in the presence of congenital or acquired difficulties affecting airway. Consequently, proper preoperative assessment is considered as the cornerstone of pediatric difficult airway management. Every anesthetic plan should be tailored according to patients considering the scenario and also the expertise of the practitioner. Opting for spontaneous respiration maintenance and intervening in a step-wise manner are strongly suggested (6. Multiple airway devices have been and are developed that all of which can be placed under direct vision or blindly; most of these devices consistently both provide and maintain safe oxygenation and ventilation. Furthermore, a wide range of ancillary devices have also been introduced to be of assistance in the management of difficult airway; most of them are available in varied sizes suitable for use in children and incorporate a variety of different types of endotracheal tubes, supraglottic devices, fiber-optic, video, optical, and mechanical technologies. Some of these devices (e.g. video laryngoscope are expensive and not suitable for developing countries with limited financial reserve; some others need high levels of experiences  or learning courses which is not possible for anesthesiologist that are not working  in university hospitals or are less experienced. Some of these devices cannot be used in small children or neonates. Therefore, we were encouraged to look for a device that is easy to use and carry, inexpensive, small in size, and available in all sizes for children, and also does not need special training.

  5. DERMOID CYST OF EXTERNAL NOSE : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dermoid cysts or Dermoid sinus tracts are congenital inclusion cysts or sinuses lined by stratified squamous epithelium with normal dermal appendages. They occur due to sequestration of skin along the lines of embryonal clefts or fissures. They may arise f rom vestigial epithelial lined structures. There is a gradual accumulation of epithelial debris sebaceous and sweat secretions and hairs. Commonly dermoid cyst occurs in face, neck and scalp . [1] They can also occur in the soft palate, the tongue, the nasop harynx and the paranasal sinuses. Before the replacement of the nasofrontal fontanel by the nasal process of the frontal bone the dura and the skin are in contact without intervention of any bony structure. If any part of the ectoderm fails to separate fro m the dura and is carried to the prenasal space a dermoid cyst will be formed usually behind the nasal or frontal bone . [2 ,3 ] If it retains its connection with the skin, a sinus will result. Commonly the sinus will discharge cheesy offensive material or glo w abnormal hairs. Both cysts and sinuses may have a connection with an intracranial component through an abnormal foramen cecum in the anterior cranial fossa.

  6. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  7. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation.

  8. External Ophthalmomyiasis Caused by a Rare Infesting Larva, Sarcophaga argyrostoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffi, Shmuel; Peretz, Avi; Wilamowski, Amos; Schnur, Heather; Akad, Fouad; Naftali, Modi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. External ophthalmomyiasis (EO) is caused by infesting larvae belonging to various species of flies. Most documented cases result from sheep (Oestrus ovis) and Russian (Rhinoestrus purpureus) botfly larvae, but we recently discovered a rare case of EO caused by flesh fly (Sarcophaga argyrostoma) larvae. Here, we report the case of a patient with EO who had been hospitalized and sedated for 1 week because of unrelated pneumonia. Methods. Case report. Results. A total of 32 larvae were removed from the adnexae of both eyes. Larvae identification was confirmed through DNA analysis. Treatment with topical tobramycin resulted in complete resolution of EO. Conclusion. EO can be caused by S. argyrostoma, and the elderly and debilitated may require extra ocular protection against flies during sedation. PMID:24455366

  9. Quest for absolute zero in the presence of external noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrontegui, E; Kosloff, R

    2013-09-01

    A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is analyzed with the intention to study the limitations imposed by external noise. In particular we focus on the behavior of the refrigerator when it approaches the absolute zero. The cooling cycle is based on the Otto cycle with a working medium constituted by an ensemble of noninteracting harmonic oscillators. The compression and expansion segments are generated by changing an external parameter in the Hamiltonian. In this case the force constant of the harmonic oscillators mω^{2} is modified from an initial to a final value. As a result, the kinetic and potential energy of the system do not commute causing frictional losses. By proper choice of scheduling function ω(t) frictionless solutions can be obtained in the noiseless case. We examine the performance of a refrigerator subject to noise. By expanding from the adiabatic limit we find that the external noise, Gaussian phase, and amplitude noises reduce the amount of heat that can be extracted but nevertheless the zero temperature can be approached.

  10. External meeting: UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Ecole de physiqueDépartement de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet1211 GENEVE 4Tél: (022) 379 62 73Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 9 July 2007 COLLOQUIUM at 17.00 hrs - Stückelberg Auditorium Control and Analysis of Dynamics in the Microworld:From Quantum Systems to Biosystems by Prof. Herschel Rabitz / Princeton University The study of quantum system dynamics and biosystem dynamics have generally developed as distinct subjects with their own scientific issues, technical aspects and applications. However, when these subjects are considered in the context of controlling their respective dynamical behavior many common conceptual threads and even algorithms for operation become apparent by their linkage to systems analysis. These common operational features exist despite the fact that quantum systems and biosystems operate on vastly different temporal and spatial scales. In the case of quantum systems, manipulation of their dynamics may be affected...

  11. Open segmental fractures of the tibia treated by external fixation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golubović Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Open segmental fractures of the tibia are rare but severe injuries. In these fractures the wide zone of injury (damage of all structures of the lower leg creates very unsuitable biological conditions for healing of the fracture. Objective. The aim of our work was to present the results of treatment of patients with segmental open fractures of the tibia treated by external fixation. Methods. We analyzed treatment results of 21 patients with open segmental tibial fractures who were treated using the method of external fixation at the Clinical Center Niš from January 1, 1995 to July 31, 2010. The average age of the patients was 53 years; the youngest patient was 27 years and the oldest one 80 years. According to the Gustilo open fracture classification, there were 3 (14.3% type I, 6 (28.6% type II, 8 (38.1% type IIIA, and 4 (19.0% type IIIB. All the patients were treated by a unilateral type Mitković external fixator by Traffix Company. Results. Union was attained in 16 (76.2% fractures without severe complications (pseudoarthrosis, chronic osteitis and angular deformities of over 10 degrees. Among severe complications associated with open segmental tibial fractures, in two cases we registered septic pseudoarthrosis, in one aseptic pseudoarthrosis and in two large angular deformities of the tibia after union, with a valgus of over 10 degrees and extremity shortening of over 2 cm which required additional surgery. Conclusion. External fixation by the use of Mitković external fixator is one of the methods of choice in the treatment of open segmental tibial fractures, which incorporated with antibiotic therapy provides good biomehanical conditions for segmental fracture healing that enables good stability of the segmental tibial fracture and decreases the risk of deep infections. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41017: Virtuelni koštano­zglobni sistem čoveka i njegova primena u pretkliničkoj i kliničkoj praksi

  12. Communicating External Voting Rights to Diaspora Communities. Challenges and Opportunities in the Cases of El Salvador and Costa Rica / Comunicando los derechos de votación en el extranjero a las diásporas. Los casos de El Salvador y Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Bravo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper fills a gap in the literature of international public relations by exploring the challenges that home governments face when trying to convey information about newly established political rights to diaspora communities located in host countries. It does so by analyzing the cases of El Salvador and Costa Rica, two Central American countries that will offer external voting rights (absentee vote to their citizens, for the first time, in the national elections of 2014.ResumenEsta investigación explora los retos que los gobiernos nacionales enfrentan cuando tratan de comunicar información sobre los derechos de voto en el extranjero a sus diásporas en países huéspedes. Esta investigación analiza los casos de El Salvador y Costa Rica, dos países de Centroamérica que empezarán a ofrecer el derecho al voto en el extranjero a sus ciudadanos, por primera vez, en las elecciones del 2014.

  13. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each...

  14. Environment and externalization; Environnement et externalisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremlis, G.; Renaud, R. [Association francaise des ingenieurs et techniciens de l' environnement, AFITE, 75 - Paris (France); Touron, M. [Veritas, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the discussions of the 16 may 2000, concerning the externalization and the environment and proposes to answer the following questions: is the externalization a new strategy to better perceive, hopeful engineering department, the technological risks problems, the environment or the land pollution? Does the externalization allow a better organization of the enterprise? To analyse the situation, the document presents the white book of the environmental liability, the administration point of view, some enterprises examples and the importance of the environmental management. (A.L.B.)

  15. Disrupting posterior cingulate connectivity disconnects consciousness from the external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-04-01

    Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies including both patients with disorders of consciousness and healthy subjects with modified states of consciousness suggest a crucial role of the medial posteroparietal cortex in conscious information processing. However no direct neuropsychological evidence supports this hypothesis and studies including patients with restricted lesions of this brain region are almost non-existent. Using direct intraoperative electrostimulations, we showed in a rare patient that disrupting the subcortical connectivity of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) reliably induced a breakdown in conscious experience. This acute phenomenon was mainly characterized by a transient behavioral unresponsiveness with loss of external connectedness. In all cases, when he regained consciousness, the patient described himself as in dream, outside the operating room. This finding suggests that functional integrity of the PPC connectivity is necessary for maintaining consciousness of external environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary results on scintigraphic evaluation of malignant external otitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malamitsi, J.; Maragoudakis, P. (Hippocrateion Hospital, Athens (Greece). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Papafragou, K.; Koukouliou, V. (Athens Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Medical Physics); Kalatzis, Y.; Adamopoulos, G.; Proukakis, C. (Hippocrateion Hospital, Athens (Greece). ORL Univ. Clinic)

    1993-06-01

    Malignant external otitis (MEO) is a potentially fatal otitis occurring in diabetic and immunosuppressed patients, which may cause cranial nerve palsies and massive thrombophlebitis of the brain. We studied five diabetic patients with the clinical diagnosis of external otitis who were suspected of having MEO and one diabetic patient presumed cured from MEO. All of them underwent methylene diphosphonate, nanocolloid and gallium single-photon emission tomography studies with quantitative analysis on the basis of regions of interest and count profile curves. This combined assessment helped us to diagnose and follow-up soft tissue and temporal bone infection, especially in the case of transsphenoidal extension of the disease, since conventional radiology and computed tomography were of no particular help. On the basis of these results, we consider scintigraphic demonstration of skull base infection as a fourth criterion of MEO given that the classical Chandler's triad (diabetes, granuloma, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) is not always present. (orig.).

  17. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2017-01-01

    but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity......The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and be determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force...

  18. Weibel instability in a plasma with nonzero external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pokhotelov

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The theory of the Weibel instability is generalized for the case of a plasma immersed in a nonzero external magnetic field. It is shown that the presence of this external field modifies the dispersion relation for this mode which now possesses a nonzero frequency. The explicit expression for the real and imaginary parts of the frequency is then calculated. It turns out that the linear growth rate remains unchanged, whereas the frequency becomes nonzero due to the finite value of the electron cyclotron frequency. The frequency of the Weibel mode is found to be proportional to the electron temperature anisotropy. The formal similarity of the Weibel and drift-mirror instabilities is outlined.

  19. The sustainability of Serbia's external position: The impact of fiscal adjustment and external shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zildžović Emir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the impact of fiscal policy and external shocks on the sustainability of Serbia’s external position. The key determinants of Serbia's current account balance are identified using model averaging techniques and are compared with estimates obtained for other small open economies (Poland, Georgia, Morocco, Ukraine, and Estonia. The paper uses estimated influences of macrovariables on the current account balance to generate a rich set of possible outcomes for the external position of the country. The results suggest the importance of fiscal policy for the reduction of external imbalances in all countries in our sample. In particular, credible and sustained fiscal adjustment can reduce current account deficit and stabilize Serbia’s external position close to its current level over the medium term. The analysis also warns that lack of success in fiscal consolidation coupled with external shocks may easily push the external position onto an unsustainable path.

  20. An Evaluation of the Externality of Cultivated Land Based on CVM:A Case Study of Neihuang County, Henan Province%基于CVM耕地资源利用的外部性评估——以河南省内黄县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳蕊; 赵凯; 王志晓; 薛欧

    2011-01-01

    本文在河南省内黄县进行问卷调查的基础上,首先对各社会经济特征变量做了Pearson相关性检验,然后以LnWTP为因变量进行多元线性回归,最后采用意愿评估法(CVM)对耕地资源利用的外部性进行估算,并分析了其影响因素.研究结果表明:①城镇居民家庭年收入、受教育程度与支付意愿值呈显著正相关;②农村居民年龄和承包耕地面积与支付意愿值呈显著负相关;性别、受教育程度、家庭年收入和年农业收入呈显著正相关;③经估算,河南省内黄县耕地资源利用的外部性单位值为1 1649.45元/hm2(776.63元/亩).因此,应在估算耕地资源总价值、确定征地价格和土地承包经营权流转价格和耕地资源保护决策中应充分考虑耕地资源的外部性.%The study is aimed at assessing the externality value of cultivated land and unraveling influential factors on residents' willingness to pay through a case on Neihuang County, Henan Province. The cultivated land resource, as a type of natural resources, provides not only production functions, but also ecological and social functions as well. The cultivated land utilization benefit system is composed of economic benefit, social benefit, and ecological benefit. The ecological and social benefits of cultivated land utilization tend to be more for public goods than consumption, so the ecological and social benefits of cultivated land utilization appear to be external benefits. In current rural land market, the price of cultivated land resources only reflects the production benefits, but seems to fall short of reflecting the other benefits effectively. It is, however, critical to evaluating the externality of the cultivated land resource for decision making and preservation of farmland. This contributes to the prescription of governments on the deal price in rural land market and reasonable expropriation price in order to restrain excessive land development and to

  1. Optimization approaches for planning external beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozbasi, Halil Ozan

    Cancer begins when cells grow out of control as a result of damage to their DNA. These abnormal cells can invade healthy tissue and form tumors in various parts of the body. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy are the most common treatment methods for cancer. According to American Cancer Society about half of the cancer patients receive a form of radiation therapy at some stage. External beam radiotherapy is delivered from outside the body and aimed at cancer cells to damage their DNA making them unable to divide and reproduce. The beams travel through the body and may damage nearby healthy tissue unless carefully planned. Therefore, the goal of treatment plan optimization is to find the best system parameters to deliver sufficient dose to target structures while avoiding damage to healthy tissue. This thesis investigates optimization approaches for two external beam radiation therapy techniques: Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) and Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT). We develop automated treatment planning technology for IMRT that produces several high-quality treatment plans satisfying provided clinical requirements in a single invocation and without human guidance. A novel bi-criteria scoring based beam selection algorithm is part of the planning system and produces better plans compared to those produced using a well-known scoring-based algorithm. Our algorithm is very efficient and finds the beam configuration at least ten times faster than an exact integer programming approach. Solution times range from 2 minutes to 15 minutes which is clinically acceptable. With certain cancers, especially lung cancer, a patient's anatomy changes during treatment. These anatomical changes need to be considered in treatment planning. Fortunately, recent advances in imaging technology can provide multiple images of the treatment region taken at different points of the breathing cycle, and deformable image registration algorithms can

  2. Therapeutic options for external genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vender, Ronald; Bourcier, Marc; Bhatia, Neal; Lynde, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The primary goal of treatment for external genital warts (EGWs) is to eradicate visible lesions and address symptoms that may accompany them, but it does not address the underlying virus. Left untreated, warts may grow, remain the same, or spontaneously regress as a result of being cleared by the immune system. However, recurrence is common with or without treatment and may occur within 3 months of ending treatment in one-quarter to two-thirds of cases. Treatment options fall into two categories: provider or patient applied. Provider-based therapies include cryotherapy, trichloroacetic and bichloroacetic acid, electrocautery, surgical excision, and CO2 laser therapy. Patient-applied therapy choices include imiquimod and podophyllotoxin. Imiquimod 3.75% is a fairly new, patient-administered topical cream approved by Health Canada in 2011. Another recently approved patient-applied choice is sinecatechins, a green tea extract with immunomodulatory effects. Self-treatment options are attractive to patients because they offer privacy, convenience, and autonomy. In contrast, provider-administered therapies may boast increased precision (especially for areas that are hard to reach) and closer monitoring, which can be augmented by patient education and counseling. Available topical and surgical therapies vary widely in terms of cost, efficacy, adverse effects, dosage/frequency, and length of treatment. No one treatment is ideally suited to all patients or constitutes a gold standard. Treatment regimens must be tailored to each patient's needs and preferences. The health care provider's skills and experience will also factor into treatment decisions. In addition, the size, number, and location of lesions and whether the infection is new or recurrent will help guide the decision process toward the best treatment for a given patient.

  3. Papain-induced occupational rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma - A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymoszuk, Diana; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a case of occupational asthma, rhinitis and conjunctivitis to papain in a 50-year-old herbs and spices packer, with documented increased eosinophilia in induced sputum and in the nasal lavage fluids after a specific inhalation challenge test (SICT) and specific nasal challenge test (SNCT) with this enzyme. Immunoglobulin E-mediated (IgE) sensitization to papain was confirmed by positive results of a skin prick test with specific solution. Specific inhalation and nasal challenge tests demonstrated a direct and significant link between the exposure to this protease and the allergic response from the respiratory system. Additionally, the SNCT induced a severe reaction of the conjunctivae and a significant increase in the count of eosinophils in tears, despite the lack of direct contact of the allergen with the conjunctiva.

  4. Externality, environment, and obesity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stager, S F

    1981-07-01

    On the assumption that external responsiveness and environmental characteristics jointly determine whether a child will achieve an excessive weight gain, perpetuating and maintaining obesity, probability hierarchy was hypothesized and tested. Ss of the study were 24 obese and 24 average-weight, white boys, mean age 9 years, 5 months. An auditory distraction task and Kagan's Matching Familiar Figures Test were used to measure auditory and visual responsivity to external cues, respectively. Socioeconomic status was used as an indicator of the childhood environment. As predicted, the greatest percentages of obese children were observed in the lower-socioeconomic, external group, followed by the lower-socioeconomic, internal group and middle-socioeconomic, external group. The smallest percentage of obese children was observed in the middle-socioeconomic, internal group.

  5. Sleep disturbances in chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, B.W.; Westeneng, H.J.; Hal, M.A. van; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Overeem, S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO) is a relatively common mitochondrial disorder. In addition to extraocular muscle weakness, various other organs can typically be affected, including laryngeal and limb muscles, cerebrum, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. Given this mul

  6. Proceedings: National conference on environmental externalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report is the proceedings of the National Conference on Environmental Externalities. A environmental externality is the environmental impact of a process or a plant that society must endure. It is a social cost and is paid, but not by the company who produced it or the company`s customers who endure it. The main purpose of this report is to gather the many designs and ideas of how and why to internalize the externalities into the pricing systems of the public utility commissions, especially that of the electric utilities. Economic and sociological aspects of the internalization of these externalities are given in these proceedings. Individual papers are processed separately for databases. (MB)

  7. Owl Mountain Partnership : An external assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — External review of the Owl Mountain Partnership (OMP) to identify benefits and successes associatedwith collaborative work through the perceptions of participating...

  8. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Herdegen, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  9. reoperation rates following intramedullary nailing versus external ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reasons for reoperation among EF patients were infection. (2 patients) ... fixation. Keywords: Orthopaedic surgery, Tanzania, Intramedullary nail, External fixation, Open tibia fracture. INTRODUCTION ..... of surgical site infection. Infect Control ...

  10. 外固定支架结合关节镜治疗跟骨 Sanders II~IV 型骨折41例%Treatment of Sanders II~IV calcaneal fracture with external fixation bracket combined with arthroscopic (41 cases)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜中兴; 岳发翔; 朱贤久; 唐方科; 朱怡; 陈勇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the clinical efficacy of prying reduction and external fixation support+joint surface with mandibular reconstruction under arthroscopy (or bone graft) simple gram needle fixation on calcaneus comminuted fracture, and to explore the treatment's advantages and disadvantages. Methods 41 cases (46 feet) with bone comminuted fracture patients were treated by prying reduction and external fixation support+joint surface with mandibular reconstruc-tion under arthroscopy (or bone graft) simple gram needle fixation. Results According to the Maryland foot rating Score, excellent in 31 feet, good in 11, fair in 4, and the excellent and good rate was 90.1%. Conclusion The treatment on calcaneus comminuted fracture has the advantages of curative effect with small surgical trauma, fewer complications, does not destroy the blood supply, joint surface reduct well, and it is more suitable choice for the calcaneus fracture patients accompanying with soft tissue injuries needing several operations.%  目的观察撬拨复位外固定支架+关节镜下跟骨关节面撬拨整复(植骨)克氏针简单内固定治疗跟骨粉碎性骨折的临床疗效,探讨该方法治疗跟骨粉碎性骨折的优点和不足.方法对41例(46足)跟骨粉碎性骨折病人接受撬拨复位外固定支架+关节镜下跟骨关节面撬拨整复(或植骨)克氏针简单内固定治疗跟骨粉碎性骨折.结果术后其疗效按Maryland足部评分标准,优31足,良11足,可4足,优良率90.1%.结论利撬拨复位外固定支架+关节镜下跟骨关节面撬拨整复(植骨)克氏针简单内固定治疗跟骨粉碎性骨折疗效满意,有手术创伤小、并发症少,不破坏骨折血运,对骨折愈合影响小,跟骨关节面复位理想等优点,且对伴有软组织损伤需多次手术治疗的患者更适合该方法.

  11. Consumption Externalities, Rental Markets and Purchase Clubs.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Scotchmer

    2002-01-01

    A premise of general equilibrium theory is that private goods are rival. Nevertheless, many private goods are shared, e.g., through barter, through co-ownership, or simply because one person’s consumption affects another person’s wellbeing. We analyze consumption externalities from the perspective of club theory, and argue that, provided consumption externalities are limited in scope, they can be internalized through membership fees to groups. Our main applications are to rental markets and “...

  12. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Luca Venuti

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  13. Inferential knowledge, externalism and self-knowledge.

    OpenAIRE

    R G Ford

    2004-01-01

    Privileged self-knowledge says, roughly, that we have non-empirical knowledge of our own thoughts. Externalism about mental content says, roughly, that our mental states are determined at least in part by our environment. It has been alleged that jointly assuming externalism about mental content and privileged self-knowledge are true has the consequence that any subject can have non-empirical knowledge of her own environment and this is intuitively absurd. The thesis investigates in various w...

  14. Operating protocols of external root cervical resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Venuti, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Theme of this report is the external cervical root resorption and the sequence of clinical procedures to be implemented during the phases of treatment. The external cervical root resorption (ICR) presents particular pathological conditions such as to classify between resorption of inflammatory origin.1–3 It is generally presented as a complex clinical situation both in the diagnosis in a predictable prognosis.3–6 It's often associated with loss of calcified tissue: dentin, cementum, a...

  15. Integrating Building Functions into Massive External Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hisham Hafez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Well into the twentieth century, brick and stone were the materials used. Bricklaying and stonemasonry were the construction technologies employed for the exterior walls of virtually all major structures. However, with the rise in quality of life, the massive walls alone became incapable of fulfilling all the developed needs. Adjacent systems and layers had then to be attached to the massive layer. Nowadays, the external wall is usually composed of a layered construction. Each external wall function is usually represented by a separate layer or system. The massive layer of the wall is usually responsible for the load-bearing function.Traditional massive external walls vary in terms of their external appearance, their composition and attached layers. However, their design and construction process is usually a repeated process. It is a linear process where each discipline is concerned with a separate layer or system. These disciplines usually take their tasks away and bring them back to be re-integrated in a layered manner. New massive technologies with additional function have recently become available.Such technologies can provide the external wall with other functions in addition to its load-bearing function. The purpose of this research is to map the changes required to the traditional design and construction process when massive technologies with additional function are applied in external walls. Moreover, the research aims at assessing the performance of massive solutions with additional function when compared to traditional solutions in two different contexts, the Netherlands and Egypt.Through the analysis of different additional function technologies in external walls, a guidance scheme for different stakeholders is generated. It shows the expected process changes as related to the product level and customization level. Moreover, the research concludes that the performance of additional insulating technologies, and specifically Autoclaved

  16. External Prestressing Bridge Reinforcement Technology Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Hanbing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Externally prestressed bridge can not only limit and reduce the cracks and deformation of the structure, improve the rigidity and bearing capacity of structure, improve the stress state of structure, but also have less interference for bridge operation when it is operating and have the good economic efficiency. This paper introduces the advantages and disadvantages of external prestressed strengthening technique, its calculation theory and construction technology described in detail, and finally the paper discusses the deficiency of existing research.

  17. Nuclear waste storage and environmental intergenerational externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Fodha, Mouez

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This article analyzes the long-term consequences of nuclear waste storage within a general equilibrium framework. The objective is to determine the conditions for which the storage of waste, and thus the transfer of externalities towards the future, can be optimal. These conditions could explain the implementation of intergenerational externalities, justifying an intertemporal Not In My Back Yard behaviour. We first show that the choice of the policy instruments determ...

  18. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT VS. EXTERNAL FIXATION OF COMMINUTED DISTAL RADIUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar Kare

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fracture of the distal radius (‘broken wrist’ is a common clinical problem. It can be treated conservatively usually involving wrist immobilisation in a plaster cast or surgically. A key method of surgical fixation is external fixation. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective study was carried out on 66 patients admitted between June 2014 to May 2016 for evaluation of conservative and surgical management of distal radius fractures. RESULTS Excellent, fair or good result was noticed in around 85% of cases managed conservatively and in above 90% of cases managed by external fixator. CONCLUSION There is some evidence to support the use of external fixation for dorsally displaced fractures of the distal radius in adults. Though, there is insufficient evidence to confirm a better functional outcome, external fixation reduces redisplacement gives improved anatomical results and most of the excess surgically-related complications are minor.

  19. External cost assessment for nuclear fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byung Heung [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Won Il [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Nuclear power is currently the second largest power supply method in Korea and the number of nuclear power plants are planned to be increased as well. However, clear management policy for spent fuels generated from nuclear power plants has not yet been established. The back-end fuel cycle, associated with nuclear material flow after nuclear reactors is a collection of technologies designed for the spent fuel management and the spent fuel management policy is closely related with the selection of a nuclear fuel cycle. Cost is an important consideration in selection of a nuclear fuel cycle and should be determined by adding external cost to private cost. Unlike the private cost, which is a direct cost, studies on the external cost are focused on nuclear reactors and not at the nuclear fuel cycle. In this research, external cost indicators applicable to nuclear fuel cycle were derived and quantified. OT (once through), DUPIC (Direct Use of PWR SF in CANDU), PWR-MOX (PWR PUREX reprocessing), and Pyro-SFR (SFR recycling with pyroprocessing) were selected as nuclear fuel cycles which could be considered for estimating external cost in Korea. Energy supply security cost, accident risk cost, and acceptance cost were defined as external cost according to precedent and estimated after analyzing approaches which have been adopted for estimating external costs on nuclear power generation.

  20. The ventilatory effect of external oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabey, D; Piquet, J

    1989-01-01

    High frequency ventilation (HFV) may be achieved by external oscillation (external HFV) applied around the chest wall (HFCWO) in large animals and humans, or over the entire body (HFBSO) in small animals, instead of being applied via the trachea (internal HFV). We present a synthesis of the results obtained with external HFV in both normal and bronchoconstricted subjects. Whereas external and internal HFV were found to be equivalent in terms of gas exchange in normal rats, external HFV was found to have a beneficial effect in bronchoconstricted rabbits, but internal HFV did not. From the frequency-oscillatory tidal volume relationship determined in normocapnic rabbits, HFBSO at 5 Hz was found to be the optimal frequency at which to ventilate with tidal volumes close to the dead space volume, and which was also shown to be the optimal volume to obtain normocapnia. Moreover, 5 Hz oscillations (HFCWO) at 20 ml and 40 ml superimposed on tidal breathing accelerated nitrogen washout, i.e., gas exchange in normal humans. Unfortunately, only oscillations with much smaller volumes (5-10 ml) were obtainable in COPD patients. Nevertheless, they produced a clear change in breathing pattern associated with a slight improvement in gas exchange and a potentially positive effect on inspiratory muscle fatigue. These results support the concept that non-invasive external HFV technique may be of use in assisting ventilation in bronchoconstricted subjects and may possibly replace conventional controlled ventilation, at least in subjects with high lung compliance, such as babies, neonates and normal adults.

  1. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  2. Constant External Fields in Gauge Theory and the Spin 0, 1/2, 1 Path Integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Reuter, M; Schubert, C; Reuter, Martin; Schmidt, Michael G.; Schubert, Christian

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the usefulness of the ``string-inspired technique'' for gauge theory calculations in a constant external field background. Our approach is based on Strassler's worldline path integral approach to the Bern-Kosower formalism, and on the construction of worldline (super--) Green's functions incorporating external fields as well as internal propagators. The worldline path integral representation of the gluon loop is reexamined in detail. We calculate the two-loop effective actions induced for a constant external field by a scalar and spinor loop, and the corresponding one-loop effective action in the gluon loop case.

  3. Thermodynamics of relativistic Newton—Wigner particle in external potential field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, A. S.; Filinov, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    Thermodynamic properties of relativistic spinless particle described by the Klein-Gordon equation have been studied using the Newton-Wigner theory of particle in external potential field. Concept of Wiener path integral was extended on relativistic case. A new path integral Monte-Carlo method was developed for relativistic particle in external potential field. The bounds of applicability of available analytical approaches and related results have been specified by comparison with Monte-Carlo calculations. Developed path integral formalism can be directly extended on systems of many identical Newton-Wigner particles, which interact with external field and each other.

  4. External transpedicular spine fixation in severe spondylodiscitis – salvage procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spalteholz, Matthias

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Specific and non-specific infections of the spine are rare. Due to their potential for severe instabilities, deformities and the impairment of neurological structures, the treatment is often prolonged and needs an interdisciplinary management. The clinical presentation is uncharacteristic, therefore diagnosis is often delayed. There are no prospective randomized studies for therapy recommendation. The surgical concept includes eradication of the infection and the reliable stabilization of involved segments. This concept is successful in most cases of endogenous vertebral osteomyelitis. The therapy of the exogenous spine infections after macro and micro surgery is more difficult, due to the critical wound situation and the involvement of the posterior parts of the spine. In these cases, infection-associated instability of the anterior part is complicated by critical posterior wound conditions.We present three cases of severe exogenous vertebral infections, where temporary external transpedicular spine fixation was used for salvage procedure, till soft tissue conditions have permitted a definitive internal stabilization.

  5. Dacryocystography using computed tomography prior to external dacryocystorhinostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, Ikue; Chijiiwa, Taeko [National Kyushu Medical Center, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-01-01

    We performed dacryocystography using computed tomography in 47 eyes of 45 patients of chronic dacryocystitis prior to external dacryocystorhinostomy. The radiopaque agent was injected into the lower canaliculus. The findings were useful in estimating the thickness of the bony wall of lacrimal fossa. The ethmoidal sinus was located adjacent and nasal to the lacrimal fossa in 11 eyes (23%). Care was needed in these cases not to create an anastomosis between the lacrimal sac and the ethmoidal sinus. The contrast medium was located in the nasolacrimal duct in 14 eyes (30%), suggesting that the obstruction was located in the lower nasolacrimal duct. Intraoperative irrigation-aspiration appeared to be indicated in these cases. Traumatic bony fracture with hypertrophy was present in one case, suggesting that nasolacrimal obstruction may be induced by facial trauma. (author)

  6. The electron propagator in external electromagnetic fields in low dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murguía, Gabriela; Raya, Alfredo; Sánchez, Ángel; Reyes, Edward

    2010-07-01

    We study the electron propagator in quantum electrodynamics in one and two spatial dimensions in the presence of external electromagnetic fields. In this case, the propagator is not diagonal in momentum space. We obtain the propagator on the basis of the eigenfunctions of the operator (γ ṡΠ)2 in terms of which the propagator acquires a free form. Πμ is the canonical momentum operator and γμ are the Dirac matrices. In two dimensions, we work with an irreducible representation of the Clifford algebra and consider to all orders the effects of an arbitrary magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of motion of the electrons. We then discuss the special cases of a uniform magnetic field and an exponentially damped static magnetic field. These cases are relevant to graphene in the massless limit. We further consider the electron propagator for the massive Schwinger model and incorporate the effects of a constant electric field to all orders.

  7. EXISTENCE OF INFINITE ENERGY SOLUTION TO THE INELASTIC BOLTZMANN EQUATION WITH EXTERNAL FORCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Jinbo; Zhang Xianwen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper,the Cauchy problem for the inelastic Boltzmann equation with external force is considered in the case of initial data with infinite energy.More precisely,under the assumptions on the bicharacteristic generated by external force,we prove the global existence of solution for small initial data compared to the local Maxwellian exp{-p|x-v|2},which has infinite mass and energy.

  8. Nonsurgical Endodontic Retreatment of Advanced Inflammatory External Root Resorption Using Mineral Trioxide Aggregate Obturation

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory external root resorption is one of the major complications after traumatic dental injury. In this case report, we describe treatment of a maxillary central incisor affected by severe, perforating external root resorption. An 18-year-old patient presented with a previously traumatized, root-filled maxillary central incisor associated with pain and sinus tract. Radiographic examination revealed periradicular lesion involving pathologic resorption of the apical region of the root an...

  9. Education Externalities in Rural Ethiopia: Evidence from Average and Stochastic Frontier Production Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Sharada Weir; John Knight

    2000-01-01

    Education will have externality effects in agriculture if, in the course of conducting their own private economic activities, educated farmers raise the productivity of uneducated farmers with whom they come into contact. This paper seeks to determine the potential size and source of such benefits for rural areas of Ethiopia. Average and stochastic frontier production function methodologies are employed to measure productivity and efficiency of farmers. In each case, internal and external ret...

  10. The dynamics of coupled atom and field assisted by continuous external pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burlak, G.; Hernandez, J.A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Universidad Autonoma de Morelos, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Starostenko, O. [Departamento de Fisica, Electronica, Sistemas y Mecatronica, Universidad de las Americas, 72820 Puebla (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    The dynamics of a coupled system comprising a two-level atom and cavity field assisted by a continuous external classical field (driving Jaynes-Cummings model) is studied. When the initial field is prepared in a coherent state, the dynamics strongly depends on the algebraic sum of both fields. If this sum is zero (the compensative case) in the system, only the vacuum Rabi oscillations occur. The results with dissipation and external field detuning from the cavity field are also discussed. (Author)

  11. Pseudo-aneurisma de artéria tibial posterior pós-tratamento de fratura de perna com fixador externo: relato de caso e revisão da literatura Pseudoaneurysm of the posterior tibial artery after external fixation for leg fracture: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos de Morais Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve um caso de pseudo-aneurisma da artéria tibial posterior devido ao uso de fixador externo para tratamento de fratura dos ossos da perna (técnica de Ilizarov, bem como as técnicas utilizadas para seu tratamento. A compressão guiada por ultra-som e a injeção de trombina guiada por ultra-som foram realizadas, sem sucesso. O tratamento definitivo do pseudo-aneurisma e reconstrução arterial foi conseguido através do tratamento cirúrgico clássico, usando enxerto interposto de veia safena magna homóloga invertida. As indicações, vantagens e desvantagens das técnicas de tratamento não invasivo (compressão guiada por ultra-som e injeção de trombina guiada por ultra-som e as possíveis causas de sua incapacidade na obliteração do pseudo-aneurisma são discutidas. Também foi realizada a revisão de casos de pseudo-aneurisma da artéria tibial posterior na literatura médica, encontrando-se apenas um caso semelhante, entre 24 publicados.We describe a case of pseudoaneurysm in the posterior tibial artery following treatment for tibial and fibula fractures using external fixation (Ilizarov technique, as well as the techniques used for its treatment. Ultrasound-guided compression and ultrasound-guided thrombin injection were unsuccessfully performed. Definite treatment of pseudoaneurysm and arterial reconstruction was achieved through the traditional surgical treatment, using interposed graft of inverted homologous great saphenous vein. Indications, advantages and disadvantages of noninvasive treatment techniques (ultrasound-guided compression and ultrasound-guided thrombin injection and the possible causes of their inability in obliterating the pseudoaneurysm are discussed. A literature review of pseudoaneurysms of the posterior tibial artery was also carried out, resulting in only one similar case out of 24 published cases.

  12. External Snapping Hip Syndrome: Emphasis on the MR Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jung Eun; Lee, Bae Young [Catholic University St. Paul' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Mi Sook; Lee, Ki Haeng; Yoo, Won Jong; Lim, Hyun Wook; Chung, Myung Hee [Catholic University Bucheon St. Mary' s Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong Mi [Catholic University St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jee Young [Catholic University St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the MR imaging features of patients with external snapping hip syndrome. We retrospectively reviewed 63 hip MR images. The images were analyzed according to the thickness and contour of the iliotibial band and the gluteus maximus, the presence of bone marrow edema, bursitis, joint effusion and other associated findings. The MR imaging of 22 hips with snapping hip syndrome depicted the causes of external snapping hip syndrome in twenty cases (90%). The MR imaging features of the snapping hip included thickening of the iliotibial band in twelve cases (55%) and/or thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in nineteen (86%), and a wavy contour of the iliotibial band or the anterior band of the gluteus maximus in ten cases (45%). These findings show a significant p value (<0.01). The majority of patients with snapping hip syndrome revealed thickening of the iliotibial band, thickening of the anterior band of the gluteus maximus and wavy contour of the those structures on MR imaging.

  13. Means of regulating combustible materials and products in external walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkola Esko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents proposals for defining means of regulating the use of combustible materials and products in external walls. Required protections are based on the quantities of fire loads and their contribution to fire development. The study is based on life safety and protection of property priorities taking into account reaction to fire classes related to different types of fire loads and fire compartmentation requirements of the adjacent spaces of concern. The proposals include the following main principles in relation to fire-separation requirements: In case of internal fire exposure the protective structure for combustible building parts needs to meet at least half of the fire-separating requirement for the compartment of concern. In case of external fire exposure the protection time requirement can be 15 minutes less than for the internal protection. The proposals are applicable for residential buildings and offices. In case of buildings with longer evacuation times more stringent requirement levels may be considered. For verification of protection performance of fire loads it is proposed to use existing standardized test methods (fire protection ability (K classes and fire-separating function (EI classes validated methods of calculation and/or large scale fire testing.

  14. Q criterion for disc stability modified by external tidal field

    CERN Document Server

    Jog, Chanda J

    2013-01-01

    The standard Q criterion (with Q > 1) describes the local stability of a disc supported by rotation and random motion. Most astrophysical discs, however, are under the influence of an external gravitational field which can affect their stability. A typical example is a galactic disc embedded in a dark matter halo. Here we do a linear perturbation analysis for a disc in an external field, and obtain a generalized dispersion relation and a modified stability criterion. An external field has two effects on the disc dynamics: first, it contributes to the unperturbed rotational field, and second, it adds a tidal field term in the stability parameter. A typical disruptive tidal field results in a higher modified Q value and hence leads to a more stable disc. We apply these results to the Milky Way, and to a low surface brightness galaxy UGC 7321. We find that in each case the stellar disc by itself is barely stable and it is the dark matter halo that stabilizes the disc against local, axisymmetric gravitational ins...

  15. STUDY ON SPANNING EXTERNAL FIXATORS FOR PERIARTICULAR OPEN FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanth Maddila

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Open fractures which occur close to any fracture need immobilisation for the soft tissues to heal. Some open fractures are even fixed with provisional fixations to maintain the alignment of the fractures. The provisional fixation needs to be augmented with external support, which can be given by spanning external fixators across a joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS Our study consists of 38 open fractures of the lower limbs, which are of Gustilo-Anderson’s type IIIB, an MT4 of AO-ASIF soft tissue injury classification essentially requiring open wound management as well as fracture fixation. Wound lavage and debridements are carried out till the soft tissues show granulations. The position in which joint is immobilised is functional and with access to open wound for dressings and inspection without any displacement of the fracture as well as creeping granulation tissue. RESULTS All the cases in our study are maintained with functional position till soft tissue cover is achieved and provisional fixation is done with definitive fixation after soft tissue cover with skin grafting. CONCLUSION Spanning external fixators are useful in maintaining functional positions as well as augmenting the provisional fixation of the compound fractures.

  16. Freezing of Energy of a Soliton in an External Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambusi, D.; Maspero, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we study the dynamics of a soliton in the generalized NLS with a small external potential ɛV of Schwartz class. We prove that there exists an effective mechanical system describing the dynamics of the soliton and that, for any positive integer r, the energy of such a mechanical system is almost conserved up to times of order ɛ - r . In the rotational invariant case we deduce that the true orbit of the soliton remains close to the mechanical one up to times of order ɛ - r .

  17. [ILCOR recommendation on signage of automated external defibrillators (AEDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlár, A

    2010-05-01

    Early defibrillation is a determinant of survival in both out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrests from ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The review summarizes importance of early defibrillation with automated external defibrillators (AED) and presents the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) recommendation for universal AED sign. The aim of the recommendation is to unify the AED signs worldwide and to spread the knowledge of this. The public in general, but healthcare professionals particularly, should be able to recognize AED location and use the device immediately in case of cardiac arrest.

  18. Lepton-photon interactions in external background fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akal, Ibrahim [Theory Group, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany); Moortgat-Pick, Gudrid [II. Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We investigate lepton-photon interactions in a class of generalized external background fields with periodic plane-wave character. Considering the full interaction with the background, S-matrix elements are calculated exactly. We apply those general expressions to interaction schemes like Compton scattering in specific field configurations, as for instance provided in modern laser facilities, or in high intense regions of future linear colliders. Results are extended to the case of frontal colliding high-energy field photons with leptons such that new insights beyond the usual soft terms become accessible.

  19. Managing Open Innovation Connecting the Firm to External Knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Spithoven, Andre; Frantzen, D J

    2012-01-01

    Open innovation is about firms' external relations with other firms and organisations. It is a topic which has attracted an immense amount of attention, but which has also been heavily criticised due to the diversity of the ideas and fuzziness of its key concepts. To date, the bulk of the literature on open innovation draws on case study material to illustrate the operation of firms in an anecdotal way. By contrast, this book examines open innovation practices by using large-scale datasets and stresses their impact on firm performance. The authors examine four key issues: differences between f

  20. Cholesteric elastomers in external mechanical and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Andreas M.; Brand, Helmut R.

    2007-01-01

    In our studies, we focus on the reaction of cholesteric side-chain liquid single-crystal elastomers (SCLSCEs) to static external mechanical and electric fields. By means of linearized continuum theory, different geometries are investigated: The mechanical forces are oriented in a direction either parallel or perpendicular to the axis of the cholesteric helix such that they lead to a compression or dilation of the elastomer. Whereas only a homogeneous deformation of the system is found for the parallel case, perpendicularly applied mechanical forces cause either twisting or untwisting of the cholesteric helix. This predominantly depends on the direction in which the director of the cholesteric phase is anchored at the boundaries of the elastomer, and on the sign of a material parameter that describes how deformations of the elastomer couple to the relative rotations between the elastomer and the director. It is also this material parameter that leads to an anisotropy of the mechanical reaction of the system to compression and dilation, due to the liquid crystalline order. The effect of an external electric field is studied when applied parallel to the helix axis of a perfect electric insulator. Here an instability arises at a threshold value of the field amplitude, where the latter results from a competition between the effects of the external electric field on the one hand and the influences of the boundaries of the system, the cholesteric order, and the coupling between the director and the polymer network on the other hand. The instability is either homogeneous in space in the directions perpendicular to the external electric field and includes homogeneous shearing, or, for certain values of the material parameters, there arise undulations of the elastomer and the director orientation perpendicular to the direction of the external electric field at onset. This describes a qualitatively new phenomenon not observed in cholesteric systems yet, as these undulations

  1. Internalizing Externalities through Payments for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsono Soedomo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems, including plantation forests, provide goods and services that are marketable and non-marketable. Positive externalities produced by forest ecosystems are rarely considered in pricing of marketable products that result in economic inefficiencies. Internalizing externalities is required to improve the economic efficiency. The traditional way to internalize an externality is by providing subsidies or imposing taxes. Recently, payments for environmental services  are receiving more attention as an instrument for internalizing externalities provided by forest ecosystems. This promising alternative to improve our environment needs to be studied more extensively. In this paper, it can be indicated theoretically that the Pigovian tax, as a traditional way of addressing environmental problems, is able to mimic the result derived from the employment of environmental services payment. The difference is that environmental services payment improves the welfare of environmental service producers, whereas the Pigovian tax reduces it. A positive Pigovian tax increases the optimal rotation, which is positively associated with environmental improvement, but certainly reduces forest owner's welfare. This difference should be taken into account in the public policymaking so that perverse incentive may be avoided. Payment for environmental services  as an additional income to forest growers, not as alternative source of income, is a potential tool to address simultaneously issues of environment and poverty that are frequently contested.Keywords: externalities, payments for environmental services, tax, perverse incentive, social welfare

  2. External-field-free magnetic biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanpeng; Wang, Yi; Klein, Todd; Wang, Jian-Ping, E-mail: jpwang@umn.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report a magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) detection scheme without the presence of any external magnetic field. The proposed magnetic sensor uses a patterned groove structure within the sensor so that no external magnetic field is needed to magnetize the MNPs. An example is given based on a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing device with a spin valve structure. For this structure, the detection of MNPs located inside the groove and near the free layer is demonstrated under no external magnetic field. Micromagnetic simulations are performed to calculate the signal to noise level of this detection scheme. A maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR) of 18.6 dB from one iron oxide magnetic nanoparticle with 8 nm radius is achieved. As proof of concept, this external-field-free GMR sensor with groove structure of 200 nm × 200 nm is fabricated using a photo and an electron beam integrated lithography process. Using this sensor, the feasibility demonstration of the detection SNR of 9.3 dB is achieved for 30 μl magnetic nanoparticles suspension (30 nm iron oxide particles, 1 mg/ml). This proposed external-field-free sensor structure is not limited to GMR devices and could be applicable to other magnetic biosensing devices.

  3. External GSM phone calls now made simpler

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 2 July, the IT/CS Telecom Service introduced a new service making external calls from CERN GSM phones easier. A specific prefix is no longer needed for calls outside CERN. External calls from CERN GSM phones are to be simplified. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix to call an external number from the CERN GSM network.The Telecom Section of the IT/CS Group is introducing a new system that will make life easier for GSM users. It is no longer necessary to use a special prefix (333) to call an external number from the CERN GSM network. Simply dial the number directly like any other Swiss GSM customer. CERN currently has its own private GSM network with the Swiss mobile operator, Sunrise, covering the whole of Switzerland. This network was initially intended exclusively for calls between CERN numbers (replacing the old beeper system). A special system was later introduced for external calls, allowing them to pass thr...

  4. Estimating the distribution of external causes in hospital data from injury diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Kavi; Shahraz, Saeid; Naghavi, Mohsen; Lozano, Rafael; Murray, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    Hospital discharge datasets are a key source for estimating the incidence of non-fatal injuries. While hospital records usually document injury diagnosis (e.g. traumatic brain injury, femur fracture, etc.) accurately, they often contain poor quality information on external causes (e.g. road traffic crashes, falls, fires, etc.), if such data is recorded at all. However, estimating incidence by external causes is essential for designing effective prevention strategies. Thus, we developed a method for estimating the number of hospital admissions due to each external cause based on injury diagnosis. We start with a prior probability distribution of external causes for each case (based on victim age and sex) and use Bayesian inference to update the probabilities based on the victim's injury diagnoses. We validate the method on a trial dataset in which both external causes and injury diagnoses are known and demonstrate application to two problems: redistribution of cases classified to ill-defined external causes in one hospital data system; and, estimation of external causes in another hospital data system that only records nature of injuries. In comparison with age-sex proportional distribution (the method usually employed), we found the Bayesian method to be a significant improvement for generating estimates of incidence for many external causes (e.g. fires, drownings, poisonings). But the method, performed poorly in distinguishing between falls and road traffic injuries, both of which are characterized by similar injury codes in our datasets. While such stop gap methods can help derive additional information, hospitals need to incorporate accurate external cause coding in routine record keeping.

  5. A Democratically Accountable External Action Service: Three Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Bátora

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Democratic accountability is an aspect that seems to have been almost entirely overlooked in the discussions on the evolving role of the European External Action Service (EEAS. In modern democratic societies, it is increasingly difficult to sustain the claim that foreign policy and diplomacy are incompatible with democratic decision-making and accountability. What is more, for the external service representing the EU as an entity aspiring to play the role of a mentor in state- and democracy-building processes in various countries around the world, ensuring democratic accountability necessarily becomes a key concern. While this is the case, the literature on the EEAS has at best only partially addressed this issue so far. This article seeks to bridge that gap and discuss ways of how democratic accountability could be ensured in the EEAS in its various possible organizational configurations. It hence addresses some of the key issues addressed by this special issue – institutionalization of administrative arrangements in support of the ESDP, the role of non-elected officials in the EU’s external relations and, indeed, evolving mechanisms for ensuring political control of the EU’s external action. In the first section, the paper discusses the notion of democratic accountability and reviews the state of the debate regarding democratic accountability in the EEAS. Three models of a democratic order in the EU are then suggested (cf Eriksen and Fossum and based on those, three scenarios of developing democratic accountability in the EEAS are elaborated upon - the EEAS as a support agency for member state diplomacy; the EEAS as a federal foreign service of the EU; and the EEAS as a cosmopolitan normative entrepreneur.

  6. Nuclear medicine external individual occupational doses in Rio de Janeiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauricio, Claudia L.P.; Lima, Ana Luiza S.; Silva, Herica L.R. da; Santos, Denison Souza [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: claudia@ird.gov.br, e-mail: analuslima@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: herica@ird.gov.br, e-mail: santosd@ird.gov.br; Silva, Claudio Ribeiro da [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Ciencia e Tecnologia da Informacao (CGTI)(Brazil)], e-mail: claudio@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    According to the Brazilian National Database there are about 300 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS) in Brazil, 44 of them located in the State of Rio de Janeiro (RJ). Individual dose measurements are an important input for the evaluation of occupational exposure in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of radioprotection implementation and to keep individual doses as low as possible. In Brazil, most nuclear medicine (NM) staff is routinely monitored for external dose. The internal committed dose is estimated only in abnormal conditions. This paper makes a statistics analysis of all the RJ NMS annual external occupational doses in year 2005. A study of the evolution of monthly external individual doses higher than 4.00 mSv from 2004 to 2008 is also presented. The number of registered thorax monthly dose higher than 4.0 mSv is increasing, as its value. In this period the highest dose measured reaches 56.9 mSv, in one month, in 2008. About 50% of the annual doses are smaller than the monthly record level of 0.20 mSv. In 2005, around 100 professionals of RJ NMS received annual doses higher than 4.0 mSv, considering only external doses, but no one receives doses higher than 20.0 mSv. Extremities dosimeters are used by about 15% of the staff. In some cases, these doses are more than 10 times higher than the dose in thorax. This study shows the importance to improve radiation protection procedures in NM. (author)

  7. Surgical treatment of neglected clubfoot using external fixator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Mota Pacheco Fernandes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The definition of neglected clubfoot (NC includes a variable range of complex deformities of the foot that are refractory to conventional treatments or are treated inappropriately. Several etiologies may be related to this. The Ilizarov method has become established as a tool for treating these deformities. It minimizes soft-tissue damage through gradual correction of the deformity, with a high success rate in relation to achieving a plantigrade foot, with low incidence of recurrence. The indications for treatment include severe rigid deformities (Dimeglio III and IV, or adverse skin conditions. Careful clinical and radiological examination is fundamental for proper planning and installation of the external fixator. The techniques used include selection of external fixation assemblies, which can be closed when there is a connection between the leg, hindfoot and forefoot. This closed assembly may or may not be constricted, according to whether hinges are provided or whether use of the natural anatomical hinges during correction of the deformity is envisaged. An open assembly makes it possible to add flexibility to the foot through histogenesis, while allowing closed corrections of greater precision later on. Hexapod fixators are an innovation with high potential for accuracy in correcting deformities. Procedures associated with external fixation include soft-tissue release and bone procedures. These procedures enable corrections that are more anatomical, for different degrees of severity and stiffness of deformity. It can be concluded from analyzing this case series that treatment of neglected clubfoot using an external fixator has a high rate of good and excellent results, with low frequency of complications.

  8. Life Cycle Assessment, ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis for an integrated evaluation of the environmental impact of anthropogenic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Department of Physical Sciences, Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); National Research Council, National Institute for the Physics of Matter, C.N.R.-I.N.F.M. Via Cinthia, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis C.N.R.-I.M.A.A. C.da S.Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy)

    2009-06-15

    The implementation of resource management strategies aimed at reducing the impacts of the anthropogenic activities system requires a comprehensive approach to evaluate on the whole the environmental burdens of productive processes and to identify the best recovery strategies from both an environmental and an economic point of view. In this framework, an analytical methodology based on the integration of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), ExternE and Comprehensive Analysis was developed to perform an in-depth investigation of energy systems. The LCA methodology, largely utilised by the international scientific community for the assessment of the environmental performances of technologies, combined with Comprehensive Analysis allows modelling the overall system of anthropogenic activities, as well as sub-systems, the economic consequences of the whole set of environmental damages. Moreover, internalising external costs into partial equilibrium models, as those utilised by Comprehensive Analysis, can be useful to identify the best paths for implementing technology innovation and strategies aimed to a more sustainable energy supply and use. This paper presents an integrated application of these three methodologies to a local scale case study (the Val D'Agri area in Basilicata, Southern Italy), aimed to better characterise the environmental impacts of the energy system, with particular reference to extraction activities. The innovative methodological approach utilised takes advantage from the strength points of each methodology with an added value coming from their integration as emphasised by the main results obtained by the scenario analysis. (author)

  9. Southwick Osteotomy Stabilised with External Fixator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubor, Predrag; Mitkovic, Milorad; Grubor, Milan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Epiphysiolysis of the femoral head is the most common accident occurring towards the end of pre-puberty and puberty growth. Case report: The author describes the experience in the treatment of chronic epiphysiolysis in two patients treated by Southwick osteotomy. The site is accessed by way of a 15-cm long lateral skin incision and the trochanteric region is reached through the layers. The osteotomy angles prepared beforehand on a thin aluminium model are used to mark the Southwick osteotomy site on the anterior and lateral sides at the level of the lesser trochanter. Before performing the trochanteric osteotomy, two Mitković convergent pins type M20 are applied distally and proximally, above the planned osteotomy site. A tenotomy of the iliopsas muscle is performed, and then the previously marked bone triangle is redissected up to three quarters of the width of the femur. The distal part of the femur is rotated inwards, so that the patella is turned towards the ceiling. The osteotomised fragments of the femur are adapted, repositioned and fixated by installing an external fixator on the previously placed pins. Two more pins are placed, one proximally and one distally, with a view to adequately stabilising the femur. The patient was mobile from day two after the surgery. If, after the surgery, the lead surgeon realises that there is a requirement to make a correction of 5, 10 and 15 degrees of the valgus, varus, anteversion or retroversion deformity, the correction shall be performed without surgically opening the patient, using the fixator pins. Conclusion: After performing a Southwick osteotomy it is easier to adapt, reposition and fixate the osteotomised fragments of the femur using a fixator type M20. Adequate stability allows regaining mobility quickly, which in turn is the best prevention of chondrolysis of the hip. It is possible to make post-operative valgus, varus, anteversion and retroversion corrections of 5, 10 and 15 degrees

  10. Atomic excitation and recombination in external fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nayfeh, M.H.; Clark, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    This volume offers a timely look at Rydberg states of atoms in external fields and dielectronic recombination. Each topic provides authoritative coverage, presents a fresh account of a flourishing field of current atomic physics and introduces new opportunities for discovery and development. Topics considered include electron-atom scattering in external fields; observations of regular and irregular motion as exemplified by the quadratic zeeman effect and other systems; Rydberg atoms in external fields and the Coulomb geometry; crossed-field effects in the absorption spectrum of lithium in a magnetic field; precise studies of static electric field ionization; widths and shapes of stark resonances in sodium above the saddle point; studies of electric field effects and barium autoionizing resonances; autoionization and dielectronic recombination in plasma electric microfields; dielectronic recombination measurements on multicharged ions; merged beam studies of dielectronic recombination; Rydberg atoms and dielectronic recombination in astrophysics; and observations on dielectronic recombination.

  11. External Tonehole Interactions in Woodwind Instruments

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, Antoine; Kergomard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    The transfer matrix method is often used to calculate the input impedance of woodwind instruments but it ignores the possible influence of the radiated sound from toneholes on other open holes. In this paper, a method is proposed to account for external tonehole interactions. It is found that the external tonehole interactions increase the amount of radiated energy, reduce slightly the lower resonance frequencies, and modify significantly the response near and above the tonehole lattice cutoff frequency. The results of simulations with the Finite Element Method, as well as experimental measurements, are presented and compared to the calculation with the method presented in this paper, confirming that the external tonehole interactions play a significant role in woodwind instrument.

  12. External-Memory Algorithms and Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Zeh, Norbert

    2010-01-01

    . This is due to the huge difference in access time of fast internal memory and slower external memory such as disks. The goal of theoretical work in the area of external memory algorithms (also called I/O algorithms or out-of-core algorithms) has been to develop algorithms that minimize the Input......The data sets involved in many modern applications are often too massive to fit in main memory of even the most powerful computers and must therefore reside on disk. Thus communication between internal and external memory, and not actual computation time, becomes the bottleneck in the computation....../Output communication (or just I/O) performed when solving a given problem. The area was effectively started in the late eighties by Aggarwal and Vitter and subsequently I/O algorithms have been developed for several problem domain. Also I/O performance can often be improved if many disks can efficiently be used...

  13. DFB laser with attached external intensity modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuse, D. (AT and T Bell Labs. Holmdel, NJ (US))

    1990-02-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study of the frequency pulling effect exerted on a DFB laser by an external amplitude modulator that is directly attached to it. The modulator consists of a piece of waveguide whose loss is modulated by means of an externally applied voltage. The modulator affects the laser due to residual reflections from its far end which appear as a variable effective reflectivity to the output end of the DFB laser. Modulation affects the magnitude as well as the phase of the effective reflection coefficient presented to the laser due to the coupling of the real and imaginary parts of the effective refractive index of the modulator waveguide. The tuning problem is formulated as an eigenvalue equation for the DFB laser in the presence of an externally attached lossy cavity.

  14. Human Sound Externalization in Reverberant Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catic, Jasmina

    occur. In this thesis, the spatial cues that arise from a combined effect of filtering due to the head, torso, and pinna and the acoustic environment were analysed and the impact of such cues for the perception of externalization in different frequency regions was investigated. Distant sound sources...... level differences (ILDs) that occurs in reverberant environments was altered via modifications of the signal envelope in the left and right ear. It was found that the dynamic ILDs had an effect on externalization for broadband and highpass filtered speech, while no effect was found for lowpass filtered......, this work contributes to the understanding of the auditory processing of spatial cues that are important for externalization in reverberant environments and may have implications for hearing instrument signal processing....

  15. Electron-positron pair production in external electric fields varying both in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, I. A.; Plunien, G.; Shabaev, V. M.

    2016-09-01

    The Schwinger mechanism of electron-positron pair production in the presence of strong external electric fields is analyzed numerically for the case of one- and two-dimensional field configurations where the external field depends both on time and one spatial coordinate. In order to provide this analysis, a new efficient numerical approach is developed. The number of particles created is obtained numerically and also compared with the analytical results for several exactly solvable one-dimensional backgrounds. For the case of two-dimensional field configurations the effects of the spatial finiteness are examined, which confirms their importance and helps us to attest our approach further. The corresponding calculations are also performed for several more interesting and nontrivial combinations of temporal and spatial inhomogeneities. Finally, we discuss the case of a spatially periodic external field when the approach is particularly productive. The method employed is described in detail.

  16. Materials Bound by Non-Chemical Forces: External Fields and the Quantum Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Swain, John; Srivastava, Yogendra

    2014-01-01

    We discuss materials which owe their stability to external fields. These include: 1) external electric or magnetic fields, and 2) quantum vacuum fluctuations in these fields induced by suitable boundary conditions (the Casimir effect). Instances of the first case include the floating water bridge and ferrofluids in magnetic fields. An example of the second case is taken from biology where the Casimir effect provides an explanation of the formation of stacked aggregations or "rouleaux" by negatively charged red blood cells. We show how the interplay between electrical and Casimir forces can be used to drive self-assembly of nano-structured materials, and could be generalized both as a probe of Casimir forces and as a means of manufacturing nanoscale structures. Interestingly, all the cases discussed involve the generation of the somewhat exotic negative pressures. We note that very little is known about the phase diagrams of most materials in the presence of external fields other than those represented by the ...

  17. First Branchial Cleft Fistula Associated with External Auditory Canal Stenosis and Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shahin abdollahi fakhim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: First branchial cleft anomalies manifest with duplication of the external auditory canal.   Case Report: This report features a rare case of microtia and congenital middle ear and canal cholesteatoma with first branchial fistula. External auditory canal stenosis was complicated by middle ear and external canal cholesteatoma, but branchial fistula, opening in the zygomatic root and a sinus in the helical root, may explain this feature. A canal wall down mastoidectomy with canaloplasty and wide meatoplasty was performed. The branchial cleft was excised through parotidectomy and facial nerve dissection.   Conclusion:  It should be considered that canal stenosis in such cases can induce cholesteatoma formation in the auditory canal and middle ear.

  18. The external microenvironment of healing skin wounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Carla R; Nuutila, Kristo; Lee, Cameron Cy

    2015-01-01

    The skin wound microenvironment can be divided into two main components that influence healing: the external wound microenvironment, which is outside the wound surface; and the internal wound microenvironment, underneath the surface, to which the cells within the wound are exposed. Treatment...... methods that directly alter the features of the external wound microenvironment indirectly affect the internal wound microenvironment due to the exchange between the two compartments. In this review, we focus on the effects of temperature, pressure (positive and negative), hydration, gases (oxygen...

  19. Automatic Planning of External Search Engine Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Jasevičiūtė

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an investigation of the external search engine optimization (SEO action planning tool, dedicated to automatically extract a small set of most important keywords for each month during whole year period. The keywords in the set are extracted accordingly to external measured parameters, such as average number of searches during the year and for every month individually. Additionally the position of the optimized web site for each keyword is taken into account. The generated optimization plan is similar to the optimization plans prepared manually by the SEO professionals and can be successfully used as a support tool for web site search engine optimization.

  20. Black holes under external influence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiří Bičák

    2000-10-01

    The work on black holes immersed in external fields is reviewed in both test-field approximation and within exact solutions. In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating black holes accelerated by strings.