WorldWideScience

Sample records for external air movement

  1. Human preference for air movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2002-01-01

    Human preference for air movement was studied at slightly cool, neutral, and slightly warm overall thermal sensations and at temperatures ranging from 18 deg.C to 28 deg.C. Air movement preference depended on both thermal sensation and temperature, but large inter-individual differences existed...... between subjects. Preference for less air movement was linearly correlated with draught discomfort, but the percentage of subjects who felt draught was lower than the percentage who preferred less air movement....

  2. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  3. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... and the humidity of the room air. At a low humidity level of 30% an increased velocity could compensate for the decrease in perceived air quality due to an elevated temperature ranging from 20 °C to 26 °C. In a room with 26 °C, increased air movement was also able to compensate for an increase in humidity from 30...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235...

  4. Effects of External Loads on Human Head Movement Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M. H.; Choi, O. M.

    1984-01-01

    The central and reflexive control strategies underlying movements were elucidated by studying the effects of external loads on human head movement control systems. Some experimental results are presented on dynamic changes weigh the addition of aviation helmet (SPH4) and lead weights (6 kg). Intended time-optimal movements, their dynamics and electromyographic activity of neck muscles in normal movements, and also in movements made with external weights applied to the head were measured. It was observed that, when the external loads were added, the subject went through complex adapting processes and the head movement trajectory and its derivatives reached steady conditions only after transient adapting period. The steady adapted state was reached after 15 to 20 seconds (i.e., 5 to 6 movements).

  5. ExternE transport methodology for external cost evaluation of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, S. S.; Berkowicz, R.; Brandt, J.

    The report describes how the human exposure estimates based on NERI's human exposure modelling system (AirGIS) can improve the Danish data used for exposure factors in the ExternE Transport methodology. Initially, a brief description of the ExternE Tranport methodology is given and it is summarised...

  6. Movement of the external ear in human embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagurasho, Miho; Yamada, Shigehito; Uwabe, Chigako; Kose, Katsumi; Takakuwa, Tetsuya

    2012-02-01

    External ears, one of the major face components, show an interesting movement during craniofacial morphogenesis in human embryo. The present study was performed to see if movement of the external ears in a human embryo could be explained by differential growth. In all, 171 samples between Carnegie stage (CS) 17 and CS 23 were selected from MR image datasets of human embryos obtained from the Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos. The three-dimensional absolute position of 13 representative anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, from MRI data was traced to evaluate the movement between the different stages with identical magnification. Two different sets of reference axes were selected for evaluation and comparison of the movements. When the pituitary gland and the first cervical vertebra were selected as a reference axis, the 13 anatomical landmarks of the face spread out within the same region as the embryo enlarged and changed shape. The external ear did move mainly laterally, but not cranially. The distance between the external and internal ear stayed approximately constant. Three-dimensionally, the external ear located in the caudal ventral parts of the internal ear in CS 17, moved mainly laterally until CS 23. When surface landmarks eyes and mouth were selected as a reference axis, external ears moved from the caudal lateral ventral region to the position between eyes and mouth during development. The results indicate that movement of all anatomical landmarks, including external and internal ears, can be explained by differential growth. Also, when the external ear is recognized as one of the facial landmarks and having a relative position to other landmarks such as the eyes and mouth, the external ears seem to move cranially. © 2012 Kagurasho et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  7. Magnitude of Interfractional Vaginal Cuff Movement: Implications for External Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Daniel J.; Michaletz-Lorenz, Martha; Goddu, S. Murty; Grigsby, Perry W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify the extent of interfractional vaginal cuff movement in patients receiving postoperative irradiation for cervical or endometrial cancer in the absence of bowel/bladder instruction. Methods and Materials: Eleven consecutive patients with cervical or endometrial cancer underwent placement of three gold seed fiducial markers in the vaginal cuff apex as part of standard of care before simulation. Patients subsequently underwent external irradiation and brachytherapy treatment based on institutional guidelines. Daily megavoltage CT imaging was performed during each external radiation treatment fraction. The daily positions of the vaginal apex fiducial markers were subsequently compared with the original position of the fiducial markers on the simulation CT. Composite dose–volume histograms were also created by summing daily target positions. Results: The average (± standard deviation) vaginal cuff movement throughout daily pelvic external radiotherapy when referenced to the simulation position was 16.2 ± 8.3 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff movement for any patient during treatment was 34.5 mm. In the axial plane the mean vaginal cuff movement was 12.9 ± 6.7 mm. The maximum vaginal cuff axial movement was 30.7 mm. In the craniocaudal axis the mean movement was 10.3 ± 7.6 mm, with a maximum movement of 27.0 mm. Probability of cuff excursion outside of the clinical target volume steadily dropped as margin size increased (53%, 26%, 4.2%, and 1.4% for 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm, respectively.) However, rectal and bladder doses steadily increased with larger margin sizes. Conclusions: The magnitude of vaginal cuff movement is highly patient specific and can impact target coverage in patients without bowel/bladder instructions at simulation. The use of vaginal cuff fiducials can help identify patients at risk for target volume excursion.

  8. External and internal movement of firm´s financies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štangová Nora

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The movement of financies is an indicator of actual financial situation of the firm and is influenced externally and internally. This article presents the analysis of this motion in one of our state firm, which indicates the form how to use these possibilities.

  9. Impact of Air Movement on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Sakoi, Tomonori; Kolencíková, Sona

    2013-01-01

    The impact of direction, oscillation and temperature of isothermal room air movement on eye discomfort and tear film quality was studied. Twenty-four male subjects participated in the experiment. Horizontal air movement against the face and chest was generated by a large desk fan – LDF and a small...... when the airflow was directed against the face and when against the chest, LDF with and without oscillation and PV. Eye tear film samples were taken and analyzed at the beginning and the end of the exposures. Eye irritation and dryness were reported by the subjects. The air movement under individual...... control did not change significantly the tear film quality though tendency for improvement was observed. Eye dryness increased much when the airflow was blowing constantly against the face compared to oscillating airflow, airflow directed against the chest and upward airflow against the face....

  10. Reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors determines individual movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodie; van Moorter, Bram; Revilla, Eloy; Blanchard, Pierrick; Dray, Stéphane; Quenette, Pierre-Yves; Allainé, Dominique; Swenson, Jon E

    2013-03-01

    Movement is fundamental to individual and population dynamics, as it allows individuals to meet their basic requirements. Although movement patterns reflect interactions between internal and external factors, only few studies have examined the effects of these factors on movement simultaneously, and they generally focused on particular biological contexts (e.g. dispersal, foraging). However, the relative importance of these factors in driving individual routine movements might reflect a species' potential flexibility to cope with landscape changes and therefore buffer their potential impact on fitness. We used data from GPS collars on Scandinavian brown bears to investigate the relative role of these factors, as well as an additional factor (period of the year) on routine movements at two spatial scales (hourly and daily relocations). As expected, internal factors played a major role in driving movement, compared to external factors at both scales, but its relative importance was greater at a finer scale. In particular, the interaction between reproductive status and period of the year was one of the most influential variables, females being constrained by the movement capacity of their cubs in the first periods of the year. The effect of human disturbance on movement was also greater for females with cubs than for lone females. This study showed how reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors is shaping space use of brown bears. We stress that these factors should be studied simultaneously to avoid the risk of obtaining context-dependent inferences. Moreover, the study of their relative contribution is also highly relevant in the context of multiple-use landscapes, as human activities generally affect the landscape more than they affect the internal states of an individual. Species or individuals with important internal constraints should be less responsive to changes in their environment as they have less freedom from internal constraints and should

  11. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2004-01-01

    on the mass fraction transport equation. The importance of ?false? or numerical diffusion is also addressed in connection with the simple description of a supply opening. The different aspects of boundary conditions in the indoor environment as e.g. the simulation of Air Terminal Devices and the simulation......Nielsen, P.V. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement. Indoor Air, International Journal of Indoor Environment and Health, Vol. 14, Supplement 7, pp. 134-143, 2004. ABSTRACT Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and new developments of CFD in the indoor environment as well as quality...... considerations are important elements in the study of energy consumption, thermal comfort and indoor air quality in buildings. The paper discusses the quality level of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the involved schemes (first, second and third order schemes) by the use of the Smith and Hutton problem...

  12. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2010-01-01

    and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...

  13. Movement Induces the Use of External Spatial Coordinates for Tactile Localization in Congenitally Blind Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Möller, Johanna; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    To localize touch, the brain integrates spatial information coded in anatomically based and external spatial reference frames. Sighted humans, by default, use both reference frames in tactile localization. In contrast, congenitally blind individuals have been reported to rely exclusively on anatomical coordinates, suggesting a crucial role of the visual system for tactile spatial processing. We tested whether the use of external spatial information in touch can, alternatively, be induced by a movement context. Sighted and congenitally blind humans performed a tactile temporal order judgment task that indexes the use of external coordinates for tactile localization, while they executed bimanual arm movements with uncrossed and crossed start and end postures. In the sighted, start posture and planned end posture of the arm movement modulated tactile localization for stimuli presented before and during movement, indicating automatic, external recoding of touch. Contrary to previous findings, tactile localization of congenitally blind participants, too, was affected by external coordinates, though only for stimuli presented before movement start. Furthermore, only the movement's start posture, but not the planned end posture affected blind individuals' tactile performance. Thus, integration of external coordinates in touch is established without vision, though more selectively than when vision has developed normally, and possibly restricted to movement contexts. The lack of modulation by the planned posture in congenitally blind participants suggests that external coordinates in this group are not mediated by motor efference copy. Instead the task-related frequent posture changes, that is, movement consequences rather than planning, appear to have induced their use of external coordinates.

  14. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  15. The Open-Air School Movement in English Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruickshank, Marjorie

    1977-01-01

    Begun in the early 1900s, the open-air school movement marked a new chapter in preventive medicine. The schools took undernourished slum students and provided them with food and a hygienic environment. Within half a century the open-air schools had outlived their usefulness because of a social revolution. (Author/IRT)

  16. Quantum description of the Brownian movement in an external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svin'in, I.R.

    1976-01-01

    The Schroedinger equation for brownian motion in an external field is obtained on the basis of the classical Langevin equation. The specific features of the approach proposed are illustrated by the example of the brownian motion of the quantum oscillator. The influence of the fluctuations on the various physical quantities is considered

  17. Lateralization of the posterior parietal cortex for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kenji; Inui, Toshio

    2007-11-01

    Internal monitoring or state estimation of movements is essential for human motor control to compensate for inherent delays and noise in sensorimotor loops. Two types of internal estimation of movements exist: self-generated movements, and externally generated movements. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate differences in brain activity for internal monitoring of self- versus externally generated movements during visual occlusion. Participants tracked a sinusoidally moving target with a mouse cursor. On some trials, vision of either target (externally generated) or cursor (self-generated) movement was transiently occluded, during which subjects continued tracking by estimating current position of either the invisible target or cursor on screen. Analysis revealed that both occlusion conditions were associated with increased activity in the presupplementary motor area and decreased activity in the right lateral occipital cortex compared to a control condition with no occlusion. Moreover, the right and left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) showed greater activation during occlusion of target and cursor movements, respectively. This study suggests lateralization of the PPC for internal monitoring of internally versus externally generated movements, fully consistent with previously reported clinical findings.

  18. Levodopa reinstates connectivity from prefrontal to premotor cortex during externally paced movement in Parkinson's disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hulme, Oliver J

    2014-01-01

    , which were externally paced at a rate of 0.5Hz. This required participants to align their movement velocity to the slow external pace. Patients were studied after at least 12-hour withdrawal of dopaminergic medication (OFF state) and after intake of the dopamine precursor levodopa (ON state) in order...

  19. The ability of external immobilizers to restrict movement of the cervical spine: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.; Huisman, J.M.; Verdonschot, N.; Goosen, J.; Hosman, A.J.; Hannink, G.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the ability of various types of external immobilizers to restrict cervical spine movement. METHODS: With a systematical review of original scientific articles, data on range of motion, type of used external immobilization device and risk of bias were extracted. The described

  20. The ability of external immobilizers to restrict movement of the cervical spine: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.; Huisman, J.M.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph; Goosen, J.; Hosman, A.J.; Hannink, G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To review the ability of various types of external immobilizers to restrict cervical spine movement. Methods With a systematical review of original scientific articles, data on range of motion, type of used external immobilization device and risk of bias were extracted. The described

  1. Abnormal externally guided movement preparation in recent-onset schizophrenia is associated with impaired selective attention to external input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Henderikus G O M; Westenbroek, Joanna M; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus; Van den Bosch, Robert J

    2009-11-30

    Several theories propose that the primary cognitive impairment in schizophrenia concerns a deficit in the processing of external input information. There is also evidence, however, for impaired motor preparation in schizophrenia. This provokes the question whether the impaired motor preparation in schizophrenia is a secondary consequence of disturbed (selective) processing of the input needed for that preparation, or an independent primary deficit. The aim of the present study was to discriminate between these hypotheses, by investigating externally guided movement preparation in relation to selective stimulus processing. The sample comprised 16 recent-onset schizophrenia patients and 16 controls who performed a movement-precuing task. In this task, a precue delivered information about one, two or no parameters of a movement summoned by a subsequent stimulus. Performance measures and measures derived from the electroencephalogram showed that patients yielded smaller benefits from the precues and showed less cue-based preparatory activity in advance of the imperative stimulus than the controls, suggesting a response preparation deficit. However, patients also showed less activity reflecting selective attention to the precue. We therefore conclude that the existing evidence for an impairment of externally guided motor preparation in schizophrenia is most likely due to a deficit in selective attention to the external input, which lends support to theories proposing that the primary cognitive deficit in schizophrenia concerns the processing of input information.

  2. Effect of external viscous load on head movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, M.-H.; Lakshminarayanan, V.; Stark, L. W.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of horizontal head rotation were obtained from normal human subjects intending to make 'time optimal' trajectories between targets. By mounting large, lightweight vanes on the head, viscous damping B, up to 15 times normal could be added to the usual mechanical load of the head. With the added viscosity, the head trajectory was slowed and of larger duration (as expected) since fixed and maximal (for that amplitude) muscle forces had to accelerate the added viscous load. This decreased acceleration and velocity and longer duration movement still ensued in spite of adaptive compensation; this provided evidence that quasi-'time optimal' movements do indeed employ maximal muscle forces. The adaptation to this added load was rapid. Then the 'adapted state' subjects produced changed trajectories. The adaptation depended in part on the differing detailed instructions given to the subjects. This differential adaptation provided evidence for the existence of preprogrammed controller signals, sensitive to intended criterion, and neurologically ballistic or open loop rather than modified by feedback from proprioceptors or vision.

  3. External exposure to radionuclides in air, water, and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.; Ryman, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Federal Guidance Report No. 12 tabulates dose coefficients for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides distributed in air, water, and soil. The dose coefficients are intended for use by Federal Agencies in calculating the dose equivalent to organs and tissues of the body

  4. Hydrodynamic interactions induce movement against an external load in a ratchet dimer Brownian motor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornés, José A

    2010-01-15

    We use the Brownian dynamics with hydrodynamic interactions simulation in order to describe the movement of a elastically coupled dimer Brownian motor in a ratchet potential. The only external forces considered in our system were the load, the random thermal noise and an unbiased thermal fluctuation. For a given set of parameters we observe direct movement against the load force if hydrodynamic interactions were considered.

  5. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, Liviu; Khammissa, Razia A. G.; Thomadakis, George; Fourie, Jeanine; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resor...

  6. Numerical simulation of ventilation air movement in partitioned offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plett, E.G.; Soultogiannis, A.A.; Jouini, D.B. (Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

    1993-01-01

    Good air quality can only be assured throughout an office complex if each workspace receives an adequate supply of ventilation air. The likelihood of achieving this situation would be increased if the building engineer had a means of easily predicting the air movement in each office configuration. A simple computer-based solution to this need is proposed. To this end, the development and validation testing of a numerical solution technique to simulate the ventilation air movement in a room or office is described. The predictions of the two-dimensional, isothermal, inviscid formulation are seen to be in good agreement with experimentally measured airflows in configurations of interest. The computer code is then used to illustrate the airflow in offices served by a single row of supply air diffusers, when partitions are used to divide the space into smaller workspaces. It is observed that the partitions distort the airflow patterns to the extent that it would be difficult to provide desirable ventilation airflows to all the workspaces formed by the partitions. (au) (26 refs.)

  7. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y

    2012-12-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance.

  8. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Liviu; Khammissa, Razia A G; Thomadakis, George; Fourie, Jeanine; Lemmer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  9. Apical External Root Resorption and Repair in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: Biological Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Feller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Some degree of external root resorption is a frequent, unpredictable, and unavoidable consequence of orthodontic tooth movement mediated by odontoclasts/cementoclasts originating from circulating precursor cells in the periodontal ligament. Its pathogenesis involves mechanical forces initiating complex interactions between signalling pathways activated by various biological agents. Resorption of cementum is regulated by mechanisms similar to those controlling osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Following root resorption there is repair by cellular cementum, but factors mediating the transition from resorption to repair are not clear. In this paper we review some of the biological events associated with orthodontically induced external root resorption.

  10. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kal, E. C.; van der Kamp, J.; Houdijk, H.; Groet, E.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients' automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects),

  11. On air-chemistry reduction for hypersonic external flow applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Ashraf; Suman, Sawan; Girimaji, Sharath S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The existence of the slow manifold for the air-mixture system is shown. • The QSSA estimate of the slow manifold is fairly accurate. • For mid-temperature range the reduction mechanisms could be useful. - Abstract: In external hypersonic flows, viscous and compressibility effects generate very high temperatures leading to significant chemical reactions among air constituents. Therefore, hypersonic flow computations require coupled calculations of flow and chemistry. Accurate and efficient computations of air-chemistry kinetics are of much importance for many practical applications but calculations accounting for detailed chemical kinetics can be prohibitively expensive. In this paper, we investigate the possibility of applying chemical kinetics reduction schemes for hypersonic air-chemistry. We consider two chemical kinetics sets appropriate for three different temperature ranges: 2500 K to 4500 K; 4500 K to 9000 K; and above 9000 K. By demonstrating the existence of the so-called the slow manifold in each of the chemistry sets, we show that judicious chemical kinetics reduction leading to significant computational savings is possible without much loss in accuracy

  12. An evaluation of interventions for reducing the risk of PRRSV introduction to filtered farms via retrograde air movement through idle fans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carmen; Otake, Satoshi; Davies, Peter; Dee, Scott

    2012-06-15

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an economically significant pathogen of pigs that can be transported via the airborne route out to 9.1 km. To reduce this risk, large swine facilities have started to implement systems to filter contaminated incoming air. A proposed means of air filtration failure is the retrograde movement of air (back-drafting) from the external environment into the animal air space through non-filtered points such as idle wall fans; however, this risk has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to prove that PRRSV introduction via retrograde air movement through idle fans is a true risk; (2) to determine the minimum retrograde air velocity necessary to introduce PRRSV to an animal airspace from an external source; and (3) to evaluate the efficacy of different interventions designed to reduce this risk. A retrograde air movement model was used to test a range of velocities and interventions, including a standard plastic shutter, a plastic shutter plus a canvas cover, a nylon air chute, an aluminum shutter plus an air chute and a double shutter system. Results indicated that retrograde air movement is a real risk for PRRSV introduction to a filtered air space; however, it required a velocity of 0.76 m/s. In addition, while all the interventions designed to reduce this risk were superior when compared to a standard plastic shutter, significant differences were detected between treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An application of dynamic CT for diagnosis of abnormal external ocular muscle movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Kazumi; Ogura, Yuuko; Takeshita, Gen; Koga, Sukehiko; Katada, Kazuhiro; Anno, Hirofumi.

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the movements of retrobulbar structures radiologically, we have developed a new technique called 'external ocular muscle movement CT' (EOM CT), in which dynamic CT scanning is performed while the patient performs controlled eye movements. This new technique was applied in one volunteer and 72 patients with external ophthalmoplegia due to orbital mass lesion, hyperthyroid ophthalmopathy, blowout fracture, and other retrobulbar lesions. EOM CT permits the assessment of extraocular muscle contraction in cases of blowout fracture, the evaluation of muscular contraction in hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, and the diagnosis of adhesions between the extraocular muscles and intraorbital masses. Radiation dose to the lens from EOM CT was measured using a phantom and TLD, and was compared with that of conventional CT scanning with a 5 mm slice thickness. The dose to the lens from EOM CT was three times higher than that for conventional CT in axial scanning, but in the coronal section of the retrobulbar region, the dose to the lens from EOM CT decreases to one twelfth of that of conventional CT. EOM CT promises to be a powerful modality for functional evaluation of the extraocular muscles and other retrobulbar structures. (author)

  14. External gamma exposure to radon progeny in indoor air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Kenzo

    1985-01-01

    The external γ-exposure from radon progeny uniformly distributed in indoor air was estimated by a computer program that was developed. This program can calculate the fluence rate, exposure rate and average energy for any given point in a room of any given size. As numerical example, the exposure rate normalized to unit airborne activity is presented, together with the fluence-weighted and exposure-weighted average photon energies, for a room of representative geometry containing radon progeny in equilibrium. To cover other conditions encountered in practice, quantitative evaluations are additionally presented of the effect on the exposure brought by changes in certain parameters, such as equilibrium factor, wall thickness, room size and receptor position. The study has quantitatively substantiated the prevailing postulate that the effective dose equivalent due to external exposure resulting from normal indoor concentrations of airborne radon progeny in the room of representative geometry should only amount to 0.04 % of that from the internal exposure from the same sources, and that it should be of similarly negligible order compared with internal exposure also in the case of other room geometries. (author)

  15. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, E. C.; van der Kamp, J.; Houdijk, H.; Groet, E.; van Bennekom, C. A. M.; Scherder, E. J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients’ automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects), rather than an internal focus (on movement execution). Thirty-nine individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke performed a one-leg-stepping task with both legs in single- and dual-task conditions. Attentional focus was manipulated with instructions. Motor performance (movement speed), movement automaticity (fluency of movement), and dual-task performance (dual-task costs) were assessed. The effects of focus on movement speed, single- and dual-task movement fluency, and dual-task costs were analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results showed that, overall, single-task performance was unaffected by focus (p = .341). Regarding movement fluency, no main effects of focus were found in single- or dual-task conditions (p’s ≥ .13). However, focus by leg interactions suggested that an external focus reduced movement fluency of the paretic leg compared to an internal focus (single-task conditions: p = .068; dual-task conditions: p = .084). An external focus also tended to result in inferior dual-task performance (β = -2.38, p = .065). Finally, a near-significant interaction (β = 2.36, p = .055) suggested that dual-task performance was more constrained by patients’ attentional capacity in external focus conditions. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus, an external focus did not result in more automated movements in chronic stroke patients. Contrary to expectations, trends were found for enhanced automaticity with an internal focus. These findings might be due to patients’ strong preference to use an internal focus in daily life. Future work needs to establish the more permanent effects of learning with different attentional foci on re-automating motor

  16. Stay Focused! The Effects of Internal and External Focus of Attention on Movement Automaticity in Patients with Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, E C; van der Kamp, J; Houdijk, H; Groet, E; van Bennekom, C A M; Scherder, E J A

    2015-01-01

    Dual-task performance is often impaired after stroke. This may be resolved by enhancing patients' automaticity of movement. This study sets out to test the constrained action hypothesis, which holds that automaticity of movement is enhanced by triggering an external focus (on movement effects), rather than an internal focus (on movement execution). Thirty-nine individuals with chronic, unilateral stroke performed a one-leg-stepping task with both legs in single- and dual-task conditions. Attentional focus was manipulated with instructions. Motor performance (movement speed), movement automaticity (fluency of movement), and dual-task performance (dual-task costs) were assessed. The effects of focus on movement speed, single- and dual-task movement fluency, and dual-task costs were analysed with generalized estimating equations. Results showed that, overall, single-task performance was unaffected by focus (p = .341). Regarding movement fluency, no main effects of focus were found in single- or dual-task conditions (p's ≥ .13). However, focus by leg interactions suggested that an external focus reduced movement fluency of the paretic leg compared to an internal focus (single-task conditions: p = .068; dual-task conditions: p = .084). An external focus also tended to result in inferior dual-task performance (β = -2.38, p = .065). Finally, a near-significant interaction (β = 2.36, p = .055) suggested that dual-task performance was more constrained by patients' attentional capacity in external focus conditions. We conclude that, compared to an internal focus, an external focus did not result in more automated movements in chronic stroke patients. Contrary to expectations, trends were found for enhanced automaticity with an internal focus. These findings might be due to patients' strong preference to use an internal focus in daily life. Future work needs to establish the more permanent effects of learning with different attentional foci on re-automating motor control

  17. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV):Tables with external costs of air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2013-01-01

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). This report on road transport is a continuation of previous reporting from EEA on estimates for the external costs of air pollution from industrial facilities (EEA, 2011).

  18. The effect of micro air movement on the heat and moisture characteristics of building constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    The research focuses on the effect of air movement through building constructions. Although the typical air movement inside building constructions is quite small (velocity is of order ~10-5 m/s), this research shows the impact on the heat and moisture characteristics. The paper presents a case study

  19. The effect of micro air movement on the heat and moisture characteristics of building constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.

    2008-01-01

    The research focuses on the effect of air movement through building constructions. Although the typical air movement inside building constructions is quite small (velocity is of order ~10-5 m/s), this research shows the impact on the heat and moisture characteristics. The paper presents a case study

  20. Effects of Outside Air Temperature on Movement of Phosphine Gas in Concrete Elevator Bins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies that measured the movement and concentration of phosphine gas in upright concrete bins over time indicated that fumigant movement was dictated by air currents, which in turn, were a function of the difference between the average grain temperature and the average outside air temperature durin...

  1. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film......The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...

  2. Apparatus for measuring surface movement of an object that is subjected to external vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1997-04-22

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  3. Quantification of the 3D relative movement of external marker sets vs. bones based on magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeux, M; Marin, F; Charleux, F; Dürselen, L; Ho Ba Tho, M C

    2006-11-01

    Most in vivo knee kinematic analyses are based on external markers attached to the shank and the thigh. Literature data show that markers positioning and soft tissues artifacts affect the kinematic parameters of the bones true movement. Most of the techniques of quantification used were invasive. The aim of the present study was to develop and apply a non-invasive methodology to compute the relative movement between the bones and the markers. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions were performed on the right knee of eleven volunteers without knee injury. The subjects were equipped with external magnetic resonance imaging-compatible marker sets. A foot drive device allowed the subjects to perform an actively loaded knee extension. The whole volume of the subject's knee was processed for four sequentially held knee flexion positions during the knee movement. The bones and external marker sets geometry were reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging images. Then a registration algorithm was applied to the bones and the relative movement of the thigh and shank marker sets with respect to their underlying bones was computed. The protocol resulted in a good geometrical accuracy and reproducibility. Marker sets movement differ from that of the bones with a maximum of 22 mm in translation and 15 degrees in rotation and it affects the knee kinematics. Marker sets relative movement modify the knee movement finite helical axes direction (range 10-35 degrees ) and localization (range 0-40 mm). The methodology developed can evaluate external marker set system to be used for kinematic analysis in a clinical environment.

  4. CFD model of air movement in ventilated facade: comparison between natural and forced air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora Perez, Miguel; Lopez Patino, Gonzalo; Lopez Jimenez, P. Amparo [Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department, Universitat Politècnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    This study describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of ventilated facade. Ventilated facades are normal facade but it has an extra channel between the concrete wall and the (double skin) facade. Several studies found in the literature are carried out with CFD simulations about the behavior of the thermodynamic phenomena of the double skin facades systems. These studies conclude that the presence of the air gap in the ventilated facade affects the temperature in the building skin, causing a cooling effect, at least in low-rise buildings. One of the most important factors affecting the thermal effects of ventilated facades is the wind velocity. In this contribution, a CFD analysis applied on two different velocity assumptions for air movement in the air gap of a ventilated facade is presented. A comparison is proposed considering natural wind induced velocity with forced fan induced velocity in the gap. Finally, comparing temperatures in the building skin, the differences between both solutions are described determining that, related to the considered boundary conditions, there is a maximum height in which the thermal effect of the induced flow is significantly observed.

  5. Are there SO2 externality costs beyond the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.; Joseph, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Inclusion of environmental externality costs in the selection of utility resources has become a reality in New York, Massachusetts, Nevada and California. Soon several other jurisdictions are likely to join these states in using environmental externality costs in decision-making. The consideration of environmental externalities are bound to profoundly affect utility decision-making in the future. So far attention has focused largely on air emission externalities of SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 . However, the recent Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) will reduce SO 2 emissions from utilities by about 50 percent. With such a large reduction in SO 2 loading, the question has been raised as to the need to further consider SO 2 externality costs in decision-making. This paper comments on this issue. By using generation and emission data from New York utilities, the paper shows that SO 2 emission externalities exist even after complying with requirements of the CAAA

  6. Abnormal externally guided movement preparation in recent-onset schizophrenia is associated with impaired selective attention to external input

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Henderikus G. O. M.; Westenbroek, Joanna M.; Bruggeman, Richard; Knegtering, Henderikus; Van den Bosch, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Several theories propose that the primary cognitive impairment in schizophrenia concerns a deficit in the processing of external input information. There is also evidence, however, for impaired motor preparation in schizophrenia. This provokes the question whether the impaired motor preparation in

  7. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  8. Simultaneous action of external irradiation and products of air radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golikov, V.Ya.; Karklinskaya, O.N.; Mikhalev, V.P.; Vorotyntsev, A.P.; Kotov, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    To study the radiation damage due to the simultaneous effect of the acute ionizing radiation on the organism and the products of air radiolysis-ozone and nitrogen oxides, laboratory experiments were made. The scheme of the irradiation was the following: the acute dynamic effect (per hour) of X-rays at different doses, and nitrogen oxides and ozone with different concentrations. Male mice were exposed to irradiation (dose of 50-1000 rad, for 60 min.). Data obtained (mortality, survival, exponents of the peripheral blood) proved the radioprotective ability of the chemical agents under study. The radioprotective action was most pronounced at high concentrations. The fact proves that the mechanism of the simultaneous action of the products of air radiolysis and X-ray radiation is complex, and further efforts should be made at its investigation

  9. Relative air temperature analysis external building on Gowa Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustamin, Tayeb; Rahim, Ramli; Baharuddin; Jamala, Nurul; Kusno, Asniawaty

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to data analyze the relative temperature and humidity of the air outside the building. Data retrieval taken from weather monitoring device (monitoring) Vaisala, RTU (Remote Terminal Unit), Which is part of the AWS (Automatic Weather Stations) Then Processing data processed and analyzed by using Microsoft Excel program in the form of graph / picture fluctuation Which shows the average value, standard deviation, maximum value, and minimum value. Results of data processing then grouped in the form: Daily, and monthly, based on time intervals every 30 minutes. The results showed Outside air temperatures in March, April, May and September 2016 Which entered in the thermal comfort zone according to SNI standard (Indonesian National Standard) only at 06.00-10.00. In late March to early April Thermal comfort zone also occurs at 15.30-18.00. The highest maximum air temperature occurred in September 2016 at 11.01-11.30 And the lowest minimum value in September 2016, time 6:00 to 6:30. The result of the next analysis shows the level of data conformity with thermal comfort zone based on SNI (Indonesian National Standard) every month.

  10. Context-dependent neural activation: internally and externally guided rhythmic lower limb movement in individuals with and without neurodegenerative disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Eve Hackney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, tai chi have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control and postural stability in people with PD (Amano, Nocera, Vallabhajosula, Juncos, Gregor, Waddell et al., 2013; Earhart, 2009; M. E. Hackney & Earhart, 2008; Kadivar, Corcos, Foto, & Hondzinski, 2011; Morris, Iansek, & Kirkwood, 2009; Ridgel, Vitek, & Alberts, 2009. However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG and externally guided (EG movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG versus EG designs. Because of the potential task specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural

  11. Spatial relationships and movement patterns of the air cargo industry in airport regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrus J. van V. Coetzee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the past few years, with the increase in air traffic and the expansion of airports, very few industries had such a large spatial development and movement impact as that of airport-related clusters or airport regions. Although much research was done on the various impacts of the airport industry, very little research was done on the air cargo industry in airport regions. Objectives: This article specifically explored the unique spatial relationships, impacts, trends and movement patterns of the air cargo industry within a typical airport region. Method: The article focused on the OR Tambo International Airport in Gauteng, South Africa, as a case study and was informed by an extensive quantitative spatial and land use analysis and modelling of the study area. Results: The article presented findings and insights on the movement patterns and relationships between (1 the airport facility and (2 the spatial configuration of air cargo industries in the particular airport region. These findings also provided some framework for a possible spatial model and guideline that could assist in steering and managing development and movement patterns in airport regions. Conclusion: The article provided new insights and understanding on the spatial dynamics of airport regions and the air cargo industry, ultimately addressing some gaps in this knowledge field. The article in the end highlighted the need for a different and novel approach to the planning and management of the air cargo industry in airport regions and a basis for further research.

  12. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Int Panis, L; De Nocker, L; Cornelis, E; Torfs, R

    2004-12-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO(2). To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic.

  13. An uncertainty analysis of air pollution externalities from road transport in Belgium in 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Int Panis, L.; De Nocker, L.; Cornelis, E.; Torfs, R.

    2004-01-01

    Although stricter standards for vehicles will reduce emissions to air significantly by 2010, a number of problems will remain, especially related to particulate concentrations in cities, ground-level ozone, and CO 2 . To evaluate the impacts of new policy measures, tools need to be available that assess the potential benefits of these measures in terms of the vehicle fleet, fuel choice, modal choice, kilometers driven, emissions, and the impacts on public health and related external costs. The ExternE accounting framework offers the most up to date and comprehensive methodology to assess marginal external costs of energy-related pollutants. It combines emission models, air dispersion models at local and regional scales with dose-response functions and valuation rules. Vito has extended this accounting framework with data and models related to the future composition of the vehicle fleet and transportation demand to evaluate the impact of new policy proposals on air quality and aggregated (total) external costs by 2010. Special attention was given to uncertainty analysis. The uncertainty for more than 100 different parameters was combined in Monte Carlo simulations to assess the range of possible outcomes and the main drivers of these results. Although the impacts from emission standards and total fleet mileage look dominant at first, a number of other factors were found to be important as well. This includes the number of diesel vehicles, inspection and maintenance (high-emitter cars), use of air conditioning, and heavy duty transit traffic

  14. Road user charges for heavy goods vehicles (HGV). Tables with external costs of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skou Andersen, M.

    2013-02-15

    In this report, the European Environment Agency (EEA) presents updated estimates of the external costs of air pollution for different categories of heavy goods vehicles (HGVs). The amended Eurovignette Directive (2011/76/EU) relating to the charging of HGVs for use of major European motorways prescribes that from 2013, Member States may include air pollution costs in any charging structure for roads under the Trans-European Network (TEN-T) and for comparable domestic motorways. The tables published here provide the basis for the inclusion of a vehicle-specific air pollution component in road user charges. Air pollution costs have been calculated on the basis of the formula prescribed in the directive, taking into account the fact that road transport emissions are mixed in a low volume of air. Following Article 9 in the Eurovignette Directive, additional revenues from external-cost charges must be used by Member States to benefit the transport sector and promote sustainable mobility. Making use of scientific developments subsequent to the 2007 Handbook of external costs (Maibach et al., 2008), the EEA is able to provide an updated estimate of the external costs of air pollution from road transport. The tables in this report indicate for each country and for the relevant vehicle categories, estimates of the external costs of air pollution in 2010 prices. The high level of detail gives member countries an informed basis to group the vehicle categories for administrative purposes. The tables also include estimates for three non-EU member countries of the EEA, of which one (Switzerland) pioneered the first HGV road user charge in Europe. (LN)

  15. Human perception of air movement. Impact of frequency and airflow direction on draught sensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genhong Zhou

    1999-08-01

    Draught is defined as an unwanted local cooling of the human body caused by air movement. Air velocity and temperature are the main characteristics of air movement in rooms. Characteristics of instantaneous air velocity and temperature records previously measured in ventilated indoor spaces were analyzed. Air velocity and temperature fluctuated randomly. The amplitude and frequency of the fluctuations changed over time. Air movements around the human body were measured with a three-dimensional laser Doppler amemometer. A new parameter, equivalent frequency, was defined as an integral single parameter for describing the frequency characteristics of air velocity. The equivalent frequency of a randomly fluctuating velocity is defined as the frequency of sinusoidal velocity fluctuations with the same ratio of the standard deviation of acceleration to the standard deviation of air velocity as in the random velocity fluctuations. The equivalent frequencies of numerous instantaneous air-velocity records measured in ventilated space were analysed. The equivalent frequency of an airflow in an indoor space was found to be 0.1 to 2 Hz. The equivalent frequencies of most of the airflows were between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. The relation between equivalent frequency and mean air velocity and standard deviation was established. Experiments were performed to identify the impact of the equivalent frequency on the human perception of draught. Forty subjects (20 women and 20 men) were subjected to airflows from behind with mean air velocities of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/s, with equivalent frequencies from 0 to 1 Hz at an air temperature of 20 deg. C. In this human-subject experimental study the frequency was found to have a significant impact on draught sensation. Subjects were more sensitive to airflow at an equivalent frequency between 0.2 and 0.6 Hz. A mathematical model for the simulation of draught was established and a computer program was developed for simulating the draught. The program

  16. Distinct Developmental Origins Manifest in the Specialized Encoding of Movement by Adult Neurons of the External Globus Pallidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, Paul D.; Larvin, Joseph T.; Duffell, James M.; Garas, Farid N.; Doig, Natalie M.; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Duguid, Ian C.; Bogacz, Rafal; Butt, Simon J.B.; Magill, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transcriptional codes initiated during brain development are ultimately realized in adulthood as distinct cell types performing specialized roles in behavior. Focusing on the mouse external globus pallidus (GPe), we demonstrate that the potential contributions of two GABAergic GPe cell types to voluntary action are fated from early life to be distinct. Prototypic GPe neurons derive from the medial ganglionic eminence of the embryonic subpallium and express the transcription factor Nkx2-1. These neurons fire at high rates during alert rest, and encode movements through heterogeneous firing rate changes, with many neurons decreasing their activity. In contrast, arkypallidal GPe neurons originate from lateral/caudal ganglionic eminences, express the transcription factor FoxP2, fire at low rates during rest, and encode movements with robust increases in firing. We conclude that developmental diversity positions prototypic and arkypallidal neurons to fulfil distinct roles in behavior via their disparate regulation of GABA release onto different basal ganglia targets. PMID:25843402

  17. Thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and cognitive performance when personally controlled air movement is used by tropically acclimatized persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavon, S; Yang, B; Donner, Y; Chang, V W-C; Nazaroff, W W

    2017-05-01

    In a warm and humid climate, increasing the temperature set point offers considerable energy benefits with low first costs. Elevated air movement generated by a personally controlled fan can compensate for the negative effects caused by an increased temperature set point. Fifty-six tropically acclimatized persons in common Singaporean office attire (0.7 clo) were exposed for 90 minutes to each of five conditions: 23, 26, and 29°C and in the latter two cases with and without occupant-controlled air movement. Relative humidity was maintained at 60%. We tested thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms, and cognitive performance. We found that thermal comfort, perceived air quality, and sick building syndrome symptoms are equal or better at 26°C and 29°C than at the common set point of 23°C if a personally controlled fan is available for use. The best cognitive performance (as indicated by task speed) was obtained at 26°C; at 29°C, the availability of an occupant-controlled fan partially mitigated the negative effect of the elevated temperature. The typical Singaporean indoor air temperature set point of 23°C yielded the lowest cognitive performance. An elevated set point in air-conditioned buildings augmented with personally controlled fans might yield benefits for reduced energy use and improved indoor environmental quality in tropical climates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Air movement, gender and risk of sick building headache among employees in a Jakarta office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha Winarti

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though office buildings are usually equipped with ventilation system or air conditioning to create a comfortable working environment, yet there is still found a number of sick building syndrome (SBS symptoms. One of the symptoms of SBS is SBS headache. Therefore, it is crucial to identify risk factors related to SBS headache. Cases were subjects who have suffered SBS headache, and controls were subjects who did not suffered headache for the last one month. Cases and controls were selected through a survey on all of employees in the said office during the period of May to August 2002. Total respondents were 240 employees including 36 people suffered SBS headache (15%. Compared to the normal air movement, faster air movement decreased the risk of SBS headache by 57% [adjusted odds ratio (OR = 0.43; 95% confidence intervals (CI: 0.19-0.95]. Female employees, compared to the males ones, had a higher risk of getting SBS headache by almost three times (adjusted OR = 2.96: 95% CI: 1.29-6.75. Employees who had breakfast irregularly, had a lower risk to SBS headache than those who have breakfast regularly (adjusted OR=0.31; 95% CI: 0.09-0.84. Temperature, humidity and smoking habits were not noted correlated to SBS headache. Female workers had greater risk of suffering SBS headache. In addition slower air movement increased the risk of SBS headache. Therefore, it is recommended to improve the progress of air in order to reduce the risk of SBS headache, especially for female workplace. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 171-7Keywords: sick building syndrome headache, gender, air movement

  19. Analysis of in-air movement in handwriting: A novel marker for Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drotár, Peter; Mekyska, Jiří; Rektorová, Irena; Masarová, Lucia; Smékal, Zdenek; Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting significant portion of elderly population. One of the most frequent hallmarks and usually also the first manifestation of PD is deterioration of handwriting characterized by micrographia and changes in kinematics of handwriting. There is no objective quantitative method of clinical diagnosis of PD. It is thought that PD can only be definitively diagnosed at postmortem, which further highlights the complexities of diagnosis. We exploit the fact that movement during handwriting of a text consists not only from the on-surface movements of the hand, but also from the in-air trajectories performed when the hand moves in the air from one stroke to the next. We used a digitizing tablet to assess both in-air and on-surface kinematic variables during handwriting of a sentence in 37 PD patients on medication and 38 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. By applying feature selection algorithms and support vector machine learning methods to separate PD patients from healthy controls, we demonstrated that assessing the in-air/on-surface hand movements led to accurate classifications in 84% and 78% of subjects, respectively. Combining both modalities improved the accuracy by another 1% over the evaluation of in-air features alone and provided medically relevant diagnosis with 85.61% prediction accuracy. Assessment of in-air movements during handwriting has a major impact on disease classification accuracy. This study confirms that handwriting can be used as a marker for PD and can be with advance used in decision support systems for differential diagnosis of PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Human Response to Air Movement - Evaluation of ASHRAE´s Draft Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Tynel, A.

    2003-01-01

    cooler than neutral or occupants who are occupied mostly with sedentary work. To accommodate all occupants in a given indoor environment, it is therefore recommended that air movement generated by the HVAC system be designed according to the criteria in the current Standard 55 to minimize complaints......The aim of this study was to evaluate the present ASHRAE Standard 55-92 draft criteria and to describe how air movement is perceived at thermal sensations slightly cooler and slightly warmer than neutral. At temperatures 18oC, 20oC, 23oC, 26oC, and 28oC (64.4oF, 68oF, 73.4oF, 78.8oF, and 82.4o......F), 40 subjects at slightly cool, neutral and slightly warm overall thermal sensation were exposed to air velocities that were increased step-by-step from less than 0.1 m/s to 0.8 m/s (19.7 fpm to 157.5 fpm). Subjects who felt cool or slightly cool perceived air movement as being uncomfortable at lower...

  1. Internal and external factors shaping movement and distributions of trans-Saharan migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vega, Marta Lomas

    and thrush nightingales Luscinia luscinia. It also looks at how the migration routes can be affected by future climate change. Results indicate that insectivore long-distance migrants temporally adjust migration schedules with seasonal surplus of vegetation greenness during the annual cycle. Climate......he migratory programme provides birds with the capacity to seasonally migrate thousands of kilometres during their annual breeding cycle. This programme is governed by endogenous, and environmentally-shaped, exogenous, processes. Using a diverse set of tracking methods, this thesis investigates...... (vectororientation) and possibly includes a simple navigation capability that enables juveniles to compensate for crosswind en route, but not to compensate for experimental displacement. To study exogenous influence, paper III and IV investigate how environmental factors shape movements of migratory birds at local...

  2. The Benefits of Internalizing Air Quality and Greenhouse Gas Externalities in the US Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen E.

    The emission of pollutants from energy use has effects on both local air quality and the global climate, but the price of energy does not reflect these externalities. This study aims to analyze the effect that internalizing these externalities in the cost of energy would have on the US energy system, emissions, and human health. In this study, we model different policy scenarios in which fees are added to emissions related to generation and use of energy. The fees are based on values of damages estimated in the literature and are applied to upstream and combustion emissions related to electricity generation, industrial energy use, transportation energy use, residential energy use, and commercial energy use. The energy sources and emissions are modeled through 2055 in five-year time steps. The emissions in 2045 are incorporated into a continental-scale atmospheric chemistry and transport model, CMAQ, to determine the change in air quality due to different emissions reduction scenarios. A benefit analysis tool, BenMAP, is used with the air quality results to determine the monetary benefit of emissions reductions related to the improved air quality. We apply fees to emissions associated with health impacts, climate change, and a combination of both. We find that the fees we consider lead to reductions in targeted emissions as well as co-reducing non-targeted emissions. For fees on the electric sector alone, health impacting pollutant (HIP) emissions reductions are achieved mainly through control devices while Greenhouse Gas (GHG) fees are addressed through changes in generation technologies. When sector specific fees are added, reductions come mainly from the industrial and electricity generation sectors, and are achieved through a mix of energy efficiency, increased use of renewables, and control devices. Air quality is improved in almost all areas of the country with fees, including when only GHG fees are applied. Air quality tends to improve more in regions with

  3. Method and apparatus for measuring surface movement of a solid object that is subjected to external vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, T.J.; Kotidis, P.A.; Woodroffe, J.A.; Rostler, P.S.

    1995-04-25

    A system for non-destructively measuring an object and controlling industrial processes in response to the measurement is disclosed in which an impulse laser generates a plurality of sound waves over timed increments in an object. A polarizing interferometer is used to measure surface movement of the object caused by the sound waves and sensed by phase shifts in the signal beam. A photon multiplier senses the phase shift and develops an electrical signal. A signal conditioning arrangement modifies the electrical signals to generate an average signal correlated to the sound waves which in turn is correlated to a physical or metallurgical property of the object, such as temperature, which property may then be used to control the process. External, random vibrations of the workpiece are utilized to develop discernible signals which can be sensed in the interferometer by only one photon multiplier. In addition the interferometer includes an arrangement for optimizing its sensitivity so that movement attributed to various waves can be detected in opaque objects. The interferometer also includes a mechanism for sensing objects with rough surfaces which produce speckle light patterns. Finally the interferometer per se, with the addition of a second photon multiplier is capable of accurately recording beam length distance differences with only one reading. 38 figs.

  4. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Frohn, L.M. (and others)

    2011-07-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (External Valuation of Air pollution; Frohn et al., 2005; Andersen et al., 2007; Brandt et al., 2010), to assess health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. In this study, we estimate the impacts and total externality costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, representing the 10 major SNAP codes. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externality costs of all emissions simultaneously from the whole of Europe as well as from international ship traffic in general, since this sector seems to be very important but is currently unregulated. (Author)

  5. Heat exchanger operation in the externally heated air valve engine with separated settling chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazimierski, Zbyszko; Wojewoda, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    The crucial role in the externally heated air valve engine is played by its heat exchangers which work in a closed cycle. These are: a heater and a cooler and they are subject to a numerical analysis in the paper. Both of them are equipped with fixed volumes that are separate settling chambers causing that heat exchangers behave as almost stationary recuperators and analysis of the stationary behaviour is the main goal of the paper. Power and efficiency of the engine must be not lower than their averaged values for the same engine working in unsteady conditions. The results of calculations confirm such a statement. The pressure drop in the exchanger is another natural phenomenon presented. It has been overcome by use of additional blowers and the use of them is an additional focus of the presented analysis. A separation of settling chambers and additional blowers is a novelty in the paper. There is also a pre-heater applied in the engine which does not differ from well-known heat exchangers met in energy generation devices. The main objective of the paper is to find the behaviour of the engine model under stationary conditions of the heat exchangers and compare it with the non-stationary ones. - Highlights: • Externally heated air engine combined with forced working gas flow (supercharging). • Separate settling chambers allow for achieving stable and constant heat exchange parameters. • Pressure drop in heat exchangers overcome by additional blowers. • Reciprocating piston air engine, cam governing system, standard lubrication for externally heated engine. • Different fuels: oil, coal, gas, biomass also solar or nuclear energy

  6. The circulating air barrier: Effective prevention of liquid contaminant movement through soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, R.; Towers, T.; Johnson, H.; Overbey, W.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental cleanup task facing the United States Department of Energy (DOE) presents enormous technical, planning and institutional challenges, including the need to develop new technologies that are faster, better, safer, and cheaper, in order to expedite site cleanup. Characterization of contaminated sediments resulting from past tank leaks, continued safe operations of the tanks, total confinement of leaking materials, secondary waste minimization, and final closure of the single shell tanks are five of the many facets of the storage tank issue at Hanford and elsewhere in the nation. Each of these issues are considered in the development of the Circulating Air Barrier (CAB). The Circulating Air Barrier system is a desiccant-type barrier designed to prevent the movement of liquid contaminants toward the groundwater by using an air circulation and processing system to lower the water saturation in a targeted subsurface zone below the saturation level required for liquid flow. Vertical or horizontal wells can be installed to create a matrix of air injection and production so that air flows across the target barrier zone to the production wells. In the event of a tank leak, the system serves as a tool for early detection and provides a means to withdraw volatile contaminants to the surface for treatment. Demonstration and full-scale CAB systems have been designed for the Hanford Site. This includes chemical and geological characterization; model development, sensitivity analysis and performance optimization; subsurface configuration and surface processing equipment design; and development of a test program with associated cost estimates

  7. Radon as a tracer of daily, seasonal and spatial air movements in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" (SW Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Parkitny, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    The surveys of radon concentrations in the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine" were carried out using passive and active measurement techniques. Passive methods with application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors LR115 were used at 4 points in years 2004-2007 and at 21 points in year 2011. These detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season in order to get information about seasonal and spatial changes of radon concentrations. The average radon concentration noted in this facility was 799 Bq m(-3) and is consistent with radon concentrations noted in Polish coal mines. Seasonal variations, observed in this underground tourist route, were as follows: the highest radon concentrations were noted during summers, the lowest during winters, during springs and autumns intermediate but higher in spring than in autumn. The main external factor that affected seasonal changes of radon concentrations was the seasonal variation of outside temperature. No correlation between seasonal variations of radon concentrations and seasonal average atmospheric pressures was found. Spatial variations of radon concentrations corresponded with air movements inside the Underground Tourist Route "Coal Mine". The most vivid air movements were noted along the main tunnel in adit and at the place located near no blinded (in the upper part) shaft. Daily variations of radon concentrations were recorded in May 2012 using RadStar RS-230 as the active measurement technique. Typical daily variations of radon concentrations followed the pattern that the highest radon concentrations were recorded from 8-9 a.m. to 7-8 p.m. and the lowest during nights. The main factor responsible for hourly variations of radon concentrations was the daily variation of outside temperatures. No correlations were found between radon concentration and other meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, wind velocity or precipitation. Additionally, the influence of human factor on radon

  8. Restriction of Cervical Intervertebral Movement with Different Types of External Immobilizers : A Cadaveric 3D Analysis Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, Micha; Hannink, Gerjon; Eggen, Thomas G.E.; Daanen, Robin A.; Hosman, Allard J.F.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2017-01-01

    Study Design. Cadaveric radiostereometric analysis study. Objective. To quantify the ability of five commonly used immobilizers to restrict cervical spine movement, including intervertebral movement, in three directions. Summary of Background Data. Evidence about the ability of many clinically used

  9. Restriction of Cervical Intervertebral Movement With Different Types of External Immobilizers: A Cadaveric 3D Analysis Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holla, M.; Hannink, G.J.; Eggen, T.G.E.; Daanen, R.A.; Hosman, A.J.F.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Cadaveric radiostereometric analysis study. OBJECTIVE: To quantify the ability of five commonly used immobilizers to restrict cervical spine movement, including intervertebral movement, in three directions. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Evidence about the ability of many clinically used

  10. Elevated air movement enhances stomatal sensitivity to abscisic acid in leaves developed at high relative air humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dália R.A. Carvalho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available High relative air humidity (RH ≥ 85% during growth leads to stomata malfunctioning, resulting in water stress when plants are transferred to conditions of high evaporative demand. In this study, we hypothesized that an elevated air movement (MOV 24 h per day, during the whole period of leaf development would increase abscisic acid concentration ([ABA] enhancing stomatal functioning. Pot rose ‘Toril’ was grown at moderate (61% or high (92% RH combined with a negligible MOV or with a continuous MOV of 0.92 m s-1. High MOV reduced stomatal pore length and aperture in plants developed at high RH. Moreover, stomatal function improved when high MOV-treated plants were subjected to leaflet desiccation and ABA feeding. Endogenous concentration of ABA and its metabolites in the leaves was reduced by 35% in high RH, but contrary to our hypothesis this concentration was not significantly affected by high MOV. Interestingly, in detached leaflets grown at high RH, high MOV increased stomatal sensitivity to ABA since the amount of exogenous ABA required to decrease the transpiration rate was significantly reduced. This is the first study to show that high MOV increases stomatal functionality in leaves developed at high RH by reducing the stomatal pore length and aperture and enhancing stomatal sensitivity to ABA rather than increasing leaf [ABA].

  11. Evaluation of the external exposure to Rn-222 progeny in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, E.M.; Taha, T.M.; Gomaa, M.A.; El-Hussein, A.M.; Ahmed, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Rn-222 progeny annual effective dose, skin dose and effective doses to different organs such as Gonad, Lung, Red Marrow, Bone surface, Thyroid, and the Remainder. Dose Coefficients of external exposure to Rn-222 in air was used in mSv s/Bqm -3 to calculate the organ doses. The study was monitored for two places, Nuclear Research Center and Al-Minia University. We have confirmed that the inhalation modes, sleep, sitting, light and heavy exercise influence the activity inhalation rate Bq/hr. It varies from 0.3 to 39.6 Bq/hr., the organ doses of Pb-214 is higher than Bi-214/Po-214 and Po-218 respectively in the case of the organ dose relative to environmental media

  12. Bifurcation and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Externally Pressurized Double Air Films Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chi Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the chaotic and nonlinear dynamic behaviors of a rigid rotor supported by externally pressurized double air films (EPDAF bearing system. A hybrid numerical method combining the differential transformation method and the finite difference method is used to calculate pressure distribution of EPDAF bearing system and bifurcation phenomenon of rotor center orbits. The results obtained for the orbits of the rotor center are in good agreement with those obtained using the traditional finite difference approach. The results presented summarize the changes which take place in the dynamic behavior of the EPDAF bearing system as the rotor mass and bearing number are increased and therefore provide a useful guideline for the bearing system.

  13. Movement of the cervix in after-loading brachytherapy: implications for designing external-beam radiotherapy boost fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombaiah, U; Blake, P; Bidmead, M

    2006-05-01

    Women with invasive carcinoma of the cervix treated by chemo-radiotherapy and brachytherapy may also receive a pelvic sidewall boost using a midline shield (MLS). The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of implanted gold grains in detecting the movement of the cervix caused by the insertion of low-dose-rate brachytherapy applicators, and its implications in designing the MLS. The medical records of 42 women with various stages of cervical carcinoma, who were treated by radical chemo-radiotherapy, were reviewed. All of these women underwent examination under anaesthesia (EUA) and a gold-grain insertion to demarcate the vaginal tumour extent, in the antero-posterior and lateral planes, before starting external-beam radiotherapy. The isocentric orthogonal films (simulator films) of external radiotherapy and brachytherapy were compared to assess the change in position of the gold grains and the consequences for the design of the MLS for parametrial and pelvic sidewall boosts. A significant shift in the position of the gold grains was noted in both the x (lateral) and the y (cranial/caudal) axes. The median shift of the midline, right and left lateral gold grains was 4.5, 5 and 7 mm in the x axis, whereas it was 10, 8 and 9.5 mm in the y axis, respectively. The median shift in the x and y axes was 5.5 and 9 mm, ranging from 1 to 40 mm and 1 to 45 mm, respectively. The gold grains were shifted cranially in 34 (80%) and laterally in 29 (69%) women. Thirty-two women (76.2%) received parametrial boost radiotherapy, of which 25 (59.5%) women had a customised, pear-shaped shield, and the remaining seven (16.7%) had a straight-sided, rectangular MLS. Four women (9.5%) relapsed locally, and three of them had been treated using a customised shield. In two of these four women, there was an absolute under-dosage of the central pelvis at the tip of the intra-uterine tube by 50% of the parametrial boost dose (5.4 Gy/3 fractions/3 days). Insertion of the gold grains

  14. Assessment of externalities related to global and local air pollutants with the NEEDS-TIMES Italy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrapertosa, F.; Cosmi, C.; Loperte, S.; Salvia, M.; Cuomo, V. [National Research Council, Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis, C.da S. Loja, I-85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Di Leo, S. [University of Basilicata, Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Physics, C.da Macchia Romana, I-85100 Potenza (Italy); Macchiato, M. [Federico II University, Dept. of Physical Sciences, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    This work is aimed to illustrate the potentiality of the multi-region NEEDS-TIMES modelling platform, in the economic evaluation of the environmental damages due to air pollution. In particular the effects of external costs on the least-cost optimised energy system configuration were analysed in a national case study with the NEEDS-TIMES Italy model, considering the externalities related to local and global air pollutants (NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, VOC, particulates and GHGs). Different scenarios were compared to emphasise the role of external costs in the achievement of strategic environmental targets. The main results obtained are discussed, focusing on the changes in energy fuel mix as well as in local air pollutants and GHG emissions, highlighting the main conclusions in terms of policy strategies. (author)

  15. The Influence of Office Furniture on the Air Movement in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, June Richther

    Isothermal and thermal experiments and simulations form the basis of the investigations in this thesis. It is mainly the isothermal case that is studied. The examinations concern how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a mixing ventilated room. Especially, the jet under...... whereas the two last-mentioned inlets are simulated 3-dimensional. In the isothermal simulations a furniture volume is used to represent the physical furniture and in the thermal case a furniture volume together with a volume source is used. The investigations of the isothermal experiments and simulations...... by the thermal forces in the room. The thermal case needs more investigation because only two experiments and the corresponding simulations are the base of the investigations....

  16. Dynamic of arm’s micro movements of elite athlete in Olympic exercises Rapid Fire Pistol and Air Pistol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.T. Pyatkov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate the method of contactless determination of athlete hand’s movements in Olympic exercises with pistol. Material: in the research we used the data of 37 elite athletes in exercise Air Pistol (n=32 and in exercise Rapid Fire Pistol (n=5. Registration of pistol projection’s quickness of movement in target area was realized with the help of computer system Scatt. In total we analyzed 3100 space-time parameters of athletes’ technical-tactic actions in finalizing phase of shooting cycle. Results: we tested innovative method of contactless measuring of athlete’s hand’s micro movements in finalizing phase of shooting cycle. We found uncontrolled deviations from optimal pistol pointing position in vertical, horizontal and sagittal planes. Quickness of athlete hand’s movements in shooting process was determined. Conclusions: we scientifically substantiated the method of contactless determination of athlete hand’s movements at a distance in Olympic exercises with pistol. Besides, we determined the dynamic of athlete’s hand micro movements in Olympic exercises Rapid Fire Pistol та Air Pistol.

  17. Microparticle charging in dry air plasma created by an external ionization source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbenev, I N; Filippov, A V

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper the dust particle charging is studied in a dry air plasma created by an external ionization source. The ionization rate is changed in the range 10 1 -10 20 cm -3 s -1 . It is found that the main positive ion of the plasma is O + 4 and the main negative ones are O − 2 and O − 4 . The point sink model based on the diffusion-drift approach shows that the screening potential distribution around a dust particle is a superposition of four Debye-like exponentials with four different spatial scales. The first scale almost coincides with the Debye radius. The second one is the distance, passed by positive and negative plasma components due to ambipolar diffusion in their recombination time. The third one is defined by the negative ion conversion and diffusion. The fourth scale is described by the electron attachment, recombination and diffusion at low gas ionization rates and by the recombination and diffusion of negative diatomic ions at high ionization rates. It is also shown that the electron flux defines the microparticle charge at high ionization rates, whereas the electron number density is much less than the ion one. (paper)

  18. Intrinsic Hormone-Like Molecules and External Root Resorption During Orthodontic Tooth Movement. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Preclinical in-Vivo Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spoerri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: External root resorption constitutes an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to identify the effect of induced intrinsic/ hormone-like molecules such as prostaglandins, interleukins and others on external root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement in experimental animalsMethods: An electronic database search of the literature was performed (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Open Gray. Search terms included root resorption, tooth movement and animal type. Risk of bias assessment was made using the SYRCLE guidelines for animal studies and reporting quality was assessed through ARRIVE. Random effects meta-analysis was performed for the outcome root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement.Results: Of the 124 articles initially retrieved, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, while only 2 were included in the quantitative synthesis. Five studies investigated the effect of Prostaglandin E2, four studies the effect of Thyroxine, two the effect of Calcium ions (Ca++, while the rest investigated Misoprostol, Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-4. Risk of Bias in all studies was judged to be high overall, while reporting quality was suboptimal. According to the quantitative synthesis, there was no difference in root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement when Prostaglandin E2 coupled with Ca++ was administered in comparison to no substance administration (SMD: 0.48 mm2; 95% CI: −0.22, 1.19; p = 0.18.Conclusions: Overall, there was no evidence to suggest a variation in root resorption when Prostaglandin E2 and Ca++ were administered, while there is an overriding need for further high quality experimental studies to inform available evidence on the effect of intrinsic substances on external root resorption.

  19. Intrinsic Hormone-Like Molecules and External Root Resorption During Orthodontic Tooth Movement. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis in Preclinical in-Vivo Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Andreas; Koletsi, Despina; Eliades, Theodore

    2018-01-01

    Background: External root resorption constitutes an adverse effect of orthodontic treatment. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to identify the effect of induced intrinsic/ hormone-like molecules such as prostaglandins, interleukins and others on external root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement in experimental animals Methods: An electronic database search of the literature was performed (Medline via PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, and Open Gray). Search terms included root resorption, tooth movement and animal type. Risk of bias assessment was made using the SYRCLE guidelines for animal studies and reporting quality was assessed through ARRIVE. Random effects meta-analysis was performed for the outcome root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement. Results: Of the 124 articles initially retrieved, 13 were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review, while only 2 were included in the quantitative synthesis. Five studies investigated the effect of Prostaglandin E2, four studies the effect of Thyroxine, two the effect of Calcium ions (Ca++), while the rest investigated Misoprostol, Interleukin-12 and Interleukin-4. Risk of Bias in all studies was judged to be high overall, while reporting quality was suboptimal. According to the quantitative synthesis, there was no difference in root resorption after orthodontic tooth movement when Prostaglandin E2 coupled with Ca++ was administered in comparison to no substance administration (SMD: 0.48 mm 2 ; 95% CI: -0.22, 1.19; p = 0.18). Conclusions: Overall, there was no evidence to suggest a variation in root resorption when Prostaglandin E2 and Ca++ were administered, while there is an overriding need for further high quality experimental studies to inform available evidence on the effect of intrinsic substances on external root resorption.

  20. Full amenities : the jungle hums with armed guards, planned movements, air-conditioning and cultural realness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leslie, J.

    2001-06-04

    The working situation of a Canadian consultant asked to work in Ecuador for a one-month period was described. He quickly learned that discretion is an incredibly valuable trait in this country where a number of oil and gas workers have become victims of kidnappings, because the companies that employ them are perceived as having lots of money. Accordingly, the planning for the trip began back in Canada where the worker received inoculations for yellow fever and hepatitis, among others, as well as briefing about personal security while abroad. Upon his arrival, he was met by security guards hired by the company and driven to his hotel in the capital, Quito. He found he was safe to wander inside the hotel at will, as well as just outside. If he wanted to go outside the perimeter, he had to call the company and the guards would meet and escort him, without displaying their weapons. When it came time to travel to the production site deep in the jungle, armed guards were travelling in a vehicle ahead of his, as well as in two vehicles behind him with weapons in full view. All of his movements were planned. The facilities on-site were more than adequate and resembled those found in Canada: flush toilet, air-conditioned sleeping quarters and cafeteria-style food. With air-conditioning available in buildings and in vehicles, it was not too difficult to adjust to the 40 Celsius heat, but one had to be equipped with very dark sunglasses. The high humidity and the heat made it different from conditions experienced in Canada. The people from Ecuador were very friendly and proud to be working on the rigs. Jobs are scarce and the level of poverty high. It was an enjoyable experience overall, as long as one is careful to mitigate risks and take the advice of experts. 3 figs.

  1. EVA – a non-linear Eulerian approach for assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Frohn, Lise Marie; Nielsen, Jytte Seested

    2006-01-01

    of the emissions. External cost estimates based on the Eulerian approach, on the other hand, are in mutual conformity. The existence of non-linear dynamics and possible thresholds, both in the atmospheric modelling and in the dose-response functions for health effects, need further attention and should......Integrated models which are used to account for the external costs of air pollution have to a considerable extent ignored the non-linear dynamics of atmospheric science. In order to bridge the gap between economic analysis and environmental modelling an integrated model EVA, based on a Eulerian...... for the final external cost estimates of the Eulerian approach is explored. Uncertainties in the health costs estimates are endemic in particular for mortality, but in order to achieve a common baseline the approach recommended by the OECD has been employed for the valuation part. This approach implies the use...

  2. Evaluating of air flow movements and thermal comfort in a model room with Euler equation: Two dimensional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chafi, Fatima Zohra; Halle, Stephane [Mechanical engineering department, Ecole de technologie superieure, Quebec university, 1100 rue Notre-Dame Ouest, Montreal, Quebec H3C 1K3 (Canada)

    2011-02-15

    This paper presents the results of a study that consists of estimating the temperature distribution and air flow movement in a model room with a numerical model based on the Euler equations. Numerical results obtained for two scenarios of ventilation and heating are compared with the predictions of a Navier-Stokes model, as well as with experimental results. A comparison of the local thermal comfort indices PMV and PPD obtained experimentally and numerically is also presented. Results show that the Euler model is capable of properly estimating the temperature distribution, the air movement and the comfort indices in the room. Furthermore, the use of Euler equations allows a reduction of computational time in the order of 30% compared to the Navier-Stokes modeling. (author)

  3. Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumoretroperitoneum by insufflation of compressed air at the external genitalia in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramori, Katsumi; Takahashi, Yukiko; Handa, Noritoshi; Aikawa, Hisayuki

    2009-04-01

    A 7-year-old girl with concurrent subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, pneumoperitoneum, and pneumoretroperitoneum arrived at our facility. Compressed air at 5 atm of pressure was insufflated through the nozzle of a spray gun over her external genitalia. She was admitted for a small amount of genital bleeding and significant subcutaneous emphysema extending from the cheek to the upper body. Radiographic examination of the abdomen was suggestive of a visceral perforation, but she was managed conservatively and discharged in satisfactory condition without surgical intervention. The female genitalia possibly served as the entry point for air into the retroperitoneum and peritoneal cavity, with subsequent migration of air through the esophageal hiatus that resulted in pneumomediastinum, pneumothorax, and extensive subcutaneous emphysema.

  4. Experimental data and boundary conditions for a Double-Skin Facade building in external air curtain mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Olena Kalyanova; Heiselberg, Per; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Frequent discussions of double skin façade energy performance have started a dialogue about the methods, models and tools for simulation of double façade systems and reliability of their results. Their reliability will increase with empirical validation of the software. Detailed experimental work...... was carried out in a full scale test facility ‘The Cube’, in order to compile three sets of high quality experimental data for validation purposes. The data sets are available for preheating mode, external air curtain mode and transparent insulation mode. The objective of this article is to provide the reader......’. This covers such problem areas as measurements of naturally induced air flow, measurements of air temperature under direct solar radiation exposure, etc. Finally, in order to create a solid foundation for software validation, the uncertainty and limitations in the experimental results are discussed. In part...

  5. Road pricing, air pollution and external costs; Road pricing, luftforurening og eksternalitetsomkostninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solvang Jensen, S.; Ketzel, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Atmosfaerisk Miljoe, Roskilde (Denmark)); Skou Andersen, M. (Aarhus Univ., Danmarks Miljoeundersoegelser, Afd. for Systemanalyse, Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-06-15

    The objective of this assessment is to improve the foundation for decision-making about introduction of a road pricing system that aims to reduce the health impacts and social costs of traffic-related air pollution. The analysis focuses on how road emissions, air quality, population exposure, and social costs of air pollution depend on geography (different city sizes and rural areas) and time of the day (rush hours versus non-rush hours). A review of Danish studies related to road pricing has also been carried out to assess the expected effect of road pricing on traffic performance (km travelled), vehicle composition and speed that are factors affecting air pollution. (LN)

  6. Experimental investigations of an air curtain device subjected to external perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havet, M.; Rouaud, O.; Solliec, C.

    2003-01-01

    Although plane air jets are often used as dynamic barriers to separate two environments, only a few works have explored their sensitivity to perturbations. We investigated the influence of sharp changes of pressure on the flow field of a device designed to avoid air-borne contamination. Laser tomography and tracer gas experiments clearly indicate that the air curtain is strongly sensitive to perturbations such as draughts. The results highlight that the control of air curtains used in open protection devices should be further investigated

  7. Analysis of the population movement in the Czech Republic through external migration in the period 1993–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents partial findings obtained during the study of external migration according to countries in a defined territorial unit and time period. Applied methodical procedures of the statistical processing of empirical data make possible, in addition to the exact description of the proportion of selected country groups and aggregated particular countries on the total number of immigrants, emigrants and derived values of migration increases or decreases, also the description of developmental trends of the analysed time series of assessed events and point short-term extrapolation prediction.

  8. Collector Efficiency in Downward-Type Double-Pass Solar Air Heaters with Attached Fins and Operated by External Recycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Dong Ho

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The collector efficiency in a downward-type double-pass external-recycle solar air heater with fins attached on the absorbing plate has been investigated theoretically. Considerable improvement in collector efficiency is obtainable if the collector is equipped with fins and the operation is carried out with an external recycle. Due to the recycling, the desirable effect of increasing the heat transfer coefficient compensates for the undesirable effect of decreasing the driving force (temperature difference of heat transfer, while the attached fins provide an enlarged heat transfer area. The order of performances in the devices of same size is: double pass with recycle and fins > double pass with recycle but without fins > single pass without recycle and fins.

  9. Calculation of dose conversion factors for doses in the fingernails to organ doses at external gamma irradiation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khailov, A.M.; Ivannikov, A.I.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Stepanenko, V.F.; Orlenko, S.P.; Flood, A.B.; Williams, B.B.; Swartz, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Absorbed doses to fingernails and organs were calculated for a set of homogenous external gamma-ray irradiation geometries in air. The doses were obtained by stochastic modeling of the ionizing particle transport (Monte Carlo method) for a mathematical human phantom with arms and hands placed loosely along the sides of the body. The resulting dose conversion factors for absorbed doses in fingernails can be used to assess the dose distribution and magnitude in practical dose reconstruction problems. For purposes of estimating dose in a large population exposed to radiation in order to triage people for treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the calculated data for a range of energies having a width of from 0.05 to 3.5 MeV were used to convert absorbed doses in fingernails to corresponding doses in organs and the whole body as well as the effective dose. Doses were assessed based on assumed rates of radioactive fallout at different time periods following a nuclear explosion. - Highlights: • Elemental composition and density of nails were determined. • MIRD-type mathematical human phantom with arms and hands was created. • Organ doses and doses to nails were calculated for external photon exposure in air. • Effective dose and nail doses values are close for rotational and soil surface exposures.

  10. Fully self-contained vision-aided navigation and landing of a micro air vehicle independent from external sensor inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Susca, Sara; Zhu, David; Matthies, Larry

    2012-06-01

    Direct-lift micro air vehicles have important applications in reconnaissance. In order to conduct persistent surveillance in urban environments, it is essential that these systems can perform autonomous landing maneuvers on elevated surfaces that provide high vantage points without the help of any external sensor and with a fully contained on-board software solution. In this paper, we present a micro air vehicle that uses vision feedback from a single down looking camera to navigate autonomously and detect an elevated landing platform as a surrogate for a roof top. Our method requires no special preparation (labels or markers) of the landing location. Rather, leveraging the planar character of urban structure, the landing platform detection system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect landing targets and produce approach waypoints for autonomous landing. The vehicle control algorithm uses a Kalman filter based approach for pose estimation to fuse visual SLAM (PTAM) position estimates with IMU data to correct for high latency SLAM inputs and to increase the position estimate update rate in order to improve control stability. Scale recovery is achieved using inputs from a sonar altimeter. In experimental runs, we demonstrate a real-time implementation running on-board a micro aerial vehicle that is fully self-contained and independent from any external sensor information. With this method, the vehicle is able to search autonomously for a landing location and perform precision landing maneuvers on the detected targets.

  11. Assessing Air Pollutant-Induced, Health-Related External Costs in the Context of Nonmarginal System Changes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M

    2015-08-18

    Marginal analysis is the usual approach to environmental economic assessment, for instance, of health-related external costs due to energy-associated air pollutant emissions. However, nonlinearity exists in all steps of their assessment, i.e., atmospheric dispersion, impact assessment, and monetary valuation. Dedicated assessments thus appear necessary when evaluating large systems or their changes such as in green accounting or the implications of economy-wide energy transitions. Corresponding approaches are reviewed. Tools already exist that allow assessing a marginal change (e.g., one power plant's emissions) for different background emission scenarios that merely need to be defined and implemented. When assessing nonmarginal changes, the top-down approach is considered obsolete, and four variants of the bottom-up approach with different application domains were identified. Variants 1 and 2 use precalculated external cost factors with different levels of sophistication, suitable for energy systems modeling, optimizing for social (i.e., private and external) costs. Providing more reliable results due to more detailed modeling, emission sources are assessed individually or jointly in variants 3 and 4, respectively. Aiming at considering nonlinearity more fully and simultaneously following marginal analysis principles, I propose a variant 3-based approach, subdividing an aggregate (i.e., a nonmarginal change) into several smaller changes. Its strengths and drawbacks, notably the associated effort, are discussed.

  12. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-02-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs.

  13. Consequential life cycle air emissions externalities for plug-in electric vehicles in the PJM interconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Allison; Jaramillo, Paulina; Michalek, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    We perform a consequential life cycle analysis of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and conventional gasoline vehicles in the PJM interconnection using a detailed, normative optimization model of the PJM electricity grid that captures the change in power plant operations and related emissions due to vehicle charging. We estimate and monetize the resulting human health and environmental damages from life cycle air emissions for each vehicle technology. We model PJM using the most recent data available (2010) as well as projections of the PJM grid in 2018 and a hypothetical scenario with increased wind penetration. We assess a range of sensitivity cases to verify the robustness of our results. We find that PEVs have higher life cycle air emissions damages than gasoline HEVs in the recent grid scenario, which has a high percentage of coal generation on the margin. In particular, battery electric vehicles with large battery capacity can produce two to three times as much air emissions damage as gasoline HEVs, depending on charge timing. In our future 2018 grid scenarios that account for predicted coal plant retirements, PEVs would produce air emissions damages comparable to or slightly lower than HEVs. (letter)

  14. Remote monitoring of air movement through a high-rise, brick veneer and steel-stud wall system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemeyer, T.A.; Genge, G.R. [GRG Building Consultants Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Since the early 20th century, research on building enclosures has been going on in the form of field investigations and laboratory testing, but real-time monitoring of buildings is relatively new. Compact sensors and programmable data logging equipment have allowed thorough, real-time trend analysis of occupied buildings. This paper discusses the remote monitoring of air movement using a high-rise brick veneer and steel-stud wall system. This equipment was installed across the exterior wall assembly. Temperature and air moisture content within the stud cavity and outdoor to indoor air pressure difference was measured across the entire assembly and in series across the various components of the wall. For outdoor conditions, local airport weather records were used. Comparing collected temperature data and the theoretical thermal model, it was concluded that there was air leakage. From the overall project, lessons learned included that is was important to minimize discomfort, both in aesthetics and in the number of requests for access to homes for analyses.

  15. Radon concentration in air and external gamma dose rate. Is there a correlation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, E.M.; Umisedo, N.K.; Marcos Rizzotto; Hugo Velasco; Valladares, D.L.

    2016-01-01

    We checked the existence of correlations between experimentally determined radon concentration in indoor air and gamma dose rate, in different environments: residences, workplaces in subway stations and radiotherapies, and a gold mine. Except for the mine environment, where a linear correlation (r 2 = 0.86) was obtained with statistical significance, we found no correlations between those quantities. Both radiation sources are originated from natural radionuclides, nonetheless the observation of correlations depends on various conditions, as we discuss here. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the Induced Activity in Air by the External Proton Beam in the Target Room of the Proton Accelerator Facility of Proton Engineering Frontier Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol Woo; Lee, Young Ouk; Cho, Young Sik; Ahn, So Hyun

    2007-01-01

    One of the radiological concerns is the worker's exposure level and the concentration of the radionuclides in the air after shutdown, for the safety analysis on the proton accelerator facility. Although, the primary radiation source is the protons accelerated up to design value, all of the radio-nuclide is produced from the secondary neutron and photon induced reaction in air. Because, the protons don't penetrate the acceleration equipment like the DTL tank wall or BTL wall, secondary neutrons or photons are only in the air in the accelerator tunnel building because of the short range of the proton in the materials. But, for the case of the target rooms, external proton beams are occasionally used in the various experiments. When these external proton beams travel through air from the end of the beam transport line to the target, they interact directly with air and produce activation products from the proton induced reaction. The external proton beam will be used in the target rooms in the accelerator facility of the Proton Accelerator Frontier Project (PEFP). In this study, interaction characteristics of the external proton beam with air and induced activity in air from the direct interaction of the proton beam were evaluated

  17. Compendium of selected references on air emissions; health, risk, and valuation research; and environmental externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1992-07-01

    In preparing to develop a cost-benefit methodology that could be applied to potential projects abroad involving new coal-fired power plants that make use of US clean coal technologies, the author reviewed a wide variety of reference sources. These are listed in this publication. Before this review, the author had conducted a number of literature searches that identified source material in the newly rediscovered field of environmental externalities and related topics that might also be of value to other energy and environmental researchers. Those sources that appeared to be appropriate but that the author was unable to review are also listed in this document. Thus, this document serves as a comprehensive compendium of source material on these subjects, arranged alphabetically within categories

  18. Effects of external stores on the air combat capability of a delta wing fighter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearman, M. L.; Sawyer, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Delta wing point-design fighters with two pylon mounted missiles and aft tail controls (similar to several Soviet designs) have been investigated for a Mach number range from about 0.6 to 2.0. Whereas minimum drag penalties that are expected with the addition of external stores do occur, the effects at higher lifts, corresponding to maneuvering flight, are less severe and often favorable. The drag-due-to-lift factor is less with stores on although the lift curve slope is unaffected. The longitudinal stability level is reduced by the addition of stores while the pitch control effectiveness is unchanged. The directional stability was generally reduced at subsonic speeds and increased at supersonic speeds by the addition of stores but sufficiently high stability levels are obtainable that are compatible with the longitudinal maneuvering limits. Some examples of the potential maneuvering capability in terms of normal acceleration and turn radius are included.

  19. Studies on external gamma dose rates in air around Hassan city, Karnataka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shashikumar, T.S.; Gowda, Shivalinge; Chandrashekar; Shivakumar, B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Gamma-ray dose rates in air have been measured in the environment of Hassan City. The measurements were done from 15 locations in and around Hassan city at 1m above from the ground surface using a light weight portable radiation survey meter (Scintillometer) which is suited for radiometric, and environmental surveys. The meter reading fluctuates around a mean value and is proportional to the count rate detected by the unit. This is because of the random nature of radioactivity. The detailed results of the study will be presented. (author)

  20. THE DEPENDENCE OF HEAT CONSUMPTION ON THE DYNAMICS OF EXTERNAL AIR TEMPERATURE DURING COLD SNAP PERIODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarov Andrey Georgievich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of outdoor temperature variations during the cold period of the year influences the operation of the systems providing the required microclimate in the premises, which may be subject to automation systems that affects the IQ of a building, it is important to note that in the last decade there has been a growth in the participation of intelligent technologies in the formation of a microclimate of buildings. Studying the microclimate quality in terms of energy consumption of the premises and the building considers climate variability and outdoor air pollution, which is connected with the economic aspects of energy efficiency and productivity, and health of workers, as a short-term temperature fall in the premises has harmful consequences. Low outdoor temperatures dry the air in the premises that requires accounting for climate control equipment and, if necessary, the personal account of its work. Excess heat in the premises, including office equipment, corrects the temperature conditions, which reduces the adverse effect of cold snap.

  1. Update of the external cost for environmental damage (for Flanders) with regard to air pollution and climatic change; Actualisering van de externe milieuschadekosten (algemeen voor Vlaanderen) met betrekking tot luchtverontreiniging en klimaatverandering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Nocker, L.; Michiels, H.; Deutsch, F.; Lefebvre, W.; Buekers, J.; Torfs, R. [Unit Ruimtelijke Milieuaspecten, VITO, Mol (Belgium)

    2010-12-15

    This report contains a set of indicators for calculating external costs of air-polluting substances and greenhouse gases. The external costs of environmental damage relate to the damage to human health, eco systems, buildings and economy as a result of an activity. This leads to loss of welfare for inhabitants in Flanders and abroad for the current and future generations. The magnitude and evolution of the external or environmental damage cost resulting from air pollution is one of the indicators for the MIRA report that translates the state of the environment into consequences for man and economy. [Dutch] Dit rapport bevat een set van kengetallen voor de berekening van de externe kosten van luchtverontreinigende stoffen en broeikasgassen. De externe kosten of milieuschadekosten hebben betrekking op de schade aan menselijke gezondheid, ecosystemen, gebouwen en economie als gevolg van een activiteit. Dit leidt tot een verlies aan welvaart voor inwoners in Vlaanderen en het buitenland, voor deze en toekomstige generaties. De omvang en evolutie van de externe of milieuschadekosten ten gevolge van luchtverontreiniging ia 1 van de indicatoren voor het MIRA rapport die de toestand van het milieu vertaalt naar gevolgen voor mens en economie.

  2. Concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter downwind during agricultural practices using air samplers in southwestern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Luis Gabriel; Limay-Rios, Victor; Xue, Yingen; Schaafsma, Arthur

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions of neonicotinoid seed treatment insecticides as particulate matter in field crops occur mainly for two reasons: 1) due to abraded dust of treated seed generated during planting using vacuum planters, and 2) as a result of disturbances (tillage or wind events) in the surface of parental soils which release wind erodible soil-bound residues. In the present study, concentration and movement of neonicotinoids as particulate matter were quantified under real conditions using passive and active air samplers. Average neonicotinoid concentrations in Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) using passive samplers were 0.48 ng/cm 2 , trace, trace (LOD 0.80 and 0.04 ng/cm 2 for clothianidin and thiamethoxam, respectively), and using active samplers 16.22, 1.91 and 0.61 ng/m 3 during planting, tillage and wind events, respectively. There was a difference between events on total neonicotinoid concentration collected in particulate matter using either passive or active sampling. Distance of sampling from the source field during planting of treated seed had an effect on total neonicotinoid air concentration. However, during tillage distance did not present an effect on measured concentrations. Using hypothetical scenarios, values of contact exposure for a honey bee were estimated to be in the range from 1.1% to 36.4% of the reference contact LD 50 value of clothianidin of 44 ng/bee. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of health-cost externalities of air pollution at the national level using the EVA model system. CEEH scientific report no. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, J.; Silver, J.D.; Christensen, Jesper H. (and others)

    2011-03-15

    Air pollution has significant negative impacts on human health and well-being, which entail substantial economic consequences. We have developed an integrated model system, EVA (Economic Valuation of Air pollution), based on the impact-pathway chain, to assess the health-related economic externalities of air pollution resulting from specific emission sources or sectors. The EVA system was initially developed to assess externalities from power production, but in this study it is extended to evaluate external costs at the national level from all major emission sectors. The essential idea behind the EVA system is that state-of-the-art scientific methods are used in all the individual parts of the impact-pathway chain and to make the best scientific basis for sound political decisions with respect to emission control. In this report, we estimate the impacts and total health-related external costs from the main emission sectors in Denmark, represented by the 10 major SNAP (Selected Nomenclature for Sources of Air Pollution); categories as well as all emission sectors simultaneously. Besides these major categories, we assess the external costs from international ship traffic, since this sector is an important contributor to air pollution in Denmark. Furthermore, we assess the impacts and externalities of all emissions from the Northern Hemisphere simultaneously (including natural emissions) to estimate the total health-related external costs from the total air pollution levels in Europe, and these results are compared to similar results obtained in the Clean Air For Europe (CAFE) project. Both for international ship traffic and for the total air pollution levels, results are presented for present and future conditions, represented by the years 2000, 2007, 2011 and 2020. The major results and conclusions concerning external costs within Denmark can be summarised as follows: 1) The main emission sectors in Denmark contributing to health-related external costs in Denmark

  4. Evaluation of internal and external doses from $^{11}C$ produced in the air in high energy proton accelerator tunnels

    CERN Document Server

    Endo, A; Kanda, Y; Oishi, T; Kondo, K

    2001-01-01

    Air has been irradiated with high energy protons at the 12 GeV proton synchrotron to obtain the following parameters essential for the internal dose evaluation from airborne /sup 11/C produced through nuclear spallation reactions: the abundance of gaseous and particulate /sup 11/C, chemical forms, and particle size distribution. It was found that more than 98% of /sup 11/C is present as gas and the rest is aerosol. The gaseous components were only /sup 11/CO and /sup 11/CO/sub 2/ and their proportions were approximately 80% and 20%, respectively. The particulate /sup 11/C was found to be sulphate and/or nitrate aerosols having a log-normal size distribution; the measurement using a diffusion battery showed a geometric mean radius of 0.035 mu m and a geometric standard deviation of 1.8 at a beam intensity of 6.8*10/sup 11/ proton.pulse /sup -1/ and an irradiation time of 9.6 min. By taking the chemical composition and particle size into account, effective doses both from internal and from external exposures pe...

  5. Startup and operating characteristics of an external air-lift reflux partial nitritation-ANAMMOX integrative reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Huang, Yong; Yuan, Yi; Bi, Zhen; Liu, Xin

    2017-08-01

    The differences in the physiological characteristics between AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria lead to suboptimal performance when used in a single reactor. In this study, aerobic and anaerobic zones with different survival environments were constructed in a single reactor to realize partitioned culture of AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria. An external air-lift reflux system was formed which used the exhaust from the aeration zone as power to return the effluent to the aeration zone. The reflux system effectively alleviated the large pH fluctuations and promoted NO 2 - -N to rapidly use by ANAMMOX bacteria, effectively inhibiting the activity of NOB. After 95d of running, the nitrogen removal rate increased from the initial 0.21kg/(m 3 ·d) to 3.1kg/(m 3 ·d). FISH analyses further demonstrated that AOB and ANAMMOX bacteria acquired efficient enrichment in the corresponding zone. Thus, this type of integrative reactor may create the environments needed for the partial nitritation-ANAMMOX processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [The investigation of control mechanisms of stepping rhythm in human in the air-stepping conditions during passive and voluntary leg movements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solopova, I A; Selionon, V A; Grishin, A A

    2010-01-01

    influences from moving leg in the most degree then on central commands. It seems that afferent inputs from pressure receptors of foot in the condition of "air-stepping" actively interact with central program of stepping and, irrespective of type of the performing movements (voluntary or passive), form the final pattern activity.

  7. Radon as a tracer of daily, seasonal and spatial air movements in the Underground Tourist Route “Coal Mine” (SW Poland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Parkitny, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The surveys of radon concentrations in the Underground Tourist Route “Coal Mine” were carried out using passive and active measurement techniques. Passive methods with application of Solid State Nuclear Track Detectors LR115 were used at 4 points in years 2004–2007 and at 21 points in year 2011. These detectors were exchanged at the beginning of every season in order to get information about seasonal and spatial changes of radon concentrations. The average radon concentration noted in this facility was 799 Bq m"−"3 and is consistent with radon concentrations noted in Polish coal mines. Seasonal variations, observed in this underground tourist route, were as follows: the highest radon concentrations were noted during summers, the lowest during winters, during springs and autumns intermediate but higher in spring than in autumn. The main external factor that affected seasonal changes of radon concentrations was the seasonal variation of outside temperature. No correlation between seasonal variations of radon concentrations and seasonal average atmospheric pressures was found. Spatial variations of radon concentrations corresponded with air movements inside the Underground Tourist Route “Coal Mine”. The most vivid air movements were noted along the main tunnel in adit and at the place located near no blinded (in the upper part) shaft. Daily variations of radon concentrations were recorded in May 2012 using RadStar RS-230 as the active measurement technique. Typical daily variations of radon concentrations followed the pattern that the highest radon concentrations were recorded from 8–9 a.m. to 7–8 p.m. and the lowest during nights. The main factor responsible for hourly variations of radon concentrations was the daily variation of outside temperatures. No correlations were found between radon concentration and other meteorological parameters such as atmospheric pressure, wind velocity or precipitation. Additionally, the influence of human factor on

  8. Upper cervical spine movement during intubation: fluoroscopic comparison of the AirWay Scope, McCoy laryngoscope, and Macintosh laryngoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, K; Yamada, T; Kawakami, R; Kamata, T; Yokochi, M; Hara, K

    2008-01-01

    The AirWay Scope (AWS) is a new fibreoptic intubation device, which allows visualization of the glottic structures without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal, and tracheal axes, and thus may be useful in patients with limited cervical spine (C-spine) movement. We fluoroscopically evaluated upper C-spine movement during intubation with the AWS or Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope. Forty-five patients, with normal C-spine, scheduled for elective surgery were randomly assigned to one of the three intubation devices. Movement of the upper C-spine was examined by measuring angles formed by adjacent vertebrae during intubation. Time to intubation was also recorded. Median cumulative upper C-spine movement was 22.3 degrees, 32.3 degrees, and 36.5 degrees with the AWS, Macintosh laryngoscope, and McCoy laryngoscope, respectively (Pmovement of the C-spine at C1/C2 in comparison with the Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope (P=0.012), and at C3/C4 in comparison with the McCoy laryngoscope (P=0.019). Intubation time was significantly longer in the AWS group than in the Macintosh group (P=0.03). Compared with the Macintosh or McCoy laryngoscope, the AWS produced less movement of upper C-spine for intubation in patients with a normal C-spine.

  9. High-resolution modelling of health impacts and related external cost from air pollution using the integrated model system EVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jørgen; Andersen, Mikael Skou; Bønløkke, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings from ITM 2015, 34th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 4-8 May, 2015, Montpellier, France. 4 pp......Proceedings from ITM 2015, 34th International Technical Meeting on Air Pollution Modelling and its Application. 4-8 May, 2015, Montpellier, France. 4 pp...

  10. Expressing air pollution-induced health-related externalities in physical terms with the help of DALYs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Till M; van der Kamp, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    The unintended impacts of industrial activity on human health and the environment have regularly been assessed and monetised (referred to as "external costs"). External costs are, however, a rather abstract aggregate so that decision makers cannot easily relate them to tangible impacts. At the same time, physical health impact indicators have different units that cannot readily be compared and communicated in a joint way. To support better informed decisions at policy or company level, we propose and demonstrate a way to facilitate communication on non-monetized, that is, physical health indicators quantified in studies. The concept Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is chosen as metric due to its widespread use. We establish a comprehensive and consistent set of six health endpoints caused by particles and ozone, and derive related up-to-date DALYs. Further we apply the DALY values to a French smart grid demonstration project. Owing to its size, the gains in terms of reduced DALYs are however small. In contrast to external cost assessments, in the frame of which morbidity endpoints usually contribute to around 10-15%, they are found to be insubstantial in the overall DALY score (i.e. below 1%). This is because DALYs only consider time losses weighted by severity while external costs also factor in further welfare effects, i.e. combining resource, disutility and opportunity costs of illness. As a result, methodological limitations, mainly existing for the morbidity-related DALY values, appear to be less of concern. Overall, using the DALYs with and without morbidity impacts is justifiable. Either choice in the communication of health-related physical externalities induces the need to explain the limitations in terms of the treatment of morbidity endpoints (notably their definition and the disability weights used) or their complete disregard. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. ESCLOUD: A computer program to calculate the air concentration, deposition rate and external dose rate from a continuous discharge of radioactive material to atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.

    1980-03-01

    Radioactive material may be discharged to atmosphere in small quantities during the normal operation of a nuclear installation as part of a considered waste management practice. Estimates of the individual and collective dose equivalent rates resulting from such a discharge are required in a number of contexts: for example, in assessing compliance with dose limits, in estimating the radiological impact of the discharge and as an input into optimisation studies. The suite of programs which has been developed to undertake such calculations is made up of a number of independent modules one of which, ESCLOUD, is described in this report. The ESCLOUD program evaluates, as a function of distance and direction from the release point, the air concentration, deposition rate and external β and γ doses from airborne and deposited activity. The air concentration and deposition rate can be used as input to other modules for calculating inhalation and ingestion doses. (author)

  12. Smoke Movement in an Atrium with a Fire with Low Rate of Heat Release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.; Brohus, Henrik; Petersen, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Results from small-scale experiments on smoke movement in an atrium are given, both with and without a vertical temperature gradient, and expressions for the smoke movement are developed on the basis of these experiments. Comparisons with a general analytical expression used for calculating...... the height to the location of the smoke layer are given. Furthermore, the paper discusses the air movement in a typical atrium exposed to different internal and external heat loads to elaborate on the use of the "flow element" expressions developed for smoke movement from a fire with a low rate of heat...

  13. Air Pollution Effects on Aircrafts Movement in and Around Airport: Solutions and Recommendations (Case Study: Djalaluddin Airport, Gorontalo, Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Adisaamita, Sakti Adji

    2014-01-01

    - The study was conducted by collecting information/data from Djalaluddin airport, Gorontalo, Indonesia in order to measure, prevent or minimize the air pollution impacts on airports and its surrounding, such that air pollution impacts can be managed and monitored effectively and efficiently not only in the current situation but also in the future conditions. The data used were primary and secondary data. The primary data were based on field survey, interview and discussion with official g...

  14. A Study to Determine the Role of Competition in Contracting for the Movement of Air Freight within the Domestic Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    ratemaking func- tion under part 288 [of the FAA Act of 19581. On the basis of this review, we propose for three principal reasons to amend Part 288 to...the six carriers and to the comments of TWA . . . none of the commenters oppose adoption of the basic proposal. . . . The six air carriers com- menting...Assistant for Civil Air Division, Directorate of Plans, Headquarters MAC. The researchers were aware that the basic requirements are generated at the

  15. At the Fulcrum of Air Force Identity: Balancing the Internal and External Pressures of Image and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    internally oriented understanding (labeled culture).10 Their model is an organizational abstraction of George Mead’s 1934 charac- terization of...fundamental shift in the societal structure of the day. Norman Cantor indicates that “the main social consequence of the Black Death was not the...FILE APPROACH TO THE US AIR FORCE IDENTITY 50 In a move eerily reminiscent of George Orwell’s “Ministry of Truth,” Mose- ley declared, “Our new

  16. Full-scale testing of leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room exposed to external air blast loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, R.; Ambrosini, D.

    2018-03-01

    For the last few decades, the effects of blast loading on structures have been studied by many researchers around the world. Explosions can be caused by events such as industrial accidents, military conflicts or terrorist attacks. Urban centers have been prone to various threats including car bombs, suicide attacks, and improvised explosive devices. Partially vented constructions subjected to external blast loading represent an important topic in protective engineering. The assessment of blast survivability inside structures and the development of design provisions with respect to internal elements require the study of the propagation and leakage of blast waves inside buildings. In this paper, full-scale tests are performed to study the effects of the leakage of blast waves inside a partially vented room that is subjected to different external blast loadings. The results obtained may be useful for proving the validity of different methods of calculation, both empirical and numerical. Moreover, the experimental results are compared with those computed using the empirical curves of the US Defense report/manual UFC 3-340. Finally, results of the dynamic response of the front masonry wall are presented in terms of accelerations and an iso-damage diagram.

  17. Regional Externalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The book offers practical and theoretical insights in regional externalities. Regional externalities are a specific subset of externalities that can be defined as externalities where space plays a dominant role. This class of externalities can be divided into three categories: (1) externalities

  18. Determination of air movement in stored grain as a factor in dynamic dispersion and distribution patterns of gaseous pesticides (fumigants).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berck, B

    1975-05-01

    The new research reported herein was motivated by variations in distribution-persistence patterns of fumigant residues (BERCK, 1974). The current developmental program is still underway. In the meantime, measurement of picoliter amounts of SF6 in air by GC equipped with a Ni63 EC detector has been proven useful over an airflow range of 10(-4) to 50 mph, representing a factor of 500,000 in differences in air velocity. Diverse applications have been outlined herein. This is the first case on record where measurement of unassisted airflow in the interstitial air of stored grain has been successfully executed, and which enabled determination of airflow speeds in the range of 0.5 to 7.5 times 10(-4) mph (=3 to 45 inches per hour).

  19. Impact of facially applied air movement on the development of the thermal plume above a sitting occupant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukowska, Daria; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Popiolek, Zbigniew J.

    2011-01-01

    implemented in practice. In this study the impact of locally applied airflow on the thermal plume generated by a sitting human body was investigated. The experiment was performed in a climate chamber with upward piston flow. A thermal manikin was sitting on a computer chair behind a table. The air speed...

  20. A primary study on the increasing of efficiency in the computer cooling system by means of external air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. H.; Kim, M. H. [Silla University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, since the continuing increase in the capacity of in personal computer such as the optimal performance, high quality and high resolution image, the computer system's components produce large amounts of heat during operation. This study analyzes and investigates an ability and efficiency of the cooling system inside the computer by means of Central Processing Unit (CPU) and power supply cooling fan. This research was conducted for increasing an ability of the cooling system inside the computer by making a structure which produces different air pressures in an air inflow tube. Consequently, when temperatures of the CPU and room inside computer were compared with a general personal computer, temperatures of the tested CPU, the room and the heat sink were as low as 5 .deg. C, 2.5 .deg. C and 7 .deg. C respectively. In addition to, Revolution Per Minute (RPM) was shown as low as 250 after 1 hour operation. This research explored the possibility of enhancing the effective cooling of high-performance computer systems.

  1. Processes affecting the movement of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) between soil and air in an industrial site in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Muezzinoglu, Aysen; Odabasi, Mustafa

    2009-11-01

    Soil and atmospheric concentrations, dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated at an industrial site in Aliaga, Izmir, Turkey. Current-use pesticides, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, had the highest atmospheric levels in summer and winter. Summertime total (gas+particle) OCP concentrations in air were higher, probably due to increased volatilization at higher temperatures and seasonal local/regional applications of current-use pesticides. Particle deposition fluxes were generally higher in summer than in winter. Overall average dry particle deposition velocity for all the OCPs was 4.9+/-4.1 cm s(-1) (average+/-SD). SigmaDDXs (sum of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) were the most abundant OCPs in Aliaga soils (n=48), probably due to their heavy historical use and persistence. Calculated fugacity ratios and average net gas fluxes across the soil-air interface indicated volatilization for alpha-CHL, gamma-CHL, heptachlorepoxide, cis-nonachlor, trans-nonachlor, and p,p'-DDT in summer, and for alpha-CHL, gamma-CHL, trans-nonachlor, endosulfan sulfate, and p,p'-DDT in winter. For the remaining OCPs, soil acted as a sink during both seasons. Comparison of the determined fluxes showed that dry particle, gas-phase, and wet deposition are significant OCP input mechanisms to the soil in the study area.

  2. The FAO/IAEA External Quality Assurance Programme (EQAP) and movement towards a generic veterinary diagnostic testing laboratory accreditation scheme. Report of an FAO/IAEA consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    FAO/IAEA support in the area of animal health is focused on enhancing the ability of regional reference laboratories and national veterinary authorities in developing countries to diagnose livestock diseases of major importance using nuclear and related technologies, and to help monitor the effectiveness of national and regional intervention strategies. This is done through provision of advice to the veterinary authorities concerning the development of appropriate sampling or research strategies coupled with FAO/IAEA-led collaborative development, adaptation, standardization, evaluation, and provision of quality-controlled enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits and the components necessary for diagnostic application of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Additional features of FAO/IAEA animal health support include provision of relevant laboratory equipment, training of counterpart scientists and technicians in the use of the equipment and standardized assays, and coordination of quality assurance (QA) programmes to monitor the proficiency of the assayists and help evaluate the impact of improved diagnostic capabilities. The current FAO/IAEA External Quality Assurance Programme (EQAP) for Animal Disease Diagnosis began as an effort to monitor the efficacy of mass vaccination programmes as part of the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC). Proficiency test panels, composed of 40 'unknown' serum samples, were sent to participating laboratories yearly to measure their abilities with ELISA in distinguishing between samples that were positive or negative for rinderpest antibodies. From this beginning, the EQAP has grown into an effort to measure general and specific components of FAO/IAEA counterparts' QA systems and provide assurance to outside observers that the use of FAO/IAEA diagnostic ELISA's are within established control limits and the test results and diagnostic interpretations are reliable. A major objective of the current EQAP is to

  3. Bowel Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. Your stool passes out of ... what you eat and drink. Sometimes a bowel movement isn't normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes ...

  4. Complexity in human transportation networks: a comparative analysis of worldwide air transportation and global cargo-ship movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley-Meza, O.; Thiemann, C.; Grady, D.; Lee, J. J.; Seebens, H.; Blasius, B.; Brockmann, D.

    2011-12-01

    We present a comparative network-theoretic analysis of the two largest global transportation networks: the worldwide air-transportation network (WAN) and the global cargo-ship network (GCSN). We show that both networks exhibit surprising statistical similarities despite significant differences in topology and connectivity. Both networks exhibit a discontinuity in node and link betweenness distributions which implies that these networks naturally segregate into two different classes of nodes and links. We introduce a technique based on effective distances, shortest paths and shortest path trees for strongly weighted symmetric networks and show that in a shortest path tree representation the most significant features of both networks can be readily seen. We show that effective shortest path distance, unlike conventional geographic distance measures, strongly correlates with node centrality measures. Using the new technique we show that network resilience can be investigated more precisely than with contemporary techniques that are based on percolation theory. We extract a functional relationship between node characteristics and resilience to network disruption. Finally we discuss the results, their implications and conclude that dynamic processes that evolve on both networks are expected to share universal dynamic characteristics.

  5. The Case of the Woman Who Did Never Dare to Fly: Headache Attributed to Imbalance Between Intrasinusal and External Air Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainardi, Federico; Maggioni, Ferdinando; Zanchin, Giorgio

    2016-02-01

    A new form of headache, Headache attributed to aeroplane travel (AH), has been recognized within the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3 beta (ICHD-3beta). In 8 out of 85 AH cases we identified the coexistence of a headache with identical features of AH, but appearing during the rapid descent by car from a high mountain. Pain began shortly after the rapid descent from a medium altitude of 1920 m above sea level, the maximum peak of intensity developing within a few minutes. All of the patients reported the disappearance of pain within 20 minutes of the rapid descent. We recently observed a 36-year-old woman who experienced recurrent headache attacks that were constantly triggered by rapid descent from high altitude by car. Negatively shaped by this experience, the patient never dared to fly. Headache attacks sharing the same features and occurring in three distinct conditions of pressure variations (aeroplane travel, rapid altitude mountain descent, snorkelling, or scuba diving) have already been reported, although the last two only anecdotally. If confirmed by further case series, they could be gathered together in a unique heading: Headache attributed to imbalance between intrasinusal and external air pressure within the 10th chapter: Headache attributed to disorders of the homoeostasis. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  6. A movement ecology paradigm for unifying organismal movement research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Ran; Getz, Wayne M; Revilla, Eloy; Holyoak, Marcel; Kadmon, Ronen; Saltz, David; Smouse, Peter E

    2008-12-09

    Movement of individual organisms is fundamental to life, quilting our planet in a rich tapestry of phenomena with diverse implications for ecosystems and humans. Movement research is both plentiful and insightful, and recent methodological advances facilitate obtaining a detailed view of individual movement. Yet, we lack a general unifying paradigm, derived from first principles, which can place movement studies within a common context and advance the development of a mature scientific discipline. This introductory article to the Movement Ecology Special Feature proposes a paradigm that integrates conceptual, theoretical, methodological, and empirical frameworks for studying movement of all organisms, from microbes to trees to elephants. We introduce a conceptual framework depicting the interplay among four basic mechanistic components of organismal movement: the internal state (why move?), motion (how to move?), and navigation (when and where to move?) capacities of the individual and the external factors affecting movement. We demonstrate how the proposed framework aids the study of various taxa and movement types; promotes the formulation of hypotheses about movement; and complements existing biomechanical, cognitive, random, and optimality paradigms of movement. The proposed framework integrates eclectic research on movement into a structured paradigm and aims at providing a basis for hypothesis generation and a vehicle facilitating the understanding of the causes, mechanisms, and spatiotemporal patterns of movement and their role in various ecological and evolutionary processes. "Now we must consider in general the common reason for moving with any movement whatever." (Aristotle, De Motu Animalium, 4th century B.C.).

  7. Locomotor-like leg movements evoked by rhythmic arm movements in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Sylos-Labini

    Full Text Available Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs.

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  10. Movement - uncoordinated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss of coordination; Coordination impairment; Ataxia; Clumsiness; Uncoordinated movement ... Smooth graceful movement requires a balance between different muscle groups. A part of the brain called the cerebellum manages this balance.

  11. Slope movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, P.

    2009-01-01

    On this poster some reasons of slope movements on the territory of the Slovak Republic are presented. Slope movements induced deterioration of land and forests, endangering of towns villages, and communications as well as hydro-engineering structures. Methods of preventing and stabilisation of slope movements are presented.

  12. Near-road air pollution impacts of goods movement in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozawa, Kathleen H.; Fruin, Scott A.; Winer, Arthur M.

    A mobile platform was outfitted with real-time instruments to spatially characterize pollution concentrations in communities adjacent to the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach, communities heavily impacted by emissions related to dieselized goods movement, with the highest localized air pollution impacts due to heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). Measurements were conducted in the winter and summer of 2007 on fixed routes driven both morning and afternoon. Diesel-related pollutant concentrations such as black carbon, nitric oxide, ultrafine particles, and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were frequently elevated two to five times within 150 m downwind of freeways (compared to more than 150 m) and up to two times within 150 m downwind of arterial roads with significant amounts of diesel traffic. While wind direction was the dominant factor associated with downwind impacts, steady and consistent wind direction was not required to produce; high impacts were observed when a given area was downwind of a major roadway for any significant fraction of time. This suggests elevated pollution impacts downwind of freeways and of busy arterials are continuously occurring on one side of the road or the other, depending on wind direction. The diesel truck traffic in the area studied was high, with more than 2000 trucks per peak hour on the freeway and two- to six-hundred trucks per hour on the arterial roads studied. These results suggest that similarly-frequent impacts occur throughout urban areas in rough proportion to diesel truck traffic fractions. Thus, persons living or working near and downwind of busy roadways can have several-fold higher exposures to diesel vehicle-related pollution than would be predicted by ambient measurements in non-impacted locations.

  13. Movement - uncontrolled or slow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dystonia; Involuntary slow and twisting movements; Choreoathetosis; Leg and arm movements - uncontrollable; Arm and leg movements - uncontrollable; Slow involuntary movements of large muscle groups; Athetoid movements

  14. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 2. Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Watkiss, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used by the ExternE Project of the European Commission (DGXII) JOULE Programme for assessment of the external costs of energy. It is one of a series of reports describing analysis of nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel cycles for assessment of the externalities associated with electricity generation. Part I of the report deals with analysis of impacts, and Part II with the economic valuation of those impacts. Analysis is conducted on a marginal basis, to allow the effect of an incremental investment in a given technology to be quantified. Attention has been paid to the specificity of results with respect to the location of fuel cycle activities, the precise technologies used, and the type and source of fuel. The main advantages of this detailed approach are as follows: It takes full and proper account of the variability of impacts that might result from different power projects; It is more transparent than analysis based on hypothetically 'representative' cases for each of the different fuel cycles; It provides a framework for consistent comparison between fuel cycles. A wide variety of impacts have been considered. These include the effects of air pollution on the natural and human environment, consequences of accidents in the workplace, impacts of noise and visual intrusion on amenity, and the effects of climate change arising from the release of greenhouse gases. Wherever possible we have used the 'impact pathway' or 'damage function' approach to follow the analysis from identification of burdens (e.g. emissions) through to impact assessment and then valuation in monetary terms. This has required a detailed knowledge of the technologies involved, pollutant dispersion, analysis of effects on human and environmental health, and economics. In view of this the project brought together a multi-disciplinary team with experts from many European countries and the USA. The spatial and temporal ranges considered in the analysis are

  15. Environmental externalities related to power production on biogas and natural gas based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sieverts; Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner

    1998-01-01

    This paper assesses the environmental impacts and external costs from selected electricity generation systems in Denmark. The assessment is carried out as part of the ExternE National Implementation, which is the second phase of the ExternE project and involves case studies from all Western...... European countries. The project use a “bottom-up” methodology to evaluate the external costs associated with a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project has identified priority impacts, where most are impacts from air emissions. Externalities due to atmospheric emissions are calculated through...

  16. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive Material C Appendix C to Part 835 Energy... Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive...-infinite cloud of airborne radioactive material. The DACs listed in this appendix may be modified to allow...

  17. PM10-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Chiang Mai (Thailand): Seasonal variations, source identification, health risk assessment and their relationship to air-mass movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiriya, Wan; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Chantara, Somporn

    2013-04-01

    found that vehicle emission and biomass burning were the main sources of PM10 and PAHs in this area. The high ratio value of benzo(a)anthracene/chrysene (BaA/CHR) in the dry season of 2010 indicated possible photochemical processes and long distance emissions. Findings on source identification of PM10 and PAHs were found to be relevant to the direction and speed of air mass movement run by backward trajectory.

  18. Protest movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucht, D.

    1989-01-01

    The author describes the development of protest movements in postwar Germay and outlines two essential overlapping 'flow cycles'. The first of these was characterised by the restaurative postwar years. It culminated and ended in the students' revolt. This revolt is at the same time the start of a second cycle of protest which encompasses all subsequent individual movement and is initated by an economic, political and sociocultural procrastination of modernisation. This cycle culminates in the late 70s and early 80s and clearly lost momentum over the last few years. The follwoing phases and themes are described profoundly: against restauration and armament in the 1950; the revolutionary impatience of the students' movement, politisation of everyday life by the womens' movement and citizens' action groups, antinuclear- and ecological movement, differentiation and stabilisation of the movement in the 70s and 80s; break-up and continuity in the German protest behaviour. The paper contains a detailed chronicle of protest activities since 1945. (orig.) [de

  19. Comprehensive Study of Human External Exposure to Organophosphate Flame Retardants via Air, Dust, and Hand Wipes: The Importance of Sampling and Assessment Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fuchao; Giovanoulis, Georgios; van Waes, Sofie; Padilla-Sanchez, Juan Antonio; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Magnér, Jorgen; Haug, Line Småstuen; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-07-19

    We compared the human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption using different sampling and assessment strategies. Air (indoor stationary air and personal ambient air), dust (floor dust and surface dust), and hand wipes were sampled from 61 participants and their houses. We found that stationary air contains higher levels of ΣPFRs (median = 163 ng/m(3), IQR = 161 ng/m(3)) than personal air (median = 44 ng/m(3), IQR = 55 ng/m(3)), suggesting that the stationary air sample could generate a larger bias for inhalation exposure assessment. Tris(chloropropyl) phosphate isomers (ΣTCPP) accounted for over 80% of ΣPFRs in both stationary and personal air. PFRs were frequently detected in both surface dust (ΣPFRs median = 33 100 ng/g, IQR = 62 300 ng/g) and floor dust (ΣPFRs median = 20 500 ng/g, IQR = 30 300 ng/g). Tris(2-butoxylethyl) phosphate (TBOEP) accounted for 40% and 60% of ΣPFRs in surface and floor dust, respectively, followed by ΣTCPP (30% and 20%, respectively). TBOEP (median = 46 ng, IQR = 69 ng) and ΣTCPP (median = 37 ng, IQR = 49 ng) were also frequently detected in hand wipe samples. For the first time, a comprehensive assessment of human exposure to PFRs via inhalation, dust ingestion, and dermal absorption was conducted with individual personal data rather than reference factors of the general population. Inhalation seems to be the major exposure pathway for ΣTCPP and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), while participants had higher exposure to TBOEP and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) via dust ingestion. Estimated exposure to ΣPFRs was the highest with stationary air inhalation (median =34 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 38 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), followed by surface dust ingestion (median = 13 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1), IQR = 28 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1)), floor dust ingestion and personal air inhalation. The median dermal exposure on hand wipes was 0.32 ng·kg bw(-1)·day(-1) (IQR

  20. Numerical study on the influence of entrapped air bubbles on the time-dependent pore pressure distribution in soils due to external changes in water level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausweger Georg M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In practical geotechnical engineering soils below the groundwater table are usually regarded as a two-phase medium, consisting of solids and water. The pore water is assumed to be incompressible. However, under certain conditions soils below the groundwater table may exhibit a liquid phase consisting of water and air. The air occurs in form of entrapped air bubbles and dissolved air. Such conditions are named quasi-saturated and the assumption of incompressibility is no longer justified. In addition the entrapped air bubbles influence the hydraulic conductivity of soils. These effects are usually neglected in standard problems of geotechnical engineering. However, sometimes it is required to include the pore fluid compressibility when modelling the hydraulic behaviour of soils in order to be able to explain certain phenomena observed in the field. This is for example true for fast fluctuating water levels in reservoirs. In order to study these phenomena, numerical investigations on the influence of the pore fluid compressibility on the pore water pressure changes in a soil layer beneath a reservoir with fast fluctuating water levels were performed. Preliminary results of this study are presented and it could be shown that numerical analysis and field data are in good agreement.

  1. Striking movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Like all music performance, percussion playing requires high control over timing and sound properties. Specific to percussionists, however, is the need to adjust the movement to different instruments with varying physical properties and tactile feedback to the player. Furthermore, the well defined...... note onsets and short interaction times between player and instrument do not allow for much adjustment once a stroke is initiated. The paper surveys research that shows a close relationship between movement and sound production, and how playing conditions such as tempo and the rebound after impact...

  2. Urban Sprawl and Transportation Externalities

    OpenAIRE

    Holcombe, Randall G.; Williams, DeEdgra W.

    2010-01-01

    One argument in support of minimizing urban sprawl is that sprawl creates transportation externalities. A problem with empirically examining the relationship between sprawl and transportation externalities is that sprawl is a difficult concept to quantify. This paper uses a measure of sprawl designed by Ewing, Pendall, and Chen (2002) to examine the relationship between sprawl and commute times, automobile ownership, miles driven, fatal auto accidents, air pollution, and highway expenditures....

  3. Movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leenders, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes the measurement of brain-tissue functions in patients with movement disorders using positron emission tomography (PET). This scanning technique is a method for direct in vivo quantitation of the regional tissue content of positron emitting radionuclides in brain (or other organs) in an essentially non-invasive way. Ch. 2 outlines some general features of PET and describes the scanner which has been used for the studies in this thesis. Also the tracer methodology, as applied to data investigations of movement disorders, are discussed. Ch. 3 contains the results of the PET investigations which were performed in the study of movement disorders. The results are presented in the form of 12 papers. The main goals of these studies were the understanding of the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease, Huntington's chorea, Steele-Richardson-Olzewski syndrome and special case reports. Ch. 4 summarizes the results of these publications and Ch. 5 concludes the main part of this thesis with a general discussion of movement disorders in relation to PET investigations. 697 refs.; 60 figs.; 31 tabs

  4. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  5. Mixed Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2010-01-01

    levels than those related to building, and this exploration is a special challenge and competence implicit artistic development work. The project Mixed Movements generates drawing-material, not primary as representation, but as a performance-based media, making the body being-in-the-media felt and appear...... as possible operational moves....

  6. Atmospheric pollutants in Chiang Mai (Thailand) over a five-year period (2005-2009), their possible sources and relation to air mass movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantara, Somporn; Sillapapiromsuk, Sopittaporn; Wiriya, Wan

    2012-12-01

    Monitoring and analysis of the chemical composition of air pollutants were conducted over a five-year period (2005-2009) in the sub-urban area of Chiang Mai, Thailand. This study aims to determine the seasonal variation of atmospheric ion species and gases, examine their correlations, identify possible sources and assess major air-flow patterns to the receptor. The dominant gas and particulate pollutants were NH3 (43-58%) and SO42- (39-48%), respectively. The annual mean concentrations of NH3 (μg m-3) in descending order were 4.08 (2009) > 3.32 (2007) > 2.68 (2008) > 2.47 (2006) and 1.87 (2005), while those of SO42- (μg m-3) were 2.60 (2007) > 2.20 (2006) > 1.95 (2009) > 1.75 (2008) and 1.26 (2005). Concentrations of particulate ions were analyzed by principle component analysis to find out the possible sources of air pollutants in this area. The first component of each year had a high loading of SO42- and NH4+, which probably came from fuel combustion and agricultural activity, respectively. K+, a tracer of biomass burning, also contributed to the first or the second components of each year. Concentrations of NH4+ and SO42- were well correlated (r > 0.777, p Chiang Mai from 2005 to 2009 were analyzed using the hybrid single particle langrangian integrated trajectory (HYSPLIT) model and grouped by cluster analysis. The air mass data was analyzed for the dry season (n = 18; 100%). The trajectory of air mass in 2005 mainly originated locally (67%). In 2006, the recorded data showed that 56% of air mass was emitted from the western continental region of Thailand. In 2007, the percent ratios from the western and eastern continental areas were equal (39%). In 2008, 67% originated from the western continental area. In 2009, the recorded air mass mainly came from the western continental area (72%). In conclusion, the major trajectories of air mass from 2006 to 2009 originated from the southwest direction of the receptor, but in 2005, the air mass appeared to be locally

  7. Decabrominated Diphenyl Ethers (BDE-209) in Chinese and Global Air: Levels, Gas/Particle Partitioning, and Long-Range Transport: Is Long-Range Transport of BDE-209 Really Governed by the Movement of Particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Fan; Qiao, Li-Na; Ren, Nan-Qi; Sverko, Ed; Mackay, Donald; Macdonald, Robie W

    2017-01-17

    In this paper, we report air concentrations of BDE-209 in both gas- and particle-phases across China. The annual mean concentrations of BDE-209 were from below detection limit (BDL) to 77.0 pg·m -3 in the gas-phase and 1.06-728 pg·m -3 in the particle-phase. Among the nine PBDEs measured, BDE-209 is the dominant congener in Chinese atmosphere in both gas and particle phases. We predicted the partitioning behavior of BDE-209 in air using our newly developed steady state equation, and the results matched the monitoring data worldwide very well. It was found that the logarithm of the partition quotient of BDE-209 is a constant, and equal to -1.53 under the global ambient temperature range (from -50 to +50 °C). The gaseous fractions of BDE-209 in air depends on the concentration of total suspended particle (TSP). The most important conclusion derived from this study is that, BDE-209, like other semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), cannot be sorbed entirely to atmospheric particles; and there is a significant amount of gaseous BDE-209 in global atmosphere, which is subject to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT). Therefore, it is not surprising that BDE-209 can enter the Arctic through LRAT mainly by air transport rather than by particle movement. This is a significant advancement in understanding the global transport process and the pathways entering the Arctic for chemicals with low volatility and high octanol-air partition coefficients, such as BDE-209.

  8. The ExternE project: methodology, objectives and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of recent studies on external costs of energy systems, in particular the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. To evaluate the impact and damage cost of a pollutant, one needs to carry out an impact pathway analysis; this involves the calculation of increased pollutant concentrations in all affected regions due to an incremental emission (e.g. μg/m 3 of particles, using models of atmospheric dispersion and chemistry), followed by the calculation of physical impacts (e.g. number of cases of asthma due to these particles, using a dose-response function). The entire so-called fuel chain (or fuel cycle) is evaluated and compared on the basis of delivered end use energy. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, NO x and SO x ) from the combustion of fossil fuels impose a heavy toll, in addition to the cost of global warming. The external costs are especially large for coal; even for 'good current technology' they may be comparable to the price of electricity. For natural gas the external costs are about a third to a half of coal. The external costs of nuclear are small compared to the price of electricity (at most a few %), and so are the external costs of most renewable energy systems. (authors)

  9. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering and Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Additional information is given in tabular form.

  10. Results of the space shuttle vehicle ascent air data system probe calibration test using a 0.07-scale external tank forebody model (68T) in the AEDC 16-foot transonic wind tunnel (IA-310), volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1991-01-01

    A recalibration of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Ascent Air Data System probe was conducted in the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) transonic wind tunnel. The purpose was to improve on the accuracy of the previous calibration in order to reduce the existing uncertainties in the system. A probe tip attached to a 0.07-scale External Tank Forebody model was tested at angles of attack of -8 to +4 degrees and sideslip angles of -4 to +4 degrees. High precision instrumentation was used to acquire pressure data at discrete Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 1.55. Pressure coefficient uncertainties were estimated at less than 0.0020. Data is given in graphical and tabular form.

  11. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  12. Air filtration in HVAC systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ginestet, Alain; Tronville, Paolo; Hyttinen, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Air filtration Guidebook will help the designer and user to understand the background and criteria for air filtration, how to select air filters and avoid problems associated with hygienic and other conditions at operation of air filters. The selection of air filters is based on external conditions such as levels of existing pollutants, indoor air quality and energy efficiency requirements.

  13. External dose-rate conversion factors of radionuclides for air submersion, ground surface contamination and water immersion based on the new ICRP dosimetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Song Jae; Jang, Han-Ki; Lee, Jai-Ki; Noh, Siwan; Cho, Gyuseong

    2013-01-01

    For the assessment of external doses due to contaminated environment, the dose-rate conversion factors (DCFs) prescribed in Federal Guidance Report 12 (FGR 12) and FGR 13 have been widely used. Recently, there were significant changes in dosimetric models and parameters, which include the use of the Reference Male and Female Phantoms and the revised tissue weighting factors, as well as the updated decay data of radionuclides. In this study, the DCFs for effective and equivalent doses were calculated for three exposure settings: skyshine, groundshine and water immersion. Doses to the Reference Phantoms were calculated by Monte Carlo simulations with the MCNPX 2.7.0 radiation transport code for 26 mono-energy photons between 0.01 and 10 MeV. The transport calculations were performed for the source volume within the cut-off distances practically contributing to the dose rates, which were determined by a simplified calculation model. For small tissues for which the reduction of variances are difficult, the equivalent dose ratios to a larger tissue (with lower statistical errors) nearby were employed to make the calculation efficient. Empirical response functions relating photon energies, and the organ equivalent doses or the effective doses were then derived by the use of cubic-spline fitting of the resulting doses for 26 energy points. The DCFs for all radionuclides considered important were evaluated by combining the photon emission data of the radionuclide and the empirical response functions. Finally, contributions of accompanied beta particles to the skin equivalent doses and the effective doses were calculated separately and added to the DCFs. For radionuclides considered in this study, the new DCFs for the three exposure settings were within ±10 % when compared with DCFs in FGR 13.

  14. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs

  15. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P [eds.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results, to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the detailed information concerning the ExternE methodology. Importance is attached to the computer system used in the project and the assessment of air pollution effects on health, materials and ecological effects. Also the assessment of global warming damages are described. Finally the report covers the detailed information concerning the national implementation for Denmark for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant base on biogas. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 79 tabs., 11 ills., 201 refs.

  16. External dosimetry sources and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calisto, Washington

    1994-01-01

    A definition of external dosimetry r external sources dosimetry,physical and mathematical treatment of the interaction of gamma radiation with a minimal area in that direction. Concept of attenuation coefficient, cumulated effect by polyenergetic sources, exposition rate, units, cumulated dose,shielding, foton shielding, depth calculation, materials used for shielding.Beta shielding, consideration of range and maximum β energy , low stopping radiation by use of low Z shielding. Tables for β energy of β emitters, I (tau) factor, energy-range curves for β emitters in aqueous media, gamma attenuation factors for U, W and Pb. Y factor for bone tissue,muscle and air, build-up factors

  17. Functional Movement Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Publications Patient Organizations International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) See all related organizations Publications Order NINDS Publications Definition Psychogenic movement is an unwanted muscle movement such ...

  18. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  19. Physiologically Relevant Prosthetic Limb Movement Feedback for Upper and Lower Extremity Amputees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    upper arm (elbow movement), Upper leg (knee movement) and lower leg ( ankle movement) to provide a physiologically relevant sense of limb movement...Additionally a BOA cable tensioning system is passed through these plates and anchored to the external surface of the socket. When tension is applied the

  20. Watching your foot move - an fMRI study of visuomotor interactions during foot movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Jensen, Jesper Lundbye; Petersen, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    are activated during self-generated ankle movements guided by visual feedback as compared with externally generated movements under similar visual and proprioceptive conditions. We found a distinct network, comprising the posterior parietal cortex and lateral cerebellar hemispheres, which showed increased...... activation during visually guided self-generated ankle movements. Furthermore, we found differential activation in the cerebellum depending on the different main effects, that is, whether movements were self- or externally generated regardless of visual feedback, presence or absence of visual feedback...

  1. The tactile movement aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollins, M; Favorov, O

    1994-01-01

    The existence of a tactile movement aftereffect was established in a series of experiments on the palmar surface of the hand and fingers of psychophysical observers. During adaptation, observers cupped their hand around a moving drum for up to 3 min; following this period of stimulation, they typically reported an aftereffect consisting of movement sensations located on and deep to the skin, and lasting for up to 1 min. Preliminary experiments comparing a number of stimulus materials mounted on the drum demonstrated that a surface approximating a low-spatial-frequency square wave, with a smooth microtexture, was especially effective at inducing the aftereffect; this adapting stimulus was therefore used throughout the two main experiments. In Experiment 1, the vividness of the aftereffect produced by 2 min of adaptation was determined under three test conditions: with the hand (1) remaining on the now stationary drum; (2) in contact with a soft, textured surface; or (3) suspended in air. Subjects' free magnitude estimates of the peak vividness of the aftereffect were not significantly different across conditions; each subject experienced the aftereffect at least once under each condition. Thus the tactile movement aftereffect does not seem to depend critically on the ponditions of stimulation that obtain while it is being experienced. In Experiment 2, the vividness and duration of the aftereffect were measured as a function of the duration of the adapting stimulus. Both measures increased steadily over the range of durations explored (30-180 sec). In its dependence on adapting duration, the aftereffect resembles the waterfall illusion in vision. An explanation for the tactile movement aftereffect is proposed, based on the model of cortical dynamics of Whitsel et al. (1989, 1991). With assumed modest variation of one parameter across individuals, this application of the model is able to account both for the data of the majority of subjects, who experienced the

  2. Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

    2008-12-09

    Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement.

  3. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  4. Instructions to Adopt an External Focus Enhance Muscular Endurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, David C.; Greig, Matt; Bullough, Jonathan; Hitchen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The influence of internal (movement focus) and external (outcome focus) attentional-focusing instructions on muscular endurance were investigated using three exercise protocols with experienced exercisers. Twenty-three participants completed a maximal repetition, assisted bench-press test on a Smith's machine. An external focus of attention…

  5. Motor coordination uses external spatial coordinates independent of developmental vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heed, Tobias; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-07-01

    The constraints that guide bimanual movement coordination are informative about the processing principles underlying movement planning in humans. For example, symmetry relative to the body midline benefits finger and hand movements independent of hand posture. This symmetry constraint has been interpreted to indicate that movement coordination is guided by a perceptual code. Although it has been assumed implicitly that the perceptual system at the heart of this constraint is vision, this relationship has not been tested. Here, congenitally blind and sighted participants made symmetrical and non-symmetrical (that is, parallel) bimanual tapping and finger oscillation movements. For both groups, symmetrical movements were executed more correctly than parallel movements, independent of anatomical constraints like finger homology and hand posture. For the blind, the reliance on external spatial factors in movement coordination stands in stark contrast to their use of an anatomical reference frame in perceptual processing. Thus, the externally coded symmetry constraint evident in bimanual coordination can develop in the absence of the visual system, suggesting that the visual system is not critical for the establishment of an external-spatial reference frame in movement coordination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Regulating multiple externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waldo, Staffan; Jensen, Frank; Nielsen, Max

    2016-01-01

    Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory instrume......Open access is a well-known externality problem in fisheries causing excess capacity and overfishing. Due to global warming, externality problems from CO2 emissions have gained increased interest. With two externality problems, a first-best optimum can be achieved by using two regulatory...

  7. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K; Maelkki, H; Wihersaari, M; Pirilae, P [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  8. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P.; Hongisto, M.; Siitonen, S.; Johansson, M.

    1999-01-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  9. ExternE National Implementation Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingoud, K.; Maelkki, H.; Wihersaari, M.; Pirilae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hongisto, M. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland); Siitonen, S. [Ekono Energy Ltd, Espoo (Finland); Johansson, M. [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland)

    1999-07-01

    ExternE National Implementation is a continuation of the ExternE Project, funded in part by the European Commission's Joule III Programme. This study is the result of the ExternE National Implementation Project for Finland. Three fuel cycles were selected for the Finnish study: coal, peat and wood-derived biomass, which together are responsible for about 40% of total electricity generation in Finland and about 75% of the non-nuclear fuel based generation. The estimated external costs or damages were dominated by the global warming (GW) impacts in the coal and peat fuel cycles, but knowledge of the true GW impacts is still uncertain. From among other impacts that were valued in monetary terms the human health damages due to airborne emissions dominated in all the three fuel cycles. Monetary valuation for ecosystem impacts is not possible using the ExternE methodology at present. The Meri-Pori power station representing the coal fuel cycle is one of the world's cleanest and most efficient coal-fired power plants with a condensing turbine. The coal is imported mainly from Poland. The estimated health damages were about 4 mECU/kWh, crop damages an order of magnitude lower and damages caused to building materials two orders of magnitude lower. The power stations of the peat and biomass fuel cycles are of CHP type, generating electricity and heat for the district heating systems of two cities. Their fuels are of domestic origin. The estimated health damages allocated to electricity generation were about 5 and 6 mECU/kWh, respectively. The estimates were case-specific and thus an generalisation of the results to the whole electricity generation in Finland is unrealistic. Despite the uncertainties and limitations of the methodology, it is a promising tool in the comparison of similar kinds of fuel cycles, new power plants and pollution abatement technologies and different plant locations with each other. (orig.)

  10. External Otitis (Swimmer's Ear)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... otitis. Fungal external otitis (otomycosis), typically caused by Aspergillus niger or Candida albicans, is less common. Boils are ... in the ear. Fungal external otitis caused by Aspergillus niger usually causes grayish black or yellow dots (called ...

  11. ASH External Web Portal (External Portal) -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The ASH External Web Portal is a web-based portal that provides single sign-on functionality, making the web portal a single location from which to be authenticated...

  12. External Memory Pipelining Made Easy With TPIE

    OpenAIRE

    Arge, Lars; Rav, Mathias; Svendsen, Svend C.; Truelsen, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    When handling large datasets that exceed the capacity of the main memory, movement of data between main memory and external memory (disk), rather than actual (CPU) computation time, is often the bottleneck in the computation. Since data is moved between disk and main memory in large contiguous blocks, this has led to the development of a large number of I/O-efficient algorithms that minimize the number of such block movements. TPIE is one of two major libraries that have been developed to sup...

  13. Social movements as emotional contexts: the emotional drive in the Basque linguistic movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Larrinaga Renteria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on some of the functions that the emotions perform in constructing and maintaining the collective action of social movements in the long term. Based on a case study, we applied the conceptual instrument known as “Frame Analysis” to the successive discursive frames produced by the linguistic movement of the Basque Country between the 1980s and the first decade of 2000. With the aid of qualitative techniques, consisting in in-depth interviews conducted with qualified activists of the movement and an analysis of documents it produced, we identified the emotional contexts associated with the discourses and meanings generated by the movement at different times. Activation of the emotional components aided both the movement’s internal solidarity and external adhesion and, in short, favored the long-term sustainability of an increasingly institutionalized and professionalized movement.

  14. Stereotypic movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001548.htm Stereotypic movement disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Stereotypic movement disorder is a condition in which a person makes ...

  15. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  16. Overview of Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Delirium Additional Content Medical News Overview of Movement Disorders By Hector A. Gonzalez-Usigli, MD, Professor ... Neurology, HE UMAE Centro Médico Nacional de Occidente; Movement Disorders Clinic, Neurology at IMSS Alberto Espay, MD, ...

  17. Independence of Movement Preparation and Movement Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haith, Adrian M; Pakpoor, Jina; Krakauer, John W

    2016-03-09

    Initiating a movement in response to a visual stimulus takes significantly longer than might be expected on the basis of neural transmission delays, but it is unclear why. In a visually guided reaching task, we forced human participants to move at lower-than-normal reaction times to test whether normal reaction times are strictly necessary for accurate movement. We found that participants were, in fact, capable of moving accurately ∼80 ms earlier than their reaction times would suggest. Reaction times thus include a seemingly unnecessary delay that accounts for approximately one-third of their duration. Close examination of participants' behavior in conventional reaction-time conditions revealed that they generated occasional, spontaneous errors in trials in which their reaction time was unusually short. The pattern of these errors could be well accounted for by a simple model in which the timing of movement initiation is independent of the timing of movement preparation. This independence provides an explanation for why reaction times are usually so sluggish: delaying the mean time of movement initiation relative to preparation reduces the risk that a movement will be initiated before it has been appropriately prepared. Our results suggest that preparation and initiation of movement are mechanistically independent and may have a distinct neural basis. The results also demonstrate that, even in strongly stimulus-driven tasks, presentation of a stimulus does not directly trigger a movement. Rather, the stimulus appears to trigger an internal decision whether to make a movement, reflecting a volitional rather than reactive mode of control. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/363007-10$15.00/0.

  18. Movement and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgaard Hansen, Thomas; Eriksson, Eva; Lykke-Olesen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we explore the space in which movement based interaction takes place. We have in several projects explored how fixed and mobile cameras can be used in movement based interaction and will shortly describe these projects. Based on our experience with working with movement......-based interaction we will briefly introduce and discuss how learning, mapping and multi-user interaction are important when designing movement based interaction....

  19. Recent crustal movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maelzer, H.

    Calculation of temporal height changes for the determination of recent vertical crustal movements in northern, western, and southern Germany is described. Precise geodetic measurements and their analysis for the determination of recent crustal movements in north-eastern Iceland, western Venezuela, and central Peru are described. Determination of recent vertical crustal movements by leveling and gravity data; geodetic modeling of deformations and recent crustal movements; geodetic modeling of plate motions; and instrumental developments in geodetic measuring are discussed.

  20. Social movements and science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamison, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The article examines the role of social movements in the development of scientific knowledge. Interactions between social movements and science in broad, historical terms are discussed. The relations between the new social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and changes in the contemporary scientific...

  1. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 1. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase 1 was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes is underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  2. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, M.; Berry, J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a growing requirement for policy analysts to take account of the environment in their decision making and to undertake the specified cost-benefit analysis. Within the European Union this is reflected in the 5th Environmental Action Programme, and the Commission's White Paper entitled 'Growth, competitiveness, employment and the ways forward to the 21st century'. This has led to a need for evaluation of environmental externalities. The ExternE Project commenced in 1991 as the European part of a collaborative study between the European Commission and the US Department of Energy. It aims to be the first systematic approach to the evaluation of external costs of a wide range of different fuel cycles. The project will result in an operational accounting framework for the quantification and monetarisation of priority environmental and other externalities. This framework will allow the calculation of the marginal external costs and benefits for specific power plants, at specific sites using specified technologies. There are three major phases in the project. Phase I was undertaken in collaboration with the US Department of Energy. In this phase the teams jointly developed the conceptual approach and methodology and shared scientific information for application to a number of fuel cycles. On the European side work concentrated on the nuclear and coal fuel cycles which together were expected to raise many of the fundamental issues in fuel cycle analysis. The project is currently nearing completion of Phase 2. During this phase the methodology has been applied to a wide range of different fossil, nuclear and renewable fuel cycles for power generation and energy conservation options. Also a series of National Implementation Programmes are underway in which the methodology and accounting framework are being applied to reference sites throughout Europe. In addition the general methodology is being extended to address the evaluation of externalities associated with

  3. External radiation exposure of the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1977-01-01

    Results of several ten thousand measurements on external radiation (outside buildings, in living rooms) are used for illustrating by isodose charts covering the total area of the Federal Republic of Germany the exposure of the public from external radiation originating from natural radiation of the environment. Results of calculations on external radiation exposure of the public due to releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear installations are used for illustrating by coloured isodose charts the exposure of the public in the plant site vicinity. From comparison of the exposure levels it becomes obvious that if exposure levels of several 10 mrem per year are considered to be of real concern to public health, control of natural radoactivity in the environment of man would require more attention than present and foreseeable releases of radioactivity in air from nuclear inst

  4. Movement and touch make plants shorter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvelink, E.; Kierkels, T.

    2017-01-01

    Plants in the greenhouse are increasingly on the move. More attention is being paid to air circulation and mobile cultivation is on the rise. Research shows that movement and touch (also as plants rub against each other) slow down growth. That can be frustrating but you can also use it to your

  5. External radiation surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site

  6. External radiation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report describes how external radiation was measured, how surveys were performed, and the results of these measurements and surveys. External radiation exposure rates were measured at locations on and off the Hanford Site using thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD). External radiation and contamination surveys were also performed with portable radiation survey instruments at locations on and around the Hanford Site.

  7. Watching your foot move--an fMRI study of visuomotor interactions during foot movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mark Schram; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Petersen, Nicolas

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate brain areas involved in distinguishing sensory events caused by self-generated movements from similar sensory events caused by externally generated movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects performed 4 types of movements: 1) sel...

  8. External effects related to biogas and wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    Energy produced by wind power and biogas is today more expensive than energy produced by fossil fuels. However, by including external costs related to the technologies, the renewable technologies are expected to result in social benefits compared to the conventional power technologies. The paper...... will focus on estimates of externalities related to wind and biogas energy supplies using the ExternE methodology developed in a major study launched by the European Comission. External costs are the costs imporsed on society that are not included in the market price (e.g. effects of air pollution on health...

  9. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 5. Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Tort, V.; Manen, P.

    1995-01-01

    Since the early 1970s, there has been increased interest in the environmental impacts that are caused by the generation of electricity. The comparative risk assessment studies at that time used mainly deaths and injuries as impact indicators. By the end of the 1980s studies changed to the assessment of the costs imposed on society and the environment that were not included in the market price of the energy produced, the so-called external costs. The preliminary studies that were published set the conceptual basis, grounded in neo-classical economics, for the valuation of the health and environmental impacts that could be assessed. As a consequence of the many questions raised by the methodologies employed by these early studies, Directorate General XII (DG XII) of the Commission of the European Communities established a collaborative research programme with the United States Department of Energy to identify an appropriate methodology for this type of work. Following the completion of this collaboration, the DG XII programme has continued as the ExternE project. The main objective of the work carried out at CEPN was to develop an impact pathway methodology for the nuclear fuel cycle that would be consistent with the methodologies developed for other fuel cycles, without loosing the nuclear-specific techniques required for a proper evaluation. In this way, comparisons between the different fuel cycles would be possible. This report presents the methodology and demonstration of the results in the context of the French nuclear fuel cycle. The United States team at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has previously issued a draft report on the results of their assessment. The French fuel cycle was broken down into 8 separate stages. Reference sites and 1990s technology were chosen to represent the total nuclear fuel cycle, as it exists today. In addition, the transportation of material between the sites was considered. The facilities are assessed for routine operation, except

  10. Evaluation of external hazards to nuclear power plants in the United States: Other external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, C.Y.; Prassinos, P.G.

    1989-02-01

    In support of implementation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Policy, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed a study of the risk of core damage to nuclear power plants in the United States due to ''other external events.'' The broad objective has been to gain an understanding of whether ''other external events'' (the hazards not covered by previous reports) are among the major potential accident initiators that may pose a threat of severe reactor core damage or of large radioactive release to the environment from the reactor. The ''other external events'' covered in this report are nearby industrial/military facility accidents, on site hazardous material storage accidents, severe temperature transients, severe weather storms, lightning strikes, external fires, extraterrestrial activity, volcanic activity, earth movement, and abrasive windstorms. The analysis was based on two figures-of-merit, one based on core damage frequency and the other based on the frequency of large radioactive releases. 37 refs., 8 tabs

  11. Estimation of Externalities for Juragua Nuclear Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, H. R.; Carbonell, L. T.

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of externalities allows taking into account environmental impacts due to any activity in total costs calculation. In the present work, the external costs of electricity generation from nuclear energy were calculated considering three scenarios: normal operation (routine releases), accident situation and solid waste disposal. A comparison between these results and those obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuels was made. IAEA proposals of Simplified methodologies were used for externality calculations. The Juragua project was selected as a study case; it is based in two energetic blocks both PWR, VVER 440/318 type with a plant capacity of 417 MWe each. Four impact ways were considered for all scenarios: (1) Inhalation of radionuclides in the air, (2) External irradiation from radionuclides immersed in clouds, (3) External irradiation from deposited radionuclides and (4) Ingestion of radionuclides in agricultural products. Besides, two impact categories (local and regional) for all scenarios were considered. The total cost of externalities was 0.01425 c/kWh, value smaller than the one obtained for electricity generation from fossil fuel (0.256 c/kWh). For the normal operation scenario, the external cost calculated was 0.00112 c/kWh, for accident situation 0.01103 c/kWh, and for the solid wastes management scenario 0.0021 c/kWh. The high value obtained for solid waste disposal scenario is due to repository placement features. (author)

  12. Movement monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Takashi; Yoneda, Yasuaki; Hanatsumi, Masaharu.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a device suitable to accurate recognition for the moving state of reactor core fuels as an object to be monitored in a nuclear power plant. Namely, the device of the present invention prepares each of scheduled paths for the movement of the object to be monitored and executed moving paths along with the movement based on the information of the movement obtained from scheduled information for the movement of the reactor core fuels as a object to be monitored and the actual movement of the object to be monitored. The results of the preparation are outputted. As an output mode, (1) the results of preparation for each of the paths for movement and the results of the monitoring obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are jointed and outputted, (2) images showing each of the paths for the movement are formed, and the formed images are displayed on a screen, and (3) each of the moving paths is prepared as an image, and the image is displayed together with the image of the regions before and after the movement of the object to be monitored. In addition, obtained images of each of the paths for the movement and the monitored images obtained by monitoring the state of the object to be monitored are joined and displayed. (I.S.)

  13. Classification of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahn, Stanley

    2011-05-01

    The classification of movement disorders has evolved. Even the terminology has shifted, from an anatomical one of extrapyramidal disorders to a phenomenological one of movement disorders. The history of how this shift came about is described. The history of both the definitions and the classifications of the various neurologic conditions is then reviewed. First is a review of movement disorders as a group; then, the evolving classifications for 3 of them--parkinsonism, dystonia, and tremor--are covered in detail. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  14. Sensation of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sensation of Movement will discuss the role of sensation in the control of action, bodily self-recognition, and sense of agency. Sensing movement is dependent on a range of information received by the brain, from signalling in the peripheral sensory organs to the establishment of higher order goals....... This volume will question whether one type of information is more relevant for the ability to sense and control movements, and demonstrate the importance of integrating neuroscientific knowledge with philosophical perspectives, in order to arrive at new insights into how sensation of movement can be studied...

  15. Biomechanical aspects of external root resorption in orthodontic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Abuabara, Allan

    2007-01-01

    External apical root resorption is a common phenomenon associated with orthodontic treatment. The factors relevant to root resorption can be divided into biological and mechanical factors. Some mechanical and biological factors might be associated with an increased or decreased risk of root resorption during orthodontic treatment. For mechanical factors, the extensive tooth movement, root torque and intrusive forces, movement type, orthodontic force magnitude, duration and type of force a...

  16. The Influence of External Load on Quadriceps Muscle and Tendon Dynamics during Jumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, Jacob E; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue; Blazevich, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Tendons possess both viscous (rate-dependent) and elastic (rate-independent) properties that determine tendon function. During high-speed movements external loading increases both the magnitude (FT) and rate (RFDT) of tendon loading. The influence of external loading on muscle and tendon dynamics during maximal vertical jumping was explored. Ten resistance-trained men performed parallel-depth, countermovement vertical jumps with and without additional load (0%, 30%, 60%, and 90% of maximum squat lift strength), while joint kinetics and kinematics, quadriceps tendon length (LT) and patellar tendon FT and RFDT were estimated using integrated ultrasound, motion analysis and force platform data and muscle tendon modelling. Estimated FT and RFDT, but not peak LT, increased with external loading. Temporal comparisons between 0% and 90% loads revealed that FT was greater with 90% loading throughout the majority of the movement (11%-81% and 87%-95% movement duration). However, RFDT was greater with 90% load only during the early movement initiation phase (8%-15% movement duration) but was greater in the 0% load condition later in the eccentric phase (27%-38% movement duration). LT was longer during the early movement (12%-23% movement duration) but shorter in the late eccentric and early concentric phases (48%-55% movement duration) with 90% load. External loading positively influenced peak FT and RFDT but tendon strain appeared unaffected, suggesting no additive effect of external loading on patellar tendon lengthening during human jumping. Temporal analysis revealed that external loading resulted in a large initial RFDT that may have caused dynamic stiffening of the tendon and attenuated tendon strain throughout the movement. These results suggest that external loading influences tendon lengthening in both a load- and movement-dependent manner.

  17. [External cephalic version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Santana, B; Duarez-Coronado, M; Plaza-Arranz, J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the rate of successful external cephalic versions in our center and caesarean sections that would be avoided with the use of external cephalic versions. From January 2012 to March 2016 external cephalic versions carried out at our center, which were a total of 52. We collected data about female age, gestational age at the time of the external cephalic version, maternal body mass index (BMI), fetal variety and situation, fetal weight, parity, location of the placenta, amniotic fluid index (ILA), tocolysis, analgesia, and newborn weight at birth, minor adverse effects (dizziness, hypotension and maternal pain) and major adverse effects (tachycardia, bradycardia, decelerations and emergency cesarean section). 45% of the versions were unsuccessful and 55% were successful. The percentage of successful vaginal delivery in versions was 84% (4% were instrumental) and 15% of caesarean sections. With respect to the variables studied, only significant differences in birth weight were found; suggesting that birth weight it is related to the outcome of external cephalic version. Probably we did not find significant differences due to the number of patients studied. For women with breech presentation, we recommend external cephalic version before the expectant management or performing a cesarean section. The external cephalic version increases the proportion of fetuses in cephalic presentation and also decreases the rate of caesarean sections.

  18. Piezosurgery in External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyz, Craig N; Fowler, Amy M; Dutton, Jonathan J; Cahill, Kenneth V; Foster, Jill A; Hill, Robert H; Everman, Kelly R; Nabavi, Cameron B

    Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) can be performed via an external or endoscopic approach. The use of ultrasonic or piezosurgery has been well described for endoscopic DCRs but is lacking for external DCRs. This study presents a case series of external DCRs performed using piezosurgery evaluating results and complications. Prospective, consecutive case series of patients undergoing primary external DCR for lacrimal drainage insufficiency. A standard external DCR technique was used using 1 of 2 piezosurgery systems for all bone incision. All patients received silicone intubation to the lacrimal system. Surgical outcome was measured in terms of patient-reported epiphora as follows: 1) complete resolution, 2) improvement >50%, 3) improvement 50% improvement. There were 4 patients (7%) who had <50% improvement. There was 1 (2%) intraoperative complication and 2 (4%) postoperative complications recorded. Piezourgery is a viable modality for performing external DCRs. The lack of surgical complications shows a potential for decreased soft tissues damage. The surgical success rate based on patient-reported epiphora is similar to those published for mechanical external DCRs. This modality may benefit the novice surgeon in the reduction of soft and mucosal tissue damage.

  19. A Study of Fatigue and Performance Considerations in Air Mobility Cargo Aircrews Flying Transatlantic Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levin, Julian

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Air Force Air Mobility Command (AMC) is responsible for movement of supplies and personnel, air refueling operations and air evacuation operations throughout the world in support of the United States' national interest...

  20. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    OpenAIRE

    Ninad Arun Malpure; Sanket Nandlal Bhansali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are co...

  1. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  2. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  3. Dynamics of human movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The part of (bio)mechanics that studies the interaction of forces on the human skeletal system and its effect on the resulting movement is called rigid body dynamics. Some basic concepts are presented: A mathematical formulation to describe human movement and how this relates on the mechanical loads

  4. Automated External Defibrillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... leads to a 10 percent reduction in survival. Training To Use an Automated External Defibrillator Learning how to use an AED and taking a CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) course are helpful. However, if trained ...

  5. Energy policy and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Fraser, P.

    2002-01-01

    External costs of energy have been assessed in a number of authoritative and reliable studies based upon widely accepted methodologies such as life cycle analysis (LCA). However, although those costs are recognised by most stakeholders and decision makers, results from analytical work on externalities and LCA studies are seldom used in policy making. The International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) convened a joint workshop in November 2001 to offer experts and policy makers an opportunity to present state-of-the-art results from analytical work on externalities and debate issues related to the relevance of external costs and LCA for policy-making purposes. The findings from the workshop highlight the need for further work in the field and the potential rote of international organisations like the IEA and the NEA in this context. (authors)

  6. Externally Verifiable Oblivious RAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gancher Joshua

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the idea of externally verifiable oblivious RAM (ORAM. Our goal is to allow a client and server carrying out an ORAM protocol to have disputes adjudicated by a third party, allowing for the enforcement of penalties against an unreliable or malicious server. We give a security definition that guarantees protection not only against a malicious server but also against a client making false accusations. We then give modifications of the Path ORAM [15] and Ring ORAM [9] protocols that meet this security definition. These protocols both have the same asymptotic runtimes as the semi-honest original versions and require the external verifier to be involved only when the client or server deviates from the protocol. Finally, we implement externally verified ORAM, along with an automated cryptocurrency contract to use as the external verifier.

  7. Air conditioner with three stages of indirect regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worthington, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    An air conditioner is described comprising: a cabinet defining an internal evaporation chamber and having an air inlet and an air outlet; a heat exchanger mounted in the cabinet and defining an air movement path between the air inlet and the air outlet; means for supplying air to be cooled to the air inlet of the cabinet of movement through the air movement path of the heat exchanger in a heat exchanger relationship; air diversion means for continuously diverting some of the air emerging from the air outlet of the cabinet; and means in the evaporation chamber of the cabinet for recirculating spraying water into the chiller tube of the heat exchanger for interacting with the diverted air moving therethrough to evaporatively cool the heat exchanger

  8. Environmental externalities and renewables: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    New York state electric utilities are required to incorporate the consideration of environmental externality costs in their bidding programs for new capacity. A natural extension of this policy would be to consider environmental externality costs in the state's implementation of federal regulations under the Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). A more direct but more politically difficult approach would be the use of environmental taxes. These two approaches are discussed for more fully incorporating environmental externalities in New York's energy planning process. Under PURPA, utilities have a general obligation to purchase energy from interconnected qualifying facilities on the basis of long-run avoided cost (LRAC) estimates. The New York State Public Service Commission is currently updating the LRAC estimates, which do not account for the costs of complying with the 1990 amendments of the Clean Air Act (CAA) or for environmental externality costs associated with underlying generation sources. Environmental externality LRACs are estimated based on SO 2 , NO x , and CO 2 emissions; estimates of CAA compliance are relatively small in comparison. The use of taxes to reduce emissions by making pollution more expensive than abatement is analyzed, with reference to both general revenue and trust fund types of tax mechanisms. The ways the two mechanisms affect development of wind power resources is illustrated to provide further insight into the correct application of environmental externalities in energy planning. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Islamic Puritanism Movements in Indonesia as Transnational Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Baskara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Islamic puritanism movements are the movements compelling to return to the teachings of Quran and Sunnah, as the pure teachings of Islam and abandon even abolish other teachings outside the teachings of Quran and Sunnah. The movements of Islamic puritanism can be considered as transnational movements because they spread their teachings and ideologies, create organizations, networks, and provide financial supports across nations. This paper describes Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia and their transnational connections. Some Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia can be considered as part of Islamic transnational movements, in which most of the movements are centered in the Middle East. In Indonesia, Islamic puritanism movements firstly appeared in the beginning of the nineteenth century, called Padri movement in West Sumatra. It was then continued to the emergence of Islamic organizations in the twentieth century. Recently, Islamic puritanism movements in Indonesia mostly take form as Salafism-Wahabism movements.

  10. The Irish Women's Movement

    OpenAIRE

    Cullen, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Ireland’s long history of patriarchy is matched by the ongoing evolution of its women’s movements. Today’s complex, transnational feminism finds its precursor in the colonial era. The first wave of the Irish women’s movement dates from the mid-19th century, with the franchise secured for women in 1918 while still under British colonial rule. First-wave feminists played a role in the nationalist movement, but their demands were sidelined later, during the construction of a conserva...

  11. Music and movement

    OpenAIRE

    Nasev, Lence

    2012-01-01

    Rhythm is one of the fundamental elements without which music would not exist. In plays with singing, a child learns to synchronize its movements with the rhythm of music from a very early age. The skill of movement plays a major role in the learning of music and thus deserves an important place in the school curriculum. In this paper, an overview is made of the most important music pedagogues who introduced movement, and at the same time perceived its importance in learning musical conte...

  12. The French ecological movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansen, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    The analysis of the ecological Movement in France is presented: its organisation, its topics, its position with respect to the main political trends. The accent is put in particular on the antinuclear contestation [fr

  13. Malignant external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuch, K.M.; Iryboz, T.; Firat, M.; Levy, C.; Tubiana, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper illustrates the value of CT and MR in early diagnosis and spread of malignant external otitis. The authors retrospectively analyzed 15 patients with proved malignant external otitis examined with postcontrast high-resolution CT (15/15) and MR (6/15) (T1- and T2-weighting). Gallium studies were done in 6/15 patients. Early diagnosis was made when CT demonstrated a soft-tissue mass of the external auditory canal associated with scattered zones of cortical bone erosions (13/15). Spread of the disease was better delineated by MR than CT, especially skull base extension (6/15). Temporomandibular joint involvement with extension into parotid or/and masticator spaces 6/15 was as well detected with CT as with MR. If CT remains the first and best procedure for diagnosis, MR - despite its cost - appears a good procedure to depict exact anatomic spread, allowing therapeutic management

  14. Productivity Change and Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kravtsova, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the analysis of the impact of externalities on the host country's total factor productivity by taking into account different dimensions of spillover effects. Namely, engagement in exporting and foreign ownership is generally perceived as being beneficial to individual...... firms and the economy as a whole. The approach used in the current research accounts for different internal as well as external factors that individual firms face and evaluates the effect on changes in productivity, technology as well as the efficiency of domestic firms. The empirical analysis focuses...... on Hungary. While the country leads the group of post-socialist countries in the amount of attracted foreign direct investments (FDI) the effect of this policy on the economy remains unclear. The research finds that different externalities play a different role in productivity, technological and efficiency...

  15. Externality or sustainability economics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to develop 'sustainability economics' Baumgaertner and Quaas (2010) neglect the central concept of environmental economics-'environmental externality'. This note proposes a possible connection between the concepts of environmental externality and sustainability. In addition, attention is asked for other aspects of 'sustainability economics', namely the distinction weak/strong sustainability, spatial sustainability and sustainable trade, distinctive sustainability policy, and the ideas of early 'sustainability economists'. I argue that both sustainability and externalities reflect a systems perspective and propose that effective sustainability solutions require that more attention is given to system feedbacks, notably other-regarding preferences and social interactions, and energy and environmental rebound. The case of climate change and policy is used to illustrate particular statements. As a conclusion, a list of 20 insights and suggestions for research is offered. (author)

  16. Metasurface external cavity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Luyao, E-mail: luyaoxu.ee@ucla.edu; Curwen, Christopher A.; Williams, Benjamin S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); California NanoSystems Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Hon, Philip W. C.; Itoh, Tatsuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Chen, Qi-Sheng [Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems, Redondo Beach, California 90278 (United States)

    2015-11-30

    A vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting-laser is demonstrated in the terahertz range, which is based upon an amplifying metasurface reflector composed of a sub-wavelength array of antenna-coupled quantum-cascade sub-cavities. Lasing is possible when the metasurface reflector is placed into a low-loss external cavity such that the external cavity—not the sub-cavities—determines the beam properties. A near-Gaussian beam of 4.3° × 5.1° divergence is observed and an output power level >5 mW is achieved. The polarized response of the metasurface allows the use of a wire-grid polarizer as an output coupler that is continuously tunable.

  17. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  18. Rooted in Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The result of the synergy between four doctoral projects and an advanced MA-level course on Bronze Age Europe, this integrated assemblage of articles represents a variety of different subjects united by a single theme: movement. Ranging from theoretical discussion of the various responses to and ...... period of European prehistory. In so doing, the text not only addresses transmission and reception, but also the conceptualization of mobility within a world which was literally Rooted in Movement....

  19. Influence of Internal and External Noise on Spontaneous Visuomotor Synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlet, Manuel; Schmidt, R C; Richardson, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Historically, movement noise or variability is considered to be an undesirable property of biological motor systems. In particular, noise is typically assumed to degrade the emergence and stability of rhythmic motor synchronization. Recently, however, it has been suggested that small levels of noise might actually improve the functioning of motor systems and facilitate their adaptation to environmental events. Here, the authors investigated whether noise can facilitate spontaneous rhythmic visuomotor synchronization. They examined the influence of internal noise in the rhythmic limb movements of participants and external noise in the movement of an oscillating visual stimulus on the occurrence of spontaneous synchronization. By indexing the natural frequency variability of participants and manipulating the frequency variability of the visual stimulus, the authors demonstrated that both internal and external noise degrade synchronization when the participants' and stimulus movement frequencies are similar, but can actually facilitate synchronization when the frequencies are different. Furthermore, the two kinds of noise interact with each other. Internal noise facilitates synchronization only when external noise is minimal and vice versa. Too much internal and external noise together degrades synchronization. These findings open new perspectives for better understanding the role of noise in human rhythmic coordination.

  20. The External Mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , Extended Mind and Distributed Cognition by Claudio Paolucci pp. 69-96 The Social Horizon of Embodied Language and Material Symbols by Riccardo Fusaroli pp. 97-123 Semiotics and Theories of Situated/Distributed Action and Cognition: a Dialogue and Many Intersections by Tommaso Granelli pp. 125-167 Building......The External Mind: an Introduction by Riccardo Fusaroli, Claudio Paolucci pp. 3-31 The sign of the Hand: Symbolic Practices and the Extended Mind by Massimiliano Cappuccio, Michael Wheeler pp. 33-55 The Overextended Mind by Shaun Gallagher pp. 57-68 The "External Mind": Semiotics, Pragmatism...

  1. Paraneoplastic autoimmune movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Thien Thien

    2017-11-01

    To provide an overview of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders presenting with various movement disorders. The spectrum of paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders has been expanding with the discovery of new antibodies against cell surface and intracellular antigens. Many of these paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders manifest as a form of movement disorder. With the discovery of new neuronal antibodies, an increasing number of idiopathic or neurodegenerative movement disorders are now being reclassified as immune-mediated movement disorders. These include anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis which may present with orolingual facial dyskinesia and stereotyped movements, CRMP-5 IgG presenting with chorea, anti-Yo paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration presenting with ataxia, anti-VGKC complex (Caspr2 antibodies) neuromyotonia, opsoclonus-myoclonus-ataxia syndrome, and muscle rigidity and episodic spasms (amphiphysin, glutamic acid decarboxylase, glycine receptor, GABA(A)-receptor associated protein antibodies) in stiff-person syndrome. Movement disorders may be a presentation for paraneoplastic autoimmune disorders. Recognition of these disorders and their common phenomenology is important because it may lead to the discovery of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Antiglobalization movements and their critics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corry, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    inequity, organize transnationally, and maintain a critical stance toward significant aspects of the state system. For this reason, many supporters favor other terms such as alterglobalization movement, global justice movement , or simply the movement of movements . Critics accuse the movements...... of ideological incoherence, self-interested protectionism, and illiberal and undemocratic political methods, and point to Western liberal elite dominance within the movements. The debate has ...

  4. A Review of Techniques for Detection of Movement Intention Using Movement-Related Cortical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqsa Shakeel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The movement-related cortical potential (MRCP is a low-frequency negative shift in the electroencephalography (EEG recording that takes place about 2 seconds prior to voluntary movement production. MRCP replicates the cortical processes employed in planning and preparation of movement. In this study, we recapitulate the features such as signal’s acquisition, processing, and enhancement and different electrode montages used for EEG data recoding from different studies that used MRCPs to predict the upcoming real or imaginary movement. An authentic identification of human movement intention, accompanying the knowledge of the limb engaged in the performance and its direction of movement, has a potential implication in the control of external devices. This information could be helpful in development of a proficient patient-driven rehabilitation tool based on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs. Such a BCI paradigm with shorter response time appears more natural to the amputees and can also induce plasticity in brain. Along with different training schedules, this can lead to restoration of motor control in stroke patients.

  5. Externalities - an analysis using the EU ExternE-results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    The EU project ExternE quantified the externalities for the different energy technologies. In this work, the ExternE results are used in a MARKAL-analysis for the Nordic countries. The analysis does not go into detail, but gives some interesting indications: The external costs are not fully covered in the Nordic energy systems, the present taxes and charges are not high enough. The emissions from the energy systems would be strongly reduced, if taxes/environmental charges were set at the level ExternE calculate. The emissions from power production would be reduced most. Renewable energy sources and natural gas dominate the energy systems in the ExternE case

  6. External costs of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, A.; Spadaro, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a synthesis of the ExternE project (External costs of Energy) of the European community about the external costs of power generation. Pollution impacts are calculated using an 'impact pathways' analysis, i.e. an analysis of the emission - dispersion - dose-response function - cost evaluation chain. Results are presented for different fuel cycles (with several technological variants) with their confidence intervals. The environmental impact costs are particularly high for coal: for instance, in France, for coal-fired power plants it is of the same order as the electricity retail price. For natural gas, this cost is about a third of the one for coal. On the contrary, the environmental impact costs for nuclear and renewable energies are low, typically of few per cent of the electricity price. The main part of these costs corresponds to the sanitary impacts, in particular the untimely mortality. In order to avoid any controversy about the cost evaluation of mortality, the reduction of the expectation of life due to the different fuel cycles is also indicated and the risks linked with nuclear energy are presented using several comparisons. (J.S.)

  7. On parabolic external maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomonaco, Luna; Petersen, Carsten Lunde; Shen, Weixiao

    2017-01-01

    We prove that any C1+BV degree d ≥ 2 circle covering h having all periodic orbits weakly expanding, is conjugate by a C1+BV diffeomorphism to a metrically expanding map. We use this to connect the space of parabolic external maps (coming from the theory of parabolic-like maps) to metrically expan...

  8. Stochastic Control - External Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2005-01-01

    This note is devoted to control of stochastic systems described in discrete time. We are concerned with external descriptions or transfer function model, where we have a dynamic model for the input output relation only (i.e.. no direct internal information). The methods are based on LTI systems...

  9. [Scenes in movement. Movement disorders on film].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares Romero, J

    2010-03-01

    There are publications in which various neurological diseases are analysed on film. However, no references have been found on movement disorders in this medium. A total of 104 documents were collected and reviewed using the internet movie data base (IMDb). The majority were associated with dystonia, Parkinson's and tics, were American commercial productions, and the most common genre was drama. The cinema usually depicts old men with developed Parkinson's disease. However, motor complications only appear in 19% and non-motor symptoms in 14%. The image of dystonia is generally that of a young man, with disabling dystonia secondary to childhood cerebral palsy. Tics appear associated with Tourette's syndrome, with the excessive use of obscene expressions and with very few references to other important aspects of this syndrome, such as mood and behavioural changes. The majority of tremors portrayed on film are associated with Parkinsonism and are not pathological. Myoclonus appears anecdotically and is normally symptomatic. Parkinson's disease is the type of movement disorder that the cinema portrays with greater neurological honesty and in a more dignified manner.

  10. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  11. Studying Social Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldam, Julie; McCurdy, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The research method of participant observation has long been used by scholars interested in the motivations, dynamics, tactics and strategies of social movements from a movement perspective. Despite participant observation being a common research method, there have been very few efforts to bring...... together this literature, which has often been spread across disciplines. This makes it difficult to identify the various challenges (and their interrelation) facing participant observers. Consequently, this article first reviews how participant observation roles have been conceptualised in general...... and then draws specific links to how the method has been used in the study of activism and social movements. In doing so, this article brings together key academic debates on participant observation, which have been considered separately, such as insider/outsider and overt/covert, but not previously been brought...

  12. Movement as utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couton, Philippe; López, José Julián

    2009-10-01

    Opposition to utopianism on ontological and political grounds has seemingly relegated it to a potentially dangerous form of antiquated idealism. This conclusion is based on a restrictive view of utopia as excessively ordered panoptic discursive constructions. This overlooks the fact that, from its inception, movement has been central to the utopian tradition. The power of utopianism indeed resides in its ability to instantiate the tension between movement and place that has marked social transformations in the modern era. This tension continues in contemporary discussions of movement-based social processes, particularly international migration and related identity formations, such as open borders transnationalism and cosmopolitanism. Understood as such, utopia remains an ongoing and powerful, albeit problematic instrument of social and political imagination.

  13. Sensory modulation of movement, posture and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saradjian, A H

    2015-11-01

    During voluntary movement, there exists a well known functional sensory attenuation of afferent inputs, which allows us to discriminate between information related to our own movements and those arising from the external environment. This attenuation or 'gating' prevents some signals from interfering with movement elaboration and production. However, there are situations in which certain task-relevant sensory inputs may not be gated. This review begins by identifying the prevalent findings in the literature with specific regard to the somatosensory modality, and reviews the many cases of classical sensory gating phenomenon accompanying voluntary movement and their neural basis. This review also focuses on the newer axes of research that demonstrate that task-specific sensory information may be disinhibited or even facilitated during engagement in voluntary actions. Finally, a particular emphasis will be placed on postural and/or locomotor tasks involving strong somatosensory demands, especially for the setting of the anticipatory postural adjustments observed prior the initiation of locomotion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship Between Postural and Movement Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Anatol G

    2016-01-01

    Postural stabilization is provided by stretch reflexes, intermuscular reflexes, and intrinsic muscle properties. Taken together, these posture-stabilizing mechanisms resist deflections from the posture at which balance of muscle and external forces is maintained. Empirical findings suggest that for each muscle, these mechanisms become functional at a specific, spatial threshold-the muscle length or respective joint angle at which motor units begin to be recruited. Empirical data suggest that spinal and supraspinal centers can shift the spatial thresholds for a group of muscles that stabilized the initial posture. As a consequence, the same stabilizing mechanisms, instead of resisting motion from the initial posture, drive the body to another stable posture. In other words by shifting spatial thresholds, the nervous system converts movement resisting to movement-producing mechanisms. It is illustrated that, contrary to conventional view, this control strategy allows the system to transfer body balance to produce locomotion and other actions without loosing stability at any point of them. It also helps orient posture and movement with the direction of gravity. It is concluded that postural and movement stability is provided by a common mechanism.

  15. Biological Movement and Laws of Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latash, Mark L

    2017-07-01

    Living systems may be defined as systems able to organize new, biology-specific, laws of physics and modify their parameters for specific tasks. Examples include the force-length muscle dependence mediated by the stretch reflex, and the control of movements with modification of the spatial referent coordinates for salient performance variables. Low-dimensional sets of referent coordinates at a task level are transformed to higher-dimensional sets at lower hierarchical levels in a way that ensures stability of performance. Stability of actions can be controlled independently of the actions (e.g., anticipatory synergy adjustments). Unintentional actions reflect relaxation processes leading to drifts of corresponding referent coordinates in the absence of changes in external load. Implications of this general framework for movement disorders, motor development, motor skill acquisition, and even philosophy are discussed.

  16. Checklists for external validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrvig, Anne-Kirstine; Kidholm, Kristian; Gerke, Oke

    2014-01-01

    to an implementation setting. In this paper, currently available checklists on external validity are identified, assessed and used as a basis for proposing a new improved instrument. METHOD: A systematic literature review was carried out in Pubmed, Embase and Cinahl on English-language papers without time restrictions....... The retrieved checklist items were assessed for (i) the methodology used in primary literature, justifying inclusion of each item; and (ii) the number of times each item appeared in checklists. RESULTS: Fifteen papers were identified, presenting a total of 21 checklists for external validity, yielding a total...... of 38 checklist items. Empirical support was considered the most valid methodology for item inclusion. Assessment of methodological justification showed that none of the items were supported empirically. Other kinds of literature justified the inclusion of 22 of the items, and 17 items were included...

  17. Movement Without Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Fortuna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Johnson Simon, an artist based in West Palm Beach, FL, provided the cover art for the Fall 2017 edition of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy (OJOT. “Dancing in Motion” is a 36” x 60” painting made from acrylic on canvas. Johnson always wanted to become a dancer. He was born with cerebral palsy, and therefore physical limitations make it difficult for Johnson to coordinate his body movements. Through use of vibrant colors and bold strokes, Johnson’s expressionist paintings evoke movement and motion. Occupational therapy helped Johnson discover his artistic abilities. Painting empowered him to move without limitations

  18. Air quality on biomass harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The working environment around logging operations can be very dusty. But, air quality around logging operations is not well documented. Equipment movements and trafficking on the landing can cause dust to rise into the air. The addition of a biomass chipper creates different air flow patterns and may stir up additional dust. This project addresses two topics related to...

  19. Financial Development and the Sensitivity of Stock Markets to External Influences

    OpenAIRE

    Dellas, Harris; Hess, Martin K.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate how the relative contribution of external factors to stock price movements varies with the degree of financial development. We find that financial development makes stock markets more susceptible to external influences (both financial and macroeconomic). Interestingly, this effect is present even after having accounted for capital controls and international trade effects.

  20. Sensitivity to draught in turbulent air flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todde, V

    1998-09-01

    Even though the ventilation system is designed to supply air flows at constant low velocity and controlled temperature, the resulting air movement in rooms is strongly characterised by random fluctuations. When an air flow is supplied from an inlet, a shear layer forms between the incoming and the standstill air in the room, and large scale vortices develops by coalescence of the vorticity shed at the inlet of the air supply. After a characteristically downstream distance, large scale vortices loose their identity because of the development of cascading eddies and transition to turbulence. The interaction of these vortical structures will rise a complicated three dimensional air movement affected by fluctuations whose frequencies could vary from fractions of Hz to several KHz. The perception and sensitivity to the cooling effect enhanced by these air movements depend on a number of factors interacting with each other: physical properties of the air flow, part and extension of the skin surface exposed to the air flow, exposure duration, global thermal condition, gender and posture of the person. Earlier studies were concerned with the percentage of dissatisfied subjects as a function of air velocity and temperature. Recently, experimental observations have shown that also the fluctuations, the turbulence intensity and the direction of air velocity have an important impact on draught discomfort. Two experimental investigations have been developed to observe the human reaction to horizontal air movements on bared skin surfaces, hands and neck. Attention was concentrated on the effects of relative turbulence intensity of air velocity and exposure duration on perception and sensitivity to the air movement. The air jet flows, adopted for the draught experiment in the neck, were also the object of an experimental study. This experiment was designed to observe the centre-line velocity of an isothermal circular air jet, as a function of the velocity properties at the outlet

  1. Rationality in Human Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Megan K; Ahmed, Alaa A

    2016-01-01

    It long has been appreciated that humans behave irrationally in economic decisions under risk: they fail to objectively consider uncertainty, costs, and rewards and instead exhibit risk-seeking or risk-averse behavior. We hypothesize that poor estimates of motor variability (influenced by motor task) and distorted probability weighting (influenced by relevant emotional processes) contribute to characteristic irrationality in human movement decisions.

  2. The Matter of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2015-01-01

    This contribution concerns itself with the design and realisation of architectures that operate with material dynamics. It presents this concern as a counter to the consideration of movement in architecture as something conceptualised from the position of the observer. The contribution draws upon...

  3. Knowledge through movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kjær; Moser, T.

    2003-01-01

    In: Children and adolescents in movement - perspectives and ideas. The Danish Ministry of Culture, pages 150 - 162. 2003 Short description: the article debunks a lot of the myths surrounding body and learning, and replace them with a vision about another kind of learning. The aim is to reintroduce...

  4. Mungiki as Youth Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Kenya has a large and growing youth population. Some of the youths are mobilized into militant and political networks; one of these is the Mungiki movement. The article explores Mungiki’s combination of politics, religion and Kikuyu traditions. Using the examples...

  5. The Evidence Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Foss; Rieper, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    The evidence movement and the idea of systematic reviews, defined as summaries of the results of already existing evaluation and research projects, have gained considerable support in recent years as many international as well as national evidence-producing organizations have been established...

  6. Managing Movement as Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrell, Sinead

    2011-01-01

    The associate director of education at Hubbard Street Dance Chicago recounts her learning and teaching through managing the Movement as Partnership program. Included are detailed descriptions of encounters with teachers and students as they create choreography reflective of their inquiry into integrating dance and literacy arts curriculum in the…

  7. Music, Movement, and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This paper's premise is that music, movement, and poetry are unique and creative methods to be used by the counselor in working with both children and adults. Through these media, the counselor generates material for the counseling session that may not be available through more traditional "talk therapies." The choice of music as a counseling…

  8. Editorial: Body Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Assuncao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, the juxtaposition between physical bodies and the gameworld is ever more fluid. Virtual Reality headsets are available at game stores with more AAA games being created for the format. The release of the Nintendo Switch and its dynamic JoyCon controllers reintroduce haptic movement based controls.  Pokémon GO’s augmented reality took gamers outdoors and has encouraged the Harry Potter franchise to follow in its mobile footsteps. Each development encourages a step further into the digital world. At the same time, the movement of bodies always has political dimensions. We live in a world where walls seem like solutions to the movement of bodies, while the mere meeting of bodies elsewhere – for sex, marriage and other reasons – is still forbidden by many states’ rules. Games and game-like interfaces have shown the ability to bend those rules, and to sometimes project other worlds and rule systems over our world in order to make bodies move and meet. For this special issue on ‘Body Movements’, Press Start invited authors to focus on embodiment, body movements, political bodies, community bodies, virtual bodies, physical bodies, feminine, masculine, trans- bodies, agency or its lack, and anything else in between. The response to this invitation was variegated, and provocative, as outlined here.

  9. Morocco's February 20 Movement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2017 ... revolted several times, namely in big cities like Casablanca, Marrakech or .... region in order to take advantage of their experience and acquire a regional ..... Undoubtedly, with social networking, the dynamics of protest movements.

  10. [Architecture and movement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivallan, Armel

    2012-01-01

    Leading an architectural project means accompanying the movement which it induces within the teams. Between questioning, uncertainty and fear, the organisational changes inherent to the new facility must be subject to constructive and ongoing exchanges. Ethics, safety and training are revised and the unit projects are sometimes modified.

  11. MODELLING SYNERGISTIC EYE MOVEMENTS IN THE VISUAL FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARITZ Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Some theoretical and practical considerations about eye movements in visual field are presented in the first part of this paper. These movements are developed into human body to be synergistic and are allowed to obtain the visual perception in 3D space. The theoretical background of the eye movements’ analysis is founded on the establishment of movement equations of the eyeball, as they consider it a solid body with a fixed point. The exterior actions, the order and execution of the movements are ensured by the neural and muscular external system and thus the position, stability and movements of the eye can be quantified through the method of reverse kinematic. The purpose of these researches is the development of a simulation model of human binocular visual system, an acquisition methodology and an experimental setup for data processing and recording regarding the eye movements, presented in the second part of the paper. The modeling system of ocular movements aims to establish the binocular synergy and limits of visual field changes in condition of ocular motor dysfunctions. By biomechanical movements of eyeball is established a modeling strategy for different sort of processes parameters like convergence, fixation and eye lens accommodation to obtain responses from binocular balance. The results of modelling processes and the positions of eye ball and axis in visual field are presented in the final part of the paper.

  12. The Propagation of Movement Variability in Time: A Methodological Approach for Discrete Movements with Multiple Degrees of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Melanie; Straube, Andreas; Eggert, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, theory-building in motor neuroscience and our understanding of the synergistic control of the redundant human motor system has significantly profited from the emergence of a range of different mathematical approaches to analyze the structure of movement variability. Approaches such as the Uncontrolled Manifold method or the Noise-Tolerance-Covariance decomposition method allow to detect and interpret changes in movement coordination due to e.g., learning, external task constraints or disease, by analyzing the structure of within-subject, inter-trial movement variability. Whereas, for cyclical movements (e.g., locomotion), mathematical approaches exist to investigate the propagation of movement variability in time (e.g., time series analysis), similar approaches are missing for discrete, goal-directed movements, such as reaching. Here, we propose canonical correlation analysis as a suitable method to analyze the propagation of within-subject variability across different time points during the execution of discrete movements. While similar analyses have already been applied for discrete movements with only one degree of freedom (DoF; e.g., Pearson's product-moment correlation), canonical correlation analysis allows to evaluate the coupling of inter-trial variability across different time points along the movement trajectory for multiple DoF-effector systems, such as the arm. The theoretical analysis is illustrated by empirical data from a study on reaching movements under normal and disturbed proprioception. The results show increased movement duration, decreased movement amplitude, as well as altered movement coordination under ischemia, which results in a reduced complexity of movement control. Movement endpoint variability is not increased under ischemia. This suggests that healthy adults are able to immediately and efficiently adjust the control of complex reaching movements to compensate for the loss of proprioceptive information. Further, it is

  13. Hot air engines: Study of a Stirling engine and of an Ericsson engine; Moteurs thermiques a apport de chaleur externe: etude d'un moteur stirling et d'un moteur ericsson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnet, S.

    2005-11-15

    In the current energy context, we attend the development of technologies of production of 'clean' energy. Thus, news prospects like thermodynamic solar energy conversion or waste energy conversion are offered to research on 'renewable energies'. Within this framework, we are interested in hot air engines: Stirling and Ericsson engines. First of all, this thesis concerns the study of a small Stirling engine on which we measured the fluid instantaneous temperature and pressure in various points. The original results obtained are compared to results from two different analyses. We conclude that these models are not suitable to explain the experimental results. Then, we study a micro-cogeneration system based on an Ericsson engine coupled with a system of natural gas combustion. An Ericsson engine is a reciprocating engine working on a JOULE cycle. The objective of this plant is to produce 11 kW of electric output as well as useful heat. In order to design this system, we carried out energetic, exergetic and exergo-economic studies. (author)

  14. Unilateral vestibular loss impairs external space representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Borel

    Full Text Available The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal and far (extrapersonal spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation, and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss.

  15. Environmental external effects from wind power based on the EU ExternE methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Liselotte Schleisner; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    1998-01-01

    of the Danish part of the project is to implement the framework for externality evaluation, for three different power plants located in Denmark. The paper will focus on the assessment of the impacts of the whole fuel cycles for wind, natural gas and biogas. Priority areas for environmental impact assessment......The European Commission has launched a major study project, ExternE, to develop a methodology to quantify externalities. A “National Implementation Phase”, was started under the Joule II programme with the purpose of implementing the ExternE methodology in all member states. The main objective...

  16. Study of air traffic over KLFIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusyirwan, I. F.; Rohani, J. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    This paper shares the overview of the work currently being conducted with the Department of Civil Aviation Malaysia related to the air traffic. The aim is to study air traffic performance over KL and KK FIR, and the area of interest in this paper is the Kuala Lumpur Flight Information Region (KLFIR). The air traffic performance parameters includes general air traffic movement such as level allocation, number of movements, sector load analysis and also more specific parameters such as airborne delays, effects of weather to the air movements as well as ground delays. To achieve this, a huge effort has been undertaken that includes live data collection algorithm development and real time statistical analysis algorithm development. The main outcome from this multi-disciplinary work is the long-term analysis on the air traffic performance in Malaysia, which will put the country at par in the aviation community, namely the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

  17. Assessment of external dose indoors in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilkyte, L.; Butkus, D.; Morkunas, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper was an assessment of external exposure indoors and its dependence on construction materials and indoor radon concentrations in Lithuanian living houses. Relationship of absorbed dose rate in air indoors and activity indexes of the most commonly used construction materials (wood, concrete and bricks) have been studied using results received in measurements done in >4700 rooms in 1995-2005. Possible connections of dose rate indoors with indoor radon concentrations are also discussed. Findings of this study helped to make an assessment of the mean value of effective dose of Lithuanian population due to external exposure indoors which is equal to 0.58 mSv y -1 . The received data might also be used in improvement of quality of personal dosimetric measurements done in premises constructed of different construction materials. (authors)

  18. External corners as heat bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, J.

    1984-08-01

    The maximum additional heat loss in vertical external corners depending on wall thickness is determined. In order to amire at a low k-value, a much smaller wall thickness is required in externally insulated walls than in monolithic constructions; the greater loss of heat bridge with external insulation stands in contrast to a higher loss in thick, monolithic walls. In relation to total losses, the additional losses through external corners are practically negligible.

  19. [External pancreatic fistulas management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, E V; Ermolov, A S; Rogal', M L; Teterin, Yu S

    The main principles of treatment of external postoperative pancreatic fistulas are viewed in the article. Pancreatic trauma was the reason of pancreatic fistula in 38.7% of the cases, operations because of acute pancreatitis - in 25.8%, and pancreatic pseudocyst drainage - in 35.5%. 93 patients recovered after the treatment. Complex conservative treatment of EPF allowed to close fistulas in 74.2% of the patients with normal patency of the main pancreatic duct (MPD). The usage of octreotide 600-900 mcg daily for at least 5 days to decrease pancreatic secretion was an important part of the conservative treatment. Endoscopic papillotomy was performed in patients with major duodenal papilla obstruction and interruption of transporting of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Stent of the main pancreatic duct was indicated in patients with extended pancreatic duct stenosis to normalize transport of pancreatic secretion to duodenum. Surgical formation of anastomosis between distal part of the main pancreatic duct and gastro-intestinal tract was carried out when it was impossible to fulfill endoscopic stenting of pancreatic duct either because of its interruption and diastasis between its ends, or in the cases of unsuccessful conservative treatment of external pancreatic fistula caused by drainage of pseudocyst.

  20. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  1. [Neuropsychiatry Of Movement Disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Rojas, Juan Manuel; Barrios Vincos, Gustavo Adolfo; Martínez Gallego, Melisa Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Movement disorders can be defined as neurological syndromes presenting with excessive or diminished automatic or voluntary movements not related to weakness or spasticity. Both Parkinson's disease (PD) and Huntington's disease (HD) are well-known examples of these syndromes. The high prevalence of comorbid psychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hallucinations, delusions, impulsivity, sleep disorders, apathy and cognitive impairment mean that these conditions must be regarded as neuropsychiatric diseases. In this article, we review neuroanatomical (structural and functional), psychopathological and neuropsychological aspects of PD and HD. The role of fronto-subcortical loops in non-motor functions is particularly emphasised in order to understand the clinical spectrum of both diseases, together with the influence of genetic, psychological and psychosocial aspects. A brief description of the main psychopharmacological approaches for both diseases is also included. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Monitoring underground movements

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 16 September 2015 at 22:54:33 (UTC), an 8.3-magnitude earthquake struck off the coast of Chile. 11,650 km away, at CERN, a new-generation instrument – the Precision Laser Inclinometer (PLI) – recorded the extreme event. The PLI is being tested by a JINR/CERN/ATLAS team to measure the movements of underground structures and detectors.   The Precision Laser Inclinometer during assembly. The instrument has proven very accurate when taking measurements of the movements of underground structures at CERN.    The Precision Laser Inclinometer is an extremely sensitive device capable of monitoring ground angular oscillations in a frequency range of 0.001-1 Hz with a precision of 10-10 rad/Hz1/2. The instrument is currently installed in one of the old ISR transfer tunnels (TT1) built in 1970. However, its final destination could be the ATLAS cavern, where it would measure and monitor the fine movements of the underground structures, which can affect the precise posi...

  3. Anti-nuclear movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedig, W.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear power, heralded in the years after World War II as the answer to the world's energy needs, has in more recent times become the focus of intense ecological, political and economic debate. In this study, the current worldwide opposition to nuclear power is examined from its origins in expert dissent to the widespread development of grassroots activity. Chapter headings include: Social Movements: A Theoretical Framework; Creating the Preconditions for Public Protest; Local and Regional Opposition: Mobilizing the Grass Roots; Local Opposition and the Politicization of Nuclear Power; The Use of Local Opposition as a Political Resource; Local Opposition and Social Movement Analysis; The Removal of Political Stimuli: The Unpolitics of Nuclear Siting; Analyzing Host Community Attitudes: The Survey Evidence; Attitudes and Political Action of Nuclear Host Communities: Approaches and Explanations; Novel Siting Approaches and their Political Implications; Siting and Social Movement Analysis; Patterns and Outcomes of Nuclear Energy Conflicts; The Future of the Nuclear Energy Conflict. Throughout the text, analysis and theory are blended with detailed accounts of the growth and activities of individual anti-nuclear organizations in different countries. (author)

  4. External Costs of Transport in the U.S.

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark A.; McCubbin, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter we report estimates of the external costs of transport in the United States.1 Generally, we cover road, rail, air, and water transport; passenger transport and freight transport; and congestion, accident, air pollution, climate change, noise, water pollution, and energy-security costs. However, we were not able to find estimates for all cost categories; in particular, there are fewer estimates for freight transport than for passenger transport, fewer estimates for water transp...

  5. The Influence of Load and Speed on Individuals' Movement Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Because individuals' movement patterns have been linked to their risk of future injury, movement evaluations have become a topic of interest. However, if individuals adapt their movement behavior in response to the demands of a task, the utility of evaluations comprising only low-demand activities could have limited application with regard to the prediction of future injury. This investigation examined the impact of load and speed on individuals' movement behavior. Fifty-two firefighters performed 5 low-demand (i.e., light load, low movement speed) whole-body tasks (i.e., lift, squat, lunge, push, and pull). Each task was then modified by increasing the speed, external load, or speed and load. Select measures of motion were used to characterize the performance of each task, and comparisons were made between conditions. The participants adapted their movement behavior in response to the external demands of a task (64 and 70% of all the variables were influenced [p ≤ 0.05] by changing the load and speed, respectively), but in a manner unique to the task and type of demand. The participants exhibited greater spine and frontal plane knee motion in response to an increase in speed when compared with increasing loads. However, there were a large number of movement strategies exhibited by individual firefighters that differed from the group's response. The data obtained here imply that individuals may not be physically prepared to perform safely or effectively when a task's demands are elevated simply because they exhibit the ability to perform a low-demand activity with competence. Therefore, movement screens comprising only low-demand activities may not adequately reflect an individual's capacity, or their risk of injury, and could adversely affect any recommendations that are made for training or job performance.

  6. Sleep-related movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino, Giovanni; Gigli, Gian Luigi

    2012-06-01

    Several movement disorders may occur during nocturnal rest disrupting sleep. A part of these complaints is characterized by relatively simple, non-purposeful and usually stereotyped movements. The last version of the International Classification of Sleep Disorders includes these clinical conditions (i.e. restless legs syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, sleep-related leg cramps, sleep-related bruxism and sleep-related rhythmic movement disorder) under the category entitled sleep-related movement disorders. Moreover, apparently physiological movements (e.g. alternating leg muscle activation and excessive hypnic fragmentary myoclonus) can show a high frequency and severity impairing sleep quality. Clinical and, in specific cases, neurophysiological assessments are required to detect the presence of nocturnal movement complaints. Patients reporting poor sleep due to these abnormal movements should undergo non-pharmacological or pharmacological treatments.

  7. Social Movements and Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Francisca Pinheiro Coelho

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study approaches the relationship between social movements and institutions in Brazil concerning three different stages of the process of re-democratization: the political transition; the National Constituent Assembly; and the new Constitutional Order. The general question is: what is the interface, reciprocity or conflict, between social movements and institutions in this context of social change? The paper examines the different roles of social movements and institutions in each specific period: in the pre-democratization moment, the movement for direct elections for president, Diretas-Já, is analyzed; in the National Constituent Assembly, the movement in defense for free public education is examined;  in the new constitutional order, the pro-reform political movement is studied.  The work focuses on the scope of the studies on social movements and democracy.  It belongs to the field of the studies about the representativeness and legitimacy of the demands of social movements in the context of democracy and its challenges. Key words: social movement, institution, reciprocity, conflict, democracy.   Social Movements and Institutions                               Resumen El estudio aborda la relación entre los movimientos sociales e instituciones en Brasil en tres etapas diferentes del proceso de redemocratización en las últimas décadas: la transición política; la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente; y el nuevo orden constitucional. La pregunta general es: ¿cuál es la relación, la reciprocidad o el conflito, entre los movimientos sociales y las instituciones en este contexto de cambio social? El artículo examina los diferentes roles de los movimientos sociales e instituciones en cada período específico: en el momento de la transición política analiza el movimiento de las elecciones directas para presidente, las Diretas-Já; en la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente aborda el movimiento en

  8. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  9. Hanford External Dosimetry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1990-10-01

    This document describes the Hanford External Dosimetry Program as it is administered by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its Hanford contractors. Program services include administrating the Hanford personnel dosimeter processing program and ensuring that the related dosimeter data accurately reflect occupational dose received by Hanford personnel or visitors. Specific chapters of this report deal with the following subjects: personnel dosimetry organizations at Hanford and the associated DOE and contractor exposure guidelines; types, characteristics, and procurement of personnel dosimeters used at Hanford; personnel dosimeter identification, acceptance testing, accountability, and exchange; dosimeter processing and data recording practices; standard sources, calibration factors, and calibration processes (including algorithms) used for calibrating Hanford personnel dosimeters; system operating parameters required for assurance of dosimeter processing quality control; special dose evaluation methods applied for individuals under abnormal circumstances (i.e., lost results, etc.); and methods for evaluating personnel doses from nuclear accidents. 1 ref., 14 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Bevalac external beamline optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested.

  11. Bevalac external beamline optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.F.; Tekawa, M.M.; Alonso, J.R.

    1987-04-01

    This handbook is intended as an aid for tuning the external particle beam (EPB) lines at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. The information contained within will be useful to the Bevalac's Main Control Room and experimenters alike. First, some general information is given concerning the EPB lines and beam optics. Next, each beam line is described in detail: schematics of the beam line components are shown, all the variables required to run a beam transport program are presented, beam envelopes are given with wire chamber pictures and magnet currents, focal points and magnifications. Some preliminary scaling factors are then presented which should aid in choosing a given EPB magnet's current for a given central Bevalac field. Finally, some tuning hints are suggested

  12. Charge collection in an external proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wookey, C.W.; Somswasdi, B.; Rouse, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    Results from the measurement of the stability of charge collected from the target and exit foil, or as alternatives, the γ-ray or backscattered proton counts from the exit foil and the Ar X-ray counts from the air path in an external proton beam are presented. These results show that comparative analysis of material mounted in air is reliable, using either the collected charge or the γ-ray counts as the normalizing factor, if there are no earthed objects in close geometry. The backscattered proton counts can also be used, but not the Ar X-ray counts, unless the current is stabilized. The electrical or thermal conductivity of the target and the target to exit foil separation do not affect the proportionality of the collected charge and the γ-ray counts to the charge incident on the target

  13. Segmenting Trajectories by Movement States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, M.; Kruckenberg, H.; Kölzsch, A.; Timpf, S.; Laube, P.

    2013-01-01

    Dividing movement trajectories according to different movement states of animals has become a challenge in movement ecology, as well as in algorithm development. In this study, we revisit and extend a framework for trajectory segmentation based on spatio-temporal criteria for this purpose. We adapt

  14. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  15. Development of water movement model as a module of moisture content simulation in static pile composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model of vertical water movement and a performance evaluation of the model in static pile composting operated with neither air supply nor turning. The vertical moisture content (MC) model was developed with consideration of evaporation (internal and external evaporation), diffusion (liquid and vapour diffusion) and percolation, whereas additional water from substrate decomposition and irrigation was not taken into account. The evaporation term in the model was established on the basis of reference evaporation of the materials at known temperature, MC and relative humidity of the air. Diffusion of water vapour was estimated as functions of relative humidity and temperature, whereas diffusion of liquid water was empirically obtained from experiment by adopting Fick's law. Percolation was estimated by following Darcy's law. The model was applied to a column of composting wood chips with an initial MC of 60%. The simulation program was run for four weeks with calculation span of 1 s. The simulated results were in reasonably good agreement with the experimental results. Only a top layer (less than 20 cm) had a considerable MC reduction; the deeper layers were comparable to the initial MC, and the bottom layer was higher than the initial MC. This model is a useful tool to estimate the MC profile throughout the composting period, and could be incorporated into biodegradation kinetic simulation of composting.

  16. Eye movement training is most effective when it involves a task-relevant sensorimotor decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fooken, Jolande; Lalonde, Kathryn M; Mann, Gurkiran K; Spering, Miriam

    2018-04-01

    Eye and hand movements are closely linked when performing everyday actions. We conducted a perceptual-motor training study to investigate mutually beneficial effects of eye and hand movements, asking whether training in one modality benefits performance in the other. Observers had to predict the future trajectory of a briefly presented moving object, and intercept it at its assumed location as accurately as possible with their finger. Eye and hand movements were recorded simultaneously. Different training protocols either included eye movements or a combination of eye and hand movements with or without external performance feedback. Eye movement training did not transfer across modalities: Irrespective of feedback, finger interception accuracy and precision improved after training that involved the hand, but not after isolated eye movement training. Conversely, eye movements benefited from hand movement training or when external performance feedback was given, thus improving only when an active interceptive task component was involved. These findings indicate only limited transfer across modalities. However, they reveal the importance of creating a training task with an active sensorimotor decision to improve the accuracy and precision of eye and hand movements.

  17. Coupling movement and landscape ecology for animal conservation in production landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Driscoll, Don A

    2018-01-10

    Habitat conversion in production landscapes is among the greatest threats to biodiversity, not least because it can disrupt animal movement. Using the movement ecology framework, we review animal movement in production landscapes, including areas managed for agriculture and forestry. We consider internal and external drivers of altered animal movement and how this affects navigation and motion capacities and population dynamics. Conventional management approaches in fragmented landscapes focus on promoting connectivity using structural changes in the landscape. However, a movement ecology perspective emphasizes that manipulating the internal motivations or navigation capacity of animals represents untapped opportunities to improve movement and the effectiveness of structural connectivity investments. Integrating movement and landscape ecology opens new opportunities for conservation management in production landscapes. © 2018 The Authors.

  18. External proton and Li beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuff, Juan A.; Burlon, Alejandro A.; Debray, Mario E.; Kesque, Jose M.; Kreiner, Andres J.; Stoliar, Pablo A.; Naab, Fabian; Ozafran, Mabel J.; Vazquez, Monica E.; Perez de la Hoz, A.; Somacal, Hector; Valda, Alejandro; Canevas, S.; Ruffolo, M.; Tasat, D.R.; Muhlmann, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of a feasibility study to introduce proton therapy in Argentina in a collaborative agreement between the Physics and Radiobiology Departments of the National Atomic Energy Commission or Argentina and the Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay, France, external proton and Li beams were produced at the TANDAR accelerator in Buenos Aires. The specific aim of this work was to start radiobiology studies on cell cultures and small laboratory animals. In particular we seek to determine here the relative biological effectiveness, RBE, for proton and Li beams as a function of energy for different tumor and normal cell lines. The 24 MeV proton beam was diffused using a 25 μm gold foil and extracted through a Kapton window to obtain a homogeneous field (constant to 95%) of about 7 cm in diameter. Measurements were carried out with quasi-monoenergetic beams (of 20.2 ± 0.07 MeV, 2.9 ± 0.10 MeV y 1.5 ± 0.1 MeV for protons and 21.4 ± 0.4 MeV for Lithium). Proton fluence and Bragg peaks were measured. The dose delivered in each case was monitored on-line with a calibrated transmission ionization chamber. Three cell lines PDV, PDVC 57 and V 79 (as a reference) were irradiated with γ-rays, proton and lithium beams with linear energy transfer (LET) from 2 to 100 keV/μm. RBE values in the range of 1.2-5.9 were obtained. In addition preliminary studies on chromosomal aberrations and viability of alveolar macrophages were carried out. (author)

  19. Normal movement selectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J

    2010-05-13

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Movement selectivity is a defining characteristic of neurons involved in movement perception, including mirror neurons, and, as such, these findings argue against a mirror system dysfunction in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Mobilization of Memory and Tradition: Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement and Beijing’s 1989 Tiananmen Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lagerkvist

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 Umbrella Movement in Hong Kong has been the most important pro-democracy protest on Chinese soil since the rise and fall of the Tiananmen Movement of 1989. Moreover, the 1989 Beijing Massacre has politicized a generation of pro-democracy activists in Hong Kong that has shaped Hong Kong’s vibrant civil society. However, while this “Tiananmen generation” has been crucial for the preparation and initial stage of the Umbrella Movement, the actual occupation was dominated by a new generation that is almost exclusively concerned with local Hong Kong politics. In light of this background, this paper compares the two democracy movements. The external environment and the goals of the two movements are markedly different. However, our comparison demonstrates striking similarities between the two movements, e.g. their internal structure and framing. Moreover, what we see as the “mobilization of memory” reflects both the continued importance of civil society structures that have been shaped by the “Tiananmen veterans” as well as the on-going renegotiation of the SAR’s relationship with the Mainland. Finally, these findings entail that the Chinese party-state will need to utilize different means to pacify the Umbrella Movement than what was done to placate democracy activists after the 1989 crackdown.

  1. Stereotypic movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Harvey S

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic movements are repetitive, rhythmic, fixed, patterned in form, amplitude, and localization, but purposeless (e.g., hand shaking, waving, body rocking, head nodding). They are commonly seen in children; both in normal children (primary stereotypy) and in individuals with additional behavioral or neurological signs and symptoms (secondary stereotypy). They should be differentiated from compulsions (OCD), tics (tic disorders), trichotillomania, skin picking disorder, or the direct physiological effect of a substance. There is increasing evidence to support a neurobiological mechanism. Response to behavioral and pharmacological therapies is variable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Fetal body movement monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn, W F

    1990-03-01

    Recording fetal activity serves as an indirect measure of central nervous system integrity and function. The coordination of whole body movement, which requires complex neurologic control, is likely similar to that of the newborn infant. Short-term observations of the fetus are best performed using real-time ultrasound imaging. Monitoring fetal motion has been shown to be clinically worthwhile in predicting impending death or compromise, especially when placental insufficiency is longstanding. The presence of a vigorous fetus is reassuring. Perceived inactivity requires a reassessment of any underlying antepartum complication and a more precise evaluation by fetal heart rate testing or real-time ultrasonography before delivery is contemplated.

  3. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise......-slavery movements had raised awareness, this political emergence was even easier. Indeed the fight against ‘slave mentalities’ was everywhere a major challenge and a crucial step to mobilize groups of slave status under a united force. As this article argues changes in political structures and changes in political...

  4. Pneumocystis jirovecii infection of the external auditory canal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nonspecific symptoms of otorrhoea, otalgia, hearing loss, vertigo and tinnitus. Clinical findings include a mass in the external auditory canal and occasional otitis media. Destruction of the ossicles and sclerosis of the mastoid air cells, extensive bony erosion, and extension into the middle cranial fossa are rare complications.

  5. Detect to Avoid: Supporting Aviation Safety with Bird Movement Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metz, I.C.; Muhlhausen, Thorsten; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Kügler, D.

    2017-01-01

    The presented research evaluates the concept of providing an airport’s Air Traffic Control with a bird strike advisory system. Such a system informs the controller about current and predicted bird movements in the arrival and departure corridors. Based on this information, the controller can decide

  6. Modelling group dynamic animal movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langrock, Roland; Hopcraft, J. Grant C.; Blackwell, Paul G.

    2014-01-01

    makes its movement decisions relative to the group centroid. The basic idea is framed within the flexible class of hidden Markov models, extending previous work on modelling animal movement by means of multi-state random walks. While in simulation experiments parameter estimators exhibit some bias......, to date, practical statistical methods which can include group dynamics in animal movement models have been lacking. We consider a flexible modelling framework that distinguishes a group-level model, describing the movement of the group's centre, and an individual-level model, such that each individual......Group dynamic movement is a fundamental aspect of many species' movements. The need to adequately model individuals' interactions with other group members has been recognised, particularly in order to differentiate the role of social forces in individual movement from environmental factors. However...

  7. Camera Movement in Narrative Cinema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2007-01-01

    section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...

  8. External meeting: GENEVA UNIVERSITY

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Wednesday 10 May 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINARat 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium ZEUS: A detector for HERA by Andrée Robichaud-Véronneau / DPNC, Université de Genè ve HERA is the first lepton-proton collider in the world where a center of mass energy of 318 GeV is reached. Since 1992, the ZEUS detector is gating luminosity from it to probe QCD and look for exotic phenomena of fundamental particle physics. A history and overview of the detector and collider will be presented as well as important physics contributions made by the ZEUS experiment to the understanding of our world. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer : J.-S. Graulich

  9. External conference: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Monday 12 June 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Quantum computers - dream and realization Prof. R. Blatt / University of Innsbruck, Austria Computational operations always rely on real physical processes, which are data input, data representation in a memory, data manipulation using algorithms and finally, the data output. With conventional computers all the processes are classical processes and can be described accordingly. Theoretically, it is known for several years now that certain computations could be processed much more efficiently using quantum mechanical operations. This requires the implementation of quantum bits (qubits), quantum registers and quantum gates and the development of quantum algorithms. Several approaches for the implementation of quantum computers will be presented, with special emphasis o...

  10. Justice foundations for the Comprehensive Law Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Dale

    2010-01-01

    Authors examining the developing dispute resolution alternatives to the adversarial system have identified nine converging "vectors" or alternatives in what has been termed the Comprehensive Law Movement. These authors have sought to understand how the developing vectors can remain separate and vibrant movements while sharing common ground. Some analyze these developments as being within law and legal practice, others see them as alternative approaches to law, and still others take a combined approach. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful differences from law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking within law and legal practice. It will be impossible to understand how these vectors have meaningful commonalities with law and legal practice if the search is limited to looking external to law and legal practice. Instead of comparing the vectors with the adversarial system, higher order criteria are required. What is needed is a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; one that can be used to evaluate the adversarial system and the evolving vectors on an equal footing. An Aristotelian natural law virtue theory of justice can: (a) provide a functional guiding definition of justice; (b) serve as a comprehensive and internally consistent super-system of norms; and (c) provide the theoretical and evaluative foundation required to clarify the relationships among the adversarial system and the developing vectors. Finally, it will become clear why the Comprehensive Law Movement might be more appropriately conceptualized as the Comprehensive Justice Movement. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papagiannis, A.; Roussos, D.; Menegaki, M.; Damigos, D.

    2014-01-01

    During the last three decades, several studies have been conducted in order to assess the external costs of electricity production from fossil fuels, especially coal and lignite. Nevertheless, these studies usually ignore the impacts generated by the upstream mining works. This paper contributes to existing literature and attempts to fill this gap by exploring the externalities of lignite mining owing to the emission of suspended particulate matter. To this end, a ‘bottom-up’ approach is implemented, using as case study the largest operational lignite surface mine at the Lignite Center of Western Macedonia (Greece). The results indicate that annual air pollution externalities of lignite mining are of the order of 3€/ton of lignite, which corresponds to around 5.0 €/MW h. The estimated costs are significantly lower, i.e. up to 80%, when dust deposition is considered in air dispersion models. In any case, these findings should be seen as a starting point for discussion owing to the lack of specific emission rates for Greek lignite mines. - Highlights: • Externalities from lignite mining-related dust emissions are 3 €/t of lignite. • Externalities of mining correspond to around 5.0 €/MW h. • Externalities are significantly lower, up to 80%, if dust deposition is considered. • There is lack of specific dust emission rates for lignite mining. • There are high discrepancies in existing dust emission rates for lignite mining

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging exploration of combined hand and speech movements in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Serge; Mancini, Laura; Jahanshahi, Marjan; Thornton, John S; Tripoliti, Elina; Yousry, Tarek A; Limousin, Patricia

    2011-10-01

    Among the repertoire of motor functions, although hand movement and speech production tasks have been investigated widely by functional neuroimaging, paradigms combining both movements have been studied less so. Such paradigms are of particular interest in Parkinson's disease, in which patients have specific difficulties performing two movements simultaneously. In 9 unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease and 15 healthy control subjects, externally cued tasks (i.e., hand movement, speech production, and combined hand movement and speech production) were performed twice in a random order and functional magnetic resonance imaging detected cerebral activations, compared to the rest. F-statistics tested within-group (significant activations at P values 10 voxels). For control subjects, the combined task activations comprised the sum of those obtained during hand movement and speech production performed separately, reflecting the neural correlates of performing movements sharing similar programming modalities. In patients with Parkinson's disease, only activations underlying hand movement were observed during the combined task. We interpreted this phenomenon as patients' potential inability to recruit facilitatory activations while performing two movements simultaneously. This lost capacity could be related to a functional prioritization of one movement (i.e., hand movement), in comparison with the other (i.e., speech production). Our observation could also reflect the inability of patients with Parkinson's disease to intrinsically engage the motor coordination necessary to perform a combined task. Copyright © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: congenital mirror movement disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Congenital mirror movement disorder Congenital mirror movement disorder Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Congenital mirror movement disorder is a condition in which intentional movements ...

  14. Attitude Estimation Using Kalman Filtering: External Acceleration Compensation Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romy Budhi Widodo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Attitude estimation is often inaccurate during highly dynamic motion due to the external acceleration. This paper proposes extended Kalman filter-based attitude estimation using a new algorithm to overcome the external acceleration. This algorithm is based on an external acceleration compensation model to be used as a modifying parameter in adjusting the measurement noise covariance matrix of the extended Kalman filter. The experiment was conducted to verify the estimation accuracy, that is, one-axis and multiple axes sensor movement. Five approaches were used to test the estimation of the attitude: (1 the KF-based model without compensating for external acceleration, (2 the proposed KF-based model which employs the external acceleration compensation model, (3 the two-step KF using weighted-based switching approach, (4 the KF-based model which uses the threshold-based approach, and (5 the KF-based model which uses the threshold-based approach combined with a softened part approach. The proposed algorithm showed high effectiveness during the one-axis test. When the testing conditions employed multiple axes, the estimation accuracy increased using the proposed approach and exhibited external acceleration rejection at the right timing. The proposed algorithm has fewer parameters that need to be set at the expense of the sharpness of signal edge transition.

  15. Health Externalities and Heat savings in Energy System Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zvingilaite, Erika

    Energy consumption and production can cause air pollution with global impact, such as CO2, and local/regional air pollutants, such as SO2, NOx and PM2.5, as a result of fuel combustion. Use of fossil fuels leads to global CO2 emissions and causes global warming effects, regardless place or height......-related external costs can be internalised, for instance, in energy system modelling. External costs of global warming and human health damage can be of comparable magnitude.However, in contrast to global CO2 impacts, air pollution damage to human health depends on a number of factors, related to location...... and included in an energy system optimisation model. The performed analysis of the Danish heat and power sector concludes that accounting for spatial variation of health damage costs in heat and power system optimisation model has an effect on the optimal technology mix and distribution of energy plants among...

  16. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  17. Measuring Air Force Contracting Customer Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT MEASURING AIR FORCE CONTRACTING CUSTOMER SATISFACTION ...... satisfaction elements should be included in a standardized tool that measures the level of customer satisfaction for AF Contracting’s external and

  18. Temporomandibular joint movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, M.; Itou, S.; Ishii, Y.; Yamamoto, K.; Kawamura, Y.; Matsuda, T.; Hayashi, N.; Ishii, J.

    1992-01-01

    Ten temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of 5 healthy volunteers and 19 TMJs of internal derangements in 16 patients with splint therapy were examined with MR imaging. T1-weighted images were obtained only in the closed mouth position, and gradient recalled acquisition in steady state (GRASS) images were obtained in active opening and closing phases, allowing a pseudodynamic display of TMJ movement. All patients received protrusive splint treatment. The usefulness of MR imaging to assess the efficacy of splint therapy was evaluated. Corrected disk position with the splint in place was clearly demonstrated in 9 TMJs, corresponding with elimination of reciprocal clicking. Ten other TMJs of anterior disk displacement without reduction showed uncorrected disk position by the splint. This information could confirm the therapeutic efficacy, or suggest other treatment alternatives. GRASS MR imaging can provide accurate and physiologic information about disk function in initial and follow-up assessment of protrusive splint therapy. (orig.)

  19. Tracking the Poster Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Hjorth

    2015-01-01

    Summary: This article considers the display of posters as a distinctive activity and defining aspect of British modernism between the two wars, looking to a cardinal event, the Exhibition of British and Foreign Posters at the Victoria and Albert Museum in 1931. This manifestation was the first...... in the Museum to expose the poster-image as a medium in its own artistic, technical, historical and popular right; the article examines the event as a sign holding core characteristics of a ‘poster movement’ prevailing during the interwar years. The period made a varied scene for exhibitions promoting...... commercial and graphic design of various kinds of which British and Foreign Posters offers a particularly rich example. The exhibition attracted commercial, artistic and curatorial forces substantiating the idea of a movement, and approached commercial art from a perspective that raised new awareness towards...

  20. The Circular Camera Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lennard Højbjerg

    2014-01-01

    It has been an accepted precept in film theory that specific stylistic features do not express specific content. Nevertheless, it is possible to find many examples in the history of film in which stylistic features do express specific content: for instance, the circular camera movement is used...... repeatedly to convey the feeling of a man and a woman falling in love. This raises the question of why producers and directors choose certain stylistic features to narrate certain categories of content. Through the analysis of several short film and TV clips, this article explores whether...... or not there are perceptual aspects related to specific stylistic features that enable them to be used for delimited narrational purposes. The article further attempts to reopen this particular stylistic debate by exploring the embodied aspects of visual perception in relation to specific stylistic features...

  1. Material and Affective Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lisa Rosén

    2014-01-01

    . The chapter traces the former pupil’s memories of physical and affective movements within the larger context of school and discovers surprisingly diverse modes of knowing, relating, and attending to things, teachers and classmates among and between the three generations. It thus taps into the rich realms...... of individual experiences of school and everyday school life as it unfolds in and beyond the formal teaching situations. The chapter follows in the wake of a growing attention to the aspects of everyday life and lived life at school in the history of education. It also develops tools for and demonstrates how...... the use of spoken memories is a rewarding source for the writing about school from the pupils’ perspective....

  2. External conference: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 - Tél : 022 379 62 73 - Fax: 022 379 69 92 Monday 11 June 2007 COLLOQUE DE LA SECTION DE PHYSIQUE at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium The CERN Axion Solar Telescope (CAST). Motivation, concept, results and potential implications Prof. Konstantin ZIOUTAS / University of Patras/Greece & CERN and CAST-spokesperson Axion is one of the leading dark matter particle candidates. The last few years axion searches are in the spotlight. The physics motivation will be presented. Particles like the axions should be produced also in Stars like our Sun. In magnetic fields axions can coherently oscillate to photons and vice versa (Primakoff effect). CAST searches for solar axions pointing a recycled LHC magnet towards the Sun, and, it provides new results since 2002. Its working principle might well be already at work in outer space, asking for an alternative, though exotic, point of view for certain myst...

  3. External conference: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 13 December 2006 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs - Stückelberg Auditorium Radiation Tolerant Sensors for Solid State Tracking Detectors by Dr Michael MOLL / CERN The envisaged upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN towards the Super-LHC (SLHC) with a 10 times increased luminosity of 1035 cm2 s-1 will present severe challenges for the tracking detectors of the SLHC experiments. Unprecedented high radiation levels and track densities and a reduced bunch crossing time in the order of 10 ns as well as the need for cost effective detectors have called for an intensive R&D program. The CERN RD50 collaboration 'Development of Radiation Hard Semiconductor Devices for Very High Luminosity Colliders' is working on the development of semiconductor sensors matching the requirements of the SLHC. Sensors based on defect engineered silic...

  4. Discovering frequently recurring movement sequences in team-sport athlete spatiotemporal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeting, Alice J; Aughey, Robert J; Cormack, Stuart J; Morgan, Stuart

    2017-12-01

    Athlete external load is typically analysed from predetermined movement thresholds. The combination of movement sequences and differences in these movements between playing positions is also currently unknown. This study developed a method to discover the frequently recurring movement sequences across playing position during matches. The external load of 12 international female netball athletes was collected by a local positioning system during four national-level matches. Velocity, acceleration and angular velocity were calculated from positional (X, Y) data, clustered via one-dimensional k-means and assigned a unique alphabetic label. Combinations of velocity, acceleration and angular velocity movement were compared using the Levenshtein distance and similarities computed by the longest common substring problem. The contribution of each movement sequence, according to playing position and relative to the wider data set, was then calculated via the Minkowski distance. A total of 10 frequently recurring combinations of movement were discovered, regardless of playing position. Only the wing attack, goal attack and goal defence playing positions are closely related. We developed a technique to discover the movement sequences, according to playing position, performed by elite netballers. This methodology can be extended to discover the frequently recurring movements within other team sports and across levels of competition.

  5. Clinical features of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    The descriptive aspects of all types of movement disorders and their related syndromes and terminologies used in the literature are reviewed and described. This comprises the features of (a) movement disorders secondary to neurological diseases affecting the extrapyramidal motor system, such as: athetosis, chorea, dystonia, hemiballismus, myoclonus, tremor, tics and spasm, (b) drug induced movement disorders, such as: akathisia, akinesia, hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, extrapyramidal syndrome, and tardive dyskinesia, and (c) abnormal movements in psychiatric disorders, such as: mannerism, stereotyped behaviour and psychomotor retardation. It is intended to bring about a more comprehensive overview of these movement disorders from a phenomenological perspective, so that clinicians can familiarize with these features for diagnosis. Some general statements are made in regard to some of the characteristics of movement disorders.

  6. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR as a Neurorehabilitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available   A variety of nervous system components such as medulla, pons, midbrain, cerebellum, basal ganglia, parietal, frontal and occipital lobes have role in Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR processes. The eye movement is done simultaneously for attracting client's attention to an external stimulus while concentrating on a certain internal subject. Eye movement guided by therapist is the most common attention stimulus. The role of eye movement has been documented previously in relation with cognitive processing mechanisms. A series of systemic experiments have shown that the eyes’ spontaneous movement is associated with emotional and cognitive changes and results in decreased excitement, flexibility in attention, memory processing, and enhanced semantic recalling. Eye movement also decreases the memory's image clarity and the accompanying excitement. By using EMDR, we can reach some parts of memory which were inaccessible before and also emotionally intolerable. Various researches emphasize on the effectiveness of EMDR in treating and curing phobias, pains, and dependent personality disorders. Consequently, due to the involvement of multiple neural system components, this palliative method of treatment can also help to rehabilitate the neuro-cognitive system.

  7. External coating of colonic anastomoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Achiam, Michael Patrick; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Colon anastomotic leakage remains both a frequent and serious complication in gastrointestinal surgery. External coating of colonic anastomoses has been proposed as a means to lower the rate of this complication. The aim of this review was to evaluate existing studies on external coating of colonic...

  8. Retrofitting Systems for External Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    In this report, 9 different external and internal retrofitting systems are analyzed using numerical calculations. The analysis focuses on the thermal bridge effects in the different systems, and on this basis it is discussed whether internal or external retrofitting has the most advantages...

  9. Normal Movement Selectivity in Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Dinstein, Ilan; Thomas, Cibu; Humphreys, Kate; Minshew, Nancy; Behrmann, Marlene; Heeger, David J.

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that individuals with autism have difficulties understanding the goals and intentions of others because of a fundamental dysfunction in the mirror neuron system. Here, however, we show that individuals with autism exhibited not only normal fMRI responses in mirror system areas during observation and execution of hand movements, but also exhibited typical movement-selective adaptation (repetition suppression) when observing or executing the same movement repeatedly. Moveme...

  10. Modeling of heat and momentum exchanges at walls for simulation of air movements in ventilated rooms. Evaluation propositions for professionals; Methodes de calcul des echanges aux parois pour la simulation des ecoulements d'air dans les locaux. Evaluation et propositions pour l'industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dondainas, N

    1998-07-01

    This study concerns the calculation methods relative to wall heat transfers in the simulation of air flows inside rooms. Today, there is a real need for a low cost predictive and reliable tool for the prediction of air flows inside buildings or air-conditioned rooms. However, the validity of results is highly dependent to the models used, in particular for the heat and pulse exchanges on walls. This study comprises 3 parts. The first part concerns the convective exchanges. An evaluation of 5 wall turbulence models is made (logarithmic functions model, non-equilibrium model, two-layers model, Lam and Bremhorst low-Reynolds model and modified Lam model). Comparison with experiment is performed on two test cases of the literature: the Cheesewright cavity in natural convection and the Blay cavity in mixed convection. A particular attention is paid to the mesh dependence of results and to the convergence of calculations. The second part concerns the radiant heat transfers between the walls of a room. A new method, called scale change method, is developed for the evaluation of radiant transfers. This method generalizes the fictive cell and radiosity methods. The energy conservation and exchange reciprocity principles are respected. The new method is not a zonal but a field method because net radiant fluxes calculated for each cell wall are variable (the walls are not isothermal). An evaluation of three methods is performed (ray tracing, fictive cell, and the new method) on 4 test cases in 2-D and 3-D geometry with and without mask effect. A particular attention is paid to the processing cost. The third part deals with the study of a real scale atrium. Three air-conditioning configurations are studied. An important part of the study concerns the convection-radiation coupling. Its advantage is to reject the boundary conditions outside the room. (J.S.)

  11. Performance Targets and External Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ivar; Hansen, Allan; Vámosi, Tamás S.

    Research on relative performance measures, transfer pricing, beyond budgeting initiatives, target costing, piece rates systems and value based management has for decades underlined the importance of external benchmarking in performance management. Research conceptualises external benchmarking...... as a market mechanism that can be brought inside the firm to provide incentives for continuous improvement and the development of competitive advances. However, whereas extant research primarily has focused on the importance and effects of using external benchmarks, less attention has been directed towards...... the conditions upon which the market mechanism is performing within organizations. This paper aims to contribute to research by providing more insight to the conditions for the use of external benchmarking as an element in performance management in organizations. Our study explores a particular type of external...

  12. Malignant external otitis: CT evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtin, H.D.; Wolfe, P.; May, M.

    1982-01-01

    Malignant external otitis is an aggressive infection caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that most often occurs in elderly diabetics. Malignant external otitis often spreads inferiorly from the external canal to involve the subtemporal area and progresses medially towards the petrous apex leading to multiple cranial nerve palsies. The computed tomographic (CT) findings in malignant external otitis include obliteration of the normal fat planes in the subtemporal area as well as patchy destruction of the bony cortex of the mastoid. The point of exit of the various cranial nerves can be identified on CT scans, and the extent of the inflammatory mass correlates well with the clinical findings. Four cases of malignant external otitis are presented. In each case CT provided a good demonstration of involvement of the soft tissues at the base of the skull

  13. The Explanatory Range of Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Drawing a distinction between systemic and functional explanations of movement in general, I shall argue that the Chomskyan view of movement in language is originally functional. With the advent of the Minimimalist Program, however, it has become systemic, but no argument for this change has been...... forthcoming. I'll then present data (from Danish) to sustain the view that only functional type explanations of movement can be empirically motivated, and these only if movement is reinterpreted as transition states between representations of different kinds....

  14. Bewitched - The Tea Party Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    2011-01-01

    This article considers the development of the Tea Party movement, the character of its thinking and the nature of the interests and constituencies to which it is tied. The article suggests that despite the importance of ideas and interests, and the process of interaction between them, the movement....... The political friction that this creates has contributed to the anger that has characterised the movement. While the Tea Party movement may, as such, have only an ephemeral existence, independent conservatives are likely to remain a significant and potent constituency and will, within the institutional...

  15. The random walk model of intrafraction movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballhausen, H; Reiner, M; Kantz, S; Belka, C; Söhn, M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intrafraction movement as a stochastic process driven by random external forces. The hypothetically proposed three-dimensional random walk model has significant impact on optimal PTV margins and offers a quantitatively correct explanation of experimental findings. Properties of the random walk are calculated from first principles, in particular fraction-average population density distributions for displacements along the principal axes. When substituted into the established optimal margin recipes these fraction-average distributions yield safety margins about 30% smaller as compared to the suggested values from end-of-fraction Gaussian fits. Stylized facts of a random walk are identified in clinical data, such as the increase of the standard deviation of displacements with the square root of time. Least squares errors in the comparison to experimental results are reduced by about 50% when accounting for non-Gaussian corrections from the random walk model. (paper)

  16. The random walk model of intrafraction movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballhausen, H; Reiner, M; Kantz, S; Belka, C; Söhn, M

    2013-04-07

    The purpose of this paper is to understand intrafraction movement as a stochastic process driven by random external forces. The hypothetically proposed three-dimensional random walk model has significant impact on optimal PTV margins and offers a quantitatively correct explanation of experimental findings. Properties of the random walk are calculated from first principles, in particular fraction-average population density distributions for displacements along the principal axes. When substituted into the established optimal margin recipes these fraction-average distributions yield safety margins about 30% smaller as compared to the suggested values from end-of-fraction gaussian fits. Stylized facts of a random walk are identified in clinical data, such as the increase of the standard deviation of displacements with the square root of time. Least squares errors in the comparison to experimental results are reduced by about 50% when accounting for non-gaussian corrections from the random walk model.

  17. Movement Matters: Observing the Benefits of Movement Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Melani Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Montessori's first premise is that movement and cognition are closely entwined, and movement can enhance thinking and learning (Lillard, 2005). Children must move, and practice moving, to develop strength, balance, and the stability needed to fully participate in the rigors of daily life. It is imperative for young children's motor…

  18. Social-movement analysis of the American antinuclear movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladd, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Utilizing data from a survey of participants at the May 6, 1979 antinuclear rally in Washington, DC (N = 420), this dissertation explored some of the major structural and ideological characteristics of the American Antinuclear Movement. By organizing the data around three of the key analytical concepts in the study of social movements - mobilization, recruitment, and ideology - the author was able to derive from the demonstration sample a descriptive and illustrative analysis of those individuals, organizations, and processes involved in the national antinuclear crusade. Given that few researchers have actively studied the antinuclear movement beyond the scope of local or regional protests, this work constitutes the only empirical study to date examining a cross section of the movement's participants from a sociological perspective. It is also one of the few attempts to use a national demonstration as a social laboratory for the study of a social movement in general. In terms of the mobilization variables examined in the study, it was found that organizational networks, past movement activism, and individual resources were important factors in the May 6 mobilization effort. While less than one-half of the demonstrators were part of the antinuclear organizational network per se, most of them had been active in the major protest movements of the 1960's and 1970's. The demonstrators were relatively high in socio-economic resources and had occupational or educational schedules conducive to creating the necessary discretionary time for movement participation

  19. Do Activity Level Outcome Measures Commonly Used in Neurological Practice Assess Upper-Limb Movement Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marika; Levin, Mindy F

    2017-07-01

    Movement is described in terms of task-related end point characteristics in external space and movement quality (joint rotations in body space). Assessment of upper-limb (UL) movement quality can assist therapists in designing effective treatment approaches for retraining lost motor elements and provide more detailed measurements of UL motor improvements over time. To determine the extent to which current activity level outcome measures used in neurological practice assess UL movement quality. Outcome measures assessing arm/hand function at the International Classification of Function activity level recommended by neurological clinical practice guidelines were reviewed. Measures assessing the UL as part of a general mobility assessment, those strictly evaluating body function/structure or participation, and paediatric measures were excluded. In all, 15 activity level outcome measures were identified; 9 measures assess how movement is performed by measuring either end point characteristics or movement quality. However, except for the Reaching Performance Scale for Stroke and the Motor Evaluation Scale for Upper Extremity in Stroke Patients, these measures only account for deficits indirectly by giving a partial score if movements are slower or if the person experiences difficulties. Six outcome measures neither assess any parameters related to movement quality, nor distinguish between improvements resulting from motor compensation or recovery of desired movement strategies. Current activity measures may not distinguish recovery from compensation and adequately track changes in movement quality over time. Movement quality may be incorporated into clinical assessment using observational kinematics with or without low-cost motion tracking technology.

  20. Indoor air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.H.

    2001-01-01

    Indoor air pollution is a potential risk to human health. Prolonged exposure to indoor pollutants may cause various infectious, allergic and other diseases. Indoor pollutants can emanate from a broad array of internal and external sources. Internal sources include building and furnishing materials, consumer and commercial products, office equipment, micro-organisms, pesticides and human occupants activities. External sources include soil, water supplies and outside makeup air. The main indoor air pollutants of concern are inorganic gases, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, pesticides, radon and its daughters, particulates and microbes. The magnitude of human exposure to indoor pollutants can be estimated or predicted with the help of mathematical models which have been developed using the data from source emission testing and field monitoring of pollutants. In order to minimize human exposure to indoor pollutants, many countries have formulated guidelines / standards for the maximum permissible levels of main pollutants. Acceptable indoor air quality can be achieved by controlling indoor pollution sources and by effective ventilation system for removal of indoor pollutants. (author)

  1. Movement: How the Brain Communicates with the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Andrew B

    2016-03-10

    Voluntary movement is a result of signals transmitted through a communication channel that links the internal world in our minds to the physical world around us. Intention can be considered the desire to effect change on our environment, and this is contained in the signals from the brain, passed through the nervous system to converge on muscles that generate displacements and forces on our surroundings. The resulting changes in the world act to generate sensations that feed back to the nervous system, closing the control loop. This Perspective discusses the experimental and theoretical underpinnings of current models of movement generation and the way they are modulated by external information. Movement systems embody intentionality and prediction, two factors that are propelling a revolution in engineering. Development of movement models that include the complexities of the external world may allow a better understanding of the neuronal populations regulating these processes, as well as the development of solutions for autonomous vehicles and robots, and neural prostheses for those who are motor impaired. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison between Different Air Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of an air conditioning system is to remove excess heat in a room and replace room air with fresh air to obtain a high air quality. It is not sufficient to remove heat and contaminated air, it is also necessary to distribute and control the air movement in the room to create thermal comfort...... in the occupied zone. Most air distribution systems are based on mixing ventilation with ceiling or wall-mounted diffusers or on displacement ventilation with wall-mounted low velocity diffusers. New principles for room air distribution were introduced during the last decades, as the textile terminals mounted...... in the ceiling and radial diffusers with swirling flow also mounted in the ceiling. This paper addresses five air distribution systems in all, namely mixing ventilation from a wallmounted terminal, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser, mixing ventilation from a ceiling-mounted diffuser...

  3. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Sieverts Nielsen, P.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs

  4. External costs related to power production technologies. ExternE national implementation for Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Sieverts Nielsen, P

    1997-12-01

    The objective of the ExternE National Implementation project has been to establish a comprehensive and comparable set of data on externalities of power generation for all EU member states and Norway. The tasks include the application of the ExternE methodology to the most important fuel cycles for each country as well as to update the already existing results; to aggregate these site- and technology-specific results to more general figures. The current report covers the results of the national implementation for Denmark. Three different fuel cycles have been chosen as case studies. These are fuel cycles for an offshore wind farm and a wind farm on land, a decentralised CHP plant based on natural gas and a decentralised CHP plant based on biogas. The report covers all the details of the application of the methodology to these fuel cycles aggregation to a national level. (au) EU-JOULE 3. 59 tabs., 25 ills., 61 refs.

  5. DISTRACTION EXTERNAL FIXATIONS OF PELVIC FRACTURES CAUSED BY A LATERAL COMPRESSION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlin Apostolov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors represent a distraction external pelvic fixation technique, which they use in pelvic fractures caused by a lateral compression. They consider the indications and mounting techniques. The authors recommend the early movement activities (on the 3rd - 5th day after the external fixator placement. This method had been used in 8 patients and 3 cases are analyzed in details. The priority of this technique over open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF mainly are: (1 the implementation of good reduction of the fracture preventing the risk of ORIF; (2 the possibility for early movement activities for the patient.

  6. Children's learning of tennis skills is facilitated by external focus instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Hadler

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of instructions promoting external versus internal foci of attention on the learning of a tennis forehand stroke in 11-year old children. Three groups of participants practiced hitting tennis balls at a target. External focus group participants were instructed to direct their attention to the movement of the racquet, while participants in the internal focus group were asked to direct their attention to the movements of their arm. Participants in a control group did not receive attentional focus instructions. Two days after the practice phase (60 trials, learning was assessed in retention and transfer tests. The results showed that the external focus group demonstrated greater accuracy in hitting a target relative to the two other groups in retention, and relative to the internal focus group in transfer. We conclude that instructions inducing an external focus of attention can enhance children's sport skill learning.

  7. External effects in Swiss hydropower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauenstein, W.; Bonvin, J.; Vouillamoz, J.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the external costs and benefits of hydropower that are not internalised in normal book-keeping. Several negative and positive effects are discussed. The results of a study that addressed the difficult task of quantifying these external effects are presented. An assessment of the results gained shows that difficulties are to be met regarding system limits, methods of expressing the effects in monetary terms and ethical factors. The report also examines the consideration of external effects as a correction factor for falsified market prices for electricity

  8. Spatial memory and animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F; Lewis, Mark A; Auger-Méthé, Marie; Avgar, Tal; Benhamou, Simon; Breed, Greg; LaDage, Lara; Schlägel, Ulrike E; Tang, Wen-wu; Papastamatiou, Yannis P; Forester, James; Mueller, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Memory is critical to understanding animal movement but has proven challenging to study. Advances in animal tracking technology, theoretical movement models and cognitive sciences have facilitated research in each of these fields, but also created a need for synthetic examination of the linkages between memory and animal movement. Here, we draw together research from several disciplines to understand the relationship between animal memory and movement processes. First, we frame the problem in terms of the characteristics, costs and benefits of memory as outlined in psychology and neuroscience. Next, we provide an overview of the theories and conceptual frameworks that have emerged from behavioural ecology and animal cognition. Third, we turn to movement ecology and summarise recent, rapid developments in the types and quantities of available movement data, and in the statistical measures applicable to such data. Fourth, we discuss the advantages and interrelationships of diverse modelling approaches that have been used to explore the memory-movement interface. Finally, we outline key research challenges for the memory and movement communities, focusing on data needs and mathematical and computational challenges. We conclude with a roadmap for future work in this area, outlining axes along which focused research should yield rapid progress. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Eye Movements in Gaze Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllenbach, Emilie; Hansen, John Paulin; Lillholm, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaze as a sole input modality must support complex navigation and selection tasks. Gaze interaction combines specific eye movements and graphic display objects (GDOs). This paper suggests a unifying taxonomy of gaze interaction principles. The taxonomy deals with three types of eye movements...

  10. Compensatory eye movements in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. van Alphen (Arjan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis will address the generation of compensatory eye movements in naturally mutated or genetically modified mice. The reason for generating compensatory eye movements is solely related to the requirements for good vision. In a subject moving through its environment the projection

  11. Movement Patterns in Educational Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehm, Matthias; Christensen, Bianca Clavio; Nielsen, Thorsten B.

    2018-01-01

    Although movement is essential in location-based games to get from one point of interest to the next, it is seldom taken into account for the game design and the selection of locations. Instead, player movement is usually analyzed after the fact, i.e. when the game is ready to play. In this paper......-based educational games....

  12. Music and Movement. Beginnings Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cindy; Moore, Thomas; Carlton, Elizabeth B.; Kranowitz, Carol Stock

    2000-01-01

    Four articles address music and movement in early childhood education: (1) "For the Love of Music--and Children"(Cindy Smith); (2) "Music: The Great Connector" (Thomas Moore); (3) "Learning through Music: The Support of Brain Research" (Elizabeth B. Carlton); and (4) "Music and Movement Bring Together Children of…

  13. The ecological movement in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taccoen, L.B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The anti-nuclear movements in France are part of a broader movement which, following common usage, the author calls the Ecological Movement. In France, the movement can be divided into a fairly small politically oriented core, numerous and varied associations for the defence of the environment, and a number of consumer associations. The movement cannot be classified politically, which accounts for the attitude of the political parties - distrust of the ''ecologists'', but considerable interest in them as voters. Those with responsibility for power generation must explain to the population at large the energy problem and the importance of economic growth in raising wages and reducing unemployment. They must also explain why nuclear power generation is one of the safest technologies existing at present. (author)

  14. On Biometrics With Eye Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Youming; Juhola, Martti

    2017-09-01

    Eye movements are a relatively novel data source for biometric identification. When video cameras applied to eye tracking become smaller and more efficient, this data source could offer interesting opportunities for the development of eye movement biometrics. In this paper, we study primarily biometric identification as seen as a classification task of multiple classes, and secondarily biometric verification considered as binary classification. Our research is based on the saccadic eye movement signal measurements from 109 young subjects. In order to test the data measured, we use a procedure of biometric identification according to the one-versus-one (subject) principle. In a development from our previous research, which also involved biometric verification based on saccadic eye movements, we now apply another eye movement tracker device with a higher sampling frequency of 250 Hz. The results obtained are good, with correct identification rates at 80-90% at their best.

  15. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  16. Numerical study of the thermal and aerodynamic insulation of a cavity with a vertical downstream air jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mhiri, H.; El Golli, S. [Ecole Nationale d`Ingenieurs, Monastir (Tunisia). Lab. d`Energetique; Berthon, A.; Le Palec, G.; Bournot, P. [Technopole de Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France)

    1998-10-01

    Because of its numerous industrial applications (air conditioning, thermal insulation, behavior of fires), heat transfer in rectangular cavities has made the subject of many works which concern both theoretical numerical studies and experimental investigations. This work is devoted to a numerical approach of the laminar mixed convection in a cavity which one of the boundaries is materialized by a laminar vertical downstream air jet. The purpose is to analyze the interaction of this flow with the natural movement that grows in the cavity under the combined action of boundary thermal gradients and external medium of the cavity in order to examine thermal insulation qualities of the jet. Calculations have been made with the help of the finite volume method.

  17. Life-cycle analysis and external costs in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delucchi, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of greenhouse gas impacts in the US shows that against a baseline gasoline vehicle, the impact of including the full fuel cycle generally reduces the relative advantages of alternative transportation fuels. While a switch to diesel is estimated to save 30% as compared to gasoline, the savings from natural gas/LPG are (around 20%), for ethanol from corn (8%) and for battery electricity vehicles using power from coal (6%) are much smaller. This is largely due to the use of LCA rather than end-use comparisons. However, the results also show that there would be large savings from the use of ethanol from fuel cells using methanol (39%) or natural gas (50%), while ethanol from wood in a conventional engine appears to have the greatest savings (63%). In external costs of motor vehicle use, analysis results were presented for both air pollution and energy security impacts (including SPR, military expenditures, macro-economic costs and pecuniary costs) as well as water pollution, noise and congestion impacts. The results suggest that externalities amount to 1.2 US cents per mile travelled in gasoline powered vehicle. The most significant externality is related to air pollution. Costs associated with US defence, the SPR, and climate change are quite insignificant. The only other variable of significance is the impact on the economy, through the transfer of wealth outside the US (referred to as 'pecuniary externality') and the oil price shock impacts on the economy. A comparison of external costs and subsidies for different transportation modes in the US (gas or electric cars, transit bus, light rail, heavy rail) showed that subsidies available to public transit system greatly outweigh the benefit in reduced externalities avoided. In the comparison of social costs of transportation alternatives, differences in external cost, while not trivial, are outweighed by the differences in direct costs or in subsidies. (author)

  18. Control of external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Nasir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab Razak Hamzah; Abd Aziz Mohamed; Mohammad Pauzi Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The following subjects are discussed - Control of external radiation exposure: working time, working distance, shielding: Total Linear Attenuation Coefficient, Half-Value Layer (HVL), Tenth-Value Layer (TVL); Build-up Factor

  19. Ipsilateral wrist-ankle movements in the sagittal plane encoded in extrinsic reference frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Tetsuro; Ishida, Yuki; Obu, Takashi; Crawshaw, Larry; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2013-04-01

    When performing oscillatory movements of two joints in the sagittal plane, there is a directional constraint for performing such movements. Previous studies could not distinguish whether the directional constraint reflected movement direction encoded in the extrinsic (outside the body) reference frame or in the intrinsic (the participants' torso/head) reference frame since participants performed coordinated movements in a sitting position where the torso/head was stationary relative to the external world. In order to discern the reference frame in the present study, participants performed paced oscillatory movements of the ipsilateral wrist and ankle in the sagittal plane in a standing position so that the torso/head moved relative to the external world. The coordinated movements were performed in one of two modes of coordination, moving the hand upward concomitant with either ankle plantarflexion or ankle dorsiflexion. The same directional mode relative to extrinsic space was more stable and accurate as compared with the opposite directional mode. When forearm position was changed from the pronated position to the supinated position, similar results were obtained, indicating that the results were independent of a particular coupling of muscles. These findings suggest that the directional constraint on ipsilateral joints movements in the sagittal plane reflects movement direction encoded in the extrinsic reference frame. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Externalities of energy. Swedish implementation of the ExternE methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans; Gullberg, M.

    1998-01-01

    The growing interest for developing economic instruments for efficient environmental policies has opened up a large area of multi-disciplinary research. ExternE is an example of this research, combining disciplines such as engineering, ecology, immunology and economics expertise to create new knowledge about how environmental pressures from energy production affect our nature and society. The ExternE Project aims to identify and, as far as possible quantify the externalities of energy production in Europe. The Stockholm Environment Institute has carried out a preliminary aggregation: -Coal Fuel Cycle: centred around Vaesteraas Kraftvaermeverk, Vaesteraas. This is the largest co-generation plant in Sweden, with four blocks and a maximum co-generation output of 520 MW electricity and 950 MW heat. The analysis is carried out on boiler B4. -Biomass Fuel Cycle: centred around Haendeloeverket, Norrkoeping. This plant predominately burns forestry residues, but a variety of fuels are combusted. Haendeloeverket has an installed capacity of 100 MW electricity and 375 MW heat, in a total of three boilers and two back-pressure turbines. The analysis is carried out on boiler P13. -Hydro Fuel Cycle: Klippens Kraftstation, Storuman. Built in 1990-1994, it is the youngest hydro power station in Sweden. It has been designed and built with significant efforts to account for and protect environmental values. Installed capacity is 28 MW. The environmental impact assessment from the construction of this plant is carried out, but the evaluation is still not finalized. The preliminary aggregation aimed to test whether ExternE results could be used to make estimates for the entire Swedish electricity production system. Hence, national results as well as results from other partner countries in ExternE has been applied

  1. Conceptual challenges for internalising externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miguel, Brandão; Weidema, Bo Pedersen

    2013-01-01

    We analyse a number of different externalities to identify conceptual challenges for the practical implementation of their internalisation. Three issues were identified: i) The balance between compensation and technology change and the respective effects on the nominal and real GDP; ii...... geographical and especially temporal distance between the benefitting actor and the victim of the external cost, the involvement of a non-governmental intermediate actor becomes increasingly necessary to provide the short-term capital required to ensure a successful implementation....

  2. Parallel External Memory Graph Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars Allan; Goodrich, Michael T.; Sitchinava, Nodari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study parallel I/O efficient graph algorithms in the Parallel External Memory (PEM) model, one o f the private-cache chip multiprocessor (CMP) models. We study the fundamental problem of list ranking which leads to efficient solutions to problems on trees, such as computing lowest...... an optimal speedup of ¿(P) in parallel I/O complexity and parallel computation time, compared to the single-processor external memory counterparts....

  3. Internal hiring or external recruitment?

    OpenAIRE

    DeVaro, Jed

    2016-01-01

    Hiring is one of a firm’s most important decisions. When an employer fills a vacancy with one of its own workers (through promotion or lateral transfer), it forgoes the opportunity to fill the position with a new hire from outside the firm. Although both internal and external hiring methods are used, firms frequently have a bias favoring insiders. Internal and external hires differ in observable characteristics (such as skill levels), as do the employers making each type of hiring decision. U...

  4. Light source characterization and air movement under CIE S 025

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Bergen, A. S. J.

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) published the standard CIE S 025/E:2015 Test Method for LED Lamps, LED Luminaires and LED Modules. This document contains a number of standard test conditions, including laboratory room preparation, environmental and electrical provisions...

  5. The effect of external electron injection and the environment composition on development of atmospheric discharge investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogachenkov, V.A.; Oginov, A.V.; Chajkovskij, S.A.; Shpakov, K.V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of external electron injection (with energy about 150 keV) on initial phase development of the high-voltage (1.0-1.2 MV) long (500-700 mm) gas discharge is investigated. The experiments were conducted in atmospheric pressure air and in a mixture of air and water droplet phase [ru

  6. Movement disorders in hereditary ataxias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ruiz, Pedro J; Mayo, David; Hernandez, Jaime; Cantarero, Susana; Ayuso, Carmen

    2002-10-15

    Movement disorders are well known features of some dominant hereditary ataxias (HA), specially SCA3/Machado-Joseph disease and dentatorubropallidolusyan atrophy. However, little is known about the existence and classification of movement disorders in other dominant and recessive ataxias. We prospectively studied the presence of movement disorders in patients referred for HA over the last 3 years. Only those patients with a confirmed family history of ataxia were included. We studied 84 cases of HA, including 46 cases of recessive and 38 cases of dominant HA. Thirty out of 46 cases of recessive HA could be classified as: Friedreich ataxia (FA), 29 cases; vitamin E deficiency, 1 case. Twenty-three out of 38 cases of dominant HA could be classified as: SCA 2, 4 cases; SCA 3, 8 cases; SCA 6, 4 cases; SCA 7, 6 cases and SCA 8, 1 case. We observed movement disorders in 20/38 (52%) patients with dominant HA and 25/46 (54%) cases with recessive HA, including 16 patients (16/29) with FA. In general, postural tremor was the most frequent observed movement disorder (27 cases), followed by dystonia (22 cases). Five patients had akinetic rigid syndrome, and in 13 cases, several movement disorders coexisted. Movement disorders are frequent findings in HA, not only in dominant HA but also in recessive HA. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  7. Does the cerebellum initiate movement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thach, W T

    2014-02-01

    Opinion is divided on what the exact function of the cerebellum is. Experiments are summarized that support the following views: (1) the cerebellum is a combiner of multiple movement factors; (2) it contains anatomically fixed permanent focal representation of individual body parts (muscles and segments) and movement modes (e.g., vestibular driven vs. cognitive driven); (3) it contains flexible changing representations/memory of physical properties of the body parts including muscle strength, segment inertia, joint viscosity, and segmental interaction torques (dynamics); (4) it contains mechanisms for learning and storage of the properties in item no. 3 through trial-and-error practice; (5) it provides for linkage of body parts, motor modes, and motordynamics via the parallel fiber system; (6) it combines and integrates the many factors so as to initiate coordinated movements of the many body parts; (7) it is thus enabled to play the unique role of initiating coordinated movements; and (8) this unique causative role is evidenced by the fact that: (a) electrical stimulation of the cerebellum can initiate compound coordinated movements; (b) in naturally initiated compound movements, cerebellar discharge precedes that in downstream target structures such as motor cerebral cortex; and (c) cerebellar ablation abolishes the natural production of compound movements in the awake alert individuals.

  8. Design, Sensing and Control of a Robotic Prosthetic Eye for Natural Eye Movement

    OpenAIRE

    J. J. Gu; M. Meng; A. Cook; P. X. Liu

    2006-01-01

    Loss of an eye is a tragedy for a person, who may suffer psychologically and physically. This paper is concerned with the design, sensing and control of a robotic prosthetic eye that moves horizontally in synchronization with the movement of the natural eye. Two generations of robotic prosthetic eye models have been developed. The first generation model uses an external infrared sensor array mounted on the frame of a pair of eyeglasses to detect the natural eye movement and to feed the contro...

  9. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J{sub 2}/He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated.

  10. Containment atmosphere response to external sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J.; Almenas, K.

    1995-01-01

    The application of external sprays to a containment steel shell can be an effective energy removal method and has been proposed in the passive AP-600 design. Reduction of the steel shell temperature in contact with the containment atmosphere enhances both heat and mass transfer driving forces. Large scale experimental data in this area is scarce, therefore the measurements obtained from the E series tests conducted at the German HDR facility deserve special attention. These long term tests simulated various severe accident conditions, including external spraying of the hemispherical steel shell. This investigation focuses upon the integral response of the HDR containment atmosphere during spray periods and upon methods by which lumped parameter system codes, like CONTAIN, model the underlying condensation phenomena. Increases in spray water flowrates above a minimum value were ineffective at improving containment pressure reduction since the limiting resistance for energy transfer lies in the noncondensable-vapor boundary layer at the inner condensing surface. The spray created an unstable condition by cooling the upper layers of a heated atmosphere and thus inducing global natural circulation flows in the facility and subsequently, abrupt changes in lighter-than-air noncondensable (J 2 /He) concentrations. Modeling results using the CONTAIN code are outlined and code limitations are delineated

  11. Jellyfish movement data - Determining Movement Patterns of Jellyfish

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is to determine horizontal and vertical movement patterns of two jellyfish species in Hood Canal, in relation to environmental variables. It is being...

  12. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  13. Special section on biomimetics of movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Federico; Erb, Rainer; Jeronimidis, George

    2011-12-01

    Movement in biology is an essential aspect of survival for many organisms, animals and plants. Implementing movement efficiently to meet specific needs is a key attribute of natural living systems, and can provide ideas for man-made developments. If we had to find a subtitle able to essentially convey the aim of this special section, it could read as follows: 'taking inspiration from nature for new materials, actuators, structures and controls for systems that move'. Our world is characterized by a huge variety of technical, engineering systems that move. They surround us in countless products that integrate actuators for different kinds of purposes. Basically, any kind of mechatronic system, such as those used for consumer products, machines, vehicles, industrial systems, robots, etc, is based on one or more devices that move, according to different implementations and motion ranges, often in response to external and internal stimuli. Despite this, technical solutions to develop systems that move do not evolve very quickly as they rely on traditional and well consolidated actuation technologies, which are implemented according to known architectures and with established materials. This fact limits our capability to overcome challenges related to the needs continuously raised by new fields of application, either at small or at large scales. Biomimetics-based approaches may provide innovative thinking and technologies in the field, taking inspiration from nature for smart and effective solutions. In an effort to disseminate current advances in this field, this special section collects some papers that cover different topics. A brief synopsis of the content of each contribution is presented below. The first paper, by Lienhard et al [1], deals with bioinspiration for the realization of structural parts in systems that passively move. It presents a bioinspired hingeless flapping mechanism, considered as a solution to the kinematics of deployable systems for

  14. Approaches in estimation of external cost for fuel cycles in the ExternE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, A.A.; Maksimenko, B.N.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes, content and main results of studies realized within the frameworks of the International Project ExternE which is the first comprehensive attempt to develop general approach to estimation of external cost for different fuel cycles based on utilization of nuclear and fossil fuels, as well as on renewable power sources are discussed. The external cost of a fuel cycle is treated as social and environmental expenditures which are not taken into account by energy producers and consumers, i.e. these are expenditures not included into commercial cost nowadays. The conclusion on applicability of the approach suggested for estimation of population health hazards and environmental impacts connected with electric power generation growth (expressed in money or some other form) is made

  15. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  16. Ontario freight movement study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-11-01

    The freight (cargo) transportation sector accounts for a major use of fossil fuels and contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. A study was conducted to estimate and forecast emissions from transportation in Ontario, by mode, over the next 15 years, and to examine ways in which those emissions could be reduced. Published data of freight transportation industries was used to examine the fuel consumption characteristics of each mode, followed by a review of emission rates. It was determined that truck transportation accounts for most CO 2 emissions (about 70%). Rail follows with 21% and the marine and air modes contribute relatively small shares (6% and 2%). New intermodal technologies being introduced by the railways were discussed. They have been designed to make intermodal transport more accessible to a wider segment of the freight market. A recommendation was made which would require all truck shipments over 500 km, accounting for fully one half of truck tonne-km, to have their line-haul component diverted to this new more fuel-efficient mode (i.e., from truck to rail). refs., tabs., figs

  17. Suggestions for removing operational faults in air filter plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochs, H J

    1980-11-01

    Air filters are expected to achieve certain performances within their duty, viz. to precipitate air-alien matter in the air stream, the results of which will have to be checked. As a number of external influences affect the function of the air filter and, therefore, may alter the pre-defined data, checking should not only cover the air filter but also the other parts of the ventilating plant, to assure a faultless continuous operation.

  18. The correlation between internal and external markers for abdominal tumors: Implications for respiratory gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierga, David P.; Brewer, Johanna; Sharp, Gregory C.; Betke, Margrit; Willett, Christopher G.; Chen, George T.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The correlation of the respiratory motion of external patient markers and abdominal tumors was examined. Data of this type are important for image-guided therapy techniques, such as respiratory gating, that monitor the movement of external fiducials. Methods and Materials: Fluoroscopy sessions for 4 patients with internal, radiopaque tumor fiducial clips were analyzed by computer vision techniques. The motion of the internal clips and the external markers placed on the patient's abdominal skin surface were quantified and correlated. Results: In general, the motion of the tumor and external markers were well correlated. The maximum amount of peak-to-peak craniocaudal tumor motion was 2.5 cm. The ratio of tumor motion to external-marker motion ranged from 0.85 to 7.1. The variation in tumor position for a given external-marker position ranged from 2 to 9 mm. The period of the breathing cycle ranged from 2.7 to 4.5 seconds, and the frequency patterns for both the tumor and the external markers were similar. Conclusions: Although tumor motion generally correlated well with external fiducial marker motion, relatively large underlying tumor motion can occur compared with external-marker motion and variations in the tumor position for a given marker position. Treatment margins should be determined on the basis of a detailed understanding of tumor motion, as opposed to relying only on external-marker information

  19. Influence of furnishing on indoor airflow near external walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lone Hedegaard; Rode, Carsten; Peuhkuri, Ruut

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of indoor environments in buildings are usually performed assuming uniform distribution of temperature and humidity of the indoor air, such as it would be in an idealised unfurnished room. The flow patterns near external walls may however be very different from the undisturbed airflow...... distributions, as the walls behind furniture may be colder than the other surroundings of the room, and the furniture to some extent obstructs the airflow. This paper describes an investigation of a room with a piece of furniture placed near an external wall. This was investigated using Particle Image...... Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. It was found how the pattern of airflow behind furniture placed near cold walls was influenced by the thickness of air gaps behind and below the furniture. But it was also found that even if the furniture was placed directly on the floor, there would be a considerable flow...

  20. International air cargo operations and gateways : their emerging importance to the state of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Air cargo transport has become particularly important in todays expanding global : economy for the movement of high-value goods such as electronics, computer components, : precision equipment, medical supplies, auto parts, and perishables. Air car...

  1. External costs of nuclear: Greater or less than the alternatives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabl, Ari; Rabl, Veronika A.

    2013-01-01

    Since Fukushima many are calling for a shutdown of nuclear power plants. To see whether such a shutdown would reduce the risks for health and environment, the external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with alternatives that could replace it. The frequency of catastrophic nuclear accidents is based on the historical record, about one in 25 years for the plants built to date, an order of magnitude higher than the safety goals of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Impacts similar to Chernobyl and Fukushima are assumed to estimate the cost. A detailed comparison is presented with wind as alternative with the lowest external cost. The variability of wind necessitates augmentation by other sources, primarily fossil fuels, because storage at the required scale is in most regions too expensive. The external costs of natural gas combined cycle are taken as 0.6 €cent/kWh due to health effects of air pollution and 1.25 €cent/kWh due to greenhouse gases (at 25€/t CO 2 eq ) for the central estimate, but a wide range of different parameters is also considered, both for nuclear and for the alternatives. Although the central estimate of external costs of the wind-based alternative is higher than that of nuclear, the uncertainty ranges overlap. - Highlights: ► The external costs of nuclear electricity are compared with the alternatives. ► Frequency and cost of nuclear accidents based on Chernobyl and Fukushima. ► Detailed comparison with wind as alternative with the lowest external costs. ► High external cost of wind because of natural gas backup (storage too limited). ► External costs of wind higher than nuclear but uncertainty ranges overlap

  2. Internalization of external cost for the production and distribution of electricity in Flanders, Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torfs, R.; De Nocker, L.; Schrooten, L.; Aernouts, K.; Liekens, I.

    2005-04-01

    This report elaborates the external costs of electricity production and distribution in Flanders, Belgium, and tests them against prices and taxes for electricity use. The authors examined whether these external costs decrease in time and whether such a decrease leads to internalization in the price for the users through taxes, levies or other economic instruments. The external costs mainly include external environmental costs caused by air pollution and greenhouse gases, but also damage caused by accidents, hindrance and radioactive substances that may be released. [nl

  3. Surgical management of movement disorders

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    together as movement disorders (e.g. Parkinson's disease, dystonia, essential tremor) is with medication and, in some, with ... Stereotactic lesioning of basal ganglia and/or thalamic targets ... and there is some concern related to suicide.

  4. Neuroimaging findings in movement disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topalov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Neuroimaging methods are of great importance for the differential diagnostic delimitation of movement disorders associated with structural damage (neoplasms, ischemic lesions, neuroinfections) from those associated with specific pathophysiological mechanisms (dysmetabolic disorders, neurotransmitter disorders). Learning objective: Presentation of typical imaging findings contributing to nosological differentiation in groups of movement disorders with similar clinical signs. In this presentation are discussed neuroimaging findings in Parkinson‘s disease, atypical parkinsonian syndromes (multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration), parkinsonism in genetically mediated diseases (Wilson’s disease, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration – PKAN), vascular parkinsonism, hyperkinetic movement disorders (palatal tremor, Huntington‘s chorea, symptomatic chorea in ischemic stroke and diabetes, rubral tremor, ballismus, hemifacial spasm). Contemporary neuroimaging methods enable support for diagnostic and differential diagnostic precision of a number of hypo- and hyperkinetic movement disorders, which is essential for neurological clinical practice

  5. Eye Movements When Viewing Advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily eHiggins

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this selective review, we examine key findings on eye movements when viewing advertisements. We begin with a brief, general introduction to the properties and neural underpinnings of saccadic eye movements. Next, we provide an overview of eye movement behavior during reading, scene perception, and visual search, since each of these activities is, at various times, involved in viewing ads. We then review the literature on eye movements when viewing print ads and warning labels (of the kind that appear on alcohol and tobacco ads, before turning to a consideration of advertisements in dynamic media (television and the Internet. Finally, we propose topics and methodological approaches that may prove to be useful in future research.

  6. Healthy Movements: Your Body's Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body, are governed by the same basic physical laws,” says Dr. Jeffrey Weiss, a biomechanics expert at ... for movement disorders such as cerebral palsy and Parkinson’s disease. Joints are a common source of problems ...

  7. Game Movement as Enactive Focalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yotam Shibolet

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper integrates thought on game narrative and embodied cognition, in order to consider the significance of movement to the embodied narrative experience of games. If games are a mode of ‘environmental storytelling’, determining the player’s mobile situatedness within the gamespace is of crucial importance. The metaphor of game design as narrative architecture should be expanded to include te the design of movement dynamics, alongside geographical gamespace. I suggest a theoretical infrastructure that aims to enable further analysis of movement design’s role in this scope. The theory of enactive perception asserts that all perception is inherently negotiated through embodied understanding of moving within environment. According to this model, by giving meaning to perception, movement is also directly related to the structure of consciousness and thought. Cognitive definitions of ‘narrative’ that integrate embodiment are applied to argue it can relevantly account for part of thought’s role in enactive perception. Mieke Bal’s concept of focalization (1997 broaches narrative perspective by underscoring the constant “movement of the look”. For enactive perception, such mobility should be understood as inseparable from the movement of the body even when perspective could appear detached from embodiment. Therefore, I offer the supplementary concept of “enactive focalization” – narrative perception as interpreted through the interconnected dynamics or perspectival and physical movement. To exemplify my ideas and the potential of future research in this scope, I discuss the uniquely effective and affective movement dynamic design of Journey. This paper concludes by reflecting on enactive focalization in light of the increased utilization of embodiment in the contemporary digital media landscape.

  8. Bone Density and Dental External Apical Root Resorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro; Morford, Lorri Ann

    2016-01-01

    When orthodontic patients desire shorter treatment times with aesthetic results and long-term stability, it is important for the orthodontist to understand the potential limitations and problems that may arise during standard and/or technology-assisted accelerated treatment. Bone density plays an important role in facilitating orthodontic tooth movement (OTM), such that reductions in bone density can significantly increase movement velocity. Lifestyle, genetic background, environmental factors and disease status all can influence a patients’ overall health and bone density. In some individuals, these factors may create specific conditions that influence systemic-wide bone metabolism. Both genetic variation and the onset of a bone-related disease can influence systemic bone density and local bone density, such as is observed in the mandible and maxilla. These types of localized density changes can affect the rate of OTM and may also influence the risk of unwanted outcomes, i.e., the occurrence of dental external apical root resorption (EARR). PMID:27766484

  9. THE MOVEMENT SYSTEM IN EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Barbara J; Sulavik, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Although many physical therapists have begun to focus on movement and function in clinical practice, a significant number continue to focus on impairments or pathoanatomic models to direct interventions. This paradigm may be driven by the current models used to direct and guide curricula used for physical therapist education. The methods by which students are educated may contribute to a focus on independent systems, rather than viewing the body as a functional whole. Students who enter practice must be able to integrate information across multiple systems that affect a patient or client's movement and function. Such integration must be taught to students and it is the responsibility of those in physical therapist education to embrace and teach the next generation of students this identifying professional paradigm of the movement system. The purpose of this clinical commentary is to describe the current state of the movement system in physical therapy education, suggest strategies for enhancing movement system focus in entry level education, and envision the future of physical therapy education related to the movement system. Contributions by a student author offer depth and perspective to the ideas and suggestions presented. 5.

  10. The movement ecology of seagrasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Kathryn; van Dijk, Kor-Jent; Ruiz-Montoya, Leonardo; Kendrick, Gary A; Krauss, Siegfried L; Waycott, Michelle; Verduin, Jennifer; Lowe, Ryan; Statton, John; Brown, Eloise; Duarte, Carlos

    2014-11-22

    A movement ecology framework is applied to enhance our understanding of the causes, mechanisms and consequences of movement in seagrasses: marine, clonal, flowering plants. Four life-history stages of seagrasses can move: pollen, sexual propagules, vegetative fragments and the spread of individuals through clonal growth. Movement occurs on the water surface, in the water column, on or in the sediment, via animal vectors and through spreading clones. A capacity for long-distance dispersal and demographic connectivity over multiple timeframes is the novel feature of the movement ecology of seagrasses with significant evolutionary and ecological consequences. The space-time movement footprint of different life-history stages varies. For example, the distance moved by reproductive propagules and vegetative expansion via clonal growth is similar, but the timescales range exponentially, from hours to months or centuries to millennia, respectively. Consequently, environmental factors and key traits that interact to influence movement also operate on vastly different spatial and temporal scales. Six key future research areas have been identified.

  11. Movement games in sports training of children

    OpenAIRE

    Komoň, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Title: Movement Games in Sports Training of Children Objectives: Create a systemized inventory of movement games. Movement games categorized according to which football skills can developed. Verify popularity of the each movement game in simple questionnaire. Methods: The literature search and data analysis. Also, quantitative research in the form of a simple questionnaire. Results: Systematized inventory of 39 movement games with methodological descriptions. Each movement game has feedback i...

  12. Lessons learned from external hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peinador, Miguel; Zerger, Benoit [European Commisison Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands). Inst. for Energy and Transport; Ramos, Manuel Martin [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Safety and Security Coordination; Wattrelos, Didier [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Maqua, Michael [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    This paper presents a study performed by the European Clearinghouse of the Joint Research Centre on Operational Experience for nuclear power plants in cooperation with IRSN and GRS covering events reported by nuclear power plants in relation to external hazards. It summarizes the review of 235 event reports from 3 different databases. The events were grouped in 9 categories according to the nature of the external hazard involved, and the specific lessons learned and recommendations that can be derived from each of these categories are presented. Additional 'cross-cutting' recommendations covering several or all the external hazards considered are also discussed. These recommendations can be useful in preventing this type of events from happening again or in limiting their consequences. The study was launched in 2010 and therefore it does not cover the Fukushima event. This paper presents the main findings and recommendations raised by this study. (orig.)

  13. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  14. An external focus of attention enhances motor learning in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, S; Wulf, G; Avila, L T G

    2013-07-01

    The present study examined whether the learning benefits of an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement effect) relative to an internal focus (i.e. on the movement), found previously in non-disabled children and adults would also be found in children with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Participants (n = 24; average age: 12.2 years) with mild intellectual deficiency (IQ = 51-69) practiced throwing beanbags at a target. In the external focus group, participants were instructed to direct their attention to the movement of the beanbag, while in the internal focus group, participants were asked to direct their attention to the movement of their hand. The practice phase consisted of 40 trials, and attentional focus reminders were given after every third trial. Learning was assessed 1 day later by retention and transfer (greater target distance) tests, each consisting of 10 trials. No focus reminders were given on that day. The external focus group demonstrated more effective learning than the internal focus group, as evidenced by more accurate tosses on the transfer test. The present findings show that instructions that induce an external focus of attention can enhance motor learning in children with IDs. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.

  15. Cerebral Activations Related to Ballistic, Stepwise Interrupted and Gradually Modulated Movements in Parkinson Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxopeus, Carolien M.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Valsan, Gopal; Conway, Bernard A.; Leenders, Klaus L.; de Jong, Bauke M.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG) contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12) and healthy subjects (N = 18). In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN) and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN) and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static) model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account enhanced

  16. Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolien M Toxopeus

    Full Text Available Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD experience impaired initiation and inhibition of movements such as difficulty to start/stop walking. At single-joint level this is accompanied by reduced inhibition of antagonist muscle activity. While normal basal ganglia (BG contributions to motor control include selecting appropriate muscles by inhibiting others, it is unclear how PD-related changes in BG function cause impaired movement initiation and inhibition at single-joint level. To further elucidate these changes we studied 4 right-hand movement tasks with fMRI, by dissociating activations related to abrupt movement initiation, inhibition and gradual movement modulation. Initiation and inhibition were inferred from ballistic and stepwise interrupted movement, respectively, while smooth wrist circumduction enabled the assessment of gradually modulated movement. Task-related activations were compared between PD patients (N = 12 and healthy subjects (N = 18. In healthy subjects, movement initiation was characterized by antero-ventral striatum, substantia nigra (SN and premotor activations while inhibition was dominated by subthalamic nucleus (STN and pallidal activations, in line with the known role of these areas in simple movement. Gradual movement mainly involved antero-dorsal putamen and pallidum. Compared to healthy subjects, patients showed reduced striatal/SN and increased pallidal activation for initiation, whereas for inhibition STN activation was reduced and striatal-thalamo-cortical activation increased. For gradual movement patients showed reduced pallidal and increased thalamo-cortical activation. We conclude that PD-related changes during movement initiation fit the (rather static model of alterations in direct and indirect BG pathways. Reduced STN activation and regional cortical increased activation in PD during inhibition and gradual movement modulation are better explained by a dynamic model that also takes into account

  17. Understanding movement data and movement processes: current and emerging directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Robert S; Loarie, Scott R; Colchero, Fernando; Best, Benjamin D; Boustany, Andre; Conde, Dalia A; Halpin, Patrick N; Joppa, Lucas N; McClellan, Catherine M; Clark, James S

    2008-12-01

    Animal movement has been the focus on much theoretical and empirical work in ecology over the last 25 years. By studying the causes and consequences of individual movement, ecologists have gained greater insight into the behavior of individuals and the spatial dynamics of populations at increasingly higher levels of organization. In particular, ecologists have focused on the interaction between individuals and their environment in an effort to understand future impacts from habitat loss and climate change. Tools to examine this interaction have included: fractal analysis, first passage time, Lévy flights, multi-behavioral analysis, hidden markov models, and state-space models. Concurrent with the development of movement models has been an increase in the sophistication and availability of hierarchical bayesian models. In this review we bring these two threads together by using hierarchical structures as a framework for reviewing individual models. We synthesize emerging themes in movement ecology, and propose a new hierarchical model for animal movement that builds on these emerging themes. This model moves away from traditional random walks, and instead focuses inference on how moving animals with complex behavior interact with their landscape and make choices about its suitability.

  18. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  19. Mindful Movement and Skilled Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dav eClark

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel mind-body connection has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage higher-order inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from mindlessness to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  20. Organization of octopus arm movements: a model system for studying the control of flexible arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutfreund, Y; Flash, T; Yarom, Y; Fiorito, G; Segev, I; Hochner, B

    1996-11-15

    Octopus arm movements provide an extreme example of controlled movements of a flexible arm with virtually unlimited degrees of freedom. This study aims to identify general principles in the organization of these movements. Video records of the movements of Octopus vulgaris performing the task of reaching toward a target were studied. The octopus extends its arm toward the target by a wave-like propagation of a bend that travels from the base of the arm toward the tip. Similar bend propagation is seen in other octopus arm movements, such as locomotion and searching. The kinematics (position and velocity) of the midpoint of the bend in three-dimensional space were extracted using the direct linear transformation algorithm. This showed that the bend tends to move within a single linear plane in a simple, slightly curved path connecting the center of the animal's body with the target location. Approximately 70% of the reaching movements demonstrated a stereotyped tangential velocity profile. An invariant profile was observed when movements were normalized for velocity and distance. Two arms, extended together in the same behavioral context, demonstrated identical velocity profiles. The stereotyped features of the movements were also observed in spontaneous arm extensions (not toward an external target). The simple and stereotypic appearance of the bend trajectory suggests that the position of the bend in space and time is the controlled variable. We propose that this strategy reduces the immense redundancy of the octopus arm movements and hence simplifies motor control.

  1. An external focus of attention enhances balance learning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Wulf, Gabriele; Wally, Raquel

    2010-10-01

    Studies with young adults have shown that an external focus of attention (i.e., on the movement effect) results in more effective motor learning and greater automaticity than an internal focus (i.e., on one's own body movements). The present study examined whether instructions inducing an external versus internal attentional focus would differentially affect the learning of a balance task in 32 older adults (24 females and 8 males, mean age: 69.4 years), divided equally, by number and gender, into two groups. The task required participants to stand on a balance platform (stabilometer) tilting to the left and right, and to try to keep the platform as close to horizontal as possible during each 30-s trial. The external focus group was instructed to concentrate on keeping markers on the platform horizontal, while the internal focus group was instructed to concentrate on keeping their feet horizontal. The dependent variable was time in balance (i.e., platform movements within ± 5°). Participants performed 10 practice trials on day 1, with focus reminders given before each trial. Learning was assessed by a retention test, consisting of five trials without instructions, performed 1 day later. The external focus group outperformed the internal focus group in retention [F(4, 120)=3.46, p=.01]. The results demonstrate that the learning benefits of an external attentional focus are generalizable to older learners. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Zhang et al., 2005). For instance, in strongly acidic soils with pH<5.5 and high P sorbing soils, application of rock phosphate is more effective and cheaper than using TSP (Bationo et al., 2011). Moreover, it enables determination of the external P.

  3. Hydropower externalities: a meta analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattmann, M.; Logar, I.; Brouwer, R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a meta-analysis of existing research related to the economic valuation of the external effects of hydropower. A database consisting of 81 observations derived from 29 studies valuing the non-market impacts of hydropower electricity generation is constructed with the main aim to

  4. Matching Games with Additive Externalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2012-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...

  5. Organizing for External Knowledge Sourcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabbiosi, Larissa; Reichstein, Toke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to provide an introduction to the special issue. We briefly consider the external knowledge sourcing and organizing for innovation literatures, which offer a background for the special issue, and we highlight their mutual dialogue. We then illustrate the main findings o...

  6. Externally studentized normal midrange distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Dêivide de Oliveira Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of externally studentized midrange was created based on the original studentization procedures of Student and was inspired in the distribution of the externally studentized range. The large use of the externally studentized range in multiple comparisons was also a motivation for developing this new distribution. This work aimed to derive analytic equations to distribution of the externally studentized midrange, obtaining the cumulative distribution, probability density and quantile functions and generating random values. This is a new distribution that the authors could not find any report in the literature. A second objective was to build an R package for obtaining numerically the probability density, cumulative distribution and quantile functions and make it available to the scientific community. The algorithms were proposed and implemented using Gauss-Legendre quadrature and the Newton-Raphson method in R software, resulting in the SMR package, available for download in the CRAN site. The implemented routines showed high accuracy proved by using Monte Carlo simulations and by comparing results with different number of quadrature points. Regarding to the precision to obtain the quantiles for cases where the degrees of freedom are close to 1 and the percentiles are close to 100%, it is recommended to use more than 64 quadrature points.

  7. Measuring Externalities in Program Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Impact evaluations of development programmes usually focus on a comparison of participants with a control group. However, if the programme generates externalities for non-participants such an approach will capture only part of the programme's impact. Based on a unique large-scale quantitative survey

  8. External noise distinguishes attention mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Z L; Dosher, B A

    1998-05-01

    We developed and tested a powerful method for identifying and characterizing the effect of attention on performance in visual tasks as due to signal enhancement, distractor exclusion, or internal noise suppression. Based on a noisy Perceptual Template Model (PTM) of a human observer, the method adds increasing amounts of external noise (white gaussian random noise) to the visual stimulus and observes the effect on performance of a perceptual task for attended and unattended stimuli. The three mechanisms of attention yield three "signature" patterns of performance. The general framework for characterizing the mechanisms of attention is used here to investigate the attentional mechanisms in a concurrent location-cued orientation discrimination task. Test stimuli--Gabor patches tilted slightly to the right or left--always appeared on both the left and the right of fixation, and varied independently. Observers were cued on each trial to attend to the left, the right, or evenly to both stimuli, and decide the direction of tilt of both test stimuli. For eight levels of added external noise and three attention conditions (attended, unattended, and equal), subjects' contrast threshold levels were determined. At low levels of external noise, attention affected threshold contrast: threshold contrasts for non-attended stimuli were systematically higher than for equal attention stimuli, which were, in turn, higher than for attended stimuli. Specifically, when the rms contrast of the external noise is below 10%, there is a consistent 17% elevation of contrast threshold from attended to unattended condition across all three subjects. For higher levels of external noise, attention conditions did not affect threshold contrast values at all. These strong results are characteristic of a signal enhancement, or equivalently, an internal additive noise reduction mechanism of attention.

  9. Antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, L.E.

    1977-01-01

    This is a social anthropological analysis of the antinuclear movement in Middle Tennessee. This social movement was determined to halt the construction of proposed nuclear power plants in Tennessee, especially one the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) intended to build in Middle Tennessee. The data for the study were gathered by participant-observation interviewing, and the examination of documents from February 1973 through March 1975. The treatment of the data is based on transactional analysis and portions of the network model. This social movement was composed of a series of informally organized cells connected by a loose network of people who visited and talked with one another. Individual cells tended to be organized on a geographical basis, as was communication. Activity-initiators, however, often contacted antinuclear personnel in other Middle Tennessee cells. Movement activity for many of the antinuclear activists was short-lived. The strategic maneuvers of the movement utilized all the structurally and legally possible alternatives and the nuclear opponents hoped that the public would pressure public officials to oppose nuclear plants. Although the antinuclear activists worked very hard, they did not succeed in halting the planned construction of the Middle Tennessee nuclear plant. Indeed, they had not succeeded in the summer of 1977

  10. Compressed Air Production Using Vehicle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninad Arun Malpure

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Generally compressed air is produced using different types of air compressors which consumes lot of electric energy and is noisy. In this paper an innovative idea is put forth for production of compressed air using movement of vehicle suspension which normal is wasted. The conversion of the force energy into the compressed air is carried out by the mechanism which consists of the vehicle suspension system hydraulic cylinder Non-return valve air compressor and air receiver. We are collecting air in the cylinder and store this energy into the tank by simply driving the vehicle. This method is non-conventional as no fuel input is required and is least polluting.

  11. Technical basis document for external events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    This document supports the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis and presents the technical basis for the FR-equencies of externally initiated accidents. The consequences of externally initiated events are discussed in other documents that correspond to the accident that was caused by the external event. The external events include aircraft crash, vehicle accident, range fire, and rail accident

  12. Urban structure and air pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. J.; Kenworthy, J. R.; Newman, P. W. G.

    Representative driving cycles across the Perth, Western Australia, metropolitan region illustrate a direct relationship to urban land use. Movement away from the central business district results in fewer traffic events, higher speeds, longer cruise periods and shorter stops. The consequent reduction in root mean square acceleration leads to a corresponding reduction in vehicle emission factors. Urban planning implications are pursued and highlight the importance of public transport as an option in reducing urban air pollution.

  13. Yarbus, Eye Movements, and Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin W Tatler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of Yarbus's research on eye movements was enormous following the translation of his book Eye Movements and Vision into English in 1967. In stark contrast, the published material in English concerning his life is scant. We provide a brief biography of Yarbus and assess his impact on contemporary approaches to research on eye movements. While early interest in his work focused on his study of stabilised retinal images, more recently this has been replaced with interest in his work on the cognitive influences on scanning patterns. We extended his experiment on the effect of instructions on viewing a picture using a portrait of Yarbus rather than a painting. The results obtained broadly supported those found by Yarbus.

  14. External Cylindrical Nozzle with Controlled Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a developed design of the external cylindrical nozzle with a vacuum camera. The paper studies the nozzle controllability of flow rate via regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere through an air throttle. Working capacity of the nozzle with inlet round or triangular orifice are researched. The gap is provided in the nozzle design between the external wall of the inlet orifice and the end face of the straight case in the nozzle case. The presented mathematical model of the nozzle with the evacuated chamber allows us to estimate the expected vacuum amount in the compressed section of a stream and maximum permissible absolute pressure at the inlet orifice. The paper gives experimental characteristics of the fluid flow process through the nozzle for different values of internal diameter of a straight case and an extent of its end face remoteness from an external wall of the inlet orifice. It estimates how geometry of nozzle constructive elements influences on the volume flow rate. It is established that the nozzle capacity significantly depends on the shape of inlet orifice. Triangular orifice nozzles steadily work in the mode of completely filled flow area of the straight case at much more amounts of the limit pressure of the flow. Vacuum depth in the evacuated chamber also depends on the shape of inlet orifice: the greatest vacuum is reached in a nozzle with the triangular orifice which 1.5 times exceeds the greatest vacuum with the round orifice. Possibility to control nozzle capacity through the regulated connection of the evacuated chamber to the atmosphere was experimentally estimated, thus depth of flow rate regulation of the nozzle with a triangular orifice was 45% in comparison with 10% regulation depth of the nozzle with a round orifice. Depth of regulation calculated by a mathematical model appeared to be much more. The paper presents experimental dependences of the flow coefficients of nozzle input orifice

  15. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  16. Human kinematics and event control: On-line movement registration as a means for experimental manipulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudejans, R.R.D.; Coolen, H.

    2003-01-01

    In human movement and sports science, manipulations of perception and action are common and often comprise the control of events, such as opening or closing liquid crystal goggles. Most of these events are externally controlled, independent of the actions of the participants. Less common, although

  17. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  18. Conceptualizing Learning in the Climate Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluttz, Jenalee; Walter, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This article extends Scandrett et al.'s conceptual framework for social movement learning to understand learning and knowledge creation in the climate justice movement. Drawing on radical pluralist theoretical approaches to social movement learning, learning in the climate justice movement is conceptualized at the micro, meso, and macro levels,…

  19. Followership in Ecology/Environment Social Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavner, Jerry B.; Sumodi, Veronica R.

    The paper analyzes the failure of the ecology/environmental movement to develop into a social movement and to generate a mass following. The movement has had difficulty not only in organizing collective behavior but also in maintaining the necessary momentum to change into a full-fledged social movement. Obvious reasons are that ecologists…

  20. Local Food Movements and the Politics of Boundary-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    This paper proposes an analytical framework for comparative studies of local food movements in Scandinavia and East Asia. The framework takes it point of departure in studying local food movements as engaging in political struggles over defining scales. The framework draws on political and economic...... geography theories that argue that scales such as local, regional, national, and global as socially constructed and relational to other scales that compete for dominance. The second part of this analytical framework will discuss scales as socio-political processes of boundary-making i.e. what aspects become...... included in defining a certain scale and what aspects are regarded as external to, or irrelevant, in defining the boundaries of scale. I argue that boundaries can be both material and symbolic/affective that connects the politics of scale to political struggles over society, the environment...

  1. Correlation between anatomic foot and ankle movement measured with MRI and with a motion analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Barrientos, C; Liu, X C; Lyon, R; Tassone, C; Thometz, J; Tarima, S

    2012-07-01

    Several studies have attempted to measure how well external markers track internal bone movement using pins drilled into the foot, but this is too invasive for the pediatric population. This study investigated how well a six segment foot model (6SFM) using external markers was able to measure bone movement in the foot compared to MRI measurements. The foot was moved into different positions using a plastic foot jig and measurements were taken with both systems. The aims were to: (1) Look at the correlation between movement tracked with an Electronic Motion Tracking System (EMTS) and by measurements derived from MRI images, specifically the principal intercept angles (PIAs) which are the angles of intersection between principal axes of inertia of bone volumes. (2) To see how well external motion measured by the 6SFM could predict PIAs. Four bone pairs had their movement tracked: Tibia-Calcaneus, Calcaneus-Cuboid, Navicular-1st Metatarsal, and 1st Metatarsal-Hallux. The results showed moderate correlation between measured PIAs and those predicted at the Tibia-Calcaneus, Navicular-1st Metatarsal, and 1st Metatarsal-Hallux joints. Moderate to high correlation was found between the PIA and movement in a single anatomic plane for all four joints at several positions. The 6SFM using the EMTS allows reliable tracking of 3D rotations in the pediatric foot, except at the Calcaneus-Cuboid joint. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Correcting slightly less simple movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Aivar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have analysed how goal directed movements are corrected in response to changes in the properties of the target. However, only simple movements to single targets have been used in those studies, so little is known about movement corrections under more complex situations. Evidence from studies that ask for movements to several targets in sequence suggests that whole sequences of movements are planned together. Planning related segments of a movement together makes it possible to optimise the whole sequence, but it means that some parts are planned quite long in advance, so that it is likely that they will have to be modified. In the present study we examined how people respond to changes that occur while they are moving to the first target of a sequence. Subjects moved a stylus across a digitising tablet. They moved from a specified starting point to two targets in succession. The first of these targets was always at the same position but it could have one of two sizes. The second target could be in one of two different positions and its size was different in each case. On some trials the first target changed size, and on some others the second target changed size and position, as soon as the subject started to move. When the size of the first target changed the subjects slowed down the first segment of their movements. Even the peak velocity, which was only about 150 ms after the change in size, was lower. Beside this fast response to the change itself, the dwell time at the first target was also affected: its duration increased after the change. Changing the size and position of the second target did not influence the first segment of the movement, but also increased the dwell time. The dwell time was much longer for a small target, irrespective of its initial size. If subjects knew in advance which target could change, they moved faster than if they did not know which could change. Taken together, these

  3. External costs of energy - do the answers match the questions? Looking back at 10 years of ExternE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewitt, W.

    2002-01-01

    While the claim for 'getting prices right' is quite popular in conceptual policy papers, the implementation of appropriate internalisation strategies is still hampered by a lack of reliable external cost data. Great expectations were set into the ExternE project, a major research programme launched by the European Commission at the beginning of the 1990s to provide a scientific basis for the quantification of energy related externalities and to give guidance supporting the design of internalisation measures. After more than a decade of research, the ExternE label became a well recognised standard source for external cost data. Looking back into the ExternE history, the paper pursues how emerging new scientific insights and changing background assumptions affected external cost estimates and related recommendations to policy over time. Based on ExternE results, the usefulness and inherent limitations of external cost estimates for impact categories like climate change or nuclear waste disposal is discussed. The paper also gives examples on how external costs in spite of remaining uncertainties are successfully used to support environmental policy. (Author)

  4. Age-dependent external root resorption during tooth movement in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Yijin; Maltha, Jaap C.; Liem, Robert S. B.; Stokroos, Ietse; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of age on root resorption and distribution along different parts of the root during prolonged light force application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Orthodontic appliances were placed in two groups of 30 rats (one group 6 weeks old, the other 9-12 months old), with

  5. Age-dependent external root resorption during tooth movement in rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Maltha, J.C.; Liem, R.S.; Stokroos, I.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of age on root resorption and distribution along different parts of the root during prolonged light force application. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Orthodontic appliances were placed in two groups of 30 rats (one group 6 weeks old, the other 9-12 months old), with

  6. Firm Search for External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; Grimpe, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    ignored the institutional context that provides or denies access to external knowledge at the country level. Combining institutional and knowledge search theory, we suggest that the market orientation of the institutional environment and the magnitude of institutional change influence when firms begin......The innovation performance of modern firms is increasingly determined by their ability to search and absorb external knowledge. However, after a certain threshold firms "oversearch" their environment and innovation performance declines. In this paper, we argue that prior literature has largely...... to experience the negative performance effects of oversearch. Based on a comprehensive sample of almost 8,000 firms from ten European countries, we find that institutions matter considerably for firms' search activity. Higher market orientation of institutions increases the effectiveness of firms' search...

  7. MGR External Events Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, L.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to apply an external events Hazards Analysis (HA) to the License Application Design Selection Enhanced Design Alternative 11 [(LADS EDA II design (Reference 8.32))]. The output of the HA is called a Hazards List (HL). This analysis supersedes the external hazards portion of Rev. 00 of the PHA (Reference 8.1). The PHA for internal events will also be updated to the LADS EDA II design but under a separate analysis. Like the PHA methodology, the HA methodology provides a systematic method to identify potential hazards during the 100-year Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) operating period updated to reflect the EDA II design. The resulting events on the HL are candidates that may have potential radiological consequences as determined during Design Basis Events (DBEs) analyses. Therefore, the HL that results from this analysis will undergo further screening and analysis based on the criteria that apply during the performance of DBE analyses

  8. Leveraging External Sources of Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    , it suggests a four-phase model in which a linear process—(1) obtaining, (2) integrating, and (3) commercializing external innovations—is combined with (4) interaction between the firm and its collaborators. This model is used to classify papers taken from the top 25 innovation journals, complemented by highly...... cited work beyond those journals. A review of 291 open innovation-related publications from these sources shows that the majority of these articles indeed address elements of this inbound open innovation process model. Specifically, it finds that researchers have front-loaded their examination...... external innovations create value rather than how firms capture value from those innovations. Finally, the interaction phase considers both feedback for the linear process and reciprocal innovation processes such as cocreation, network collaboration, and community innovation. This review and synthesis...

  9. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  10. External fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Kangoo, Khursheed Ahmed; Bashir, Arshad; Muzaffer, Rahil; Bhat, Mohammad Farooq; Farooq, Munir; Badoo, Abdul Rashid; Dar, Imtiyaz Hussian; Wani, Mudassir Maqbool

    2009-10-10

    In developing countries, due to limited availability of modern anesthesia and overcrowding of the hospitals with patients who need surgery, high-risk patients with "intertrochanteric" fractures remain unsuita ble for open reduction and internal fixation.The aim of this study was to analyze the results of external fixation of "intertrochanteric" fractures in high-risk geriatric patients in a developing country.The results of 62 ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients with a mean age of 70 years (range 58-90 years) with "intertrochanteric" fractures, in whom external fixation was performed, are reported.Eight patients died during follow-up due to medical causes unrelated to the surgical procedure. So only 54 patients were available for final assessment. Procedure is simple, performed under local anesthesia, requires less time for surgery and is associated with less blood loss. Good fixation and early ambulation was achieved in most of the patients. Average time to union was 14 weeks. Thirty-one patients developed superficial pin tract infection and 28 patients had average shortening of 15 mm due to impaction and varus angulation. Functional outcome was assessed using Judet's point system. Good to excellent results were achieved in 44 patients.This study demonstrated that external fixation of "intertrochantric" fractures performed under local anesthesia offers significant advantage in ambulatory high-risk geriatric patients especially in a developing country.

  11. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 4. Oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedrich, R.; Krewitt, W.; Mayerhofer, P.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly commencing energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy, the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XLI (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  12. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  13. Light transfer through windows with external condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Keyong; Li, Shaoling; Pilon, Laurent

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates systematically light transfer through windows supporting cap-shaped droplets on their external face. The presence of such droplets may have negative effects on the conversion efficiency of solar cells, distorts image quality of lenses, or hinders visibility through windows and windshields. Here, the directional-hemispherical transmittance was predicted by the Monte Carlo ray-tracing method. The droplets were monodisperse or polydisperse randomly distributed on the outside face of optically smooth windows. For nonabsorbing droplets, the diameter and size distribution did not have a significant effect on the window directional-hemispherical transmittance. The latter was nearly independent of contact angle for incident angle θi ≤ 30°. However, the directional-hemispherical transmittance decreased monotonously with increasing incident angle and droplet contact angle for contact angle θc ≤ 70° to reach a minimum at a contact angle θc,min beyond which it increased with increasing contact angle before reaching a plateau at large contact angles. This was attributed to total internal reflection at the back window/air and droplet/air interfaces. For absorbing droplets, the normal-hemispherical transmittance decreased significantly with increasing droplet contact angle, mean diameter, polydispersity, and projected surface area coverage due to strong absorption within the droplets. Moreover, the normal-hemispherical transmittance decreased with increasing contact angle for θcmean diameter, and contact angle for θc ≥ 90°. Finally, Analytical expressions for the upper and lower bounds of the normal-hemispherical transmittance as a function of droplet contact angle, optical properties, and projected surface area coverage were derived.

  14. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  15. Noun Phrase Structure and Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna; Vikner, Sten

    2011-01-01

    /solch to follow the article. We discuss two possible syntactic derivations, predicate raising (e.g. Corver 1998, Bennis, Corver & den Dikken 1998) and XP movement from an attributive adjective position within the nominal (e.g. Matushansky 2002). The analysis links up with the morphological agreement facts...

  16. Ketotic hyperglycemia with movement disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Disha Awasthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chorea, hemichorea-hemiballismus and severe partial seizures may be the presenting features of nonketotic hyperglycemia in older adults with type 2 diabetes, but cases in young adults with type 1 diabetes are rare. We hereby report a very rare case of diabetic ketosis with movement disorder in a young patient.

  17. Population consequences of aggregative movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Turchin

    1989-01-01

    Gregarious behaviour is an important factor influencing survival and reproduction of animals, as well as population interactions. In this paper I develop a model of movement with attraction or repulsion between conspecifics. To facilitate its use in empirical studies, the model is based on experimentally measurable features of individual behaviour.

  18. Actuating movement in refined wearables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toeters, M.J.; Feijs, L.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays it is quite possible to deploy textiles as sensors and avoid traditional hard sensors. Actuation (movement) turns out more difficult. It is advantageous to combine sensing and actuation, similar to ecological perception theory. Although several actuators are known: SMA, voice coil, motors,

  19. THE INTERNATIONAL WALDORF SCHOOL MOVEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VON BARAVALLE, HERMANN

    AN HISTORICAL REVIEW OF THE WALDORF SCHOOL PLAN TRACES THE MOVEMENT FROM ITS FOUNDING IN STUTTGART, GERMANY IN 1919, BY THE WALDORF ASTORIA COMPANY AND UNDER THE DIRECTION OF RUDOLF STEINER, TO ITS INTRODUCTION INTO SWITZERLAND, OTHER EUROPEAN COUNTRIES, THE AMERICAS, AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND, AND SOUTH AFRICA, A TOTAL OF 175 SCHOOLS AS OF 1963. THE…

  20. Compensation for loads during arm movements using equilibrium-point control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribble, P L; Ostry, D J

    2000-12-01

    A significant problem in motor control is how information about movement error is used to modify control signals to achieve desired performance. A potential source of movement error and one that is readily controllable experimentally relates to limb dynamics and associated movement-dependent loads. In this paper, we have used a position control model to examine changes to control signals for arm movements in the context of movement-dependent loads. In the model, based on the equilibrium-point hypothesis, equilibrium shifts are adjusted directly in proportion to the positional error between desired and actual movements. The model is used to simulate multi-joint movements in the presence of both "internal" loads due to joint interaction torques, and externally applied loads resulting from velocity-dependent force fields. In both cases it is shown that the model can achieve close correspondence to empirical data using a simple linear adaptation procedure. An important feature of the model is that it achieves compensation for loads during movement without the need for either coordinate transformations between positional error and associated corrective forces, or inverse dynamics calculations.

  1. Human Response to Ductless Personalized Ventilation with Local Air Cleaning: Air Quality and Prevalence of SBS Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Bivolarova, Maria; Fillon, Maelys

    2013-01-01

    The impact of local air cleaning and cooling of the head region by ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality (PAQ) and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. Thirty subjects participated in experiments performed in a test room with displacement ventilation (DV...... with air filter and 29 °C with DPV without filter. During the experiments the subjects simulated office work and answered on computerized questionnaires. At warm environment PAQ and air freshness significantly improved when DPV was used. Eye dryness increased significantly with time but was not influenced...... by air temperature and filtering. At 29 °C the facially applied air movement from DPV increased the eye dryness. The SBS symptoms increased with time and were higher (not significantly) at the warm conditions. Air movement did not have profound impact on the SBS symptoms, while filtering had only at 23...

  2. Landslide movement in southwest Colorado triggered by atmospheric tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.H.; Kean, J.W.; Wang, G.

    2009-01-01

    Landslides are among the most hazardous of geological processes, causing thousands of casualties and damage on the order of billions of dollars annually. The movement of most landslides occurs along a discrete shear surface, and is triggered by a reduction in the frictional strength of the surface. Infiltration of water into the landslide from rainfall and snowmelt and ground motion from earthquakes are generally implicated in lowering the frictional strength of this surface. However, solid-Earth and ocean tides have recently been shown to trigger shear sliding in other processes, such as earthquakes and glacial motion. Here we use observations and numerical modelling to show that a similar processatmospheric tidescan trigger movement in an ongoing landslide. The Slumgullion landslide, located in the SanJuan Mountains of Colorado, shows daily movement, primarily during diurnal low tides of the atmosphere. According to our model, the tidal changes in air pressure cause air and water in the sediment pores to flow vertically, altering the frictional stress of the shear surface; upward fluid flow during periods of atmospheric low pressure is most conducive to sliding. We suggest that tidally modulated changes in shear strength may also affect the stability of other landslides, and that the rapid pressure variations associated with some fast-moving storm systems could trigger a similar response. ?? 2009 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. External eye symptoms in indoor environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, P

    2017-03-01

    Eye irritation, for example dry or irritated eyes, is generally among top three reported symptoms in office-like environments, in particular among workplaces with cognitive demanding visual display unit (VDU) work. The symptoms are especially among middle and advanced ages and particularly among women more than men. The symptoms are also among the most commonly reported complaints in the eye clinic. To be in a position to interpret the high prevalence of eye symptoms, a multidisciplinary and integrated approach is necessary that involves the external eye physiology (separate from internal eye effects), eye diseases (evaporative dry eye (DE), aqueous-deficient DE, and gland dysfunctions), and risk factors that aggravate the stability of precorneal tear film (PTF) resulting in hyperosmolarity and initiation of inflammatory reactions. Indoor environmental, occupational and personal risk factors may aggravate the PTF stability; factors such as age, contact lenses, cosmetics, diet, draft, gender, low humidity and high temperature, medication, outdoor and combustion pollutants, and VDU work. Psychological stressors may further influence the reporting behavior of eye symptoms. The impact of the risk factors may occur in a combined and exacerbating manner. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Effects of plyometric exercise training with external weights on punching ability of experienced amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzas, Vidas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Mockus, Pranas

    2018-03-01

    During competition, a boxer must continue to deliver high-impact punches despite increasing fatigue. It is unclear whether the effects of plyometric training using external weights are transferred to sport-specific movements such as punching. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week cycle of plyometric training with external weights on punching ability. The study involved eight male amateur boxers aged 22.3±2.5 years with at least 7 years of competitive experience. They performed 12 plyometric training sessions, each comprising eight exercises of various muscle groups performed at maximum movement velocity. Six drills were performed with external weights, and two drills were performed using the body weight as resistance. All exercises required coordination. The punching ability was tested at baseline and after the 4 weeks of training using the Kiktest-100 boxing bag. The force of single punches and the frequency of punches within a series did not change from before to after the 4 weeks, except for increased power in the rear-hand low punch (Pplyometric training with external weights did not change the maximum punching power or movement frequency significantly, but had a beneficial effect on punching power endurance in boxers.

  5. Early Christian movements: Jesus movements and the renewal of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Horsley

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the origins and development of the earliest Jesus movements within the context of persistent conflict between the Judean and Galilean peasantry and their Jerusalem and Roman rulers. It explores the prominence of popular prophetic and messianic movements and shows how the earliest movements that formed in response to Jesus’ mission exhibit similar features and patterns. Jesus is not treated as separate from social roles and political-economic relationships. Viewing Jesus against the background of village communities in which people lived, the Gospels are understood as genuine communication with other people in historical social contexts. The article argues that the net effect of these interrelated factors of theologically determined New Testament interpretation is a combination of assumptions and procedures that would be unacceptable in the regular investigation of history. Another version of the essay was published in Horsley, Richard A (ed, A people’s history of Christianity, Volume 1: Christian origins, 23-46. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress.

  6. Ambient Air Ammonia (NH3) Concentration in Two Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2017-05-22

    May 22, 2017 ... and thereby adds significantly to the external costs related to air pollution in ... condensation nuclei and indirectly increase cloud life time (Myhre et al., 2009). ..... Cost Effective Strategy for Reducing. Atmospheric Particulate ...

  7. THE USE OF AIR LAYERS IN BUILDING ENVELOPES FOR ENERGY SAVING DURING AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there are no large natural energy resources in Belarus, energy savings ought to be a point of the special attention. With this regard it is important to develop modern ways of savings during the process of air conditioning inside new buildings with an air layer in the enclosure, especially in translucent ones. The system of ventilation of air layers in the enclosure of a building has been introduced in which air movement is caused by the gravitational and aerodynamic forces. It makes it possible to arrange further ventilation – a natural, forced or a hybrid one. With the purpose of increasing and streamlining natural draught the partitions are used separating the different parts of air layers. For natural ventilation with the use of gravitational forces the holes in the upper and lower parts of the partitions between adjacent air layers are applied. Natural ventilation in the holes of the partitions is regulated by movable shutters, blinds or other adjusting devices. For combined or forced air exchange between adjacent zones of air layers fans are used pumping air from the air layer zones with a higher temperature to zones of air layers with lower temperature and vice versa. When air exchange is forced, in order to intensify the infiltration of air into zones of air layers jets are laid on a hard surface. In order to cool a multi-layered enclosure of a building, where the movement of air between the air layers (that have been formed by internal partitions is being fulfilled by a natural, forced or combined mode, a part of the air or the total air processed inside the building (i.e. conditioned or non-conditioned air cooler as compared with the outside one is being sent to these strata. Combined or forced flow of the air processed inside the building into the air layers is done through the ducts associated with the output channels of the air conditioners. The internal partitions are equipped with the air valve hole.

  8. Classification of Movement and Inhibition Using a Hybrid BCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Jennifer; Rosing, Joshua; Collazos, Steven; Goodwin, Shikha J

    2017-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are an emerging technology that are capable of turning brain electrical activity into commands for an external device. Motor imagery (MI)-when a person imagines a motion without executing it-is widely employed in BCI devices for motor control because of the endogenous origin of its neural control mechanisms, and the similarity in brain activation to actual movements. Challenges with translating a MI-BCI into a practical device used outside laboratories include the extensive training required, often due to poor user engagement and visual feedback response delays; poor user flexibility/freedom to time the execution/inhibition of their movements, and to control the movement type (right arm vs. left leg) and characteristics (reaching vs. grabbing); and high false positive rates of motion control. Solutions to improve sensorimotor activation and user performance of MI-BCIs have been explored. Virtual reality (VR) motor-execution tasks have replaced simpler visual feedback (smiling faces, arrows) and have solved this problem to an extent. Hybrid BCIs (hBCIs) implementing an additional control signal to MI have improved user control capabilities to a limited extent. These hBCIs either fail to allow the patients to gain asynchronous control of their movements, or have a high false positive rate. We propose an immersive VR environment which provides visual feedback that is both engaging and immediate, but also uniquely engages a different cognitive process in the patient that generates event-related potentials (ERPs). These ERPs provide a key executive function for the users to execute/inhibit movements. Additionally, we propose signal processing strategies and machine learning algorithms to move BCIs toward developing long-term signal stability in patients with distinctive brain signals and capabilities to control motor signals. The hBCI itself and the VR environment we propose would help to move BCI technology outside laboratory

  9. Classification of Movement and Inhibition Using a Hybrid BCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chmura

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs are an emerging technology that are capable of turning brain electrical activity into commands for an external device. Motor imagery (MI—when a person imagines a motion without executing it—is widely employed in BCI devices for motor control because of the endogenous origin of its neural control mechanisms, and the similarity in brain activation to actual movements. Challenges with translating a MI-BCI into a practical device used outside laboratories include the extensive training required, often due to poor user engagement and visual feedback response delays; poor user flexibility/freedom to time the execution/inhibition of their movements, and to control the movement type (right arm vs. left leg and characteristics (reaching vs. grabbing; and high false positive rates of motion control. Solutions to improve sensorimotor activation and user performance of MI-BCIs have been explored. Virtual reality (VR motor-execution tasks have replaced simpler visual feedback (smiling faces, arrows and have solved this problem to an extent. Hybrid BCIs (hBCIs implementing an additional control signal to MI have improved user control capabilities to a limited extent. These hBCIs either fail to allow the patients to gain asynchronous control of their movements, or have a high false positive rate. We propose an immersive VR environment which provides visual feedback that is both engaging and immediate, but also uniquely engages a different cognitive process in the patient that generates event-related potentials (ERPs. These ERPs provide a key executive function for the users to execute/inhibit movements. Additionally, we propose signal processing strategies and machine learning algorithms to move BCIs toward developing long-term signal stability in patients with distinctive brain signals and capabilities to control motor signals. The hBCI itself and the VR environment we propose would help to move BCI technology outside

  10. Estimating location without external cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Cheung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  11. Field displacement during external radiotherapy in prostatic adenocarcinoma treated with radioactive 198Au implants and external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennernaes, B.; Letocha, H.; Rikner, G.; Magnusson, A.; Nilsson, S.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study displacement error and internal movements of the prostate during external beam radiotherapy. Verification films in the frontal (n=194) and lateral (n=64) portals were investigated in 14 patients treated with radioactive 198 Au implants. Displacement errors of two implants were investigated. In seven patients, filling of the rectum and the bladder with contrast medium or isotonic saline was performed during CT investigation for planning purposes to detect movements of the prostate. Most (95%) of the displacement errors were less than 10 mm in the frontal portal and less than 15 mm in the lateral portals. No correlation to the patient's weight was found. The displacement errors were randomly distributed. The spatial relations between the implants were not altered during the treatments. Small movements of the prostate were observed. To conclude, the positioning system employed at present (laser) can be sufficient for the margins used (2 cm). In lateral portals, however, the system did not have the ability to detect a possible systematic displacement error from simulator to accelerator. The intention is to decrease the margins to 1 cm, which will necessitate a better positioning system. (orig.)

  12. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  13. Eye-movements and ongoing task processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, David T; Meleger, Alec; Schneider, Jeffrey C; Snyder, Jim; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Al-Adawi, Samir

    2003-06-01

    This study tests the relation between eye-movements and thought processing. Subjects were given specific modality tasks (visual, gustatory, kinesthetic) and assessed on whether they responded with distinct eye-movements. Some subjects' eye-movements reflected ongoing thought processing. Instead of a universal pattern, as suggested by the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis, this study yielded subject-specific idiosyncratic eye-movements across all modalities. Included is a discussion of the neurolinguistic programming hypothesis regarding eye-movements and its implications for the eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing theory.

  14. Matchings with Externalities and Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Michalak, Tomasz; Rahwan, Talal

    2013-01-01

    Two-sided matchings are an important theoretical tool used to model markets and social interactions. In many real-life problems the utility of an agent is influenced not only by their own choices, but also by the choices that other agents make. Such an influence is called an externality. Whereas ...... where agents take different attitudes when reasoning about the actions of others. In particular, we study optimistic, neutral and pessimistic attitudes and provide both computational hardness results and polynomial-time algorithms for computing stable outcomes....

  15. Nuclear energy and external constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattes, R.; Thiriet, L.

    1983-01-01

    The structural factors of this crisis probably predominate over factors arising out the economic situation, even if explanations vary in this respect. In this article devoted to nuclear energy, a possible means of Loosering external constraints the current international economic environment is firstly outlined; the context in which the policies of industrialized countries, and therefore that of France, must be developed. An examination of the possible role of energy policies in general and nuclear policies in particular as an instrument of economic policy in providing a partial solution to this crisis, will then enable to quantitatively evaluate the effects of such policies at a national level [fr

  16. Effect of External Loading on Force and Power Production During Plyometric Push-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, Taylour J; Stephenson, Mitchell L; Sha, Zhanxin; Dai, Boyi

    2018-04-01

    Hinshaw, TJ, Stephenson, ML, Sha, Z, and Dai, B. Effect of external loading on force and power production during plyometric push-ups. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1099-1108, 2018-One common exercise to train upper-body strength and power is the push-up. Training at the loads that would produce the greatest power is an effective way to increase peak power. The purpose of the current study was to quantify the changes in peak force, peak power, and peak velocity among a modified plyometric push-up and plyometric push-ups with or without external loading in physically active young adults. Eighteen male and 17 female participants completed 4 push-ups: (a) modified plyometric push-up on the knees, (b) plyometric push-up without external loading, (c) plyometric push-up with an external load of 5% of body weight, and (d) plyometric push-up with an external load of 10% of body weight. Two force platforms were set up to collect vertical ground reaction forces at the hands and feet. The modified plyometric push-up demonstrated the lowest force, power, and velocity (5.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥1.2). Peak force and force at peak velocity increased (3.8≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.3) and peak velocity and velocity at peak power decreased (1.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.8) for the push-up without external loading compared with the 2 push-ups with external loading. No significant differences were observed for peak power among the push-ups with or without external loading (0.4≥ Cohen's dz ≥0.1). Although peak power is similar with or without external loading, push-ups without external loading may be more beneficial for a quick movement, and push-ups with external loading may be more beneficial for a greater force production.

  17. Nonlinear vibration of a hemispherical dome under external water pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, C T F; McLennan, A; Little, A P F

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of a hemi-spherical dome when vibrated under external water pressure, using the commercial computer package ANSYS 11.0. In order to achieve this aim, the dome was modelled and vibrated in air and then in water, before finally being vibrated under external water pressure. The results collected during each of the analyses were compared to the previous studies, and this demonstrated that ANSYS was a suitable program and produced accurate results for this type of analysis, together with excellent graphical displays. The analysis under external water pressure, clearly demonstrated that as external water pressure was increased, the resonant frequencies decreased and a type of dynamic buckling became likely; because the static buckling eigenmode was similar to the vibration eigenmode. ANSYS compared favourably with the in-house software, but had the advantage that it produced graphical displays. This also led to the identification of previously undetected meridional modes of vibration; which were not detected with the in-house software.

  18. Nonlinear vibration of a hemispherical dome under external water pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, C. T. F.; McLennan, A.; Little, A. P. F.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the behaviour of a hemi-spherical dome when vibrated under external water pressure, using the commercial computer package ANSYS 11.0. In order to achieve this aim, the dome was modelled and vibrated in air and then in water, before finally being vibrated under external water pressure. The results collected during each of the analyses were compared to the previous studies, and this demonstrated that ANSYS was a suitable program and produced accurate results for this type of analysis, together with excellent graphical displays. The analysis under external water pressure, clearly demonstrated that as external water pressure was increased, the resonant frequencies decreased and a type of dynamic buckling became likely; because the static buckling eigenmode was similar to the vibration eigenmode. ANSYS compared favourably with the in-house software, but had the advantage that it produced graphical displays. This also led to the identification of previously undetected meridional modes of vibration; which were not detected with the in-house software.

  19. Effects of external environment on thermocapillary convection of high prandtl number fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ruquan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations have been carried out to investigate the influence of external environment on thermocapillary convection in high Prandtl number (Pr=68 liquid. The geometric model of physical problem is that the the liquid bridge surrounded by ambient air under zero or ground gravity. The interface velocity, temperature, heat flux and flow pattern in the liquid bridge are presented and discussed under different conditions by changing the external environment. The buoyancy convection produces a symmetrical vortex in the liquid bridge. The ambient air affects the distributions of the temperature velocity and heat flux on the interface by changing the thermocapillary convection.

  20. Thermal performance of 2350 kW totally enclosed air to air cooled motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.C.; Kuo, S.C.; Chen, S.L. [National Taiwan Univ., Taipei, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Cheng, T.F. [TATUNG CO., Sanhsia, Taiwan (China)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated numerically and experimentally the thermal performance of a 2350 kW enclosed air-to-air cooled motor. The experiment was divided into 2 sections. The centrifugal fans were tested using a standard test apparatus. Flow rates, output power, and pressure drop between the inlet and outlet were obtained. The motor was then tested to measure the flow rate of the external flow, and inlet and outlet temperatures of the external and internal flow in the heat exchanger. Motor performance was then simulated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool. Heat transfer within the motor was divided into external and internal flows. External flow was driven by the rotation of the centrifugal fan mounted to the frame on the motor shaft and passing through the tubes of a staggered heat exchanger mounted on the top of the frame. Internal flow was circulated through the heat exchanger by 2 axial fans located on either side of the rotor and cooled by the external flow. Axial and centrifugal fan simulations were in good agreement with results obtained during the experiments. The study demonstrated that the calculated velocity distributions of external flow fluids through the heat exchanger tubes are non-uniform. Air outlet temperatures for internal and external flows were estimated within 2 per cent. However, stator and rotor simulations were 3 per cent lower than experimental measured values. 7 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs.

  1. Waveguide based external cavity semiconductor lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenbeuving, Ruud; Klein, E.J.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Lee, Christopher James; Verhaegen, M.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress of the project waveguide based external cavity semiconductor laser (WECSL) arrays. Here we present the latest results on our efforts to mode lock an array of tunable, external cavity semiconductor lasers.

  2. Temporal and spatial adaptations during the acquisition of a reversal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, E M; Buekers, M J; Helsen, W; Magill, R A

    1998-03-01

    Adjustments of the biphasic movement in a coincidence anticipation task were studied using an erroneous knowledge of results (KR) paradigm. Forty participants received either no KR, correct KR, erroneous (+100 ms) KR, or 100 trials of correct KR followed by 50 trials of erroneous KR. Kinematic analyses revealed that for this 100-50 KR group the extension part of the movement was temporally adjusted under the influence of erroneous KR. Although accompanied by a decrease in movement amplitude, this did not account for the temporal shift in movement outcome, because all groups showed a reduction in amplitude. It is argued that changing external time constraints mainly results in temporal adaptations. However, spatial adaptations do play a role in kinematic changes during acquisition.

  3. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  4. Exoskeleton for assisting human movement

    OpenAIRE

    García Armada, Elena; Cestari, Manuel; Sanz Merodio, Daniel; Carrillo, Xavier Alberto

    2015-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to an exoskeleton for assisting human movement, which can be fitted to the user in terms of dimensions, tension and ranges of joint motion, either manually or automatically. Said exoskeleton can be fitted to the user in the anteroposterior direction in the sagittal plane, with the user in a horizontal or sitting position, without requiring a functional transfer. The exoskeleton has a modular design which is compatible with human biomechanics and reproduces a natural...

  5. Externalized ileocolic anastomosis: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, James; Kuntz, Charles A; Newman, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    A 6-year-old, spayed female Labrador retriever was presented 48 hours after an intestinal resection and anastomosis for management of a small intestinal foreign body. Abdominal ultrasound confirmed the presence of peritoneal effusion. Cytology of fluid collected by abdominocentesis revealed a large number of degenerate neutrophils with intracellular cocci. A diagnosis of septic peritonitis was made, presumably because of dehiscence of the anastomosis. Upon repeat exploratory celiotomy, the intestinal anastomosis (located 4 cm orad to the cecum) was found to be leaking intestinal contents into the abdomen. The distal ileum, cecum, and proximal colon were resected. An end-to-end, ileocolic anastomosis was performed and subsequently exteriorized into the subcutaneous space via a paramedian incision through the abdominal wall. The anastomosis was inspected daily for 4 days before it was returned to the abdomen and the subcutaneous defect was closed. Serial cytology of the peritoneal fluid, which was performed during this 4-day postoperative period, confirmed progressive resolution of peritonitis. The dog was discharged from the hospital 2 days following return of the anastomosis into the abdomen. Externalized intestinal anastomosis is used with good success in human medicine for repair of colonic injuries. In this case, externalization of the anastomosis permitted healing of the intestinal anastomosis in an environment isolated from the detrimental effects created by septic peritonitis. In addition, direct visualization of the anastomosis allowed assessment of healing. To our knowledge, this procedure has not been previously reported in companion animals.

  6. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  7. Movement of global warming issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Taishi

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarizes the report of IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), and the movement of the global warming issues as seen from the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (Conference of the Parties: COP) and the policy discussions in Japan. From the Fifth Assessment Report published by IPCC, it shows the following items: (1) increasing trends of greenhouse effect gas emissions during 1970 and 2010, (2) trends in world's greenhouse effect gas emissions according to income segment, and (3) factor analysis of changes in greenhouse effect gas emissions. Next, it takes up the greenhouse gas emission scenario of IPCC, shows the scenario due to temperature rise pattern, and introduces the assumption of emission reduction due to BECCS. Regarding the 2 deg. scenario that has become a hot topic in international negotiations, it describes the reason for difficulties in its implementation. In addition, as the international trends of global warming, it describes the agreement of numerical targets for emissions at COP3 (Kyoto Conference) and the subsequent movements. Finally, it introduces Japan's measures against global warming, as well as the future movement. (A.O.)

  8. 2nd International external quality control assessment for the molecular diagnosis of dengue infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Domingo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Currently dengue viruses (DENV pose an increasing threat to over 2.5 billion people in over 100 tropical and sub-tropical countries worldwide. International air travel is facilitating rapid global movement of DENV, increasing the risk of severe dengue epidemics by introducing different serotypes. Accurate diagnosis is critical for early initiation of preventive measures. Different reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR methods are available, which should be evaluated and standardized. Epidemiological and laboratory-based surveillance is required to monitor and guide dengue prevention and control programmes, i.e., by mosquito control or possible vaccination (as soon as an effective and safe vaccine becomes available. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the external quality assurance (EQA study described is to assess the efficiency and accuracy of dengue molecular diagnosis methods applied by expert laboratories. STUDY DESIGN: A panel of 12 human plasma samples was distributed and tested for DENV-specific RNA. The panel comprised 9 samples spiked with different DENV serotypes (DENV-1 to DENV-4, including 10-fold dilution series of DENV-1 and DENV-3. Two specificity controls consisted of a sample with a pool of 4 other flaviviruses and a sample with chikungunya virus. A negative control sample was also included. RESULTS: Thirty-seven laboratories (from Europe, Middle East Asia, Asia, the Americas/Caribbean, and Africa participated in this EQA study, and reports including 46 sets of results were returned. Performance among laboratories varied according to methodologies used. Only 5 (10.9% data sets met all criteria with optimal performance, and 4 (8.7% with acceptable performance, while 37 (80.4% reported results showed the need for improvement regarding accomplishment of dengue molecular diagnosis. Failures were mainly due to lack of sensitivity and the presence of false positives. CONCLUSIONS: The EQA provides information on each laboratory

  9. Effects of Externalities on Patterns of Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; van Assen, M.A.L.M.

    Many real−life examples of exchanges with externalities exist. Externalities of exchange are defined as direct consequences of exchanges for the payoff of actors who are not involved in the exchange. This paper focuses on how externalities influence the partner choice in exchange networks. In an

  10. The external cruising costs of parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inci, E.; van Ommeren, J.N.; Kobus, Martijn

    2017-01-01

    Existing work emphasizes the importance of traffic congestion externalities, but typically ignores cruising-for-parking externalities. We estimate the marginal external cruising costs of parking—that is, the time costs that an additional parked car imposes on drivers by inducing them to cruise for

  11. Clean indoor air increases physical independence : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, M.C.L.; Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Clean indoor air enhances health. In a pilot study, we examined whether a good indoor air quality increases the activity potential of older persons with chronic lung disease. Five older persons were studied while performing kitchen activities. Body movement and heart rate were monitored.

  12. ExternE: Externalities of energy Vol. 3. Coal and lignite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.; Holland, M.; Lee, D.

    1995-01-01

    Awareness of the environmental damage resulting from human activity, particularly concerning energy use, has grown greatly in recent years. Effects such as global warming, ozone depletion and acid rain are now the subjects of much research and public debate. It is now known that these and other effects damage a wide range of receptors, including human health, forests, crops, freshwater ecosystems and buildings. Such damages are typically not accounted for by the producers and consumers of the good in question (in this case energy). They are thus referred to as 'external costs' or 'externalities', to distinguish them from the private costs which account for the construction of plant, cost of fuel, wages, etc. In recent years there has been a growing interest in the assessment of the environmental and health impacts of energy, and the related external costs. This concern is driven by a number of different factors: the need to integrate environmental concerns in decision making over the choice between different fuels and energy technologies; the need to evaluate the costs and benefits of stricter environmental standards; increased attention to the use of economic instruments for environmental policy; the need to develop overall indicators of environmental performance of different technologies; major changes in the energy sector, including privatisation, liberalisation of markets, reduction of subsidies, etc. An agreed methodology for calculation and integration of external costs has not been established. Earlier work is typically of a preliminary nature and tends to be deficient with respect to both the methods employed and the quality of models and data used. In consequence of this a collaborative project, the EC/US Fuel Cycles Study, was established between Directorate General XII (Science, Research and Technology) of the European Commission and the United States Department of Energy. This ran for the period 1991 to 1993, and good agreement on a variety of

  13. The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2006-01-01

    The perception of locally applied airflow was studied with tropical subjects who had become passively acclimatized to hot conditions in the course of their day-to-day life. During the experiments, 24 subjects (male and female) performed normal office work in a room equipped with six workstations....

  14. Toward the quantification of a conceptual framework for movement ecology using circular statistical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatani, Ichiro Ken; Yoda, Ken; Katsumata, Nobuhiro; Sato, Katsufumi

    2012-01-01

    To analyze an animal's movement trajectory, a basic model is required that satisfies the following conditions: the model must have an ecological basis and the parameters used in the model must have ecological interpretations, a broad range of movement patterns can be explained by that model, and equations and probability distributions in the model should be mathematically tractable. Random walk models used in previous studies do not necessarily satisfy these requirements, partly because movement trajectories are often more oriented or tortuous than expected from the models. By improving the modeling for turning angles, this study aims to propose a basic movement model. On the basis of the recently developed circular auto-regressive model, we introduced a new movement model and extended its applicability to capture the asymmetric effects of external factors such as wind. The model was applied to GPS trajectories of a seabird (Calonectris leucomelas) to demonstrate its applicability to various movement patterns and to explain how the model parameters are ecologically interpreted under a general conceptual framework for movement ecology. Although it is based on a simple extension of a generalized linear model to circular variables, the proposed model enables us to evaluate the effects of external factors on movement separately from the animal's internal state. For example, maximum likelihood estimates and model selection suggested that in one homing flight section, the seabird intended to fly toward the island, but misjudged its navigation and was driven off-course by strong winds, while in the subsequent flight section, the seabird reset the focal direction, navigated the flight under strong wind conditions, and succeeded in approaching the island.

  15. Immersion in Movement-Based Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marco; Bianchi-Berthouze, Nadia; van Dijk, Betsy; Nijholt, Anton

    The phenomenon of immersing oneself into virtual environments has been established widely. Yet to date (to our best knowledge) the physical dimension has been neglected in studies investigating immersion in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). In movement-based interaction the user controls the interface via body movements, e.g. direct manipulation of screen objects via gestures or using a handheld controller as a virtual tennis racket. It has been shown that physical activity affects arousal and that movement-based controllers can facilitate engagement in the context of video games. This paper aims at identifying movement features that influence immersion. We first give a brief survey on immersion and movement-based interfaces. Then, we report results from an interview study that investigates how users experience their body movements when interacting with movement-based interfaces. Based on the interviews, we identify four movement-specific features. We recommend them as candidates for further investigation.

  16. Communication Theory and the Consumer Movement-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Defines and traces the origins of the consumer movement and uses communication theories to explain the effects of the movement. Available from: Public Relations Review, Ray Hiebert, Dean, College of Journalism, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742. (MH)

  17. Functional jerks, tics, and paroxysmal movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreissen, Y. E. M.; Cath, D C; Tijssen, M A J; Hallet, Mark; Stone, Jon; Carson, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Functional jerks are among the most common functional movement disorders. The diagnosis of functional jerks is mainly based on neurologic examination revealing specific positive clinical signs. Differentiation from other jerky movements, such as tics, organic myoclonus, and primary paroxysmal

  18. Unexpected levels and movement of radon in a large warehouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, R.B.; Espinosa, G.

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-track detectors, used in screening for radon, identified a large warehouse with levels of radon as high as 20 p Ci/l. This circumstance was unexpected because large bay doors were left open for much of the day to admit 1 8-wheeler trucks, and exhaust fans in the roof produced good ventilation. More detailed temporal and spatial investigations of radon and air-flow patterns were made with electret chambers, Lucas-cell flow chambers, tracer gas, smoke pencils and pressure sensing micrometers. An oval-dome shaped zone of radon (>4 p Ci/L) persisted in the central region of each of four separate bays composing the warehouse. Detailed studies of air movement in the bay with the highest levels of radon showed clockwise rotation of air near the outer walls with a central dead zone. Sub slab, radon-laden air ingresses the building through expansion joints between the floor slabs to produce the measured radon. The likely source of radon is air within porous, karst bedrock that underlies much of north-central Tennessee where the warehouse is situated

  19. Gravity effects on endogenous movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsson, Anders; Antonsen, Frank

    Gravity effects on endogenous movements A. Johnsson * and F. Antonsen *+ * Department of Physics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,NO-7491, Trond-heim, Norway, E-mail: anders.johnsson@ntnu.no + Present address: Statoil Research Center Trondheim, NO-7005, Trondheim, Norway Circumnutations in stems/shoots exist in many plants and often consists of more or less regular helical movements around the plumb line under Earth conditions. Recent results on circumnu-tations of Arabidopsis in space (Johnsson et al. 2009) showed that minute amplitude oscilla-tions exist in weightlessness, but that centripetal acceleration (mimicking the gravity) amplified and/or created large amplitude oscillations. Fundamental mechanisms underlying these results will be discussed by modeling the plant tissue as a cylinder of cells coupled together. As a starting point we have modeled (Antonsen 1998) standing waves on a ring of biological cells, as first discussed in a classical paper (Turing 1952). If the coupled cells can change their water content, an `extension' wave could move around the ring. We have studied several, stacked rings of cells coupled into a cylinder that together represent a cylindrical plant tissue. Waves of extensions travelling around the cylinder could then represent the observable circumnutations. The coupling between cells can be due to cell-to-cell diffusion, or to transport via channels, and the coupling can be modeled to vary in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the cylinder. The results from ISS experiments indicate that this cylindrical model of coupled cells should be able to 1) show self-sustained oscillations without the impact of gravity (being en-dogenous) and 2) show how an environmental factor like gravity can amplify or generate the oscillatory movements. Gravity has been introduced in the model by a negative, time-delayed feed-back transport across the cylinder. This represents the physiological reactions to acceler

  20. A decay heat removal system requiring no external energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.; Fermandjian, J.

    1983-12-01

    A new Decay heat Removal System is described for PWR's with dry containment, i.e. a containment building which encloses no permanent reserve of cooling water. This new system is intended to provide a high level of safety since it uses no external energy, but only the thermodynamic energy of the air-steam-liquid water mixture generated in the containment after the failure of the primary circuit (''LOCA'') or of the secondary circuit. Thermodynamics of the system is evaluated first: after some design considerations, the use of the system for protecting actual PWR's is addressed

  1. External noise when using biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotaleski, J.

    1994-08-01

    The aim of this study has been to cover sources of noise dealing with all steps in a biofuel chain; producing, transporting, storing and firing the biofuel. When the availability of relevant test results from noise surveys is not so good and mostly badly documented, the study has been concentrated on estimation of external noise for planning and design purposes, from a prospective biofuel-fired plant. A synoptic tabulation of estimated acoustic power levels from different noise sources, has been done. The results from measurements of external noise from different existing combined power and heating plants are tabulated. The Nordic model for simulation of external noise has been used for a prospective plant - VEGA - designed by Vattenfall. The aim has been to estimate its noise pollutions at critical points at the nearest residential area (250 m from the fenced industry area). The software - ILYD - is easy to handle, but knowledge about the model is necessary. A requisite for the reliability is the access to measurements or estimations of different sources of noise, at different levels of octaves from 63 to 8000 Hz. The degree of accuracy increases with the number of broad band sources, that are integrated. Using ILYD with available data, a night limit of 40 dB(A) should be possible to fulfill with good degree of accuracy at VEGA, between 10 pm and 7 am, with good planning and under normal operation conditions. A demand for 35 dB(A) as a limit can be harder to fulfill, especially at mornings from 6 to 7. Noise from heavy vehicles within the plant area is classified as industrial noise and not as road traffic noise. This type of noise depends very much on the way of driving and assumed acceleration. Concerning wheel-mounted loaders, they may then only be used during daytime. The simulations show, that even at daytime from 7 to 6 pm, it would be possible to use an acoustically damped chipping machine, inside the power industry area. 31 refs, 13 figs, tabs, 8

  2. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1999-06-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs

  3. Differences in methodologies used for externality assessment. Why are the numbers different?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, Lotte

    1999-06-01

    During the last few years, externalities related to power production technologies have been calculated making use of different methodologies. The external costs may turn out to be very different for the same fuel cycle depending on the methodology that has been used to assess the externalities. The report gives a review of different valuation issues, which are used in different externality studies and focuses on why the numbers often are different for the same fuel cycle, using different methodologies for assessment of the externalities. The review of externality valuation focuses in this report on the assessment of environmental externalities. Importance has been attached to health effects, as these are the dominating effects in the external costs. Other effects are only mentioned on a superior level. The report points out different parameters, which are important to consider when externalities estimated for the same fuel cycle in different studies are compared. 8 studies have been chosen for further analysis and comparison in order to show the variation in external costs. The comparison shows the importance of possessing knowledge of which kind of methodologies have been used, which impacts are included etc. to explain why the numbers vary so much in different studies for the same fuel cycle. As an example a comparison of the impacts and damage costs related to air emissions has been made for three studies using different methodologies. The external costs are estimated for the same reference plant using the dispersion models, dose-response functions, impacts and monetary values from the three studies. The estimates from the three studies are compared two and two, and a more detailed analysis is performed in relation to human health, which is the dominating impact in all externality studies. (au) EFP-97. 29 tabs., 12 ills., 34 refs.

  4. Effects of kinesthetic versus visual imagery practice on two technical dance movements: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, Elizabeth Coker; McIsaac, Tara; Nilsen, Dawn

    2012-03-01

    Motor imagery is a type of mental practice that involves imagining the body performing a movement in the absence of motor output. Dance training traditionally incorporates mental practice techniques, but quantitative effects of motor imagery on the performance of dance movements are largely unknown. This pilot study compared the effects of two different imagery modalities, external visual imagery and kinesthetic imagery, on pelvis and hip kinematics during two technical dance movements, plié and sauté. Each of three female dance students (mean age = 19.7 years, mean years of training = 10.7) was assigned to use a type of imagery practice: visual imagery, kinesthetic imagery, or no imagery. Effects of motor imagery on peak external hip rotation varied by both modality and task. Kinesthetic imagery increased peak external hip rotation for pliés, while visual imagery increased peak external hip rotation for sautés. Findings suggest that the success of motor imagery in improving performance may be task-specific. Dancers may benefit from matching imagery modality to technical tasks in order to improve alignment and thereby avoid chronic injury.

  5. Investigating the Constrained Action Hypothesis: A Movement Coordination and Coordination Variability Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Anthony; Wu, Will; Nakajima, Mimi; Becker, James

    2017-09-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of focus of attention cues on movement coordination and coordination variability in the lower extremity. Twenty participants performed the standing long jump under both internal and external focus of attention conditions. A modified vector coding technique was used to evaluate the influence of attentional focus cues on lower extremity coordination patterns and coordination variability during the jumps. Participants jumped significantly further under an external focus of attention condition compared with an internal focus of attention condition (p = .035, effect size = .29). Focus of attention also influenced coordination between the ankle and knee, F(6, 19) = 2.87, p = .012, effect size = .388, with participants primarily using their knees under the internal focus of attention, and using both their ankles and knees under the external focus of attention. Attentional focus cues did not influence ankle-knee, F(1, 19) = 0.02, p = .98, effect size = .02, or hip-knee, F(1, 19) = 5.00, p = .49, effect size = .16, coordination variability. Results suggest that while attentional focus may not directly influence movement coordination condition, there is still a change in movement strategy resulting in greater jump distances following an external focus of attention.

  6. Spontaneous group synchronization of movements and respiratory rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Codrons

    Full Text Available We tested whether pre-assigned arm movements performed in a group setting spontaneously synchronized and whether synchronization extended to heart and respiratory rhythms. We monitored arm movements, respiration and electrocardiogram at rest and during spontaneous, music and metronome-associated arm-swinging. No directions were given on whether or how the arm swinging were to be synchronized between participants or with the external cues. Synchronization within 3 groups of 10 participants studied collectively was compared with pseudo-synchronization of 3 groups of 10 participants that underwent an identical protocol but in an individual setting. Motor synchronization was found to be higher in the collective groups than in the individuals for the metronome-associated condition. On a repetition of the protocol on the following day, motor synchronization in the collective groups extended to the spontaneous, un-cued condition. Breathing was also more synchronized in the collective groups than in the individuals, particularly at rest and in the music-associated condition. Group synchronization occurs without explicit instructions, and involves both movements and respiratory control rhythms.

  7. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  8. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...

  9. 30 CFR 250.602 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.602 Section 250.602... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.602 Equipment movement. The movement of well-workover rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well on...

  10. 49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...

  11. 30 CFR 250.502 - Equipment movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equipment movement. 250.502 Section 250.502... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.502 Equipment movement. The movement of well-completion rigs and related equipment on and off a platform or from well to well...

  12. 49 CFR 236.774 - Movement, facing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, facing. 236.774 Section 236.774 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, facing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in a direction opposite to...

  13. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement restrictions. 92.3 Section 92... ANIMAL PRODUCTS: PROCEDURES FOR REQUESTING RECOGNITION OF REGIONS § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever... exist and the EC imposes prohibitions or other restrictions on the movement of animals or animal...

  14. Mixed movements/performance-based drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Mixed Movements is a research project engaged in performance-based architectural drawing. As one in a series working with architectonic implementation in relation to body and movements, the actual project relates body-movement and dynamic drawing and presents the material as interactive ‘space-time-tables’....

  15. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  16. Movement Education Framework (MEF) Made EZ!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiller-Abels, Karen; Bridges, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    All physical educators want to provide lessons that foster success. Particularly essential to the movement education framework is not only providing lessons that foster motor success, but also to develop knowledge about movement to help the learner develop skill in executing all different types of movement. The framework and examples provided in…

  17. Salmon carcass movements in forest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke Strobel; Daniel R. Shivley; Brett B. Roper

    2009-01-01

    The movements of salmon carcasses over time were studied in two forest streams in the context of a large-scale salmon carcass supplementation program. The objectives were to assess both the level of treatment after stream flows had displaced carcasses and to evaluate whether the magnitude of carcass movements outside of a given reach could be predicted. The movements...

  18. Air barrier details: How effective are they

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A project was initiated to measure the air leakage through three typical details in wood frame walls: the header joist, electric outlets, and window openings. Three construction methods were tested: the poly approach, where a sealed internal polyethylene sheet and caulking provide the air barrier; an external air barrier approach using a continuous vapor permeable membrane sandwiched between two layers of external wall sheathing; and the airtight drywall approach (ADA), where the interior gypsum board finish along with framing and gaskets are the air barrier. Twelve sample panels using each of the three details were built using each of the construction approaches. A traditional wood-frame wall construction detail, with no effort made to create a continuous air barrier, was also built and tested for comparison. The samples were put in a test chamber so that air pressures could create infiltration or exfiltration through the panel under loads similar to those due to wind action. Measurements were made at several stages during construction of each sample to see the effect of different components on the air leakage. Overall, all but the traditional samples and the ADA electrical outlet panel exceeded the current tightness standards for glass and aluminum curtain walls. All three approaches could meet the airtightness standards of the R-2000 program. The total air leakage calculated for each approach is under 20% of that in traditional construction. Of the details tested, window detailing offers the greatest potential for increasing overall airtightness compared to traditional methods. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Interpersonal similarity between body movements in face-to-face communication in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an

  20. Interpersonal similarity between body movements in face-to-face communication in daily life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Higo

    Full Text Available Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results

  1. Dynamic model of the octopus arm. I. Biomechanics of the octopus reaching movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekutieli, Yoram; Sagiv-Zohar, Roni; Aharonov, Ranit; Engel, Yaakov; Hochner, Binyamin; Flash, Tamar

    2005-08-01

    The octopus arm requires special motor control schemes because it consists almost entirely of muscles and lacks a rigid skeletal support. Here we present a 2D dynamic model of the octopus arm to explore possible strategies of movement control in this muscular hydrostat. The arm is modeled as a multisegment structure, each segment containing longitudinal and transverse muscles and maintaining a constant volume, a prominent feature of muscular hydrostats. The input to the model is the degree of activation of each of its muscles. The model includes the external forces of gravity, buoyancy, and water drag forces (experimentally estimated here). It also includes the internal forces generated by the arm muscles and the forces responsible for maintaining a constant volume. Using this dynamic model to investigate the octopus reaching movement and to explore the mechanisms of bend propagation that characterize this movement, we found the following. 1) A simple command producing a wave of muscle activation moving at a constant velocity is sufficient to replicate the natural reaching movements with similar kinematic features. 2) The biomechanical mechanism that produces the reaching movement is a stiffening wave of muscle contraction that pushes a bend forward along the arm. 3) The perpendicular drag coefficient for an octopus arm is nearly 50 times larger than the tangential drag coefficient. During a reaching movement, only a small portion of the arm is oriented perpendicular to the direction of movement, thus minimizing the drag force.

  2. External radiotherapy in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.; Shah, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    In the management of thyroid carcinoma (TC) of any histological type, surgery is the primary mode of treatment. The second modality for the management is treatment with radioactive iodine ( 131 I), especially, when the tumor has the ability to concentrate 131 I. External radiotherapy has a limited use in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). It is useful in the management of bulky residual tissue which is not completely resected, metastatic disease which does not concentrated radioiodine and as a palliative treatment for reliving pain in patients with distant metastases. The ER as an adjuvant treatment in both anaplastic and medullary carcinoma has a significant role to play and should be used more frequently than is presently being advocated and practiced

  3. The results of air treatment process modeling at the location of the air curtain in the air suppliers and ventilation shafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaev Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the existing shaft air heater installations (AHI, that heat the air for air suppliers in cold seasons, a heater channel is used. Some parts of the air from the heater go to the channel, other parts are sucked through a pithead by the general shaft pressure drawdown formed by the main ventilation installation (MVI. When this happens, a mix of two air flows leads to a shaft heat regime violation that can break pressurization of intertubular sealers. The problem of energy saving while airing underground mining enterprises is also very important. The proposed solution of both tasks due to the application of an air curtain is described in the article. In cold seasons the air treatment process should be used and it is offered to place an air curtain in the air suppliers shaft above the place of interface of the calorifer channel to a trunk in order to avoid an infiltration (suction of air through the pithead. It’s recommended to use an air curtain in a ventilation shaft because it reduces external air leaks thereby improving energy efficiency of the MVI work. During the mathematical modeling of ventilation and air preparation process (in SolidWorks Flowsimulation software package it was found out that the use of the air curtain in the air supply shaft can increase the efficiency of the AHI, and reduce the electricity consumption for ventilation in the ventilation shaft.

  4. MEG-compatible pneumatic stimulator to elicit passive finger and toe movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piitulainen, Harri; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Hari, Riitta; Jousmäki, Veikko

    2015-05-15

    Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) signals recorded from the primary sensorimotor (SM1) cortex are coherent with kinematics of both active and passive finger movements. The coherence mainly reflects movement-related proprioceptive afference to the cortex. Here we describe a novel MEG-compatible stimulator to generate computer-controlled passive finger and toe movements that can be used as stimuli in functional brain-imaging experiments. The movements are produced by pneumatic artificial muscle (PAM), elastic actuator that shortens with increasing air pressure. To test the applicability of the stimulator to functional brain-imaging, 4-min trains of passive repetitive 5-mm flexion-extension movements of the right and left index finger and the right hallux were produced at 3Hz while the subject's brain activity was measured with whole-scalp MEG and finger or toe kinematics with an accelerometer. In all ten subjects studied, statistically significant coherence (up to 0.78) occurred between the accelerometer and MEG signals at the movement frequency or its first harmonic. Sources of coherent activity were in the contralateral hand or foot SM1 cortices. Movement-evoked fields elicited with intermittent movements of the right index finger (once every 3.2-4.0s; mean±SD peak response latency 88±25ms) were co-located with the respective coherent sources. We further moved the right index finger at 3, 6, and 12Hz (movement ranges 5, 3, and 2mm, respectively), and analyzed the first 1, 2, and 4-min epochs of data. One minute of data was sufficient to locate the left hand area of the SM1 cortex at all movement frequencies. Sound-induced spurious coherence was reliably ruled out in a control experiment. Our novel movement stimulator thus provides a robust and reliable tool to track proprioceptive afference to the cortex and to locate the SM1 cortex. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Next decade in external dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1988-01-01

    In recent years, a number of external dosimetry problems have been solved. However, changes in standards and legal concepts relating to the application of dosimetry results will require further enhancements in measurement techniques and philosophy in the next 10 y. The introduction of effective dose equivalent and the legal use of probability of causation will require that much greater attention be given to determination of weighted organ dose from external exposure. An imminent change--an increase in the fast neutron quality factor--will require a new round of technology development in a field that has just received a decade of close scrutiny. For the future, we must take advantage of developments in microelectronics. The use of random access memory (RAM) and metal-on-silicon (MOS) devices as detector elements, particularly for neutron dosimetry, has exciting possibilities that are just beginning to be explored. Advances in microcircuitry are leading, and will continue to lead, in the development of a new generation of small, rugged and smart radiation survey instruments that will make the most of detector data. It has become possible with very compact instruments to obtain energy spectra, linear-energy-transfer (LET) spectra, and quality factors in addition to the usual integrated dosimetric quantities: exposure, absorbed dose, and dose equivalent. These instruments will be reliable and easy to use. The user will be able to select the level of sophistication that is required for any specific application. Moreover, since the processing algorithms can be changed, changes in conversion factors can be accommodated with relative ease. During the next decade, the use of computers will continue to grow in value to the health physicist

  6. Analysis of External Treatment Methods and Technical Characteristics of External Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Miao, Mingsan; Bai, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Chinese medicine external therapy is a treatment method of Chinese medicine with Chinese characteristics. The effect of traditional Chinese medicine external treatment, convenient operation, external treatment and technology has great prospects for development. The traditional Chinese medicine external treatment method and technical characteristics were analyzed.

  7. PHOSPHORUS SORPTION ISOTHERMS AND EXTERNAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    les capacités d'adsorption ont été obtenues en équilibrant 3.0 g de chaque échantillon avec 30 ml de CaCl2 à 0.01. Molaire, ces ... kg-1 ; ils étaient alors classés sols à haut potentiel d'adsorption de P. les ions échangeables Al3+ et Fe2+ etaient positivement .... involves 3.0 g of air-dried sample of each soil, transferred in to ...

  8. Navigational efficiency in a biased and correlated random walk model of individual animal movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph D; Wallis, Jamie; Codling, Edward A

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how an individual animal is able to navigate through its environment is a key question in movement ecology that can give insight into observed movement patterns and the mechanisms behind them. Efficiency of navigation is important for behavioral processes at a range of different spatio-temporal scales, including foraging and migration. Random walk models provide a standard framework for modeling individual animal movement and navigation. Here we consider a vector-weighted biased and correlated random walk (BCRW) model for directed movement (taxis), where external navigation cues are balanced with forward persistence. We derive a mathematical approximation of the expected navigational efficiency for any BCRW of this form and confirm the model predictions using simulations. We demonstrate how the navigational efficiency is related to the weighting given to forward persistence and external navigation cues, and highlight the counter-intuitive result that for low (but realistic) levels of error on forward persistence, a higher navigational efficiency is achieved by giving more weighting to this indirect navigation cue rather than direct navigational cues. We discuss and interpret the relevance of these results for understanding animal movement and navigation strategies. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. What makes a movement a gesture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Miriam A; Wakefield, Elizabeth M; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Theories of how adults interpret the actions of others have focused on the goals and intentions of actors engaged in object-directed actions. Recent research has challenged this assumption, and shown that movements are often interpreted as being for their own sake (Schachner & Carey, 2013). Here we postulate a third interpretation of movement-movement that represents action, but does not literally act on objects in the world. These movements are gestures. In this paper, we describe a framework for predicting when movements are likely to be seen as representations. In Study 1, adults described one of three scenes: (1) an actor moving objects, (2) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them) or (3) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants systematically described the movements as depicting an object-directed action when the actor moved objects, and favored describing the movements as depicting movement for its own sake when the actor produced the same movements in the absence of objects. However, participants favored describing the movements as representations when the actor produced the movements near, but not on, the objects. Study 2 explored two additional features-the form of an actor's hands and the presence of speech-like sounds-to test the effect of context on observers' classification of movement as representational. When movements are seen as representations, they have the power to influence communication, learning, and cognition in ways that movement for its own sake does not. By incorporating representational gesture into our framework for movement analysis, we take an important step towards developing a more cohesive understanding of action-interpretation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and Experimental Investigation of Pneumatic Movement Mechanism Supported by Mechanic Cam and Crank Shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih KORUCU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The pressurized air is applied to many sectors required purity and velocity. One of these sectors is to use of air as impulsive force in the moving mechanisms. In this study, the movement mechanism prototype worked with compressed air was designed and produced forlight vehicle engine as motorbike and ATV (All-Terrain Vehicle. In developed mechanisms, pneumatic artificial muscles were used for a given movement of crankshaft. A cam system was also designed for synchronization pneumatic muscles. In this way, these muscles transmit the synchronous movement to crankshaft. At the end of the study, the developed mechanism was mounted on an ATV vehicle(110 cc/ Cubic Centimeter, engine displacement capacityand its performance was tested using the four different weights (50, 75, 100 and 150 kg, three different pressures (4, 5 and 6 bar and two different hoses (Ø 6 and Ø 8 mm. By considering experimental results and design criteria, power of the movement mechanism was obtained as 886 Watt. With this study, minimization of energy consumption for movement of passenger cars, and using clean and cheap energy as ATV which can be alternative for single or two passenger vehicles.

  11. Examining Age-Related Movement Representations for Sequential (Fine-Motor) Finger Movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl; Cacola, Priscila; Bobbio, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Theory suggests that imagined and executed movement planning relies on internal models for action. Using a chronometry paradigm to compare the movement duration of imagined and executed movements, we tested children aged 7-11 years and adults on their ability to perform sequential finger movements. Underscoring this tactic was our desire to gain a…

  12. Externalities of fuel cycles 'ExternE' project. Economic valuation. Economical valuation: An impact pathway approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markandya, A.

    1994-01-01

    The EC/US study of the external costs of fuel cycles is designed to trace through all the environmental impacts arising from the use of a particular fuel, from the 'cradle' to the 'grave'; to quantify these impacts as far as possible (giving priority to those that are the considered the most important) and to value the damages arising from them in money terms as far as possible (again keeping to the priority listing established by the physical quantification). The fuel cycle has been identified as consisting of the following elements: activities -> emissions/burdens; emissions/burdens -> physical environmental impacts; physical impacts -> external environmental impacts; external impacts -> costs of these impacts. The activities consist of all the operations that are carried out in connection with the extraction transportation, use in electricity generation and finally disposal of the fuel. The emissions or burdens arising from the cycle result in physical impacts, which in turn imply certain environmental impacts. An illustration of a typical fuel cycle (coal) audits environmental impacts is given in Figures. The work of the fuels cycle study teams is to complete the valuation of the shaded areas but giving priority to those impacts that are likely to be quantitatively important. .Each fuel cycle is evaluated in a location-specific context, so that it refers to the impacts arising from the use of coal, or gas or whatever fuel is being considered at an actual plant that is operating. The purpose of this report on economic valuation is to: (a) examine the literature or economic valuation of environmental externalities in Europe; (b) assess its relevance to the fuel cycle study and (c) make recommendations on how the detailed analysis of the individual fuel cycles should use the economic valuation. It is important to recognize that the report is not a complete survey of all the research ever done on environmental valuation. Although as complete a survey of all the

  13. Motivation for Air-Launch: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John W.; Rogers, Charles E.; Brierly, Gregory T.; Martin, J Campbell; Murphy, Marshall G.

    2017-01-01

    Air-launch is defined as two or more air-vehicles joined and working together, that eventually separate in flight, and that have a combined performance greater than the sum of the individual parts. The use of the air-launch concept has taken many forms across civil, commercial, and military contexts throughout the history of aviation. Air-launch techniques have been applied for entertainment, movement of materiel and personnel, efficient execution of aeronautical research, increasing aircraft range, and enabling flexible and efficient launch of space vehicles. For each air-launch application identified in the paper, the motivation for that application is discussed.

  14. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  15. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  16. Stereotypic movement disorder: easily missed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Roger D; Soltanifar, Atefeh; Baer, Susan

    2010-08-01

    To expand the understanding of stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) and its differentiation from tics and autistic stereotypies. Forty-two children (31 males, mean age 6y 3mo, SD 2y 8mo; 11 females, mean age 6y 7mo, SD 1y 9mo) consecutively diagnosed with SMD, without-self-injurious behavior, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, or an autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), were assessed in a neuropsychiatry clinic. A list of probe questions on the nature of the stereotypy was administered to parents (and to children if developmentally ready). Questionnaires administered included the Stereotypy Severity Scale, Short Sensory Profile, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Repetitive Behavior Scale--Revised, and the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire. The stereotyped movement patterns were directly observed and in some cases further documented by video recordings made by parents. The probe questions were used again on follow-up at a mean age of 10 years 7 months (SD 4y 4mo). Mean age at onset was 17 months. Males exceeded females by 3:1. Family history of a pattern of SMD was reported in 13 and neuropsychiatric comorbidity in 30 (attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 16, tics in 18, and developmental coordination disorder in 16). Obsessive-compulsive disorder occurred in only two. The Short Sensory Profile correlated with comorbidity (p<0.001), the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.009), and the Repetitive Behavior Scale (p<0.001); the last correlated with the Stereotypy Severity Scale (p=0.001). Children (but not their parents) liked their movements, which were usually associated with excitement or imaginative play. Mean length of follow-up was 4 years 8 months (SD 2y 10mo). Of the 39 children followed for longer than 6 months, the behavior stopped or was gradually shaped so as to occur primarily privately in 25. Misdiagnosis was common: 26 were initially referred as tics, 10 as ASD, five as compulsions, and one as epilepsy. Co-occurring facial

  17. Brownian movement and molecular reality

    CERN Document Server

    Perrin, Jean

    2005-01-01

    How do we know that molecules really exist? An important clue came from Brownian movement, a concept developed in 1827 by botanist Robert Brown, who noticed that tiny objects like pollen grains shook and moved erratically when viewed under a microscope. Nearly 80 years later, in 1905, Albert Einstein explained this ""Brownian motion"" as the result of bombardment by molecules. Einstein offered a quantitative explanation by mathematically estimating the average distance covered by the particles over time as a result of molecular bombardment. Four years later, Jean Baptiste Perrin wrote Brownia

  18. Case vignettes of movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, C Y

    1983-08-01

    This paper reports five movement disorders cases to serve as a basis for discussion of the problems encountered in the clinical management of these cases, and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in these disorders as presented. Case 1 is a description of the subjective experience of a patient with acute orofacial dystonia from promethazine. Case 2 is the use of clonazepam is post-head injury tics. Case 3 is the complication from discontinuation of haloperidol and benztropine mesylate treatment. Case 4 is myoclonus in subacute sclerosing Panencephalitis, and Case 5 is rebound tremor from withdrawal of a beta-adrenergic blocker.

  19. The Reasons for Activisation of Separatism Movements in Xinjiang Later in XX and XXI Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Сергеевна Мавлонова

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article includes analysis of the main reasons for activization of separatism movements in Xinjiang later in XX and earlier in XXI centuries. The author comes into conclusion that the following reasons caused the process of active politicization of ethnicity in Central Asian region and wide territories of Xinjiang: changes in the territory of former Soviet Union countries; economic recession in former Soviet Union countries which led to activization of radical movements; economic reforms in China leading to liberalization of social and political spheres; influence of external global factors. The mentioned changes resulted in serious activization of separatist tendencies which was not the case in earlier periods.

  20. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)