Bolted flanged connections subjected to longitudinal bending moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blach, A.E.
1992-01-01
Flanges in piping systems and also pressure vessel flanges on tall columns are often subjected to longitudinal bending moments of considerable magnitude, be it from thermal expansion stresses in piping systems or from wind or seismic loadings on tall vertical pressure vessels. Except for the ASME Code, Section III, Subsections NB, NC, and ND, other pressure vessel and piping codes do not contain design ASME Nuclear Power Plant Code (Section III), an empirical formula is given, expressing a longitudinal bending moment in bolted flanged connections in terms of an equivalent internal pressure to be added to the design pressure of the flange. In this paper, an attempt is made to analyse the stresses on flanges and bolting due to external bending moments and to compare flange thicknesses thus obtained with thicknesses required using the equivalent design pressure specified in Subsections NB, NC, and ND. A design method is proposed, based on analysis and experimental work, which may be suitable for flange bending moment analysis when the rules of the Nuclear Power Plant Code are not mandatory. (orig.)
Estimates of plastic loads for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Nak Hyun; Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2008-01-01
This paper provides a method to estimate plastic loads (defined by twice-elastic-slope) for pipe bends under combined in-plane and out-of-plane bending moment, based on detailed 3-D FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Because closing bending moment is always lower than opening bending moment, the combination of in-plane closing bending and out-of-plane bending moment becomes the most significant case. Due to conservatism of each bending moments, the resultant moment provided by ASME B and PV code is unduly conservative. However, the concept of the resultant moment is still valid. In this paper, FE results show that the accurate solutions of bending moments provide better estimates of plastic loads of pipe bend under combined in-plane bending and out-of-plane bending moment
Bending Moment Decrease of Reinforced Concrete Beam Supported by Additional CFRP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mykolas Daugevičius
2011-04-01
Full Text Available The calculation method of reinforced concrete beam with additional CFRP composite is proposed in this article. This method estimates tangential angular concrete deformations in tensioned beam layers between steel and bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer. The horizontal slip of CFRP composite reduce beam bending moment capacity. An additional coefficient to reduce CFRP resultant force is necessary for better precision of bending moment capacity. Also, various calculation methods of bending moment capacity are considered. Article in Lithuanian
Bending Moment Calculations for Piles Based on the Finite Element Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-xin Jie
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using the finite element analysis program ABAQUS, a series of calculations on a cantilever beam, pile, and sheet pile wall were made to investigate the bending moment computational methods. The analyses demonstrated that the shear locking is not significant for the passive pile embedded in soil. Therefore, higher-order elements are not always necessary in the computation. The number of grids across the pile section is important for bending moment calculated with stress and less significant for that calculated with displacement. Although computing bending moment with displacement requires fewer grid numbers across the pile section, it sometimes results in variation of the results. For displacement calculation, a pile row can be suitably represented by an equivalent sheet pile wall, whereas the resulting bending moments may be different. Calculated results of bending moment may differ greatly with different grid partitions and computational methods. Therefore, a comparison of results is necessary when performing the analysis.
Decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic holes subjected to out-of-plane bending moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Lian He, E-mail: nmglilianhe@163.com [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China); College of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China); Inner Mongolia Key Lab of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Hohhot 010021 (China); Liu, Guan Ting [College of Mathematics Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot 010022 (China)
2014-02-01
In the present paper, we consider only the ideal elastic behavior, neglecting the dissipation associated with the atomic rearrangements. Under these conditions, the decagonal quasicrystal plate bending problems have been discussed. The Stroh-like formalism for the bending theory of decagonal quasicrystal plate is developed. The analytical solutions for problems of decagonal quasicrystal plate with elliptic hole subjected to out-of-plane bending moments are obtained directly by using the forms. The resultant bending moments around the hole boundaries are also given explicitly. When the phonon–phason coupling is absent, the results reduce to the corresponding solutions for the isotropic elastic plates.
experimental and analytical comparison of torsion, bending moment
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
In structural analysis and design, the effects of torsion are usually neglected ... bending and torsion, using these codes and experimental work; and validates the ..... [7] Kharagpur, I. Structural Analysis: Civil Engineering. Course Material (Vol.
Low cycle fatigue of pressurized pipes with circumferential flaws under cyclic bending moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoppler, W.; Sturm, D.
1993-01-01
Pipes of 706 mm inner diameter, 47 mm wall thickness and about 5,000 mm in length were provided with circumferential surface cracks and loaded by internal pressure of 15 MPa whilst being simultaneously subjected to an alternating external bending moment. Usually a load ratio R of -1 (M min /M max ), in one case R = 0.1, was applied. The pipes were fabricated of two types of ferritic steel: one, grade 20 MnMoNi 5 5, with a high upper shelf impact energy of about 200 J and one, MnMoNiV-special melt, with a low upper shelf impact energy of about 60 J. Deformation and crack growth in the wall thickness and circumferential direction were determined and compared with calculated values. 9 refs., 13 figs
Limit moments for non circular cross-section (elliptical) pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, J.
1977-01-01
A number of experiment studies have been reported or are underway which investigate limit moments applied to pipe bends. Some theoretical work is also available. However, most of the work has been confined to nominally circular cross-section bends and little account has been taken of the practical problem of manufacturing tolerances. Many methods of manufacture result in bends which are not circular in cross-section but have an oval or elliptical shape. The present paper extends previous analyses on circular bends to cater for initially elliptical cross-sections. The loading is primarily in plane bending but out of plane is also considered and several independent methods are presented. No previous information is known to the authors. Upper and lower bound limit moments are derived first of all from existing linear elastic analyses and secondly upper bound moments are derived via a plastic analogy from existing stationary creep results. It is also shown that the creep information on design factors for bends can be used to obtain a reasonable estimate of the complete moment/strain behaviour of a bend or indeed a system. (Auth.)
Stresses in a curved pipe subject to an in-plane bending moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofmann, E.; Heeschen, U.
1979-01-01
The design of the KWU-primary component supports is mainly defined by the loads of the postulated pipe breaks. To estimate the maximum loading of a component support it is necessary to know the maximum in-plane bending moment (opening and closing) that can be transmitted by a pipe bend. Another reason for such information is that the displacements and distortions of the components cause higher stresses in elbows than in straight pipes. With a detailed knowledge of the deformation characteristic of a pipe bend an integrity analysis could be done without an expensive plastic system analysis. With this purpose in mind experiments were performed with straight pipes and pipe bends of different dimensions subject to in-plane bending moments. The experimental results give the ratio between the maximum transmittable moment of a pipe bend to that of a straight pipe or, the distortion of the end cross-sections and the flattening of the elbow cross-section. An attempt is made to derive simple expressions for estimating the behaviour at pipe elbows. Parallel to the experiments calculations were done for the straight pipe and elbow with a finite difference code with plastic capabilities. The results of the experiment and calculation are compared with the formulas of the ASME-Code section III subjection NB. (orig.)
Estimation of Ship Long-term Wave-induced Bending Moment using Closed-Form Expressions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Mansour, A. E.
2002-01-01
A semi-analytical approach is used to derive frequency response functions and standard deviations for the wave-induced bending moment amidships for mono-hull ships. The results are given as closed-form expressions and the required input information for the procedure is restricted to the main......-empirical closed-form expression for the skewness. The effect of whipping is included by assuming that whipping and wave-induced responses are conditionally independent given Hs. The procedure is simple and can be used to make quick estimates of the design wave bending moment at the conceptual design phase...
Stochastic Procedures for Extreme Wave Load Predictions- Wave Bending Moment in Ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2009-01-01
A discussion of useful stochastic procedures for stochastic wave load problems is given, covering the range from slightly linear to strongly non-linear (bifurcation) problems. The methods are: Hermite transformation, Critical wave episodes and the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). The proced......). The procedures will be illustrated by results for the extreme vertical wave bending moment in ships....
On the Effect of Green Water on Deck on the Wave Bending Moment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Xia, Jinzhu
1998-01-01
and a momentum term, using an effective relative motion calibrated with the model tests, model the green water load. The resulting loads are of the same magnitude as the slamming loads. The results show only a marginal influence of the green water load on the maximum wave bending moment, although the time signal...
Stress intensity factors of three parallel edge cracks under bending moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ismail, A E
2013-01-01
This paper reports the study of stress intensity factors (SIF) of three edge cracks in a finite plate under bending moments. The goal of this paper was to analyze the three edge crack interactions under such loading. Several studies can be found in literature discussing on mode I SIF. However, most of these studies obtained the SIFs using tensile force. Lack of SIF reported discussing on the SIFs obtained under bending moments. ANSYS finite element program was used to develop the finite element model where singular elements were used to model the cracks. Different crack geometries and parameters were utilized in order to characterize the SIFs. According to the present results, crack geometries played a significant role in determining the SIFs and consequently induced the crack interaction mechanisms
Leak-before-break analysis of thermally aged nuclear pipe under different bending moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lv, Xuming; Li, Shilei; Zhang, Hailong; Wang, Yanli; Wang, Xitao [University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China); Wang, Zhaoxi [CPI Nuclear Power Institute, Beijing (China); Xue, Fei [Suzhou Nuclear Power Research Institute, Suzhou (China)
2015-10-15
Cast duplex stainless steels are susceptible to thermal aging during long-term service at temperatures ranging from 280°C to 450°C. To analyze the effect of thermal aging on leak-before-break (LBB) behavior, three-dimensional finite element analysis models were built for circumferentially cracked pipes. Based on the elastic–plastic fracture mechanics theory, the detectable leakage crack length calculation and J-integral stability assessment diagram approach were carried out under different bending moments. The LBB curves and LBB assessment diagrams for unaged and thermally aged pipes were constructed. The results show that the detectable leakage crack length for thermally aged pipes increases with increasing bending moments, whereas the critical crack length decreases. The ligament instability line and critical crack length line for thermally aged pipes move downward and to the left, respectively, and unsafe LBB assessment results will be produced if thermal aging is not considered. If the applied bending moment is increased, the degree of safety decreases in the LBB assessment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2009-01-01
A simple but rational procedure for prediction of extreme wave-induced hull girder bending moment is presented. The procedure takes into account main ship hull characteristics such as: length, breadth, draught, block coefficient, bow flare coefficient, forward speed and hull flexibility. The wave......-linear strip theory calculations and supplemented with new closed form results for the hogging bending moment. Focus is on the extreme hull girder hogging bending moment. Due to the few input parameters this procedure can be used to estimate the wave-induced bending moments at the conceptual design phase....... Another application area is for novel single hull ship types not presently covered by the rules of the classification societies. As one application example the container ship M/S Napoli is considered....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Valvo, Paolo S.; Sørensen, Bent F.; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack
2015-01-01
A theoretical model of the double cantilever beam tests with bending moments (DCB-UBM) is presented. The specimen is modelled as the assemblage of two laminated beams connected by a cohesive interface. It is assumed that the traction-separation laws – i.e. the relationships between the interfacial...... the cohesive law parameters from experiments. Experimental tests have been conducted on glass fibre reinforced specimens under pure mode I and II loading conditions. The predictions of the theoretical model turn out to be in very good agreement with the experimental results....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J. W.; Park, C. Y.; Kim, B. Y.
2000-01-01
This study proposed the local allowable wall thickness (LAWT) evaluation method for local wall thinned pipe subjected by internal pressure and bending moment. Also, LAWT was evaluated for simplified thinned pipe and the effect of axial extent of thinned area on LAWT was investigated. The results showed that LAWT predicted by present method was thinner, about 50%, than that evaluated by construction code and ASME Code Case N-597, while it was thicker, about 2 times, than that calculated by evaluation model based on pipe experiments. LAWT decreased with increasing axial extent of thinned area and was saturated above axial extent of pipe radius, which was a contrast to the results of ASME Code Case N-597 evaluation. The results of stress analysis with applied loading type indicated that the effect of axial extent of thinned area on LAWT was dependent on loading type considering in the evaluation. That is, the dependence of axial extent on LAWT is determined by magnitude of bending moment, and the contrary trend with axial extent in ASME Code Case is because ASME Code Case N-597 considers only internal pressure in the evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peng Jian; Zhou Changyu; Xue Jilin; Dai Qiao; He Xiaohua
2011-01-01
The safety assessment of pipes with local wall thinning defects is highly important in engineering. Most attention has been paid on the safety assessment of pipe with single local wall thinning defect, while the studies about multiple local wall thinning defects are not nearly enough. However, the interaction of multiple local wall thinning defects in some conditions is great, and may have a great impact on the safety assessment. In the present standard API 579/ASME FFS, the safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects is given, while as well as the influence of load condition, the influences of arrangement and relative depth of defects are ignored, which may influence the safety assessment considerably. In this paper, the influence of the interaction between multiple local wall thinning defects on the remaining strength of pipes at different arrangements and depths of defects under different load conditions (pressure, tension-bending moment and compression-bending moment) are studied. A quantified index is defined to describe the interaction between defects quantitatively. For different arrangements and relative depths of defects, based on a limit value 0.05 of the quantified index of the interaction between defects, a relatively systematic safety assessment of pipes with multiple local wall thinning defects under different load conditions has been proposed.
Text Fixture for Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) Specimens Subjected to Uneven Bending Moments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svenninggaard, Jon; Andreasen, Jens; Bak, Brian
Bending Moments as a function of the phase angle ranging from mode I to mode II loading including mixed modes in-between. The test fixture utilizes an existing tensile testing machine and can subject specimens to loads up to 350 Nm. The test fixture is compact in size and designed using standard aluminium...... profiles for the main structure. The load is transferred from the test machine to the specimen through a 2 mm Dyneema rope. The rope is routed over a set of rollers that are positioned according to the specified mode mixity and phase angle. The kinematics of the test fixture has been analysed extensively...... strength in layered materials the cohesive law and fracture strength must be known. Ideally the entire cohesive law is known in order to aid in the design of components and structures. In this work we present a novel test fixture which can be used to test DCB specimens that are subjected to pure Uneven...
Extreme value prediction of the wave-induced vertical bending moment in large container ships
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2015-01-01
increase the extreme hull girder response significantly. Focus in the present paper is on the influence of the hull girder flexibility on the extreme response amidships, namely the wave-induced vertical bending moment (VBM) in hogging, and the prediction of the extreme value of the same. The analysis...... in the present paper is based on time series of full scale measurements from three large container ships of 8600, 9400 and 14000 TEU. When carrying out the extreme value estimation the peak-over-threshold (POT) method combined with an appropriate extreme value distribution is applied. The choice of a proper...... threshold level as well as the statistical correlation between clustered peaks influence the extreme value prediction and are taken into consideration in the present paper....
Xia, Z. M.; Wang, C. G.; Tan, H. F.
2018-04-01
A pseudo-beam model with modified internal bending moment is presented to predict elastic properties of graphene, including the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. In order to overcome a drawback in existing molecular structural mechanics models, which only account for pure bending (constant bending moment), the presented model accounts for linear bending moments deduced from the balance equations. Based on this pseudo-beam model, an analytical prediction is accomplished to predict the Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of graphene based on the equation of the strain energies by using Castigliano second theorem. Then, the elastic properties of graphene are calculated compared with results available in literature, which verifies the feasibility of the pseudo-beam model. Finally, the pseudo-beam model is utilized to study the twisting wrinkling characteristics of annular graphene. Due to modifications of the internal bending moment, the wrinkling behaviors of graphene sheet are predicted accurately. The obtained results show that the pseudo-beam model has a good ability to predict the elastic properties of graphene accurately, especially the out-of-plane deformation behavior.
Estimation of collapse moment for the wall-thinned pipe bends using fuzzy model identification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Jin Weon; Hwang, In Joon
2006-01-01
In this work, the collapse moment due to wall-thinned defects is estimated through fuzzy model identification. A subtractive clustering method is used as the basis of a fast and robust algorithm for identifying the fuzzy model. The fuzzy model is optimized by a genetic algorithm combined with a least squares method. The developed fuzzy model has been applied to the numerical data obtained from the finite element analysis. Principal component analysis is used to preprocess the input signals into the fuzzy model to reduce the sensitivity to the input change and the fuzzy model are trained by using the data set prepared for training (training data) and verified by using another data set different (independent) from the training data. Also, three fuzzy models are trained, respectively, for three data sets divided into the three classes of extrados, intrados, and crown defects, which is because they have different characteristics. The relative root mean square (RMS) errors of the estimated collapse moment are 0.5397% for the training data and 0.8673% for the test data. It is known from this result that the fuzzy models are sufficiently accurate to be used in the integrity evaluation of wall-thinned pipe bends and elbows
Collapse moment estimation by support vector machines for wall-thinned pipe bends and elbows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Jin Weon; Hwang, In Joon
2007-01-01
The collapse moment due to wall-thinned defects is estimated through support vector machines with parameters optimized by a genetic algorithm. The support vector regression models are developed and applied to numerical data obtained from the finite element analysis for wall-thinned defects in piping systems. The support vector regression models are optimized by using both the data sets (training data and optimization data) prepared for training and optimization, and its performance verification is performed by using another data set (test data) different from the training data and the optimization data. In this work, three support vector regression models are developed, respectively, for three data sets divided into the three classes of extrados, intrados, and crown defects, which is because they have different characteristics. The relative root mean square (RMS) errors of the estimated collapse moment are 0.2333% for the training data, 0.5229% for the optimization data and 0.5011% for the test data. It is known from this result that the support vector regression models are sufficiently accurate to be used in the integrity evaluation of wall-thinned pipe bends and elbows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdalla, Hany F.
2014-01-01
No experimental data exist within open literature, to the best knowledge of the author, for determining shakedown boundaries of 90° back-to-back pipe bends. Ninety degree back-to-back pipe bends are extensively utilized within piping networks of nuclear submarines and modern turbofan aero-engines where space limitation is considered a paramount concern. In the current research, the 90° back-to-back pipe bend setup analyzed is subjected to a spectrum of steady internal pressures and cyclic in-plane bending moments. A previously developed direct non-cyclic simplified technique for determining elastic shakedown limit loads is utilized to generate the elastic shakedown boundary of the analyzed structure. The simplified technique outcomes showed excellent correlation with the results of full elastic–plastic cyclic loading finite element simulations. - Highlights: • No shakedown experimental data exist for 90° back-to-back pipe bends. • A non-cyclic technique is utilized to generate the elastic shakedown boundary. • The non-cyclic technique succeeded in generating the structure's Bree diagram. • The non-cyclic technique correlated well with full cyclic loading FE simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Esmaeilzadeh Khadem, S.; Rezaee, M.
2001-01-01
In this paper the large amplitude and non-linear vibration of a string is considered. The initial tension, lateral vibration amplitude, diameter and the modulus of elasticity of the string have main effects on its natural frequencies. Increasing the lateral vibration amplitude makes the assumption of constant initial tension invalid. In this case, therefore, it is impossible to use the classical equation of string with small amplitude transverse motion assumption. On the other hand, by increasing the string diameter, the bending moment effect will increase dramatically, and acts as an impressive restoring moment. Considering the effects of the bending moments, the nonlinear equation governing the large amplitude transverse vibration of a string is derived. The time dependent portion of the governing equation has the from of Duff ing equation is solved using the perturbation theory. The results of the analysis are shown in appropriate graphs, and the natural frequencies of the string due to the non-linear factors are compared with the natural frequencies of the linear vibration os a string without bending moment effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, A.; Prabhakaran, K.M.; Ghosh, A.K.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Behavior of cracked elbows with part-through crack at intrados under bending moment is studied. → Some part of crack always opens and some part gets closed irrespective of mode of applied moment. → Fraction of the crack that opens basically decides the weakening effect of the cracked elbow. → Results will be useful for fracture studies and limit load estimation especially for LBB. - Abstract: This paper presents the behavior of part-through circumferential crack at intrados in elbows under in-plane bending moment. This is based on detailed non-linear (both material and geometric) finite element analysis performed on various sizes of elbows (generally used in piping industry), having different crack sizes. It is observed that some part of the crack always opens and some part gets closed irrespective of the mode of applied bending moment (opening/closing). The fraction of the crack that opens basically decides the weakening effect of the cracked elbow. It is observed that there is a threshold value of crack length and crack depth, before which no crack opening is observed under opening mode. Also as elbow becomes thinner, the threshold value of above two parameters increases. Quite interestingly, the part of crack which closes in opening mode opens under closing mode. The above mentioned study on the behavior of crack will be useful for fracture studies and limit load estimation especially when leak before break concept is to be employed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.
2004-01-01
A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...... glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuji, Masataka; Meshii, Toshiyuki
2011-01-01
Highlights: → A limit moment equation applicable to planar/non-planar flaw of 0 ≤ θ ≤ π found in wall thinned straight pipes was proposed. → An idea to rationally classify planar/non-planar flaw in wall thinned pipes was proposed. → The equation based on the experimental observation focused on the fracture mode. - Abstract: In this paper, a limit bending moment equation applicable to all types of planar and non-planar flaws in wall-thinned straight pipes under bending was proposed. A system to rationally classify the planar/non-planar flaws in wall-thinned pipes was suggested based on experimental observations focused on the fracture mode. The results demonstrate the importance of distinguishing between axial and circumferential long flaws in wall-thinned pipes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bairrao, R.; Millard, A.; Barbe, B.
1991-01-01
A large set of numerical data was obtained using a program recently developed. From the various results achieved, new analytical expressions for the definition of damage and plasticity criteria are being derived. The importance of taking into account the presence of general bending was highlighted. The extension to 3D bending, of the previous global models for reinforced concrete beams under combined axial force and bending, is under development. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Yuebing; Lei, Yuebao; Gao, Zengliang
2014-01-01
Global limit load solutions for thick-walled cylinders with circumferential internal/external surface and through-wall defects under combined positive/negative axial force, positive/negative global bending moment and internal pressure have been developed in Part I of this paper. In this Part II, elastic-perfectly plastic 3-D finite element (FE) analyses are performed for selected cases, covering a wide range of geometries and load combinations, to validate the developed limit load solutions. The results show that these limit load solutions can predict the FE data very well for the cases with shallow or deep and short cracks and are conservative. For the cases with very long and deep cracks, the predictions are reasonably accurate and more conservative. -- Highlights: • Elastic-perfectly plastic 3D finite element limiting analyses of cylinders. • Thin/thick-walled cylinders with circumferential surface defects. • Combined loading for pressure, end-force and global bending moment. • Totally 1458 cases analysed and tabulated normalised results provided. • Results used to validate the developed limit load solutions in Part I of this paper
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Maglieri, Domenic
1955-01-01
Preliminary investigations have been made in the Langley gust tunnel to determine the effects of a sharp-edge vertical gust on the blade flapwise vibratory bending moments of small model rotors having...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sadegh Maleki
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The study aimed at predicting bending moment resistance plywood of screw (coarse and fine threads joints using regression models. Thickness of the member was 19mm and compared with medium density fiberboard (MDF and particleboard with 18mm thicknesses. Two types of screws including coarse and fine thread drywall screw with nominal diameters of 6, 8 and 10mm and 3.5, 4 and 5 cm length respectively and sheet metal screw with diameters of 8 and 10 and length of 4 cm were used. The results of the study have shown that bending moment resistance of screw was increased by increasing of screws diameter and penetrating depth. Screw Length was found to have a larger influence on bending moment resistance than screw diameter. Bending moment resistance with coarse thread drywall screws was higher than those of fine thread drywall screws. The highest bending moment resistance (71.76 N.m was observed in joints made with coarse screw which were 5 mm in diameter and 28 mm in depth of penetration. The lowest bending moment resistance (12.08 N.m was observed in joints having fine screw with 3.5 mm diameter and 9 mm penetrations. Furthermore, bending moment resistance in plywood was higher than those of medium density fiberboard (MDF and particleboard. Finally, it has been found that the ultimate bending moment resistance of plywood joint can be predicted following formula Wc = 0.189×D0.726×P0.577 for coarse thread drywall screws and Wf = 0.086×D0.942×P0.704 for fine ones according to diameter and penetrating depth. The analysis of variance of the experimental and predicted data showed that the developed models provide a fair approximation of actual experimental measurements.
Jafarnezhadgero, Amir Ali; Oliveira, Anderson S.; Mousavi, Seyed Hamed; Madadi-Shad, Morteza
Osteoarthritis progression can be related to the external knee adduction and flexion moments during walking. Lateral foot wedges and knee braces have been used as treatment for osteoarthritis, but little is known about their influence on knee joint moments generated in the sagittal and frontal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.
1993-01-01
The advent of Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept has replaced the traditional design basis event of Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) in the design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping. The use of LBB concept requires postulation of largest credible cracks at highly stressed locations and demonstration of its stability under the maximum credible loading conditions. Stress analysis of PHT piping in nuclear power plants shows that the highly stressed piping components are normally elbows and branch tees. This necessitates detailed fracture mechanics evaluation of piping connections by computing Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) and/or J-integral. Simple analytical solutions for evaluation of SIF and J-integral for cracks in straight pipes are readily available in literature. However, the same type of solutions for elbows and tees are limited in open literature. In the present work, a database is generated to evaluate SIF for throughwall circumferential and longitudinal cracks under combined internal pressure and bending moment. Different parameters to characterise a cracked elbow are pipe factor (h), pipe bore radius to thickness ratio (r/t) and crack length. Another parameter (σ) is used to consider the relative magnitude of stresses due to internal pressure and remote bending moment. The database has been used to derive closed form expressions to evaluate SIF for elbow with cracks in terms of the aforementioned parameters. (author). 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs
[Multiple coil pulsed magnetic resonance method to measure the SSC bending magnet multipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, W.G.
1990-01-01
The main emphasis has been to continue development of the high frequency (to 300 MHz) instrumentation, to test the system on a prototype bending magnet, construct the high frequency 32-channel electronics and probes, to seek industrial partners for technology transfer and commercial exploitation, and to do computer simulations for optimizing design parameters. Experience gained from tests made on a dipole magnet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was extremely valuable and has resulted in substantial modifications to the original design
Shriram, Duraisamy; Parween, Rizuwana; Lee, Yee Han Dave; Subburaj, Karupppasamy
2017-07-01
Knee osteoarthritis that prevalently occurs at the medial compartment is a progressive chronic disorder affecting the articular cartilage of the knee joint, and lead to loss of joint functionality. Valgus braces have been used as a treatment procedure to unload the medial compartment for patients with medial osteoarthritis. Valgus braces through the application of counteracting external valgus moment shift the load from medial compartment towards the lateral compartment. Previous biomechanical studies focused only on the changes in varus moments before and after wearing the brace. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of opposing external valgus moment applied by knee braces on the lateral tibial cartilage contact conditions using a 3D finite element model of the knee joint. Finite element simulations were performed on the knee joint model without and with the application of opposing valgus moment to mimic the unbraced and braced conditions. Lateral tibial cartilage contact pressures and contact area, and tibial rotation (varus-valgus and internal-external) were estimated for the complete walking gait cycle. The opposing valgus moment increased the maximum contact pressure and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage compared to the normal gait moment. A peak contact pressure of 8.2 MPa and maximum cartilage loaded area of 28% (loaded cartilage nodes) on the lateral cartilage with the application of external valgus moment were induced at 50% of the gait cycle. The results show that the use of opposing valgus moment may significantly increase the maximum contact pressures and contact area on the lateral tibial cartilage and increases the risk of articular cartilage damage on the lateral compartment.
Ankle taping can reduce external ankle joint moments during drop landings on a tilted surface.
Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Hopper, Luke S; Ikegami, Yasuo
2017-09-20
Ankle taping is commonly used to prevent ankle sprains. However, kinematic assessments investigating the biomechanical effects of ankle taping have provided inconclusive results. This study aimed to determine the effect of ankle taping on the external ankle joint moments during a drop landing on a tilted surface at 25°. Twenty-five participants performed landings on a tilted force platform that caused ankle inversion with and without ankle taping. Landing kinematics were captured using a motion capture system. External ankle inversion moment, the angular impulse due to the medio-lateral and vertical components of ground reaction force (GRF) and their moment arm lengths about the ankle joint were analysed. The foot plantar inclination relative to the ground was assessed. In the taping condition, the foot plantar inclination and ankle inversion angular impulse were reduced significantly compared to that of the control. The only component of the external inversion moment to change significantly in the taped condition was a shortened medio-lateral GRF moment arm length. It can be assumed that the ankle taping altered the foot plantar inclination relative to the ground, thereby shortening the moment arm of medio-lateral GRF that resulted in the reduced ankle inversion angular impulse.
Multiple coil pulsed magnetic resonance method to measure the SSC bending magnet multipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, W.G.
1990-01-01
This document describes the technical progress made during the current contract period (4-1-89 to 3-31-90) of US DOE Contract AC02-87ER40350. The main emphasis of the current contract year has been to continue development of the high frequency (to 300 MHz) instrumentation, to test the system on a prototype bending magnet, to construct the high frequency 32-channel electronics and probes, and to do computer simulations for optimizing design parameters. Experience gained from tests made on a dipole magnet at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory was extremely valuable and has resulted in substantial modifications to the original designs. These, and other items are discussed in this paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soerensen, B.F.; Joergensen, K.; Oestergaard, R.C. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Jacobsen, T.K. [LM Glasfiber A/S, Lunderskov (Denmark)
2004-03-01
A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratio between the two applied moments, the full mode mixity range from pure mode I to pure mode II can be generated for the same specimen geometry. The specimen allows stable crack growth. In case of large scale crack bridging, mixed mode cohesive laws can be obtained by a J integral based approach. As a preliminary example, fracture of adhesive joints between two glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre cross over bridging, eventually reaching a steady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement. Cohesive stresses were determined by a J integral approach. The deducted shear stress was found to be relative high ({approx} = 20 MPa) in comparison with the normal stress ({approx} = 1 MPa). (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dittrich, W.; Bauhoff, W.
1981-01-01
It is re-examined the problem of spontaneous pair creation in an external magnetic field. In contrast to earlier findings, it is shown that pair production does not occur due to the anomalous magnetic moment interaction. However, pairs may be observed in a situation of thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperatures. (author)
The effect of elbow angle and external moment on load sharing of elbow muscles
Praagman, M.; Chadwick, E.K.J.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.
2010-01-01
To study elbow muscle load sharing we investigated the effect of external flexion-extension (FE) and pronation-supination (PS) moments and elbow angle on muscle activation and oxygen consumption (V̇O2).Two data sets were obtained. First, (n=6) electromyography (EMG) of elbow flexors (long and short
Pacheco, Anderson; Fontana, Filipe; Viotti, Matias R.; Veiga, Celso L. N.; Lothhammer, Lívia R.; Albertazzi G., Armando, Jr.
2015-08-01
The authors developed an achromatic speckle pattern interferometer able to measure in-plane displacements in polar coordinates. It has been used to measure combined stresses resulting from the superposition of mechanical loading and residual stresses. Relaxation methods have been applied to produce on the surface of the specimen a displacement field that can be used to determine the amount of combined stresses. Two relaxation methods are explored in this work: blind hole-drilling and indentation. The first one results from a blind hole drilled with a high-speed drilling unit in the area of interest. The measured displacement data is fitted in an appropriate model to quantify the stress level using an indirect approach based on a set of finite element coefficients. The second approach uses indentation, where a hard spherical tip is firmly pressed against the surface to be measured with a predetermined indentation load. A plastic flow occurs around the indentation mark producing a radial in-plane displacement field that is related to the amount of combined stresses. Also in this case, displacements are measured by the radial interferometer and used to determine the stresses by least square fitting it to a displacement field determined by calibration. Both approaches are used to quantify the amount of bending stresses and moment in eight sections of a 12 m long 200 mm diameter steel pipe submitted to a known transverse loading. Reference values of bending stresses are also determined by strain gauges. The comparison between the four results is discussed in the paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Toshio; Adachi, Naohito; Masuda, Kiyoshi
1998-01-01
In a design of a thick RC slab such as a basemat of a nuclear reactor building, the design method as same as for RC column is usually used. In this method, bending moment and axial force which are obtained by linear Finite Element Method (FEM) for external force are considered. But the assumption for linear FEM in which concrete participates for tensile stress is different from that for reinforcement design in which concrete does not participate for tensile stress. This difference of the assumption results that in-plane tensile strain at the center of the slab depth in the reinforcement design is larger than that in linear FEM. Some effects will appear in stress distribution if this tensile strain is constrained by boundary condition. In this paper, a practical method to evaluate the boundary constrain effects for this in-plane tensile strain is proposed and a simulation analysis of a thick reinforced concrete slab with a large opening for out-of-plane force is also reported. (author)
Troive, L.
2017-09-01
Friction-free 3-point bending has become a common test-method since the VDA 238-100 plate-bending test [1] was introduced. According to this test the criterion for failure is when the force suddenly drops. It was found by the author that the evolution of the cross-section moment is a more preferable measure regarding the real material response instead of the force. Beneficially, the cross-section moment gets more or less a constant maximum steady-state level when the cross-section becomes fully plastified. An expression for the moment M is presented that fulfils the criteria for energy of conservation at bending. Also an expression calculating the unit-free moment, M/Me, i.e. current moment to elastic-moment ratio, is demonstrated specifically proposed for detection of failures. The mathematical expressions are simple making it easy to transpose measured force F and stroke position S to the corresponding cross-section moment M. From that point of view it’s even possible to implement, e.g. into a conventional measurement system software, studying the cross-section moment in real-time during a test. It’s even possible to calculate other parameters such as flow-stress and shape of curvature at every stage. It has been tested on different thicknesses and grades within the range from 1.0 to 10 mm with very good results. In this paper the present model is applied on a 6.1 mm hot-rolled high strength steel from the same batch at three different conditions, i.e. directly quenched, quenched and tempered, and a third variant quench and tempered with levelling. It will be shown that very small differences in material-response can be predicted by this method.
Stief, Thomas; Peikenkamp, Klaus
2015-01-01
Stress occurring at the feet while wearing footwear is often determined using pressure measurement systems. However, other forms of stress, such as bending, torsional and shear loadings, cannot be detected in shoes during day-to-day activities. Nevertheless, the detection of these types of stresses would be helpful for understanding the mechanical aspects of various kinds of hard and soft tissue injuries. Therefore, we describe the development of a new measuring device that allows the reliable determination of bending and torsional load at the foot in shoes. The system consists of a measuring insole and an analogue device with Bluetooth interface. The specific shape of the insole base layer, the positions of the strain gauges, and the interconnections between them have all been selected in such a way so as to isolate bending and torsional moment detections in the medial and lateral metatarsal region. The system was calibrated using a classical two-point test procedure. A single case study was executed to evaluate the new device for practical use. This application consisted of one subject wearing neutral shoes walking on a treadmill. The calibration results (coefficients of determination R(2) > 0.999) show that bending and torsional load can be reliably detected using the measurement system presented. In the single case study, alternating bending and torsional load can be detected during walking, and the shape of the detected bending moments can be confirmed by the measurements of Arndt et al. (J Biomech 35:621-8, 2002). Despite some limitations, the presented device allows for the reliable determination of bending and torsional stresses at the foot in shoes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Jong Keun; Choi, Young Don; An, Jeong Soo
2007-01-01
A second moment turbulence closure using the elliptic-blending equation is introduced to analyze the turbulence and heat transfer in a square sectioned U-bend duct flow. The turbulent heat flux model based on the elliptic concept satisfies the near-wall balance between viscous diffusion, viscous dissipation and temperature-pressure gradient correlation, and also has the characteristics of approaching its respective conventional high Reynolds number model far away from the wall. Also, the traditional GGDH heat flux model is compared with the present elliptic concept-based heat flux model. The turbulent heat flux models are closely linked to the elliptic blending second moment closure which is used for the prediction of Reynolds stresses. The predicted results show their reasonable agreement with experimental data for a square sectioned U-bend duct flow field adopted in the present study
Reducing bending stress in external spur gears by redesign of the standard cutting tool
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2009-01-01
For the design of gears the stress due to bending plays a significant role. The stress from bending is largest in the root of the gear teeth, and the magnitude of the maximum stress is controlled by the nominal bending stress and stress concentration due to the geometric shape of the tooth....... In this work the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimizing the tip of the standard cutting tool. By redesign of the tip of the standard cutting tool we achieve that the functional part of the teeth stays the same while at the same time the root shape is changed so that a reduction...... of the stresses results. The tool tip shape is described by different parameterizations that use the super ellipse as the central shape. For shape optimization it is important that the shape is given analytically. The shape of the cut tooth that is the envelope of the cutting tool is found analytically...
Measurement of dipole-moment in atomic transitions under strong external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nittoh, Koichi; Kuwako, Akira; Ikehara, Tadashi; Yoshida, Tadashi; Watanabe, Takasi; Yoguchi, Itaru; Suzuki, Kazuhiro.
1996-01-01
Obtaining an accurate value of the electric dipole moment μ is essential in the fields of laser application technologies. A direct way of measuring the electric dipole moment μ is to observe the Rabi-oscillation which manifests itself in the coherent photo-excitation behavior of atoms. In the case of the elements which have large angular momenta, identifying the Rabi-oscillation in their excitation behavior becomes rather difficult. We proposed an accurate and straightforward method of determining the electric-dipole moment μ between multi-fold degenerate levels. The point is to remove the degeneracy by applying an external magnetic field with the aid of the Zeeman effect and, then, to realize a degeneration free coherent excitation. As a result, we can observe the Rabi-oscillations explicitly in the excitation υs. laser-fluence curves. The present method provides a reliable basis of experimental determination of μ. As an example, we applied the present method to a transition to 0-17,362 cm -1 level in uranium and obtained the value μ=0.86±0.06 (Debye). (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kupavtsev Vladimir Vladimirovich
2014-02-01
Full Text Available The method of two-sided evaluations is extended to the problems of stability of an elastic non-uniformly compressed rod, the variation formulations of which may be presented in terms of internal bending moments with uniform integral conditions. The problems are considered, in which one rod end is fixed and the other rod end is either restraint or pivoted, or embedded into a support which may be shifted in a transversal direction.For the substantiation of the lower evaluations determination, a sequence of functionals is constructed, the minimum values of which are the lower evaluations for the minimum critical value of the loading parameter of the rod, and the calculation process is reduced to the determination of the maximum eigenvalues of modular matrices. The matrix elements are expressed in terms of integrals of basic functions depending on the type of fixation of the rod ends. The basic functions, with the accuracy up to a linear polynomial, are the same as the bending moments arising with the bifurcation of the equilibrium of a rod with a constant cross-section compressed by longitudinal forces at the rod ends. The calculation of the upper evaluation is reduced to the determination of the maximum eigenvalue of the matrix, which almost coincides with one of the elements of the modular matrices. It is noted that the obtained upper bound evaluation is not worse thanthe evaluation obtained by the Ritz method with the use of the same basic functions.
Shervin, Shahab; Oh, Seung Kyu; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keon Hwa; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Jeomoh; Pouladi, Sara; Lee, Sung-Nam; Li, Xiaohang; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Ryou, Jae-Hyun
2018-01-01
Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.
Shervin, Shahab
2018-01-26
Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.
On optimization of internal/external spur gears tooth bending strength
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Niels Leergaard
2014-01-01
level at the tooth root. As with most machine elements the design/geometry is defined in standards (ISO). The present work focuses on changing the tooth root design of both external and internal gears, in order to improve the stress concentration factor. The design changes made are compliant...
Sıdır, Yadigar Gülseven; Sıdır, İsa; Demiray, Ferhat
2017-08-01
The authors regret to inform that three references in the article titled ;Dipole moment and solvatochromism of benzoic acid liquid crystals: Tuning the dipole moment and molecular orbital energies by substituted Au under external electric field; are not given in the manuscript. This is purely an oversight mistake. The references are as shown in this correction. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.
Fradin, Cécile
2013-01-01
Magnetotactic bacteria possess organelles called magnetosomes that confer a magnetic moment on the cells, resulting in their partial alignment with external magnetic fields. Here we show that analysis of the trajectories of cells exposed to an external magnetic field can be used to measure the average magnetic dipole moment of a cell population in at least five different ways. We apply this analysis to movies of Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 cells, and compare the values of the magnetic moment obtained in this way to that obtained by direct measurements of magnetosome dimension from electron micrographs. We find that methods relying on the viscous relaxation of the cell orientation give results comparable to that obtained by magnetosome measurements, whereas methods relying on statistical mechanics assumptions give systematically lower values of the magnetic moment. Since the observed distribution of magnetic moments in the population is not sufficient to explain this discrepancy, our results suggest that non-thermal random noise is present in the system, implying that a magnetotactic bacterial population should not be considered as similar to a paramagnetic material. PMID:24349185
Zang, Huidong; Cristea, Mihail; Shen, Xuan; Liu, Mingzhao; Camino, Fernando; Cotlet, Mircea
2015-09-28
Single nanoparticle studies of charge trapping and de-trapping in core/shell CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals incorporated into an insulating matrix and subjected to an external electric field demonstrate the ability to reversibly modulate the exciton dynamics and photoluminescence blinking while providing indirect evidence for the existence of a permanent ground state dipole moment in such nanocrystals. A model assuming the presence of energetically deep charge traps physically aligned along the direction of the permanent dipole is proposed in order to explain the dynamics of nanocrystal blinking in the presence of a permanent dipole moment.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Slabko, V V; Tsipotan, A S; Aleksandrovsky, A S [Institute of Engineering Physics and Radio Electronics, Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)
2013-05-31
The influence of the oscillation phases of the dipole moments induced in metal nanoparticles and quantum dots by an external laser field on their interaction energy is considered. It is shown that a difference in resonant frequencies leads to the formation of additional minima and maxima, which are absent in the spectral dependence of the interaction energy of identical particles at similar orientations of the pair of particles with respect to the plane of polarisation of radiation. These features are due to the fact that the oscillation phase difference of the induced dipole moments of particles reaches values close to {pi}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)
Baek, Tae Hyun
Photoelasticity is one of the most widely used whole-field optical methods for stress analysis. The technique of birefringent coatings, also called the method of photoelastic coatings, extends the classical procedures of model photoelasticity to the measurement of surface strains in opaque models made of any structural material. Photoelastic phase-shifting method can be used for the determination of the phase values of isochromatics and isoclinics. In this paper, photoelastic phase-shifting technique and conventional Babinet-Soleil compensation method were utilized to analyze a specimen with a triangular hole and a circular hole under bending. Photoelastic phase-shifting technique is whole-field measurement. On the other hand, conventional compensation method is point measurement. Three groups of results were obtained by phase-shifting method with reflective polariscope arrangement, conventional compensation method and FEM simulation, respectively. The results from the first two methods agree with each other relatively well considering experiment error. The advantage of photoelastic phase-shifting method is that it is possible to measure the stress distribution accurately close to the edge of holes.
2007-01-01
GENEVA UNIVERSITY ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 ? Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 16th May 2007 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Proposal to measure the muon electric dipole moment with a compact storage ring at PSI by Dr. Thomas Schietinger, PSI - Villigen In the Standard Model, lepton electric dipole moments (EDM) arise from the CP-violating phase in the CKM matrix at the three-loop level only, resulting in values that are many orders of magnitude below the sensitivity of current and future experiments. Lepton EDMs therefore offer an excellent opportunity to discover unambiguous evidence for new CP-violating phases, as called for by the baryon-antibaryon asymmetry of the universe. The muon EDM is one of the least constrained fundamental properties in elementary particle physics. We propose to utilize the large available flux of polarized muons at PSI to search for a muon EDM ...
Frohn, Peter; Engel, Bernd; Groth, Sebastian
2018-05-01
Kinematic forming processes shape geometries by the process parameters to achieve a more universal process utilizations regarding geometric configurations. The kinematic forming process Incremental Swivel Bending (ISB) bends sheet metal strips or profiles in plane. The sequence for bending an arc increment is composed of the steps clamping, bending, force release and feed. The bending moment is frictionally engaged by two clamping units in a laterally adjustable bending pivot. A minimum clamping force hindering the material from slipping through the clamping units is a crucial criterion to achieve a well-defined incremental arc. Therefore, an analytic description of a singular bent increment is developed in this paper. The bending moment is calculated by the uniaxial stress distribution over the profiles' width depending on the bending pivot's position. By a Coulomb' based friction model, necessary clamping force is described in dependence of friction, offset, dimensions of the clamping tools and strip thickness as well as material parameters. Boundaries for the uniaxial stress calculation are given in dependence of friction, tools' dimensions and strip thickness. The results indicate that changing the bending pivot to an eccentric position significantly affects the process' bending moment and, hence, clamping force, which is given in dependence of yield stress and hardening exponent. FE simulations validate the model with satisfactory accordance.
Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W
1958-01-01
Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl
In-plane and out-of-plane bending tests on carbon steel pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouard, D.; Tremblais, A.; Vrillon, B.
1979-01-01
The objectives of these tests were to obtain experimental results on bends behaviour in elastic and plastic regime by in plane and out of plane bending. Results were used to improve the computer model, for large distorsion of bends, to be used in a simplified beam type computer code for piping calculations. Tests were made on type ANSI B 169 DN 5 bends in ASTM A 106 Grade B carbon steel. These tests made it possible to measure, for identical bends, in elastic regime, the flexibility factors and, in plastic regime, the total evolution in opening, in closing and out of plane. Flexibility factors of 180 0 bend without flanges are approximately the same in opening and in closing. The end effect due to flanges is not very significant, but it is important for 90 0 bends. In plastic regime, collapse loads or collapse moments of bends depends also of both the end effects and the angle bend. The end effects and the angle bend are more sensitive in opening than in closing. The interest of these tests is to procure some precise evolution curves of identical bends well characterized in geometry and metal strength, deflected in large distorsions. (orig./HP)
Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik
2008-01-01
A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions...
Comparison of different nail bending apparatus
Vianen, H.P.C.A.; Schot, F.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.
1992-01-01
A research to develope a registrated testmethod to define the allowable bending moment of a nail was started in spring of this year. A request for a registrated testmethod is caused by the final project of ir. H.P.C.A. Vianen ‘s study. The consequence of developing new codes in The Netherlands and
Lundquist, Eugene E; Stowell, Elbridge Z
1942-01-01
An analysis is presented of the results of tests made by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics on an investigation of the strength of thin-walled circular and elliptic cylinders in pure bending and in combined torsion and bending. In each of the loading conditions, the bending moments were applied in the plane of the major axis of the ellipse.
2002-01-01
A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).
Occipital bending in schizophrenia.
Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2017-01-01
To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.
A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor
Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao
2016-05-01
Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.
Experimental verification of a weak zone model for timber in bending
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Källsner, B.; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Salmela, K.
1997-01-01
In order to verify a stochastic model for the variation of bending strength within and between structural timber members, tests with long members subjected to constant bending moment have been performed. The span with constant moment contained between five and nine weak zones, i.e. zones...... with a cluster of knots. In a previous investigation test specimens, each containing one weak zone, have been tested in bending separately. Based on these tests a hierarchical model with two levels was formulated. The test results show that the bending strength of the long timber members on the average is 5...
Bending-active reciprocal structures based on equilateral polyhedral geometries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Popovic Larsen, Olga; BRANCART, Stijn; DE TEMMERMAN, Niels
2017-01-01
As mutually supported beam structures, reciprocal frames limit the number of components that are joined at each connection to two. However, this system of intermediate connections introduces undesirable bending moments in the beam elements. By utilising elastic deformation to create curved...... of parts of reciprocal bending-active components based on a selection of polyhedral dome types. To simplify the assembly of the structures and avoid the manual bending of the components on site, we introduce the concept of a double-layered, pre-bent component. Finally, this paper presents the development...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meguru Fujii
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Internal tibial rotation with the knee close to full extension combined with valgus collapse during drop landing generally results in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between internal rotation of the knee and muscle activity from internal and external rotator muscles, and between the internal rotation of knee and externally applied loads on the knee during landing in collegiate basketball players. Our hypothesis was that the activity of biceps femoris muscle would be an important factor reducing internal knee rotation during landing. The subjects were 10 collegiate basketball students: 5 females and 5 males. The subjects performed a single-leg drop landing from a 25-cm height. Femoral and tibial kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the knee angular motions were determined. Ground reaction forces and muscle activation patterns (lateral hamstring and medial hamstring were simultaneously measured and computed. Results indicated that lower peak internal tibial rotation angle at the time of landing was associated with greater lateral hamstring activity (r = -0.623, p < 0.001. When gender was considered, the statistically significant correlation remained only in females. There was no association between the peak internal tibial rotation angle and the knee internal rotation moment. Control of muscle activity in the lateral to medial hamstring would be an important factor in generating sufficient force to inhibit excessive internal rotation during landing. Strengthening the biceps femoris might mitigate the higher incidence of non-contact ACL injury in female athletes
Adjustable Tooling for Bending Brake
Ellis, J. M.
1986-01-01
Deep metal boxes and other parts easily fabricated. Adjustable tooling jig for bending brake accommodates spacing blocks and either standard male press-brake die or bar die. Holds spacer blocks, press-brake die, bar window die, or combination of three. Typical bending operations include bending of cut metal sheet into box and bending of metal strip into bracket with multiple inward 90 degree bends. By increasing free space available for bending sheet-metal parts jig makes it easier to fabricate such items as deep metal boxes or brackets with right-angle bends.
Photoelastic investigation of the stresses in mitred bent-cylinders under bending, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawa, Yoshiaki
1984-01-01
The states of stress distribution in mitred bend subjected to inplane uniform bending moment have been studied systematically by means of photoelastic stress freezing method. The relations between the stress concentration factor of fiber stress σsub(l) and of hoop stress σsub(theta) near the bent part and the angle of mitred bend are thoroughly investigated. The effects of fillet radius of the bent-part and wall thickness on the stress concentration factors are also discussed. (author)
Occipital bending in depression.
Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2014-06-01
There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
On Perturbation Solutions for Axisymmetric Bending Boundary Values of a Deep Thin Spherical Shell
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rong Xiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available On the basis of the general theory of elastic thin shells and the Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis, a fundamental equation for a thin shell under the moment theory is established. In this study, the author derives Reissner’s equation with a transverse shear force Q1 and the displacement component w. These basic unknown quantities are derived considering the axisymmetry of the deep, thin spherical shell and manage to constitute a boundary value question of axisymmetric bending of the deep thin spherical shell under boundary conditions. The asymptotic solution is obtained by the composite expansion method. At the end of this paper, to prove the correctness and accuracy of the derivation, an example is given to compare the numerical solution by ANSYS and the perturbation solution. Meanwhile, the effects of material and geometric parameters on the nonlinear response of axisymmetric deep thin spherical shell under uniform external pressure are also analyzed in this paper.
Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miloud Abdelkrim
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. The performances of standard k-ε and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.
Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend
Miloud, Abdelkrim; Aounallah, Mohammed; Belkadi, Mustapha; Adjlout, Lahouari; Imine, Omar; Imine, Bachir
2014-03-01
Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The performances of standard k-ɛ and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.
Theory of bending waves with applications to disk galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mark, J.W.K.
1982-01-01
A theory of bending waves is surveyed which provides an explanation for the required amplification of the warp in the Milky Way. It also provides for self-generated warps in isolated external galaxies. The shape of observed warps and partly their existence in isolated galaxies are indicative of substantial spheroidal components. The theory also provides a plausible explanation for the bending of the inner disk (<2 kpc) of the Milky Way
CERN PhotoLab
1980-01-01
The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipole (bending magnets; BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The BLG had a steel length of 4.70 m, a good field width of 0.24 m, and a weight of about 70 t. Jean-Claude Brunet inspects the lower half of a BLG. For the BST magnets see 7811105 and 8006036.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Yeji; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin, E-mail: yjoh2@kepco-enc.com [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Gimcheon 39660 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-05-15
Highlights: • Effective applied moment at pipe cracked section considering the pipe restraint effect. • Verification of the proposed evaluation methods using finite element analyses. • Applicability for distributed external load of the proposed methods. - Abstract: In the leak-before-break (LBB) design of nuclear power plants, crack opening displacement (COD) is an essential element for determining the length of the leakage size crack. Recent researches regarding the evaluation of COD have indicated that the current practice of the LBB evaluation without consideration of the pressure induced bending (PIB) restraint overestimates COD, which in turn gives non-conservative results. Under a free-ended boundary condition, however, the applied moment at cracked section also can be overestimated, which has conservative effects on LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate pipe restraint effects on the applied moment as well as on COD to keep the constancy. In this paper, an evaluation method for the effect of the PIB restraint on COD and an effective applied moment (=crack driving force) at cracked section was developed. Both the linear elastic and elastic–plastic behaviors of the crack were considered. By comparing the behaviors with 3-D finite element analysis results from earlier studies, it was confirmed that the proposed methods make accurate estimations of the PIB restraint effect on COD. Next, the applicability of the proposed method to other types of external loading conditions was examined.
The continuous structure bending of the three-layer plate with the lightweight aggregate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhuravlev Alexander
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of finding the effective way to solve the task of the composite construction bending of the three-layer plate with the lightweight aggregate, which operates on a continuous pattern. The expressions for the parameters determination, regarding a reduction of support bending moments due to the shear deformation of the middle layer, are given. The three-membered structure equation, connecting three bending moments, occurring above three adjacent pillars of the continuous three-layer beam, is obtained based on the condition of the movement compatibility.
Electric Dipole Moments of Hadrons
Wirzba, Andreas
2016-01-01
A nonzero electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron, proton, deuteron, helion or any finite system necessarily involves the breaking of a symmetry, either by the presence of external fields (leading to the case of induced EDMs) or explicitly by the breaking of the discrete parity and time-reflection symmetries in the case of permanent EDMs. Recent - and in the case of the deuteron even unpublished - results for the relevant matrix elements of nuclear EDM operators are presented and the rel...
Assembling Transgender Moments
Greteman, Adam J.
2017-01-01
In this article, the author seeks to assemble moments--scholarly, popular, and aesthetic--in order to explore the possibilities that emerge as moments collect in education's encounters with the needs, struggles, and possibilities of transgender lives and practices. Assembling moments, the author argues, illustrates the value of "moments"…
The effect of cracks on the limit load of pipe bends under in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.E.
1976-06-01
The limit analysis of the in-plane bending of curved tubes had received attention previously, but the effect of defects in the tube has not been considered. A lower bound has been established which, with no defects present, is in agreement with previous theoretical work. The method of linear programming allows cracks to be introduced into analysis, and results have been obtained for various geometries of defect. The results show that the presence of cracks in the pipe bend can have a marked effect on the theoretical limit load: a part-through crack penetrating only half the wall thickness will reduce the limit moment by up to 10%. The worst possible case of a through-crack may reduce the limit load by 60%. (author)
The effect of cracks on the limit load of pipe bends under in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffiths, J.E.
1976-06-01
The limit analysis of the in-plane bending of curved tubes had received attention previously, but the effect of defects in the tube has not been considered. A lower bound is established, which, with no defects present, is in agreement with previous theoretical work. The method of linear programming allows cracks to be introduced into the analysis. and results have been obtained for various geometries of defect. The results show that the presence of cracks in the pipe bend can have a marked effect on the theoretical limit load: a part-through crack penetrating only half the wall thickness will reduce the limit moment by up to 10%. The worst possible case of a through-crack may reduce the limit load by 60% (author)
AGS superconducting bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.; McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Abbatiello, F.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.; Brown, D.; Damm, R.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Schlafke, A.
1976-01-01
Four large aperture superconducting bending magnets are being built for use in the experimental beams at the AGS. Each of these magnets is 2.5 m long and has a room temperature aperture of 20 cm. The magnets are similar in design to the dipoles being developed for ISABELLE and employ a low temperature iron core. Results are presented on the ''training'' behavior of the magnets and a comparison will be made with the smaller aperture versions of this design. The magnet field measurements include end fields and leakage fields as well as the harmonic components of the straight section of the magnet
Total Longitudinal Moment Calculation and Reliability Analysis of Yacht Structures
Zhi, Wenzheng; Lin, Shaofen
In order to check the reliability of the yacht in FRP (Fiber Reinforce Plastic) materials, in this paper, the vertical force and the calculation method of the overall longitudinal bending moment on yacht was analyzed. Specially, this paper focuses on the impact of speed on the still water bending moment on yacht. Then considering the mechanical properties of the cap type stiffeners in composite materials, the ultimate bearing capacity of the yacht has been worked out, finally the reliability of the yacht was calculated with using response surface methodology. The result can be used in yacht design and yacht driving.
Ankle-foot orthosis bending axis influences running mechanics.
Russell Esposito, Elizabeth; Ranz, Ellyn C; Schmidtbauer, Kelly A; Neptune, Richard R; Wilken, Jason M
2017-07-01
Passive-dynamic ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are commonly prescribed to improve locomotion for people with lower limb musculoskeletal weakness. The clinical prescription and design process are typically qualitative and based on observational assessment and experience. Prior work examining the effect of AFO design characteristics generally excludes higher impact activities such as running, providing clinicians and researchers limited information to guide the development of objective prescription guidelines. The proximal location of the bending axis may directly influence energy storage and return and resulting running mechanics. The purpose of this study was to determine if the location of an AFO's bending axis influences running mechanics. Marker and force data were recorded as 12 participants with lower extremity weakness ran overground while wearing a passive-dynamic AFO with posterior struts manufactured with central (middle) and off-centered (high and low) bending axes. Lower extremity joint angles, moments, powers, and ground reaction forces were calculated and compared between limbs and across bending axis conditions. Bending axis produced relatively small but significant changes. Ankle range of motion increased as the bending axis shifted distally (pbenefits during running, although individual preference and physical ability should also be considered. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Bend testing for miniature disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.; Wire, G.L.
1982-01-01
A bend test was developed to obtain ductility measurements on a large number of alloy variants being irradiated in the form of miniature disks. Experimental results were shown to be in agreement with a theoretical analysis of the bend configuration. Disk specimens fabricated from the unstrained grip ends of previously tested tensile specimens were used for calibration purposes; bend ductilities and tensile ductilities were in good agreement. The criterion for estimating ductility was judged acceptable for screening purposes
Bending of light in quantum gravity.
Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre
2015-02-13
We consider the scattering of lightlike matter in the presence of a heavy scalar object (such as the Sun or a Schwarzschild black hole). By treating general relativity as an effective field theory we directly compute the nonanalytic components of the one-loop gravitational amplitude for the scattering of massless scalars or photons from an external massive scalar field. These results allow a semiclassical computation of the bending angle for light rays grazing the Sun, including long-range ℏ contributions. We discuss implications of this computation, in particular, the violation of some classical formulations of the equivalence principle.
Bending and Force Recovery in Polymer Films and Microgel Formation
Elder, Theresa Marie
To determine correlation between geometry and material three different model films: polymethylsiloxane (PDMS), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC), were singly bent and doubly bent (forming D-cones). Bends were chosen as they are fundamental in larger complex geometries such as origami and crumples. Bending was carried out between two plates taking force and displacement measurements. Processing of data using moment equations yielded values for bending moduli for studied films that were close to accepted values. Force recovery showed logarithmic trends for PDMS and stretched exponential trends for PS and PC. In a separate experiment a triblock copolymer of polystyrene-polyacrylic acid-polystyrene was subjected to different good and bad solvent mixing with any resulting particle morphology examined. Particles formed more uniformly with high water concentration, particles formed with high toluene concentration and agitation yielded three separate morphologies.
Longitudinal-bending mode micromotor using multilayer piezoelectric actuator.
Yao, K; Koc, B; Uchino, K
2001-07-01
Longitudinal-bending mode ultrasonic motors with a diameter of 3 mm were fabricated using stacked multilayer piezoelectric actuators, which were self-developed from hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic. A bending vibration was converted from a longitudinal vibration with a longitudinal-bending coupler. The motors could be bidirectionally operated by changing driving frequency. Their starting and braking torque were analyzed based on the transient velocity response. With a load of moment of inertia 2.5 x 10(-7) kgm2, the motor showed a maximum starting torque of 127.5 microNm. The braking torque proved to be a constant independent on the motor's driving conditions and was roughly equivalent to the maximum starting torque achievable with our micromotors.
Emittance growth of bunched beams in bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsten, B.E.; Raubenheimer, T.O.
1995-01-01
Talman [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1429 (1986)] has proposed a novel relativistic effect that occurs when a charged particle beam is bent in the magnetic field from an external dipole. The consequence of this effect is that the space-charge forces from the particles do not exhibit the usual inverse-square energy dependence and some part of them are, in fact, independent of energy. This led to speculation that this effect could introduce significant emittance growth for a bending electron beam. Subsequently, it was shown that this effect's influence on the beam's transverse motion is canceled for a dc beam by a potential depression within the beam (to first order in the beam radius divided by the bend radius). In this paper, we extend the analysis to include short bunch lengths (as compared to the beam pipe dimensions) and find that there is no longer the cancellation for forces both transverse to and in the direction of motion. We provide an estimate for the emittance growth as a function of bend angle, beam radius, and current, and for magnetic compression of an electron bunch
Distortional Buckling Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders in Negative Moment Area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhou Wangbao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Distortional buckling is one of the most important buckling modes of the steel-concrete composite girder under negative moment. In this study, the equivalent lateral and torsional restraints of the bottom flange of a steel-concrete composite girder under negative moments due to variable axial forces are thoroughly investigated. The results show that there is a coupling effect between the applied forces and the lateral and torsional restraint of the bottom flange. Based on the calculation formula of lateral and torsional restraints, the critical buckling stress of I-steel-concrete composite girders and steel-concrete composite box girders under variable axial force is obtained. The critical bending moment of the steel-concrete composite girders can be further calculated. Compared to the traditional calculation methods of elastic foundation beam, the paper introduces an improved method, which considers coupling effect of the external loads and the foundation spring constraints of the bottom flange. Fifteen examples of the steel-concrete composite girders in different conditions are calculated. The calculation results show a good match between the hand calculation and the ANSYS finite element method, which validated that the analytic calculation method proposed in this paper is practical.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1983-06-01
The new experimental values of hyperon magnetic moments are compared with sum rules predicted from general quark models. Three difficulties are encountered which are not easily explained by simple models. The isovector contributions of nonstrange quarks to hyperon moments are smaller than the corresponding contribution to nucleon moments, indicating either appreciable configuration mixing present in hyperon wave functions and absent in nucleons or an additional isovector contribution beyond that of valence quarks; e.g. from a pion cloud. The large magnitude of the ω - moment may indicate that the strange quark contribution to the ω moments is considerably larger than the value μ(#betta#) predicted by simple models which have otherwise been very successful. The set of controversial values from different experiments of the μ - moment include a value very close to -(1/2)μ(μ + ) which would indicate that strange quarks do not contribute at all to the μ moments. (author)
Trunk muscle cocontraction: the effects of moment direction and moment magnitude.
Lavender, S A; Tsuang, Y H; Andersson, G B; Hafezi, A; Shin, C C
1992-09-01
This study investigated the cocontraction of eight trunk muscles during the application of asymmetric loads to the torso. External moments of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 Nm were applied to the torso via a harness system. The direction of the applied moment was varied by 30 degrees increments to the subjects' right side between the sagittally symmetric orientations front and rear. Electromyographic (EMG) data from the left and right latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, external oblique, and rectus abdominus were collected from 10 subjects. The normalized EMG data were tested using multivariate and univariate analyses of variance procedures. These analyses showed significant interactions between the moment magnitude and the moment direction for seven of the eight muscles. Most of the interactions could be characterized as due to changes in muscle recruitment with changes in the direction of the external moment. Analysis of the relative activation levels, which were computed for each combination of moment magnitude and direction, indicated large changes in muscle recruitment due to asymmetry, but only small adjustments in the relative activation levels due to increased moment magnitude.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasidharan, Sumesh; Arunachalam, Veerappan; Subramaniam, Shanmugam [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli (India)
2017-02-15
Finite-element analysis based on elastic-perfectly plastic material was conducted to examine the influence of structural deformations on collapse loads of circumferential through-wall critically cracked 90 .deg. pipe bends undergoing in-plane closing bending and internal pressure. The critical crack is defined for a through-wall circumferential crack at the extrados with a subtended angle below which there is no weakening effect on collapse moment of elbows subjected to in-plane closing bending. Elliptical and semioval cross sections were postulated at the bend regions and compared. Twice-elastic-slope method was utilized to obtain the collapse loads. Structural deformations, namely, ovality and thinning, were each varied from 0% to 20% in steps of 5% and the normalized internal pressure was varied from 0.2 to 0.6. Results indicate that elliptic cross sections were suitable for pipe ratios 5 and 10, whereas for pipe ratio 20, semioval cross sections gave satisfactory solutions. The effect of ovality on collapse loads is significant, although it cancelled out at a certain value of applied internal pressure. Thinning had a negligible effect on collapse loads of bends with crack geometries considered.
Marciano, William J
2010-01-01
This book provides a self-contained description of the measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon, along with a discussion of the measurements of the fine structure constant, and the theory associated with magnetic and electric dipole moments. Also included are the searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron, muon, neutron and atomic nuclei. The related topic of the transition moment for lepton flavor violating processes, such as neutrinoless muon or tauon decays, and the search for such processes are included as well. The papers, written by many o
Experimental and numerical investigation on laser-assisted bending of pre-loaded metal plate
Nowak, Zdzisław; Nowak, Marcin; Widłaszewski, Jacek; Kurp, Piotr
2018-01-01
The laser forming technique has an important disadvantage, which is the limitation of plastic deformation generated by a single laser beam pass. To increase the plastic deformation it is possible to apply external forces in the laser forming process. In this paper, we investigate the influence of external pre-loads on the laser bending of steel plate. The pre-loads investigated generate bending towards the laser beam. The thermal, elastic-plastic analysis is performed using the commercial nonlinear finite element analysis package ABAQUS. The focus of the paper is to identify how this pattern of the pre-load influence the final bend angle of the plate.
Control of influence of a thread on a bending of screws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proskuriakov, N E; Lopa, I V; Trapeznikov, E V
2017-01-01
The influence of the threads and the bending of screw on their moments of inertia of the cross section considered. This problem is actual since existing methods exclude from calculations the influence of supporting the thread, using as the basic geometrical parameter such as the internal diameter of the thread (diameter of cavities). Fundamental difference of a bend of the screw from a bend of a smooth rod consists that moment of inertia of the screw is a variable. It is shown that the change in cross-section moment of inertia along the length of the screw are essential and have periodic character. Analytical interrelation of the bending of the screw and the decreasing of moment of inertia of its cross section is established and equation describing this phenomenon is suggested. The greatest decrease of the moment of inertia occurs in the middle of the screw length, and the lowest - at its ends. Function and approximate coefficients for the main types of thread are proposed, which take into account this change. (paper)
Gosnell, W Casey; Butcher, Michael T; Maie, Takashi; Blob, Richard W
2011-10-15
Studies of limb bone loading in terrestrial mammals have typically found anteroposterior bending to be the primary loading regime, with torsion contributing minimally. However, previous studies have focused on large, cursorial eutherian species in which the limbs are held essentially upright. Recent in vivo strain data from the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana), a marsupial that uses a crouched rather than an upright limb posture, have indicated that its femur experiences appreciable torsion during locomotion as well as strong mediolateral bending. The elevated femoral torsion and strong mediolateral bending observed in D. virginiana might result from external forces such as a medial inclination of the ground reaction force (GRF), internal forces deriving from a crouched limb posture, or a combination of these factors. To evaluate the mechanism underlying the loading regime of opossum femora, we filmed D. virginiana running over a force platform, allowing us to measure the magnitude of the GRF and its three-dimensional orientation relative to the limb, facilitating estimates of limb bone stresses. This three-dimensional analysis also allows evaluations of muscular forces, particularly those of hip adductor muscles, in the appropriate anatomical plane to a greater degree than previous two-dimensional analyses. At peak GRF and stress magnitudes, the GRF is oriented nearly vertically, inducing a strong abductor moment at the hip that is countered by adductor muscles on the medial aspect of the femur that place this surface in compression and induce mediolateral bending, corroborating and explaining loading patterns that were identified in strain analyses. The crouched orientation of the femur during stance in opossums also contributes to levels of femoral torsion as high as those seen in many reptilian taxa. Femoral safety factors were as high as those of non-avian reptiles and greater than those of upright, cursorial mammals, primarily because the load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luning Shi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A prestress force identification method for externally prestressed concrete uniform beam based on the frequency equation and the measured frequencies is developed. For the purpose of the prestress force identification accuracy, we first look for the appropriate method to solve the free vibration equation of externally prestressed concrete beam and then combine the measured frequencies with frequency equation to identify the prestress force. To obtain the exact solution of the free vibration equation of multispan externally prestressed concrete beam, an analytical model of externally prestressed concrete beam is set up based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory and the function relation between prestress variation and vibration displacement is built. The multispan externally prestressed concrete beam is taken as the multiple single-span beams which must meet the bending moment and rotation angle boundary conditions, the free vibration equation is solved using sublevel simultaneous method and the semi-analytical solution of the free vibration equation which considered the influence of prestress on section rigidity and beam length is obtained. Taking simply supported concrete beam and two-span concrete beam with external tendons as examples, frequency function curves are obtained with the measured frequencies into it and the prestress force can be identified using the abscissa of the crosspoint of frequency functions. Identification value of the prestress force is in good agreement with the test results. The method can accurately identify prestress force of externally prestressed concrete beam and trace the trend of effective prestress force.
Electric dipole moments reconsidered
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rupertsberger, H.
1989-01-01
The electric dipole moments of elementary particles, atoms, molecules and their connection to the electric susceptibility are discussed for stationary states. Assuming rotational invariance it is emphasized that for such states only in the case of a parity and time reversal violating interaction the considered particles can obtain a nonvanishing expectation value for the electric dipole moment. 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun
2012-01-01
We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose second...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-03-29
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu
2002-01-01
Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments
Schmüdgen, Konrad
2017-01-01
This advanced textbook provides a comprehensive and unified account of the moment problem. It covers the classical one-dimensional theory and its multidimensional generalization, including modern methods and recent developments. In both the one-dimensional and multidimensional cases, the full and truncated moment problems are carefully treated separately. Fundamental concepts, results and methods are developed in detail and accompanied by numerous examples and exercises. Particular attention is given to powerful modern techniques such as real algebraic geometry and Hilbert space operators. A wide range of important aspects are covered, including the Nevanlinna parametrization for indeterminate moment problems, canonical and principal measures for truncated moment problems, the interplay between Positivstellensätze and moment problems on semi-algebraic sets, the fibre theorem, multidimensional determinacy theory, operator-theoretic approaches, and the existence theory and important special topics of multidime...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Danilo Machado L. da; Rodrigues, Marcos V. [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Venaas, Asle [Det Norske Veritas (DNV), Oslo (Norway); Medeiros, Antonio Roberto de [Subsea 7 (Brazil)
2009-12-19
Bending is a primary loading experienced by pipelines during installation and operation. Significant bending in the presence of tension is experienced during installation by the S-lay method, as the pipe conforms to the curvature of the stinger and beyond in the over bend region. Bending in the presence of external pressure is experienced in the sag bend of all major installation methods (e.g., reeling, J-lay, S-lay) as well as in free-spans on the sea floor. Bending is also experienced by pipelines during installation by horizontal directional drilling. HDD procedures are increasingly being utilized around the world not only for crossings of rivers and other obstacles but also for shore approach of offshore pipelines. During installation the pipeline experience a combination of tensile, bending, and compressive stresses. The magnitude of these stresses is a function of the approach angle, bending radius, pipe diameter, length of the borehole, and the soil properties at the site. The objective of this paper is to present an overview of some aspects related to bending of the product pipe during HDD operations, which is closely related to the borehole path as the pipeline conforms to the curvature of the hole. An overview of the aspects related to tensile forces is also presented. The combined effect of bending and tensile forces during the pullback operation is discussed. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Christian Chanchí Golondrino
2008-01-01
Full Text Available El presente artículo esboza dos aproximaciones sobre la ecuación de diseño a momento flexionante de secciones T en concreto reforzado que se comportan como secciones rectangulares y que trabajan como viguetería de losas aligeradas. La primera aproximación discute la viabilidad de usar el ancho del nervio de la vigueta en lugar de usar el ancho efectivo de la aleta, dentro del proceso de la obtención del acero, requerida para asumir un momento flexionante; la segunda aproximación discute la viabilidad de aproximar la ecuación cuadrática que rige la obtención del área del acero requerida para obtener un momento flexionante en una ecuación lineal, cuyas únicas variables son el área del acero y la altura efectiva de la sección T. Se ha dimensionado geométricamente un conjunto de secciones de losas aligeradas siguiendo los requisitos del título C13 de la norma sismo resistente colombiana NSR98, los cuales se obtuvieron para un modelo simplemente apoyado, cuya luz varía entre [2 - 7] m y el ancho del casetón ente [0.30 - 1] m. El dimensionamiento antes mencionado fue utilizado para sensibilizar la efectividad de cada una de las aproximaciones propuestas respecto a la solución general para la obtención del área del acero de la sección T que se comporta como rectangular.This article presents two approaches on the moment design equation of T shaped beams. Particularly the beam's T cross section analyzed behaves like a rectangular cross section when the beam works like a component of a slab system built from a set of T shaped beams. The first approach discusses the feasibility to use the web width instead of effective flange width to obtain the steel area associated to the moment solicitation of T shaped beam. The second approach discusses the feasibility to approach the quadratic equation used to obtain the steel required to take the bending moment into linear equation related to variables such as steel area and the effective depth
Heijman, W.J.M.
2007-01-01
The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.
Bending characteristics of resin concretes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.
Macroscopic quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment
Tejada, J.; Hernandez, J. M.; del Barco, E.
1999-05-01
In this paper we review the work done on magnetic relaxation during the last 10 years on both single-domain particles and magnetic molecules and its contribution to the discovery of quantum tunneling of the magnetic moment (Chudnovsky and Tejada, Macroscopic Quantum tunneling of the Magnetic moment, Cambridge University press, Cambridge, 1998). We present first the theoretical expressions and their connection to quantum relaxation and secondly, we show and discuss the experimental results. Finally, we discuss very recent hysteresis data on Mn 12Ac molecules at extremely large sweeping rate for the external magnetic field which suggest the existence of quantum spin—phonon avalanches.
The creep bending of short radius pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, John
1975-01-01
In existing and proposed liquid metal fast breeder reactor design the pipework has considerable importance. Parts of the LMFBR include thin walled short radius bends which are expected to operate in the creep regime. In linear elasticity it is known that the assumption of long radius bends is not too severe as far as the flexibility characteristics are concerned although some modifications are necessary for accurate determination of the stresses. No data exists for nonlinear creep. Current work is aimed at elucidating the effect of the various assumptions common to linear elastic theory in so far as they affect the creep characteristics of bends on systems. Herein an energy based analysis using a simple n power constitutive law for stationary creep is employed to derive basic design data for flexibilities and stresses which will be necessary before complete systems can be assessed for creep. The analysis shows on comparison with the long radius work that the assumption of R>r is not much more restrictive in creep than for linear elasticity. Flexibilities for short radius bends appear to be well approximated by the long radius values. Thus the attractive reference stress information already derived may be used directly to find deformations without a complete knowledge of the constitutive relationship. However, stresses are somewhat different. Fortunately the maximum deviation occurs at relatively low levels of stress, the peak stresses being in fair agreement. When n=1 the present results reduce essentially to those obtained from existing linear elastic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulikov, I.S.; Tverkovkin, B.E.; Karasik, E.A.
1984-01-01
The bending of rod fuel elements in gas-cooled fast reactors under the action of temperature gradients radiation-induced swelling non-uniform over the perimeter of fuel cans is evaluated. It is pointed out that the radiation-induced swelling gives the main contribution to the bending of fuel elements. Calculated data on the bending of the corner fuel element in the assembly of the fast reactor with dissociating gas coolant are given. With the growth of temperature difference over the perimeter, the bending moment and deformation increase, resulting in the increase of axial stresses. The obtained data give the basis for accounting the stresses connected with thermal and radiation bending when estimating serviceability of fuel elements in gas cooled fast reactors. Fuel element bending must be also taken into account when estimating the thermal hydrualic properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Isabelle Rogowski
Full Text Available This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2. An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.
Rogowski, Isabelle; Creveaux, Thomas; Chèze, Laurence; Macé, Pierre; Dumas, Raphaël
2014-01-01
This study examined the effect of the polar moment of inertia of a tennis racket on upper limb loading in the serve. Eight amateur competition tennis players performed two sets of 10 serves using two rackets identical in mass, position of center of mass and moments of inertia other than the polar moment of inertia (0.00152 vs 0.00197 kg.m2). An eight-camera motion analysis system collected the 3D trajectories of 16 markers, located on the thorax, upper limbs and racket, from which shoulder, elbow and wrist net joint moments and powers were computed using inverse dynamics. During the cocking phase, increased racket polar moment of inertia was associated with significant increases in the peak shoulder extension and abduction moments, as well the peak elbow extension, valgus and supination moments. During the forward swing phase, peak wrist extension and radial deviation moments significantly increased with polar moment of inertia. During the follow-through phase, the peak shoulder adduction, elbow pronation and wrist external rotation moments displayed a significant inverse relationship with polar moment of inertia. During the forward swing, the magnitudes of negative joint power at the elbow and wrist were significantly larger when players served using the racket with a higher polar moment of inertia. Although a larger polar of inertia allows players to better tolerate off-center impacts, it also appears to place additional loads on the upper extremity when serving and may therefore increase injury risk in tennis players.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivoruchenko, M.I.
1985-01-01
In chiral bag model an expression is obtained for the quark wave functions with account of color and pion interaction of quarks. The quadrupole moments of nonstrange hadrons are calculated. Quadrupole moment of nucleon isobar is found to be Q(Δ)=-6.3x10 -28 esub(Δ)(cm)sup(2). Fredictions of the chiral bag model are in strong disagreement with the non-relativistic quark model
Particle electric dipole moments
Pendlebury, J M
2000-01-01
Measurements of particle electric dipole moments (EDMs) continue to put powerful constraints on theories of T-symmetry and CP-symmetry violation, which form currently one of the most prominent fields in particle physics. EDM measurements have been concentrated on neutral systems such as the neutron and atoms and molecules. These measurements allow one to deduce, in turn, the electric dipole moments of the fundamental fermions, that is, the lighter leptons and quarks and also those of some heavy nuclei.
Unal, Omer Kays; Poyanli, Oguz Sukru; Unal, Ulku Sur; Mutlu, Hasan Huseyin; Ozkut, Afsar Timucin; Esenkaya, Irfan
2018-05-16
We set out to reveal the effects of repeated sterilization, using different methods, on the carbon fiber rods of external fixator systems. We used a randomized set of forty-four unused, unsterilized, and identical carbon fiber rods (11 × 200 mm), randomly assigned to two groups: unsterilized (US) (4 rods) and sterilized (40 rods). The sterilized rods were divided into two groups, those sterilized in an autoclave (AC) and by hydrogen peroxide (HP). These were further divided into five subgroups based on the number of sterilization repetition to which the fibers were subjected (25-50-75-100-200). A bending test was conducted to measure the maximum bending force (MBF), maximum deflection (MD), flexural strength (FS), maximum bending moment (MBM) and bending rigidity (BR). We also measured the surface roughness of the rods. An increase in the number of sterilization repetition led to a decrease in MBF, MBM, FS, BR, but increased MD and surface roughness (p < 0.01). The effect of the number of sterilization repetition was more prominent in the HP group. This study revealed that the sterilization method and number of sterilization repetition influence the strength of the carbon fiber rods. Increasing the number of sterilization repetition degrades the strength and roughness of the rods.
Sailer, Irena; Asgeirsson, Asgeir G; Thoma, Daniel S; Fehmer, Vincent; Aspelund, Thor; Özcan, Mutlu; Pjetursson, Bjarni E
2018-04-01
There is limited knowledge regarding the strength of zirconia abutments with internal and external implant abutment connections and zirconia abutments supported by a titanium resin base (Variobase, Straumann) for narrow diameter implants. To compare the fracture strength of narrow diameter abutments with different types of implant abutment connections after chewing simulation. Hundred and twenty identical customized abutments with different materials and implant abutment connections were fabricated for five groups: 1-piece zirconia abutment with internal connection (T1, Cares-abutment-Straumann BL-NC implant, Straumann Switzerland), 1-piece zirconia abutment with external hex connection (T2, Procera abutment-Branemark NP implant, Nobel Biocare, Sweden), 2-piece zirconia abutments with metallic insert for internal connection (T3, Procera abutment-Replace NP implant, Nobel Biocare), 2-piece zirconia abutment on titanium resin base (T4, LavaPlus abutment-VarioBase-Straumann BL-NC implant, 3M ESPE, Germany) and 1-piece titanium abutment with internal connection (C, Cares-abutment-Straumann BL-NC implant, Straumann, Switzerland). All implants had a narrow diameter ranging from 3.3 to 3.5 mm. Sixty un-restored abutments and 60 abutments restored with glass-ceramic crowns were tested. Mean bending moments were compared using ANOVA with p-values adjusted for multiple comparisons using Tukey's procedure. The mean bending moments were 521 ± 33 Ncm (T4), 404 ± 36 Ncm (C), 311 ± 106 Ncm (T1) 265 ± 22 Ncm (T3) and 225 ± 29 (T2) for un-restored abutments and 278 ± 84 Ncm (T4), 302 ± 170 Ncm (C), 190 ± 55 Ncm (T1) 80 ± 102 Ncm (T3) and 125 ± 57 (T2) for restored abutments. For un-restored abutments, C and T4 had similar mean bending moments, significantly higher than those of the three other groups (p internal connection had higher bending moments than zirconia abutments with external connection (T2) (p internal connected zirconia
Moment Capacity of Timber Reinforced with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jacob; Ellegaard, Peter
When designing timber trusses it is often found that the cross section controlling the dimensions of the top chord is located at a joint with a moment peak. However, the timber volume affected by the moment peak is rather limited and by embedding a punched metal plate in this area a reinforcement...... of the section is obtained, resulting in a more economic truss design. In order to develop design methods for sections with plate reinforcement, bending tests have been made. The timber is Swedish spruce of strength class K-18(S8) and K-24(S10) with a thickness of 45 mm. The punched metal plate is from Gang...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohtsubo, T., E-mail: tohtsubo@np.gs.niigata-u.ac.jp; Kawamura, Y.; Ohya, S. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Nishimura, K. [Toyama University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Muto, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, KEK (Japan); Shinozuka, T. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan)
2007-11-15
Nuclear magnetic resonances were measured for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc oriented at 8 mK in an Fe host metal. The magnetic hyperfine splitting frequencies at an external magnetic field of 0.2 T were determined to be 63.22(11) MHz and 64.81(1) MHz for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc, respectively. With the known magnetic moment of {mu}({sup 44m}Sc)=+3.88 (1) {mu}{sub N}, the magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is deduced as {mu}({sup 44}Sc)=+3.785(12) {mu}{sub N}. The measured magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is discussed in terms of the shell model using the effective interactions.
Trunk muscle activation. The effects of torso flexion, moment direction, and moment magnitude.
Lavender, S; Trafimow, J; Andersson, G B; Mayer, R S; Chen, I H
1994-04-01
This study was performed to quantify the electromyographic trunk muscle activities in response to variations in moment magnitude and direction while in forward-flexed postures. Recordings were made over eight trunk muscles in 19 subjects who maintained forward-flexed postures of 30 degrees and 60 degrees. In each of the two flexed postures, external moments of 20 Nm and 40 Nm were applied via a chest harness. The moment directions were varied in seven 30 degrees increments to a subject's right side, such that the direction of the applied load ranged from the upper body's anterior midsagittal plane (0 degree) to the posterior midsagittal plane (180 degrees). Statistical analyses yielded significant moment magnitude by moment-direction interaction effects for the EMG output from six of the eight muscles. Trunk flexion by moment-direction interactions were observed in the responses from three muscles. In general, the primary muscle supporting the torso and the applied load was the contralateral (left) erector spinae. The level of electromyographic activity in the anterior muscles was quite low, even with the posterior moment directions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanks, T.C.; Kanamori, H.
1979-05-10
The nearly conincident forms of the relations between seismic moment M/sub o/ and the magnitudes M/sub L/, M/sub s/, and M/sub w/ imply a moment magnitude scale M=2/3 log M/sub o/-10.7 which is uniformly valid for 3< or approx. =M/sub L/< or approx. = 7, 5 < or approx. =M/sub s/< or approx. =7 1/2 and M/sub w/> or approx. = 7 1/2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Overseth, O.E.
1981-01-01
The Fermilab Neutral Hyperon Beam Collaboration has measured the magnetic moments of Λ 0 , XI-neutral and XI-minus hyperons. With a recently published result for the Σ + hyperon, we now have precision measurements on the magnetic moments of six baryons. This allows a sensitive test of the quark model. The data are in qualitative agreement with the simple additive static quark model. Quantitatively however the data disagree with theoretical predictions by typically 15%. Several theoretical attempts to understand or remedy this discrepancy will be mentioned
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brunet, M.; Morestin, F.; Godereaux, S.
2000-01-01
An inverse identification technique is proposed based on bending-unbending experiments on anisotropic sheet-metal strips. The initial anisotropy theory of plasticity is extended to include the concept of combined isotropic and non-linear kinematic hardening. This theory is adopted to characterise the anisotropic hardening due to loading-unloading which occurs in sheet-metal forming processes. To this end, a specific bending-unbending apparatus has been built to provide experimental moment-curvature curves. The constant bending moment applied over the length of the specimen to determine numerically the strain-stress behaviour but without Finite Element Analysis. Four constitutive parameters have to be identified by an inverse approach. Our identification results show that bending-unbending tests are suitable to model quite accurately the constitutive behaviour of sheet metals under complex loading paths. (author)
MIT miniaturized disk bend test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.
1983-01-01
A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Other mechanical properties can also be obtained using the MDBT approach. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly. 11 figures
The gearing function of running shoe longitudinal bending stiffness.
Willwacher, Steffen; König, Manuel; Braunstein, Björn; Goldmann, Jan-Peter; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter
2014-07-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether altered longitudinal bending stiffness (LBS) levels of the midsole of a running shoe lead to a systematic change in lower extremity joint lever arms of the ground reaction force (GRF). Joint moments and GRF lever arms in the sagittal plane were determined from 19 male subjects running at 3.5 m/s using inverse dynamics procedures. LBS was manipulated using carbon fiber insoles of 1.9 mm and 3.2 mm thickness. Increasing LBS led to a significant shift of joint lever arms to a more anterior position. Effects were more pronounced at distal joints. Ankle joint moments were not significantly increased in the presence of higher GRF lever arms when averaged over all subjects. Still, two individual strategies (1: increase ankle joint moments while keeping push-off times almost constant, 2: decrease ankle joint moments and increase push-off times) could be identified in response to increased ankle joint lever arms that might reflect individual differences between subjects with respect to strength capacities or anthropometric characteristics. The results of the present study indicate that LBS systematically influences GRF lever arms of lower extremity joints during the push-off phase in running. Further, individual responses to altered LBS levels could be identified that could aid in finding optimum LBS values for a given individual. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
On damping of screw dislocation bending vibrations in dissipative crystal: limiting cases
Dezhin, V. V.
2018-03-01
The expression for the generalized susceptibility of the dislocation obtained earlier was used. The electronic drag mechanism of dislocations is considered. The study of small dislocation oscillations was limited. The contribution of the attenuation of low-frequency bending screw dislocation vibrations to the overall coefficient of dynamic dislocation drag in the long-wave and short-wave limits is calculated. The damping of short-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations caused by an external action of an arbitrary frequency has been investigated. The contribution of long-wave bending screw dislocation vibrations damping in the total drag coefficient at an arbitrary frequency is found.
Pieters, Jurgen
2001-01-01
'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement,
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Towner, I.S.; Khanna, F.C.
1984-01-01
Consideration of core polarization, isobar currents and meson-exchange processes gives a satisfactory understanding of the ground-state magnetic moments in closed-shell-plus (or minus)-one nuclei, A = 3, 15, 17, 39 and 41. Ever since the earliest days of the nuclear shell model the understanding of magnetic moments of nuclear states of supposedly simple configurations, such as doubly closed LS shells +-1 nucleon, has been a challenge for theorists. The experimental moments, which in most cases are known with extraordinary precision, show a small yet significant departure from the single-particle Schmidt values. The departure, however, is difficult to evaluate precisely since, as will be seen, it results from a sensitive cancellation between several competing corrections each of which can be as large as the observed discrepancy. This, then, is the continuing fascination of magnetic moments. In this contribution, we revisit the subjet principally to identify the role played by isobar currents, which are of much concern at this conference. But in so doing we warn quite strongly of the dangers of considering just isobar currents in isolation; equal consideration must be given to competing processes which in this context are the mundane nuclear structure effects, such as core polarization, and the more popular meson-exchange currents
Higgins, Chris
2014-01-01
In "The Humanist Moment," Chris Higgins sets out to recover a tenable, living humanism, rejecting both the version vilified by the anti-humanists and the one sentimentalized by the reactionary nostalgists. Rescuing humanism from such polemics is only the first step, as we find at least nine rival, contemporary definitions of humanism.…
Redefining the political moment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Arvanitakis
2011-07-01
Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Suk, Tomáš; Flusser, Jan
2004-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 10 (2004), s. 1364-1367 ISSN 0162-8828 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/03/0675 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : projective transform * moment invariants * object recognition Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.352, year: 2004 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20040112.pdf
A new strain based brick element for plate bending
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Belounar
2014-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a new three-dimensional brick finite element by the use of the strain based approach for the linear analysis of plate bending. The developed element has the three essential external degrees of freedom (U, V and W at each of the eight corner nodes as well as at the centroidal node. The displacement field of the developed element is based on assumed functions for the various strains satisfying the compatibility equations and the static condensation technique is used for the internal node. The performance of this element is evaluated on several problems related to thick and thin plate bending in linear analysis. The obtained results show the good performances and accuracy of the present element.
Bending and stretching of plates
Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S
1964-01-01
The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Studness, C.M.
1990-01-01
This article looks at the attempts by Gulf States Utilities to get the River Bend Nuclear Plant into its rate base. The review begins with the initial filing of rate cases in Texas and Louisiana in 1986 and continues through many court cases and appeals all the way to the Texas Supreme Court. The preferred and preference shareholders now nominally control the company through election of 10 of 15 members of the company's board of directors. This case is used as an argument for deregulation in favor of competition
Long-Term Bending Creep Behavior of Thin-Walled CFRP Tendon Pretensioned Spun Concrete Poles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giovanni P. Terrasi
2014-07-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the long-term behavior of a series of highly-loaded, spun concrete pole specimens prestressed with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP tendons, which were subjected to outdoor four-point bending creep tests since 1996 in the frame of collaboration with the Swiss precast concrete producer, SACAC (Società Anonima Cementi Armati Centrifugati. The 2 m span cylindrical beams studied are models for lighting poles produced for the last 10 years and sold on the European market. Five thin-walled pole specimens were investigated (diameter: 100 mm; wall-thickness: 25–27 mm. All specimens were produced in a pretensioning and spinning technique and were prestressed by pultruded CFRP tendons. Initially, two reference pole specimens were tested in quasi-static four-point bending to determine the short-term failure moment and to model the short-term flexural behavior. Then, three pole specimens were loaded to different bending creep moments: while the lowest loaded specimen was initially uncracked, the second specimen was loaded with 50% of the short-term bending failure moment and exhibited cracking immediately after load introduction. The highest loaded pole specimen sustained a bending moment of 72% of the short-term bending failure moment for 16.5 years before failing in July 2013, due to the bond failure of the tendons, which led to local crushing of the high-performance spun concrete (HPSC. Besides this, long-term monitoring of the creep tests has shown a limited time- and temperature-dependent increase of the deflections over the years, mainly due to the creep of the concrete. A concrete creep-based model allowed for the calculation of the long-term bending curvatures with reasonable accuracy. Furthermore, the pole specimens showed crack patterns that were stable over time and minimal slippage of the tendons with respect to the pole’s end-faces for the two lower load levels. The latter proves the successful and durable
Heavy quark and magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mubarak, Ahmad; Jallu, M.S.
1979-01-01
The magnetic moments and transition moments of heavy hadrons including the conventional particles are obtained under the SU(5) truth symmetry scheme. To this end state vectors are defined and the quark additivity principle is taken into account. (author)
Moment methods for nonlinear maps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pusch, G.D.; Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON
1993-01-01
It is shown that Differential Algebra (DA) may be used to push moments of distributions through a map, at a computational cost per moment comparable to pushing a single particle. The algorithm is independent of order, and whether or not the map is symplectic. Starting from the known result that moment-vectors transform linearly - like a tensor - even under a nonlinear map, I suggest that the form of the moment transformation rule indicates that the moment-vectors are elements of the dual to DA-vector space. I propose several methods of manipulating moments and constructing invariants using DA. I close with speculations on how DA might be used to ''close the circle'' to solve the inverse moment problem, yielding an entirely DA-and-moment-based space-charge code. (Author)
Ductile failure of pipes with defects under combined pressure and bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Darlaston, B.J.L.; Harrison, R.P.
1977-01-01
The main part of the experimental programme was carried out on 3.5'' diam. pipes with a wall thickness of 0.064''. Various lengths of defect were assessed but only two depths, 0.044'' and 0.060''. Some full penetration defect tests were carried out under bending loading. The defects were 0.012'' wide and nominally flat bottomed. The tensile properties of the pipes were determined by taking specimens from each of the tubes. The pipes were exposed to pressure only test, bending only test and combined bending and pressure test. The results are given in tables. The observations led to the postulation of a design rule relating to the effect of defect in pipes under combined internal pressure and bending. It applies only to ductile situations in which the mode of failure is by a collapse mechanism: If the failure of a pipe containing an axial defect occurs by plastic collapse then provided the bending moment does not exceed half that for collapse due to bending alone, it will have a negligible effect on the failure pressure. (J.B.)
Akagi, Tetsuya; Dohta, Shujiro; Matsushita, Hisashi; Fukuhara, Akimasa
The purpose of this study is to develop a lightweight and intelligent soft actuator which can be safely attached to the human body. A novel flexible pneumatic cylinder that can be used even if it is deformed by external force had been proposed. The cylinder can realize both pushing and pulling motions even if the cylinder bends. In this paper, a flexible pneumatic cylinder with a built-in flexible linear encoder is proposed and tested. The encoder can detect the cylinder displacement even if the cylinder bends. In the next step, to realize an intelligent flexible cylinder, it is essential to recognize the angle of deflection of the cylinder to estimate the direction of the external force. Therefore, a flexible bending sensor that can measure the directional angle by attaching it to the end of the cylinder is also proposed and tested. The tested bending sensor also consists of four inexpensive photo-reflectors set on the circumferential surface to the cylinder tube every 90 degrees from the center of the tube. By measuring the distance between the photo reflector and the surface of the tube at each point, the bending directional angle of the cylinder can be obtained. A low cost measuring system using a micro-computer incorporating a programmed Up/Down counter to measure the displacement of the cylinder is also developed. As a result, it was confirmed that the measuring accuracy of the bending directional angle was good, less than 0.7 degrees as a standard deviation.
Paul Callaghan luminous moments
Callaghan, Paul
2013-01-01
Acknowledged internationally for his ground-breaking scientific research in the field of magnetic resonance, Sir Paul Callaghan was a scientist and visionary with a rare gift for promoting science to a wide audience. He was named New Zealander of the Year in 2011. His death in early 2012 robbed New Zealand of an inspirational leader. Paul Callaghan: Luminous Moments brings together some of his most significant writing. Whether he describes his childhood in Wanganui, reflects on discovering the beauty of science, sets out New Zealand's future potential or discusses the experience of fa
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mischke, R.E.
2003-01-01
The status of experiments to measure the electric dipole moment of the neutron is presented and the planned experiment at Los Alamos is described. The goal of this experiment is an improvement in sensitivity of a factor of 50 to 100 over the current limit. It has the potential to reveal new sources of T and CP violation and to challenge calculations that propose extensions to the Standard Model. The experiment employs several advances in technique to reach its goals and the feasibility of meeting these technical challenges is currently under study
Solar wind velocity and geomagnetic moment variations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalinin, Yu.D.; Rozanova, T.S.
1982-01-01
The mean year values of the solar wind velocity have been calculated from the mean-year values of a geomagnetic activity index am according to the Svalgard equation of regression for the pe-- riod from 1930 to 1960. For the same years the values of the geomagnetic moment M and separately of its ''inner'' (causes of which'' are inside the Earth) and ''external'' (causes of which are outside the Earth) parts have been calculated from the mean year data of 12 magnetic observatories. The proof of the presence of the 11-year variation in the moment M has been obtained. It is concluded that the 11-year variations in M result from the variations of the solar wind velocity
Continuous time random walk: Galilei invariance and relation for the nth moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fa, Kwok Sau
2011-01-01
We consider a decoupled continuous time random walk model with a generic waiting time probability density function (PDF). For the force-free case we derive an integro-differential diffusion equation which is related to the Galilei invariance for the probability density. We also derive a general relation which connects the nth moment in the presence of any external force to the second moment without external force, i.e. it is valid for any waiting time PDF. This general relation includes the generalized second Einstein relation, which connects the first moment in the presence of any external force to the second moment without any external force. These expressions for the first two moments are verified by using several kinds of the waiting time PDF. Moreover, we present new anomalous diffusion behaviours for a waiting time PDF given by a product of power-law and exponential function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. S. SUPIAN
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Macro-bending effect unto polymer optical fiber (POF based splitters study is done to analyse the performance and characterizations using several bending radii of geometrical blocks that hold a customized prepared polymer fiber splitter. A pair of etched fibers with similar core diameters are attached to the ellipse-shaped blocks built using matching refractive index material where the blocks were built with various bending radii. The tapered fibers were lapped closely with some forces exerted upon them in order to stimulate the splitting of modes between the two fibers. This study is done by experimental set-up where each of the splitter ports is connected with optical power meter to measure the power output while pressure is exerted. Characterization is executed in order to investigate and analyse which bending radius gives the most optimize splitting ratio with considerable low loss for the particular splitter prepared. As for normal force of 0.3 lbF, the optimum splitting ratio with low loss is specified having bending radius, Rc, of 13 mm whilst for external force of 3.0 lbF, bending radius is found to be 19 mm. Small bending radius stimulates the radiation of rays into the second fiber while larger Rc gives longer coupling length that optimize the splitting ratios. Efficiencies between simulated values and experimental values are also analysed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marc eWittmann
2011-10-01
Full Text Available It has been suggested that perception and action can be understood as evolving in temporal epochs or sequential processing units. Successive events are fused into units forming a unitary experience or ‘psychological present’. Studies have identified several temporal integration levels on different time scales which are fundamental for our understanding of behaviour and subjective experience. In recent literature concerning the philosophy and neuroscience of consciousness these separate temporal processing levels are not always precisely distinguished. Therefore, empirical evidence from psychophysics and neuropsychology on these distinct temporal processing levels is presented and discussed within philosophical conceptualizations of time experience. On an elementary level, one can identify a functional moment, a basic temporal building block of perception in the range of milliseconds that defines simultaneity and succession. Below a certain threshold temporal order is not perceived, individual events are processed as co-temporal. On a second level, an experienced moment, which is based on temporal integration of up to a few seconds, has been reported in many qualitatively different experiments in perception and action. It has been suggested that this segmental processing mechanism creates temporal windows that provide a logistical basis for conscious representation and the experience of nowness. On a third level of integration, continuity of experience is enabled by working-memory in the range of multiple seconds allowing the maintenance of cognitive operations and emotional feelings, leading to mental presence, a temporal window of an individual’s experienced presence.
Elasto-plastic behavior of pipe subjected to steady axial load and cyclic bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao Yanping; Lu Mingwan; Zhang Xiong
2004-01-01
The elasto-plastic behavior of a pipe subjected to a steady axial force and a cyclic bending moment is studied. By using two parameters c and d, which describe the elasto-plastic interfaces of beam cross-section, the boundary curve equations between various types of elasto-plastic behavior, such as shakedown, plastic fatigue, ratcheting, and plastic collapse, are derived. The results are applicable for beams of any cross-section with two orthogonal axes of symmetry. As a result, the load regime diagram for a pipe is obtained, which gives an intuitive picture of the elasto-plastic behavior of the pipe under a given combination of constant axial load and cyclic bending moment
EFFICIENCY OF MOMENT AMPLIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE SECOND-ORDER ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAMES
Paschal Chiadighikaobi
2018-01-01
Beam-column is the member subjected to axial compression and bending. Secondary Moment was accounted for in the design and was additional moment induced by axial load. Comparing the results analysis from two computer aided software (SAP2000 and Java). The moment amplification factor Af was inputted in the Java code. Af did not create any change in the result outputs in the Java Code results. There are many different ways to apply amplification factors to first-order analysis results, each wit...
Piezoelectric line moment actuator for active radiation control from light-weight structures
Jandak, Vojtech; Svec, Petr; Jiricek, Ondrej; Brothanek, Marek
2017-11-01
This article outlines the design of a piezoelectric line moment actuator used for active structural acoustic control. Actuators produce a dynamic bending moment that appears in the controlled structure resulting from the inertial forces when the attached piezoelectric stripe actuators start to oscillate. The article provides a detailed theoretical analysis necessary for the practical realization of these actuators, including considerations concerning their placement, a crucial factor in the overall system performance. Approximate formulas describing the dependency of the moment amplitude on the frequency and the required electric voltage are derived. Recommendations applicable for the system's design based on both theoretical and empirical results are provided.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vardoulakis, I.; Kourkoulis, S.K.; Exadaktylos, G.
1998-01-01
A gradient bending theory is developed based on a strain energy function that includes the classical Bernoulli-Euler term, the shape correction term (microstructural length scale) introduced by Timoshenko, and a term associated with surface energy (micromaterial length scale) accounting for the bending moment gradient effect. It is shown that the last term is capable to interpret the size effect in three-point bending (3PB), namely the decrease of the failure load with decreasing beam length for the same aspect ratio. This theory is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of Dionysos-Pentelikon marble in 3PB. Series of tests with prismatic marble beams of the same aperture but with different lengths were conducted and it was concluded that the present theory predicts well the size effect. (orig.)
Tubular bending and pull-out forces in high-curvature well bores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dareing, D.W.; Ahlers, C.A.
1991-01-01
This paper is concerned with drag forces developed on tubulars in high-curvature well bores typically found in drainhole and horizontal drilling. The dog-leg severity of these types of boreholes are considerably higher than those typically found in conventional directional drilling. The objective of the study was to determine the significance of bending stiffness on drag forces in the pull-out mode. The method of analysis treats the tubular as a multi-spanned curved beam under tension and solves for radial displacements, slope, shear and bending moment over each span. Calculations show that bending stiffness is a minor factor provided there are no locally severe dog legs superimposed in the high-curvature well bore
Testing machine for fatigue crack kinetic investigation in specimens under bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panasyuk, V.V.; Ratych, L.V.; Dmytrakh, I.N.
1978-01-01
A kinematic diagram of testing mashine for the investigation of fatigue crack kinetics in prismatic specimens, subjected to pure bending is described. Suggested is a technique of choosing an optimum ratio of the parameters of ''the testing machine-specimen'' system, which provide the stabilization of the stress intensity coefficient for a certain region of crack development under hard loading. On the example of the 40KhS and 15Kh2MFA steel specimens the pliability of the machine constructed according to the described diagram and designed for the 30ONxm maximum bending moment. The results obtained can be used in designing of the testing machines for studying pure bending under hard loading and in choosing the sizes of specimens with rectangular cross sections for investigations into the kinetics of the fatigue crack
A Numerical Study of the Spring-Back Phenomenon in Bending with a Rebar Bending Machine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang Hwan Choi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Recently, the rebar bending methodology started to change from field processing to utilizing rebar bending machines at plant sites prior to transport to the construction locations. Computerized control of rebar plant bending machines provides more accurate and faster bending of rebars than the low quality inefficient field processing alternative. The bending process involves plastic deformation of rebars, where bending stress beyond the yield point of the material is applied. When the bending stress is removed, spring back is caused by the elastic restoring stress. Therefore, an accurate numerical analysis of the spring-back process is required to reduce the bending process errors. The most sensitive factors affecting the spring-back process are the bending radius, the bending angle, the diameter of the rebar, the friction coefficient, and the yielding strength of material. In this paper, we suggest a numerical modeling method using these factors. The finite element modeling of the dynamic mechanical behavior of the material during bending is performed using a commercial dynamic analysis program “DAFUL.” We use the least squares approach to derive the spring-back deflection as a function of the rebar bending parameters.
Effect of Cervical Siphon of External and Internal Carotid Arteries.
Singh, Rajani; Tubbs, Richard Shane
2017-10-01
Variant courses, configuration, and branching pattern of the external and internal carotid arteries, especially when curved in S-shape, are important for hemodynamic changes and clinical implications. Therefore, the aim of the study is to report abnormal cervical siphons observed in external and internal carotid arteries to explore clinical significance by review of literature and hemodynamic changes theoretically.The right common carotid artery bifurcated into external and internal carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of thyroid cartilage in a 70-year-old female cadaver. After bifurcation, the external carotid artery underwent severe tortuosity coursing through 5 bends at points A, B, C, D, and E from its origin to termination and 2 bends at A' and B' in internal carotid artery in the cervical region. The angles between inflow and out flow of the blood at the bends were measured and the change in velocity at each bend was computed for both arteries. Hemodynamic changes were calculated, compared and relevant clinical complications were theoretically correlated.The angles of 20°, 30°, 51°, 52°, 60°, and 28°, 48° were formed by 5 bends of external and 2 bends of internal carotid arteries, respectively. The curved courses of these arteries caused reduction in velocity/stasis, turbulence, and low shear stress. Such kinks might cause stroke, ischemia and mistaken for tumors and abscess in imagery leading to or otherwise producing iatrogenic repercussions. This study will be useful for anatomists, clinicians, and radiologists.
Approximating distributions from moments
Pawula, R. F.
1987-11-01
A method based upon Pearson-type approximations from statistics is developed for approximating a symmetric probability density function from its moments. The extended Fokker-Planck equation for non-Markov processes is shown to be the underlying foundation for the approximations. The approximation is shown to be exact for the beta probability density function. The applicability of the general method is illustrated by numerous pithy examples from linear and nonlinear filtering of both Markov and non-Markov dichotomous noise. New approximations are given for the probability density function in two cases in which exact solutions are unavailable, those of (i) the filter-limiter-filter problem and (ii) second-order Butterworth filtering of the random telegraph signal. The approximate results are compared with previously published Monte Carlo simulations in these two cases.
Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger
2013-01-01
We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...
Effect of couple-stress on the pure bending of a prismatic bar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tzung, F.; Kao, B.; Ho, F.; Tang, P.
1981-02-01
An evaluation of the applicability of the couple-stress theory to the stress analysis of graphite structures is performed by solving a pure bending problem. The differences between solutions from the couple-stress theory and from the classical theory of elasticity are compared. It is found that the differences are sufficient to account for the inconsistencies which have often been observed between the classical elasticity theory and actual behavior of graphite under bend and tensile loadings. An experimental procedure to measure the material constants in the couple-stress theory is also suggested. The linear couple-stress theory, the origins of which go back to the turn of the last century, adds linear relations between couple-stresses and rotation gradients to the classical stress-strain law. By adopting the classical assumption that the plane cross section remains plane after deformation, the pure-bending problem is reduced to a plane couple-stress problem with traction-free boundary conditions. A general solution for an isotropic elastic prismatic bar under pure bending is then obtained using the Airy stress function and another stress function wich accounts for the couple-stresss. For a cylindrical bar, it reduces to a simple series solution. The moment-curvature and stress-curvature relations derived for a cylindrical bar from the general solution are used to examine the effect of couple-stresses. Numerical compilation of relations indicates that the couple stress parameters can be practically determined by measuring the moment-curvature ratio of various diametered specimens under bending. Although there is not sufficient data for such evaluation at present, it appears that the theory is consistent with the limited bend and tensile strength data of cylindrical specimens for H-451 graphite
Simplified method for the transverse bending analysis of twin celled concrete box girder bridges
Chithra, J.; Nagarajan, Praveen; S, Sajith A.
2018-03-01
Box girder bridges are one of the best options for bridges with span more than 25 m. For the study of these bridges, three-dimensional finite element analysis is the best suited method. However, performing three-dimensional analysis for routine design is difficult as well as time consuming. Also, software used for the three-dimensional analysis are very expensive. Hence designers resort to simplified analysis for predicting longitudinal and transverse bending moments. Among the many analytical methods used to find the transverse bending moments, SFA is the simplest and widely used in design offices. Results from simplified frame analysis can be used for the preliminary analysis of the concrete box girder bridges.From the review of literatures, it is found that majority of the work done using SFA is restricted to the analysis of single cell box girder bridges. Not much work has been done on the analysis multi-cell concrete box girder bridges. In this present study, a double cell concrete box girder bridge is chosen. The bridge is modelled using three- dimensional finite element software and the results are then compared with the simplified frame analysis. The study mainly focuses on establishing correction factors for transverse bending moment values obtained from SFA.
Plastic loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kuk Hee; Kim, Yun Jae; Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong
2007-01-01
Based on three-Dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit and TES(Twice- Elastic-Slope) loads for pipe bends under combined pressure and out-of-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic.perfectly-plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide TES plastic loads. A wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and TES plastic load solutions for pipe bends under out-of-plane bending are proposed
Chong, Helen C; Tennant, Liana M; Kingston, David C; Acker, Stacey M
2017-03-01
(1) Characterize knee joint moments and peak knee flexion moment timing during kneeling transitions, with the intent of identifying high-risk postures. (2) Determine whether safety footwear worn by kneeling workers (construction workers, tile setters, masons, roofers) alters high flexion kneeling mechanics. Fifteen males performed high flexion kneeling transitions. Kinetics and kinematics were analyzed for differences in ascent and descent in the lead and trail legs. Mean±standard deviation peak external knee adduction and flexion moments during transitions ranged from 1.01±0.31 to 2.04±0.66% body weight times height (BW∗Ht) and from 3.33 to 12.6% BW∗Ht respectively. The lead leg experienced significantly higher adduction moments compared to the trail leg during descent, when work boots were worn (interaction, p=0.005). There was a main effect of leg (higher lead vs. trail) on the internal rotation moment in both descent (p=0.0119) and ascent (p=0.0129) phases. Peak external knee adduction moments during transitions did not exceed those exhibited during level walking, thus increased knee adduction moment magnitude is likely not a main factor in the development of knee OA in occupational kneelers. Additionally, work boots only significantly increased the adduction moment in the lead leg during descent. In cases where one knee is painful, diseased, or injured, the unaffected knee should be used as the lead leg during asymmetric bilateral kneeling. Peak flexion moments occurred at flexion angles above the maximum flexion angle exhibited during walking (approximately 60°), supporting the theory that the loading of atypical surfaces may aid disease development or progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moment invariants for particle beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lysenko, W.P.; Overley, M.S.
1988-01-01
The rms emittance is a certain function of second moments in 2-D phase space. It is preserved for linear uncoupled (1-D) motion. In this paper, the authors present new functions of moments that are invariants for coupled motion. These invariants were computed symbolically using a computer algebra system. Possible applications for these invariants are discussed. Also, approximate moment invariants for nonlinear motion are presented
Combined tension and bending testing of tapered composite laminates
O'Brien, T. Kevin; Murri, Gretchen B.; Hagemeier, Rick; Rogers, Charles
1994-11-01
A simple beam element used at Bell Helicopter was incorporated in the Computational Mechanics Testbed (COMET) finite element code at the Langley Research Center (LaRC) to analyze the responce of tappered laminates typical of flexbeams in composite rotor hubs. This beam element incorporated the influence of membrane loads on the flexural response of the tapered laminate configurations modeled and tested in a combined axial tension and bending (ATB) hydraulic load frame designed and built at LaRC. The moments generated from the finite element model were used in a tapered laminated plate theory analysis to estimate axial stresses on the surface of the tapered laminates due to combined bending and tension loads. Surfaces strains were calculated and compared to surface strains measured using strain gages mounted along the laminate length. The strain distributions correlated reasonably well with the analysis. The analysis was then used to examine the surface strain distribution in a non-linear tapered laminate where a similarly good correlation was obtained. Results indicate that simple finite element beam models may be used to identify tapered laminate configurations best suited for simulating the response of a composite flexbeam in a full scale rotor hub.
Fluxonium-Based Artificial Molecule with a Tunable Magnetic Moment
Kou, A.; Smith, W. C.; Vool, U.; Brierley, R. T.; Meier, H.; Frunzio, L.; Girvin, S. M.; Glazman, L. I.; Devoret, M. H.
2017-07-01
Engineered quantum systems allow us to observe phenomena that are not easily accessible naturally. The LEGO®-like nature of superconducting circuits makes them particularly suited for building and coupling artificial atoms. Here, we introduce an artificial molecule, composed of two strongly coupled fluxonium atoms, which possesses a tunable magnetic moment. Using an applied external flux, one can tune the molecule between two regimes: one in which the ground-excited state manifold has a magnetic dipole moment and one in which the ground-excited state manifold has only a magnetic quadrupole moment. By varying the applied external flux, we find the coherence of the molecule to be limited by local flux noise. The ability to engineer and control artificial molecules paves the way for building more complex circuits for quantum simulation and protected qubits.
Relativistic dynamics of point magnetic moment
Rafelski, Johann; Formanek, Martin; Steinmetz, Andrew
2018-01-01
The covariant motion of a classical point particle with magnetic moment in the presence of (external) electromagnetic fields is revisited. We are interested in understanding extensions to the Lorentz force involving point particle magnetic moment (Stern-Gerlach force) and how the spin precession dynamics is modified for consistency. We introduce spin as a classical particle property inherent to Poincaré symmetry of space-time. We propose a covariant formulation of the magnetic force based on a `magnetic' 4-potential and show how the point particle magnetic moment relates to the Amperian (current loop) and Gilbertian (magnetic monopole) descriptions. We show that covariant spin precession lacks a unique form and discuss the connection to g-2 anomaly. We consider the variational action principle and find that a consistent extension of the Lorentz force to include magnetic spin force is not straightforward. We look at non-covariant particle dynamics, and present a short introduction to the dynamics of (neutral) particles hit by a laser pulse of arbitrary shape.
On the multipole moments of charge distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khare, P.L.
1977-01-01
There are two different standard methods for showing the equivalence of a charge distribution in a small volume tau surrounding a point O, to the superposition of a monopole, a dipole, a quadrupole and poles of higher moments at the point O: (a) to show that the electrostatic potential due to the charge distribution at an outside point is the same as due to these superposed multipoles (including a monopole). (b) to show that the energy of interaction of an external field with the charge distribution is the same as with the superposed equivalent monopole and multipoles. Neither of these methods gives a physical picture of the equivalence of a charge distribution to the superposition of different multipoles. An attempt is made to interpret in physical terms the emergence of the multipoles of different order, that are equivalent to a charge distribution and to show that the magnitudes of the moments of these multipoles are in agreement with the results of both the approaches (a) and (b). This physical interpretation also helps to understand, in a simple manner, some of the wellknown properties of the multipole moments of atoms and nuclei. (K.B.)
Relativistic dynamics of point magnetic moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafelski, Johann; Formanek, Martin; Steinmetz, Andrew [The University of Arizona, Department of Physics, Tucson, AZ (United States)
2018-01-15
The covariant motion of a classical point particle with magnetic moment in the presence of (external) electromagnetic fields is revisited. We are interested in understanding extensions to the Lorentz force involving point particle magnetic moment (Stern-Gerlach force) and how the spin precession dynamics is modified for consistency. We introduce spin as a classical particle property inherent to Poincare symmetry of space-time. We propose a covariant formulation of the magnetic force based on a 'magnetic' 4-potential and show how the point particle magnetic moment relates to the Amperian (current loop) and Gilbertian (magnetic monopole) descriptions. We show that covariant spin precession lacks a unique form and discuss the connection to g - 2 anomaly. We consider the variational action principle and find that a consistent extension of the Lorentz force to include magnetic spin force is not straightforward. We look at non-covariant particle dynamics, and present a short introduction to the dynamics of (neutral) particles hit by a laser pulse of arbitrary shape. (orig.)
Magnetotransport in Layered Dirac Fermion System Coupled with Magnetic Moments
Iwasaki, Yoshiki; Morinari, Takao
2018-03-01
We theoretically investigate the magnetotransport of Dirac fermions coupled with localized moments to understand the physical properties of the Dirac material EuMnBi2. Using an interlayer hopping form, which simplifies the complicated interaction between the layers of Dirac fermions and the layers of magnetic moments in EuMnBi2, the theory reproduces most of the features observed in this system. The hysteresis observed in EuMnBi2 can be caused by the valley splitting that is induced by the spin-orbit coupling and the external magnetic field with the molecular field created by localized moments. Our theory suggests that the magnetotransport in EuMnBi2 is due to the interplay among Dirac fermions, localized moments, and spin-orbit coupling.
Electrostatic bending response of a charged helix
Zampetaki, A. V.; Stockhofe, J.; Schmelcher, P.
2018-04-01
We explore the electrostatic bending response of a chain of charged particles confined on a finite helical filament. We analyze how the energy difference Δ E between the bent and the unbent helical chain scales with the length of the helical segment and the radius of curvature and identify features that are not captured by the standard notion of the bending rigidity, normally used as a measure of bending tendency in the linear response regime. Using Δ E to characterize the bending response of the helical chain we identify two regimes with qualitatively different bending behaviors for the ground state configuration: the regime of small and the regime of large radius-to-pitch ratio, respectively. Within the former regime, Δ E changes smoothly with the variation of the system parameters. Of particular interest are its oscillations with the number of charged particles encountered for commensurate fillings which yield length-dependent oscillations in the preferred bending direction of the helical chain. We show that the origin of these oscillations is the nonuniformity of the charge distribution caused by the long-range character of the Coulomb interactions and the finite length of the helix. In the second regime of large values of the radius-to-pitch ratio, sudden changes in the ground state structure of the charges occur as the system parameters vary, leading to complex and discontinuous variations in the ground state bending response Δ E .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roos, E.; Herter, K.-H.; Julisch, P.; Otremba, F.; Schuler, X.
2003-01-01
The determination of critical crack sizes or permissible/allowable loading levels in pipes with degraded pipe sections (circumferential cracks) for the assurance of component integrity is usually based on deterministic approaches. Therefore along with numerical calculational methods (finite element (FE) analyses) limit load calculations, such as e.g. the 'Plastic limit load concept' and the 'Flow stress concept' as well as fracture mechanics approximation methods as e.g. the R-curve method or the 'Ductile fracture handbook' and the R6-Method are currently used for practical application. Numerous experimental tests on both ferritic and austenitic pipes with different pipe dimensions were investigated at MPA Stuttgart. The geometries of the pipes were comparable to actual piping systems in Nuclear Power Plants, both BWR as well as PWR. Through wall cracks and part wall through cracks on the inside surface of the pipes were considered. The results of these tests were used to determine the flow stresses used within the limit load calculations. Therefore the deterministic concepts assessing the integrity of degraded pipes are available A new post-calculation of the above mentioned tests was performed using probabilistic approaches to assure the component integrity of degraded piping systems. As a result the calculated probability of failure was compared to experimental behaviour during the pipe test. Different reliability techniques were used for the verification of the probabilistic approaches. (author)
End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.
1982-01-01
So-called end effects for moment loadings on short-radius and long-radius butt welding elbows of various arc lengths are investigated with a view toward providing more accurate design formulas for critical piping systems. Data developed in this study, along with published information, were used to develop relatively simple design equations for elbows attached at both ends to long sections of straight pipe. These formulas are the basis for an alternate ASME Code procedure for evaluating the bending moment stresses in Class 1 nuclear piping (ASME Code Case N-319). The more complicated problems of elbows with other end conditions, e.g., flanges at one or both ends, are also considered. Comparisons of recently published experimental and theoretical studies with current industrial code design rules for these situations indicate that these rules also need to be improved
Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Zernike moment to enhance the discriminant nature (Pang et al 2006). ... was proposed which is partially invariant to changes in the local image samples, ... tigate the Krawtchouk discrete orthogonal moment-based feature ..... in scale have been achieved by changing the distance between the person and the video camera.
Variational approach to magnetic moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lipparini, E; Stringari, S; Traini, M [Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Libera Universita di Trento, Italy
1977-11-07
Magnetic moments in nuclei with a spin unsaturated core plus or minus an extra nucleon have been studied using a restricted Hartree-Fock approach. The method yields simple explicit expressions for the deformed ground state and for magnetic moments. Different projection techniques of the HF scheme have been discussed and compared with perturbation theory.
On fractional Fourier transform moments
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.
2000-01-01
Based on the relation between the ambiguity function represented in a quasi-polar coordinate system and the fractional power spectra, the fractional Fourier transform moments are introduced. Important equalities for the global second-order fractional Fourier transform moments are derived and their
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment Experiments
Peng, Jen-Chieh
2008-01-01
The neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) provides unique information on CP violation and physics beyond the Standard Model. We first review the history of experimental searches for neutron electric dipole moment. The status of future neutron EDM experiments, including experiments using ultra-cold neutrons produced in superfluid helium, will then be presented.
2002-01-01
Experiment IS358 uses the intense and pure beams of copper isotopes provided by the ISOLDE RILIS (resonance ionization laser ion source). The isotopes are implanted and oriented in the low temperature nuclear orientation set-up NICOLE. Magnetic moments are measured by $\\beta$-NMR. Copper (Z=29), with a single proton above the proton-magic nickel isotopes provides an ideal testground for precise shell model calculations of magnetic moments and their experimental verification. In the course of our experiments we already determined the magnetic moments of $^{67}$Ni, $^{67}$Cu, $^{68g}$Cu, $^{69}$Cu and $^{71}$Cu which provide important information on the magicity of the N=40 subshell closure. In 2001 we plan to conclude our systematic investigations by measuring the magnetic moment of the neutron-deficient isotope $^{59}$Cu. This will pave the way for a subsequent study of the magnetic moment of $^{57}$Cu with a complementary method.
Big Bend National Park: Acoustical Monitoring 2010
2013-06-01
During the summer of 2010 (September October 2010), the Volpe Center collected baseline acoustical data at Big Bend National Park (BIBE) at four sites deployed for approximately 30 days each. The baseline data collected during this period will he...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrou, A.; Prost, J.P.; Delidais, M.
1983-08-01
In order to avoid undesirable plastic response in PWR primary system components, tests were performed on 1/10 scale pipes and elbows made from AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. L/D ratios were from 0.56 to 4.50 mm, arc angles of elbows were 30 0 , 45 0 , 60 0 and 90 0 . Pipes were subjected to bending moments at 3 internal pressure levels. They were tested to determine the mode of failure and served as a reference for elbows. Elbows were subjected to in-plane (closing and opening) and out-of-plane bending moments, at 3 pressure and 2 temperature levels. During these tests, loadings and displacements of components were monitored. Ovalisation of sections was measured regularly. The experimental plastic collapse moment corresponding to excessive deformation was compared to the maximum allowable moment under Design conditions. The experimental plastic instability moment considered as a limit for functional capability was compared to the maximum allowable moment for level C and D service limits
A theoretical study on pure bending of hexagonal close-packed metal sheet
Mehrabi, Hamed; Yang, Chunhui
2018-05-01
Hexagonal close-packed (HCP) metals have quite different mechanical behaviours in comparison to conventional cubic metals such as steels and aluminum alloys [1, 2]. They exhibit a significant tension-compression asymmetry in initial yielding and subsequent plastic hardening. The reason for this unique behaviour can be attributed to their limited symmetric crystal structure, which leads to twining deformation [3-5]. This unique behaviour strongly influences sheet metal forming of such metals, especially for roll forming, in which the bending is dominant. Hence, it is crucial to represent constitutive relations of HCP metals for accurate estimation of bending moment-curvature behaviours. In this paper, an analytical model for asymmetric elastoplastic pure bending with an application of Cazacu-Barlat asymmetric yield function [6] is presented. This yield function considers the asymmetrical tension-compression behaviour of HCP metals by using second and third invariants of the stress deviator tensor and a specified constant, which can be expressed in terms of uniaxial yield stresses in tension and compression. As a case study, the analytical model is applied to predict the moment-curvature behaviours of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets under uniaxial loading condition. Furthermore, the analytical model is implemented as a user-defined material through the UMAT interface in Abaqus [7, 8] for conducting pure bending simulations. The results show that the analytical model can reasonably capture the asymmetric tension-compression behaviour of the magnesium alloy. The predicted moment-curvature behaviour has good agreement with the experimental results. Furthermore, numerical results show a better accuracy by the application of the Cazacu-Barlat yield function than those using the von-Mises yield function, which are more conservative than analytical results.
This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei Yuebao; Fox, Mike J.H.
2011-01-01
A global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending is derived, which allows any combination of positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment. The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept and, therefore, gives limit load values based on the Tresca yielding criterion. Solutions for both cases with and without crack face contact are derived when whole or part of the crack is located in the compressive stress zone. From the solution, particular global limit load solutions for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks under the same loading conditions are obtained. The solution is consistent with the limit load solution for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and positive bending due to Goodall and Webster and Lei when both the applied end force and bending moment are positive. The solution reduces to the limit load solution for plain plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending when the crack vanishes. - Highlights: → A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks in plates is derived. → Combined positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment are considered. → The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept.
Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adamyan, V.M., E-mail: vadamyan@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Bondarev, V.N., E-mail: bondvic@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Zavalniuk, V.V., E-mail: vzavalnyuk@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Department of Fundamental Sciences, Odessa Military Academy, 10 Fontanska Road, Odessa 65009 (Ukraine)
2016-11-11
Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.
Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adamyan, V.M.; Bondarev, V.N.; Zavalniuk, V.V.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.
On the baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, P.L.
1976-01-01
In the context of quark confinement ideas, the baryon magnetic moments are calculated by assuming a SU(3) breaking due to the inequalities of the quark masses (m sub(p) different m sub(n) different m lambda ). The modified SU(6) result for the ratio of the magnetic moments of the neutron and proton is obtained. The p-quark is found heavier than the n-quark by circa 15 MeV. and alternative way of evaluating the baryon magnetic moments by means of simple physical considerations based on the properties of the SU(6) baryon S-waves functions is given
Moment Magnitude discussion in Austria
Weginger, Stefan; Jia, Yan; Hausmann, Helmut; Lenhardt, Wolfgang
2017-04-01
We implemented and tested the Moment Magnitude estimation „dbmw" from the University of Trieste in our Antelope near real-time System. It is used to get a fast Moment Magnitude solutions and Ground Motion Parameter (PGA, PGV, PSA 0.3, PSA 1.0 and PSA 3.0) to calculate Shake and Interactive maps. A Moment Magnitude Catalogue was generated and compared with the Austrian Earthquake Catalogue and all available Magnitude solution of the neighbouring agencies. Relations of Mw to Ml and Ground Motion to Intensity are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuta, K.; Arimura, K.; Nagatomo, T.; Akutsu, K.; Iwakoshi, T.; Kudo, S.; Ogura, M.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Sumikama, T.; Minamisono, K.; Miyake, T.; Minamisono, T.; Fukuda, M.; Mihara, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Sasaki, M.; Kanazawa, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Suda, M.; Hirai, M.; Momota, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Sakamoto, A.; Saihara, M.; Ohtsubo, T.; Alonso, J.R.; Krebs, G.F.; Symons, T.J.M.
2004-01-01
The magnetic moment of 33 Cl (Iπ=3/2+, T1/2=2.51s) has been re-measured precisely by β-NMR method. The obtained magnetic moment |μ|=0.7549(3)μN is consistent with the old value 0.7523(16)μN, but is 5 times more accurate. The value is well reproduced by the shell model calculation, μSM=0.70μN. Combined with the magnetic moment of the mirror partner 33 S, the nuclear matrix elements , , , and were derived
Moment methods with effective nuclear Hamiltonians; calculations of radial moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belehrad, R.H.
1981-02-01
A truncated orthogonal polynomial expansion is used to evaluate the expectation value of the radial moments of the one-body density of nuclei. The expansion contains the configuration moments, , , and 2 >, where R/sup (k)/ is the operator for the k-th power of the radial coordinate r, and H is the effective nuclear Hamiltonian which is the sum of the relative kinetic energy operator and the Bruckner G matrix. Configuration moments are calculated using trace reduction formulae where the proton and neutron orbitals are treated separately in order to find expectation values of good total isospin. The operator averages are taken over many-body shell model states in the harmonic oscillator basis where all particles are active and single-particle orbitals through six major shells are included. The radial moment expectation values are calculated for the nuclei 16 O, 40 Ca, and 58 Ni and find that is usually the largest term in the expansion giving a large model space dependence to the results. For each of the 3 nuclei, a model space is found which gives the desired rms radius and then we find that the other 5 lowest moments compare favorably with other theoretical predictions. Finally, we use a method of Gordon (5) to employ the lowest 6 radial moment expectation values in the calculation of elastic electron scattering from these nuclei. For low to moderate momentum transfer, the results compare favorably with the experimental data
Van Toen, Carolyn; Carter, Jarrod W; Oxland, Thomas R; Cripton, Peter A
2014-12-01
The tolerance of the spine to bending moments, used for evaluation of injury prevention devices, is often determined through eccentric axial compression experiments using segments of the cadaver spine. Preliminary experiments in our laboratory demonstrated that eccentric axial compression resulted in "unexpected" (artifact) moments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the static and dynamic effects of test configuration on bending moments during eccentric axial compression typical in cadaver spine segment testing. Specific objectives were to create dynamic equilibrium equations for the loads measured inferior to the specimen, experimentally verify these equations, and compare moment responses from various test configurations using synthetic (rubber) and human cadaver specimens. The equilibrium equations were verified by performing quasi-static (5 mm/s) and dynamic experiments (0.4 m/s) on a rubber specimen and comparing calculated shear forces and bending moments to those measured using a six-axis load cell. Moment responses were compared for hinge joint, linear slider and hinge joint, and roller joint configurations tested at quasi-static and dynamic rates. Calculated shear force and bending moment curves had similar shapes to those measured. Calculated values in the first local minima differed from those measured by 3% and 15%, respectively, in the dynamic test, and these occurred within 1.5 ms of those measured. In the rubber specimen experiments, for the hinge joint (translation constrained), quasi-static and dynamic posterior eccentric compression resulted in flexion (unexpected) moments. For the slider and hinge joints and the roller joints (translation unconstrained), extension ("expected") moments were measured quasi-statically and initial flexion (unexpected) moments were measured dynamically. In the cadaver experiments with roller joints, anterior and posterior eccentricities resulted in extension moments, which were unexpected and expected, for those
Fast computation of Krawtchouk moments
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Honarvar Shakibaei Asli, B.; Flusser, Jan
2014-01-01
Roč. 288, č. 1 (2014), s. 73-86 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/1552 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Krawtchouk polynomial * Krawtchouk moment * Geometric moment * Impulse response * Fast computation * Digital filter Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/flusser-0432452.pdf
Reliability of non-heated tube bends of boilers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugaj, N.V.; Akhremenko, V.L.; Zamotaev, V.S.
1984-01-01
Bend failures are described for non-heated boiler tubes of 12Kh1MF and 20 steels. Methods of reliability evaluations are presented which permit revealing and replacing the bends with inadequate resources. Influences of operation conditions on bend durability is shown as well as the factors which are dominating at bend failures
EFFICIENCY OF MOMENT AMPLIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE SECOND-ORDER ANALYSIS OF STEEL FRAMES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paschal Chiadighikaobi
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Beam-column is the member subjected to axial compression and bending. Secondary Moment was accounted for in the design and was additional moment induced by axial load. Comparing the results analysis from two computer aided software (SAP2000 and Java. The moment amplification factor Af was inputted in the Java code. Af did not create any change in the result outputs in the Java Code results. There are many different ways to apply amplification factors to first-order analysis results, each with various ranges of applicability. The results shown in this paper are the comparative results of the moment diagrams, axial forces, and shear forces. The type of steel used in the design and analysis is ASTM A992.
Bending and tensile deformation of metallic nanowires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDowell, Matthew T; Leach, Austin M; Gall, Ken
2008-01-01
Using molecular statics simulations and the embedded atom method, a technique for bending silver nanowires and calculating Young's modulus via continuum mechanics has been developed. The measured Young's modulus values extracted from bending simulations were compared with modulus values calculated from uniaxial tension simulations for a range of nanowire sizes, orientations and geometries. Depending on axial orientation, the nanowires exhibit stiffening or softening under tension and bending as size decreases. Bending simulations typically result in a greater variation of Young's modulus values with nanowire size compared with tensile deformation, which indicates a loading-method-dependent size effect on elastic properties at sub-5 nm wire diameters. Since the axial stress is maximized at the lateral surfaces in bending, the loading-method-dependent size effect is postulated to be primarily a result of differences in nanowire surface and core elastic modulus. The divergence of Young's modulus from the bulk modulus in these simulations occurs at sizes below the range in which experiments have demonstrated a size scale effect on elastic properties of metallic nanowires. This difference indicates that other factors beyond native metallic surface properties play a role in experimentally observed nanowire elastic modulus size effects
Bending-Induced Giant Polarization in Ferroelectric MEMS Diaphragm
Wang, Zhihong
2016-09-09
The polarization induced by the strain gradient, i.e. the flexoelectric effect, has been observed in a micromachined Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) diaphragms. Applying air pressure to bend a flat diaphragm which initially does not exhibit any electromechanical coupling can induce a resonance peak in its impedance spectrum. This result supposes that bending, thus the strain gradient in the diaphragm causes polarization in PZT film. We also investigated the switching behaviors of the polarization in response to an external electric field in a bent diaphragm and further quantified the polarization induced by the strain gradient. The effective flexoelectric coefficient of the PZT film has been calculated as large as 2.0 × 10−4 C/m. A giant flexoelectric polarization of the order of 1 μC/cm2 was characterized which is of the same order of magnitude as the normal remnant ferroelectric polarization of PZT film. The suggested explanation for the giant polarization is the large strain gradient in the diaphragm and the strain gradient induced reorientation of the polar nanodomains.
Bending the law: tidal bending and its effects on ice viscosity and flow
Rosier, S.; Gudmundsson, G. H.
2017-12-01
Many ice shelves are subject to strong ocean tides and, in order to accommodate this vertical motion, the ice must bend within the grounding zone. This tidal bending generates large stresses within the ice, changing its effective viscosity. For a confined ice shelf, this is particularly relevant because the tidal bending stresses occur along the sidewalls, which play an important role in the overall flow regime of the ice shelf. Hence, tidal bending stresses will affect both the mean and time-varying components of ice shelf flow. GPS measurements reveal strong variations in horizontal ice shelf velocities at a variety of tidal frequencies. We show, using full-Stokes viscoelastic modelling, that inclusion of tidal bending within the model accounts for much of the observed tidal modulation of horizontal ice shelf flow. Furthermore, our model shows that in the absence of a vertical tidal forcing, the mean flow of the ice shelf is reduced considerably.
Strength measurement of optical fibers by bending
Srubshchik, Leonid S.
1999-01-01
A two-point bending technique has been used not only to measure the breaking stress of optical fiber but also to predict its static and dynamic fatigue. The present theory of this test is based on elastica theory of rod. However, within the limits of elastica theory the tensile and shear stresses cannot be determined. In this paper we study dynamic and static problems for optical fiber in the two- point bending test on the base of geometrically exact theory in which rod can suffer flexure, extension, and shear. We obtain the governing partial differential equations taking into account the fact that the lateral motion of the fiber is restrained by the presence of flat parallel plates. We develop the computational methods for solving the initial and equilibrium free-boundary nonlinear planar problems. We derive the formulas for predicting of the tensile strength from strength in the bending and calculate one example.
Parameters design of the dielectric elastomer spring-roll bending actuator (Conference Presentation)
Li, Jinrong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong
2017-04-01
Dielectric elastomers are novel soft smart material that could deform sustainably when subjected to external electric field. That makes dielectric elastomers promising materials for actuators. In this paper, a spring-roll actuator that would bend when a high voltage is applied was fabricated based on dielectric elastomer. Using such actuators as active parts, the flexible grippers and inchworm-inspired crawling robots were manufactured, which demonstrated some examples of applications in soft robotics. To guide the parameters design of dielectric elastomer based spring-roll bending actuators, the theoretical model of such actuators was established based on thermodynamic theories. The initial deformation and electrical induced bending angle of actuators were formulated. The failure of actuators was also analyzed considering some typical failure modes like electromechanical instability, electrical breakdown, loss of tension and maximum tolerant stretch. Thus the allowable region of actuators was determined. Then the bending angle-voltage relations and failure voltages of actuators with different parameters, including stretches of the dielectric elastomer film, number of active layers, and dimensions of spring, were investigated. The influences of each parameter on the actuator performances were discussed, providing meaningful guidance to the optical design of the spring-roll bending actuators.
KIN SP: A boundary element method based code for single pile kinematic bending in layered soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Stacul
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In high seismicity areas, it is important to consider kinematic effects to properly design pile foundations. Kinematic effects are due to the interaction between pile and soil deformations induced by seismic waves. One of the effect is the arise of significant strains in weak soils that induce bending moments on piles. These moments can be significant in presence of a high stiffness contrast in a soil deposit. The single pile kinematic interaction problem is generally solved with beam on dynamic Winkler foundation approaches (BDWF or using continuous models. In this work, a new boundary element method (BEM based computer code (KIN SP is presented where the kinematic analysis is preceded by a free-field response analysis. The analysis results of this method, in terms of bending moments at the pile-head and at the interface of a two-layered soil, are influenced by many factors including the soil–pile interface discretization. A parametric study is presented with the aim to suggest the minimum number of boundary elements to guarantee the accuracy of a BEM solution, for typical pile–soil relative stiffness values as a function of the pile diameter, the location of the interface of a two-layered soil and of the stiffness contrast. KIN SP results have been compared with simplified solutions in literature and with those obtained using a quasi-three-dimensional (3D finite element code.
Magnetic field of longitudinal gradient bend
Aiba, Masamitsu; Böge, Michael; Ehrlichman, Michael; Streun, Andreas
2018-06-01
The longitudinal gradient bend is an effective method for reducing the natural emittance in light sources. It is, however, not a common element. We have analyzed its magnetic field and derived a set of formulae. Based on the derivation, we discuss how to model the longitudinal gradient bend in accelerator codes that are used for designing electron storage rings. Strengths of multipole components can also be evaluated from the formulae, and we investigate the impact of higher order multipole components in a very low emittance lattice.
Slice through an LHC bending magnet
Slice through an LHC superconducting dipole (bending) magnet. The slice includes a cut through the magnet wiring (niobium titanium), the beampipe and the steel magnet yokes. Particle beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) have the same energy as a high-speed train, squeezed ready for collision into a space narrower than a human hair. Huge forces are needed to control them. Dipole magnets (2 poles) are used to bend the paths of the protons around the 27 km ring. Quadrupole magnets (4 poles) focus the proton beams and squeeze them so that more particles collide when the beams’ paths cross. There are 1232 15m long dipole magnets in the LHC.
Bending energy of buckled edge dislocations
Kupferman, Raz
2017-12-01
The study of elastic membranes carrying topological defects has a longstanding history, going back at least to the 1950s. When allowed to buckle in three-dimensional space, membranes with defects can totally relieve their in-plane strain, remaining with a bending energy, whose rigidity modulus is small compared to the stretching modulus. In this paper we study membranes with a single edge dislocation. We prove that the minimum bending energy associated with strain-free configurations diverges logarithmically with the size of the system.
Electric moments in molecule interferometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eibenberger, Sandra; Gerlich, Stefan; Arndt, Markus; Tuexen, Jens; Mayor, Marcel
2011-01-01
We investigate the influence of different electric moments on the shift and dephasing of molecules in a matter wave interferometer. Firstly, we provide a quantitative comparison of two molecules that are non-polar yet polarizable in their thermal ground state and that differ in their stiffness and response to thermal excitations. While C 25 H 20 is rather rigid, its larger derivative C 49 H 16 F 52 is additionally equipped with floppy side chains and vibrationally activated dipole moment variations. Secondly, we elucidate the role of a permanent electric dipole momentby contrasting the quantum interference pattern of a (nearly) non-polar and a polar porphyrin derivative. We find that a high molecular polarizability and even sizeable dipole moment fluctuations are still well compatible with high-contrast quantum interference fringes. The presence of permanent electric dipole moments, however, can lead to a dephasing and rapid degradation of the quantum fringe pattern already at moderate electric fields. This finding is of high relevance for coherence experiments with large organic molecules, which are generally equipped with strong electric moments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, Sudip; Karmakar, Amit
2013-01-01
This paper presents a finite element method to compare the effects of delamination on free vibration of graphite-epoxy bending stiff and torsion stiff composite pretwisted shallow conical shells. The generalized dynamic equilibrium equation is derived from Lagrange's equation of motion neglecting the Coriolis effect for moderate rotational speeds. An eight noded isoparametric plate bending element is employed incorporating rotary inertia and effects of transverse shear deformation based on Mindlin's theory. The multipoint constraint; algorithm is utilized to ensure the compatibility of deformation and equilibrium of resultant forces and moments at the delamination crack front. The standard eigen value problem is solved by applying the QR iteration algorithm. Mode shapes for typical configurations are also depicted. Numerical results obtained are the first known non-dimensional frequencies which could serve as reference solutions for the future investigators.
Observation of damage process in RC beams under cucle bending by acoustic emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shigeishi, Mitsuhiro; Ohtsu, Masayasu; Tsuji, Nobuyuki; Yasuoka, Daisuke
1997-01-01
Reinforced concrete (RC) structures are generally applied to construction of buildings and bridges, and are imposed on cyclic loading incessantly. It is considered that detected acoustic emission (AE) waveforms are associated with the damage degree and the fracture mechanisms of RC structures. Therefor, the cyclic bending tests are applied to damaged RC beam specimens. To evaluate the interior of the damaged RC beams, the AE source kinematics are determined by 'SiGMA' procedure for AE moment tensor analysis. By using 'SiGMA' procedure, AE source kinematics, such as source locations, crack types, crack orientations and crack motions, can be identified. The results show the applicability to observation of the fracture process under cyclic bending load and evaluation the degree of damage of RC beam.
Fatigue Assessment of High Strength Steel Welded Joints Under Bending Loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Myeong-Woo; Kim, Yun-Jae; Park, Jun-Hyub
2014-01-01
In this study, a fatigue assessment method for vehicle suspension systems having welded geometries was established under a bending loading condition. For the fatigue life estimation of the actual product s welded joints made of different steels, bending fatigue tests were performed on welded specimens with a simplified shape for obtaining the moment-fatigue-life plot. Further, geometry modeling of the simplified welded specimens was conducted. Results of finite element analysis were used to obtain the stress-fatigue-life plot. The analysis results were also used to calculate the stress concentration factors for notch-factor-based fatigue life estimation. The test results were compared with results of the general notch-factor-based fatigue life estimation for improving fatigue assessment. As a result, it was concluded that both the welded fatigue tests and the notch-factor-based fatigue life estimation are necessary for accurate fatigue assessment
Stochastic Generalized Method of Moments
Yin, Guosheng; Ma, Yanyuan; Liang, Faming; Yuan, Ying
2011-01-01
The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a very popular estimation and inference procedure based on moment conditions. When likelihood-based methods are difficult to implement, one can often derive various moment conditions and construct the GMM objective function. However, minimization of the objective function in the GMM may be challenging, especially over a large parameter space. Due to the special structure of the GMM, we propose a new sampling-based algorithm, the stochastic GMM sampler, which replaces the multivariate minimization problem by a series of conditional sampling procedures. We develop the theoretical properties of the proposed iterative Monte Carlo method, and demonstrate its superior performance over other GMM estimation procedures in simulation studies. As an illustration, we apply the stochastic GMM sampler to a Medfly life longevity study. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Stochastic Generalized Method of Moments
Yin, Guosheng
2011-08-16
The generalized method of moments (GMM) is a very popular estimation and inference procedure based on moment conditions. When likelihood-based methods are difficult to implement, one can often derive various moment conditions and construct the GMM objective function. However, minimization of the objective function in the GMM may be challenging, especially over a large parameter space. Due to the special structure of the GMM, we propose a new sampling-based algorithm, the stochastic GMM sampler, which replaces the multivariate minimization problem by a series of conditional sampling procedures. We develop the theoretical properties of the proposed iterative Monte Carlo method, and demonstrate its superior performance over other GMM estimation procedures in simulation studies. As an illustration, we apply the stochastic GMM sampler to a Medfly life longevity study. Supplemental materials for the article are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Tailoring of in-plane magnetic anisotropy in polycrystalline cobalt thin films by external stress
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumar, Dileep, E-mail: dkumar@csr.res.in [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Singh, Sadhana [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Vishawakarma, Pramod [School of Nanotechnology, RGPV, Bhopal 462036 (India); Dev, Arun Singh; Reddy, V.R. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientic Research, Khandwa Road, Indore 452001 (India); Gupta, Ajay [Amity Center for Spintronic Materials, Amity University, Sector 125, Noida 201303 (India)
2016-11-15
Polycrystalline Co films of nominal thickness ~180 Å were deposited on intentionally curved Si substrates. Tensile and compressive stresses of 100 MPa and 150 MPa were induced in the films by relieving the curvature. It has been found that, within the elastic limit, presence of stress leads to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy in the film and its strength increases with increasing stress. Easy axis of magnetization in the films is found to be parallel/ transverse to the compressive /tensile stresses respectively. The origin of magnetic anisotropy in the stressed films is understood in terms of magneto- elastic coupling, where the stress try to align the magnetic moments in order to minimize the magneto-elastic as well as anisotropy energy. Tensile stress is also found to be responsible for the surface smoothening of the films, which is attributed to the movement of the atoms associated with the applied stress. The present work provides a possible way to tailor the magnetic anisotropy and its direction in polycrystalline and amorphous films using external stress. - Highlights: • Tensile and compressive stresses were induced in Co films by removing the bending force from the substrates after film deposition. • Controlled external mechanical stress is found to be responsible for magnetic anisotropies in amorphous and polycrystalline thin films, where crystalline anisotropy is absent. • Tensile stress leads to surface smoothening of the polycrystalline Co films.
Hart, Joseph M; Garrison, J Craig; Palmieri-Smith, Riann; Kerrigan, D Casey; Ingersoll, Christopher D
2008-05-01
Lower extremity kinetics while performing a single-leg forward jump landing may help explain gender biased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury. Gender comparison of lower extremity joint angles and moments. Static groups comparison. Motion analysis laboratory. 8 male and 8 female varsity, collegiate soccer athletes. 5 single-leg landings from a 100cm forward jump. Peak and initial contact external joint moments and joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip. At initial heel contact, males exhibited a adduction moment whereas females exhibited a abduction moment at the hip. Females also had significantly less peak hip extension moment and significantly less peak hip internal rotation moment than males had. Females exhibited greater knee adduction and hip internal rotation angles than men did. When decelerating from a forward jump, gender differences exist in forces acting at the hip.
Nucleon magnetic moments and magnetic properties of vacuum in QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ioffe, B.L.; Smilga, A.V.
1983-01-01
Magnetic moments of a proton and a neutron are calculated in the QCD sum rule approach. The substantial role of the external electromagnetic field induced vacuum expectation values, the most important of which is connected with quark condensate magnetic susceptibility, is demonstrated. The results are μsub(p)=3.0, μsub(n)=2.0(+-10%) that is in a perfect agreement with experiment. The invariant amplitudes of Δ→pγ transition are also calculated
Method of moments in electromagnetics
Gibson, Walton C
2007-01-01
Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t
Neutron star moments of inertia
Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.
1994-01-01
An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.
[Odontoid bending stiffness after anterior fixation with a single lag screw: biomechanical study].
Buchvald, P; Čapek, L; Barsa, P
2015-01-01
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the experiment was to compare the bending stiffness of an intact odontoid process with bending stiffness after its simulated type II fracture was fixed with a single lag screw. The experiment was done with a desire to answer the question of whether a single osteosynthetic screw is sufficient for good fixation of a type II odontoid fracture. MATERIAL AND METHODS The C2 vertebrae of six cadavers were used. With simultaneous measurement of odontoid bending stiffness, the occurrence of a fracture (type IIA, Grauer's modification of the Anderson- D'Alonzo classification) was simulated using action exerted by a tearing machine in the direction perpendicular to the odontoid axis. Each odontoid fracture was subsequently treated by direct osteosynthesis with a single lag screw inserted in the axial direction by a standard surgical procedure in order to provide conditions similar to those achieved by routine surgical management. The treated odontoid process was subsequently subjected to the same tearing machine loading as applied to it at the start of the experiment. The bending stiffness measured was then compared with that found before the fracture occurred. The results were statistically evaluated by the t-test for paired samples at the level of significance α = 0.05. RESULTS The average value of bending stiffness for odontoid processes of intact vertebrae at the moment of fracture occurrence was 318.3 N/mm. After single axial lag screw fixation of the fracture, the average bending stiffness for the odontoid processes treated was 331.3 N/mm. DISCUSSION Higher values of bending stiffness after screw fixation were found in all specimens and, in comparison with the values recorded before simulated fractures, the increase was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS The results of our measurements suggest that the single lag screw fixation of a type IIA odontoid fracture will provide better stability for the fracture fragment-C2 body complex on
Amplification caused by gravitational bending of light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schneider, P.
1985-01-01
Gravitational bending of light may not only lead to multiple imaging (gravitational lens effect), but also affects the apparent luminosity of a source. It is shown here that a mass distribution near the line-of-sight to any source always increases the observable flux relative to the case in which the deflector is absent
Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts
Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David
2012-01-01
Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…
Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet
CERN PhotoLab
1981-01-01
To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.
Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.
1987-03-24
A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.
Systematisk løbende refleksion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansson, Michael
2010-01-01
Artiklen omhandler en model kaldet systematisk løbende refleksion, der repræsenterer en procedure til overvejelse og genovervejelse af de vurderingskriterier, man lægger til grund for evaluering af et udviklingsprojekt. Pointen er at justere udviklingsprojektet ind i en ønsket retning. Formålet m...
Fuzzy model for Laser Assisted Bending Process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giannini Oliviero
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, a fuzzy model was developed to predict the residual bending in a conventional metal bending process assisted by a high power diode laser. The study was focused on AA6082T6 aluminium thin sheets. In most dynamic sheet metal forming operations, the highly nonlinear deformation processes cause large amounts of elastic strain energy stored in the formed material. The novel hybrid forming process was thus aimed at inducing the local heating of the mechanically bent workpiece in order to decrease or eliminate the related springback phenomena. In particular, the influence on the extent of springback phenomena of laser process parameters such as source power, scan speed and starting elastic deformation of mechanically bent sheets, was experimentally assessed. Consistent trends in experimental response according to operational parameters were found. Accordingly, 3D process maps of the extent of the springback phenomena according to operational parameters were constructed. The effect of the inherent uncertainties on the predicted residual bending caused by the approximation in the model parameters was evaluated. In particular, a fuzzy-logic based approach was used to describe the model uncertainties and the transformation method was applied to propagate their effect on the residual bending.
Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others
1997-08-01
The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.
Symmetric bends how to join two lengths of cord
Miles, Roger E
1995-01-01
A bend is a knot securely joining together two lengths of cord (or string or rope), thereby yielding a single longer length. There are many possible different bends, and a natural question that has probably occurred to many is: "Is there a 'best' bend and, if so, what is it?"Most of the well-known bends happen to be symmetric - that is, the two constituent cords within the bend have the same geometric shape and size, and interrelationship with the other. Such 'symmetric bends' have great beauty, especially when the two cords bear different colours. Moreover, they have the practical advantage o
Quiet Moment around the Campfire
Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts
2014-06-18
Byron Breedlove reads his essay, "Quiet Moment around the Campfire," about the art of Frederic Remington and the transmission of pathogens as frontiers expand. Created: 6/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 6/19/2014.
Particle electric dipole-moments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pendlebury, J M [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)
1997-04-01
The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.
Moment of Inertia by Differentiation
Rizcallah, Joseph A.
2015-01-01
The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral--an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the…
Unteachable Moments and Pedagogical Relationships
Wang, Hongyu
2016-01-01
This paper discusses how Julia Kristeva's theory can inform our understanding of unteachable moments. It proposes a pedagogical relationship that can contain breakdowns of meanings and work toward breakthroughs to new awareness, particularly related to social justice pedagogy in teacher education. First, one example from the author's own teaching…
Moment Distributions of Phase Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
2011-01-01
Moment distributions of phase-type and matrix-exponential distributions are shown to remain within their respective classes. We provide a probabilistic phase-type representation for the former case and an alternative representation, with an analytically appealing form, for the latter. First order...
Moment methods and Lanczos methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitehead, R.R.
1980-01-01
In contrast to many of the speakers at this conference I am less interested in average properties of nuclei than in detailed spectroscopy. I will try to show, however, that the two are very closely connected and that shell-model calculations may be used to give a great deal of information not normally associated with the shell-model. It has been demonstrated clearly to us that the level spacing fluctuations in nuclear spectra convey very little physical information. This is true when the fluctuations are averaged over the entire spectrum but not if one's interest is in the lowest few states, whose spacings are relatively large. If one wishes to calculate a ground state (say) accurately, that is with an error much smaller than the excitation energy of the first excited state, very high moments, μ/sub n/, n approx. 200, are needed. As I shall show, we use such moments as a matter of course, albeit without actually calculating them; in fact I will try to show that, if at all possible, the actual calculations of moments is to be avoided like the plague. At the heart of the new shell-model methods embodied in the Glasgow shell-model program and one or two similar ones is the so-called Lanczos method and this, it turns out, has many deep and subtle connections with the mathematical theory of moments. It is these connections that I will explore here
Finite Element Analysis for Bending Process of U-Bending Specimens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Won Dong; Bahn, Chi Bum [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
ASTM G30 suggests that the applied strain can be calculated by dividing thickness by a bend radius. It should be noted, however, that the formula is reliable under an assumption that the ratio of thickness to bend radius is less than 0.2. Typically, to increase the applied stress/strain, the ratio of thickness to bend radius becomes larger than 0.2. This suggests that the estimated strain values by ASTM G30 are not reliable to predict the actual residual strain state of the highly deformed U-bend specimen. For this reason, finite element analysis (FEA) for the bending process of Ubend specimens was conducted by using a commercial finite element analysis software ABAQUS. ver.6.14- 2;2014. From the results of FEA, PWSCC initiation time and U-bend specimen size can be determined exactly. Since local stress and strain have a significant effect on the initiation of PWSCC, it was inappropriate to apply results of ASTM G30 to the PWSCC test directly. According to results of finite element analysis (FEA), elastic relaxation can cause inaccuracy in intended final residual stress. To modify this inaccuracy, additional process reducing the spring back is required. However this additional process also may cause uncertainty of stress/strain state. Therefore, the U-bending specimen size which is not creating uncertainty should be optimized and selected. With the bending radius of 8.3 mm, the thickness of 3 mm and the roller distance of 32.6 mm, calculated maximum stress and strain were 670 MPa and 0.21, respectively.
Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments
Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2011-01-01
The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.
Incomplete (bending) fractures of the mandibular condyle in children
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahrendt, D.; Swischuk, L.E.; Hayden, C.K. Jr.; Texas Univ., Galveston
1984-01-01
Incomplete, bending or bowing fractures of the mandibular condyle in children frequently go undetected. The reason is that the bending deformity often is subtle and passes for normal. This is especially true if the fractures are bilateral. (orig.)
A Study on U-bending Technology using Rotary Draw Bending
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwak, Ok-gyu; Kim, Won-seok [BHI Co., Gyunsang-Namdo (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Tae-wan [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2014-10-15
In the steam generator, heat transfer phenomenon for producing the steam between the primary system of the nuclear reactor and the secondary one occurs around the heat transfer tube. That is, the primary coolant with high temperature(320 .deg.. C) and high pressure(157Kgf/cm2) derived from the reactor flows in the heat transfer tube, and the secondary one runs out that tube. Therefore, it is able to mention that the heat transfer tube itself is a boundary of the heat transfer phenomenon. The heat transfer tube bundle of each steam generator used for the PWR and the PHWR(Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) is generally composed of about 8,000-13,000 U-tubes. And these tubes are the core component as the structural and heat transfer material in the steam generator, which is in charge of cooling about 70% of the cooling surface of the primary system. For achieving the U-bending process with the thin walled tube, generally, a mandrel could be inserted in the tube according to the bending radius. But when the bending radius is small, the tube U-bending process could be also performed without the mandrel. In this study, numerical and experimental investigations on the U-bending process for producing the heat transfer tubes by using the straight and long tubes were carried out with the consideration of the elastic recovery after the U-bending. In the numerical approach, finite element analysis scheme was adopted with a commercial code, ABAQUS Implicit/Explicit. As the precedent study, the related experiment was also performed to verify the predicted results on the ovality and the minimum wall thickness of the U-bending heat transfer tube. Furthermore, its bending process was also conducted to analyze the deformation behavior for the Alloy 690 tube. In this study, the U-bending process was considered to simulate and manufactured the heat transfer tube used for the steam generator. To investigate the deformation behavior of the U-bending process, and a series of the
Thermal Analysis of Bending Under Tension Test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ceron, Ermanno; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels
2014-01-01
during testing is similar to the one in the production tool. A universal sheet tribo-tester has been developed, which can run multiple tests automatically from coil. This allows emulating the temperature increase as in production. The present work performs finite element analysis of the evolution......The tribological conditions in deep drawing can be simulated in the Bending Under Tension test to evaluate the performance of new lubricants, tool materials, etc. Deep drawing production with automatic handling runs normally at high rate. This implies considerable heating of the tools, which...... sometimes can cause lubricant film breakdown and galling. In order to replicate the production conditions in bending under tension testing it is thus important to control the tool/workpiece interface temperature. This can be done by pre-heating the tool, but it is essential that the interface temperature...
Vortex breakdown in simple pipe bends
Ault, Jesse; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard
2016-11-01
Pipe bends and elbows are one of the most common fluid mechanics elements that exists. However, despite their ubiquity and the extensive amount of research related to these common, simple geometries, unexpected complexities still remain. We show that for a range of geometries and flow conditions, these simple flows experience unexpected fluid dynamical bifurcations resembling the bubble-type vortex breakdown phenomenon. Specifically, we show with simulations and experiments that recirculation zones develop within the bends under certain conditions. As a consequence, fluid and particles can remain trapped within these structures for unexpectedly-long time scales. We also present simple techniques to mitigate this recirculation effect which can potentially have impact across industries ranging from biomedical and chemical processing to food and health sciences.
Nuclear fuels accounting interface: River Bend experience
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barry, J.E.
1986-01-01
This presentation describes nuclear fuel accounting activities from the perspective of nuclear fuels management and its interfaces. Generally, Nuclear Fuels-River Bend Nuclear Group (RBNG) is involved on a day-by-day basis with nuclear fuel materials accounting in carrying out is procurement, contract administration, processing, and inventory management duties, including those associated with its special nuclear materials (SNM)-isotopics accountability oversight responsibilities as the Central Accountability Office for the River Bend Station. As much as possible, these duties are carried out in an integrated, interdependent manner. From these primary functions devolve Nuclear Fuels interfacing activities with fuel cost and tax accounting. Noting that nuclear fuel tax accounting support is of both an esoteric and intermittent nature, Nuclear Fuels-RBNG support of developments and applications associated with nuclear fuel cost accounting is stressed in this presentation
Effect of confinements: Bending in Paramecium
Eddins, Aja; Yang, Sung; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan
2012-02-01
Paramecium is a unicellular eukaryote which by coordinated beating of cilia, generates metachronal waves which causes it to execute a helical trajectory. We investigate the swimming parameters of the organism in rectangular PDMS channels and try to quantify its behavior. Surprisingly a swimming Paramecium in certain width of channels executes a bend of its flexible body (and changes its direction of swimming) by generating forces using the cilia. Considering a simple model of beam constrained between two walls, we predict the bent shapes of the organism and the forces it exerts on the walls. Finally we try to explain how bending (by sensing) can occur in channels by conducting experiments in thin film of fluid and drawing analogy to swimming behavior observed in different cases.
Measuring device for bending of beryllium reflector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishida, Seiri; Sakamoto, Naoki.
1994-01-01
The device of the present invention can measure bending of a beryllium reflector formed in a reactor core of a nuclear reactor by a relatively easy operation. Namely, a sensor portion comprises a long-support that can be inserted to a fuel element-insertion hole disposed in the reactor and a plurality of distance sensors disposed in a longitudinal direction of the support. A supersonic wave sensor which is advantageous in the heat resistance, the size and the accuracy and can conduct measurement in water relatively easily is used as the distance sensors. However, other sensors, instead of the sensor described above, may also be used. The plurality of distance sensors detect the bending amount of the beryllium reflector in the longitudinal direction by such an easy operation of inserting such a sensor portion to the fuel element-insertion hole upon exchange of fuel elements. (I.S.)
Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel; Ober, Raymond; Urbach, Wladimir
2007-01-01
The behavior of the bending modulus κ of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C i E j surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of κ decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of κ decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to κ
Holey fibers for low bend loss
Nakajima, Kazuhide; Saito, Kotaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Tomoya; Fukai, Chisato; Matsui, Takashi
2013-12-01
Bending-loss insensitive fiber (BIF) has proved an essential medium for constructing the current fiber to the home (FTTH) network. By contrast, the progress that has been made on holey fiber (HF) technologies provides us with novel possibilities including non-telecom applications. In this paper, we review recent progress on hole-assisted type BIF. A simple design consideration is overviewed. We then describe some of the properties of HAF including its mechanical reliability. Finally, we introduce some applications of HAF including to high power transmission. We show that HAF with a low bending loss has the potential for use in various future optical technologies as well as in the optical communication network.
Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winkler, Jan Pawel
This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified...... associated with variable loading, and different testing procedures. As most of the contemporary stay cables are comprised of a number of individual highstrength steel monostrands, the research study started with an extensive experimental work on the fatigue response of a single monostrand to cyclic flexural...
Foam topology. Bending versus stretching dominated architectures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deshpande, V.; Ashby, M.; Fleck, N.
2000-01-01
Cellular solids can deform by either the bending or stretching of the cell walls. While most cellular solids are bending-dominated, those that are stretching-dominated are much more weight-efficient for structural applications. In this study we have investigated the topological criteria that dictate the deformation mechanism of a cellular solid by analysing the rigidity (or otherwise) of pin-jointed frameworks comprising inextensional struts. We show that the minimum node connectivity for a special class of lattice structured materials to be stretching-dominated is 6 for 2D foams and 12 for 3D foams. Similarly, sandwich plates comprising of truss cores faced with planar trusses require a minimum node connectivity of 9 to undergo stretching-dominated deformation for all loading states. (author)
Hydrodynamic processes in sharp meander bends and their morphological implications
Blanckaert, K.
2011-01-01
The migration rate of sharp meander bends exhibits large variance and indicates that some sharply curved bends tend to stabilize. These observations remain unexplained. This paper examines three hydrodynamic processes in sharp bends with fixed banks and discusses their morphological implications:
Effects of laser bending on the microstructural constituents
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Tshabalala, L
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This article will illustrate the correlation between microstructural and microhardness changes in high-strength-low-alloy steel that occur as a result of laser-bending. Laser bending is a process of bending metal shapes using the laser beam...
Metal-bending brake facilitates lightweight, close-tolerance fabrication
Ercoline, A. L.; Wilton, K. B.
1964-01-01
A lightweight, metal bending brake ensures very accurate bends. Features of the brake that adapt it for making complex reverse bends to close tolerances are a pronounced relief or cutaway of the underside of the bodyplate combined with modification in the leaf design and its suspension.
Characterization and study of photonic crystal fibres with bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belhadj, W.; AbdelMalek, F.; Bouchriha, H.
2006-01-01
Analysis of a photonic crystal fibre (PRCF) with bends is presented. Using the versatile finite difference time domain method, the modal characteristics of the PCFs are found. Possibilities of employing PCFs with bends in sensing are discussed. It is found that a large evanescent field is present when the bend angle exceeds 45 o
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of flow separation at bends
Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Pearce, F.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Yue, T.
2014-01-01
The separated flow in two-dimensional bends is numerically simulated for a right-angled bend with different ratios of the channel widths and for a symmetric bend with different turning angles. Unlike the potential flow solutions that have several restrictive assumptions, the Euler equations are
Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of flow separation at bends
Hou, Q.; Kruisbrink, A.C.H.; Pearce, F.R.; Tijsseling, A.S.; Yue, T.
2013-01-01
The separated flow in two-dimensional bends is numerically simulated for a right-angled bend with different ratios of the channel widths and for a symmetric bend with different turning angles. Unlike the potential flow solutions that have several restrictive assumptions, the Euler equations are
The MIT miniaturized disk bend test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.
1983-01-01
A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Possibilities exist for applying the MDBT approach to the determination of other mechanical properties. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly
AA, assembly of wide bending magnet
CERN PhotoLab
1980-01-01
The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.
Closed-form plastic collapse loads of pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2006-01-01
Based on three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses, this paper provides plastic limit, collapse and instability load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending. The plastic limit loads are determined from FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials using the small geometry change option, and the FE limit analyses using the large geometry change option provide plastic collapse loads (using the twice-elastic-slope method) and instability loads. For the bending mode, both closing bending and opening bending are considered, and a wide range of parameters related to the bend geometry is considered. Based on the FE results, closed-form approximations of plastic limit and collapse load solutions for pipe bends under combined pressure and bending are proposed
The Critical Moment of Transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svalgaard, Lotte
2018-01-01
By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programs prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... environment and entering a context characterized by activity and performance. This is a frequently debated challenge for both academics and providers of management learning. Yet, critical moments in this transition remain under-exposed and under-researched. The contribution of this article is a research study......—within the context of an international MBA program—of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an international consultancy project. This article contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing a lens through which subjective experience of critical moments...
2006-01-01
One of the first events reconstructed in the Muon Drift Tubes, the Hadron Calorimeter and elements of the Silicon Tracker (TK) at 3 Tesla. The atmosphere in the CMS control rooms was electric. Everbody was at the helm for the first full-scale testing of the experiment. This was a crunch moment for the entire collaboration. On Tuesday, 22 August the magnet attained almost its nominal power of 4 Tesla! At the same moment, in a tiny improvised control room, the physicists were keyed up to test the entire detector system for the first time. The first cosmic ray tracks appeared on their screens in the week of 15 August. The tests are set to continue for several weeks more until the first CMS components are lowered into their final positions in the cavern.
First multi-bend achromat lattice consideration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Einfeld, Dieter, E-mail: dieter.einfeld@maxlab.lu.se [Lund University, PO Box 118, Lund SE-221 00 (Sweden); Plesko, Mark [COSYLAB, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana SI-1000 (Slovakia); Schaper, Joachim [HAWK University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Hohnsen 4, D-31134 Hildesheim (Germany)
2014-08-27
The first proposed lattice for a ‘diffraction-limited light source’ is reported. This approach has now more or less been used for the MAX IV project. By the beginning of 1990, three third-generation synchrotron light sources had been successfully commissioned in Grenoble, Berkeley and Trieste (ESRF, ALS and ELETTRA). Each of these new machines reached their target specifications without any significant problems. In parallel, already at that time discussions were underway regarding the next generation, the ‘diffraction-limited light source (DLSR)’, which featured sub-nm rad electron beam emittance, photon beam brilliance exceeding 10{sup 22} and the potential to emit coherent radiation. Also, at about that time, a first design for a 3 GeV DLSR was developed, based on a modified multiple-bend achromat (MBA) design leading to a lattice with normalized emittance of ∊{sub x} = 0.5 nm rad. The novel feature of the MBA lattice was the use of seven vertically focusing bend magnets with different bending angles throughout the achromat cell to keep the radiation integrals and resulting beam emittance low. The baseline design called for a 400 m ring circumference with 12 straight sections of 6 m length. The dynamic aperture behaviour of the DLSR lattice was estimated to produce > 5 h beam lifetime at 100 mA stored beam current.
The multi-bend achromat storage rings
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eriksson, Mikael [MAX IV Laboratory Ole Römers v. 1 22100 Lund Sweden (Sweden)
2016-07-27
Not very long ago, the 3{sup rd} generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3{sup rd} generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.
BENDING BEHAVIOUR OF MAGNETIC COTTON YARNS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LUPU Iuliana G.
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Magnetic yarns are composite yarns, i.e. they combine elements of various natures and properties, with proven potential for electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. In this paper, different mixtures of hard and soft magnetic powder were chosen to cover materials made of cotton yarn. The physical properties and bending behavior of the produced composite yarns were investigated in order to evaluate the yarns for further textile processing.The cotton yarn used as base material was covered with hard (barium hexaferrite BaFe12O19 and soft (Black Toner magnetic particles. An in-house developed laboratory equipment has been used to cover the twist cotton yarns with seven mixtures having different amounts of magnetic powder (30% – 50%. The bending behavior of the coated yarns was evaluated based on the average width of cracks which appeared on the yarn surface after repeated flexural tests. The obtained results revealed that usage of a polyurethane adhesive in the coating solution prevents crack formation on the surface of hard magnetic yarns after flexural tests. At the same time, the higher the mass percentage of hard magnetic powder in the mixture, the higher was the cracks’ width. The soft magnetic yarns are more flexible and a smaller crack width is observed on their surface. Both the coating solution composition and the powder diameter are expected to influence the bending behavior of coated yarns.
The multi-bend achromat storage rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, Mikael
2016-01-01
Not very long ago, the 3"r"d generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3"r"d generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.
Forming and bending of metal foams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven
2004-01-01
This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tae-Jun Kim
2015-09-01
Full Text Available In the present study, external restraints imposed normal to the plate during the cooling stage were determined to be effective for reduction of the angular distortion of butt-welded or fillet-welded plate. A welding analysis model under external force during the cooling stage was idealized as a prismatic member subjected to pure bending. The external restraint was represented by vertical force on both sides of the work piece and bending stress forms in the transverse direction. The additional bending stress distribution across the plate thickness was reflected in the improved inherent strain model, and a set of inherent strain charts with different levels of bending stress were newly calculated. From an elastic linear FE analysis using the inherent strain values taken from the chart and comparing them with those from a 3D thermal elasto-plastic FE analysis, welding deformation can be calculated.
Moment Distributions of Phase Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis
In this paper we prove that the class of distributions on the positive reals with a rational Laplace transform, also known as matrix-exponential distributions, is closed under formation of moment distributions. In particular, the results are hence valid for the well known class of phase-type dist...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harpøth, Anders; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Kristensen, Martin
2004-01-01
We have designed, simulated and fabricated a photonic crystal waveguide Z-bend, which displays a total bend loss of ~1dB per bend in a wavelength range of more than 200nm. The fabricated component performs in excellent agreement with 3D finite-difference time-domain calculations....
2011-12-29
... License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background PPL Bell Bend, LLC... for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP... based upon the U.S. EPR reference COL (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power...
Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers
Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre
2010-02-01
Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.
Influence of flock coating on bending rigidity of woven fabrics
Ozdemir, O.; Kesimci, M. O.
2017-10-01
This work presents the preliminary results of our efforts that focused on the effect of the flock coating on the bending rigidity of woven fabrics. For this objective, a laboratory scale flocking unit is designed and flocked samples of controlled flock density are produced. Bending rigidity of the samples with different flock densities are measured on both flocked and unflocked sides. It is shown that the bending rigidity depends on both flock density and whether the side to be measured is flocked or not. Adhesive layer thickness on the bending rigidity is shown to be dramatic. And at higher basis weights, flock density gets less effective on bending rigidity.
A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...... and flexure and show that localized cable bending has a pronounced influence on the fatigue resistance of cables under dynamic excitations....
Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lerose, Damiana [MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bochmann, Arne [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Christiansen, Silke H. [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); MPI fuer die Physik des Lichts, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Zentrum fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)
2011-07-01
Ion beams can be used to bend or re-align nanowires permanently, after they have been grown. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with ions of different species and energy, achieving bending and alignment in various directions. We study the bending of single nanowires as well as the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires in detail. Computer simulations show that the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Dislocations are identified to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent and resistant against annealing procedures.
Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials
Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing
2016-01-01
We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.
Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials
Chen, Zhao-xian
2016-01-15
We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.
Bending impact on the performance of a flexible Li4Ti5O12-based all-solid-state thin-film battery.
Sepúlveda, Alfonso; Speulmanns, Jan; Vereecken, Philippe M
2018-01-01
The growing demand of flexible electronic devices is increasing the requirements of their power sources. The effect of bending in thin-film batteries is still not well understood. Here, we successfully developed a high active area flexible all-solid-state battery as a model system that consists of thin-film layers of Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 , LiPON, and Lithium deposited on a novel flexible ceramic substrate. A systematic study on the bending state and performance of the battery is presented. The battery withstands bending radii of at least 14 mm achieving 70% of the theoretical capacity. Here, we reveal that convex bending has a positive effect on battery capacity showing an average increase of 5.5%, whereas concave bending decreases the capacity by 4% in contrast with recent studies. We show that the change in capacity upon bending may well be associated to the Li-ion diffusion kinetic change through the electrode when different external forces are applied. Finally, an encapsulation scheme is presented allowing sufficient bending of the device and operation for at least 500 cycles in air. The results are meant to improve the understanding of the phenomena present in thin-film batteries while undergoing bending rather than showing improvements in battery performance and lifetime.
Moment Closure for the Stochastic Logistic Model
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Singh, Abhyudai; Hespanha, Joao P
2006-01-01
..., which we refer to as the moment closure function. In this paper, a systematic procedure for constructing moment closure functions of arbitrary order is presented for the stochastic logistic model...
Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
2009-01-01
1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...
On the interpretation of the support moment
Hof, AL
2000-01-01
It has been suggested by Winter (J. Biomech. 13 (1980) 923-927) that the 'support moment', the sum of the sagittal extension moments, shows less variability in walking than any of the joint moments separately. A simple model is put forward to explain this finding. It is proposed to reformulate the
Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Masashi; Takagi, Yui; Goto, Yusuke; Otsuka, Naoki; Koyama, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ichihashi, Noriaki
2014-01-01
Footwear modification can beneficially alter knee loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluated the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes on reductions in external knee moments in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to examine the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology versus control shoes on the knee adduction and flexion moments in 17 women (mean age, 63.6 years) with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis. The lateral and anterior trunk lean values, knee flexion and adduction angles, and ground reaction force were also evaluated. The influence of the original walking pattern on the changes in knee moments with Masai Barefoot Technology shoes was evaluated. The knee flexion moment in early stance was significantly reduced while walking with the Masai Barefoot Technology shoes (0.25±0.14Nm/kgm) as compared with walking with control shoes (0.30±0.19 Nm/kgm); whereas the knee adduction moment showed no changes. Masai Barefoot Technology shoes did not increase compensatory lateral and anterior trunk lean. The degree of knee flexion moment in the original walking pattern with control shoes was correlated directly with its reduction when wearing Masai Barefoot Technology shoes by multiple linear regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.44, Pknee flexion moment during walking without increasing the compensatory trunk lean and may therefore reduce external knee loading in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mitsuya, Masaki; Sakanoue, Takashi
2015-01-01
This study focuses on the opening mode of induction bends; this mode represents the deformation outside a bend. Bending experiments on induction bends are shown and the manner of failure of these bends was investigated. Ruptures occur at the intrados of the bends, which undergo tensile stress, and accompany the local reduction of wall thickness, i.e., necking that indicates strain localization. By implementing finite element analysis (FEA), it was shown that the rupture is dominated not by the fracture criterion of material but by the initiation of strain localization that is a deformation characteristic of the material. These ruptures are due to the rapid increase of local strain after the initiation of strain localization and suddenly reach the fracture criterion. For the evaluation of the deformability of the bends, a method based on FEA that can predict the displacement at the rupture is proposed. We show that the yield surface shape and the true stress–strain relationship after uniform elongation have to be defined on the basis of the actual properties of the bend material. The von Mises yield criterion, which is commonly used in cases of elastic–plastic FEA, could not predict the rupture and overestimated the deformability. In contrast, a yield surface obtained by performing tensile tests on a biaxial specimen could predict the rupture. The prediction of the rupture was accomplished by an inverse calibration method that determined the true stress-strain relationship after uniform elongation. As an alternative to the inverse calibration, a simple extrapolation method of the true stress-strain relationship after uniform elongation which can predict the rupture is proposed. - Highlights: • A method based on FEA that can predict the displacement at the rupture is proposed. • The yield surface shape and the true stress–strain have to be defined precisely. • The von Mises yield criterion overestimated the deformability. • The ruptures are due to the
Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.
The Muon Electric Dipole Moment
Barger, Vernon; Kao, Chung; Das, Ashok
1997-01-01
The electric dipole moment of the muon ($d_\\mu$) is evaluated in a two Higgs doublet model with a softly broken discrete symmetry. For $\\tan\\beta \\equiv |v_2|/|v_1| \\sim 1$, contributions from two loop diagrams involving the $t$ quark and the $W$ boson dominate; while for $\\tan\\beta \\gsim 10$, contributions from two loop diagrams involving the $b$ quark and the $\\tau$ lepton are dominant. For $8 \\gsim \\tan\\beta \\gsim 4$, significant cancellation occurs among the contributions from two loop di...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Chang Sik; Kim, Yun Jae
2006-01-01
In the present paper, approximate plastic limit load solutions for pipe bends under combined internal pressure and bending are obtained from detailed three-dimensional (3-D) FE limit analyses based on elastic-perfectly plastic materials with the small geometry change option. The present FE results show that existing limit load solutions for pipe bends are lower bounds but can be very different from the present FE results in some cases, particularly for bending. Accordingly closed-form approximations are proposed for pipe bends under combined pressure and in-plane bending based on the present FE results. The proposed limit load solutions would be a basis of defective pipe bends and be useful to estimate non-linear fracture mechanics parameters based on the reference stress approach
Structural analysis of suerconducting bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meuser, R.B.
1980-05-01
Mechanical stresses, displacements, and the effects of displacements upon aberrations of the magnetic field in the aperture have been calculated for a class of superconducting bending-magnet configurations. The analytical model employed for the coil is one in which elements are free to slide without restraint upon each other, and upon the surrounding structure. Coil configurations considered range from an idealized one in which the current density varies as cosine theta to more realistic ones consisting of regions of uniform current density. With few exceptions, the results for the more realistic coils closely match those of the cos theta coil
Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George Grimes
2008-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.
Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang
2012-01-01
The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)
Clinical bending of nickel titanium wires
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen Chain
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since the evolution and the involvement of Nickel Titanium wires in the field of Orthodontics. The treatment plan has evolved with the use of low force Nickel Titanium wires. Because of their high springback, low stiffness, they are the key initial wires in leveling and alignment but have poor formability. Since poor formability limits its ability to create variable arch forms thus; limits the form of treatment. We have devised a method to bend the Nickel Titanium wires to help in our inventory but also customized the wire according to the treatment.
Distorted black holes in terms of multipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suen, W.
1986-01-01
In terms of a multipole-moment formalism previously developed for non-asymptotically-flat systems in general relativity, the metric of a Schwarzschild black hole in an external quadrupolar gravitational field is studied. Among other results, we find that the black hole develops an induced quadrupole moment, which in turn generates a tidal field opposing the applied field. This effect, plus the fact that the horizon cannot expand when a quasistatic tidal force is applied, can be described in terms of effective 2-dimensional elastic moduli for the black-hole horizon. The bulk modulus is kappa = ∞, and the shear modulus is mu = -63/(20πM), where M is the hole's mass
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semete, P.; Faidy, C.; Lautier, J.L.
2001-01-01
EDF has conducted a research programme to demonstrate the fracture resistance of carbon-manganese welded pipes. The main task of this programme consisted of testing three four inches diameter (114.3 mm O.D.) thin welded pipes (8.56 mm thick) which are representative of those of the sites. The three pipes were loaded under four point bending at a quasi-static rate at -20 C till their maximum bending moment was reached. This paper presents the experimental results, finite element calculations and their comparison with the simplified fracture assessment method of the RSE-M Code. (author)
Reconstruction of convex bodies from moments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hörrmann, Julia; Kousholt, Astrid
We investigate how much information about a convex body can be retrieved from a finite number of its geometric moments. We give a sufficient condition for a convex body to be uniquely determined by a finite number of its geometric moments, and we show that among all convex bodies, those which......- rithm that approximates a convex body using a finite number of its Legendre moments. The consistency of the algorithm is established using the stabil- ity result for Legendre moments. When only noisy measurements of Legendre moments are available, the consistency of the algorithm is established under...
Magnetoelastic bending and snapping of ferromagnetic plates in oblique magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Youhe
1995-01-01
Ferritic stainless steel has been considered for structural components such as first walls and blankets of fusion power reactors because the material shows low rates of irradiation swelling. Since it is magnetizable, the magnetoelastic interaction between magnetic field and deformation of the structures in a fusion reactor is so strong that their safety is of concern due to the magnetoelastic bending, buckling and magnetic damping, etc. Basic research of the magnetoelastic characteristics of ferromagnetic plate has been paid special attention by researchers. In this paper, the magnetoelastic bending and snapping are studied for a ferromagnetic plate in an oblique magnetic field. The theoretical model is based on the variational principle where the functional is employed as real total energy in the system including external work. The obtained expression of magnetic force on the plate is the same as that derived from the dipole model when the total magnetic field in the ferromagnetic medium is considered. In order to effectively solve the nonlinearly coupled interaction problem between magnetic field and mechanical deformation, a numerical program combining the finite element method for analyzing the magnetic field with the finite difference technique for finding out the bending deformation of the plate is employed to obtain the solution of magnetoelastic bending of a soft ferromagnetic plate. The numerical calculations are carried out for the typical example of a ferromagnetic cantilevered beam-plate in an oblique magnetic field. From the bending curves, that is the tip deflection versus applied magnetic fields, the critical magnetic field for the magnetoelastic snapping is predicted by the Southwell plot. The theoretical predictions show that the critical magnetic field decreases with the increase in incident angle of the oblique magnetic field. By the effect of incident angle on the magnetic buckling, the discrepancy between theoretical and experimental data can
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei-Jen Lai
2018-01-01
Conclusion: The system acted similar to an off-center V-bend and can be applied in clinical practice as an unconventional loop design. We suggest that this force system has the potential for second-order moment control in clinical applications.
Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aase Heidi
2005-08-01
learning long behavioural sequences may ultimately lead to deficient development of verbally governed behaviour and self control. The study represents a new approach to analyzing the moment-to-moment dynamics of behaviour, and provides support for the theory that reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD.
Peripheral Protein Unfolding Drives Membrane Bending.
Siaw, Hew Ming Helen; Raghunath, Gokul; Dyer, R Brian
2018-06-20
Dynamic modulation of lipid membrane curvature can be achieved by a number of peripheral protein binding mechanisms such as hy-drophobic insertion of amphipathic helices and membrane scaffolding. Recently, an alternative mechanism was proposed in which crowding of peripherally bound proteins induces membrane curvature through steric pressure generated by lateral collisions. This effect was enhanced using intrinsically disordered proteins that possess high hydrodynamic radii, prompting us to explore whether membrane bending can be triggered by the folding-unfolding transition of surface-bound proteins. We utilized histidine-tagged human serum albumin bound to Ni-NTA-DGS containing liposomes as our model system to test this hypothesis. We found that reduction of the disulfide bonds in the protein resulted in unfolding of HSA, which subsequently led to membrane tubule formation. The frequency of tubule formation was found to be significantly higher when the proteins were unfolded while being localized to a phase-separated domain as opposed to randomly distributed in fluid phase liposomes, indicating that the steric pressure generated from protein unfolding is directly responsible for membrane deformation. Our results are critical for the design of peripheral membrane protein-immobilization strategies and open new avenues for exploring mechanisms of membrane bending driven by conformational changes of peripheral membrane proteins.
Evaluation of factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait: A systematic review.
Inai, Takuma; Takabayashi, Tomoya; Edama, Mutsuaki; Kubo, Masayoshi
2018-03-01
Decreasing the daily cumulative hip moments in the frontal and sagittal planes may lower the risk of hip osteoarthritis. Therefore, it may be important to evaluate factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait. It is unclear what factors affect hip moment impulse during gait. This systematic review aimed to evaluate different factors that affect hip moment impulse during gait in healthy adults and patients with hip osteoarthritis. Four databases (Scopus, ScienceDirect, PubMed, and PEDro) were searched up to August 2017 to identify studies that examined hip moment impulse during gait. Data extracted for analysis included the sample size, age, height, body mass, type of intervention, and main findings. After screening, 10 of the 975 studies identified were included in our analysis. Several factors, including a rocker bottom shoe, FitFlop™ sandals, ankle push-off, posture, stride length, body-weight unloading, a rollator, walking poles, and a knee brace, were reviewed. The main findings were as follows: increasing ankle push-off decreased both the hip flexion and extension moment impulses; body-weight unloading decreased both the hip extension and adduction moment impulses; the FitFlop™ sandal increased the sum of the hip flexion and extension moment impulses; long strides increased the hip extension moment impulse; and the use of a knee brace increased hip flexion moment impulse. Of note, none of the eligible studies included patients with hip osteoarthritis. The hip moment impulses can be modified by person-specific factors (ankle push-off and long strides) and external factors (body-weight unloading and use of the FitFlop™ sandals and a knee brace). Effects on the progression of hip osteoarthritis remain to be evaluated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Combined effect of external and internal irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiradzhiev, G.
1987-01-01
Some of the general regularities of the combined effect of external irradiation and iodine 131 are discussed. Data are adduced showing that modification of the effects of these two radiation factors, when jointly applied, is also determined by the quantitative relations of the applied doses of external and internal irradiation, referred to a particular moment of the effects. It was shown that the effects of the radionuclides in these combined radiation injuries are basically realized by two mechanisms: 1. changes are found in the radionuclide kinetic parameters (nonspecific effects); 2. changes in their kinetic parameters are absent (specific effect). These two mechanisms underlie different approaches to therapy
The Critical Moment of Transition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svalgaard, Lotte
2018-01-01
By providing a holding environment to acknowledge sensitivities and address emotions, leadership programmes prove to be powerful spaces for increasing self- and social awareness. However, the challenge is for one to maintain the newly gained self- and social awareness after leaving the holding...... – within the context of an international MBA program – of MBA students applying their knowledge from a Leadership Stream in an International Consultancy Project. This paper contributes to the theory and practice of management learning by providing lenses to understand subjective experiences of critical...... moments of transition, developing the notion of “mindful avoidance,” and pointing out a major and neglected potential space in the design of management education....
Usage of information safety requirements in improving tube bending process
Livshitz, I. I.; Kunakov, E.; Lontsikh, P. A.
2018-05-01
This article is devoted to an improvement of the technological process's analysis with the information security requirements implementation. The aim of this research is the competition increase analysis in aircraft industry enterprises due to the information technology implementation by the example of the tube bending technological process. The article analyzes tube bending kinds and current technique. In addition, a potential risks analysis in a tube bending technological process is carried out in terms of information security.
External Fuel Tank, Clouds and Earth Limb
1991-01-01
It's fuel consumed, the expendable external fuel tank was jettisoned moments earlier from the Space Shuttle Atlantis and now begins its plunge back to Earth (20.5N, 36.0W). Backdropped against the void of space and the thin blue line of the Earth's airglow above the Earth Limb, the harshness of the blackness of space is softened by the fleeciness of Earth's cloud cover below.
Knee adduction moment and medial contact force--facts about their correlation during gait.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ines Kutzner
Full Text Available The external knee adduction moment is considered a surrogate measure for the medial tibiofemoral contact force and is commonly used to quantify the load reducing effect of orthopedic interventions. However, only limited and controversial data exist about the correlation between adduction moment and medial force. The objective of this study was to examine whether the adduction moment is indeed a strong predictor for the medial force by determining their correlation during gait. Instrumented knee implants with telemetric data transmission were used to measure tibiofemoral contact forces in nine subjects. Gait analyses were performed simultaneously to the joint load measurements. Skeletal kinematics, as well as the ground reaction forces and inertial parameters, were used as inputs in an inverse dynamics approach to calculate the external knee adduction moment. Linear regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between adduction moment and medial force for the whole stance phase and separately for the early and late stance phase. Whereas only moderate correlations between adduction moment and medial force were observed throughout the whole stance phase (R(2 = 0.56 and during the late stance phase (R(2 = 0.51, a high correlation was observed at the early stance phase (R(2 = 0.76. Furthermore, the adduction moment was highly correlated to the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase (R(2 = 0.75. These results suggest that the adduction moment is a surrogate measure, well-suited to predicting the medial force ratio throughout the whole stance phase or medial force during the early stance phase. However, particularly during the late stance phase, moderate correlations and high inter-individual variations revealed that the predictive value of the adduction moment is limited. Further analyses are necessary to examine whether a combination of other kinematic, kinetic or neuromuscular factors may lead to a more
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deguchi, M; Takimoto, T; Kasuda, T; Tozawa, S [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-04-10
While high-speed ships are on a trend of increased speed, size and diversity, one of the most important items is a discussion on large high-speed ships with a total length of 100 m class on their longitudinal strength in waves. With such a background, a model ship intended of realizing a large high-speed was assumed, and verification of reliability in structural strength and establishment of a design method for this ship were intended. Therefore, oceanographic condition setting, design load setting, FEM analysis, and strength assessment were carried out. This paper reports the results of comparison with and consideration on conventional criteria and linear calculations, mainly the results of simulated calculations on non-linear hull movement/wave load which have been performed in discussing the loads. The result of the non-linear simulation is thought to have well simulated non-linearity characteristic to the ship. Conventional criteria which have been arranged on the record of use for small ships are considered impossible to be applied to large high-speed ships. Under such a situation, the simplified equations by Kaneko et al are judged effective in making an initial plan for this type of ship. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Bending of pipes with inconel cladding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. (PROTUBO), Macae, RJ (Brazil)
2009-07-01
The high-frequency induction bending process, using API pipes coated with Inconel 625 reconciled to a mechanical transformation for a higher degree of resistance, was developed through a careful specification and control of the manufacturing parameters and inherent heat treatments. The effects of this technology were investigated by a qualification process consisting of a sequence of tests and acceptance criteria typically required by the offshore industry, and through the obtained results was proved the effectiveness of this entire manufacturing process, without causing interference in the properties and the quality of the inconel cladding, adding a gain of resistance to the base material, guaranteed by the requirements of the API 5L Standard. (author)
Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype
Schoerling, D
2013-01-01
The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).
Electrothermally-Actuated Micromirrors with Bimorph Actuators—Bending-Type and Torsion-Type
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Hua Tsai
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Three different electrothermally-actuated MEMS micromirrors with Cr/Au-Si bimorph actuators are proposed. The devices are fabricated with the SOIMUMPs process developed by MEMSCAP, Inc. (Durham, NC, USA. A silicon-on-insulator MEMS process has been employed for the fabrication of these micromirrors. Electrothermal actuation has achieved a large angular movement in the micromirrors. Application of an external electric current 0.04 A to the bending-type, restricted-torsion-type, and free-torsion-type mirrors achieved rotation angles of 1.69°, 3.28°, and 3.64°, respectively.
Experimental Study on Temperature Behavior of SC Structures under Pure Bending
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ham, K. W.; Lee, K. J.; Park, D. S.; Jeon, J. H.
2006-01-01
SC(Steel plate Concrete) module method uses steel plate instead of reinforcing bar and mold in existing RC structure. Steel plate modules are fabricated in advance, installed and poured with concrete in construction field, so construction period is remarkably shortened by SC module technique. In case of existence of temperature gap between internal and external structure surface such as spent fuel storage pool, thermal stress is taken place and as a result of it, structural strength is deteriorated. In this study, we designed three test specimens and several tests with or without temperature heating were conducted to evaluate temperature behavior of SC structures under pure bending loading condition
Calo, Victor M.
2014-01-01
We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable) with a thickness-dependent constant in a norm encompassing the L2-norms of the bending moment, the shear force, the transverse deflection and the rotation vector. We then construct a numerical solution scheme based on quadrilateral scalar and vector finite elements of degree p. We show that for affine meshes the discretization inherits the stability of the continuous formulation provided that the optimal test functions are approximated by polynomials of degree p+3. We prove a theoretical error estimate in terms of the mesh size h and polynomial degree p and demonstrate numerical convergence on affine as well as non-affine mesh sequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. R. R. COSTA
Full Text Available Abstract This work involved the structural optimization of precast concrete rigid frames with semi-rigid beam-to-column connections. To this end, several frames were simulated numerically using the Finite Element Method. Beams and columns were modeled using bar elements and their connections were modeled using spring elements, with variable bending stiffness. The objective function was based on the search of the least stiff connection able to ensure the global stability of the building. Lastly, a connection model with optimal stiffness was adopted to design the frame. Semi-rigid beam-to-column connections with a constraint factors of 0.33 sufficed to ensure the maximum allowable horizontal displacement and bending moment of the connection, with a global stability parameter of 1.12. This confirms that even connections with low constraints generate significant gains from the structural standpoint, without affecting construction and assembly-related aspects.
Load tests with a pipe bend DN 425, applying slowly changing bending loads up to occurrence of leak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uhlmann, D.; Hunger, H.
1990-01-01
The experimental program deals with the formation of incipient cracks and subsequent crack growth of axially oriented cracks at a pipe bend with a nominal width of DN 425. The pipe bend consists of the ferritic material 20MnMoNi55. The numerical experiments by means of 3 D-FE analyses concentrate on determining the influence of the asymmetric crack depths at the two bend halves, and of the multiple crack fields, on the effective crack strain. (DG) [de
Noncommutative QED and anomalous dipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riad, I.F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M.M.
2000-09-01
We study QED on noncommutative spaces, NCQED. In particular we present the detailed calculation for the noncommutative electron-photon vertex and show that the Ward identity is satisfied. We discuss that in the noncommutative case moving electron will show electric dipole effects. In addition, we work out the electric and magnetic dipole moments up to one loop level. For the magnetic moment we show that noncommutative electron has an intrinsic (spin independent) magnetic moment. (author)
Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.
1983-01-01
The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the molecules CO, HB, HF and LiH are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. It is discussed the possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment. (Author) [pt
Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosato, A.
1983-01-01
The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the CO, HB, HF and LiH molecules are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. The possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment is discussed. (Author) [pt
Restrictions on the neutrino magnetic dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duncan, M.J.; Sankar, S.U.; Grifols, J.A.; Mendez, A.
1987-01-01
We examine mechanisms for producing neutrino magnetic moments from a wide class of particle theories which are extensions of the standard model. We show that it is difficult to naturally obtain a moment greater than ≅ 10 -2 electron Bohr magnetons. Thus models of phenomena requiring moments of order ≅ 10 -10 magnetons, such as those proposed as a resolution to the solar neutrino puzzle, are in conflict with current perceptions in particle physics. (orig.)
W-boson electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1990-01-01
The W-boson electric dipole moment is calculated in the SU(3) C xSU(2) L xU(1) Y model with several Higgs-boson doublets. Using the constraint on the CP-violating parameters from the experimental upper bound of the neutron electric dipole moment, we find that the W-boson electric dipole moment is constrained to be less than 10 -4
On the accuracy of analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipe bends with end constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomson, G.; Spence, J.
1985-01-01
The accuracy of theoretical analyses for in-plane bending of smooth pipebends with end constraints is discussed and investigated with a view to explaining and reducing the differences between the major works. An earlier theory of the authors is improved to give more accurate answers for bends with rigid flanges. Flanged bends are then examined in some detail, quantifying for the first time the important influence of the flange rigidity on the bend flexibility and stresses. A summary of some finite element analyses is presented from which it is clear that further work is desirable. (orig.)
How to introduce the magnetic dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezerra, M; Kort-Kamp, W J M; Cougo-Pinto, M V; Farina, C
2012-01-01
We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the magnetic field at distant points, identifying the magnetic dipole moment of the distribution. We also present a simple but general demonstration of the torque exerted by a uniform magnetic field on a current loop of general form, not necessarily planar. For pedagogical reasons we start by reviewing briefly the concept of the electric dipole moment. (paper)
Gross shell structure of moments of inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deleplanque, M.A.; Frauendorf, S.; Pashkevich, V.V.; Chu, S.Y.; Unzhakova, A.
2002-01-01
Average yrast moments of inertia at high spins, where the pairing correlations are expected to be largely absent, were found to deviate from the rigid-body values. This indicates that shell effects contribute to the moment of inertia. We discuss the gross dependence of moments of inertia and shell energies on the neutron number in terms of the semiclassical periodic orbit theory. We show that the ground-state shell energies, nuclear deformations and deviations from rigid-body moments of inertia are all due to the same periodic orbits
Analysis of scaled-factorial-moment data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seibert, D.
1990-01-01
We discuss the two standard constructions used in the search for intermittency, the exclusive and inclusive scaled factorial moments. We propose the use of a new scaled factorial moment that reduces to the exclusive moment in the appropriate limit and is free of undesirable multiplicity correlations that are contained in the inclusive moment. We show that there are some similarities among most of the models that have been proposed to explain factorial-moment data, and that these similarities can be used to increase the efficiency of testing these models. We begin by calculating factorial moments from a simple independent-cluster model that assumes only approximate boost invariance of the cluster rapidity distribution and an approximate relation among the moments of the cluster multiplicity distribution. We find two scaling laws that are essentially model independent. The first scaling law relates the moments to each other with a simple formula, indicating that the different factorial moments are not independent. The second scaling law relates samples with different rapidity densities. We find evidence for much larger clusters in heavy-ion data than in light-ion data, indicating possible spatial intermittency in the heavy-ion events
van den Noort, J.C.; van den Noort, Josien C.; van der Esch, Martin; Steultjens, Martijn P.M.; Dekker, Joost; Schepers, H. Martin; Veltink, Petrus H.; Harlaar, Jaap
2012-01-01
The external knee adduction moment (KAdM) during gait is an important parameter in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). KAdM measurement is currently restricted to instruments only available in gait laboratories. However, ambulatory movement analysis technology, including instrumented force shoes
The Taylor-expansion method of moments for the particle system with bimodal distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Yan-Hua
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper derives the multipoint Taylor expansion method of moments for the bimodal particle system. The collision effects are modeled by the internal and external coagulation terms. Simple theory and numerical tests are performed to prove the effect of the current model.
Energy of magnetic moment of superconducting current in magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurtovoi, V.L.; Nikulov, A.V.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Quantization effects observed in superconducting loops are considered. • The energy of magnetic moment in magnetic field can not be deduced from Hamiltonian. • This energy is deduced from a history of the current state in the classical case. • It can not be deduced directly in the quantum case. • Taking this energy into account demolishes agreement between theory and experiment. - Abstract: The energy of magnetic moment of the persistent current circulating in superconducting loop in an externally produced magnetic field is not taken into account in the theory of quantization effects because of identification of the Hamiltonian with the energy. This identification misleads if, in accordance with the conservation law, the energy of a state is the energy expended for its creation. The energy of magnetic moment is deduced from a creation history of the current state in magnetic field both in the classical and quantum case. But taking this energy into account demolishes the agreement between theory and experiment. Impartial consideration of this problem discovers the contradiction both in theory and experiment
Effect of Bend Radius on Magnitude and Location of Erosion in S-Bend
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quamrul H. Mazumder
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Solid particle erosion is a mechanical process that removes material by the impact of solid particles entrained in the flow. Erosion is a leading cause of failure of oil and gas pipelines and fittings in fluid handling industries. Different approaches have been used to control or minimize damage caused by erosion in particulated gas-solid or liquid-solid flows. S-bend geometry is widely used in different fluid handling equipment that may be susceptible to erosion damage. The results of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation of diluted gas-solid and liquid-solid flows in an S-bend are presented in this paper. In addition to particle impact velocity, the bend radius may have significant influence on the magnitude and the location of erosion. CFD analysis was performed at three different air velocities (15.24 m/s–45.72 m/s and three different water velocities (0.1 m/s–10 m/s with entrained solid particles. The particle sizes used in the analysis range between 50 and 300 microns. Maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 250-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. The location of maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 300-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. Comparison of CFD results with available literature data showed reasonable and good agreement.
Moment distributions of clusters and molecules in the adiabatic rotor model
Ballentine, G. E.; Bertsch, G. F.; Onishi, N.; Yabana, K.
2008-01-01
We present a Fortran program to compute the distribution of dipole moments of free particles for use in analyzing molecular beams experiments that measure moments by deflection in an inhomogeneous field. The theory is the same for magnetic and electric dipole moments, and is based on a thermal ensemble of classical particles that are free to rotate and that have moment vectors aligned along a principal axis of rotation. The theory has two parameters, the ratio of the magnetic (or electric) dipole energy to the thermal energy, and the ratio of moments of inertia of the rotor. Program summaryProgram title:AdiabaticRotor Catalogue identifier:ADZO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADZO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions:Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:479 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:4853 Distribution format:tar.gz Programming language:Fortran 90 Computer:Pentium-IV, Macintosh Power PC G4 Operating system:Linux, Mac OS X RAM:600 Kbytes Word size:64 bits Classification:2.3 Nature of problem:The system considered is a thermal ensemble of rotors having a magnetic or electric moment aligned along one of the principal axes. The ensemble is placed in an external field which is turned on adiabatically. The problem is to find the distribution of moments in the presence of the external field. Solution method:There are three adiabatic invariants. The only nontrivial one is the action associated with the polar angle of the rotor axis with respect to external field. It is found by Newton's method. Running time:3 min on a 3 GHz Pentium IV processor.
The neutron electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Pakvasa, S.
1989-01-01
A systematic study was made of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of neutron D n in various models of CP violation. It was found that in the standard KM model with 3 families the neutron EDM is in the range 1.4x10 -33 ≤ D n ≤ 1.6x10 -31 ecm; that the two Higgs doublet model has approximately the same value of D n as the standard model; that D n in the Weinberg model is predicted to satisfy D n > 10 -25 ecm; that in a class of left-right symmetric models D n is of the order of 10 -26-11 ecm; that in supersymmetric models D n is of the order 10 -22 φ ecm with φ being the possible phase difference of the phases of gluino mass and the gluino-quark-smark mixing matrix and that the strong CP parameter θ is found to be θ -9 , using the present experimental limit that D n -25 ecm with 90% confidence. 65 refs., 10 figs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jay Foster
2015-11-01
Full Text Available At least two recent collections of essays – Postmodernism and the Enlightenment (2001 and What’s Left of Enlightenment?: A Postmodern Question (2001 – have responded to postmodern critiques of Enlightenment by arguing that Enlightenment philosophes themselves embraced a number of post-modern themes. This essay situates Kant’s essay Was ist Aufklärung (1784 in the context of this recent literature about the appropriate characterization of modernity and the Enlightenment. Adopting an internalist reading of Kant’s Aufklärung essay, this paper observes that Kant is surprisingly ambivalent about who might be Enlightened and unspecific about when Enlightenment might be achieved. The paper argues that this is because Kant is concerned less with elucidating his concept of Enlightenment and more with characterizing a political condition that might provide the conditions for the possibility of Enlightenment. This paper calls this political condition modernity and it is achieved when civil order can be maintained alongside fractious and possibly insoluble public disagreement about matters of conscience, including the nature and possibility of Enlightenment. Thus, the audience for the Aufklärung essay is not the tax collector, soldier or clergyman, but rather the sovereign. Kant enjoins and advises the prince that discord and debate about matters of conscience need not entail any political unrest or upheaval. It is in this restricted (Pocockian sense that the Enlightenment essay is Kant’s Machiavellian moment.
Stereo Correspondence Using Moment Invariants
Premaratne, Prashan; Safaei, Farzad
Autonomous navigation is seen as a vital tool in harnessing the enormous potential of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and small robotic vehicles for both military and civilian use. Even though, laser based scanning solutions for Simultaneous Location And Mapping (SLAM) is considered as the most reliable for depth estimation, they are not feasible for use in UAV and land-based small vehicles due to their physical size and weight. Stereovision is considered as the best approach for any autonomous navigation solution as stereo rigs are considered to be lightweight and inexpensive. However, stereoscopy which estimates the depth information through pairs of stereo images can still be computationally expensive and unreliable. This is mainly due to some of the algorithms used in successful stereovision solutions require high computational requirements that cannot be met by small robotic vehicles. In our research, we implement a feature-based stereovision solution using moment invariants as a metric to find corresponding regions in image pairs that will reduce the computational complexity and improve the accuracy of the disparity measures that will be significant for the use in UAVs and in small robotic vehicles.
Gender differences in variability patterns of forward bending
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk
2016-01-01
The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure.......The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....
Disk-bend ductility tests for irradiated materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klueh, R.L.; Braski, D.N.
1984-01-01
We modified the HEDL disk-bend test machine and are using it to qualitatively screen alloys that are susceptible to embrittlement caused by irradiation. Tests designed to understand the disk-bend test in relation to a uniaxial test are discussed. Selected results of tests of neutron-irradiated material are also presented
System effects influencing the bending strength of timber beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Källsner, B.
1998-01-01
A stochastic model of hierarchical series system type for the bending strength of spruce beams isdefined from the anticipation that the bending failure takes place at a cross-section with a defect cluster formed by knots or grain irregularities. The parameters of the model are estimated from meas...
Bends in nanotubes allow electric spin control and coupling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Flensberg, Karsten; Marcus, Charles Masamed
2010-01-01
We investigate combined effects of spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field in carbon nanotubes containing one or more bends along their length. We show how bends can be used to provide electrical control of confined spins, while spins confined in straight segments remain insensitive to electric...
Spontaneous bending of 2D molecular bottle-brush
Subbotin, A; Jong, J; ten Brinke, G
Using a scaling approach we consider a 2D comb copolymer brush under bending deformations. We show that the rectilinear brush is locally stable and can be characterized by a persistence length lambda increasing with the molecular weight of grafting side chains as lambda similar to M-3. A bending
High-sensitivity bend angle measurements using optical fiber gratings.
Rauf, Abdul; Zhao, Jianlin; Jiang, Biqiang
2013-07-20
We present a high-sensitivity and more flexible bend measurement method, which is based on the coupling of core mode to the cladding modes at the bending region in concatenation with optical fiber grating serving as band reflector. The characteristics of a bend sensing arm composed of bending region and optical fiber grating is examined for different configurations including single fiber Bragg grating (FBG), chirped FBG (CFBG), and double FBGs. The bend loss curves for coated, stripped, and etched sections of fiber in the bending region with FBG, CFBG, and double FBG are obtained experimentally. The effect of separation between bending region and optical fiber grating on loss is measured. The loss responses for single FBG and CFBG configurations are compared to discover the effectiveness for practical applications. It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the double FBG scheme is twice that of the single FBG and CFBG configurations, and hence acts as sensitivity multiplier. The bend loss response for different fiber diameters obtained through etching in 40% hydrofluoric acid, is measured in double FBG scheme that resulted in a significant increase in the sensitivity, and reduction of dead-zone.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neki, I.; Tada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-12-31
This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neki, I; Tada, T [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1997-12-31
This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.
Stress index development for piping with trunnion attachment under pressure and moment loading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D. H.; Kim, J. M.; Park, S. H.
1997-01-01
A finite element analysis of a trunnion pipe anchor is presented. The structure is analyzed for the case of internal pressure and moment loadings. The stress results are categorized into the average (membrane) stress, the linearly varying (bending) stress and the peak stress through the thickness. The resulting stresses are interpreted per section III of the ASME boiler and pressure vessel code from which the Primary (B 1 ), Secondary (C 1 ) and Peak (K 1 ) stress indices for pressure, the Primary (B 2 ), Secondary (C 2 ) and Peak (K 2 ) stress indices for moment are developed. Based on the comparison between stress value by stress indices derived in this paper and stress value represented by the ASME Code Case N-391-1, the empirical equations for stress indices are effectively used in the piping stress analysis. Therefore, the use of empirical equations can simplify the procedure of evaluating the local stress in the piping design stage. (author)
Formulation of Forming Load in V-Bending
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koumura Yuki
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A novel method is described to calculate the forming load in V-bending by a press brake. The data of forming load are collected by FEM analysis. With an increase of the punch stroke in V-bending, the forming load increases gradually after the elastic limit, and then decreases after showing the maximum value. The proposal formulation to trace the variations in the forming load curve includes the calculating method of the load of the elastic limit, the maximum load in air bending and the variations of the forming load before/after the bending stroke of the maximum load. The calculated precision is confirmed by comparing with the measured load-stroke curves in V-bending with a press brake.
Closed forms and multi-moment maps
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis
2013-01-01
We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are gu...
Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings
Margulis, V. A.; Karpunin, V. V.; Mironova, K. I.
2018-01-01
Magnetic moment of single layer graphene rings is investigated. An analytical expression for the magnetic moment as a function of the magnetic field flux through the one-dimensional quantum rings is obtained. This expression has the oscillation character. The oscillation period is equal to one flux quanta.
6-quark contribution to nuclear magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, H.
1985-01-01
The magnetic moments of nuclei with LS closed shell +/-1 particle are calculated. Core polarization and meson exchange current are treated realistically in order to single out the 6-quark contribution. Overall agreement with experimental values is quite good. It is shown that the 6-quark system contributes to the respective iso-vector and iso-scalar moments with reasonable magnitudes
D-dimensional moments of inertia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bender, C.M.; Mead, L.R.
1995-01-01
We calculate the moments of inertia of D-dimensional spheres and spherical shells, where D is a complex number. We also examine the moments of inertia of fractional-dimensional geometrical objects such as the Cantor set and the Sierpinski carpet and their D-dimensional analogs. copyright 1995 American Association of Physics Teachers
Dynamical moments of inertia for superdeformed nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obikhod, T.V.
1995-01-01
The method of quantum groups has been applied for calculation the dynamical moments of inertia for the yrast superdeformed bands in 194 Hg and 192 Hg as well as to calculation of the dynamical moments of inertia of superdeformed bands in 150 Gd and 148 Gd
Polarization electric dipole moment in nonaxial nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.Yu.; Davidovskaya, O.I.
1996-01-01
An expression for the macroscopic polarization electric dipole moment is obtained for nonaxial nuclei whose radii of the proton and neutron surfaces are related by a linear equation. Dipole transitions associated with the polarization electric dipole moment are analyzed for static and dynamical multipole deformations
Droplet-model electric dipole moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.
1991-01-01
Denisov's recent criticism of the droplet-model formula for the dipole moment of a deformed nucleus as derived by Dorso et al., it shown to be invalid. This helps to clarify the relation of theory to the measured dipole moments, as discussed in the review article by Aberg et al. (orig.)
Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There
Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.
2015-01-01
In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…
A bend thickness sensitivity study of Candu feeder piping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, M.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Meysner, A.; Micelotta, C.
2005-01-01
In CANDU reactors, feeder bends close to the connection at the fuel channel may be subjected to the highest Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and stresses. Feeder pipe stress analysis is crucial in the life extension of aging CANDU plants. Typical feeder pipes are interconnected by upper link plates and spacers. It is well known that the stresses at the bends are sensitive to the local bend thicknesses. It is also known from the authors' study (Li and et al, 2005) that feeder inter linkage effect is significant and cannot be ignored. The field measurement of feeder bend thickness is difficult and may be subjected to uncertainty in accuracy. Hence, it is desirable to know how the stress on a subject feeder could be affected by the bend thickness variation of the neighboring feeders. This effect cannot be evaluated by the traditional 'single' feeder model approach. In this paper, the 'row' and 'combined' models developed in the previous study (Li and et al, 2005), which include the feeder interactions, are used to investigate the sensitivity of bend thickness. A series of random thickness bounded by maximum and minimum measured values were applied to feeders in the model. The results show that an individual feeder is not sensitive to the bend thickness variation of the remaining feeders in the model, but depends primarily on its own bend thickness. The highest stress at a feeder always occurs when the feeder has the smallest possible bend thickness. A minimum acceptable bend thickness for individual feeders can be computed by an iterative computing process. The dependency of field thickness measurement and the amount of required analysis work can be greatly reduced. (authors)
Prediction of conformationally dependent atomic multipole moments in carbohydrates.
Cardamone, Salvatore; Popelier, Paul L A
2015-12-15
The conformational flexibility of carbohydrates is challenging within the field of computational chemistry. This flexibility causes the electron density to change, which leads to fluctuating atomic multipole moments. Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) allows for the partitioning of an "atom in a molecule," thus localizing electron density to finite atomic domains, which permits the unambiguous evaluation of atomic multipole moments. By selecting an ensemble of physically realistic conformers of a chemical system, one evaluates the various multipole moments at defined points in configuration space. The subsequent implementation of the machine learning method kriging delivers the evaluation of an analytical function, which smoothly interpolates between these points. This allows for the prediction of atomic multipole moments at new points in conformational space, not trained for but within prediction range. In this work, we demonstrate that the carbohydrates erythrose and threose are amenable to the above methodology. We investigate how kriging models respond when the training ensemble incorporating multiple energy minima and their environment in conformational space. Additionally, we evaluate the gains in predictive capacity of our models as the size of the training ensemble increases. We believe this approach to be entirely novel within the field of carbohydrates. For a modest training set size of 600, more than 90% of the external test configurations have an error in the total (predicted) electrostatic energy (relative to ab initio) of maximum 1 kJ mol(-1) for open chains and just over 90% an error of maximum 4 kJ mol(-1) for rings. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Chang-Kyun; Jin, Tae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Sung
2009-01-01
This paper firstly presents net-section limit moments for circumferential through-wall and part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes under in-plane bending. Closed-form solutions are proposed based on fitting results from small strain FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Net-section limit moments for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes are found to be close to those for cracks in the centre of elbows, implying that the location of the circumferential crack within an elbow has a minimal effect on the net-section limit moment. Accordingly it is also found that the assumption that the crack locates in a straight pipe could significantly overestimate the net-section limit load (and thus maximum load-carrying capacity) of the cracked component. Based on the proposed net-section limit moment, a method to estimate elastic-plastic J based on the reference stress approach is proposed for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes under in-plane bending.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sulpicio Sánchez-Tizapa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un método práctico para calcular la curva envolvente de cortante y momento en puentes isostáticos con longitudes entre 15,0 y 50,0 m, considerando las cargas vivas del reglamento mexicano. La curva de cortante es una función de primer grado mientras que el momento fl ector es de segundo grado, en ambos casos la distancia a partir del extremo izquierdo de la viga es la variable independiente. Esta herramienta puede utilizarse ya sea en el diseño de puentes en el campo profesional o en cursos académicos, evitando así el uso ilegal de software profesional. Mediante un algoritmo simple desarrollado en software libre se calcularon las envolventes de ambos elementos mecánicos, utilizadas posteriormente para evaluar, mediante un análisis estadístico, los coefi cientes de las ecuaciones respectivas. El mínimo coefi ciente de correlación entre ambos métodos fue 0,98, lo cual muestra la capacidad del método. Este proceso puede ser implementado para cualquier tipo de carga viva en puentes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher
2012-01-01
Currently, a number of very large container ships are being built and more are on order, and some concerns have been expressed about the importance of the reduced hull girder stiffness to the wave-induced loads. The main concern is related to the fatigue life, but also a possible increase...... in the global hull girder loads as consequence of the increased hull flexibility must be considered. This is especially so as the rules of the classification societies do not explicitly account for the effect of hull flexibility on the global loads. In the present paper an analysis has been carried out...... in the waves. Slamming forces are determined by a standard momentum formulation. The hull flexibility is modelled as a nonprismatic Timoshenko beam. Generally, good agreement with experimental results and more accurate numerical predictions has previously been obtained in a number of studies. The statistical...
Hofmeyer, H.; Kerstens, J.G.M.; Snijder, H.H.; Bakker, M.C.M.
1996-01-01
Design rules describing failure at an interior support of cold-formed steel flexural members are of an empirical nature. This is probably due to the complex character of the failure mechanisms, which makes an analytical approach difficult. An overview of research on this subject has been made. The
Didia, E E; Akon, A B; Thiam, A; Djeredou, K B
2010-03-01
One of the concerns of the dental surgeon in the realization of any operational act is the durability of this one. The mechanical resistance of the provisional prostheses contributes in a large part to the durability of those. The resins in general, have weak mechanical properties. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resistance in inflection of temporary bridges reinforced with glass fibre. To remedy the weak mechanical properties of resins, we thought in this study, to reinforce them with glass fibres. For this purpose, we realized with two different resins, four groups of temporary bridges of 3 elements, including two groups reinforced fibreglass and the others not. Tests of inflection 3 points have been made on these bridges and resistance to fracture was analysed. The statistical tests showed a significant difference in four groups with better resistance for the reinforced bridges.
Sulpicio Sánchez-Tizapa; Roberto Arroyo-Matus; Andrés Gama-García
2015-01-01
Este artículo presenta un método práctico para calcular la curva envolvente de cortante y momento en puentes isostáticos con longitudes entre 15,0 y 50,0 m, considerando las cargas vivas del reglamento mexicano. La curva de cortante es una función de primer grado mientras que el momento fl ector es de segundo grado, en ambos casos la distancia a partir del extremo izquierdo de la viga es la variable independiente. Esta herramienta puede utilizarse ya sea en el diseño de puentes en el cam...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baek, Tae Hyun; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok [Kunsan National University, Gunsan (Korea, Republic of)
2006-10-15
It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baek, Tae Hyun; Park, Tae Geun; Yang, Min Bok
2006-01-01
It is necessary to study on the stress concentration experimentally, which is the main reason to avoid mechanical dilapidation and failure, when designing a mechanical structure. Stress concentration factor of a specimen of cantilever beam with a circular hole in the center was measured using both strain gage and photoelastic methods in this paper. In strain-gage measurement, three strain gages along the line near a hole of the specimen were installed and maximum strain was extrapolated from three measurements. In photoelastic measurement, two methods were employed. First, the Babinet-Soleil compensation method was used to measure the maximum strain. Secondly, photoelastic 4-step phase shilling method was applied to observe the strain distribution around the hole. Measurements obtained by different experiments were comparable within the range of experimental error
Large Deformation Dynamic Bending of Composite Beams
Derian, E. J.; Hyer, M. W.
1986-01-01
Studies were conducted on the large deformation response of composite beams subjected to a dynamic axial load. The beams were loaded with a moderate eccentricity to promote bending. The study was primarily experimental but some finite element results were obtained. Both the deformation and the failure of the beams were of interest. The static response of the beams was also studied to determine potential differences between the static and dynamic failure. Twelve different laminate types were tested. The beams were loaded dynamically with a gravity driven impactor traveling at 19.6 ft/sec and quasi-static tests were conducted on identical beams in a displacement controlled manner. For laminates of practical interest, the failure modes under static and dynamic loadings were identical. Failure in most of the laminate types occurred in a single event involving 40% to 50% of the plies. However, failure in laminates with 30 deg or 15 deg off-axis plies occured in several events. All laminates exhibited bimodular elastic properties. Using empirically determined flexural properties, a finite element analysis was reasonably accurate in predicting the static and dynamic deformation response.
Field measurement for large bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzaro, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Winfield, J.S.
2008-01-01
The results of magnetic field measurements of the large bending magnet of the MAGNEX spectrometer are presented. The experimental values are used to build an Enge function by the least-squares method. The resulting field is compared to the measured one, showing too large deviation for application to ray reconstruction techniques. Similarly, the experimental values are compared with results from a three-dimensional finite elements calculation. Again the deviations between measured and calculated field are too large for a direct application of the latter to ray reconstruction, while its reliability is sufficient for analysis purposes. In particular, it has been applied to study the effect of the inaccuracies in the probe location and orientation on the precision of field reconstruction, and to establish the requirements for the field interpolation. These inaccuracies are found to be rather important, especially for the transversal components of the field, with the consequence that their effect on the reconstructed field should be minimized by special interpolation algorithms
Occipital bending (Yakovlevian torque) in bipolar depression.
Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney; Thomson, Richard H; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B
2015-01-30
Differing levels of occipital lobe asymmetry and enlarged lateral ventricles have been reported within patients with bipolar disorder (BD) compared with healthy controls, suggesting different rates of occipital bending (OB). This may exert pressure on subcortical structures, such as the hippocampus, reduced among psychiatric patients. We investigated OB prevalence in 35 patients with BD and 36 healthy controls, and ventricular and occipital volumes. Prevalence was four times higher among BD patients (12/35 [34.3%]) than in control subjects (3/36 [8.3%]), as well as larger lateral ventricular volumes (LVVs). Furthermore, we found OB to relate to left-to-right ventricular and occipital lobe volume (OLV) ratios. Those with OB also had reduced left-to-right hippocampal volume ratios. The results suggest that OB is more common among BD patients than healthy subjects, and prevalent in both BD Type I and Type II patients. We posit that anomalies in neural pruning or ventricular enlargement may precipitate OB, consequently resulting in one occipital lobe twisting around the other. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, the study suggests that asymmetrical ventricular volume matched with a pattern of oppositely asymmetrical occipital volume is related to OB and may be a marker of psychiatric illness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hakan Keskin
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of impregnation with Tanalith-E on the bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending of some wood types. The test samples prepared from beech, oak, walnut, poplar, ash and pine wood materials - that are of common use in the forest products industry of TURKEY - according to TS 345, were treated with according to ASTM D 1413-76 substantially. Un-impregnated samples according to impregnated wood materials, the bending strengths in beech to 6.83%, 5.12% in ash, 5.93% in pine, the elasticity module values to 7.15% in oak and ash, at a rate of 6.58% in the higher were found. The highest values of bending strengths and modulus of elasticity in bending were obtained in beech and ash woods impregnated with Tanalith-E, whereas the lowest values were obtained in the poplar wood.
Torsion and bending properties of shape memory and superelastic nickel-titanium rotary instruments.
Ninan, Elizabeth; Berzins, David W
2013-01-01
Recently introduced into the market are shape memory nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files. The objective of this study was to investigate the torsion and bending properties of shape memory files (CM Wire, HyFlex CM, and Phoenix Flex) and compare them with conventional (ProFile ISO and K3) and M-Wire (GT Series X and ProFile Vortex) NiTi files. Sizes 20, 30, and 40 (n = 12/size/taper) of 0.02 taper CM Wire, Phoenix Flex, K3, and ProFile ISO and 0.04 taper HyFlex CM, ProFile ISO, GT Series X, and Vortex were tested in torsion and bending per ISO 3630-1 guidelines by using a torsiometer. All data were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance and the Tukey-Kramer test (P = .05) to determine any significant differences between the files. Significant interactions were present among factors of size and file. Variability in maximum torque values was noted among the shape memory files brands, sometimes exhibiting the greatest or least torque depending on brand, size, and taper. In general, the shape memory files showed a high angle of rotation before fracture but were not statistically different from some of the other files. However, the shape memory files were more flexible, as evidenced by significantly lower bending moments (P < .008). Shape memory files show greater flexibility compared with several other NiTi rotary file brands. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin-Weon; Na, Man-Gyun; Park, Chi-Yong
2008-01-01
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load. This study evaluated the global deformation behavior and collapse moment of the elbows, which contained various types of local wall-thinning defects at their intrados or extrados, using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The analysis results showed that the global deformation behavior of locally wall-thinned elbows was largely governed by the mode of the bending and the elbow geometry rather than the wall-thinning parameters, except for elbows with considerably large and deep wall thinning that showed plastic instabilities induced by local buckling and plastic collapsing in the thinned area. The reduction in the collapse moment with wall-thinning depth was considerable when local buckling occurred in the thinned areas, whereas the effect of the thinning depth was small when ovalization occurred. The effects of the circumferential thinning angle and thinning length on the collapse moment of elbows were not major for shallow wall-thinning cases. For deeper wall-thinning cases, however, their effects were significant and the dependence of collapse moment on the axial thinning length was governed by the stress type applied to the wall-thinned area. Typically, the reduction in the collapse moment due to local wall thinning was clearer when the thinning defect was located at the intrados rather than the extrados, and it was apparent for elbows with larger bend radius
External radiotherapy in a pleural mesothelioma tumor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandez, M.C.; Garcia, J.L.; Gomez, A.; Simon, J.L.; Maillo, M.; Jimenez Torres, M. J.
1994-01-01
Pleural mesothelioma is an uncommon tumor compared with other thoracic malignancies and a 80% of the cases have asbestos exposure. From 1983 to 1992 we have examined patients suffering from malignant pleural mesothelioma treated with external radiotherapy. We treated 11 patients of which 9 were males and 2 were females. The most frequent symptom was the chest pain and all these patients underwent a torascoscopy followed by a pleasured. Of the 11 cases: 10 were malignant epithelial mesothelioma and 1 was a mixed pleural case. Afterwards, they were treated with external radiotherapy between 30 and 55 Gy, with few complications. At the moment, 5 patients are still alive and there is a survival rate of 50% at 24 and 60 months and of 25% at 120 months. We think that external radiotherapy is a good palliative treatment with few complications. (Author) 28 refs
Nowroozi, B N; Brainerd, E L
2012-10-07
Unlike mammalian, disc-shaped intervertebral joints (IVJs), the IVJs in fishes are biconid structures, filled with fluid and thought to act as hydrostatic hinge joints during swimming. However, it remains unclear which IVJ structures are dominant in mechanical resistance to forces in fishes, and whether variation in these tissues might impact the function of the vertebral column along its length. Here, we measured the dynamic mechanical behaviour of IVJs from striped bass, Morone saxatilis. During lateral bending, angular stiffness was significantly lower in the caudal and cervical regions, relative to the abdominal region. The neutral zone, defined as the range of motion (ROM) at bending moments less than 0.001 Nm, was longer in the caudal relative to the abdominal IVJs. Hysteresis was 30-40% in all regions, suggesting that IVJs may play a role in energy dissipation during swimming. Cutting the vertical septum had no statistically significant effect, but cutting the encapsulating tissues caused a sharp decline in angular stiffness and a substantial increase in ROM and hysteresis. We conclude that stiffness decreases and ROM increases from cranial to caudal in striped bass, and that the encapsulating tissues play a prominent role in mechanical variation along the length of the vertebral column.
Four-Point Bending Strength Testing of Pultruded Fiberglass Composite Wind Turbine Blade Sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musial, W.; Bourne, B; Hughes, S; Zuteck, M. D.
2001-01-01
The ultimate strength of the PS Enterprises pultruded blade section was experimentally determined under four-point bending at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Thirteen 8-foot long full-scale blade segments were individually tested to determine their maximum moment carrying capability. Three airfoil-bending configurations were tested: high- and low-pressure skin buckling, and low pressure skin buckling with foam interior reinforcement. Maximum strain was recorded for each sample on the compressive and tensile surfaces of each test blade. Test data are compared to the results of three analytical buckling prediction methods. Based on deviations from the linear strain versus load curve, data indicate a post-buckling region. High-pressure side buckling occurred sooner than low-pressure side buckling. The buckling analyses were conservative for both configurations, but high-pressure side buckling in particular was substantially under-predicted. Both high- and low-pressure buckling configurations had very similar failure loads. These results suggests that a redundant load path may be providing strength to the section in the post-buckling region, making the onset of panel buckling a poor predictor of ultimate strength for the PS Enterprises pultrusion
Photoelastic investigation of the stresses in mitred bent cylinders under bending, (1)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawa, Yoshiaki
1982-01-01
Recently large bore pipes have been frequently used, and the techniques of jointing such pipes are important technical problem. As for the actual design of pipe joints, the stress condition has not been sufficiently clarified. When two same diameter pipes are jointed making a certain angle, mitred bent pipes are often used from economical and technical viewpoints as the pipes become large bore. In a mitred bent pipe, there is a sharp edge in its pipe joint, at which the measurement of stress and strain is difficult. The stress distribution near the joint when a mitred bent pipe is subjected to the bending moment in the plane containing the axes of both pipes was analyzed by the freezing three-dimensional photo-elastic method, and not only the bending stress in the joint but also the hoop stress were determined by the wedge method. This stress concentration phenomenon is due to the whole structural factor of the intersection of two pipes and the local stress peak factor caused at the wedge-shaped edge formed in the intersection. The local form of the intersection plays important role in the stress concentration. The manufactured models, the method of loading, slices and the wedge method, and the stress distribution are reported. (Kako, I.)
Photoelastic investigation of the stresses in mitered bent-cylinders under bending, 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sawa, Yoshiaki
1983-01-01
The results of the stress analysis near the joints by freezing photoelastic method are described when two mitered cylinders of same diameter were directly joined, and the joint was subjected to inplane bending. The intersecting angle was changed from 45 deg through 60 and 90 deg to 120 deg, and the change of the stress distribution was examined, and the relation of the axial and circumferential peak stress values to the intersecting angle, wall thickness and corner radius was determined. In the experiment changing the intersecting angle, mostly the wall thickness and corner radius were taken as 1/10 of cylinder outside diameter. The models were made of Araldite B type and by machining and filing. In order to apply pure bending moment, four-point loading method was adopted. The photoelastic pictures, the state of stress distribution and the change of stress concentration factor due to the change of the intersecting angle are reported. The stress concentration factor was relatively high, and in particular, that of axial stress at the corner was remarkably affected by the corner radius. Other points of high peak stress were found. (Kako, I.)
Regulating multiple externalities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max
2016-01-01
Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...
The influence of end constraints on smooth pipe bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thomson, G.; Spence, J.
1981-01-01
With present trends in the power industries towards higher operating temperatures and pressures, problems associated with the design and safety assessment of pipework systems have become increasingly complex. Within such systems, the importance of smooth pipe bends is well established. The work which will be presented will attempt to clarify the situation and unify the results. An analytical solution of the problem of a linear elastic smooth pipe bend with end constraints under in-plane bending will be presented. The analysis will deal with constraints in the form of flanged tangents of any length. The analysis employs the theorem of minimum total potential energy with suitable kinematically admissible displacements in the form of Fourier series. The integrations and minimisation were performed numerically, thereby permitting the removal of several of the assumptions made by previous authors. Typical results for flexibilities will be given along with comparisons with other works. The differences in some earlier theory are clarified and other more recent work using different solution techniques is substantiated. The bend behaviour is shown to be strongly influenced by the pipe bend parameter, the bend angle, the tangent pipe length and the bend/cross-sectional radius ratio. (orig./GL)
Bending-Tolerant Anodes for Lithium-Metal Batteries.
Wang, Aoxuan; Tang, Shan; Kong, Debin; Liu, Shan; Chiou, Kevin; Zhi, Linjie; Huang, Jiaxing; Xia, Yong-Yao; Luo, Jiayan
2018-01-01
Bendable energy-storage systems with high energy density are demanded for conformal electronics. Lithium-metal batteries including lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen cells have much higher theoretical energy density than lithium-ion batteries. Reckoned as the ideal anode, however, Li has many challenges when directly used, especially its tendency to form dendrite. Under bending conditions, the Li-dendrite growth can be further aggravated due to bending-induced local plastic deformation and Li-filaments pulverization. Here, the Li-metal anodes are made bending tolerant by integrating Li into bendable scaffolds such as reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) films. In the composites, the bending stress is largely dissipated by the scaffolds. The scaffolds have increased available surface for homogeneous Li plating and minimize volume fluctuation of Li electrodes during cycling. Significantly improved cycling performance under bending conditions is achieved. With the bending-tolerant r-GO/Li-metal anode, bendable lithium-sulfur and lithium-oxygen batteries with long cycling stability are realized. A bendable integrated solar cell-battery system charged by light with stable output and a series connected bendable battery pack with higher voltage is also demonstrated. It is anticipated that this bending-tolerant anode can be combined with further electrolytes and cathodes to develop new bendable energy systems. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
ExternE National Implementation Finland
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)
1999-07-01
ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)
ExternE National Implementation Finland
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.
1999-01-01
ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)
ExternE National Implementation Finland
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)
1999-07-01
ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)
On multipole moments in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoenselaers, C.
1986-01-01
In general situations, involving gravitational waves the question of multiple moments in general relativity restricts the author to stationary axisymmetric situations. Here it has been shown that multipole moments, a set of numbers defined at spatial infinity as far away from the source as possible, determine a solution of Einstein's equations uniquely. With the rather powerful methods for generating solutions one might hope to get solutions with predefined multipole moments. Before doing so, however, one needs an efficient algorithm for calculating the moments of a given solution. Chapter 2 deals with a conjecture pertaining to such a calculational procedure and shows it to be not true. There is another context in which multipole moments are important. Consider a system composed of several objects. To separate, if possible, the various parts of their interaction, one needs a definition for multipole moments of individual members of a many body system. In spite of the fact that there is no definition for individual moments, with the exception of mass and angular momentum, Chapter 3 shows what can be done for the double Kerr solution. The authors can identify various terms in he interaction of two aligned Kerr objects and show that gravitational spin-spin interaction is indeed proportional to the product of the angular momenta
Table of Nuclear Electric Quadrupole Moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stone, N.J.
2013-12-01
This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended value of the moment is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary reference EFG/moment references are required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2013. (author)
Theory of nuclear magnetic moments - LT-35
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerman, A. K.
1952-09-15
The purpose of these notes is to give an account of some attempts at interpreting the observed values of nuclear magnetic moments. There is no attempt at a complete summary of the field as that would take much more space than is used here. In many cases the arguments are only outlined and references are given for those interested in further details. A discussion of the theory of nuclear magnetic moments necessitates many excursions into the details of the nuclear models because the magnetic moments have a direct bearing on the validity of these models. However the main emphasis here is on those features which tend to explain the magnetic moments and other evidence is not discussed unless it has a direct bearing on the problem. In the first part of the discussion the Shell Model of the nucleus is used, as this model seems to correlate a large body of data relating to the heavier nuclei. Included here are the modifications proposed to explain the fact that the experimental magnetic moments do not fit quantitatively with the exact predictions of the Shell Model. The next sections deal with some of the more drastic modifications introduced to explain the large nuclear quadrupole moments and the effect of these modifications on the magnetic moments. Finally we turn to more detailed investigations of the light nuclei, in particular the - Conjugate nuclei. (author)
Piezo films with adjustable anisotropic strain for bending actuators with tunable bending profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wapler, Matthias C; Stürmer, Moritz; Brunne, Jens; Wallrabe, Ulrike
2014-01-01
We present a method to produce in-plane polarized piezo films with a freely adjustable ratio of the strains in orthogonal in-plane directions. They can be used in piezo bending actuators with a tunable curvature profile. The strains are obtained as mean strains from a periodic polarization pattern produced by a suitable doubly interdigitated electrode structure. This mechanism is demonstrated for several examples using PZT sheets. We further discuss how this tuning and the parameters of the electrode layout affect the overall magnitude of the displacement. (paper)
Numerical simulation of laser bending of AISI 304 plate with a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Keywords: laser bending; process modeling; bending angle; response surface models. ... (Shi et al., 2007) presented numerical simulation of bending for with different shapes of laser ..... Matlab 2011a application code is used to develop and.
Shimizu, Yukimaru; Sugino, Koichi; Yasui, Masaji; Hayakawa, Yukitaka; Kuzuhara, Sadao
1985-01-01
Pipes with bend combinations are much used in the heat exchangers, since the curved path in the bends promotes the mixing in flow for active heat transfer. In the present paper, one of the pipes with bend combinations, namely, quasi-coiled pipes composed of many bend elements are investigated, and the relationships between the hydraulic loss and the secondary flow are studied experimentally. The configurations of the cross sections, the bent angles and the curvature ratios of the bend element...
Creep relaxation of fuel pin bending and ovalling stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, D.P.; Jackson, R.J.
1979-06-01
Analytical methods for calculating fuel pin cladding bending and ovalling stresses due to pin bundle-duct mechanical interaction taking into account nonlinear creep are presented. Calculated results are in close agreement with finite element results by MARC-CDC program. The methods are used to investigate the effect of creep on the FTR fuel cladding bending and ovalling stresses. It is concluded that the cladding of 316 SS 20% CW and reference design has high creep rates in the FTR core region to keep the bending and ovalling stresses to low levels
Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.
2012-01-01
In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...... displacement (opening/closing and sliding) of the helically wound wires. Moreover, the results are a step towards understanding the bending fatigue damage mechanisms of monostrand cables....
Moments analysis of concurrent Poisson processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McBeth, G.W.; Cross, P.
1975-01-01
A moments analysis of concurrent Poisson processes has been carried out. Equations are given which relate combinations of distribution moments to sums of products involving the number of counts associated with the processes and the mean rate of the processes. Elimination of background is discussed and equations suitable for processing random radiation, parent-daughter pairs in the presence of background, and triple and double correlations in the presence of background are given. The theory of identification of the four principle radioactive series by moments analysis is discussed. (Auth.)
Exchange currents for hypernuclear magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, K.; Oka, M.; Suzuki, T.
1997-01-01
The meson (K and π) exchange currents for the hypernuclear magnetic moments are calculated using the effective Lagrangian method. The seagull diagram, the mesonic diagram and the Σ 0 -excitation diagram are considered. The Λ-N exchange magnetic moments for 5 Λ He and A=6 hypernuclei are calculated employing the harmonic oscillator shell model. It is found that the two-body correction is about -9% of the single particle value for 5 Λ He. The π exchange current, induced only in the Σ 0 -excitation diagram, is found to give dominant contribution for the isovector magnetic moments of hypernuclei with A=6. (orig.)
Moment analysis of hadronic vacuum polarization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduardo de Rafael
2014-09-01
Full Text Available I suggest a new approach to the determination of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon aμHVP in lattice QCD. It is based on properties of the Mellin transform of the hadronic spectral function and their relation to the HVP self-energy in the Euclidean. I show how aμHVP is very well approximated by a few moments associated to this Mellin transform and how these moments can be evaluated in lattice QCD, providing thus a series of tests when compared with the corresponding determinations using experimental data.
Moment analysis of hadronic vacuum polarization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rafael, Eduardo de
2014-01-01
I suggest a new approach to the determination of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon a μ HVP in lattice QCD. It is based on properties of the Mellin transform of the hadronic spectral function and their relation to the HVP self-energy in the Euclidean. I show how a μ HVP is very well approximated by a few moments associated to this Mellin transform and how these moments can be evaluated in lattice QCD, providing thus a series of tests when compared with the corresponding determinations using experimental data
Moment analysis of hadronic vacuum polarization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rafael, Eduardo de
2014-09-07
I suggest a new approach to the determination of the hadronic vacuum polarization (HVP) contribution to the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon a{sub μ}{sup HVP} in lattice QCD. It is based on properties of the Mellin transform of the hadronic spectral function and their relation to the HVP self-energy in the Euclidean. I show how a{sub μ}{sup HVP} is very well approximated by a few moments associated to this Mellin transform and how these moments can be evaluated in lattice QCD, providing thus a series of tests when compared with the corresponding determinations using experimental data.
Moment approach to charged particle beam dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Channell, P.J.
1983-01-01
We have derived the hierarchy of moment equations that describes the dynamics of charged-particle beams in linear accelerators and can truncate the hierarchy at any level either by discarding higher moments or by a cumulant expansion discarding only correlation functions. We have developed a procedure for relating the density expansion linearly to the moments to any order. The relation of space-charge fields to the density has been derived; and an accurate, systematic, and computationally convenient expansion of the resultant integrals has been developed
Dipole moments of the rho meson
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hecht, M.B.; McKellar, B.H.P.
1997-04-01
The electric and magnetic dipole moments (EDM) of the rho meson are calculated using the propagators and vertices derived from the quantum chromodynamics Dyson-Schwinger equations. Results obtained from using the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude studied by Chappell, Mitchell et. al., and Pichowsky and Lee, are compared. The rho meson EDM is generated through the inclusion of a quark electric dipole moment, which is left as a free variable. These results are compared to the perturbative results to obtain a measure of the effects of quark interactions and confinement. The two dipole moments are also calculated using the phenomenological MIT bag model to provide a further basis for comparison
Moments method in the theory of accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perel'shtejn, Eh.A.
1984-01-01
The moments method is widely used for solution of different physical and calculation problems in the theory of accelerators, magnetic optics and dynamics of high-current beams. Techniques using moments of the second order-mean squape characteristics of charged particle beams is shown to be most developed. The moments method is suitable and sometimes even the only technique applicable for solution of computerized problems on optimization of accelerating structures, beam transport channels, matching and other systems with accout of a beam space charge
Elementary quantum mechanics of the neutron with an electric dipole moment.
Baym, Gordon; Beck, D H
2016-07-05
The neutron, in addition to possibly having a permanent electric dipole moment as a consequence of violation of time-reversal invariance, develops an induced electric dipole moment in the presence of an external electric field. We present here a unified nonrelativistic description of these two phenomena, in which the dipole moment operator, [Formula: see text], is not constrained to lie along the spin operator. Although the expectation value of [Formula: see text] in the neutron is less than [Formula: see text] of the neutron radius, [Formula: see text], the expectation value of [Formula: see text] is of order [Formula: see text] We determine the spin motion in external electric and magnetic fields, as used in past and future searches for a permanent dipole moment, and show that the neutron electric polarizability, although entering the neutron energy in an external electric field, does not affect the spin motion. In a simple nonrelativistic model we show that the expectation value of the permanent dipole is, to lowest order, proportional to the product of the time-reversal-violating coupling strength and the electric polarizability of the neutron.
"Bending the cost curve" in gastroenterology.
Slattery, E; Harewood, G C; Murray, F; Patchett, S
2013-12-01
Increasing attention is being focused on reigning in escalating costs of healthcare, i.e. trying to 'bend the cost curve'. In gastroenterology (GI), inpatient hospital care represents a major component of overall costs. This study aimed to characterize the trend in cost of care for GI-related hospitalizations in recent years and to identify the most costly diagnostic groups. All hospital inpatients admitted between January 2008 and December 2009 with a primary diagnosis of one of the six most common GI-related Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) in this hospital system were identified; all DRGs contained at least 40 patients during the study period. Patient Level Costing (PLC) was used to express the total cost of hospital care for each patient; PLC comprised a weighted daily bed cost plus cost of all medical services provided (e.g., radiology, pathology tests) calculated according to an activity-based costing approach; cost of medications were excluded. All costs were discounted to 2009 values. Mean length of stay (LOS) was also calculated for each DRG. Over 2 years, 470 patients were admitted with one of the six most common GI DRGs. Mean cost of care increased from 2008 to 2009 for all six DRGs with the steepest increases seen in 'GI hemorrhage (non-complex)' (31 % increase) and 'Cirrhosis/Alcoholic hepatitis (non-complex)' (45 % increase). No differences in readmission rates were observed over time. There was a strong correlation between year-to-year change in costs and change in mean LOS, r = 0.93. The cost of GI-related inpatient care appears to be increasing in recent years with the steepest increases observed in non-complex GI hemorrhage and non-complex Cirrhosis/Alcoholic hepatitis. Efforts to control the increasing costs should focus on these diagnostic categories.
External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)
... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...
ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.
1995-01-01
This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are
Irradiated Effect on Shear-Moment Interaction of Reinforced Concrete Slab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, HyungTae; Park, Kyoungsoo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Ho [Hyundai Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-10-15
Several deleterious mechanisms include chronic high-temperature exposure, freeze-thaw, and chemical attack and have been reviewed extensively in the literature. On the other hand, the effect of irradiation on RC needs further investigations for the long-term operation of existing NPPs. In this regard, the RC biological shield structure is located in closest proximity to a reactor core and expected to see the highest levels of irradiation over the lifetime. The biological shield structure may undergo a large lateral load from earthquake and become thicker for a suitable shielding. Although the bending strength is easily predictable with the altering steel properties, the more complete behaviors should be studied to see if the promised performance is achievable. Given this, in this study, the shear-moment (VM) interaction of a typical one-way slab representing the biological shield structure is investigated with incremental neutron irradiation. The effect of radiation on the behavior of one-way slab is presented by the shear and moment capacity interaction diagram. The results suggest that the yield strength increase of the longitudinal reinforcement barely affects the shear strength but it increases the bending strength significantly. This may be misleading, however, as the structural capacity to observe the energy from environmental loadings such as earthquake would be actually reducing.
ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -
Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...
Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend`s IST program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.
1996-12-01
At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy`s Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team`s mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability.
Effect of epoxy resin on bending momentum in L type corner joins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Nuri Yıldırım
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In the furniture industry, the joining points of frame and box construction furniture according to the loads to be affected by the use place is important for the security of the user and service life of the furniture element. In this direction, it is aimed to determine the diagonal compression and diagonal tensile moment values of "L" type corner joints of box framed construction furniture prepared from solid wood materials. The Pinus Nigra, Fagus Orientalis L and Populus Nigra were used as solid wood materials. Wood-based biscuit joining elements were used in corner joints of the test construction and epoxy resin was used as glue for materials. The static loads were applied to construction according to ASTM-D1037. The results show that, the highest tensile and compression values were obtained from Fagus Orientalis L and the lowest values were obtained from Populus Nigra specimens. In the statistical study, the difference between the tensile and compressive bending moment values of the biscuit connection element was found to be statistically significant. This study indicates that, it is suggested to use of L type joints prepared from Fagus Orientalis L by using epoxy resin and wood based biscuit joining element in frame constructions.
The zero-moment half metal: How could it change spin electronics?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Betto, Davide; Rode, Karsten; Thiyagarajah, Naganivetha; Lau, Yong-Chang; Borisov, Kiril; Atcheson, Gwenael; Stamenov, Plamen; Coey, J. M. D.; Žic, Mario; Archer, Thomas
2016-01-01
The Heusler compound Mn_2Ru_xGa (MRG) may well be the first compensated half metal. Here, the structural, magnetic and transport properties of thin films of MRG are discussed. There is evidence of half-metallicity up to x = 0.7, and compensation of the two Mn sublattice moments is observed at specific compositions and temperatures, leading to a zero-moment half metal. There are potential benefits for using such films with perpendicular anisotropy for spin-torque magnetic tunnel junctions and oscillators, such as low critical current, high tunnel magnetoresistance ratio, insensitivity to external fields and resonance frequency in the THz range.
Color interaction of quarks and magnetic moments of baryons in the bag model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krivoruchenko, M.I.
1984-01-01
The purpose of the present study is to saccount for the quark interaction in the bag model by calculating corrections to the baryon magnetic moments related to the colour interaction of quarks. The quark-in-bag wave function to that holds the confinement linear boundary condition has been found in the first order for the external magnetic field. Corrections to the baryon magnetic moments are calculated. They are related to energy variations of colour electric and colour magnetic fields. Numerical data are presented and the structure of corrections in the SU-3 group approximation is discussed. The results are compared with the potential model and the experiment
Moments of inertia in a semiclassical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benchein, K.
1993-01-01
Semiclassical calculations have been performed for 31 nuclei. As a result of preliminary non-fully self-consistent calculations, the moments of inertia in investigated nuclei abd spin degrees of freedom are found
Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)
2013-11-15
We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.
Effect of centrifugal transverse wakefield for microbunch in bend
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stupakov, G.V.
1999-01-01
We calculate centrifugal force for a short bunch in vacuum moving in a circular orbit and estimate the emittance growth of the beam in a bend due to this force. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sung-Hwan Jang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics.
Magnetically Assisted Bilayer Composites for Soft Bending Actuators.
Jang, Sung-Hwan; Na, Seon-Hong; Park, Yong-Lae
2017-06-12
This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically distributed them by applying a strong non-uniform magnetic field to one side of the mold during the curing process. The biased magnetic field induces sedimentation of the ferromagnetic particles toward one side of the structure. The nonhomogeneous distribution of the particles induces bending of the structure when inflated, as a result of asymmetric stiffness of the composite. The bilayer composites were then characterized with a scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The bending performance and the axial expansion of the actuator were discussed for manipulation applications in soft robotics and bioengineering. The magnetically assisted manufacturing process for the soft bending actuator is a promising technique for various applications in soft robotics.
Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul
2013-01-01
Active bending introduces a new level of integration into the design of architectural structures, and opens up new complexities for the architectural design process. In particular, the introduction of material variation reconfigures the design space. Through the precise specification...
Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel in Strain Controled Cyclic Bending
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kulesa Anna
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of the fatigue life curves based on test of 15Mo3 steel under cyclic, pendulum bending and tension-compression. These studies were analyzed in terms of a large and small number of cycles where strain amplitude is dependent on the fatigue life. It has been shown that commonly used Manson-Coffin-Basquin model cannot be used for tests under cyclic bending due to the impossibility of separating elastic and plastic strains. For this purpose, some well-known models of Langer and Kandil and one new model of authors, where strain amplitude is dependent on the number of cycles, were proposed. Comparing the results of bending with tension-compression it was shown that for smaller strain amplitudes the fatigue life for both test methods were similar, for higher strain amplitudes fatigue life for bending tests was greater than for tension-compression.
Timoshenko-Wagner-Kappus Torsion Bending Theory and Wind ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Theory and Wind Tunnel Balance Design. S P Govinda ... The study of torsion and bending has always been a favourite ... Since it was difficult to work quietlyin Petersburg, .... should be stiff and strong to endure shocks and ensure long life.
kantorovich-euler lagrange-galerkin's method for bending analysis
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, ENUGU STATE UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, ... In this work, the Kantorovich method is applied to solve the bending problem of thin ... Lagrange differential equation is determined for this functional.
Droplet-model predictions of charge moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, W.D.
1982-04-01
The Droplet Model expressions for calculating various moments of the nuclear charge distribution are given. There are contributions to the moments from the size and shape of the system, from the internal redistribution induced by the Coulomb repulsion, and from the diffuseness of the surface. A case is made for the use of diffuse charge distributions generated by convolution as an alternative to Fermi-functions
Moments of the very high multiplicity distributions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nechitailo, V.A.
2004-01-01
In experiment, the multiplicity distributions of inelastic processes are truncated due to finite energy, insufficient statistics, or special choice of events. It is shown that the moments of such truncated multiplicity distributions possess some typical features. In particular, the oscillations of cumulant moments at high ranks and their negative values at the second rank can be considered as ones most indicative of the specifics of these distributions. They allow one to distinguish between distributions of different type
Moment approach to tandem mirror radial transport
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siebert, K.D.; Callen, J.D.
1986-02-01
A moment approach is proposed for the study of tandem mirror radial transport in the resonant plateau regime. The salient features of the method are described with reference to axisymmetric tokamak transport theory. In particular, the importance of momentum conservation to the establishment of the azimuthal variations in the electrostatic potential is demonstrated. Also, an ad hoc drift kinetic equation is solved to determine parallel viscosity coefficients which are required to close the moment system
Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments
Franklin, Jerrold
1989-05-01
This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12-17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article. (AIP)
Theoretical status of baryon magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franklin, J.
1989-01-01
This talk given at the Eighth International Symposium on High-Energy Spin Physics in Minneapolis, Minnesota (September 12--17, 1988), is a short summary of theoretical results for baryon magnetic moments. Results from the static bag model and pion exchange effects are summarized and compared with experimental data. A list of references for various models and properties effecting the baryon magnetic moments is given at the end of the article
From moments to functions in quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian; Kauers, Manuel; Schneider, Carsten
2009-02-01
Single-scale quantities, like the QCD anomalous dimensions andWilson coefficients, obey difference equations. Therefore their analytic form can be determined from a finite number of moments. We demonstrate this in an explicit calculation by establishing and solving large scale recursions by means of computer algebra for the anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering from their Mellin moments to 3-loop order. (orig.)
Estimation of Uncertainties of Full Moment Tensors
2017-10-06
For our moment tensor inversions, we use the ‘cut-and-paste’ ( CAP ) code of Zhu and Helmberger (1996) and Zhu and Ben-Zion (2013), with some...modifications. For the misfit function we use an L1 norm Silwal and Tape (2016), and we incorporate the number of misfitting polarities into the waveform... norm of the eigenvalue triple provides the magnitude of the moment tensor, leaving two free parameters to define the source type. In the same year
Moments expansion densities for quantifying financial risk
Ñíguez, T.M.; Perote, J.
2017-01-01
We propose a novel semi-nonparametric distribution that is feasibly parameterized to represent the non-Gaussianities of the asset return distributions. Our Moments Expansion (ME) density presents gains in simplicity attributable to its innovative polynomials, which are defined by the difference between the nth power of the random variable and the nth moment of the density used as the basis. We show that the Gram-Charlier distribution is a particular case of the ME-type of densities. The latte...
From moments to functions in quantum chromodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Kauers, Manuel; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation
2009-02-15
Single-scale quantities, like the QCD anomalous dimensions andWilson coefficients, obey difference equations. Therefore their analytic form can be determined from a finite number of moments. We demonstrate this in an explicit calculation by establishing and solving large scale recursions by means of computer algebra for the anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering from their Mellin moments to 3-loop order. (orig.)
Bend Faulting at the Edge of a Flat Slab: The 2017 Mw7.1 Puebla-Morelos, Mexico Earthquake
Melgar, Diego; Pérez-Campos, Xyoli; Ramirez-Guzman, Leonardo; Spica, Zack; Espíndola, Victor Hugo; Hammond, William C.; Cabral-Cano, Enrique
2018-03-01
We present results of a slip model from joint inversion of strong motion and static Global Positioning System data for the Mw7.1 Puebla-Morelos earthquake. We find that the earthquake nucleates at the bottom of the oceanic crust or within the oceanic mantle with most of the moment release occurring within the oceanic mantle. Given its location at the edge of the flat slab, the earthquake is likely the result of bending stresses occurring at the transition from flat slab subduction to steeply dipping subduction. The event strikes obliquely to the slab, we find a good agreement between the seafloor fabric offshore the source region and the strike of the earthquake. We argue that the event likely reactivated a fault first created during seafloor formation. We hypothesize that large bending-related events at the edge of the flat slab are more likely in areas of low misalignment between the seafloor fabric and the slab strike where reactivation of preexisting structures is favored. This hypothesis predicts decreased likelihood of bending-related events northwest of the 2017 source region but also suggests that they should be more likely southeast of the 2017 source region.
Mathematical model of polyethylene pipe bending stress state
Serebrennikov, Anatoly; Serebrennikov, Daniil
2018-03-01
Introduction of new machines and new technologies of polyethylene pipeline installation is usually based on the polyethylene pipe flexibility. It is necessary that existing bending stresses do not lead to an irreversible polyethylene pipe deformation and to violation of its strength characteristics. Derivation of the mathematical model which allows calculating analytically the bending stress level of polyethylene pipes with consideration of nonlinear characteristics is presented below. All analytical calculations made with the mathematical model are experimentally proved and confirmed.
Design and Construction of the Plat Bending Machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edy Sumarno; Abdul Hafid; Ismu H; Joko P W; Bambang Heru
2003-01-01
The plat-bending machine has been fabricated. The type is manual. That machine was made by plate, cylinder and U plat material. The machine has dimensions 110 mm in height, 650 mm in width, and 1200 mm in height. The capability of this machine is bending the plat with 2 mm in thickness and 1000 mm in width. This machine has the advantage to operate without electrical supply and easy to operate. (author)
NRC concerns about steam generator tube U-bend failures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dillon, R.L.
1981-01-01
This paper concerns itself with genralized NRC regulatory policy regarding SGT failures and staff reports and opinions which may tend to influence the developing policy specific to U-bend failures. The most significant analysis at hand in predicting NRC policy on SGT U-bend failures is Marsh's Evaluation of Steam Generator Tube Rupture Events. Marsh sets out to describe and analyze the five steam generator tube ruptures that are known to NRC. All have occurred in the period 1975 to 1980
Exact collisional moments for plasma fluid theories
Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero; Lingam, Manasvi
2017-10-01
The velocity-space moments of the often troublesome nonlinear Landau collision operator are expressed exactly in terms of multi-index Hermite-polynomial moments of the distribution functions. The collisional moments are shown to be generated by derivatives of two well-known functions, namely the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd-Trubnikov potentials for a Gaussian distribution. The resulting formula has a nonlinear dependency on the relative mean flow of the colliding species normalised to the root-mean-square of the corresponding thermal velocities, and a bilinear dependency on densities and higher-order velocity moments of the distribution functions, with no restriction on temperature, flow or mass ratio of the species. The result can be applied to both the classic transport theory of plasmas, that relies on the Chapman-Enskog method, as well as to deriving collisional fluid equations that follow Grad's moment approach. As an illustrative example, we provide the collisional ten-moment equations with exact conservation laws for momentum- and energy-transfer rate.
Chizhik, Stanislav; Sidelnikov, Anatoly; Zakharov, Boris; Naumov, Panče; Boldyreva, Elena
2018-02-28
Photomechanically reconfigurable elastic single crystals are the key elements for contactless, timely controllable and spatially resolved transduction of light into work from the nanoscale to the macroscale. The deformation in such single-crystal actuators is observed and usually attributed to anisotropy in their structure induced by the external stimulus. Yet, the actual intrinsic and external factors that affect the mechanical response remain poorly understood, and the lack of rigorous models stands as the main impediment towards benchmarking of these materials against each other and with much better developed soft actuators based on polymers, liquid crystals and elastomers. Here, experimental approaches for precise measurement of macroscopic strain in a single crystal bent by means of a solid-state transformation induced by light are developed and used to extract the related temperature-dependent kinetic parameters. The experimental results are compared against an overarching mathematical model based on the combined consideration of light transport, chemical transformation and elastic deformation that does not require fitting of any empirical information. It is demonstrated that for a thermally reversible photoreactive bending crystal, the kinetic constants of the forward (photochemical) reaction and the reverse (thermal) reaction, as well as their temperature dependence, can be extracted with high accuracy. The improved kinematic model of crystal bending takes into account the feedback effect, which is often neglected but becomes increasingly important at the late stages of the photochemical reaction in a single crystal. The results provide the most rigorous and exact mathematical description of photoinduced bending of a single crystal to date.
Bertolotto, Jorge A.; Umazano, Juan P.
2016-06-01
In the present work we make a theoretical study of the steady state electric linear dichroism of DNA fragments in aqueous solution. The here developed theoretical approach considers a flexible bent rod model with a saturating induced dipole moment. The electric polarizability tensor of bent DNA fragments is calculated considering a phenomenological model which theoretical and experimental backgroung is presented here. The model has into account the electric polarizability longitudinal and transversal to the macroion. Molecular flexibility is described using an elastic potential. We consider DNA fragments originally bent with bending fluctuations around an average bending angle. The induced dipole moment is supposed constant once the electric field strength grows up at critical value. To calculate the reduced electric linear dichroism we determine the optical factor considering the basis of the bent DNA perpendicular to the molecular axis. The orientational distribution function has into account the anisotropic electric properties and the molecule flexibility. We applied the present theoretical background to fit electric dichroism experimental data of DNA fragments reported in the bibliography in a wide range of molecular weight and electric field. From these fits, values of DNA physical properties are estimated. We compare and discuss the results here obtained with the theoretical and experimental data presented by other authors. The original contributions of this work are: the inclusion of the transversal electric polarizability saturating with the electric field, the description of the electric properties with an electric polarizability tensor dependant on the bending angle and the use of an arc model originally bent.
Bending spring rate investigation of nanopipette for cell injection
Shen, Yajing; Zhang, Zhenhai; Fukuda, Toshio
2015-04-01
Bending of nanopipette tips during cell penetration is a major cause of cell injection failure. However, the flexural rigidity of nanopipettes is little known due to their irregular structure. In this paper, we report a quantitative method to estimate the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette by investigating its bending spring rate. First nanopipettes with a tip size of 300 nm are fabricated from various glass tubes by laser pulling followed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Then the bending spring rate of the nanopipettes is investigated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a yeast cell penetration test is performed on these nanopipettes, which have different bending spring rates. The results show that nanopipettes with a higher bending spring rate have better cell penetration capability, which confirms that the bending spring rate may well reflect the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette. This method provides a quantitative parameter for characterizing the mechanical property of a nanopipette that can be potentially taken as a standard specification in the future. This general method can also be used to estimate other one-dimensional structures for cell injection, which will greatly benefit basic cell biology research and clinical applications.
Bending spring rate investigation of nanopipette for cell injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shen, Yajing; Zhang, Zhenhai; Fukuda, Toshio
2015-01-01
Bending of nanopipette tips during cell penetration is a major cause of cell injection failure. However, the flexural rigidity of nanopipettes is little known due to their irregular structure. In this paper, we report a quantitative method to estimate the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette by investigating its bending spring rate. First nanopipettes with a tip size of 300 nm are fabricated from various glass tubes by laser pulling followed by focused ion beam (FIB) milling. Then the bending spring rate of the nanopipettes is investigated inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Finally, a yeast cell penetration test is performed on these nanopipettes, which have different bending spring rates. The results show that nanopipettes with a higher bending spring rate have better cell penetration capability, which confirms that the bending spring rate may well reflect the flexural rigidity of a nanopipette. This method provides a quantitative parameter for characterizing the mechanical property of a nanopipette that can be potentially taken as a standard specification in the future. This general method can also be used to estimate other one-dimensional structures for cell injection, which will greatly benefit basic cell biology research and clinical applications. (paper)
Study of laser bending of a preloaded Titanium alloy sheet
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Xiufeng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Laser bending of sheet metals with preload offers some attractive characteristics/merits, comparing to laser free bending without prestressing on the metals. The study reported in this paper was focused on a Titanium alloy which finds widespread applications in aerospace manufacturing. FE simulation of laser bending with prestressing on the Titanium alloy sheet was conducted for the analysis of the bending process and experiment carried out to verify the model and the result. It was shown that the simulation result is close to that measured in the experiment. Based on the computed result, the load-displacement curve was analysed and transmission efficiency of the elastic energy defined to evaluate the bending effect. These enhanced understanding of the mechanism of laser bending with a preload. A method for the optimization on technological parameters was further proposed. Referring to the deformation targeted, the preload value was determined through the FE simulation. The result showed that, on the premise that the specimen surface can be prevented from damaging, transmission efficiency of the elastic energy could reach to the maximum value through adjusting technological parameters of the laser system and deformation accuracy of the specimen could also be improved through this approach. The work presented in this paper may find its application in the manufacture of Titanium alloy sheets with a more cost-effective and a more precise way.
Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Lei; Li Ping; Wen Yu-Mei; Zhu Yong
2013-01-01
As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation,the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency.The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied,and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the △E effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses.The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m)to 700 Oe,the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 33.96 kHz.In addition,with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm,the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz.This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite,which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.
Performance Evaluation of Moment Connections of Moment Resisting Frames Against Progressive Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Mahmoudi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available When a primary structural element fails due to sudden load such as explosion, the building undergoes progressive collapse. The method for design of moment connections during progressive collapse is different to seismic design of moment connections. Because in this case, the axial force on the connections makes it behave differently. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of a variety of moment connections in preventing progressive collapse in steel moment frames. To achieve this goal, three prequalified moment connections (BSEEP, BFP and WUP-W were designed according seismic codes. These moment connections were analyzed numerically using ABAQUS software for progressive collapse. The results show that the BFP connection (bolted flange plate has capacity much more than other connections because of the use of plates at the junction of beam-column.
Nuclear magnetic and electric dipole moments of neon-19
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacArthur, D.W.
1983-01-01
This thesis presents a detailed discussion of a series of experiments designed to measure the magnetic and electric dipole moments of the β-emitting nucleus 19 Ne. The 19 Ne is generated in the reaction 19 F(p,n) 19 Ne and is polarized by a ''stern-Gerlach'' magnet in a rare gas atomic beams machine. The atoms are stored in a cell for many seconds without depolarizing. The parity violating asymmetry in the β angular distribution is used to monitor the nuclear polarization. The polarized atoms are stored in a cell in a uniform magnetic field. The β-asymmetry is monitored by a pair of β-detectors located on either side of the cell. Transitions between the M/sub J/ = +1/2 and M/sub J/ = -1/2 spin states are induced by an rf field generated by a small Helmholtz coil pair surrounding the cell. Nuclear magnetic resonance lines are observed and the magnetic moment of 19 Ne measured to be μ( 19 Ne) = -1.88542(8)μ/sub N/. A new magnet, cell and detectors were designed to give narrow resonance lines. The equipment is described in detail and several resonance line shapes are discussed. The narrowest resonance line achieved with this system was 0.043 Hz FWHM. This width is primarily due to the 19 Ne lifetime. Pulsed NMR lineshapes were also observed. The narrow NMR lines observed in the previous experiment were then used as a probe to look for an electric dipole moment (EDM) in 19 Ne. Any shift in the resonance frequency correlated with changes in an externally applied electric field would be evidence for an EDM. The EDM of the 19 Ne atom was measured to (7.2 +/- 6.2 X 10 -22 e-cm. This experiment and possible improvements are discussed in detail
Electric dipole moment of magnetoexciton in concentric quantum rings
García, L. F.; Mikhailov, I. D.; Revinova, S. Yu
2017-12-01
We study properties of exciton in a weakly coupled concentric quantum rings, penetrated by an axially directed magnetic flux and subjected to an electric field in the ring’s plane. To this end, we adopt a simple model of quasi-one-dimensional rotator, for which the wave functions and the corresponding energies we found by using the double Fourier series expansion method. Revealed multiple intersections of the energy levels provide conditions for abrupt changes of the radial and the angular quantum numbers, making possible the tunnelling of carriers between rings and allowing the formation of a permanent large dipole moment. We show that the electric and magnetic polarizability of concentric quantum rings with a trapped exciton are very sensible to external electric and magnetic fields.
Time reversal violating nuclear polarizability and atomic electric dipole moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginges, J.S.M.; Flambaum, V.V.; Mititelu, G.
2000-01-01
Full text: We propose a nuclear mechanism which can induce an atomic electric dipole moment (EDM). The interaction of external electric E and magnetic H fields with nuclear electric and magnetic dipole moments, d and ,u, gives rise to an energy shift, U= -β ik E i H k , where β ik is the nuclear polarizability. Parity and time invariance violating (P,T-odd) nuclear forces generate a mixed P,T-odd nuclear polarizability, whereψ 0 and ψ n are P,T-odd perturbed ground and excited nuclear states, respectively. In the case of a heavy spherical nucleus with a single unpaired nucleon, the perturbed wavefunctions are U = -β ik E i H k , where ξis a constant proportional to the strength of the nuclear P,T-odd interaction, σ is the nuclear spin operator, and ψ n is an unperturbed wavefunction. There are both scalar and tensor contributions to the nuclear P,T-odd polarizability. An atomic EDM is induced by the interaction of the fields of an unpaired electron in an atom with the P,T-odd perturbed atomic nucleus. An estimate for the value of this EDM has been made. The measurements of atomic EDMs can provide information about P,T-odd nuclear forces and test models of CP-violation
ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holland, M.; Berry, J.
1995-01-01
There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with
Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holland, M.; Berry, J.
1994-01-01
There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with
Oh, Keonyoung; Park, Sukyung
2017-02-28
A local minimum for running energetics has been reported for a specific bending stiffness, implying that shoe stiffness assists in running propulsion. However, the determinant of the metabolic optimum remains unknown. Highly stiff shoes significantly increase the moment arm of the ground reaction force (GRF) and reduce the leverage effect of joint torque at ground push-off. Inspired by previous findings, we hypothesized that the restriction of the natural metatarsophalangeal (MTP) flexion caused by stiffened shoes and the corresponding joint torque changes may reduce the benefit of shoe bending stiffness to running energetics. We proposed the critical stiffness, k cr , which is defined as the ratio of the MTP joint (MTPJ) torque to the maximal MTPJ flexion angle, as a possible threshold of the elastic benefit of shoe stiffness. 19 subjects participated in a running test while wearing insoles with five different bending stiffness levels. Joint angles, GRFs, and metabolic costs were measured and analyzed as functions of the shoe stiffness. No significant changes were found in the take-off velocity of the center of mass (CoM), but the horizontal ground push-offs were significantly reduced at different shoe stiffness levels, indicating that complementary changes in the lower-limb joint torques were introduced to maintain steady running. Slight increases in the ankle, knee, and hip joint angular impulses were observed at stiffness levels exceeding the critical stiffness, whereas the angular impulse at the MTPJ was significantly reduced. These results indicate that the shoe bending stiffness is beneficial to running energetics if it does not disturb the natural MTPJ flexion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Measurement of net electric charge and dipole moment of dust aggregates in a complex plasma.
Yousefi, Razieh; Davis, Allen B; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W
2014-09-01
Understanding the agglomeration of dust particles in complex plasmas requires knowledge of basic properties such as the net electrostatic charge and dipole moment of the dust. In this study, dust aggregates are formed from gold-coated mono-disperse spherical melamine-formaldehyde monomers in a radiofrequency (rf) argon discharge plasma. The behavior of observed dust aggregates is analyzed both by studying the particle trajectories and by employing computer models examining three-dimensional structures of aggregates and their interactions and rotations as induced by torques arising from their dipole moments. These allow the basic characteristics of the dust aggregates, such as the electrostatic charge and dipole moment, as well as the external electric field, to be determined. It is shown that the experimental results support the predicted values from computer models for aggregates in these environments.
External radiation surveillance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antonio, E.J.
1995-01-01
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site
External radiation surveillance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antonio, E.J.
1995-06-01
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.
KASAL, Ali; BAYINDIR, Fatih; DİLER, Harun; KUŞKUN, Tolga
2014-01-01
In this study, bending moment capacities of L-type corner joints farbricated from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) panels that are commonly produced and used and expected to be an alternative material for case (panel) furniture manufacturing were analyzed under the test loads and compared to the conventional wood based panels. Corner joints were connected with various techniques that encountered in case type furniture. For this purpose, in preparing the specimens, 3 different density and qualities of...
Measurement of the electric dipole moment and magnetic moment anomaly of the muon
Onderwater, CJG
2005-01-01
The experimental precision of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon has been improved to 0.5 part-per-million by the Brookhaven E821 experiment, similar to the theoretical uncertainty. In the same experiment, a new limit on the electric dipole moment of 2.8 x 10(-19) e-cm (95% CL) was set. The
An online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mertzimekis, T.J.; Stamou, K.; Psaltis, A.
2016-01-01
Measurements of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments are considered quite important for the understanding of nuclear structure both near and far from the valley of stability. The recent advent of radioactive beams has resulted in a plethora of new, continuously flowing, experimental data on nuclear structure – including nuclear moments – which hinders the information management. A new, dedicated, public and user friendly online database ( (http://magneticmoments.info)) has been created comprising experimental data of nuclear electromagnetic moments. The present database supersedes existing printed compilations, including also non-evaluated series of data and relevant meta-data, while putting strong emphasis on bimonthly updates. The scope, features and extensions of the database are reported.
Pengenalan Pose Tangan Menggunakan HuMoment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dina Budhi Utami
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Computer vision yang didasarkan pada pengenalan bentuk memiliki banyak potensi dalam interaksi manusia dan komputer. Pose tangan dapat dijadikan simbol interaksi manusia dengan komputer seperti halnya pada penggunaan berbagai pose tangan pada bahasa isyarat. Berbagai pose tangan dapat digunakan untuk menggantikan fungsi mouse, untuk mengendalikan robot, dan sebagainya. Penelitian ini difokuskan pada pembangunan sistem pengenalan pose tangan menggunakan HuMoment. Proses pengenalan pose tangan dimulai dengan melakukan segmentasi citra masukan untuk menghasilkan citra ROI (Region of Interest yaitu area telapak tangan. Selanjutnya dilakukan proses deteksi tepi. Kemudian dilakukan ekstraksi nilai HuMoment. Nilai HuMoment dikuantisasikan ke dalam bukukode yang dihasilkan dari proses pelatihan menggunakan K-Means. Proses kuantisasi dilakukan dengan menghitung nilai Euclidean Distance terkecil antara nilai HuMomment citra masukan dan bukukode. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, nilai akurasi sistem dalam mengenali pose tangan adalah 88.57%.
The vector meson with anomalous magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyarkin, O.M.
1976-01-01
The possibility of introducing an anomalous magnetic moment into the Stuckelberg version of the charged vector meson theory is considered. It is shown that the interference of states with spins equal to one and zero is absent in the presence of an anomalous magnetic moment of a particle. The differential cross section of scattering on the Coulomb field of a nucleus is calculated, and so are the differential and integral cross sections of meson pair production on annihilation of two gamma quanta. The two-photon mechanism of production of a meson pair in colliding electron-positron beams is considered. It is shown that with any value of the anomalous magnetic moment the cross section of the esup(+)esup(-) → esup(+)esup(-)γsup(*)γsup(*) → esup(+)esup(-)Wsup(+)Wsup(-) reaction exceeds that of the esup(+)esup(-) → γsup(*) → Wsup(+)Wsup(-) at sufficiently high energies
The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon
Jegerlehner, Friedrich
2017-01-01
This research monograph covers extensively the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment and provides estimates of the theoretical uncertainties. The muon anomalous magnetic moment is one of the most precisely measured quantities in elementary particle physics and provides one of the most stringent tests of relativistic quantum field theory as a fundamental theoretical framework. It allows for an extremely precise check of the standard model of elementary particles and of its limitations. This book reviews the present state of knowledge of the anomalous magnetic moment a=(g-2)/2 of the muon. Recent experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory now reach the unbelievable precision of 0.5 parts per million, improving the accuracy of previous g-2 experiments at CERN by a factor of 14. In addition, quantum electrodynamics and electroweak and hadronic effects are reviewed. Since non-perturbative hadronic effects play a key role for the precision test, their evaluation is described in detail. Perspectives fo...
A corrector for spacecraft calculated electron moments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Geach
2005-03-01
Full Text Available We present the application of a numerical method to correct electron moments calculated on-board spacecraft from the effects of potential broadening and energy range truncation. Assuming a shape for the natural distribution of the ambient plasma and employing the scalar approximation, the on-board moments can be represented as non-linear integral functions of the underlying distribution. We have implemented an algorithm which inverts this system successfully over a wide range of parameters for an assumed underlying drifting Maxwellian distribution. The outputs of the solver are the corrected electron plasma temperature Te, density Ne and velocity vector Ve. We also make an estimation of the temperature anisotropy A of the distribution. We present corrected moment data from Cluster's PEACE experiment for a range of plasma environments and make comparisons with electron and ion data from other Cluster instruments, as well as the equivalent ground-based calculations using full 3-D distribution PEACE telemetry.
Composite quarks and their magnetic moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parthasarathy, R.
1980-08-01
A composite quark model based on the symmetry group SU(10)sub(flavour) x SU(10)sub(colour) with the assumption of mass non-degenerate sub-quarks is considered. Magnetic moments of quarks and sub-quarks are obtained from the observed nucleon magnetic moments. Using these quark and sub-quark magnetic moments, a satisfactory agreement for the radiative decays of vector mesons (rho,ω) is obtained. The ratio of the masses of the sub-quarks constituting the u,d,s quarks are found to be Msub(p)/Msub(n) = 0.3953 and Msub(p)/Msub(lambda) = 0.596, indicating a mass hierarchy Msub(p) < Msub(n) < Msub(lambda) for the sub-quarks. (author)
Kπ=0+ band moment of inertia anomaly
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zeng, J.Y.; Wu, C.S.; Cheng, L.; Lin, C.Z.; China Center of Advanced Science and Technology
1990-01-01
The moments of inertia of K π =0 + bands in the well-deformed nuclei are calculated by a particle-number-conserving treatment for the cranked shell model. The very accurate solutions to the low-lying K π =0 + bands are obtained by making use of an effective K truncation. Calculations show that the main contribution to the moments of inertia comes from the nucleons in the intruding high-j orbits. Considering the fact that no free parameter is involved in the calculation and no extra inert core contribution is added, the agreement between the calculated and the observed moments of inertia of 0 + bands in 168 Er is very satisfactory
Baryon magnetic moments: Symmetries and relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parreno, Assumpta [University of Barcelona; Savage, Martin [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Tiburzi, Brian [City College of New York, NY (United States); City Univ. (CUNY), NY (United States); Wilhelm, Jonas [Justus-Liebig-Universitat Giessen, Giessen, Germany; Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, Emmanuel [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, William [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Orginos, Kostas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)
2018-04-01
Magnetic moments of the octet baryons are computed using lattice QCD in background magnetic fields, including the first treatment of the magnetically coupled Σ0- Λ system. Although the computations are performed for relatively large values of the up and down quark masses, we gain new insight into the symmetries and relations between magnetic moments by working at a three-flavor mass-symmetric point. While the spinflavor symmetry in the large Nc limit of QCD is shared by the naïve constituent quark model, we find instances where quark model predictions are considerably favored over those emerging in the large Nc limit. We suggest further calculations that would shed light on the curious patterns of baryon magnetic moments.
Neutron Electric Dipole Moment from colored scalars⋆
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fajfer Svjetlana
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We present new contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment induced by a color octet, weak doublet scalar, accommodated within a modified Minimal Flavor Violating framework. These flavor non-diagonal couplings of the color octet scalar might account for an assymmetry of order 3 × 10−3 for aCP(D0 → K−K+ − aCP(D0 → π+π− at tree level. The same couplings constrained by this assymmetry also induce two-loop contributions to the neutron electric dipole moment. We find that the direct CP violating asymmetry in neutral D-meson decays is more constraining on the allowed parameter space than the current experimental bound on neutron electric dipole moment.
Modeling and Calculation of Dent Based on Pipeline Bending Strain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingshan Feng
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The bending strain of long-distance oil and gas pipelines can be calculated by the in-line inspection tool which used inertial measurement unit (IMU. The bending strain is used to evaluate the strain and displacement of the pipeline. During the bending strain inspection, the dent existing in the pipeline can affect the bending strain data as well. This paper presents a novel method to model and calculate the pipeline dent based on the bending strain. The technique takes inertial mapping data from in-line inspection and calculates depth of dent in the pipeline using Bayesian statistical theory and neural network. To verify accuracy of the proposed method, an in-line inspection tool is used to inspect pipeline to gather data. The calculation of dent shows the method is accurate for the dent, and the mean relative error is 2.44%. The new method provides not only strain of the pipeline dent but also the depth of dent. It is more benefit for integrity management of pipeline for the safety of the pipeline.
Experimental Study on Fatigue Behaviour of BFRP-Concrete Bond Interfaces under Bending Load
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhe Xie
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP composites are increasingly being used to retrofit concrete structures by external bonding. For such strengthened members, the BFRP-concrete interface plays the crucial role of transferring stresses. This study aims to investigate the fatigue behaviour of the interface under bending load. A series of tests were conducted on BFRP-concrete bonded joint, including static, fatigue, and postfatigue loading. The fatigue failure modes, the development of deflection, the evolution of BFRP strains, and the propagation of interfacial cracks were analysed. In addition, the debonding-induced fatigue life of BFRP-concrete bonded joints was studied. Finally, a new model of fatigue life was proposed by defining the effective fatigue bond stress. The results showed that the fatigue experience has a significant effect on the BFRP strength especially near the root of concrete transverse crack and on the bond performance of the adhesive near the interface crack tip. There are two main fatigue failure modes: BFRP rupture and BFRP debonding. The fatigue damage development of the bond interface has three stages: rapid, stable, and unstable growth. The proposed model for the debonding-induced fatigue life is more conservative for the BFRP-concrete bonded joints under pure shear load than for those under bending load.
ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.
1995-01-01
Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except
Nonspreading Wave Packets for Rydberg Electrons in Rotating Molecules with Electric Dipole Moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Bialynicka-Birula, Z.
1996-01-01
Nonspreading wave packets for Rydberg electrons are predicted in rotating molecules with electric dipole moments. We have named them the Trojan wave packets since their stability is due to the same mechanism that governs the motion of the Trojan asteroids in the Sun-Jupiter system. Unlike all previously predicted Trojan wave packets in atoms, molecular Trojan states do not require external fields for their existence
Determination of the neutron magnetic moment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greene, G.L.; Ramsey, N.F.; Mampe, W.; Pendlebury, J.M.; Smith, K.; Dress, W.B.; Miller, P.D.; Perrin, P.
1981-01-01
The neutron magnetic moment has been measured with an improvement of a factor of 100 over the previous best measurement. Using a magnetic resonance spectrometer of the separated oscillatory field type capable of determining a resonance signal for both neutrons and protons (in flowing H 2 O), we find μ/sub n//μ/sub p/ = 0.68497935(17) (0.25 ppM). The neutron magnetic moment can also be expressed without loss of accuracy in a variety of other units
The Method of Moments in electromagnetics
Gibson, Walton C
2014-01-01
Now Covers Dielectric Materials in Practical Electromagnetic DevicesThe Method of Moments in Electromagnetics, Second Edition explains the solution of electromagnetic integral equations via the method of moments (MOM). While the first edition exclusively focused on integral equations for conducting problems, this edition extends the integral equation framework to treat objects having conducting as well as dielectric parts.New to the Second EditionExpanded treatment of coupled surface integral equations for conducting and composite conducting/dielectric objects, including objects having multipl
Hyperon magnetic moments and total cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lipkin, H.J.
1982-06-01
The new data on both total cross sections and magnetic moments are simply described by beginning with the additive quark model in an SU(3) limit where all quarks behave like strange quarks and breaking both additivity and SU(3) simultaneously with an additional non-additive mechanism which affects only nonstrange quark contributions. The suggestion that strange quarks behave more simply than nonstrange may provide clues to underlying structure or dynamics. Small discrepancies in the moments are analyzed and shown to provide serious difficulties for most models if they are statistically significant. (author)
Scale invariants from Gaussian-Hermite moments
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yang, B.; Kostková, Jitka; Flusser, Jan; Suk, Tomáš
2017-01-01
Roč. 132, č. 1 (2017), s. 77-84 ISSN 0165-1684 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-16928S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Scale invariants * Gaussian–Hermite moments * Variable modulation * Normalization * Zernike moments Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 3.110, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2016/ZOI/flusser-0466031.pdf
Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.
1991-01-01
The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...... experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced...
Moments of structure functions in full QCD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolgov, D.; Brower, R.; Capitani, S.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.; Renner, D.; Eicker, N.; Lippert, T.; Schilling, K.; Edwards, R.G.; Heller, U.M.
2001-01-01
Moments of the quark density distribution, moments of the quark helicity distribution, and the tensor charge are calculated in full QCD. Calculations of matrix elements of operators from the operator product expansion have been performed on 16 3 x 32 lattices for Wilson fermions at β = 5.6 using configurations from the SESAM collaboration and at β = 5.5 using configurations from SCRI. One-loop perturbative renormalization corrections are included. Selected results are compared with corresponding quenched calculations and with calculations using cooled configurations
Nuclear moments of inertia at high spin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deleplanque, M.A.
1982-10-01
The competition between collective motion and alignment at high spin can be evaluated by measuring two complementary dynamic moments of inertia. The first, I band, measured in γ-γ correlation experiments, relates to the collective properties of the nucleus. A new moment of inertia I/sub eff/ is defined here, which contains both collective and alignment effects. Both of these can be measured in continuum γ-ray spectra of rotational nuclei up to high frequencies. The evolution of γ-ray spectra for Er nuclei from mass 160 to 154 shows that shell effects can directly be observed in the spectra of the lighter nuclei
Numerical approximation of the Boltzmann equation : moment closure
Abdel Malik, M.R.A.; Brummelen, van E.H.
2012-01-01
This work applies the moment method onto a generic form of kinetic equations to simplify kinetic models of particle systems. This leads to the moment closure problem which is addressed using entropy-based moment closure techniques utilizing entropy minimization. The resulting moment closure system
Chen, X.; Le, T.; Ewing, D.; Ching, C. Y.
2016-12-01
The mass transfer to turbulent flow through back-to-back pipe bends arranged in a 180° configuration with different lengths of pipe between the bends was measured using a dissolving gypsum test section in water. The measurements were performed for bends with a radius of curvature of 1.5 times the pipe diameter ( D) at a Reynolds numbers of 70,000 and Schmidt number of 1280. The maximum mass transfer in the bends decreased from approximately 1.8 times the mass transfer in the upstream pipe when there was no separation distance between the bends to 1.7 times when there was a 1 D or 5 D length of pipe between the bends. The location of the maximum mass transfer was on the inner sidewall downstream of the second bend when there was no separation distance between the bends. This location changed to the inner wall at the beginning of the second bend when there was a 1 D long pipe between the bends, and to the inner sidewall at the end of the first bend when there was a 5 D long pipe between the bends.
Validity of fracture toughness determined with small bend specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wallin, K.; Rintamaa, R.; Valo, M.
1994-02-01
This report considers the validity of fracture toughness estimates obtained with small bend specimens in relation to fracture toughness estimates obtained with large specimens. The study is based upon the analysis and comparison of actual test results. The results prove the validity of the fracture toughness determined based upon small bend specimens, especially when the results are only used to determine the fracture toughness transition temperature T o . In this case the possible error is typically less than 5 deg C and at most 10 deg C. It can be concluded that small bend specimens are very suitable for the estimation of fracture toughness in the case of brittle fracture, provided the results are corrected for statistical size effects. (orig.). (20 refs., 17 figs.)
Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate
Farhat, Mohamed
2014-04-10
We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.
Differential quadrature method of nonlinear bending of functionally graded beam
Gangnian, Xu; Liansheng, Ma; Wang, Youzhi; Quan, Yuan; Weijie, You
2018-02-01
Using the third-order shear deflection beam theory (TBT), nonlinear bending of functionally graded (FG) beams composed with various amounts of ceramic and metal is analyzed utilizing the differential quadrature method (DQM). The properties of beam material are supposed to accord with the power law index along to thickness. First, according to the principle of stationary potential energy, the partial differential control formulae of the FG beams subjected to a distributed lateral force are derived. To obtain numerical results of the nonlinear bending, non-dimensional boundary conditions and control formulae are dispersed by applying the DQM. To verify the present solution, several examples are analyzed for nonlinear bending of homogeneous beams with various edges. A minute parametric research is in progress about the effect of the law index, transverse shear deformation, distributed lateral force and boundary conditions.
Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate
Farhat, Mohamed; Chen, P.-Y.; Bagci, Hakan; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.; Alù , A.
2014-01-01
We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.
Evaluation of River Bend Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baxter, D.E.; Bruske, S.J.
1985-08-01
This document was prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to assist them in determining whether the River Bend Station Unit 1 Technical Specifications (T/S), which govern plant systems configurations and operations, are in conformance with the requirements of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) as amended, and the requirements of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) as supplemented. A comparative audit of the FSAR as amended, and the SER as supplemented was performed with the River Bend T/S. Several discrepancies were identified and subsequently resolved through discussions with the cognizant NRC reviewer, NRC staff reviewers and/or utility representatives. The River Bend Station Unit 1 T/S, to the extent reviewed, are in conformance with the FSAR and SER
Piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms.
Tong, Jianhua; Cui, Tianhong; Shao, Peige; Wang, Liding
2003-09-01
This paper presents a new piezoelectric micromotor based on the structure of serial bending arms. Serial bending arms are composed of two piezoelectric bimorphs with one end fixed and the other end free, driven by two signals of a biased square wave with a phase difference of pi/2. The free end of a cantilever arm will move along an elliptic orbit so that the cantilever is used to drive a cylinder rotor. The rotor's end surface contacts the free end of the cantilever, resulting in the rotor's rotation. There are six serial bending arms anchored on the base. The driving mechanism of the micromotor is proposed and analyzed. A new micromotor prototype, 5 mm in diameter, has been fabricated and characterized. The maximum rotational speed reaches 325 rpm, and the output torque is about 36.5 microNm.
Yield stress determination from miniaturized disk bend test data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Harling, O.K.
1985-04-01
Methodology for testing 3.0 mm diameter by 0.25 mm thick disks by bending in a punch and die has been described previously. This paper describes the analysis of load/deflection data from such miniaturized disk bend tests (MDBT) using a finite element simulation. Good simulation has been achieved up to a point just beyond the predominantly elastic response, linear initial region. The load at which deviation from linearity begins has been found to correlate with yield stress, and yield stress has been successfully extracted from disk bend tests of a number of known materials. Although finite element codes capable of dealing with large strains and large rotations have been used, simulation of the entire load/deflection curve up to fracture of the specimen has not yet been achieved
Webster, Kate E; McClelland, Jodie A; Palazzolo, Simon E; Santamaria, Luke J; Feller, Julian A
2012-04-01
The external knee adduction moment during gait has previously been associated with knee pain and osteoarthritis (OA). Recently, the knee adduction moment has been shown to be increased following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery and has been suggested as a potential mechanism for the progression of early onset knee OA in this population. No study has investigated the gender differences in gait biomechanics following ACL reconstruction. To examine gender differences in gait biomechanics following ACL reconstruction surgery. 36 subjects (18 females, 18 males) who had previously undergone ACL reconstruction surgery (mean time since surgery 20 months) underwent gait analysis at a self-selected walking speed. Males and females were well matched for age, time since surgery and walking speed. Maximum flexion and adduction angles and moments were recorded during the stance phase of level walking and compared between the male and female groups. The knee adduction moment was 23% greater in the female compared with the male ACL group. No gender differences were seen in the sagittal plane. No differences were seen between the reconstructed and contralateral limb. The higher knee adduction moment seen in females compared with males may suggest an increased risk for the development of OA in ACL-reconstructed females.
Marouane, H; Shirazi-Adl, A; Adouni, M
2015-01-01
Knee joints are subject to large compression forces in daily activities. Due to artefact moments and instability under large compression loads, biomechanical studies impose additional constraints to circumvent the compression position-dependency in response. To quantify the effect of compression on passive knee moment resistance and stiffness, two validated finite element models of the tibiofemoral (TF) joint, one refined with depth-dependent fibril-reinforced cartilage and the other less refined with homogeneous isotropic cartilage, are used. The unconstrained TF joint response in sagittal and frontal planes is investigated at different flexion angles (0°, 15°, 30° and 45°) up to 1800 N compression preloads. The compression is applied at a novel joint mechanical balance point (MBP) identified as a point at which the compression does not cause any coupled rotations in sagittal and frontal planes. The MBP of the unconstrained joint is located at the lateral plateau in small compressions and shifts medially towards the inter-compartmental area at larger compression forces. The compression force substantially increases the joint moment-bearing capacities and instantaneous angular rigidities in both frontal and sagittal planes. The varus-valgus laxities diminish with compression preloads despite concomitant substantial reductions in collateral ligament forces. While the angular rigidity would enhance the joint stability, the augmented passive moment resistance under compression preloads plays a role in supporting external moments and should as such be considered in the knee joint musculoskeletal models.
Chromoelectric dipole moment of the top quark in models with vectorlike multiplets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ibrahim, Tarek; Nath, Pran
2011-01-01
The chromoelectric dipole moment of the top quark is calculated in a model with a vectorlike multiplet, which mixes with the third generation in an extension of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. Such mixings allow for new CP violating phases. Including these new CP phases, the chromoelectric dipole moment that generates an electric dipole of the top in this class of models is computed. The top chromoelectric dipole moment operator arises from loops involving the exchange of the W, the Z, as well as from the exchange involving the charginos, the neutralinos, the gluino, and the vectorlike multiplet and their superpartners. The analysis of the chromoelectric dipole moment operator of the top is more complicated than for the light quarks because the mass of the external fermion, in this case the top quark mass, cannot be ignored relative to the masses inside the loops. A numerical analysis is presented and it is shown that the contribution to the top electric dipole moment (EDM) could lie in the range (10 -19 -10 -18 ) ecm, consistent with the current limits on the EDM of the electron, the neutron and on atomic EDMs. A top EDM of size (10 -19 -10 -18 ) ecm could be accessible in collider experiments such as at the LHC and at the International Linear Collider.
Bending stresses: imposed on underground small diameter lines in city streets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kottmann, A
1975-05-01
Die Technischen Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG (TWS, Stuttgart) investigated the accuracy of available bending stress calculations to represent the actual stress exerted on underground pipelines, the effective bending intervals, and the pipe diameter required to effectively resist the expected stress. The investigation covers steel, cast iron, ductile cast iron, asbestos cement, and PVC 100. The theoretical stresses were determined by the Boussinesgne method from the effects of SLW60 vehicles on pipes buried 3.28 ft (1 m) underground. The cumulative load on the pipe was obtained as the total of the vehicle load, soil load, pipe load, and water load. Results indicate that the tensile stress from internal pipe pressure can be omitted, and that welded steel and sealed PVC pipes should account for longitudinal tensile stresses. Steel pipes are generally so oversized that they need not account for these stresses. The calculations also considered the interaction between the pipe and pipe joint as the pipe emerges from the trench for the 3 possible conditions: an overhang beam, a beam encased at one end and jointed at the other, and a beam, encased at both ends. The curves of the resisting moments varied according to the type of material and pipe diameter, with the greatest rate increase reported for asbestos cement, followed by PVC 100, cast iron, ductile cast iron, and steel. Operating data of a cast-iron underground TWS system in Stuttgart indicated that pipes with less than or equal to 4 in. ( less than or equal to 100 mm) nominal diameter were quite fragile while those with diameters >6 in. (>105 mm) sustained considerably less damage. The degree of damage was found to decrease with increasing diameters. The effect of temperature also proved important. Since it is not economically possible to reinstall the distribution lines with 8-in. (200-mm) pipes, elastic support systems such as crossing troughs are recommended to support the pipes in stress areas.
Moments of greatness: entering the fundamental state of leadership.
Quinn, Robert E
2005-01-01
When we do our best work as leaders, we don't imitate others. Rather, we draw on our own values and capabilities. We enter what author Robert Quinn calls the fundamental state of leadership. This is a frame of mind we tend to adopt when facing a significant challenge: a promotion opportunity, the risk of professional failure, a serious illness, a divorce, the death of a loved one, or any other major life jolt. Crisis calls, and we rise to the occasion. But we don't need to spend time in the dark night of the soul to reach this fundamental state. We can make the shift at any time by asking ourselves-and honestly answering--four transformative questions: Am I results centered? (Am I willing to leave my comfort zone to make things happen?) Am I internally directed? (Am I behaving according to my values rather than bending to social or political pressures?) Am I other focused? (Am I putting the collective good above my own needs?) Am I externally open? (Am I receptive to outside stimuli that may signal the need for change?) When we can answer these questions in the affirmative, we're prepared to lead in the truest sense. Of course, we can't sustain the fundamental state of leadership indefinitely. Fatigue and external resistance pull us out of it. But each time we reach it, we then return to our everyday selves a bit more capable, and we usually boost the performance of the people around us. Over time, we create a high-performance culture--and that can be sustained.
Guo, Jinghua; Luo, Yugong; Li, Keqiang; Dai, Yifan
2018-05-01
This paper presents a novel coordinated path following system (PFS) and direct yaw-moment control (DYC) of autonomous electric vehicles via hierarchical control technique. In the high-level control law design, a new fuzzy factor is introduced based on the magnitude of longitudinal velocity of vehicle, a linear time varying (LTV)-based model predictive controller (MPC) is proposed to acquire the wheel steering angle and external yaw moment. Then, a pseudo inverse (PI) low-level control allocation law is designed to realize the tracking of desired external moment torque and management of the redundant tire actuators. Furthermore, the vehicle sideslip angle is estimated by the data fusion of low-cost GPS and INS, which can be obtained by the integral of modified INS signals with GPS signals as initial value. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed control system is validated by the simulation and experimental tests.
Light squeezing through arbitrarily shaped plasmonic channels and sharp bends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alu, Andrea; Engheta, Nader
2008-01-01
We propose a mechanism for optical energy squeezing and anomalous light transmission through arbitrarily-shaped plasmonic ultranarrow channels and bends connecting two larger plasmonic metal-insulator-metal waveguides. It is shown how a proper design of subwavelength optical channels at cutoff, patterned by plasmonic implants and connecting larger plasmonic waveguides, may allow enhanced resonant transmission inspired by the anomalous properties of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) metamaterials. The resonant transmission is shown to be only weakly dependent on the channel length and its specific geometry, such as possible presence of abruptions and bends
Test Equal Bending by Gravity for Space and Time
Sweetser, Douglas
2009-05-01
For the simplest problem of gravity - a static, non-rotating, spherically symmetric source - the solution for spacetime bending around the Sun should be evenly split between time and space. That is true to first order in M/R, and confirmed by experiment. At second order, general relativity predicts different amounts of contribution from time and space without a physical justification. I show an exponential metric is consistent with light bending to first order, measurably different at second order. All terms to all orders show equal contributions from space and time. Beautiful minimalism is Nature's way.
Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S.; Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S.
2014-01-01
We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography
Rotating bending fatigue strength evaluation of ceramic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Govila, R.K.; Swank, L.R.
1995-01-01
Cyclic fatigue under rotary bending tests were conducted on partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) from NGK and Nilsen, and silicon nitride from NGK and Norton. Fractography was performed on the failed specimens to determine the fracture structure and morphology. The results showed that the cyclic fatigue fracture was the same as the fracture structure previously observed in bending tests. The cyclic fatigue data indicated that structural ceramic could function in fatigue stress levels at a higher percentage of their average fast fracture strength than the fifty percent of ultimate strength used for wrought steels
Magnetic moment densities in selected UTX compounds
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Javorský, P.; Schweizer, J.; Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Andreev, Alexander V.; Diviš, M.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Sechovský, V.
2004-01-01
Roč. 350, - (2004), e131-e134 ISSN 0921-4526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/03/0550 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : uranium compound * polarized neutron scattering * magnetic moment Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.679, year: 2004
Moments, Mixed Methods, and Paradigm Dialogs
Denzin, Norman K.
2010-01-01
I reread the 50-year-old history of the qualitative inquiry that calls for triangulation and mixed methods. I briefly visit the disputes within the mixed methods community asking how did we get to where we are today, the period of mixed-multiple-methods advocacy, and Teddlie and Tashakkori's third methodological moment. (Contains 10 notes.)
The isotopic dipole moment of HDO
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Assafrao, Denise; Mohallem, Jose R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2007-03-14
An adiabatic variational approximation is used to study the monodeuterated water molecule, HDO, accounting for the isotopic effect. The isotopic dipole moment, pointing from D to H, is then calculated for the first time, yielding (1.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -3} Debye, being helpful in the interpretation of experiments. (fast track communication)
Using Aha! Moments to Understand Leadership Theory
Moore, Lori L.; Lewis, Lauren J.
2012-01-01
As Huber (2002) noted, striving to understand how leadership is taught and learned is both a challenge and an opportunity facing leadership educators. This article describes the "Leadership Aha! Moment" assignment used in a leadership theory course to help students recognize the intersection of leadership theories and their daily lives while…
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)
2013-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Mourrain, B.; Rostalski, P.; Trébuchet, P.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming its complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite
Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation
B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)
2011-01-01
htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and
Real object recognition using moment invariants
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
are taken from different angles of view are the main features leading us to our objective. ... Two-dimensional moments of a digitally sampled M × M image that has gray function f (x, y), (x, .... in this paper. Information about the original colours of the objects is not used. .... multi-dimensional changes and recognition. Table 1.
Magnitude of localized magnetic moments in metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiwi, M.; Pestana, E.; Ramirez, R.
1979-01-01
The magnitude of the localized magnetic moment of a transition or rare earth element impurity in a metal is evaluated within the framework of the Anderson model. Rotational invariance is preserved throughout. Graphs of the magnitude of the magnetization as a function of the relevant parameters of the model are provided and discussed. (author)
Wonderful Life : Exploring Wonder in Meaningful Moments
van de Goor, Marie Jacqueline; Sools, Anna Maria; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas
In this article, we bring the study of meaning together with the emerging field of study focusing on the emotions of wonder: wonder, enchantment, awe, and being moved. It is in meaningful moments that these two meet, and in our empirical study, we used the emotions of wonder as a lens to investigate
Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rovibrational matrix elements of the multipole moments ℓ up to rank 10 and of the linear polarizability of the H2 molecule in the condensed phase have been computed taking into account the effect of the intermolecular potential. Comparison with gas phase matrix elements shows that the effect of solid state interactions is ...
The muon magnetic moment and new physics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoeckinger, Dominik, E-mail: Dominik.Stoeckinger@tu-dresden.de [Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Germany)
2013-03-15
The impact of the muon magnetic moment measurement on physics beyond the Standard Model is briefly reviewed. Particular emphasis is given on the case of supersymmetry. The sensitivity of g - 2 to supersymmetry parameters and the potential for model discrimination and parameter measurements is described. The interplay between LHC data on the Higgs boson, limits on new particles, and g - 2 is discussed.
Search for a neutron electric dipole moment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morse, J [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton (U.K.)
1984-03-01
To search for evidence of a breakdown of symmetry under the time reversal transformation, a magnetic resonance measurement is made to detect an electric dipole moment (EDM) of ultracold neutrons stored for periods approximately= 60s in the presence of a strong electric field. The measured neutron EDM is (0.3 +- 4.8) x 10/sup -25/ ecm.
Transverse tails and higher order moments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, W.L.; Decker, F.J.; Woodley, M.D.
1993-05-01
The tails that may be engendered in a beam's transverse phase space distribution by, e.g., intrabunch wakefields and nonlinear magnetic fields, are all important diagnostic and object of tuning in linear colliders. Wire scanners or phosphorescent screen monitors yield one dimensional projected spatial profiles of such beams that are generically asymmetric around their centroids, and therefore require characterization by the third moment left-angle x 3 right-angle in addition to the conventional mean-square or second moment. A set of measurements spread over sufficient phase advance then allows the complete set left-angle x 3 right-angle, left-angle xx' 2 right-angle, left-angle x' 3 right-angle, and left-angle x 2 x'right-angle to be deduced -- the natural extension of the well-known ''emittance measurement'' treatment of second moments. The four third moments may be usefully decomposed into parts rotating in phase space at the β-tron frequency and at its third harmonic, each specified by a phase-advance-invariant amplitude and a phase. They provide a framework for the analysis and tuning of transverse wakefield tails
Expert judgement combination using moment methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wisse, Bram; Bedford, Tim; Quigley, John
2008-01-01
Moment methods have been employed in decision analysis, partly to avoid the computational burden that decision models involving continuous probability distributions can suffer from. In the Bayes linear (BL) methodology prior judgements about uncertain quantities are specified using expectation (rather than probability) as the fundamental notion. BL provides a strong foundation for moment methods, rooted in work of De Finetti and Goldstein. The main objective of this paper is to discuss in what way expert assessments of moments can be combined, in a non-Bayesian way, to construct a prior assessment. We show that the linear pool can be justified in an analogous but technically different way to linear pools for probability assessments, and that this linear pool has a very convenient property: a linear pool of experts' assessments of moments is coherent if each of the experts has given coherent assessments. To determine the weights of the linear pool we give a method of performance based weighting analogous to Cooke's classical model and explore its properties. Finally, we compare its performance with the classical model on data gathered in applications of the classical model
Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.
Pilcher, Jobeth W
2016-01-01
Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.
Microbial hotspots and hot moments in soil
Kuzyakov, Yakov; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia
2015-04-01
Soils are the most heterogeneous parts of the biosphere, with an extremely high differentiation of properties and processes within nano- to macroscales. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of input of labile organics by plants creates microbial hotspots over short periods of time - the hot moments. We define microbial hotspots as small soil volumes with much faster process rates and much more intensive interactions compared to the average soil conditions. Such hotspots are found in the rhizosphere, detritusphere, biopores (including drilosphere) and on aggregate surfaces, but hotspots are frequently of mixed origin. Hot moments are short-term events or sequences of events inducing accelerated process rates as compared to the averaged rates. Thus, hotspots and hot moments are defined by dynamic characteristics, i.e. by process rates. For this hotspot concept we extensively reviewed and examined the localization and size of hotspots, spatial distribution and visualization approaches, transport of labile C to and from hotspots, lifetime and process intensities, with a special focus on process rates and microbial activities. The fraction of active microorganisms in hotspots is 2-20 times higher than in the bulk soil, and their specific activities (i.e. respiration, microbial growth, mineralization potential, enzyme activities, RNA/DNA ratio) may also be much higher. The duration of hot moments in the rhizosphere is limited and is controlled by the length of the input of labile organics. It can last a few hours up to a few days. In the detritusphere, however, the duration of hot moments is regulated by the output - by decomposition rates of litter - and lasts for weeks and months. Hot moments induce succession in microbial communities and intense intra- and interspecific competition affecting C use efficiency, microbial growth and turnover. The faster turnover and lower C use efficiency in hotspots counterbalances the high C inputs, leading to the absence of strong
Prostate cancer: variables to keep in mind at the moment to decide the external radiotherapy dose
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Donato, H.; Barros, J.M.; Fernandez Bibiloni, C.; Barrios, E.; Martinez, A.; Broda, E.; Cardiello, C.; Alva, R.; Chiozza, J.; Filomia, M.L.; Rafailovici, L.; Dosoretz, B.
2007-01-01
The objective of this work is to evaluate forecast factors and other variables in the decision of the final dose for prostate cancer treatment with 3D conformal radiotherapy techniques of modulated intensity. To determine the optimal dose, direct and indirect variables related to the disease should be considered. Also the equipment and the radiotherapy technique will impact on this decision [es
Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J
2016-08-01
To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.
Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.
Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B
Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shervin, Shahab; Asadirad, Mojtaba [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Kim, Seung-Hwan; Ravipati, Srikanth; Lee, Keon-Hwa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Bulashevich, Kirill [STR Group, Inc., Engels av. 27, P.O. Box 89, 194156, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ryou, Jae-Hyun, E-mail: jryou@uh.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4006 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States); Texas Center for Superconductivity at the University of Houston (TcSUH), University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)
2015-11-09
This paper presents strain-effect transistors (SETs) based on flexible III-nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) through theoretical calculations. We show that the electronic band structures of InAlGaN/GaN thin-film heterostructures on flexible substrates can be modified by external bending with a high degree of freedom using polarization properties of the polar semiconductor materials. Transfer characteristics of the HEMT devices, including threshold voltage and transconductance, are controlled by varied external strain. Equilibrium 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is enhanced with applied tensile strain by bending the flexible structure with the concave-side down (bend-down condition). 2DEG density is reduced and eventually depleted with increasing compressive strain in bend-up conditions. The operation mode of different HEMT structures changes from depletion- to enchantment-mode or vice versa depending on the type and magnitude of external strain. The results suggest that the operation modes and transfer characteristics of HEMTs can be engineered with an optimum external bending strain applied in the device structure, which is expected to be beneficial for both radio frequency and switching applications. In addition, we show that drain currents of transistors based on flexible InAlGaN/GaN can be modulated only by external strain without applying electric field in the gate. The channel conductivity modulation that is obtained by only external strain proposes an extended functional device, gate-free SETs, which can be used in electro-mechanical applications.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Dae Seung; Chung, Young Joo
2005-01-01
In long-period fiber grating (LPFG) to be made up optical fiber sensors, resonance coupling occurs between the forward-propagating core mode and cladding modes at the wavelength that satisfy the Phase matching condition. The resonance wavelength and the coupling strength depends strongly on the external environment like temperature, strain, and ambient index. These characteristics can be utilized for various applications as optical fiber sensors. Fabrication of optical fiber gratings is typically based on the photosensitivity effect, i.e. the permanent change of the refractive index upon irradiation of the UV beam, and therefore, fabrication of the optical fiber with high phososensitivity is an important part of the research on optical fiber gratings. In this work, we measured the effort of to-doping of boron on the index difference between the core and cladding of the optical fiber and the sensitivity of the LPFC to the temperature and bending changes. We observed that the index difference between the core and the cladding decreased by (1.69x10 -4 /SCCM) and the temperature sensitivity of the resonance wavelength shirt decreased by (0.01145nm/ .deg. C/SCCM). The dependence or the bending-induced changes or the transmission characteristics of LPFG on the tore-cladding index difference was investigated experimentally. The measurement results indicate that the bending sensitivity increases as the index difference decreases
Automated External Defibrillator
... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...
Energy policy and externalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.
2002-01-01
External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)
Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gancher Joshua
2017-04-01
Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.
Four point bending setup for characterization of semiconductor piezoresistance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Richter, Jacob; Arnoldus, Morten Berg; Hansen, Ole
2008-01-01
bending fixture is manufactured in polyetheretherketon and a dedicated silicon chip with embedded piezoresistors fits in the fixture. The fixture is actuated by a microstepper actuator and a high sensitivity force sensor measures the applied force on the fixture and chip. The setup includes heaters...
Extreme bendability of DNA double helix due to bending asymmetry
Salari, H.; Eslami-Mossallam, B.; Nederi, S.; Ejtehadi, M.R.
2015-01-01
Experimental data of the DNA cyclization (J-factor) at short length scales exceed the theoretical expectation based on the wormlike chain (WLC) model by several orders of magnitude. Here, we propose that asymmetric bending rigidity of the double helix in the groove direction can be responsible for
High precision optical fiber alignment using tube laser bending
Folkersma, Ger; Römer, Gerardus Richardus, Bernardus, Engelina; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Herder, Justus Laurens
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present a method to align optical fibers within 0.2 μm of the optimal position, using tube laser bending and in situ measuring of the coupling efficiency. For near-UV wavelengths, passive alignment of the fibers with respect to the waveguides on photonic integrated circuit chips
Magnetically assisted bilayer composites for soft bending actuators
Jang, S.H.; Na, Seon Hong; Park, Yong Lae
2017-01-01
This article presents a soft pneumatic bending actuator using a magnetically assisted bilayer composite composed of silicone polymer and ferromagnetic particles. Bilayer composites were fabricated by mixing ferromagnetic particles to a prepolymer state of silicone in a mold and asymmetrically
Space charge effects in a bending magnet system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, E.P.; Close, E.; Smith, L.
1987-03-01
In order to examine problems and phenomena associated with space charge in a beam bending system, the beam dynamics code HICURB has been written. Its principal features include momentum variations, vertical and horizontal envelope dynamics coupled to the off-axis centroid, curvature effect on fields, and images. Preliminary results for an achromatic lattice configuration are presented
Tidal bending of glaciers: a linear viscoelastic approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz; Mayer, Christoph
2003-01-01
In theoretical treatments of tidal bending of floating glaciers, the glacier is usually modelled as an elastic beam with uniform thickness, resting on an elastic foundation. With a few exceptions, values of the elastic (Young's) modulus E of ice derived from tidal deflection records of floating...
Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian
2014-01-01
-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling...