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Sample records for exteriorized circulating blood

  1. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  2. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  3. [William Harvey, discoverer of the blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    v Mühlendahl, K E

    2007-06-01

    William Harvey (1578-1657), living at the turn to modern times, scientifically speaking, was an eminent physician and scientist. He developed the concept of the circulation of the blood and his findings have proved to be correct in nearly all details to this day. He published his physiological findings and interpretations in a small, albeit epoch-making, volume: Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, published in Frankfurt in 1628. On the occasion of the 350th anniversary of his death on June 3, 2007, this essay commemorates the work of this important physician, illustrating his brilliant conception of the blood circulation by quoting passages from De motu cordis et sanguinis.

  4. EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION: EFFECT OF LONG-TERM (24-HOUR) CIRCULATION ON BLOOD COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Robert Glen

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation damages blood and causes harmful side effects such as stroke and/or systemic inflammatory response in patients. Reactions of blood components to extracorporeal circulation include complement and inflammatory reactions, coagulation and thrombogenesis, frank hemolysis, and platelet activation and adhesion to the extracorporeal circuit. Non-physiologic pressure and flow produced by blood pumps contribute to blood injury. Two pump types, roller and centrifugal, are u...

  5. Influence of obesity and androgen deficiency on prostatic blood circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Study at 120 Diabetes Mellitus II type men the high frequency Obesity (71,7% and Androgen Deficiency (52,8—64,5% of the patients depending on a degree of the indemnification and them pathogenic authentic communications were shown. The blood level of total testosterone was represented by the critical factor of Prostatic arterial Blood Circulation. Obesity and Androgen Deficiency are seem as independent risk factors to development of ischemic prostatopathy, such as Prostatic blood circulation Disorders can develop earlier than other variants of the diabetic microangiophaty.

  6. Ultrasonic Doppler blood flow meter for extracorporeal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Ricardo G.; Costa, Eduardo T.; Maia, Joaquim M.; Nantes Button, Vera L. d. S.

    2000-04-01

    In cardiac surgeries it is frequently necessary to carry out interventions in internal heart structures, and where the blood circulation and oxygenation are made by artificial ways, out of the patient's body, in a procedure known as extracorporeal circulation (EC). During this procedure, one of the most important parameters, and that demands constant monitoring, is the blood flow. In this work, an ultrasonic pulsed Doppler blood flowmeter, to be used in an extracorporeal circulation system, was developed. It was used a 2 MHz ultrasonic transducer, measuring flows from 0 to 5 liters/min, coupled externally to the EC arterial line destined to adults perfusion (diameter of 9.53 mm). The experimental results using the developed flowmeter indicated a maximum deviation of 3.5% of full scale, while the blood flow estimator based in the rotation speed of the peristaltic pump presented deviations greater than 20% of full scale. This ultrasonic flowmeter supplies the results in a continuous and trustworthy way, and it does not present the limitations found in those flowmeters based in other transduction methods. Moreover, due to the fact of not being in contact with the blood, it is not disposable and it does not need sterilization, reducing operational costs and facilitating its use.

  7. Metabolism of nanomaterials in vivo: blood circulation and organ clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; He, Xiao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Feng, Weiyue

    2013-03-19

    Before researchers apply nanomaterials (NMs) in biomedicine, they need to understand the blood circulation and clearance profile of these materials in vivo. These qualities determine the balance between nanomaterial-induced activity and unwanted toxicity. NMs have heterogeneous characteristics: they combine the bulk properties of solids with the mobility of molecules, and their highly active contact interfaces exhibit diverse functionalities. Any new and unexpected circulation features and clearance patterns are of great concern in toxicological studies and pharmaceutical screens. A number of studies have reported that NMs can enter the bloodstream directly during their application or indirectly via inhalation, ingestion, and dermal exposure. Due to the small size of NMs, the blood can then transport them throughout the circulation and to many organs where they can be stored. In this Account, we discuss the blood circulation and organ clearance patterns of NMs in the lung, liver, and kidney. The circulation of NMs in bloodstream is critical for delivery of inhalable NMs to extrapulmonary organs, the delivery of injectable NMs, the dynamics of tissue redistribution, and the overall targeting of drug carriers to specific cells and organs. The lung, liver, and kidney are the major distribution sites and target organs for NMs exposure, and the clearance patterns of NMs in these organs are critical for understanding the in vivo fate of NMs. Current studies suggest that multiple factors control the circulation and organ clearance of NMs. The size, shape, surface charge, surface functional groups, and aspect ratio of NMs as well as tissue microstructures strongly influence the circulation of NMs in bloodstream, their site-specific extravasation, and their clearance profiles within organs. Therefore structure design and surface modification can improve biocompatibility, regulate the in vivo metabolism, and reduce the toxicity of NMs. The biophysicochemical interactions

  8. [Regulation of innate immunity during xenogenic changes in blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V S

    2001-01-01

    Calcium-dependent innate immune response with participation of the superfamily of immunoglobulins to several intra- and extracorporal xenobiotics were studied at 216 recipients during synthetic cardiac valves implantation or veins transplantation in coronary arteries. It was shown that immediate immune response to xenobiotics was manifested by generation of the antitissue anodical autoprecipitin with specificity to the surface cell membrane component. This reaction initiated and regulated the subsequent dynamics of the two different fibrinogen autoimmune complexes formation, resulting in development of the immunogenic damages of blood circulation. Correction of these rapid innate immune responses is important for prevention and normalisation of the xenogenic damages of blood circulation during trans- and implantation on the heart impaired with endocarditis or aterosclerosis.

  9. Accuracy of a new bedside method for estimation of circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Waever Rasmussen, J; Winther Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume.......To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume....

  10. Harvey, by Hercules! The hero of the blood's circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke Boyle, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    This article continues the analyses in Medical History 52 (2008), 73-90, 365-86 of William Harvey's self-understanding as the philosopher and discoverer of the blood's circulation. Harvey brilliantly and subversively assumed the persona of the mythological Hercules to embody his own anatomical labour in De motu cordis et sanguinis (1628). He reprised the role in self-defence against accusations in the College of Physicians, London, of his breach of faith with medical tradition. Harvey sought to usurp the medical epithet 'a second Hercules' by reforming humanist dependence on ancient texts as authoritative medicine. A knowledge of the theory and practice of Renaissance humanism discloses his identification with the Herculean labour of cleansing the Augean stable. He employed anatomical demonstration against Galen's porous cardiac septum, which admitted blood across the ventricles. Harvey's oath mehercule swore against Galen's Dia to assert the necessity of opening an alternate route for the blood flow. His Herculean labour was to dam the cardiac septum and divert the blood flow into a continuous channel through the arteries and veins. His circulation of the blood also imitated Hercules' successful dependence on the force of the water flow to flush the Augean stable. Harvey's copia did not denote a quantitative amount but a powerful supply. Harvey aspired to be, like Hercules, immortal, a term which the College belatedly acknowledged. This cultural analysis exposes Harvey's professional issues and personal ambitions, so to promote a fuller understanding of his historic role in medical discovery.

  11. Detection of micrometastasis of gastric carcinoma in peripheral blood circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Mei Chen; Guo-Yu Chen; Zhi-Rong Wang; Feng-Shang Zhu; Xiao-Lei Wang; Xia Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To detect the micrometastasis of gastric carcinoma in peripheral blood circulation using immunomagnetic beads sorting technique and RT-PCR technique, and to discuss its significance and the difference between the two methods. METHODS: Density gradient centrifugation was used to isolate mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, immunomagnetic beads sorting technique and RT-PCR technique were used to detect the disseminated carcinoma cells. HE, immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining were also used to identify the characteristics of the cells separated with immunomagnetic beads sorting technique. RESULTS: Cells expressing cytokeratin were separated and enriched from the peripheral blood specimens of patients suffering from gastric carcinoma or chronic gastritis. After HE staining, two kinds of cells with little cytoplasm were found. Majority of these cells had small and round nuclei, even chromatins and the thickness of nuclear membrane was normal. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that there were CD34 and CD45 expression on the cell membrane of this kind of cells and these cells also showed expressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase by immunofluorescence staining, but the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen was absent. So, these cells might hematopoiesis precursors.Another kind of cells had larger and abnormal nuclei with thicker nuclear membranes. Massed chromatins and poly nucleoli were found in the nuclei. These cells expressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase and carcinoembryonic antigen, but CD34 and CD45 were not found on the cell membrane. So, these cells were considered as gastric carcinoma cells escaping from the original focuses and existing in the peripheral blood circulation. Carcinoma cells were found in 25 of 60(41.7%) specimens of peripheral blood from patients with gastric carcinoma, while there were no such cells separated from the blood specimens of chronic gastritis patients. The difference of positive rates of

  12. Does Every Cell Get Blood? Young Students' Discussions about Illustrations of Human Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Karl-Goran

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how groups of young students discuss illustrations of human blood circulation. Transparency is not an innate quality of illustrations, visual information is always coded and interpretations are always related to culture and context. Results of this study are discussed with reference to Kress and van Leeuwens'…

  13. [Effect of exercise in water on maternal blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, M; Saegusa, S; Yamada, A; Suzuki, M; Noguchi, M; Niwa, S; Nakanishi, M

    1994-02-01

    To elucidate the effects of exercise in water on the maternal circulation, twenty normal pregnancies were examined under the following three conditions; 1) on the land at rest, 2) during water immersion and 3) after the exercise in water. Their gestational ages were from 25 to 37 weeks (31 +/- 4 weeks, mean +/- S.D., n = 20). We examined the blood pressure, the urine volume throughout the examination, CBC and the levels of vasopressin, plasma renin activity and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP). The blood volume calculated from the Hb and Ht were significantly (p water immersion (105.8 +/- 2.5%), even after the exercise (101.6 +/- 2.9%). Vasopressin was decreased during the water immersion and increased after the exercise, but plasma renin activity was decreased in these two conditions. The hANP concentration was significantly (p exercise in water and correlated with the urine volume (ml/hour) during the examination. These results show that the decline in blood pressure and the increase in the urine volume during the maternal swimming were caused by the decreased plasma renin activity and the increased hANP concentration resulted from the blood volume expansion during the exercise in water.

  14. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  15. Filtration parameters influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·10(4∶10(2∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm(2 track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC.

  16. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  17. [The analysis of tincture for improvement of blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatoniene, Rūta; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Ramanauskiene, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    The article describes qualitative and quantitative analysis of tincture for improvement of blood circulation. Flavonoids have been qualitatively determined by methods of thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography and color reaction with magnesium powder and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Ferments were identified with ferric ammonium sulphate solution; glycosides--with dimethylaminobenzaldehyde solution in sulphur acid; saponin--with lead subacetate solution; reductive materials - with silver nitrate ammoniacal solution; albumen--with ninhydrin solution; and caffeic acid--by method of thin-layer chromatography. An optimal spectrophotometrical method for determining the quantity of quercetin was applied. The refractive index, relative density, loss of drying and ethanol concentration were determined according to European Pharmacopoeia Requirements.

  18. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  19. [Evaluation of the hypomagnetic environment effects on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure and heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Iu I; Vasin, A L; Matveeva, T A; Sasonko, M L

    2014-01-01

    Impact of attenuated magnetic field (MF) on human health is a hard-core issue of present-day cosmonautics. A series of experiments with animals exposed in attenuated MF revealed violent disorders in cardiovascular system development. Purpose of the work was to study effects of the hypomagnetic environment (HME) on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normal people. Participants (n = 34) were 24 men and 10 women free from cardiovascular symptoms. Mean age was 43.3 +/- 15.4 years. Thirteen participants, i.e. 8 men and 5 women, were randomly selected for a repeated investigation in the usual conditions (imaginary exposure); mean age in the group made up 47.9 +/- 18 years. Cardiac rhythm and heart rate were recorded using cardiac monitor Astrocard (Russia). BP was measured with the help of automatic blood pressure monitor Tonocard (Russia). Capillary circulation was determined using a digital capillaroscope (Russia) with high-speed CMOS-camera (100 frames/s). Time of HME exposure was 60 min. It was demonstrated that in healthy people free from cardiovascular symptoms HME increases capillary circulation rate by 22.4% as compared with records made under the usual conditions. There was a reliable HR reduction by the end of HME exposure with reference to the measurements taken at the onset. At the end of exposure, diastolic BP dropped considerably relative to mid-exposure values and systolic BP, on the contrary, made a significant rise.

  20. Novel function for blood platelets and podoplanin in developmental separation of blood and lymphatic circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrin, Pavel; Zaujec, Jan; Breuss, Johannes M; Olcaydu, Damla; Chrenek, Peter; Stockinger, Hannes; Fuertbauer, Elke; Moser, Markus; Haiko, Paula; Fässler, Reinhard; Alitalo, Kari; Binder, Bernd R; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

    2010-05-13

    During embryonic development, lymph sacs form from the cardinal vein, and sprout centrifugally to form mature lymphatic networks. Separation of the lymphatic from the blood circulation by a hitherto unknown mechanism is essential for the homeostatic function of the lymphatic system. O-glycans on the lymphatic endothelium have recently been suggested to be required for establishment and maintenance of distinct blood and lymphatic systems, primarily by mediating proper function of podoplanin. Here, we show that this separation process critically involves platelet activation by podoplanin. We found that platelet aggregates build up in wild-type embryos at the separation zone of podoplanin(+) lymph sacs and cardinal veins, but not in podoplanin(-/-) embryos. Thus, podoplanin(-/-) mice develop a "nonseparation" phenotype, characterized by a blood-filled lymphatic network after approximately embryonic day 13.5, which, however, partially resolves in postnatal mice. The same embryonic phenotype is also induced by treatment of pregnant mice with acetyl salicylic acid, podoplanin-blocking antibodies, or by inactivation of the kindlin-3 gene required for platelet aggregation. Therefore, interaction of endothelial podoplanin of the developing lymph sac with circulating platelets from the cardinal vein is critical for separating the lymphatic from the blood vascular system.

  1. Generalized exterior algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann alg...

  2. Biomechanopharmacology in Evaluation of Herbs of Activating Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fu-long; CAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Herbs of activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis(ABCRBS) are a category of over 10% in the modern Chinese Pharmacopoeia. A new borderline discipline, biomechanopharmacology, is shaping by the efforts of applying biomechanics in pharmacological studies of ABCRBS herbs. Biomechanics is involved in modeling of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) with mechanical force induced injury and model evaluation by shear stress monitoring for blood coagulation. Investigations showed that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and diallyl trisulfide (DT) extracted from garlic demonstrated inhibiting characteristics on vWF mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation occurring under high shear rates. The effect of TMP on shear-induced platelet aggregation might be due to inhibition of calcium channel activity since it showed significant inhibition on intracellular level of calcium demonstrated by laser confocal microscope. The combined effects of TMP and shear stress on rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (rCMEC) were investigated by various doses of TMP incorporated with different levels of shear stress generated by a rotational coneplate rheometer. The results indicated that apoptosis of rCMECs could be restrained by a combination of medial level of shear stress with a suitable dose of TMP. To study the influences of shear stress, pressure and TMP on angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cell, cultured rCMEC was pretreated in a flow chamber with independent adjustment for levels of shear stress and pressure, and then 3D cultured on Matrigel. The results indicate that combined effects of shear stress, pressure and TMP may influence angiogenesis significantly. We believe that research on interactions among blood shear stress, secretion of endothelial cell, and pharmacodynamics will be an interesting area of biomechanopharmacology. Herbs of ABCRBS and their extracts for protecting endothelial cells to maintain their normal functions are

  3. William Harvey and the discovery of the circulation of the blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribatti Domenico

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This Commentary emphasizes the fundamental contribution of William Harvey to the discovery of the circulation of the blood and his scientific and experimental approach to this matter.

  4. [PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN CHILDREN, OPERATED ON FOR INBORN HEART FAILURES IN THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD CIRCULATION ENVIRONMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkivska, L V; Nastenko, E A; Golovenko, O S; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors of pulmonary complications occurrence were analyzed in children, operated on for inborn heart failures in atrificial blood circulation environment. Pulmonary complications rate and the risk factors of their occurrence were analyzed.

  5. Circulating Fatty Acid Synthase in pregnant women: Relationship to blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carreras-Badosa, Gemma; Prats-Puig, Anna; Puig, Teresa; Vázquez-Ruíz, Montserrat; Bruel, Monserrat; Mendoza, Ericka; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes; López-Bermejo, Abel; Bassols, Judit

    2016-01-01

    .... FASN is highly expressed in the human placenta. We aimed to investigate the relationship circulating FASN has with blood pressure, maternal metabolism and newborn parameters in healthy pregnant women...

  6. Prolonged in vivo circulation time by zwitterionic modification of magnetite nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wangchuan; Lin, Jiang; Li, Mingli; Ma, Yongjie; Chen, Yuxin; Zhang, Chunfu; Li, Dan; Gu, Hongchen

    2012-01-01

    Long circulation time is critical for blood pool contrast agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. For iron oxide particle contrast agents, size and surface properties significantly influence their in vivo performance. We developed a novel long-circulating blood pool contrast agent by introducing zwitterionic structure onto the particle surface. Zwitterionic structure was fabricated by 3-(diethylamino)propylamine (DEAPA) grafted onto the surface of ployacrylic acid coated magnetite nanoparticles via EDC/NHS [N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbo-diimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide] coupling chemistry. Zwitterionic particles demonstrated five times lower macrophage cell uptake than the original particles and low cell toxicity. Magnetic resonance angiography indicated that zwitterionic nanoparticles had much longer in vivo circulation time than the original particles and were an ideal candidate for blood pool contrast agent. We suppose that zwitterionic modification by DEAPA and EDC/NHS can be used generally for coating nanoparticles with carboxyl surface and to prolong their circulating time.

  7. Generalized exterior algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann algebra and Clifford algebra. Specialists consider models of gravity that based on a mathematical formalism with two metric tensors. We hope that the considered in this paper 2-metric exterior algebra can be useful for development of this model in gravitation theory. Especially in description of fermions in presence of a gravity field.

  8. Diseussion of Shanghanlun The Tenth Chapter Exterior Excess Syndromes Treated by Mahuang Decoction Are Not the Same Syndrome;Hemorrhinia Caused by Exterior Pathogens Needs to Circulate and Open Depressed Ying-qi——Exterior Excess Syndrome by Cold in Taiyan%伤寒论评话第10章 麻黄表实非同证,外感衄血营郁通——太阳伤寒表实证·麻黄汤证·表证衄血

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁华龙

    2012-01-01

    language was applied to interpret the connotation of exterior excess syndrome by cold in Taiyang meridian, syndrome indicated by Mahuang Decoction and hemorrhinia of exterior syndrome in terms of the thirty-fifth to thirty-seventh,the forty-sixth,the fifty-first,the fifty-fifth,the one hundred and eighty-ninth to the one hundred and ninety-first,the two hundreds and thirty-second,the two hundred and thirty-fifth,the two hundreds and sixty-forth and the two hundreds and seventy-sixth of Treatise on Febrile Diseases,written by famous doctor Zhang Zhongjing in Chinese Donghan Dynasty. Results : ① Exterior excess syndrome by cold in Taiyang meridian was not all treated by Mahuang Decoction to sweat, ② Syndromes can be treated by Mahuang Decoction were not all exterior excess syndromes by cold in Taiyang meridian. ③ Exterior excess syndrome by cold in Taiyang meridian and Mahuang Decoction were not two statements of one same syndrome with one-to-one. ④ Pathology mechanisms of exterior deficiency syndrome by wind-stroke in Taiyang meridian were floating of Wei-qi and discharge of Ying-qi, disharmony of Ying-qi and Wei-qi and the pathological feature was excess of discharge; pathological mechanisms of exterior excess syndrome by cold in Taiyang meridian were closure of Wei-qi and obstruction of Ying-qi, impassability between Wei-qi and Ying-qi, the pathological feature was excess of closure,and was not only the impassability of Taiyang meridian-qi,bu the obstruction of hand-lunar lung qi.⑤Patients with exterior excess of cold,closure of Wei and depression of Ying manifested by sweating was the reason of opening of exterior close and dispersion of depressed Wei-yang qi ,for circulation of Wei-qi could make circulation of Ying-qi; appearing hemorrhinia was the reason of opening of lung qi and free circulation of depressed Ying-yiin, which could make the opening of Wei ,for opening of exterior close could lead circulation of lung qi,circulation of lung qi could make

  9. [The reaction of the pulpal blood circulation to thermal stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gängler, P

    1976-01-01

    The present paper characterizes the reactions of the systemcirculation and microcirculation of the pulpa to the effects of temperature changes from--30 degrees C to +55 degrees C. In the range between 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C an increase of the blood flow rate can be observed. By long-standing action of temperatures above 40 degrees C and below 25 degrees C a dilatation of the blood vessels and a decrease of the blood flow rate are caused, thus leading to aggregations, capillary stoppage, and finally to thrombosis of entire pulpa sections. In addition to the outline of the critical initial alterations of the microcirculation in the course of inflammation the clinical conclusions towards crown and cavity preparation by means of water spray cooling, concerning thermal sensibility tests, and cryo-surgical operations are discussed.

  10. 3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siyang; Lin, Henry K; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2011-02-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings.

  11. Metabolic pathways that correlate with post-transfusion circulation of stored murine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolski, Karen; Fu, Xiaoyoun; Dumont, Larry J; Roback, John D; Waterman, Hayley; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Howie, Heather L; Zimring, James C

    2016-05-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells is a very common inpatient procedure, with more than 1 in 70 people in the USA receiving a red blood cell transfusion annually. However, stored red blood cells are a non-uniform product, based upon donor-to-donor variation in red blood cell storage biology. While thousands of biological parameters change in red blood cells over storage, it has remained unclear which changes correlate with function of the red blood cells, as opposed to being co-incidental changes. In the current report, a murine model of red blood cell storage/transfusion is applied across 13 genetically distinct mouse strains and combined with high resolution metabolomics to identify metabolic changes that correlated with red blood cell circulation post storage. Oxidation in general, and peroxidation of lipids in particular, emerged as changes that correlated with extreme statistical significance, including generation of dicarboxylic acids and monohydroxy fatty acids. In addition, differences in anti-oxidant pathways known to regulate oxidative stress on lipid membranes were identified. Finally, metabolites were identified that differed at the time the blood was harvested, and predict how the red blood cells perform after storage, allowing the potential to screen donors at time of collection. Together, these findings map out a new landscape in understanding metabolic changes during red blood cell storage as they relate to red blood cell circulation.

  12. Effects of the Intermittent Pneumatic Circulator on Blood Pressure during Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypotension is frequently reported during hemodialysis. This study aimed to examine the effect of the intermittent pneumatic circulator on blood pressure during hemodialysis. Sixteen subjects with chronic hemodialysis were recruited. Each subject randomly received two test conditions on separate days, hemodialysis with and without the circulator. The circulator was applied to the subject on lower extremities during 0.5–1 hr, 1.5–2 hr, 2.5–3 hr, and 3.5–4 hr of hemodialysis. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP and heart rate (HR were analyzed at pre-dialysis, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr of hemodialysis. Stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO were evaluated between 2.5 and 3.0 hr of hemodialysis. Blood chemicals (sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous and Kt/V before and after each hemodialysis session were analyzed. The number of episodes of hypotension was also recorded. The circulator intervention significantly improved SBP and DBP across all time points (P = 0.002 for SBP; P = 0.002 for DBP. The frequency of hypotension was significantly decreased (P = 0.028. SV and CO were significantly improved with the circulator intervention (P = 0.017 for SV; P = 0.026 for CO and no statistical significances were found on blood chemicals or Kt/V analyses. The results suggested that the circulator intervention helps stabilize blood pressure and appears to be a practical treatment. Future studies are suggested to develop new circulator innovations with sensor feedback systems to enhance safety and maximize treatment efficiency.

  13. Arterial blood-pressure change and endogenous circulating substance P in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Kastrup, J; Schaffalitzky De Muckadell, O B

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a powerful vasodilator and this peptide is today considered to be a chemical messenger. The potential effects on circulating SP of acute changes in arterial blood-pressure was investigated in nine subjects. An increase in arterial mean blood-pressure (+33%, P less than 0.001, n...... within the reference interval: 3-16 pmol/l (n.s.). Plasma SP remained very constant in each subject during the changes in blood-pressure (mean variation in plasma concentration of SP was 0.97 (SD) pmol/l). The results show that acute changes in arterial blood-pressure do not result in any detectable...... change in plasma SP, this seems to indicate that endogenous circulating SP has no significant role in the vascular tonus controlled by the arterial baroreflex....

  14. Thirty-six Cases of Hyperglycemia Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thirty-six cases with hyperglycemia were treated with the method of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis in a course of 4 weeks. The treatment was significantly effective in correcting the abnormal viscosity of the blood by reducing the contents of total plasmic cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and apoprotein B (apoB), while the level of the apoprotein A (apoA) was elevated.

  15. Device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Tetyana I.; Sander, Sergii V.; Zlepko, Sergii M.; Vasilenko, Valentina B.; Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Dumenko, Victoria P.; Klapouschak, Andrii Yu.; Maciejewski, Marcin; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Surtel, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluated the diagnostic value of laser photoplethysmography when examining patients with chronic lower limb ischemia. A statistical analysis of the research results was made, and diagrams of relationship between the degrees of ischemia and blood flow are presented. Development of the device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation was presented. Also additional accessories in the form of optical fibers for different applications were suggested.

  16. In situ tissue engineering of functional small-diameter blood vessels by host circulating cells only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, Hanna; Smits, Anthal I P M; Muylaert, Dimitri E P; Van Rijswijk, Jan Willem; Vink, Aryan; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Van Herwerden, Lex A.; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kluin, Jolanda; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a natural phase of the wound healing response, which can be harnessed for the in situ tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels using instructive, bioresorbable synthetic grafts. This process is dependent on colonization of the graft by host circulating cells and subsequent

  17. Significant reduction in blood loss in patients undergoing minimal extracorporeal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W. B.; van Boven, W. J.; Smelt, M.; Morshuis, W. J.; van Dongen, H. P.; Haas, F. J.; Aarts, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown differences in blood loss and allogeneic transfusion requirements between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Recently a new concept, the mini-extracorporeal circulation, was introduced to minimize the side effects of extracorporeal circulat

  18. In situ tissue engineering of functional small-diameter blood vessels by host circulating cells only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, Hanna; Smits, Anthal I P M; Muylaert, Dimitri E P; Van Rijswijk, Jan Willem; Vink, Aryan; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Van Herwerden, Lex A.; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kluin, Jolanda; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a natural phase of the wound healing response, which can be harnessed for the in situ tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels using instructive, bioresorbable synthetic grafts. This process is dependent on colonization of the graft by host circulating cells and subsequent

  19. Exploring the Impact of Students' Learning Approach on Collaborative Group Modeling of Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kang, Eunhee; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect on group dynamics of statements associated with deep learning approaches (DLA) and their contribution to cognitive collaboration and model development during group modeling of blood circulation. A group was selected for an in-depth analysis of collaborative group modeling. This group constructed a model in a…

  20. Effect of a deproteinized blood extract on the recovery of blood circulation in an ischaemic skin lesion.

    OpenAIRE

    Smahel, J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions.

  1. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  2. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Rudenick, Paula A; Crispi, Fatima; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Palau, Georgina; Camara, Oscar; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart H; Bijens, Bart H

    2014-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral-placental remodeling

  3. Depletion of circulating blood NOS3 increases severity of myocardial infarction and left ventricular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merx, Marc W; Gorressen, Simone; van de Sandt, Annette M; Cortese-Krott, Miriam M; Ohlig, Jan; Stern, Manuel; Rassaf, Tienush; Gödecke, Axel; Gladwin, Mark T; Kelm, Malte

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (NOS3) plays a central role in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. Subsets of circulating blood cells, including red blood cells (RBCs), carry a NOS3 and contribute to blood pressure regulation and RBC nitrite/nitrate formation. We hypothesized that the circulating blood born NOS3 also modulates the severity of myocardial infarction in disease models. We cross-transplanted bone marrow in wild-type and NOS3(-/-) mice with wild-type mice, producing chimeras expressing NOS3 only in vascular endothelium (BC-/EC+) or in both blood cells and vascular endothelium (BC+/EC+). After 60-min closed-chest coronary occlusion followed by 24 h reperfusion, cardiac function, infarct size (IS), NOx levels, RBCs NO formation, RBC deformability, and vascular reactivity were assessed. At baseline, BC-/EC+ chimera had lower nitrite levels in blood plasma (BC-/EC+: 2.13 ± 0.27 μM vs. BC+/EC+ 3.17 ± 0.29 μM; *p NOS3 in an acute model of myocardial I/R in chimeric mice.

  4. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E;

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  5. Platelet proteomics and its advanced application for research of blood stasis syndrome and activated blood circulation herbs of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yin, Huijun; Chen, Keji

    2013-11-01

    The development of novel and efficient antiplatelet agents that have few adverse effects and methods that improve antiplatelet resistance has long been the focus of international research on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Recent advances in platelet proteomics have provided a technology platform for high-quality research of platelet pathophysiology and the development of new antiplatelet drugs. The study of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and activated blood circulation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most active fields where the integration of TCM and western medicine in China has been successful. Activated blood circulation herbs (ABC herbs) of Chinese medicine are often used in the treatment of BSS. Most ABC herbs have antiplatelet and anti-atherosclerosis activity, but knowledge about their targets is lacking. Coronary heart disease (CHD), BSS, and platelet activation are closely related. By screening and identifying activated platelet proteins that are differentially expressed in BSS of CHD, platelet proteomics has helped researchers interpret the antiplatelet mechanism of action of ABC herbs and provided many potential biomarkers for BSS that could be used to evaluate the clinical curative effect of new antiplatelet drugs. In this article the progress of platelet proteomics and its advanced application for research of BSS and ABC herbs of Chinese medicine are reviewed.

  6. Effect of a deproteinized blood extract on the recovery of blood circulation in an ischaemic skin lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6176254

  7. A new torsion control mechanism induced by blood circulation in dragonfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dan; Yin, Yajun; Zhong, Zheng; Zhao, Hongxiao

    2015-02-06

    A new mechanism to generate the torque of flapping dragonfly wings is disclosed in this paper. The concept is inspired by blood circulation in insect wings. The blood flowing in veins induces Coriolis forces in the flapping wings. The Coriolis forces acting on veins are of opposite directions when blood flows in and out. The opposite Coriolis forces generate torsional moment to the wing, especially in the leading-edge part. To estimate the time-varying torque induced by the blood circulation, a simplified U-tube model is designed. A three-dimensional finite element model of the wing is developed to analyze the dynamic behaviors under this torque. The dragonfly wing is in favor of torsional deformation because the corrugated structure is of high flexural rigidity in the spanwise direction but is of low torsional rigidity in the chordwise direction. In both the downstroke and upstroke, the twist of the leading-edge part causes the sections to camber spontaneously. Such a kind of deformation is found to be of great importance to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In addition, it also compensates for the disadvantageous bending deformation caused by air pressure in flapping flight. These results are important for better understanding of the multifunctional structures of dragonfly wings and may give some inspiration to the bionics of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FMAVs).

  8. Hindlimb-unloading suppresses B cell population in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation associated with OPN expression in circulating blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezura, Yoichi; Nagata, Junji; Nagao, Masashi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Rittling, Susan; Denhardt, David T; Noda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) by tail-suspension is a model to investigate disuse-induced bone loss in vivo. Previously, we have shown that osteopontin (OPN, also known as Spp1) is required for unloading-induced bone loss. However, how unloading affects OPN expression in the body is not fully understood. Here, we examined OPN expression in peripheral blood of mice subjected to HU. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that OPN expression is increased in circulating peripheral blood cells. This HU-induced increase in OPN mRNA expression was specific in circulating peripheral blood cells, as OPN was not increased in the blood cells in bone marrow. HU-induced enhancement in OPN expression in peripheral blood cells was associated with an increase in the fraction of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the peripheral blood. In contrast, HU decreased the fraction size of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. We further examined if B-lymphogenesis is affected in the mice deficient for osteopontin subjected to HU. In bone marrow, HU decreased the population of the B-lymphocyte lineage cells significantly, whereas it did not alter the population of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. HU also increased the cells in T-lymphocyte lineage in bone marrow. Interestingly, these changes were observed similarly both in OPN-deficient and wild-type mice. These results indicate for the first time that HU increases OPN expression in circulating cells and suppresses bone marrow B-lymphogenesis.

  9. A novel liposome surface modification agent that prolongs blood circulation and retains surface ligand reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Tomoko; Mimura, Yukiteru; Tomoda, Yutaka; Katagiri, Ayato; Kamiya, Masaaki; Nemoto, Hisao; Suzawa, Toshiyuki; Yamasaki, Motoo

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes are recognized as potentially useful drug carriers but many problems preclude practical medical application. Liposomes bind with serum proteins (opsonization) and are captured by the reticuloendothelial system cells in the liver and spleen, which limits their ability to deliver drugs to other target sites. Modification of lipids with flexible, hydrophilic polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to yield sterically stabilized liposomes is one approach to improve liposome blood circulation and tissue distribution properties. In this study, we examined liposomes prepared using lipids modified with a new branched oligoglycerol (BGL) moiety for steric stabilization. This novel BGL comprised 14 glycerol units (termed BGL014) connected with flexible ether linkages, resulting in a branched cascade-like structure that is highly expanded in aqueous solution. BGL014 was coupled to 1,2-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine to yield BGL014-modified lipids. Incorporation of BGL014 into liposomes (BGL014L) resulted in long blood circulation times, despite a much thinner fixed aqueous layer thickness compared to PEG formulations. BGL014 produced a liposome surface coating that appears to function through steric inhibition of non-specific protein binding without strong interference of specific protein-binding reactions. Liposome structure and functionality was maintained following BGL014-modification, as the incorporation ratio of drug remained high. These results suggest that the BGL014 modification of liposomes is a promising approach to produce stable and long circulating drug carriers capable of selective binding to specific proteins.

  10. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  11. Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for detection of autologous blood transfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Leuenberger

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes. Cell-free miRNAs measured in blood plasma have emerged as specific and sensitive markers of physiological processes and disease. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs can serve as biomarkers for the detection of autologous blood transfusion, a major doping technique that is still undetectable. Plasma miRNA levels were analyzed using high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after autologous blood transfusion (blood bag storage time 42 days in 10 healthy subjects and 10 controls without transfusion. Other serum markers of erythropoiesis were determined in the same samples. Our results revealed a distinct change in the pattern of circulating miRNAs. Ten miRNAs were upregulated in transfusion samples compared with control samples. Among these, miR-30b, miR-30c, and miR-26b increased significantly and showed a 3.9-, 4.0-, and 3.0-fold change, respectively. The origin of these miRNAs was related to pulmonary and liver tissues. Erythropoietin (EPO concentration decreased after blood reinfusion. A combination of miRNAs and EPO measurement in a mathematical model enhanced the efficiency of autologous transfusion detection through miRNA analysis. Therefore, our results lay the foundation for the development of miRNAs as novel blood-based biomarkers to detect autologous transfusion.

  12. [The unfolding of the blood circulation doctrine: the correspondence between William Harvey and Caspar Hofmann in May 1636].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Regina André

    2002-01-01

    The present article analyzes the letters exchanged by Caspar Hofmann and William Harvey in 1636 and the delineation of the main questions and answers on the blood circulation theory. The first part of the article presents concepts about blood circulation according to the time's physiology; the second part presents the changes introduced by Harvey; the third and last part presents the debate between Hofmann and Harvey.

  13. Action of adrenalin on the circulation of the murine Plasmodium developing stages, in different blood compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertani S.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenalin was used to investigate in vivo the circulation of the different stages of rodent Plasmodium present in the blood. A single dose of adrenalin injected to mice infected with P. yoelii resulted immediately in i a diminution of the parasitaemia of approximately 50 % in the peripheral large vessels (estimated in tail blood films, as well as in the capillaries (estimated in smears of blood collected from a fed Anopheles, and ii an increased parasitaemia in blood collected by cardiac puncture from the right heart. The numbers of young stages of P. yoelii in the peripheral blood were initially somewhat reduced but, unexpectedly, midterm trophozoites were preferentially expelled from the peripheral blood into major organs like the heart. With P. vinckei, parasitaemia decreased only when midterm trophozoites predominated, and with P. chabaudi no effect was observed at any time. We propose that midterm trophozoites, by their increased surface area, as compared to rings, and their flexibility which contrasts with the rigid schizonts, are particularly susceptible to haemodynamic perturbations.

  14. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells from Blood of Breast Cancer Patients via RT-qPCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C.; Hutter, Stefan; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo, E-mail: udo.jeschke@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Maistrasse 11, D-80337 Munich (Germany)

    2013-09-25

    Breast cancer is still the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Often death is not caused only by the primary tumour itself, but also by metastatic lesions. Today it is largely accepted, that these remote metastases arise out of cells, which detach from the primary tumour, enter circulation, settle down at secondary sites in the body and are called Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). The occurrence of such minimal residual diseases in the blood of breast cancer patients is mostly linked to a worse prognosis for therapy outcome and overall survival. Due to their very low frequency, the detection of CTCs is, still a technical challenge. RT-qPCR as a highly sensitive method could be an approach for CTC-detection from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. This assumption is based on the fact that CTCs are of epithelial origin and therefore express a different gene panel than surrounding blood cells. For the technical approach it is necessary to identify appropriate marker genes and to correlate their gene expression levels to the number of tumour cells within a sample in an in vitro approach. After that, samples from adjuvant and metastatic patients can be analysed. This approach may lead to new concepts in diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Diagnostics And Treatment Of Patients With Blood Circulation Insufficiency In Vertebrobasilar Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Khachatryan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For improvement of treatment results of patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency we have analyzed data of medical examination and treatment of 182 patients stayed in clinics of Hospital Surgery and Nervous System Diseases from the 1st of January of 2005 till the 30th of June of 2009. Method of screening diagnostics, quantitative and qualitative blood flow estimation by means of Doppler ultrasonic investigation and angiography have been performed. The cause of blood circulation insufficiency in the vertebrobasilar bed at 87 patients was vertebral artery syndrome and in 95 cases there were the significant hemodynamical damages of blood flow in aorta arch branches and intracranial arteries. The neuroangiotropic therapy has been made for all patients, but the clinical improvement period was short in most cases, more prolonged effect was observed in addition of conservative therapy with plasmapheresis by indications. In the complex treatment of patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency accompanied by degenerative diseases of spine chemical sympathectomy of vertebral artery in the III segment in the form of procaine and spirit-procaine blockades was made in 116 and 69 cases accordingly. The surgical sympathectomy was made in 15 patients. The surgical operations were made in 62 of 95 patients with significant hemodynamic pathology of blood flow in the vertebrobasilar region. In most cases isolative and combinative reconstructive surgery on carotid arteries was carried out. It played a significant role in blood flow correction. Favorable postoperative results were observed in most cases (93, 5%

  16. Genetic profiling of tumours using both circulating free DNA and circulating tumour cells isolated from the same preserved whole blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Dominic G; Smith, Nigel; Morris, Daniel; Leong, Hui Sun; Li, Yaoyong; Hollebecque, Antoine; Ayub, Mahmood; Carter, Louise; Antonello, Jenny; Franklin, Lynsey; Miller, Crispin; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Brady, Ged

    2016-04-01

    Molecular information obtained from cancer patients' blood is an emerging and powerful research tool with immense potential as a companion diagnostic for patient stratification and monitoring. Blood, which can be sampled routinely, provides a means of inferring the current genetic status of patients' tumours via analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) or circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, accurate assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA requires all blood cells to be maintained intact until samples are processed. This dictates for ctDNA analysis EDTA blood samples must be processed with 4 h of draw, severely limiting the use of ctDNA in multi-site trials. Here we describe a blood collection protocol that is amenable for analysis of both CTCs and ctDNA up to four days after blood collection. We demonstrate that yields of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from whole blood CellSave samples are equivalent to those obtained from conventional EDTA plasma processed within 4 h of blood draw. Targeted and genome-wide NGS revealed comparable DNA quality and resultant sequence information from cfDNA within CellSave and EDTA samples. We also demonstrate that CTCs and ctDNA can be isolated from the same patient blood sample, and give the same patterns of CNA enabling direct analysis of the genetic status of patients' tumours. In summary, our results demonstrate the utility of a simple approach that enabling robust molecular analysis of CTCs and cfDNA for genotype-directed therapies in multi-site clinical trials and represent a significant methodological improvement for clinical benefit.

  17. Aspirin Resistance and Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Current Situation and Prospectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspirin plays a crucial physiological and pathophysiological role in cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular diseases by irreversibly inhibiting thromboxane A2. However, some patients may be “resistant” to its effect. The resistance has close association with adverse cardiovascular outcomes and increased mortality, so that resolving the problem of aspirin resistance (AR is widely concerned. By studying the correlation between AR and blood stasis syndrome (BSS, it is demonstrated that BSS may be one of the pathogenesis of AR in traditional Chinese medicine. Chinese herb and formulas definitely possess the advantage of whole body regulation by many ways and many targets. It is a new direction for treatment of AR to combine TCM and modern medicine to study the mechanism and prevention of AR.

  18. TCM Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis by Supplementing the Kidney and Invigorating the Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉海旺; 姚淑莲; 罗强; 曹小菊

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic effects in treating the intermediate and late rheumatoid arthritis by supplementing the kidney and invigorating blood circulation were observed. In the 43 cases of the treatment group, No. 2 Qu Feng Shi Ling capsules (祛风湿灵胶囊2号) and Fenbid (芬必得) were prescribed, while in the 39 cases of the control group Lei Gong Teng Tablets (雷公藤总甙片) and Fenbid were given. The results showed that the total effective rate in the treatment group was more satisfactory than that in the control (P<0.05 or P<0.01). With less toxic effects, the former could better improve the local swelling and lower the blood viscosity.

  19. Changes in blood-brain barrier function modify the neuroendocrine response to circulating substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, D; Johansson, B B; Oprsalová, Z; Vigas, M

    1989-04-01

    It is known that various experimental, pathological and even physiological situations may be accompanied by transient increases in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. The hypothesis that under such conditions the blood-borne substances can reach the active sites in the brain in concentrations high enough to influence central control of hormone release was verified in these studies. A suitable experimental model of BBB opening by protamine sulfate administration in conscious rats was introduced. Using this model it was shown that the dopaminergic blocker domperidone inhibited apomorphine-induced ACTH release if permeability of the BBB was increased, but not under normal conditions. It is suggested that the changes in BBB function can modify the neuroendocrine response also to other circulating substances and this may be an important, until now unconsidered phenomenon in neuroendocrine research.

  20. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and experimental evaluation of a modification of the carbon monoxide method for estimation of the circulating blood volume (CBV) with respect to the precision of the method. The CBV was determined from measurements of the CO-saturation of hemoglobin before...... and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after......, determination of CBV can be performed with an amount of CO that gives rise to a harmless increase in the carboxyhemoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  1. Arterial blood-pressure change and endogenous circulating substance P in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Kastrup, J; Schaffalitzky De Muckadell, O B

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a powerful vasodilator and this peptide is today considered to be a chemical messenger. The potential effects on circulating SP of acute changes in arterial blood-pressure was investigated in nine subjects. An increase in arterial mean blood-pressure (+33%, P less than 0.001, n...... = 9) was obtained by infusion of angiotensin II and a decrease in pressure (-10%, P less than 0.005, n = 6) was obtained by ganglionic blockade. The concentration of SP in plasma, from supine subjects in the normotensive condition, ranged from 3 to 13 pmol/l (with a mean of 5.6 pmol/l). SP was thus...

  2. Effects of repeated concentric and eccentric contractions on tendon blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, K

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that treatment involving eccentric training was effective in the conservative management of chronic tendinosis. However, the mechanisms for these phenomena are unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in blood circulation of the tendons after the repeated concentric and eccentric contractions. 11 healthy males volunteered for this study. Subjects performed the repeated concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions (5 sets of 10 maximal voluntary contractions) of the plantar flexors. During and after repeated contractions, oxyhemoglobin (Oxy), deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy), total hemoglobin (THb), and oxygen saturation (StO2) of the Achilles tendons were measured using red laser lights. Oxy and THb increased during and after ECC, but not CON. Deoxy decreased during both CON and ECC. Increase in StO2 during and after ECC was greater than that during and after CON. These results suggested that changes in blood circulation of the Achilles tendon during and after repeated eccentric contractions were more remarkable than those during and after repeated concentric contractions.

  3. Aptamers Selected to Postoperative Lung Adenocarcinoma Detect Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamay, Galina S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Zamay, Tatiana N; Glazyrin, Yury E; Krat, Alexey V; Zubkova, Olga; Spivak, Ekaterina; Wehbe, Mohammed; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Komarova, Mariia; Grigorieva, Valentina; Savchenko, Andrey; Modestov, Andrey A; Berezovski, Maxim V; Zamay, Anna S

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells and valuable clinical markers of prognosis of metastasis formation and prediction of patient survival. Most CTC analyses are based on the antibody-based detection of a few epithelial markers; therefore miss an important portion of mesenchymal cancer cells circulating in blood. In this work, we selected and identified DNA aptamers as specific affinity probes that bind to lung adenocarcinoma cells derived from postoperative tissues. The unique feature of our selection strategy is that aptamers are produced for lung cancer cell biomarkers in their native state and conformation without previous knowledge of the biomarkers. The aptamers did not bind to normal lung cells and lymphocytes, and had very low affinity to A549 lung adenocarcinoma culture. We applied these aptamers to detect CTCs, apoptotic bodies, and microemboli in clinical samples of peripheral blood of lung cancer and metastatic lung cancer patients. We identified aptamer-associated protein biomarkers for lung cancer such as vimentin, annexin A2, annexin A5, histone 2B, neutrophil defensin, and clusterin. Tumor-specific aptamers can be produced for individual patients and synthesized many times during anticancer therapy, thereby opening up the possibility of personalized diagnostics. PMID:26061649

  4. Systematic assessment of blood circulation time of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Liang, Liuen; Grebenik, Ekaterina; Guller, Anna; Lu, Yiqing; Qian, Yi; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs and contrast agents holds great promise in cancer research, because of the increased delivery efficiency compared to `free' drugs and dyes. A versatile platform to investigate nanotechnology is the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumour model, due to its availability (easy, cheap) and accessibility (interventions, imaging). In our group, we developed this model using several tumour cell lines (e.g. breast cancer, colon cancer). In addition, we have synthesized in-house silica coated photoluminescent upconversion nanoparticles with several functional groups (COOH, NH2, PEG). In this work we will present the systematic assessment of their in vivo blood circulation times. To this end, we injected chick embryos grown ex ovo with the functionalized UCNPs and obtained a small amount of blood at several time points after injection to create blood smears The UCNP signal from the blood smears was quantified using a modified inverted microscope imaging set-up. The results of this systematic study are valuable to optimize biochemistry protocols and guide nanomedicine advancement in the versatile chick embryo tumour model.

  5. Retro-orbital blood acquisition facilitates circulating microRNA measurement in zebrafish with paracetamol hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, Adriaan D B; Starkey Lewis, Philip; Tucker, Carl S; Del Pozo, Jorge; Rider, Sebastein; Antoine, Daniel J; Dubost, Valérie; Westphal, Magdalena; Moulin, Pierre; Bailey, Matthew A; Moggs, Jonathan G; Goldring, Chris E; Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W

    2014-06-01

    Paracetamol is the commonest cause of acute liver failure in the Western world and biomarkers are needed that report early hepatotoxicity. The liver-enriched microRNA (miRNA), miR-122, is a promising biomarker currently being qualified in humans. For biomarker development and drug toxicity screening, the zebrafish has advantages over rodents; however, blood acquisition in this model remains technically challenging. We developed a method for collecting blood from the adult zebrafish by retro-orbital (RO) bleeding and compared it to the commonly used lateral incision method. The RO technique was more reliable in terms of the blood yield and minimum amount per fish. This new RO technique was used in a zebrafish model of paracetamol toxicity. Paracetamol induced dose-dependent increases in liver cell necrosis, serum alanine transaminase activity, and mortality. In situ hybridization localized expression of miR-122 to the cytoplasm of zebrafish hepatocytes. After collection by RO bleeding, serum miR-122 could be measured and this miRNA was substantially increased by paracetamol 24 h after exposure, an increase that was prevented by delayed (3 h poststart of paracetamol exposure) treatment with acetylcysteine. In summary, collection of blood by RO bleeding facilitated measurement of miR-122 in a zebrafish model of paracetamol hepatotoxicity. The zebrafish represents a new species for measurement of circulating miRNA biomarkers that are translational and can bridge between fish and humans.

  6. Advances of Studies on Mechanisms of Drugs for Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Primary liver cancer is mainly characterized by the mass in hypochondriac region, stabbing pain at a fixative region, tenderness, dim complexion,vascular spider, vein exposure, livid tongue,ecchymosis, taut and uneven pulse and other symptoms of blood stasis. Experimental studies have found that the patient with liver cancer is often accompanied with disturbance of microcirculation,increase of blood viscosity and high blood agglutinative state. Therefore, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis is clinically an important therapy for primary liver cancer. A great number of studies on the mechanisms have been carried out in China and other countries. The follow is a review about the mechanisms.

  7. Maternal Body-Mass Index and Cord Blood Circulating Endothelial Colony-Forming Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Miranda, Maria L.; Vallejo-Vaz, Antonio J.; Stiefel, Pablo; Praena-Fernández, Juan M.; Bernal-Bermejo, Jose; Jimenez-Jimenez, Luis M.; Villar, Jose; Melero-Martin, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of circulating endothelial progenitor cells that are particularly abundant in umbilical cord blood. We sought to determine whether ECFC abundance in cord blood is associated with maternal body-mass index (BMI) in non-pathological pregnancies. Study design We measured the level of ECFCs in the cord blood of neonates (n=27) born from non-obese healthy mothers with non-pathological pregnancies and examined whether ECFC abundance correlated with maternal BMI. We also examined the effect of maternal BMI on ECFC phenotype and function using angiogenic and vasculogenic assays. Results We observed variation in ECFC abundance among subjects and found a positive correlation between pre-pregnancy maternal BMI and ECFC content (r=0.51, P=0.007), which was independent of other obstetric factors. Despite this variation, ECFC phenotype and functionality were deemed normal and highly similar between subjects with maternal BMI <25 kg/m2 and BMI between 25–30 kg/m2, including the ability to form vascular networks in vivo. Conclusions This study underlines the need to consider maternal BMI as a potential confounding factor for cord blood levels of ECFCs in future comparative studies between healthy and pathological pregnancies. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are a subset of progenitor cells that circulate in peripheral blood and can give rise to endothelial cells (1,2), contributing to the formation of new vasculature and the maintenance of vascular integrity (3–5). The mechanisms that regulate the abundance of these cells in vivo remain poorly understood. ECFCs are rare in adult peripheral blood (1,2,10). In contrast, there is an elevated number of these cells in fetal blood during the third trimester of pregnancy (11–13). Emerging evidence indicates that deleterious conditions during fetal life can impair ECFC content and function. For instance, offspring of diabetic mothers have been shown to have

  8. Influence of passive leg movements on blood circulation on the tilt table in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czell David

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One problem in the mobilization of patients with neurological diseases, such as spinal cord injury, is the circulatory collapse that occurs while changing from supine to vertical position because of the missing venous pump due to paralyzed leg muscles. Therefore, a tilt table with integrated stepping device (tilt stepper was developed, which allows passive stepping movements for performing locomotion training in an early state of rehabilitation. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if passive stepping and cycling movements of the legs during tilt table training could stabilize blood circulation and prevent neurally-mediated syncope in healthy young adults. Methods In the first experiment, healthy subjects were tested on a traditional tilt table. Subjects who had a syncope or near-syncope in this condition underwent a second trial on the tilt stepper. In the second experiment, a group of healthy subjects was investigated on a traditional tilt table, the second group on the tilt ergometer, a device that allows cycling movements during tilt table training. We used the chi-square test to compare the occurrence of near-syncope/syncope in both groups (tilt table/tilt stepper and tilt table/tilt ergometer and ANOVA to compare the blood pressure and heart rate between the groups at the four time intervals (supine, at 2 minutes, at 6 minutes and end of head-up tilt. Results Separate chi-square tests performed for each experiment showed significant differences in the occurrence of near syncope or syncope based on the device used. Comparison of the two groups (tilt stepper/ tilt table in experiment one (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly higher at the end of head-up tilt on the tilt stepper and on the tilt table there was a greater increase in heart rate (2 minutes after head-up tilt. Comparison of the two groups (tilt ergometer/tilt table in experiment 2 (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly

  9. A SYSTEM AND A DEVICE FOR ISOLATING CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS FROM THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC play a crucial role in disseminating tumors and in the metastatic cascade. CTCs are found only in small numbers, and the limited amount of isolated CTCs makes it impossible to characterize them closely. This paper presents a proposal for a new system for isolating CTCs from the peripheral blood in vivo. The system enables CTCs to be isolated from the whole blood volume for further research and applications. The proposed system consists of magnetic nanoparticles covered by monoclonal antibodies against a common epithelial antigen, large supermagnets, which are used to control the position of the nanoparticles within the human body, and a special wire made of a magnetic core wrapped in a non-magnetic shell. The system could be used not only for isolating CTCs, but also for in vivo isolation of other rare cells from the peripheral blood, including hematopoietic and/or mesenchymal stem cells, with applications in regenerative medicine and/or in stem cell transplantation.

  10. Changes in EEG, systemic circulation and blood gas parameters following two or six aliquots of porcine surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrøm, K E; Greisen, G

    1996-06-01

    Surfactant instillation often causes transient EEG suppression, the cause remaining unknown. To compare the timing of the EEG changes with the timing of the changes in blood gases and systemic circulation we compared two administration modes: 20 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive the initial dose of surfactant divided into two or six aliquots. Heart rate, blood pressure and transcutaneous blood gases were measured continuously, while left ventricular output was estimated intermittently. No difference in blood gas response was found between the groups, whereas the circulatory changes occurred more gradually with six aliquots. EEG suppression was similar in the two groups and not related to the circulatory or the respiratory changes. Left ventricular output increased in all patients following surfactant instillation. We conclude that the EEG suppression is not directly related to alterations in blood gases or systemic circulation.

  11. Effect of Chinese Herbs for Activating Blood Circulation,Removing Stasis and Supplementing Qi on the Circulating Endothelial Cells in Patients with Unstable Angina Pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽红; 阮英茆; 焦增绵; 李晓惠

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect and clinical significance of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease with unstable angina pectoris (CHD-UAP), and to explore the protective effect of Chinese herbs for activating blood circulation, removing stasis and supplementing Qi (CH) on CHD-UAP patient's CEC. Methods: Sixty patients with diagnosis of CHD-UAP confirmed and differentiated to be Qi-deficiency and blood stasis by TCM were randomly divided into two groups and treatime, with 1 month as one therapeutic course. The number of CEC in patients' blood circulation was counted before and after treatment. Besides, the number of CEC in 30 healthy persons was also counted for control.Results: The number of CEC in CHD-UAP patients was significantly higher than that in the healthy persons (P<0.01). After the patients were treated with CH, either TXL or HXTM, it significantly decreased (P<0.01)with insignificant difference between the two treated groups. Conclusion: CEC in CHD-UAP patients is severely damaged and endothelial function in disorder, Chinese herbs have protective effect on patients' CEC.

  12. THE CHARACTERISTIC OF ECOLOGICAL-GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SYSTEM BLOOD CIRCULATION'S ILLNESSES OF DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Erzhapova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Death rate from illnesses of cardiovascular system makes more than half of all death, being one of principal causes of a considera-ble gain of death rate in Russia. Causing pressure of all systems of a human body, extreme climatic, geophysical and anthropogen-ous factors have adverse an effect on health, adaptive reserves exhaust, promote acceleration of formation of various diseases, first of all, cardiovascular system. To ecologically unsuccessful regions Russian Federations for which high level of disease is characte-ristic, the Republic Dagestan concerns also. The purpose of the given work was complex ekologo-geographical research of compo-nents of the natural and anthropogenous environment of areas and cities of republic Dagestan for dependence revealing between quality of environment and dynamics of disease illnesses of system of blood circulation.

  13. MECHANICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF BLOOD CIRCULATION IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF LEFT VENTRICLE POSTINFARCTION ANEURISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vitsukaev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all successes of a modern heart surgery, anesthesiology and resuscitation till now actual there is a ques- tion of improvement of results of surgical treatment of patients with chronic left ventricle postinfarction aneu- risms. Аfter left ventricular reconstructive surgery preoperative risk factors of development heavy myocardial dysfunctions in the postoperative period aren’t defined accurately now. We have made the analysis of 168 similar operations and have defined preoperative risk factors of development of severe heart failure in the intraoperative and early postoperative period. We have suggested methods to improve the results of operations in these patients using mechanical and pharmacological support of blood circulation. Use our suggested methods of preoperative preparation (Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (VABK and VABK + levosimendan had significantly impro- ved results and significantly reduce mortality in patients with high risk of surgical treatment. 

  14. [Magnetic field numerical calculation and analysis for magnetic coupling of centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Lijun; Zhang, Tianyi; Chen, Zhenglong; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-01

    This paper mainly studies the driving system of centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation, with the core being disc magnetic coupling. Structure parameters of disc magnetic coupling are related to the ability of transferring magnetic torque. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out disc magnetic coupling permanent magnet pole number (n), air gap length (L(g)), permanent magnet thickness (L(m)), permanent magnet body inside diameter (R(i)) and outside diameter (R(o)), etc. thoroughly. This paper adopts the three-dimensional static magnetic field edge element method of Ansys for numerical calculation, and analyses the relations of magnetic coupling each parameter to transmission magnetic torque. It provides a good theory basis and calculation method for further optimization of the disc magnetic coupling.

  15. Engineered stealth porous silicon nanoparticles via surface encapsulation of bovine serum albumin for prolonging blood circulation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Zhang, Wenyi; Shi, Jisen; Xiao, Shou-jun

    2013-11-27

    Luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) have been widely used as drug delivery. However, fast biodegradation and short blood circulation have been major challenges for their biomedical applications. Herein, bovine serum albumin was readily encapsulated onto alkyl-terminated PSiNPs surfaces via hydrophobic interaction, which could significantly improve their water-dispersibility and long-term stability under physiological conditions. Furthermore, compared with PSiNPs alone, PSiNPs coated with bovine serum albumin remarkably reduced nonspecific cellular uptake in vitro and prolonged blood circulation in vivo.

  16. [Intracellular gold content of circulating blood cells using various gold compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlinger, J D; Beress, R; Hecker, U

    1984-01-01

    Evidence on the action mechanisms of gold salts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is still inconclusive. The intracellular localization of the place of action is likely. Therefore not only the serum gold levels but also the intracellular concentration of gold are of special interest. We measured the gold concentration in the serum and in the blood cells after in vitro application of aurothiomalate (Tauredon), gold keratinate (Auro-Detoxin) and triethylphosphine-gold (Ridaura) and in blood samples of patients undergoing these gold salts treatments. Cell-bound concentrations were found to vary extensively as a function of the gold compound used. While no or very little gold was present intracellularly after administration of the 2 parenteral drugs, up to 40% of the circulating gold was found to bind to the cells after administration of the triethylphosphine compound for gastro-intestinal absorption. The red cell concentration was more or less the same as that in the extracellular compartment. Gold apparently accumulated in the white cells, because the cell-bound concentration relative to unit volume was up to 20 times higher than the plasma level. The method used did not offer any information on the actual binding site of gold in white cells, i.e. cytoplasm versus nucleus versus cell membrane.

  17. Administration of Traditional Chinese Blood Circulation Activating Drugs for Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an important complementary strategy for treating diabetes mellitus (DM in China. Traditional Chinese blood circulation activating drugs are intended to guide an overall approach to the prevention and treatment of microvascular complications of DM. The core mechanism is related to the protection of the vascular endothelium and the basement membrane. Here, we reviewed the scientific evidence underpinning the use of blood circulation activating drugs to prevent and treat DM-induced microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN, and diabetic retinopathy (DR. Furthermore, we summarized the effects and mechanism of TCM on improving blood rheology, inhibiting aggregation of platelet, forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, regulating oxidative stress, reducing blood fat, and improving lipid metabolism. The paper provides a new theoretical basis for the clinical practice of TCM in the prevention and treatment of DM and its microvascular complications.

  18. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  19. Homing of circulating blood endothelial progenitor cells after myocardial infarction is mediated by Akt-SDF-1-signal pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of protein kinase B(Akt) and stromal cell-derived factor-1(SDF-1) and their relations with circulating blood endothelial progenitor cell homing after myocardial infarction(MI). Methods MI was induced in the

  20. Gene expression analysis in pregnant women and their infants identifies unique fetal biomarkers that circulate in maternal blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of fetal mRNA transcripts in the maternal circulation holds great promise for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. To identify potential fetal biomarkers, we studied whole blood and plasma gene transcripts that were common to 9 term pregnant women and their newborns but absent or reduced in...

  1. Determination of blood circulation times of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by T2* relaxometry using ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Warmuth, Carsten; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2015-11-01

    Blood circulation is an important determinant of the biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Here we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on the use of ultrafast echo times (UTE) for the noninvasive determination of blood half-lives at high particle concentrations, when conventional pulse sequences fail to produce a useful MR signal. Four differently coated iron oxide nanoparticles were administered intravenously at a dose of 500 μmol Fe/kg bodyweight and UTE images of C57BL/6 mice were acquired on a 1-T ICON scanner (Bruker). T2* relaxometry was done by acquiring UTE images with echo times of 0.1, 0.8 and 1.6 ms. Blood circulation time was then determined by fitting an exponential curve to the time course of the measured relaxation rates. Circulation time was shortest for particles coated with malic acid (t1/2=23 min) and longest for particles coated with tartaric acid (t1/2=63 min). UTE-based T2* relaxometry allows noninvasive determination of blood circulation time and is especially useful when high particle concentrations are present. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  3. Enhanced conjugation stability and blood circulation time of macromolecular gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenjob, Ratchapol [Department of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Inha University, 2F A-dong, Jeongseok Bldg., Sinheung-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kun, Na [Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 420-743 (Korea, Republic of); Ghee, Jung Yeon [Utah-Inha DDS and Advanced Therapeutics, B-403 Meet-You-All Tower, SongdoTechnopark, 7–50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Xiaoxia [Division of Functional Materials and Nano-Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Street, Zhenhai District, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Cho, Steve K., E-mail: scho@gist.ac.kr [Division of Liberal Arts and Science, GIST College, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Don Haeng [Utah-Inha DDS and Advanced Therapeutics, B-403 Meet-You-All Tower, SongdoTechnopark, 7–50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon 420-751 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Su-Geun, E-mail: Sugeun.Yang@Inha.ac.kr [Department of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Inha University, 2F A-dong, Jeongseok Bldg., Sinheung-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we prepared macromolecular MR T1 contrast agent: pullulan-conjugated Gd diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) and estimated residual free Gd{sup 3+}, chelation stability in competition with metal ions, plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics, and abdominal MR contrast on rats. Residual free Gd{sup 3+} in Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was measured using colorimetric spectroscopy. The transmetalation of Gd{sup 3+} incubated with Ca{sup 2+} was performed by using a dialysis membrane (MWCO 100–500 Da) and investigated by ICP-OES. The plasma concentration profiles of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan were estimated after intravenous injection at a dose 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd. The coronal-plane abdominal images of normal rats were observed by MR imaging. The content of free Gd{sup 3+}, the toxic residual form, was less than 0.01%. Chelation stability of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was estimated, and only 0.2% and 0.00045% of Gd{sup 3+} were released from Gd-DTPA-Pullulan after 2 h incubation with Ca{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}, respectively. Gd-DTPA-Pullulan displayed the extended plasma half-life (t{sub 1/2,α} = 0.43 h, t{sub 1/2,β} = 2.32 h), much longer than 0.11 h and 0.79 h of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Abdominal MR imaging showed Gd-DTPA-Pullulan maintained initial MR contrast for 30 min. The extended plasma half-life of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan probably allows the prolonged MR acquisition time in clinic with enhanced MR contrast. - Highlights: • Macromolecule (pullulan) conjugated Gd contrast agent (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) showed the extended plasma half-life (t{sub 1/2,α} = 0.43 h, t{sub 1/2,β} = 2.32 h) in comparison with Gd-EOB-DTPA • Gd-DTPA-pullulan T1 contrast agent exhibited strong chelation stability against Gd. • The extended blood circulation attributed the enhanced and prolonged MR contrast on abdominal region of rats. • The extended blood circulation may provide prolonged MR acquisition time window in clinics.

  4. Augmentation of blood circulation to the fingers by warming distant body areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Paul, S.; Tranchida, D.; Linder, I. V.

    2000-01-01

    Future activities in space will require greater periods of time in extreme environments in which the body periphery will be vulnerable to chilling. Maintaining the hands and fingers in comfortable conditions enhances finger flexibility and dexterity, and thus effects better work performance. We have evaluated the efficacy of promoting heat transfer and release by the extremities by increasing the blood flow to the periphery from more distant parts of the body. The experimental garment paradigm developed by the investigators was used to manipulate the temperature of different body areas. Six subjects, two females and four males, were evaluated in a stage-1 baseline condition, with the inlet temperature of the circulating water in the liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) at 33 degrees C. At stage 2 the total LCWG water inlet temperature was cooled to 8 degrees C, and at stage 3 the inlet water temperature in specific segments of the LCWG was warmed (according to protocol) to 45 degrees C, while the inlet temperature in the rest of the LCWG was maintained at 8 degrees C. The following four body-area-warming conditions were studied in separate sessions: (1) head, (2) upper torso/arm, (3) upper torso/arm/head, and (4) legs/feet. Skin temperature, heat flux and blood perfusion of the fingers, and subjective perception of thermal sensations and overall physical comfort were assessed. Finger temperature (T(fing)) analyses showed a statistically significant condition x stage interaction. Post-hoc comparisons (T(fing)) indicated that at stage 3, the upper torso/arm/head warming condition was significantly different from the head, upper torso/arm and legs/feet conditions, showing an increase in T(fing). There was a significant increase in blood perfusion in the fingers at stage 3 in all conditions. Subjective perception of hand warmth, and overall physical comfort level significantly increased in the stage 3 upper torso/arm/head condition. The findings indicate that

  5. Immunomagnetic Nano-Screening Chip for Circulating Tumor Cells Detection in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, A. P.; Lane, N.; Tam, J.; Sokolov, K.; Garner, H. R.; Uhr, J. W.; Zhang, X. J.

    2010-03-01

    We present a novel method towards diagnose cancer at an early stage via a blood test. Early diagnosis is high on the future agenda of oncologists because of significant evidence that it will result in a higher cure rate. Capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which are known to escape from carcinomas at an early stage offers such an opportunity. We design, fabricate and optimize the nanomagnetic-screening chip that captures the CTCs in microfluid, and further integrate the nano-chip with the new multispectral imaging system so that it can quantify different tumor markers and automate the entire instrument. Specifically, hybrid plasmonic (Fe2O3-core Au shell) nanoparticles, conjugated a collection of antibodies especially chosen to target breast cancer CTCs, with high magnetic susceptibility will be used for effective immunomagnetic CTC isolation. Greatly increased sensitivity over previous attempts is demonstrated by decreasing the length scale for interactions between the magnetic-nanoparticle-tagged CTCs and the isolative magnetic field, while increasing the effective cross-sectional area over which this interaction takes place. The screening chip is integrated with a novel hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) platform capable of recording the entire emission spectra in a single pass evaluation. The combined system will precisely quantify up to 10 tumor markers on CTCs.

  6. It Is All in the Blood: The Multifaceted Contribution of Circulating Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Paolo Fadini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a worldwide growing disease and represents a huge social and healthcare problem owing to the burden of its complications. Micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications arise from excess damage through well-known biochemical pathways. Interestingly, microangiopathy hits the bone marrow (BM microenvironment with features similar to retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. The BM represents a reservoir of progenitor cells for multiple lineages, not limited to the hematopoietic system and including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and osteogenic cells. All these multiple progenitor cell lineages are profoundly altered in the setting of diabetes in humans and animal models. Reduction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs along with excess smooth muscle progenitor (SMP and osteoprogenitor cells creates an imbalance that promote the development of micro- and macroangiopathy. Finally, an excess generation of BM-derived fusogenic cells has been found to contribute to diabetic complications in animal models. Taken together, a growing amount of literature attributes to circulating progenitor cells a multi-faceted role in the pathophysiology of DM, setting a novel scenario that puts BM and the blood at the centre of the stage.

  7. Polyethylene glycol-modified arachidyl chitosan-based nanoparticles for prolonged blood circulation of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termsarasab, Ubonvan; Yoon, In-Soo; Park, Ju-Hwan; Moon, Hyun Tae; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2014-04-10

    Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanoparticles based on polyethylene glycol-conjugated chitosan oligosaccharide-arachidic acid (CSOAA-PEG) were explored for potential application to leukemia therapy. PEG was conjugated with CSOAA backbone via amide bond formation and the final product was verified by (1)H NMR analysis. Using the synthesized CSOAA-PEG, nanoparticles having characteristics of a 166-nm mean diameter, positive zeta potential, and spherical shape were produced for the delivery of DOX. The mean diameter of CSOAA-PEG nanoparticles in the serum solution (50% fetal bovine serum) remained relatively constant over 72 h as compared with CSOAA nanoparticles (changes of 20.92% and 223.16%, respectively). The sustained release pattern of DOX from CSOAA-PEG nanoparticles was displayed at physiological pH, and the release rate increased under the acidic pH conditions. The cytotoxicity of the CSOAA-PEG conjugate was negligible in human leukemia cells (K562) at the concentrations tested (∼ 100 μg/ml). The uptake rate of DOX from the nanoparticles by K562 cells was higher than that from the solution. Judging from the results of pharmacokinetic studies in rats, in vivo clearance rate of DOX from the CSOAA-PEG nanoparticle group was slower than other groups, subsequently extending the circulation period. The PEGylated CSOAA-based nanoparticles could represent an effective nano-sized delivery system for DOX which has been used for the treatment of blood malignancies.

  8. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn a large collaborative study (n > 50,000), common variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) genes were found to be associated with circulating NP levels and also with blood pressure (BP) levels based on office BP measurements (OBPMs). It is unknown if determining an individual's BP by ...... evidence that the NP system plays an important role in BP regulation.American Journal of Hypertension 2012; doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.96.......-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) will influence the effect of NP gene variations on BP levels.MethodsWe used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and BP levels......). Office BP decreased across the genotypes from A:A to G:G, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.12).ConclusionsThis study suggests that 24-h ABPMs is a better method than OBPMs to detect significant differences in BP levels related to genetic variance and provides further...

  9. Determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in circulating blood: significance of VEGF in various leucocytes and platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    . In corresponding blood samples, automated complete blood count was performed, and the number of each cell type was correlated to VEGF concentrations in plasma, serum and lysed whole blood. Finally, the impact of increasing clotting time on the release of VEGF to serum was analysed. RESULTS: Isolated neutrophils......AIM: The sources of increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in peripheral blood from cancer patients are not known in detail. The aim of the present study was to evaluate correlations between the VEGF content in isolated leucocyte subpopulations and VEGF concentrations...... in plasma, serum and lysed whole blood. METHODS: In 51 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, circulating T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were isolated by means of immunomagnetic separation. Subsequently, the isolated cells were lysed and VEGF contents in the lysates were determined...

  10. Circulating angiogenic cells can be derived from cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Sofrenovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell transplantation for regenerative medicine has become an appealing therapeutic method; however, stem and progenitor cells are not always freshly available. Cryopreservation offers a way to freeze cells as they are generated, for storage and transport until required for therapy. This study was performed to assess the feasibility of cryopreserving peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs for the subsequent in vitro generation of their derived therapeutic population, circulating angiogenic cells (CACs. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from healthy human donors. Freshly isolated cells were either analyzed immediately or cryopreserved in media containing 6% plasma serum and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide. PBMCs were thawed after being frozen for 1 (early thaw or 28 (late thaw days and analyzed, or cultured for 4 days to generate CACs. Analysis of the cells consisted of flow cytometry for viability and phenotype, as well as functional assays for their adhesion and migration potential, cytokine secretion, and in vivo angiogenic potential. RESULTS: The viability of PBMCs and CACs as well as their adhesion and migration properties did not differ greatly after cryopreservation. Phenotypic changes did occur in PBMCs and to a lesser extent in CACs after freezing; however the potent CD34(+VEGFR2(+CD133(+ population remained unaffected. The derived CACs, while exhibiting changes in inflammatory cytokine secretion, showed no changes in the secretion of important regenerative and chemotactic cytokines, nor in their ability to restore perfusion in ischemic muscle. CONCLUSION: Overall, it appears that changes do occur in cryopreserved PBMCs and their generated CACs; however, the CD34(+VEGFR2(+CD133(+ progenitor population, the secretion of pro-vasculogenic factors, and the in vivo angiogenic potential of CACs remain unaffected by cryopreservation.

  11. Circulating MicroRNAs in maternal blood as potential biomarkers for fetal hypoxia in-utero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Whitehead

    Full Text Available Stillbirth affects 1 in 200 pregnancies and commonly arises due to a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus. Current tests to detect fetal hypoxia in-utero lack the sensitivity to identify many babies at risk. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs derived from the placenta circulate in the maternal blood during pregnancy and may serve as non-invasive biomarkers for pregnancy complications. In this study, we examined the expression of miRs known to be regulated by hypoxia in two clinical settings of significant fetal hypoxia: 1 labour and 2 fetal growth restriction. Six miRs (miR 210, miR 21, miR 424, miR 199a, miR 20b, and miR 373 were differentially expressed in pregnancies complicated by fetal hypoxia. In healthy term pregnancies there was a 4.2 fold increase in miR 210 (p<0.01, 2.7 fold increase in miR 424 (p<0.05, 2.6 fold increase in miR 199a (p<0.01 and 2.3 fold increase in miR 20b (p<0.05 from prior to labour to delivery of the fetus. Furthermore, the combined expression of miR 21 and miR 20b correlated with the degree of fetal hypoxia at birth determined by umbilical cord lactate delivery (r = 0.79, p = 0.03. In pregnancies complicated by severe preterm fetal growth restriction there was upregulation of the hypoxia-regulated miRs compared to gestation-matched controls: 3.6 fold in miR 210 (p<0.01, 3.6 fold in miR 424 (p<0.05, 5.9 fold in miR 21 (p<0.01, 3.8 fold in miR 199a (p<0.01 and 3.7 fold in miR 20b (p<0.01. Interestingly, the expression of miR 373 in gestation matched controls was very low, but was very highly expressed in FGR (p<0.0001. Furthermore, the expression increased in keeping with the degree of in-utero hypoxia estimated by fetal Doppler velocimetry. We conclude quantifying hypoxia-regulated miRs in the maternal blood may identify pregnancies at risk of fetal hypoxia, enabling early intervention to improve perinatal outcomes.

  12. Circulating tumor cells from prostate cancer patients interact with E-selectin under physiologic blood flow.

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    Gunjan Gakhar

    Full Text Available Hematogenous metastasis accounts for the majority of cancer-related deaths, yet the mechanism remains unclear. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs in blood may employ different pathways to cross blood endothelial barrier and establish a metastatic niche. Several studies provide evidence that prostate cancer (PCa cell tethering and rolling on microvascular endothelium via E-selectin/E-selectin ligand interactions under shear flow theoretically promote extravasation and contribute to the development of metastases. However, it is unknown if CTCs from PCa patients interact with E-selectin expressed on endothelium, initiating a route for tumor metastases. Here we report that CTCs derived from PCa patients showed interactions with E-selectin and E-selectin expressing endothelial cells. To examine E-selectin-mediated interactions of PCa cell lines and CTCs derived from metastatic PCa patients, we used fluorescently-labeled anti-prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA monoclonal antibody J591-488 which is internalized following cell-surface binding. We employed a microscale flow device consisting of E-selectin-coated microtubes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs on parallel-plate flow chamber simulating vascular endothelium. We observed that J591-488 did not significantly alter the rolling behavior in PCa cells at shear stresses below 3 dyn/cm(2. CTCs obtained from 31 PCa patient samples showed that CTCs tether and stably interact with E-selectin and E-selectin expressing HUVECs at physiological shear stress. Interestingly, samples collected during disease progression demonstrated significantly more CTC/E-selectin interactions than samples during times of therapeutic response (p=0.016. Analysis of the expression of sialyl Lewis X (sLe(x in patient samples showed that a small subset comprising 1.9-18.8% of CTCs possess high sLe(x expression. Furthermore, E-selectin-mediated interactions between prostate CTCs and HUVECs were diminished in the

  13. The regulation of method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation in the related gene expressions after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fan; Li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a disease of high incidence and low cure rate without any ideal treatment. Among the complex pathological reactions, the post-injury abnormal expressions of many genes may be an important one. Method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation, which is one of the most important treatments of spinal cord injury in Traditional Chinese Medicine and has been used extensively in clinic, is proved to be effective in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Recently, many scholars have carried out a lot of studies in this filed and acquired notable achievements. The essay concludes mechanisms of the regulation of method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation in the related gene expressions after spinal cord injury to provide new thoughts and new methods for the treatment and study of spinal cord injury.

  14. Assessment of Blood Flow in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Correlations of Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging and Circulating Angiogenic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Pin Chou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a highly vascular tumor through the process of angiogenesis. To evaluate more non-invasive techniques for assessment of blood flow (BF in HCC, this study examined the relationships between BF of HCC measured by computer tomography (CT perfusion imaging and four circulating angiogenic factors in HCC patients. Interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF in plasma were measured using Bio-Plex multiplex immunoassay in 21 HCC patients and eight healthy controls. Circulating IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF showed higher concentrations in HCC patients than in controls (p < 0.05, and predicted HCC occurrence better than chance (p < 0.01. Twenty-one patients with HCC received 21-phase liver imaging using a 64-slice CT. Total BF, arterial BF, portal BF, arterial fraction (arterial BF/total BF of the HCC and surrounding liver parenchyma, and HCC-parenchyma ratio were measured using a dual-vessel model. After analyzing the correlations between BF in HCC and four circulating angiogenic factors, we found that the HCC-parenchyma ratio of arterial BF showed a significantly positive correlation with the level of circulating IL-8 (p < 0.05. This circulating biomarker, IL-8, provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of BF in HCC.

  15. Clinical Observation on Influence of Chinese Medicines for Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis on FIB and DD in Plasma of Patients with Cerebral Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晖; 陈甦; 陈少芳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to study the influence of Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis on fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (DD) in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis. Method: 73 inpatients with acute cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into a control group of 34 cases and a treatment group of 39 cases. The content of FIB and DD in plasma was detected before treatment and on the 7th and 14th days after treatment. Result: FIB content in plasma after treatment was lower than that before treatment in the control group (P<0.01) and more remarkable in the treatment group (P<0.001). There was an obvious difference in DD content before and after treatment in both groups. DD content on the 7th and 14th days after treatment in the treatment group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis can reduce the FIB content in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis, raise the DD content in plasma, cause the peak of DD content appear earlier and obviously improve hypercoagulability of blood in patients with cerebral thrombosis.

  16. [The influence of cardiosurgical intervention type and conditions of artificial blood circulation of perioperative dynamics of cardiac biomarkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, I I; Morozov, Iu A; Charnaia, M A

    2013-01-01

    125 patients after cardiac surgery operated on with the use of artificial blood circulation (ABC) were followed-up. Blood levels of cardiac protein, binding aliphatic acids and troponin 1 and 3 days after the operation were registered. The study showed that aorta clamping more then 90 minutes and hypothermic perfusion regimen influence cardiomyocites negatively. The state of "surgical trauma" and reperfusional myocardium damage was approximately the same during aortic surgery, myocardium revascularization with the use of aortic clamping and cardioplegia, and correction of the acquired heart disease, according to the dynamics of the studied proteins in blood. The minimal blood level of cardiac protein, binding aliphatic acids after coronary by-pass surgery on the working heart witnesses about negative influence of crystalloid hypothermic cardioplegia on coronary microcirculation.

  17. Study on time-based variation of blood circulation index, pulse wave energy, and RAI of healthy adult men after different eating times

    OpenAIRE

    Gyeong-Cheol Kim; Ki-Young Ji; Yi-Soon Kim; Yi-Sub Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different eating times on blood circulation index, pulse wave energy (E), and radial augmentation index (RAI) of healthy adult men. Methods: Blood circulation index, E, and RAI were measured using a three-dimensional (3-D) pulse imaging system (3-D MAC) at before, right after, 30 minutes after, 1 hour after, and 2 hours after eating. Results: In the blood circulation index, heart rate (HR), estimated cardiac output (ECO)...

  18. High-circulating leptin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in uncontrolled resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro Moraes, C; Figueiredo, V N; de Faria, A P C; Barbaro, N R; Sabbatini, A R; Quinaglia, T; Ferreira-Melo, S E; Martins, L C; Demacq, C; Júnior, H M

    2013-04-01

    Leptin and aldosterone have been associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension. However, despite studies showing the association of leptin with intima-media thickness, arterial distensibility and sympathetic nerve activation, the relationship between leptin and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension (RHTN) is unknown. We aimed to assess the correlation of plasma leptin and aldosterone levels with BP in uncontrolled controlled RHTN (UCRHTN) and CRHTN patients. Plasma leptin and aldosterone levels, office BP, ambulatory BP monitoring and heart rate were measured in 41 UCRHTN, 39 CRHTN and 31 well-controlled HTN patients. No differences were observed between the three groups regarding gender, body mass index and age. The UCRHTN group had increased leptin when compared with CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (38.2±21.4, 19.6±8.7 and 20.94±13.9 ng ml(-1), respectively; P<0.05). Aldosterone levels values were also statistically different when comparing RHTN, CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (9.6±3.8, 8.1±5.0 and 8.0±4.7 ng dl(-1), respectively; P<0.05). As expected, UCRHTN patients had higher heart rate values compared with CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (86.2±7.2, 83.5±6.7 and 83.4±8.5, respectively; P<0.05). Plasma leptin positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and aldosterone (r=0.43, 0.35 and 0.47, respectively; all P<0.05) in UCRHTN, but neither in the CRHTN nor in the HTN group. Simple linear regression showed that SBP, DBP and aldosterone may be predicted by leptin (r(2)=0.16, 0.15 and 0.19, respectively; all P<0.05) only in the UCRHTN subgroup. In conclusion, UCRHTN patients have higher circulating leptin levels associated with increased plasma aldosterone and BP levels when compared with CRHTN and HTN subjects.

  19. Measurement of anterior and posterior circulation flow contributions to cerebral blood flow. An ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyajian, R A; Schwend, R B; Wolfe, M M; Bickerton, R E; Otis, S M

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis may be useful in answering questions of basic physiological interest in the cerebrovascular circulation. Using this technique, the authors have sought to describe quantitatively the complete concurrent flow relations among all four arteries supplying the brain. The aim of this study of normal subjects was to determine the relative flow contributions of the anterior (internal carotid arteries) and posterior (vertebral arteries) cerebral circulation. Comparisons between the observed and theoretically expected anterior and posterior flow distribution would provide an opportunity to assess traditional rheological conceptions in vivo. Pulsed color Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure mean flow rates in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries in 21 normal adults. The anterior circulation (internal carotid arteries bilaterally) carried 82% of the brain's blood supply and comprised 67% of the total vascular cross-sectional area. These values demonstrate precise concordance between observations in vivo and the theoretically derived (Hagen-Poiseuille) expected flow distribution. These cerebrovascular findings support the traditional conception of macroscopic blood flow. Further studies using ultrasound-derived volumetric analysis of the brain's arterial flow relations may illuminate the vascular pathophysiology underlying aging, cerebral ischemia, and dementias.

  20. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mouse were also investigated.

  1. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Choe, Kibaek; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-09-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mice were also investigated.

  2. The Effects of Chinese Medicines on Micro-circulation of Nail Folds and Blood Flow Velocity of Limbs in the Patients with Arteriosclerotic Obliteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛辛; 葛芃; 彭玉清; 陈云翔

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Chinese medicines on micro-circulation and blood flow velocity in arteries of the lower limbs were observed in 33 patients with arteriosclerotic obliteration (ASO). The results showed that the integral values of micro-circulation after treatment were obviously higher than those before treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Blood flow velocity in arteries of the lower limbs determined with the color Doppler ultrasound detecting method after treatment were also obviously higher than those before treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In this series of 33 ASO patients, the markedly effective rate was 36.36%, and the total effective rate was 63.64%. The observation indicates that the recipe prescribed according to the principle of supplementing qi and activating blood circulation can effectively improve micro-circulation in ASO patients, and accelerate blood flow in arteries of the lower limbs.

  3. [Relationship between regulation effect of salvia miltiorrhiza on AQP2 in kidney and promoting blood circulation and diuresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Liang-Feng; Yao, Rui; Xue, Song-Yan; Li, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Partial nature of "promoting blood circulation and dieresis" of Salvia Miltiorrhizain was initially demonstrated by investigating the regulation effect of AQP2 expression in kidney of trauma blood stasis model rats with the Salvia Miltiorrhizain so as to provide guidance for its clinical deployment of administration. Random allocation was taken to averagely divide 30 SD rats into two groups: 10 rats in normal group and 20 rats in blood stasis syndrome group. Trauma blood stasis rat model was established by quantitatively beating. Then the rat model group was divided into model group and salvia group. After 7 days of treatment, the rat kidney AQP2 expression was detected, the content of urine AQP2 was compared and the damaged local muscle and kidney pathological changes were observed by immunohistochemical method and western blot method. Compared with that of the normal group, rats in model group had inflammatory cells infiltration, blood stasis and edema of the injured local muscles and up-regulated AQP2 expression, decreasing urinary output, and kidney tissues blood stasis and edema (P diuresis" as the mechanism for the regulation effect of the salvia on AQP2 expression.

  4. Decimeter waves in complex treatment of patients with cerebral blood circulation insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelkova, N.I.

    Decimeter waves (DMW) were introduced into the therapeutic armamentarium relatively recently. The effect of DMW on the CNS was studied in the Division of Neurology at the Central Scientific Research Institute of Resort Science and Physiotherapy for a number of years on four groups of patients: (A) Parkinson's Disease Group, (B) patients with sequelae of open and closed craniocerebral injuries, (C) cerebral stroke patients basically of the ischemic type and (D) patients with transitory cerebral circulation disorders. The experience gained showed that the use of DMW improved cerebral circulation and aided in development of collateral circulation. It was found that in cases of tremor Parkinsonism and in epilepsy, DMW therapy should be applied to the collarbone area. Application of DMW in early stages of injury needs further study. Obviously, a single therapeutic intervention cannot provide complete recovery; a combined treatment must be applied, advisably under conditions of a resort spa. 11 references.

  5. Cancer diagnosis and prognosis decoded by blood-based circulating microRNA signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanija eMadhavan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs have garnered a lot of attention and interest in the field of disease biomarkers. With characteristics such as high stability, low cost, possibility of repeated sampling and minimal invasiveness, circulating miRNAs are ideal for development into diagnostic tests. There have been many studies reported on the potential of circulating miRNAs as early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cancer. Here, we have reviewed the use of plasma and serum miRNAs as biomarkers for cancer focusing on epithelial carcinomas (prostate, breast, lung, colorectal and gastric cancer and haematological malignancies (leukaemia and lymphoma. We have also addressed the common challenges that need to be overcome to achieve a successful bench to bedside transition.

  6. Influence of Molecular Structure on O2-Binding Properties and Blood Circulation of Hemoglobin‒Albumin Clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Yamada

    Full Text Available A hemoglobin wrapped covalently by three human serum albumins, a Hb-HSA3 cluster, is an artificial O2-carrier with the potential to function as a red blood cell substitute. This paper describes the synthesis and O2-binding properties of new hemoglobin‒albumin clusters (i bearing four HSA units at the periphery (Hb-HSA4, large-size variant and (ii containing an intramolecularly crosslinked Hb in the center (XLHb-HSA3, high O2-affinity variant. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the Hb-HSA4 diameter is greater than that of either Hb-HSA3 or XLHb-HSA3. The XLHb-HSA3 showed moderately high O2-affinity compared to the others because of the chemical linkage between the Cys-93(β residues in Hb. Furthermore, the blood circulation behavior of 125I-labeled clusters was investigated by assay of blood retention and tissue distribution after intravenous administration into anesthetized rats. The XLHb-HSA3 was metabolized faster than Hb-HSA3 and Hb-HSA4. Results suggest that the molecular structure of the protein cluster is a factor that can influence in vivo circulation behavior.

  7. From the discovery of the circulation of the blood to the first steps in hemorheology: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins e Silva, J

    2009-12-01

    In the second and last part of this article, the contributions of two more brilliant figures are described in two sections, A and B, respectively Marcello Malpighi and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. Through the originality of their work, both confirmed the pioneer William Harvey's observations and went on to add important details. Malpighi applied the optical microscope, until then used almost exclusively as a mere curiosity, to the in vitro study of the body tissues of various species. Outstanding among these pioneering observations was the visualization, for the first time, of capillary structures and blood corpuscles, on the basis of which he defined the composition of blood and, also for the first time, the concept of its fluidity. Furthermore, Malpighi confirmed the structural and functional continuity of the systemic circulation, which Harvey had been unable to demonstrate. Although van Leeuwenhoek lacked an academic education, he was able to see, through lenses he built himself, the microscopic details of the organic and inorganic world around him. Among numerous detailed observations of all types of substances, particularly important were the insights that he obtained into the nature of blood and red blood cells, to which he attributed the color of arterial and venous blood. He calculated the size of erythrocytes with striking accuracy. He was able to distinguish arterial from venous blood, confirmed the heart's function as the force behind the propulsion of the blood through the arteries and of the rhythmic nature of the pulse, and elucidated the return of the blood to the heart by different vessels, the veins. He visualized the bifurcation of the arteries into increasingly narrow vessels until they gave way to capillary networks, which in turn became successively wider venous channels. Van Leeuwenhoek demonstrated the existence of arterial-venous anastomoses. He discovered erythrocyte sedimentation and deformability (their shape varying from the original

  8. Elimination of young erythrocytes from blood circulation and altered erythropoietic patterns during paraquat induced anemic phase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice.

  9. Clinical Observation in 45 Cases of Hemorrhagic Apoplexy of the Acute Stage Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国柱

    2003-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of the method of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on hemorrhagic apoplexy of acute stage, 45 cases were treated by the method and observed for their conscious state and motor function, which were compared with 40 cases treated with regular western drugs. The results showed that the effective rate in the treated group was 82.2% and that in control group 60% with a significant difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. In the treated group, the scores of the conscious state and the motor function after treatment were elevated dramatically (P<0.01), indicating a much better effect in the treated group than in the control group.

  10. Integrative assessment of kick boxers’ brain blood circulation and bio-electrical activity in conditions of correction technologies’ application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Y.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate the role of para-vertebral impacts on blood circulation and bio-electrical activity of kick boxers’ cortex. Material: in the research participated kick boxers (main group, n=62 and university students (control group, n=25 of 18-23 years’ age. Assessment of para-vertebral impacts with device Armos and classic massage was fulfilled with the help of the following methodic: trans-cranial dopplerography of head main arteries and cortex EEG of the tested. Results: it was found that with the help of para-vertebral impacts by device Armos linear velocity of cerebral blood flow reduces to normal limits and in- and inter-hemispheres’ interaction strength increases. Conclusions: para-vertebral impacts by device Armos activate integrative processes and inter-hemispheres’ interactions of different cortex areas of kick boxers. It can witness about better formation of functional systems, ensuring sports efficiency.

  11. Reduced blood pressure of CFTR-F508del carriers correlates with diminished arterial reactivity rather than circulating blood volume in mice.

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    Veronica A Peotta

    Full Text Available The F508del mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF. Both CF patients and F508del carriers have decreased blood pressure. While this has been attributed to salt depletion, recent studies have shown F508del expression interferes with smooth muscle cell calcium mobilization. We tested the hypothesis that carriers of the F508del mutation have lower adult blood pressures and reduced aortic contractility without a reduction in circulating blood volume. By radiotelemetry, F508del heterozygous mice had significantly lower arterial pressures than wild-type C57BL/6 controls, with the greatest effect seen at the time of dark-to-light cycle transition (mean difference of 10 mmHg. To replicate the vascular effects of sympathetic arousal, isoproterenol and epinephrine were co-infused, and F508del mice again had significantly reduced arterial pressures. Aortas isolated from F508del heterozygous mice had significantly decreased constriction to noradrenaline (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 2.9 ± 0.7 mN. Inhibition of wild-type CFTR or the inositol triphosphate receptor replicated the phenotype of F508del aortas. CFTR carrier status did not alter circulating blood volume. We conclude the CFTR-F508del mutation decreases aortic contractility and lowers arterial pressures. As a cAMP-activated chloride channel that facilitates calcium mobilization, we speculate wild-type CFTR co-activation during adrenergic receptor stimulation buffers the vasodilatory response to catecholamines, and loss of this compensatory vasoconstrictor tone may contribute to the lower arterial pressures seen in heterozygote carriers of a CFTR-F508del mutation.

  12. Clinical Analysis of Postpartum Blood Circulation Failure%产后血循环衰竭的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀文

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the causes and treatment methods of analysis of postpartum blood circulation failure.Methods To study and analyze according to the pregnant women in our hospital received 48 cases of postpartum blood circulation failure occurred in patients with symptoms, discussed the clinical etiology of their treatment, review.ResultsThe production probability circulation failure accounted for 1.01% of the total number of the study, all 48 patients, including 25% patients of the total labor for more than 16 hours, with the second stage of labor 10.4% extension, a huge 20.8% of cases of fetal maternal preeclampsia, 8.3% belong to the hypertension disease - pregnancy early, these patients after treatment, were successfully discharged.Conclusion Perinatal health care, postpartum visits, observation etc. to better prevention effect on postpartum blood circulation failure, clinical should pay attention to the use of these measures, to ensure the safety of delivery.%目的:研究分析产后血循环衰竭的产生原因和治疗方法。方法根据我院接收的分娩孕妇出现产后血循环衰竭症状的48例患者来进行研究分析,对他们的临床病因进行探讨,回顾治疗方法。结果此次发生产后血循环衰竭的几率占研究总数的1.01%,全部共48例患者,其中有25%的患者其总产程超过了16 h,10.4%的患者第二产程延长,有20.8%的胎儿巨大病例,8.3%的产妇属于妊娠期高血压疾病-子痫前期,这些患者在治疗后,均顺利的出院。结论围产期的保健、产后的巡视、病情观察等能够对产后血循环衰竭起到较好的预防作用,临床中应该注意这些措施的使用,确保产妇的安全分娩。

  13. The effects of long-term microgravity on autonomic regulation of blood circulation in crewmembers of the international space station

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    Roman М. Baevsky

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of space experiment “Pneumocard”. The investigation involved all 25 Russian members of the ISS crew. The total of 226 sessions were made including 130 aboard the ISS, 50 prior to launch and 46 on return from mission. The objective was to study effects of the spaceflight factors on autonomic regulation of blood circulation, respiration and cardiac contractility during long-duration mission. The purpose was to secure new research data that would clarify our present view of adaptation mechanisms. Registered were the following signals: electrocardiogram, impedance cardiogram, seismic cardiogram, pneumotachogram, finger photoplethysmogram. A set of hard- and software was used. Autonomic regulation of blood circulation by HRV analysis was investigated. It was shown that at the onset of a space mission parasympathetic involvement in regulation increases typically with subsequent mobilization of additional functional reserve. It guided the development of a functional states mathematical model incorporating the established types of autonomic regulation. Our data evidence that the combination of HRV analysis, pre-nosology diagnosis and probabilistic estimate of the pathology risk can reinforce the medical care program in space missions.

  14. Molecular Biosensing Mechanisms in the Spleen for the Removal of Aged and Damaged Red Cells from the Blood Circulation

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    Eriko Ueno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO2 A prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  15. [Analysis and comparison of theories of circulation of blood and qi in both eastern and western ancient medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai

    2014-09-01

    In ancient Egypt, the theory of circulation of blood and qi was preliminarily established on the basis of cadaver dissection, gradually revised and improved following the progress of anatomy and physiology. However, the "Meridian Theory" of circulation of blood and qi in Chinese medicine had never been established on the basis of anatomical and physiological studies. Thus a suspicion was aroused, "whether the meridians really exist, or artificially assumed by imagination"? Therefore, in recent one half of a century, numerous scholars at home and abroad spent countless financial capacities and human power to study the essence of Meridians in order to find their material or substantial evidence, but with no breakthrough obtained. Nevertheless, in the 70th of the last century, studies on mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia won an undoubtedly good result. Hence, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on pain control was admitted by the "Consensus Statement on Acupuncture" at an international meeting held by NIH in Dec. 1997. Then the old Chinese acupuncture won an international acceptance and application. Therefore, the investigation of mechanism of acupuncture analgesia set up a positive model for future scientific researches on acupuncture mechanisms and essence of Meridians, as well as on other Chinese medical theories.

  16. Molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen for the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Yuko; Shigemasa, Yuki; Abe, Yoko; Ohgushi, Ikumi; Ueno, Eriko; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO(2) A) prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  17. Effect of exosome isolation methods on physicochemical properties of exosomes and clearance of exosomes from the blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takuma; Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, which are expected to be delivery systems for biomolecules such as nucleic acids, are collected by several methods. However, the effect of exosome isolation methods on the characteristics of exosomes as drug carriers, such as recovery efficiency after sterile filtration and pharmacokinetics, has not been investigated despite the importance of these characteristics for the development of exosome-based delivery systems. In the present study, exosomes collected from murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells by several methods were compared with respect to dispersibility, recovery rate after filtering, and clearance from the blood circulation in mice. The exosomes were collected by three ultracentrifugation-based methods: simple ultracentrifugation/pelleting (pelleting method), ultracentrifugation with an iodixanol cushion (cushion method), and ultracentrifugation on an iodixanol density gradient (gradient method). The isolation methods had little effect on the particle number of exosomes. In contrast, transmission electron microscopy observation and size distribution measurement using tunable resistive pulse sensing indicated that the exosomes of the gradient method were more dispersed than the others. The exosomes were labeled with Gaussia luciferase and intravenously injected into mice. Clearance of injected exosomes from the blood circulation did not significantly change with isolation methods. When the exosomes were filtered using a 0.2-μm filter, the recovery rate was 82% for the exosomes of the gradient method, whereas it was less than 50% for the others. These results indicate that the exosome isolation method markedly affects the dispersibility and filtration efficiency of the exosomes.

  18. [Peculiarities of application of a cell saver apparatus in neonathal cardiosurgery using artificial blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'menko, S O; Chasovs'kyĭ, K S

    2015-01-01

    Elaborated and introduced into the practice method of the blood preservation, while correction of complex inborn heart failures (IHF) in a newborn babies, was proposed. It assumes application of system for intraoperative reinfusion of own erythrocytes with processing of residual perfusate and their reinfusion in a postperfusion period. Impact of the blood preservation on volume of a donor's blood components, hematological indices and methods of application of washed erythrocytes while correction of complex IHF in a newborn babies were presented. The method was applied in 47 newborn babies, to whom an arterial switch was performed for the main vessels transposition.

  19. Changes of blood circulation of the extremity after external fixation for tibia shaft defect: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare two approaches, end to endcompression with lengthening (EECL) and segmental bone transport by lengthening (STBL), for long tubular bone defect and nonunion.Methods: Ten goats were used to establish the bone defect model of the mid-tibia. The bone defect ends were shortened step by step with a sulcated half-ring external fixator. Changes of the blood flow of the distal extremity were measured with pulse-Doppler monitor and angiography.Results: The blood flow in the distal extremity was not affected when bone defect was less than 15% of the original length. Blood circulatory disorder would appear in the distal extremity when bone defect ranged 15%-20% of the original length. The necrosis would appear in the extremity because of the blood circulatory obstacle when bone defect was more than 20% of the original length.Conclusions: EECL is an appropriate alternative of treatments if bone defect is less than 15%; while SBTL may be feasible if bone defect is over 20% of the original length. When bone defect ranges between 15% and 20%, EECL should be applied with great care on condition of keeping watch on the extremity circulation with pulse-Doppler monitor.

  20. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on peripheral blood circulation in people with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahui; Kwan, Rachel Lai-Chu; Zheng, Yongping; Cheing, Gladys Lai-Ying

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous blood flow provides nourishment that plays an essential role in maintaining skin health. We examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cutaneous circulation of dorsal feet. Twenty-two patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 21 healthy control subjects were randomly allocated to receive either PEMFs or sham PEMFs (0.5 mT, 12 Hz, 30 min). Blood flow velocity and diameter of the small vein were examined by using ultrasound biomicroscopy; also, microcirculation at skin over the base of the 1st metatarsal bone (Flux1) and distal 1st phalange (Flux2) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry before and after intervention. Results indicated that PEMFs produced significantly greater changes in blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein than did sham PEMFs (both P < 0.05) in both types of subjects. However, no significant difference was found in changes of vein diameter, nor in Flux1 and Flux2, between PEMFs and sham PEMFs groups in subjects with or without DM. We hypothesized that PEMFs would increase blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein in people with or without DM. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:290-297, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Do trichothecenes reduce viability of circulating blood cells and modify haemostasis parameters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froquet, R; Arnold, F; Batina, P; Parent-Massin, D

    2003-01-01

    This manuscript describes the results of experiments conducted using human blood cells to determine the ability of T-2 toxin and DON to cause changes in clotting time, platelet aggregation, red blood cell haemolysis, RBC glucose content, lactate release, glutathione depletion, as well as white blood cell viability. In vitro results showed that haemostasis parameters and erythrocytes were not affected at concentrations able to induce inhibition of haematopoietic progenitor proliferation. In the presence of 10(-8) M and 10(-6) M T-2, the leucocyte number decreased at 24 h by 30% and 50% respectively. A 50% decrease in leucocyte number was observed for 10(-5) M DON. Results were compared with haematopoietic progenitor sensitivities. Due to the differences in sensitivities between mature blood cells and haematopoietic progenitors, haematological problems associated with trichothecene intoxication could be attributed to haematopoiesis inhibition.

  2. Mathematical modelling of cerebral blood circulation and cerebral autoregulation: towards preventing intracranial hemorrhages in preterm newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Renée; Botkin, Nikolai; Turova, Varvara; Blumenstein, Tobias; Alves-Pinto, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Impaired cerebral autoregulation leads to fluctuations in cerebral blood flow, which can be especially dangerous for immature brain of preterm newborns. In this paper, two mathematical models of cerebral autoregulation are discussed. The first one is an enhancement of a vascular model proposed by Piechnik et al. We extend this model by adding a polynomial dependence of the vascular radius on the arterial blood pressure and adjusting the polynomial coefficients to experimental data to gain the autoregulation behavior. Moreover, the inclusion of a Preisach hysteresis operator, simulating a hysteretic dependence of the cerebral blood flow on the arterial pressure, is tested. The second model couples the blood vessel system model by Piechnik et al. with an ordinary differential equation model of cerebral autoregulation by Ursino and Lodi. An optimal control setting is proposed for a simplified variant of this coupled model. The objective of the control is the maintenance of the autoregulatory function for a wider range of the arterial pressure. The control can be interpreted as the effect of a medicament changing the cerebral blood flow by, for example, dilation of blood vessels. Advanced numerical methods developed by the authors are applied for the numerical treatment of the control problem.

  3. Mathematical Modelling of Cerebral Blood Circulation and Cerebral Autoregulation: Towards Preventing Intracranial Hemorrhages in Preterm Newborns

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    Renée Lampe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired cerebral autoregulation leads to fluctuations in cerebral blood flow, which can be especially dangerous for immature brain of preterm newborns. In this paper, two mathematical models of cerebral autoregulation are discussed. The first one is an enhancement of a vascular model proposed by Piechnik et al. We extend this model by adding a polynomial dependence of the vascular radius on the arterial blood pressure and adjusting the polynomial coefficients to experimental data to gain the autoregulation behavior. Moreover, the inclusion of a Preisach hysteresis operator, simulating a hysteretic dependence of the cerebral blood flow on the arterial pressure, is tested. The second model couples the blood vessel system model by Piechnik et al. with an ordinary differential equation model of cerebral autoregulation by Ursino and Lodi. An optimal control setting is proposed for a simplified variant of this coupled model. The objective of the control is the maintenance of the autoregulatory function for a wider range of the arterial pressure. The control can be interpreted as the effect of a medicament changing the cerebral blood flow by, for example, dilation of blood vessels. Advanced numerical methods developed by the authors are applied for the numerical treatment of the control problem.

  4. Evaluation of coronary blood flow velocity during cardiac arrest with circulation maintained through mechanical chest compressions in a porcine model

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    Wagner Henrik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical chest compressions (CCs have been shown capable of maintaining circulation in humans suffering cardiac arrest for extensive periods of time. Reports have documented a visually normalized coronary blood flow during angiography in such cases (TIMI III flow, but it has never been actually measured. Only indirect measurements of the coronary circulation during cardiac arrest with on-going mechanical CCs have been performed previously through measurement of the coronary perfusion pressure (CPP. In this study our aim was to correlate average peak coronary flow velocity (APV to CPP during mechanical CCs. Methods In a closed chest porcine model, cardiac arrest was established through electrically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF in eleven pigs. After one minute, mechanical chest compressions were initiated and then maintained for 10 minutes upon which the pigs were defibrillated. Measurements of coronary blood flow in the left anterior descending artery were made at baseline and during VF with a catheter based Doppler flow fire measuring APV. Furthermore measurements of central (thoracic venous and arterial pressures were also made in order to calculate the theoretical CPP. Results Average peak coronary flow velocity was significantly higher compared to baseline during mechanical chests compressions and this was observed during the entire period of mechanical chest compressions (12 - 39% above baseline. The APV slowly declined during the 10 min period of mechanical chest compressions, but was still higher than baseline at the end of mechanical chest compressions. CPP was simultaneously maintained at > 20 mmHg during the 10 minute episode of cardiac arrest. Conclusion Our study showed good correlation between CPP and APV which was highly significant, during cardiac arrest with on-going mechanical CCs in a closed chest porcine model. In addition APV was even higher during mechanical CCs compared to baseline. Mechanical

  5. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and dynamic 4D angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Alex; Wenz, Holger; Kerl, Hans Ulrich; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Habich, Sonia; Groden, Christoph [University of Heidelberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this paper are to assess collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion by MRI-based approaches (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms) and investigate its relation to ischemic lesion size and growth. In 28 patients with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and 10 patients with basilar artery (BA) occlusion, MRI findings were analyzed, with emphasis on distal FVH and collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms. In PCA occlusion, distal FVH was observed in 18/29 (62.1 %), in BA occlusion, in 8/10 (80 %) cases. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms was graded 1 in 8 (27.6 %) patients, 2 in 1 (3.4 %) patient, 3 in 12 (41.4 %) patients, and 4 in 8 (27.6 %) patients with PCA occlusion and 0 in 1 (10 %) patient, 2 in 3 (30 %) patients, 3 in 1 (10 %) patient, and 4 in 5 (50 %) patients with BA occlusion. FVH grade showed neither correlation with initial or follow-up diffusion-weighted image (DWI) lesion size nor DWI-perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) mismatch ratio. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial DWI lesion size and moderately with the DWI-(PWI) mismatch ratio. The combination of distal FVH and collateralization grade on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial as well as follow-up DWI lesion size and highly with the DWI-PWI mismatch ratio. In posterior circulation occlusion, FVH is a frequent finding, but its prognostic value is limited. Dynamic 4D angiograms are advantageous to examine and graduate collateral blood flow. The combination of both parameters results in an improved characterization of collateral blood flow and might have prognostic relevance. (orig.)

  6. Study on the change of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Qiong Luo; LiangTang; Ping Xie; Yan-Mei Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study and observe the change status of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer.Methods:A total of 72 patients with cervical cancer in our hospital from February 2014 to September 2015 were selected as the observation group, 72 healthy women at the same period were selected as the control group, then the HPV DNA virus content and constitution, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of two groups were analyzed and compared, and the detection results of observation group with stageⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ andⅣ of cervical cancer were compared.Results:The rates of HPV DNA virus content and>500 in the observation group were all higher than those of control group, the circulating blood and tissue miR-21 were all higher than those of control group, while the circulating blood and tissue miR-126, miR-143 and miR-145 were all lower than those of control group, and the detection results of observation group with stageⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ andⅣ of cervical cancer all had obvious differences, the differences were all significant.Conclusion:The changes of the status of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer are great, and the influence of cervical cancer stage for the detection results are great, so it has active guiding significance for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  7. Circulating miRNA-155 is realted to blood pressure monitoring parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ying; HUANG Yu-qing; HUANG Cheng; LI Jie; CAI An-ping; YU Xue-ju; ZHOU Dan

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that miRNA-155 played an important role in the process of development of hypertension.However,there is no date about miRNA-155 and blood pressure monitoring parameters.Therefore,we examined whether in hypertensive patients the expression level of plasma miRNA-155 related to 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters.Methods A cohort of adult patients scheduled to receive physical examination,office and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of selected miRNA-155.The miRNA-155 expression level correlation between blood pressure parameters was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient.Results Fifty four essential hypertension patients (25 men;mean age,53.28 ± 9.52 years) and thirty healthy volunteers (15 men;mean age,53.03 ± 5.87 years) were included.We observed higher expression level of miRNA-155 (32.31 ± 2.85 vs 27.21 ± 1.59,P < 0.001) in hypertensive patients compared to healthy control individuals.MiRNA-155 expression level showed significant positive correlation with 24 h Daytime SBP (r =0.681,P < 0.001),24 h Daytime DBP (r =0.473,P < 0.001),24 h Daytime PP (r =0.565,P < 0.001) and dipping (r =0.257,P =0.018),respectively.Conclusions Our study showed that miRNA-155 expression level was associated positively with daytime blood pressure monitoring parameters,as well as blood pressure variability,indicating a possible implication of miRNA-155 in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  8. Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results.

  9. Dried-blood spots: a cost-effective field method for the detection of Chikungunya virus circulation in remote areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soa Fy Andriamandimby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, there were outbreaks of febrile polyarthritis due to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in the Comoros Islands. CHIKV then spread to other islands in the Indian Ocean: La Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar. These outbreaks revealed the lack of surveillance and preparedness of Madagascar and other countries. Thus, it was decided in 2007 to establish a syndrome-based surveillance network to monitor dengue-like illness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the use of capillary blood samples blotted on filter papers for molecular diagnosis of CHIKV infection. Venous blood samples can be difficult to obtain and the shipment of serum in appropriate temperature conditions is too costly for most developing countries. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Venous blood and dried-blood blotted on filter paper (DBFP were collected during the last CHIKV outbreak in Madagascar (2010 and as part of our routine surveillance of dengue-like illness. All samples were tested by real-time RT-PCR and results with serum and DBFP samples were compared for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with DBFP, relative to those with venous samples (defined as 100% were 93.1% (95% CI:[84.7-97.7] and 94.4% (95% CI:[88.3-97.7], respectively. The Kappa coefficient 0.87 (95% CI:[0.80-0.94] was excellent. CONCLUSION: This study shows that DBFP specimens can be used as a cost-effective alternative sampling method for the surveillance and monitoring of CHIKV circulation and emergence in developing countries, and probably also for other arboviruses. The loss of sensitivity is insignificant and involved a very small number of patients, all with low viral loads. Whether viruses can be isolated from dried blood spots remains to be determined.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Compatibility Effects on Invigorating Blood Circulation for Cyperi Rhizoma Series of Herb Pairs Using Untargeted Metabolomics

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    Pei Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The mutual-assistance compatibility of Cyperi Rhizoma (Xiangfu, XF and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (Danggui, DG, Chuanxiong Rhizoma (Chuanxiong, CX, Paeoniae Radix Alba (Baishao, BS, or Corydalis Rhizoma (Yanhusuo, YH, found in a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM named Xiang-Fu-Si-Wu Decoction (XFSWD, can produce synergistic and promoting blood effects. Nowadays, XFSWD has been proved to be effective in activating blood circulation and dissipating blood stasis. However, the role of the herb pairs synergistic effects in the formula were poorly understood. In order to quantitatively assess the compatibility effects of herb pairs, mass spectrometry-based untargeted metabolomics studies were performed. The plasma and urine metabolic profiles of acute blood stasis rats induced by adrenaline hydrochloride and ice water and administered with Cyperi Rhizoma—Angelicae Sinensis Radix (XD, Cyperi Rhizoma—Chuanxiong Rhizoma (XC, Cyperi Rhizoma—Paeoniae Radix Alba (XB, Cyperi Rhizoma—Corydalis Rhizoma (XY were compared. Relative peak area of identified metabolites was calculated and principal component analysis (PCA score plot from the potential markers was used to visualize the overall differences. Then, the metabolites results were used with biochemistry indicators and genes expression values as parameters to quantitatively evaluate the compatibility effects of XF series of herb pairs by PCA and correlation analysis. The collective results indicated that the four XF herb pairs regulated glycerophospholipid metabolism, steroid hormone biosynthesis and arachidonic acid metabolism pathway. XD was more prominent in regulating the blood stasis during the four XF herb pairs. This study demonstrated that metabolomics was a useful tool to efficacy evaluation and compatibility effects of TCM elucidation.

  11. Enhancement of Capture Sensitivity for Circulating Tumor Cells in a Breast Cancer Patient's Blood by Silicon Nanowire Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Choi, Mun-Ki; Jeong, Jin-Tak; Lim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Han-Byoel; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    The separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of cancer patients with high sensitivity is an essential technique for selecting chemotherapeutic agents at a patient-by-patient level. Recently, various research groups have reported a nanostructure-based platform for rare cell capture due to its high surface area and 3D nanotopographic features. However, evaluation of capture sensitivity based on chemical modification of the nanostructure surface has not yet been performed. Here, we evaluated the capture sensitivity for CTCs from the blood of three patients diagnosed with stage IV metastatic breast cancer by using the following three platforms: streptavidin-conjugated silicon nanowire (STR-SiNW), poly-l-lysine-coated silicon nanowire (PLL-SiNW), and poly-l-lysine-coated glass (PLL-glass). The number of evaluated CTCs on STR-SiNW, PLL-SiNW, and PLL-glass were 16.2 ± 5.5 cells, 7.3 ± 2.9 cells, and 4.7 ± 1.5 cells, respectively, per 0.5 ml. Therefore, we suggest that the STR-SiNW platform is highly adaptable for the quantitative evaluation of CTCs from the blood of cancer patients in the clinical setting.

  12. CIRCULATING MICROPARTICLES, BLOOD CELLS, AND ENDOTHELIUM INDUCE PROCOAGULANT ACTIVITY IN SEPSIS THROUGH PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Meng, Huan; Ma, Ruishuang; He, Zhangxiu; Wu, Xiaoming; Cao, Muhua; Yao, Zhipeng; Zhao, Lu; Li, Tao; Deng, Ruijuan; Dong, Zengxiang; Tian, Ye; Bi, Yayan; Kou, Junjie; Thatte, Hemant S; Zhou, Jin; Shi, Jialan

    2016-03-01

    Sepsis is invariably accompanied by altered coagulation cascade; however, the precise role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in inflammation-associated coagulopathy in sepsis has not been well elucidated. We explored the possibility of exposed PS on microparticles (MPs), blood cells, as well as on endothelium, and defined its role in procoagulant activity (PCA) in sepsis. PS-positive MPs and cells were detected by flow cytometry, while PCA was assessed with clotting time, purified coagulation complex, and fibrin formation assays. Plasma levels of PS MPs derived from platelets, leukocytes (including neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes), erythrocytes, and endothelial cells were elevated by 1.49-, 1.60-, 2.93-, and 1.53-fold, respectively, in septic patients. Meanwhile, PS exposure on blood cells was markedly higher in septic patients than in controls. Additionally, we found that the endothelial cells (ECs) treated with septic serum in vitro exposed more PS than with healthy serum. Isolated MPs/blood cells from septic patients and cultured ECs treated with septic serum in vitro demonstrated significantly shortened coagulation time, greatly enhanced intrinsic/extrinsic FXa generation, and increased thrombin formation. Importantly, confocal imaging of MPs or septic serum-treated ECs identified binding sites for FVa and FXa to form prothrombinase, and further supported fibrin formation in the area where PS exposure was abundant. Pretreatment with lactadherin blocked PS on MPs/blood cells/ECs, prolonged coagulation time by at least 25%, reduced FXa/thrombin generation, and inhibited fibrin formation by approximately 85%. Our findings suggest a key role for PS exposed on MPs, blood cells, and endothelium in augmenting coagulation in sepsis. Therefore, therapies targeting PS may be of particular importance.

  13. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  14. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  15. Analysis on Mechanisms of Activating Blood Circulation and Compatible Regularity of Cinnamon Twig%桂枝活血机理及配伍规律探析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慕鸽; 魏凯峰(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

    This paper states the function of activating blood circulation in Cinnamon Twig, as well as the compatible regularity. The function on activating blood circulation of Cinnamon Twig is resulted from regulating body's blood, Qi and fluid. We should use it flexibly according to rational combination with blood-activating drugs, blood-enriching drugs and Qi-tonifying drugs in clinical practice.%阐述了桂枝功能与活血的关系,以及相关的配伍。认为桂枝的活血功效是通过调节机体血、气、水发挥,根据证候配伍活血药、养血药、温里药、理气药、补气药而在临床灵活使用。

  16. The effect of long-term lithium treatment of bipolar disorder on stem cells circulating in peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Michalak, Michal; Rybakowski, Janusz K

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of long-term lithium treatment on very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs), haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) circulating in peripheral blood (PB), in bipolar disorder (BD). The study included 15 BD patients (aged 55 ± 6 years) treated with lithium for 8-40 years (mean 16 years), 15 BD patients (aged 53 ± 7 years) with duration of illness >10 years, who had never received lithium, and 15 healthy controls (aged 50 ± 5 years). The VSELs, HSCs, MSCs and EPCs were measured by flow cytometric analysis. In BD subjects not taking lithium the number of CD34(+ )VSELs was significantly higher, and MSCs and EPCs numerically higher, than in control subjects and the number of CD34(+ )VSELs correlated with the duration of illness. In lithium-treated patients these values were similar to controls and the number of CD34(+ )VSELs correlated negatively with the duration of lithium treatment and serum lithium concentration. Long-term treatment with lithium may suppress the activation of regenerative processes by reducing the number of VSELs circulating in PB. These cells, in BD patients not treated with lithium, may provide a new potential biological marker of the illness and its clinical progress.

  17. [Detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells in the maternal circulation by Kleihauer test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Yu; Jin, Chun-Lian; Liu, Li-Ying; Lin, Chang-Kun; Wang, Yan; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2007-03-01

    Maternal blood was obtained from 18 pregnant women at 7 to 25 weeks of gestation. After Percoll discontinuous density gradient centifugation, the fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) were stained with Kleihauer test. Positive fetal cells appeared with an intense red cytoplasmic staining while maternal cells with adult haemoglobin were colourless. Individual positive NRBC was collected by micromanipulator and whole genome amplification was then performed to determine sex and STR status. This allowed the simultaneous verification of the fetal origin of NRBC and prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases. The non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis of 9 fetuses at high risk of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was completed successfully. The Kleihauer test is a rapid, simple and direct chemical staining method to select fetal cells and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  18. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after......, determination of CBV can be performed with an amount of CO that gives rise to a harmless increase in the carboxyhemoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  19. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  20. Time-evolution of in vivo protein corona onto blood-circulating PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOXIL) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidemetriou, Marilena; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are instantly modified once injected in the bloodstream because of their interaction with the blood components. The spontaneous coating of NPs by proteins, once in contact with biological fluids, has been termed the `protein corona' and it is considered to be a determinant factor for the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic profile of NPs. Protein exposure time is thought to greatly influence the composition of protein corona, however the dynamics of protein interactions under realistic, in vivo conditions remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the time evolution of in vivo protein corona, formed onto blood circulating, clinically used, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Protein adsorption profiles were determined 10 min, 1 h and 3 h post-injection of liposomes into CD-1 mice. The results demonstrated that a complex protein corona was formed as early as 10 min post-injection. Even though the total amount of protein adsorbed did not significantly change over time, the fluctuation of protein abundances observed indicated highly dynamic protein binding kinetics.Nanoparticles (NPs) are instantly modified once injected in the bloodstream because of their interaction with the blood components. The spontaneous coating of NPs by proteins, once in contact with biological fluids, has been termed the `protein corona' and it is considered to be a determinant factor for the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic profile of NPs. Protein exposure time is thought to greatly influence the composition of protein corona, however the dynamics of protein interactions under realistic, in vivo conditions remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the time evolution of in vivo protein corona, formed onto blood circulating, clinically used, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Protein adsorption profiles were determined 10 min, 1 h and 3 h post

  1. Circulating micro-RNAs as potential blood-based markers for early stage breast cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Schrauder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718. RESULTS: Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. CONCLUSIONS: MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to

  2. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and central blood volume (CBV) in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütten, H J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F

    1986-01-01

    , P less than 0.02) and inversely correlated with portal pressure (r = 0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas total plasma volume was somewhat increased (3.51 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.19 +/- 0.2, 0.05 less than P less than 0.1). A high arterio-venous extraction of ANP was found in the splanchnic system (extraction......Endogenous alpha-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma is elevated in various hypervolaemic conditions. Possible relationships between circulating immunoreactive ANP and cardiovascular and splanchnic haemodynamics were therefore studied in patients with cirrhosis (n = 16) and controls (n = 12......). Arterial plasma concentration of ANP in supine patients was (mean +/- SEM) 33 +/- 4 vs 41 +/- 10 pg/ml (9.9 +/- 1.2 vs 12.3 +/- 3.0 fmol/l) in controls (n.s.), and there was a weak direct correlation with right atrial pressure (r = 0.36, P = 0.05). There was no relationship with the presence of ascites...

  3. A STUDY OF THE CIRCULATION, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND RESPIRATION OF SHARKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, E P

    1926-01-04

    The average branchial blood pressure in sand sharks was 32 mm. of mercury. The highest recorded in a resting animal was 43 mm. The average dorsal or systemic pressure was 23.3 mm.; highest 30 mm. The ratio of branchial to systemic pressure is about 3 to 2. The pressure in both systems keeps up well under trauma; but under experimental conditions, with or without manipulation of viscera, slowly falls after several hours. It rises with muscular effort, and a long rise usually follows stoppage of struggling. It rises when sodium carbonate is injected. The adrenalin curve resembles that in a mammal. Spontaneous rises and falls not attributable to the heart occur. Light in some animals increases blood pressure. It is suspected that these fishes have a vasomotor apparatus. The heart rate except after trauma is practically always the same as the respiration rate, and there is some reason for believing that the heart rate is determined by the respiration rate. When not in step with respiration, the heart is slower and often in a simple ratio with respiration. The heart is inhibited by all sorts of stimuli applied practically anywhere (except to the liver?). This effect is abolished by atropin. Respiration is faster in small animals and averages 24 per minute. Respiration slowly decreases in strength with little change in rate. Usually respiration ceases long before the heart stops.

  4. Elderly bioheat modeling: changes in physiology, thermoregulation, and blood flow circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rida, Mohamad; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Hoballah, Jamal

    2014-11-01

    A bioheat model for the elderly was developed focusing on blood flow circulatory changes that influence their thermal response in warm and cold environments to predict skin and core temperatures for different segments of the body especially the fingers. The young adult model of Karaki et al. (Int J Therm Sci 67:41-51, 2013) was modified by incorporation of the physiological thermoregulatory and vasomotor changes based on literature observations of physiological changes in the elderly compared to young adults such as lower metabolism and vasoconstriction diminished ability, skin blood flow and its minimum and maximum values, the sweating values, skin fat thickness, as well as the change in threshold parameter related to core or skin temperatures which triggers thermoregulatory action for sweating, maximum dilatation, and maximum constriction. The developed model was validated with published experimental data for elderly exposure to transient and steady hot and cold environments. Predicted finger skin temperature, mean skin temperature, and core temperature were in agreement with published experimental data at a maximum error less than 0.5 °C in the mean skin temperature. The elderly bioheat model showed an increase in finger skin temperature and a decrease in core temperature in cold exposure while it showed a decrease in finger skin temperature and an increase in core temperature in hot exposure.

  5. Cord blood-circulating endothelial progenitors for treatment of vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, M; Vanneaux, V; Delmau, C; Gluckman, E; Rodde-Astier, I; Larghero, J; Uzan, G

    2011-04-01

    Adult peripheral blood (PB) endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are produced in the bone marrow and are able to integrate vascular structures in sites of neoangiogenesis. EPCs thus represent a potential therapeutic tool for ischaemic diseases. However, use of autologous EPCs in cell therapy is limited by their rarity in adult PB. Cord blood (CB) contains more EPCs than PB, and they are functional after expansion. They form primary colonies that give rise to secondary colonies, each yielding more than 10(7) cells after few passages. The number of endothelial cells obtained from one unit of CB is compatible with potential clinical application. EPC colonies can be securely produced, expanded and cryopreserved in close culture devices and endothelial cells produced in these conditions are functional as shown in different in vitro and in vivo assays. As CB EPC-derived endothelial cells would be allogeneic to patients, it would be of interest to prepare them from ready-existing CB banks. We show that not all frozen CB units from a CB bank are able to generate EPC colonies in culture, and when they do so, number of colonies is lower than that obtained with fresh CB units. However, endothelial cells derived from frozen CB have the same phenotypical and functional properties than those derived from fresh CB. This indicates that CB cryopreservation should be improved to preserve integrity of stem cells other than haematopoietic ones. Feasibility of using CB for clinical applications will be validated in porcine models of ischaemia.

  6. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs from Clinical Blood Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Gogoi

    Full Text Available Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH. In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization.

  7. Time-evolution of in vivo protein corona onto blood-circulating PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOXIL) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidemetriou, Marilena; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2016-04-07

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are instantly modified once injected in the bloodstream because of their interaction with the blood components. The spontaneous coating of NPs by proteins, once in contact with biological fluids, has been termed the 'protein corona' and it is considered to be a determinant factor for the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic profile of NPs. Protein exposure time is thought to greatly influence the composition of protein corona, however the dynamics of protein interactions under realistic, in vivo conditions remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the time evolution of in vivo protein corona, formed onto blood circulating, clinically used, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Protein adsorption profiles were determined 10 min, 1 h and 3 h post-injection of liposomes into CD-1 mice. The results demonstrated that a complex protein corona was formed as early as 10 min post-injection. Even though the total amount of protein adsorbed did not significantly change over time, the fluctuation of protein abundances observed indicated highly dynamic protein binding kinetics.

  8. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  9. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1987-12-31

    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  10. Effects of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist rizatriptan on cerebral blood flow and blood volume in normal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Pagani, Marco; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Tanaka, Fumiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the vasoconstrictor effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonists for migraine treatment, changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume induced by rizatriptan were assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). Eleven healthy volunteers underwent PET studies before and after rizatriptan administration. Dynamic PET data were acquired after bolus injection of H2(15)O to analyze CBF and arterial-to-capillary blood volume (V0) images using the three-weighted integral method. After a baseline scan, three further acquisitions were performed at 40 to 50, 60 and 70 to 80 mins after drug administration. Global and regional differences in CBF and V0 between conditions were compared using absolute values in the whole brain and cortical regions, as well as statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The global and regional values for CBF and V0 decreased significantly after rizatriptan administration compared with the baseline condition. However, both values recovered to baseline within 80 mins after treatment. The maximal reduction in global CBF and V0 was approximately 13% of baseline value. The greatest decrease in CBF was observed approximately 60 mins after drug administration, whereas the maximal reduction in V0 was observed approximately 5 mins earlier. Statistical parametric mapping did not highlight any regional differences between conditions. Thus, in brain circulation, rizatriptan caused significant CBF and V0 decreases, which are consistent with the vasoconstrictor effect of triptans on the large cerebral arteries. The gradual recovery in the late phase from the maximal CBF and V0 decrease suggests that rizatriptan does not affect the cerebral autoregulatory response in small arteries induced by CBF reduction.

  11. The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created. PMID:20447248

  12. The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created.

  13. Significant biochemical, biophysical and metabolic diversity in circulating human cord blood reticulocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Malleret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transition from enucleated reticulocytes to mature normocytes is marked by substantial remodeling of the erythrocytic cytoplasm and membrane. Despite conspicuous changes, most studies describe the maturing reticulocyte as a homogenous erythropoietic cell type. While reticulocyte staging based on fluorescent RNA stains such as thiazole orange have been useful in a clinical setting; these 'sub-vital' stains may confound delicate studies on reticulocyte biology and may preclude their use in heamoparasite invasion studies. DESIGN AND METHODS: Here we use highly purified populations of reticulocytes isolated from cord blood, sorted by flow cytometry into four sequential subpopulations based on transferrin receptor (CD71 expression: CD71high, CD71medium, CD71low and CD71negative. Each of these subgroups was phenotyped in terms of their, morphology, membrane antigens, biomechanical properties and metabolomic profile. RESULTS: Superficially CD71high and CD71medium reticulocytes share a similar gross morphology (large and multilobular when compared to the smaller, smooth and increasingly concave reticulocytes as seen in the in the CD71low and CD71negativesamples. However, between each of the four sample sets we observe significant decreases in shear modulus, cytoadhesive capacity, erythroid receptor expression (CD44, CD55, CD147, CD235R, and CD242 and metabolite concentrations. Interestingly increasing amounts of boric acid was found in the mature reticulocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Reticulocyte maturation is a dynamic and continuous process, confounding efforts to rigidly classify them. Certainly this study does not offer an alternative classification strategy; instead we used a nondestructive sampling method to examine key phenotypic changes of in reticulocytes. Our study emphasizes a need to focus greater attention on reticulocyte biology.

  14. Resveratrol-Loaded Albumin Nanoparticles with Prolonged Blood Circulation and Improved Biocompatibility for Highly Effective Targeted Pancreatic Tumor Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tao; Zhao, Xia; Ma, Meng; Zhu, Gang; Yin, Ling

    2017-06-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is an intrinsic protein and important carrier that transports endogenous as well as exogenous substances across cell membranes. Herein, we have designed and prepared resveratrol (RV)-loaded HSA nanoparticles conjugating RGD (arginine-glycine-aspartate) via a polyethylene glycol (PEG) "bridge" (HRP-RGD NPs) for highly effective targeted pancreatic tumor therapy. HRP-RGD NPs possess an average size of 120 ± 2.6 nm with a narrow distribution, a homodisperse spherical shape, a RV encapsulation efficiency of 62.5 ± 4.21%, and a maximum RV release ratio of 58.4.2 ± 2.8% at pH 5.0 and 37 °C. In vitro biocompatibility of RV is improved after coating with HSA and PEG. Confocal fluorescence images show that HRP-RGD NPs have the highest cellular uptake ratio of 47.3 ± 4.6% compared to HRP NPs and HRP-RGD NPs with free RGD blocking, attributing to an RGD-mediated effect. A cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay indicates that HRP-RGD NPs without RV (HP-RGD NPs) have nearly no cytotoxicity, but HRP-RGD NPs are significantly more cytotoxic to PANC-1 cells compared to free RV and HRP NPs in a concentration dependent manner, showing apoptotic morphology. Furthermore, with a formulated PEG and HSA coating, HRP-RGD NPs prolong the blood circulation of RV, increasing approximately 5.43-fold (t1/2). After intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, the content of HRP-RGD NPs in tumor tissue was proven to be approximately 3.01- and 8.1-fold higher than that of HRP NPs and free RV, respectively. Based on these results, HRP-RGD NPs were used in an in vivo anti-cancer study and demonstrated the best tumor growth suppression effect of all tested drugs with no relapse, high in vivo biocompatibility, and no significant systemic toxicity over 35 days treatment. These results demonstrate that HRP-RGD NPs with prolonged blood circulation and improved biocompatibility have high anti-cancer effects with promising future applications in cancer therapy.

  15. Mechanisms of adaptation of the hepatic vasculature to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation in liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry; Victorovich; Garbuzenko; Nikolay; Olegovich; Arefyev; Dmitry; Vladimirovich; Belov

    2016-01-01

    Pub Med, EMBASE, Orphanet, MIDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1983 and 2015. Relevant articles were selected by using the following terms: "Liver cirrhosis", "Endothelial dysfunction", "Sinusoidal remodeling", "Intrahepatic angiogenesis" and "Pathogenesis of portal hypertension". Then the reference lists of identified articles were searched for other relevant publications as well. Besides gross hepatic structural disorders related to diffuse fibrosis and formation of regenerative nodules, the complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis also play important roles in hemodynamic disturbances in liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and impaired paracrine interaction between activated stellate hepatocytes and sinusoidal endotheliocytes, sinusoidal remodeling and capillarization, as well as development of the collateral microcirculation. In spite of the fact that complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis in liver cirrhosis are the compensatory-adaptive reaction to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation, they contribute to progression of disease and development of serious complications, in particular, related to portal hypertension.Pub Med,EMBASE,Orphanet,MIDLINE,Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1983 and 2015.Relevant articles were selected by using the following terms:"Liver cirrhosis","Endothelial dysfunction","Sinusoidal remodeling","Intrahepatic angiogenesis"and"Pathogenesis of portal hypertension".Then the reference lists of identified articles were searched for other relevant publications as well.Besides gross hepatic structural disorders related to diffuse fibrosis and formation of regenerative nodules,the complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis also

  16. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimir-Bauer Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. Methods The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20, primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31, metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32, and healthy individuals (n = 28 by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Results Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001, nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008, and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001. High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009. Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004. The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01 and DNA levels (p = 0.04, and protease activities (p = 0.008. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression.

  17. Evaluation of blood flow distribution asymmetry and vascular geometry in patients with Fontan circulation using 4-D flow MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Kelly; Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Schnell, Susanne; Barker, Alex J.; Garcia, Julio; Chowdhary, Varun; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Lorenz, Ramona [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rose, Michael [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Cardiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Asymmetrical caval to pulmonary blood flow is suspected to cause complications in patients with Fontan circulation. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of 4-D flow MRI for characterizing the relationship between 3-D blood flow distribution and vascular geometry. We hypothesized that both flow distribution and geometry can be calculated with low interobserver variability and will detect a direct relationship between flow distribution and Fontan geometry. Four-dimensional flow MRI was acquired in 10 Fontan patients (age: 16 ± 4 years [mean ± standard deviation], range: 9-21 years). The Fontan connection was isolated by 3-D segmentation to evaluate flow distribution from the inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) to the left and right pulmonary arteries (LPA, RPA) and to characterize geometry (cross-sectional area, caval offset, vessel angle). Flow distribution results indicated SVC flow tended toward the RPA while IVC flow was more evenly distributed (SVC to RPA: 78% ± 28 [9-100], IVC to LPA: 54% ± 28 [4-98]). There was a significant relationship between pulmonary artery cross-sectional area and flow distribution (IVC to RPA: R{sup 2}=0.50, P=0.02; SVC to LPA: R{sup 2}=0.81, P=0.0004). Good agreement was found between observers and for flow distribution when compared to net flow values. Four-dimensional flow MRI was able to detect relationships between flow distribution and vessel geometry. Future studies are warranted to investigate the potential of patient specific hemodynamic analysis to improve diagnostic capability. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of blood flow distribution asymmetry and vascular geometry in patients with Fontan circulation using 4-D flow MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Kelly; Schnell, Susanne; Barker, Alex J; Garcia, Julio; Lorenz, Ramona; Rose, Michael; Chowdhary, Varun; Carr, James; Robinson, Joshua D; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Markl, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Asymmetrical caval to pulmonary blood flow is suspected to cause complications in patients with Fontan circulation. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of 4-D flow MRI for characterizing the relationship between 3-D blood flow distribution and vascular geometry. We hypothesized that both flow distribution and geometry can be calculated with low interobserver variability and will detect a direct relationship between flow distribution and Fontan geometry. Four-dimensional flow MRI was acquired in 10 Fontan patients (age: 16 ± 4 years [mean ± standard deviation], range: 9-21 years). The Fontan connection was isolated by 3-D segmentation to evaluate flow distribution from the inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) to the left and right pulmonary arteries (LPA, RPA) and to characterize geometry (cross-sectional area, caval offset, vessel angle). Flow distribution results indicated SVC flow tended toward the RPA while IVC flow was more evenly distributed (SVC to RPA: 78% ± 28 [9-100], IVC to LPA: 54% ± 28 [4-98]). There was a significant relationship between pulmonary artery cross-sectional area and flow distribution (IVC to RPA: R(2)=0.50, P=0.02; SVC to LPA: R(2)=0.81, P=0.0004). Good agreement was found between observers and for flow distribution when compared to net flow values. Four-dimensional flow MRI was able to detect relationships between flow distribution and vessel geometry. Future studies are warranted to investigate the potential of patient specific hemodynamic analysis to improve diagnostic capability.

  19. Exterior Powers of Symmetric Bilinear Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seán McGarraghy

    2002-01-01

    We study exterior powers of classes of symmetric bilinear forms in the Witt-Grothendieck ring of a field of characteristic not equal to 2, and derive their basic properties. The exterior powers are used to obtain annihilating polynomials for quadratic forms in the Witt ring.

  20. Japón: sector exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrín Solé, Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Introducción al comercio exterior, al análisis de los principales sectores importadores y exportadores. Evolución de la inversión directa de Japón en el exterior. Análisis de la distribución geográfica y sectorial.

  1. Evaluation of Two Different Analytical Methods for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Primary Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. S. Jaeger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence is accumulating that circulating tumor cells (CTC out of peripheral blood can serve as prognostic marker not only in metastatic but also in early breast cancer (BC. Various methods are available to detect CTC. Comparisons between the different techniques, however, are rare. Material and Methods. We evaluate two different methods for CTC enrichment and detection in primary BC patients: the FDA-approved CellSearch System (CSS; Veridex, Warren, USA and a manual immunocytochemistry (MICC. The cut-off value for positivity was ≥1 CTC. Results. The two different nonoverlapping patient cohorts evaluated with one or the other method were well balanced regarding common clinical parameters. Before adjuvant CHT 21.1% (416 out of 1972 and 20.6% (247 out of 1198 of the patients were CTC-positive, while after CHT 22.5% (359 out of 1598 and 16.6% (177 out of 1066 of the patients were CTC-positive using CSS or MICC, respectively. CTC positivity rate before CHT was thus similar and not significantly different (P=0.749, while CTC positivity rate immediately after CHT was significantly lower using MICC compared to CSS (P<0.001. Conclusion. Using CSS or MICC for CTC detection, we found comparable prevalence of CTC before but not after adjuvant CHT.

  2. A biomimetic microfluidic chip to study the circulation and mechanical retention of red blood cells in the spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picot, Julien; Ndour, Papa Alioune; Lefevre, Sophie D; El Nemer, Wassim; Tawfik, Harvey; Galimand, Julie; Da Costa, Lydie; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; de Montalembert, Mariane; Brousse, Valentine; Le Pioufle, Bruno; Buffet, Pierre; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Français, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are deformable and flow through vessels narrower than their own size. Their deformability is most stringently challenged when they cross micrometer-wide slits in the spleen. In several inherited or acquired RBC disorders, blockade of small vessels by stiff RBCs can trigger organ damage, but a functional spleen is expected to clear these abnormal RBCs from the circulation before they induce such complications. We analyzed flow behavior of RBCs in a microfluidic chip that replicates the mechanical constraints imposed on RBCs as they cross the human spleen. Polymer microchannels obtained by soft lithography with a hydraulic diameter of 25 μm drove flow into mechanical filtering units where RBCs flew either slowly through 5- to 2-μm-wide slits or rapidly along 10-μm-wide channels, these parallel paths mimicking the splenic microcirculation. Stiff heated RBCs accumulated in narrow slits seven times more frequently than normal RBCs infused simultaneously. Stage-dependent retention of Plasmodium falciparum-infected RBCs was also observed in these slits. We also analyzed RBCs from patients with hereditary spherocytosis and observed retention for those having the most altered mechanical properties as determined by ektacytometry. Thus, in keeping with previous observations in vivo and ex vivo, the chip successfully discriminated poorly deformable RBCs based on their distinct mechanical properties and on the intensity of the cell alteration. Applications to the exploration of the pathogenesis of malaria, hereditary spherocytosis, sickle cell disease and other RBC disorders are envisioned. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. 冠心巴布膏活血化瘀作用研究%Study of Promoting Blood Circulation for Removing Blood Stasis by Guanxin Cataplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 杜茂波; 刘淑芝; 梁日欣; 王彦礼; 杨伟鹏; 王怡薇; 殷小杰; 杨庆

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨冠心巴布膏(冠心膏)的活血化瘀作用,为其临床应用提供实验依据.方法:采用大鼠sc肾上腺素加冰浴的血瘀证模型,观察冠心膏高、中、低3个剂量(含生药10.0,5.0,2.5 g·kg-1)外用涂抹给药5d对模型动物全血黏度、血浆黏度、纤维蛋白原含量、红细胞压积、血小板聚集的影响.采用iv脑垂体后叶素(0.5 U·kg-1)造成大鼠急性心肌缺血模型,观察冠心膏(剂量同前)外用涂抹给药7d对模型动物心律失常的发生时间、持续时间及室性心律失常发生率的影响.结果:冠心膏高剂量能降低血浆黏度[由(1.101±0.064) mPa·s降至(1.039±0.025) mPa·s]、血小板聚集率[由(54.92±6.53)%降至(49.05±4.15)%]、200 s-1切变率下的全血黏度[由(3.81±0.31) mPa·s降至(3.53±0.27) mPa·s],延迟心律失常的开始时间[由(20.90±7.74)s升至(36.08±16.91)s],并降低心律失常的发生率(由75%降至37.5%)及持续时间[由(1133.75±298.71)s降至(881.20±115.48)s].低剂量能降低10 s-1切变率下的全血黏度[由(7.14 ±0.88) mPa·s降至(6.38±0.69) mPa·s]以及200 s -1切变率下的全血黏度[由(3.81±0.31) mPa·s降至(3.48±0.15) mPa·s],中剂量可以降低心律失常发生率(由75%降至37.5%)和持续时间[由(1133.75±298.71)s降至(816.43±243.46)s],与模型组比较均具有显著性差异(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论:冠心巴布膏可以改善血瘀证大鼠的血液流变学指标,防止心律失常的发生,具有一定的活血化瘀作用.%Objective: To investigate the actions of promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis by Guanxin Cataplasm and provide the experimental basis for clinical applications of the cataplasm. Method; The rat blood stasis syndrome model was induced by subcutaneous injection of adrenalin with ice-bath, the indexes of hemorheology including fibrinogen, whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, packed cell volume and platelet aggregation. The acute rat

  4. A subpopulation of circulating endothelial cells express CD109 and is enriched in the blood of cancer patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Mancuso

    Full Text Available The endothelium is not a homogeneous organ. Endothelial cell heterogeneity has been described at the level of cell morphology, function, gene expression, and antigen composition. As a consequence of the genetic, transcriptome and surrounding environment diversity, endothelial cells from different vascular beds have differentiated functions and phenotype. Detection of circulating endothelial cells (CECs by flow cytometry is an approach widely used in cancer patients, and their number, viability and kinetic is a promising tool to stratify patient receiving anti-angiogenic treatment.Currently CECs are identified as positive for a nuclear binding antigen (DNA+, negative for the pan leukocyte marker CD45, and positive for CD31 and CD146. Following an approach recently validated in our laboratory, we investigated the expression of CD109 on CECs from the peripheral blood of healthy subject and cancer patients. The endothelial nature of these cells was validated by RT-PCR for the presence of m-RNA level of CDH5 (Ve-Cadherin and CLDN5 (Claudin5, two endothelial specific transcripts. Before treatment, significantly higher levels of CD109+ CECs and viable CD109+CECs were found in breast cancer patients and glioblastoma patients compared to healthy controls, and their number significantly decreased after treatment. Higher levels of endothelial specific transcripts expressed in developing endothelial cells CLEC14a, TMEM204, ARHGEF15, GPR116, were observed in sorted CD109+CECs when compared to sorted CD146+CECs, suggesting that these genes can play an important role not only during embryogenesis but also in adult angiogenesis. Interestingly, mRNA levels of TEM8 (identified as Antrax Toxin Receptor1, Antrax1 were expressed in CD109+CECs+ but not in CD146+CECs.Taken together our results suggest that CD109 represent a rare population of circulating tumor endothelial cells, that play a potentially useful prognostic role in patients with glioblastoma. The role of

  5. A subpopulation of circulating endothelial cells express CD109 and is enriched in the blood of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Patrizia; Calleri, Angelica; Gregato, Giuliana; Labanca, Valentina; Quarna, Jessica; Antoniotti, Pierluigi; Cuppini, Lucia; Finocchiaro, Gaetano; Eoli, Marica; Rosti, Vittorio; Bertolini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The endothelium is not a homogeneous organ. Endothelial cell heterogeneity has been described at the level of cell morphology, function, gene expression, and antigen composition. As a consequence of the genetic, transcriptome and surrounding environment diversity, endothelial cells from different vascular beds have differentiated functions and phenotype. Detection of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) by flow cytometry is an approach widely used in cancer patients, and their number, viability and kinetic is a promising tool to stratify patient receiving anti-angiogenic treatment. Currently CECs are identified as positive for a nuclear binding antigen (DNA+), negative for the pan leukocyte marker CD45, and positive for CD31 and CD146. Following an approach recently validated in our laboratory, we investigated the expression of CD109 on CECs from the peripheral blood of healthy subject and cancer patients. The endothelial nature of these cells was validated by RT-PCR for the presence of m-RNA level of CDH5 (Ve-Cadherin) and CLDN5 (Claudin5), two endothelial specific transcripts. Before treatment, significantly higher levels of CD109+ CECs and viable CD109+CECs were found in breast cancer patients and glioblastoma patients compared to healthy controls, and their number significantly decreased after treatment. Higher levels of endothelial specific transcripts expressed in developing endothelial cells CLEC14a, TMEM204, ARHGEF15, GPR116, were observed in sorted CD109+CECs when compared to sorted CD146+CECs, suggesting that these genes can play an important role not only during embryogenesis but also in adult angiogenesis. Interestingly, mRNA levels of TEM8 (identified as Antrax Toxin Receptor1, Antrax1) were expressed in CD109+CECs+ but not in CD146+CECs. Taken together our results suggest that CD109 represent a rare population of circulating tumor endothelial cells, that play a potentially useful prognostic role in patients with glioblastoma. The role of CD109

  6. Effects of a chicken collagen hydrolysate on the circulation system in subjects with mild hypertension or high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouguchi, Tomomi; Ohmori, Takashi; Shimizu, Muneshige; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Maeyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Takuya; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Tanabe, Soichi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a chicken collagen hydrolysate (CCH) on the circulation system in humans. A total of 58 subjects with either mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140-159 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 90-99 mmHg) or high-normal blood pressure (SBP 130-139 mmHg or DBP 85-89 mmHg) were assigned to two groups, one involving a placebo and the other, the test food (including CCH of 2.9 g/d). The parameters related to each subject's circulation system were monitored over the study period of 18 weeks. The Δbrachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness and marker of vascular damage, was significantly lower in the test food group than in the placebo group during the treatment period. The blood pressure in the test food group was also significantly lower than that in the placebo group, while the serum nitrogen oxide was higher in the test food group after the treatment. These results suggest that CCH exerted modulatory effects on the human circulation system.

  7. Impact of methods used to express levels of circulating fatty acids on the degree and direction of associations with blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Susan; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Morgan, Timothy M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-01-28

    Numerous studies have examined relationships between disease biomarkers (such as blood lipids) and levels of circulating or cellular fatty acids. In such association studies, fatty acids have typically been expressed as the percentage of a particular fatty acid relative to the total fatty acids in a sample. Using two human cohorts, this study examined relationships between blood lipids (TAG, and LDL, HDL or total cholesterol) and circulating fatty acids expressed either as a percentage of total or as concentration in serum. The direction of the correlation between stearic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and DHA and circulating TAG reversed when fatty acids were expressed as concentrations v. a percentage of total. Similar reversals were observed for these fatty acids when examining their associations with the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol. This reversal pattern was replicated in serum samples from both human cohorts. The correlations between blood lipids and fatty acids expressed as a percentage of total could be mathematically modelled from the concentration data. These data reveal that the different methods of expressing fatty acids lead to dissimilar correlations between blood lipids and certain fatty acids. This study raises important questions about how such reversals in association patterns impact the interpretation of numerous association studies evaluating fatty acids and their relationships with disease biomarkers or risk.

  8. Characterization of the gp120 of circulating HIV type 1 in a group of infected Chinese blood/plasma donors with asymptomatic and symptomatic stages of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yue; Craigo, Jodi K; Ding, Ming; Guo, Yan; Shen, Shengli; Zhou, Yushen; Wu, Hao; Gupta, Phalguni

    2006-11-01

    The C2-V5 regions of the HIV envelope gene were cloned and sequenced from DNA samples of four asymptomatic and five AIDS patients from a cohort of HIV-1-infected Chinese plasma and blood donors. Sequence analysis revealed that regardless of the stage of disease, all the patient's HIV-1 belonged to either clade B' or circulating recombinant form 15 (CRF15) subtype. However, since these blood donors were infected at a time when circulating CRF15 was not known in that region, it is likely these HIV-1 types belong to clade B'. However, the C2-V5 sequences from AIDS patients clustered differently in the phylogenetic tree than those present in asymptomatic patients and showed a significantly higher divergence and lower diversity compared to those from asymptomatic patients. In addition, more syncytia-inducing viral genotypes were present in AIDS patients than in asymptomatic patients. These results contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of circulating HIV-1 in infected Chinese plasma and blood donors, warrant additional investigation of the possible presence of CRF15 in Chinese blood donors, and may have important implications in the future design of therapeutic strategies for treating these infected patients.

  9. A primer on exterior differential calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal­culus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con­nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi­tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes' and divergence theorems replaced by the more powerful exterior expression of Stokes' theorem. Examples from classical continuum mechanics and spacetime physics are discussed and worked through using the language of exterior forms. The numerous advantages of this calculus, over more traditional ma­chinery, are stressed throughout the article. .

  10. Effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN HuiJun; GUO ChunYu; SHI DaZhuo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium which were selected from differential expression profile we had established before,and to explore the underlying mechanism. The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery,then the model rats were randomly divided into the model group,the Metoprolol group,the replenishing qi nourishing yin (RN)group,the activating blood circulation (AB) group,and the replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation (RA) group. In addition,the normal group and the sham group were set up. The rats of medication groups were administered by intragastric gavage with corresponding drugs on the second day after operations,and the rats of the normal group and the sham group were given normal saline as the same time.Then the ischemic hearts were harvested on the 8th day after operation. The myocardial pathomorphological changes were observed under a light microscope. The mRNA changes of target genes such as COX5a and ATP5e were detected using Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Q-PCR),and the activities of related enzymes were detected by colorimetric assay. The main results were as follows:the histological changes were observed by HE staining,and cardiocyte swelling,inflammatory cell infiltration and cytolysis were showed in regional ischemic myocardium of the model group,while the pathomorphological changes in all medication groups did not show obvious changes.Two genes related to energy metabolism,COX5a and ATP5e,were selected as the target genes which were down-regulated at the mRNA level in the medication groups. The activities of correlative functional enzymes also decreased in the RA group compared to that in the model group accordingly (P<0.05). The results indicated

  11. 24 CFR 3285.801 - Exterior close-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exterior close-up. 3285.801 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.801 Exterior close-up. (a) Exterior siding and roofing necessary to join all sections of the home must be...

  12. The impedance threshold device (ITD-7)--a new device for combat casualty care to augment circulation and blood pressure in hypotensive spontaneously breathing warfighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Don; Convertino, Vic; Idris, Ahamed; Smith, Stephen; Lindstrom, David; Parquette, Brent; Aufderheide, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration through -7cm H2O resistance results in an increase in venous blood flow back to the heart and a subsequent increase in cardiac output and blood pressure in hypotensive animals and patients. Breathing through the impedance threshold device with 7cm H2O resistance (ITD-7) also reduces intracranial pressure with each inspiration, thereby providing greater blood flow to the brain. A new device called an ITD-7 was developed to exploit these physiological mechanisms to buy time in hypotensive War Fighters when other therapies are not readily available. Animal and clinical data with the ITD-7 demonstrate the potential value and limitations of this new non-invasive approach to enhancing circulation.

  13. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  14. [The role of nitric oxide in regulation of the erythrocyte system state in rat offspring with chronic disturbance of uteroplacental blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, S B; Ivanova, A S; Novikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exogenous nitric oxide donor deponit-10 (nitroglycerin) on red cell indices in the offspring of rats with experimental disturbances of uteroplacental circulation has been investigated. It is established that fetal hypoxia facilitates the mobilization of functional reserves of the red cell system in the prenatal and early days of postnatal life of offspring in white rats, which is manifested by the growing process of erythropoiesis. Hyperfunction of the erythrocyte system in the first lifedays of pups leads eventually to a depletion of its functional capacities. The administration of an exogenous nitric oxide donor on the background of damaged uteroplacental circulation prevents the depletion and disruption of the functional reserves of the blood red cell system.

  15. [Effect of 5 warm-hot nature Chinese drugs for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on 5-HT, NE, and endocrine hormones of rats of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Fu, Xian-Jun; Zhou, Yang; Wang, Zhen-Guo

    2014-11-01

    To study the mechanism of warm-hot nature Chinese drugs (WHNCD) for promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis (PBCRBS) for intervening model rats of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome (CCBSS). CCBSS rat model was set up in outbred SD rats using ice water immersion method. Totally 300 successfully modeled CCBSS rats were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the principle of balance weight, 60 in each group. Contents of triothyrone (T3), tetraiodothyroine (T4), progesterone (P), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and noradrenalin (NE) were paralleledly detected in all groups. Then rats in each group were subdivided into 6 subgroups as the model group, the curcuma group, the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group, the safflower group, the Rhizoma Corydalis group, and the Olibanumg group. Besides, 5 normal control groups were set up for 5 indices, 50 rats in total. We need 70 rats (7 groups) to finish observing 1 index, 350 rats in total for 5 indices. Except those in the model group and the normal control group, rats were administered with corresponding decoction at 20 g crude drugs/kg body weight by gastrogavage, 3 mL each time, once daily for 7 successive days. Equal volume of normal saline was given to rats in the normal control group and the model group. Contents of T3, T4, P, 5-HT, and NE were detected before treatment and 1 week after treatment. Compared with before treatment in the same group, T3 increased in the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group and the Olibanumg group, 5-HT increased in the Ligsticum Chuanxiong group, T4, NE, and P increased in all medicated groups (P endocrine system, which might be one of the pharmacodynamic mechanism of WHNCD for PBCRBS in intervening CCBSS.

  16. Stealth CD44-targeted hyaluronic acid supramolecular nanoassemblies for doxorubicin delivery: probing the effect of uncovalent pegylation degree on cellular uptake and blood long circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaopeng; Li, Zhenbao; Sun, Jin; Luo, Cong; Li, Lin; Liu, Yuhai; Du, Yuqian; Qiu, Shuhong; Ai, Xiaoyu; Wu, Chunnuan; Lian, He; He, Zhonggui

    2015-01-10

    Stealth active targeting nanoparticles (NPs) usually include two types of ligand sites: ligand anchored on distal ends of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ligand buried under pegylated layer. The latter typical case is hyaluronic acid (HA)-based NPs; however, there is little information available for the latter NPs about effect of the optimal density of surface PEG coating on the blood circulation time, cellular uptake and in vivo anticancer activity. Thus, in this study, in order to optimize the anticancer effects of HA-based NPs, we focus on how uncovalent pegylation degree modulates blood circulation time and cellular uptake of HA-based NPs. We firstly designed a new double-hydrophilic copolymer by conjugating HP-β-cyclodextrin with HA, and this carrier was further pegylated with adamantyl-peg (ADA-PEG) to form inclusion complex HA-HPCD/ADA-PEG, termed as HCPs. The supramolecular nanoassemblies were fabricated by host-guest and polar interactions between HCPs and doxorubicin (Dox), with vitamin E succinate (VES) being a nanobridge. Despite the active recognition between HA and CD44 receptor, the cellular uptake and targeting efficiency of HA-NPs decreased with the increasing peg density, demonstrating HA was partly buried by high density peg coating. However, the high density of peg coating was beneficial to long circulation time, tumor biodistribution and anticancer activity in vivo. NPs with 5% peg coating had the optimal cellular targeting efficiency in vitro and anticancer effects in vivo. The findings suggest that balancing long circulation property and cellular uptake is important to achieve the optimal antitumor efficacy for pegylated HA-based NPs, and that PEG coating densities cannot be extended beyond a certain density for shielding effect without compromising the efficacy of hyaluronic acid targeted delivery.

  17. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg- 1) compared with 1.3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates...... are necessarily correlated with short circulation times. Our data are the first to imply that a similar relationship occurs in fishes....

  18. 活血化瘀法在老年病中的应用%Promoting Blood Circulation Method Apply In Geriatrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何慧珍

    2011-01-01

    From the continued study of the physiological and pathological changes in the elderly and understanding of the relationship between human physiological and pathological changes in qi and blood, it finds that Stasis is the most important influencing factor in the development of Geriatrics, and combining the study of the nature of modem stasis and the mechanism of promoting blood circulation method.Promoting blood circulation method was considered to have a significant effect in elderly common diseases, frequentlyoccurring disease, and complicated cases.%从对老年人生理病理变化的不断研究及对气血与人体生理病理变化关系的认识出发,阐明血瘀在影响老年病发生发展的诸多因素中占有主导地位,并结合现代对血瘀本质及活血化瘀法作用机制的研究,探讨活血化瘀法在老年常见病多发病以及老年疑难杂病中的应用.

  19. The association of two polymorphisms in adiponectin-encoding gene with hypertension risk and the changes of circulating adiponectin and blood pressure: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianmin; Xu, Guoyan; Cai, Wenqin; Huang, Yun; Xie, Ningyu; Shen, Yihua; Xie, Liangdi

    2017-02-28

    This meta-analysis was prepared to synthesize published data on the association of two polymorphisms (T45G and G276T) in adiponectin-encoding gene (ADIPOQ) with hypertension risk and the changes of circulating adiponectin and blood pressure. Methodology and Major Findings: Data were collected and corrected by two authors, and were managed with Stata software. In total, 12 articles were synthesized, including 12 studies (3358 cases and 5121 controls) for the association of two study polymorphisms with hypertension risk and 11 studies (3053 subjects) for the between-genotype changes of adiponectin and/or blood pressure. Based on all qualified studies, the risk prediction for hypertension was nonsignificant for both polymorphisms, with significant heterogeneity for G276T polymorphism (I2 = 53.8%). Overall changes in adiponectin and blood pressure were also nonsignificant for T45G, while contrastingly 276GT genotype was associated with significantly higher levels of adiponectin (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 0.72 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.04 to 1.41, P = 0.038), systolic (WMD = 5.15 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.98 to 9.32, P = 0.016) and diastolic (WMD = 3.45 mm Hg, 95% CI: 0.37 to 6.53, P = 0.028) blood pressure with evident heterogeneity (I2 = 72.0%, 78.3% and 80.0%, respectively), and these associations were more obvious in hypertensive patients. Publication bias was a low probability event for overall comparisons. Our findings suggested that in spite of the nonsignificant association between ADIPOQ T45G or G276T polymorphism and hypertension, the heterozygous mutation of G276T was observed to account for increased levels of circulating adiponectin and blood pressure, especially in hypertensive patients.

  20. Superior efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B with prolonged circulation in blood in the treatment of severe candidiasis in leukopenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.M. van Etten (Els); S.V. Snijders (Susan); W. van Vianen (Wim); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn leukopenic mice with severe systemic candidiasis, single-dose treatment (5 mg of amphotericin B [AMB]/kg of body weight) with long-circulating polyethylene glycol-coated AMB liposomes (PEG-AMB-LIP) resulted in zero mortality and a significant reduction in

  1. Haemodynamic evaluation of the cerebral circulation by periorbital Doppler examination and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Buchardt Hansen, H J

    1988-01-01

    To assess the haemodynamic significance of an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, angiography or direct ultrasound examination should be supplemented by indirect physiologic testing of the collateral circulation. Among the tests proposed, we used the periorbital flow direction, assessed by Do...

  2. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kotenko К.V.; Korchazhkina N.B.; Petrova М.S.; Ruzova Т.К.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years) with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a cond...

  3. Chinese Drugs That Invigorate Spleen to Remove Dampness and Activate Blood Circulation to Eliminate Turbid for Retarding Progression of Chronic Renal Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Chinese drugs (CD) that invigorate Spleen to remove Dampness and activate the blood circulation to eliminate Turbid for retarding progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods: Thirty-nine patients with CRF were divided into two groups at random: the 18 patients in group A (the control group) were treated with low protein diet and controlling blood pressure and 21 patients in group B (the treatment group) were treated similarly with that of the control group and additional CD. Levels of serous creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood albumin (Alb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and hemoglobin (Hb) were checked every two months and the rate of progression of CRF was estimated by slope of the creatinine reciprocal (1/SCr) with time (months). Results: Levels of SCr and BUN in group B were lower and HDL higher than those in group A significantly, P<0.05. Mean slopes of the creatinine reciprocal with time in the two groups were markedly different, P<0.01. Conclusion: Additional CD treatment based upon the low protein diet and controlling blood pressure could retard the rate of progression of CRF evidently.

  4. Taoren-Honghua herb pair and its main components promoting blood circulation through influencing on hemorheology, plasma coagulation and platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Duan, Jin-ao; Tang, Yuping; Guo, Jianming; Yang, Nianyun; Ma, Hongyue; Shi, Xuqin

    2012-01-31

    Persicae Semen (Taoren) and Carthami Flos (Honghua) used in pair which is named as Taoren-Honghua (TH) herb pair has been used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for promoting blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis for many years in China. This paper investigated the effects of TH and its main components amygdalin and hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) on hemorheological disorders of blood stasis in rats. Rats were randomly divided into seven groups (control group, model group, TH group, amygdalin group, HSYA group, amygdalin+HSYA group, and aspirin group) with eight animals in each, whose gender was equally distributed throughout groups. All treatments were performed by gavage and administered seven times with an interval of 12h. After the fifth administration, the model rats except those in control group with blood stasis were established by being placed in ice-cold water during the interval between two injections of adrenaline hydrochloride (Adr); and blood samples were collected 30min after the last administration on the following day. TH could significantly decrease whole blood viscosity (WBV), plasma viscosity (PV) and packed cell volume (PCV). It also significantly prolonged thrombin time (TT) and thromboplastin time (APTT), increased prothrombin time (PT) and lowered fibrinogen content (FIB). HSYA which significantly decreased WBV and PV had no effect on plasma coagulation parameters. Amygdalin could significantly decrease PV, prolong APTT and decrease FIB, showing few effects on WBV. TH and its main components amygdalin and HSYA could significantly reduce platelet aggregation and protect vascular endothelial cells. Based on the above results, amygdalin and HSYA were responsible for the main curative effects of TH and usually had synergetic effects, such as decreasing PV and platelet aggregation percentage. The study may provide scientific information to further understanding of the mechanism(s) of TH and its main components in activating blood

  5. Theoretical discussion on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis therapy for restless leg syndrome%活血化瘀法治疗不宁腿综合征的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 刁倩; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    传统治疗思路认为具有柔肝养阴、缓急止痛作用的芍药甘草汤是治疗不宁腿综合征(restless legs syndrome,RLS)的有效方剂.但笔者通过临床实践、结合古代文献及中医药理论认为,血脉瘀阻是RLS的主要病机,活血化瘀应是治疗RLS的核心疗法.%Peony and Licorice Decoction was effective in treating Restless leg syndrome(RLS) with the function of nourishing yin for softening liver,relaxing spasm and relieving pain.Clinical practice,ancient literature and Chinese medicine theory were comprehensively studied to conclude that blood stasis is the key cause of RLS.Promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis was the crucial therapy for RLS.

  6. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corigiano, M; Ciobanu, G; Baldoni, E; Pompa, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a biochemical marker with different elements of a normal blood serum and centrifuged blood serum after a different rotation system. For this technique, we used five fractions of a blood Concentrated Growth Factors system (bCGF) and a particular device for the different rotation program. Blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers aged between 35 and 55 in the Operative Unit of the “Sapienza” University of Rome with only a fraction of different biochemical elements. Through an individual blood phase separator tube of venous blood, active factions of serum and 4 fractions of red buffy coat were taken. The biochemical markers with 14 elements were examined at times: P1-11 minutes, P2-12minutes, P3-15 minutes. Exclusively biological materials which are normally applied in the regeneration techniques for different defects and lesions were used with this technique. After specific rotation programs, a different result was obtained for each cycle: P1, P2, P3. In test tubes obtained by separated blood, we observed a higher concentration of proteins, ions, and other antigens compared to normal blood plasma. Examining the biochemical results of different elements, we observed an increase (P≤0,01). Since each person’s DNA is different, we could not have the same results in 5 fractions of blood concentration, we did, however, find a good increase in only a fraction of proteins, immunoglobulin and different ions. We obtained five fractions after centrifugation, and we had an increase in different biochemical elements compared to normal blood (P≤0,01) which is significant at different times. These biochemical elements were stimulated by different growth factors, which are used by the immune system, and they induced the formation of hard and soft tissues and good regeneration.

  7. A Subpopulation of Circulating Endothelial Cells Express CD109 and is Enriched in the Blood of Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Mancuso; Angelica Calleri; Giuliana Gregato; Valentina Labanca; Jessica Quarna; Pierluigi Antoniotti; Lucia Cuppini; Gaetano Finocchiaro; Marica Eoli; Vittorio Rosti; Francesco Bertolini

    2014-01-01

    Background The endothelium is not a homogeneous organ. Endothelial cell heterogeneity has been described at the level of cell morphology, function, gene expression, and antigen composition. As a consequence of the genetic, transcriptome and surrounding environment diversity, endothelial cells from different vascular beds have differentiated functions and phenotype. Detection of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) by flow cytometry is an approach widely used in cancer patients, and their numb...

  8. AFP mRNA level in enriched circulating tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma patient blood samples is a pivotal predictive marker for metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junhua; Niu, Xiaojuan; Zou, Lihui; Li, Lin; Li, Shugang; Han, Jingli; Zhang, Peiying; Song, Jinghai; Xiao, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantification may be helpful for evaluating cancer dissemination, predicting prognosis and assessing therapeutic effectiveness and safety. In the present study, CTCs from blood samples of 72 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enriched with anti-EpCAM nanoparticles. AFP mRNA level was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after enrichment of CTCs from HCC blood samples at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after hepatectomy, respectively. AFP mRNA expression in CTCs was positive in 43 patients (59.7%) and negative in 29 patients (40.3%) before hepatectomy. Among 43 patients with positive AFP mRNA expression in CTCs before hepatectomy, 10 and 11 were diagnosed as intrahepatic/extrahepatic metastasis before and after hepatectomy, respectively. In addition, these 21 patients with metastasis had persisting positive AFP mRNA of CTCs during the whole tested year. Specifically, 3 patients with AFP mRNA negative in CTCs before hepatectomy changed to be positive at 6 and 9 months, and 2 of them were diagnosed as metastasis 12 months after hepatectomy. We conclude that the positive AFP mRNA of CTCs can be a pivotal predictor for HCC metastasis before and after hepatectomy. The release of AFP expression from hepatocellular carcinoma cells into circulation must be a major source of HCC metastasis.

  9. Circulating angiotensin II gains access to the hypothalamus and brain stem during hypertension via breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Vinicia Campana; Son, Sook Jin; Ahmadi, Sahra; Filosa, Jessica A; Stern, Javier E

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin II-mediated vascular brain inflammation emerged as a novel pathophysiological mechanism in neurogenic hypertension. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and functional consequences in relation to blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and central angiotensin II actions mediating neurohumoral activation in hypertension are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to determine whether BBB permeability within critical hypothalamic and brain stem regions involved in neurohumoral regulation was altered during hypertension. Using digital imaging quantification after intravascularly injected fluorescent dyes and immunohistochemistry, we found increased BBB permeability, along with altered key BBB protein constituents, in spontaneously hypertensive rats within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the rostral ventrolateral medulla, all critical brain regions known to contribute to neurohumoral activation during hypertension. BBB disruption, including increased permeability and downregulation of constituent proteins, was prevented in spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan, but not with hydralazine, a direct vasodilator. Importantly, we found circulating angiotensin II to extravasate into these brain regions, colocalizing with neurons and microglial cells. Taken together, our studies reveal a novel angiotensin II-mediated feed-forward mechanism during hypertension, by which circulating angiotensin II evokes increased BBB permeability, facilitating in turn its access to critical brain regions known to participate in blood pressure regulation.

  10. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured on living animal

  11. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured o

  12. Nonstatic vacuum strings: Exterior and interior solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-06-15

    New nonstatic cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent stringlike objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a nonvacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string.

  13. Acute strength training promotes responses in whole blood circulating levels of miR-146a among older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morais Junior GS

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gilberto Santos Morais Junior,1 Vinicius Carolino Souza,2 Wilcelly Machado-Silva,2 Adriane Dallanora Henriques,2 Andressa Melo Alves,1 Danilo Barbosa Morais,1 Otávio Toledo Nóbrega,2 Ciro José Brito,3 Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos Silva11Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS, São Cristóvão, Sergipe, 2Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, Distrito Federal, 3Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, BrazilAbstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM consists of a set of metabolic and endocrine disorders which evolve into deficiency in insulin action and hyperglycemia. Physical exercise is considered the main intervention to prevent and control T2DM. Literature has suggested that circulating microRNAs (miRs help to understand responses to physical activity among diabetic patients. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the acute effect of two interventions (strength and cardiovascular on the total, whole blood circulating concentrations of miR-126, miR-146a and miR-155 in older adults with and without T2DM. A total of 23 male and female older adults (68.2±5.3 years participated in the trial, 13 of whom presented with controlled T2DM and 10 were nondiabetics. They underwent both interventions separately, performed with intensity from 60% to 70% of reserve heart rate. Glucose and miRs levels were quantified and compared across groups with baseline titers as covariables. Diabetic patients showed more reduction in serum blood glucose than nondiabetics, with a great magnitude of reduction after the strength training intervention, which was paralleled by a positive change of the whole blood circulating levels of miR-146a, but not of the other miRs. Our report supports evidence that miR-146a levels in peripheral blood leukocytes are negatively associated with a state of insulin resistance, which is suggested as a novel marker to trace response to antidiabetic interventions.Keywords: diabetes, physical exercise, micro

  14. On realizations of exterior calculus with dN = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, V.

    1998-11-01

    We study realizations of the q-exterior calculus with exterior differential d satisfying d N = 0, N > 2 on the free associative algebra with one generator and on the generalized Clifford algebras. Analogs of the notions of connection and curvature are discussed in the case of the q-exterior calculus on the generalized Clifford algebra. We show that the q-exterior calculus on the free associative algebra with one generator is related to q-calculus on the braided line.

  15. Assessment of a six gene panel for the molecular detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood of female cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Reinhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC in the peripheral blood of cancer patients has been described for various solid tumors and their clinical relevance has been shown. CTC detection based on the analysis of epithelial antigens might be hampered by the genetic heterogeneity of the primary tumor and loss of epithelial antigens. Therefore, we aimed to identify new gene markers for the PCR-based detection of CTC in female cancer patients. Methods Gene expression of 38 cancer cell lines (breast, ovarian, cervical and endometrial and of 10 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples from healthy female donors was measured using microarray technology (Applied Biosystems. Differentially expressed genes were identified using the maxT test and the 50% one-sided trimmed maxT-test. Confirmatory RT-qPCR was performed for 380 gene targets using the AB TaqMan® Low Density Arrays. Then, 93 gene targets were analyzed using the same RT-qPCR platform in tumor tissues of 126 patients with primary breast, ovarian or endometrial cancer. Finally, blood samples from 26 healthy women and from 125 patients (primary breast, ovarian, cervical, or endometrial cancer, and advanced breast cancer were analyzed following OncoQuick enrichment and RNA pre-amplification. Likewise, hMAM and EpCAM gene expression was analyzed in the blood of breast and ovarian cancer patients. For each gene, a cut-off threshold value was set at three standard deviations from the mean expression level of the healthy controls to identify potential markers for CTC detection. Results Six genes were over-expressed in blood samples from 81% of patients with advanced and 29% of patients with primary breast cancer. EpCAM gene expression was detected in 19% and 5% of patients, respectively, whereas hMAM gene expression was observed in the advanced group (39% only. Multimarker analysis using the new six gene panel positively identified 44% of the cervical, 64% of the

  16. Microfluidic bead-based multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification for detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood using quantum dots labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He, E-mail: mzhang_he@126.com; Fu, Xin; Hu, Jiayi; Zhu, Zhenjun

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: A microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels was developed. The chip-based CTCs analysis could detect reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell (e.g. CEA expressing cell) in 1 mL blood sample. This microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor is a promising platform for disease-related nucleic acid molecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence. -- Highlights: •Combination of microfluidic bead-based platform and enzyme–probe–AuNPs is proposed. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to 5 fM of tumor associated DNA. •Microfluidic platform and multienzyme-labeled AuNPs greatly enhanced sensitivity. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to RT-PCR products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell in 1 mL blood sample. •We report a sensitive nucleic acid sensor for detection of circulating tumor cells. -- Abstract: This study reports the development of a microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells in blood samples using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dot labels. In this method, the microbeads functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel as sensing elements, and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and DNA probes were used as labels. Hence, two signal amplification approaches are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of circulating tumor cells. First, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Second, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro

  17. A NONOVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR EXTERIOR 3-D PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-hao Yu; Ji-ming Wu; Ji-ming Wu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a nonoverlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction(cf. [4, 13, 15]), is developed to solve the boundary value problem in exterior three-dimensional domain of general shape. Convergence analyses both for the exterior spherical domain and the general exterior domain are made. Some numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the method.

  18. Bioengineering of Improved Biomaterials Coatings for Extracorporeal Circulation Requires Extended Observation of Blood-Biomaterial Interaction under Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris N. J. Stevens

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB systems is often hampered by thrombus formation and infection. Part of these problems relates to imperfect hemocompatibility of the CPB circuitry. The engineering of biomaterial surfaces with genuine long-term hemocompatibility is essentially virgin territory in biomaterials science. For example, most experiments with the well-known Chandler loop model, for evaluation of blood-biomaterial interactions under flow, have been described for a maximum duration of 2 hours only. This study reports a systematic evaluation of two commercial CPB tubings, each with a hemocompatible coating, and one uncoated control. The experiments comprised (i testing over 5 hours under flow, with human whole blood from 4 different donors; (ii measurement of essential blood parameters of hemocompatibility; (iii analysis of the luminal surfaces by scanning electron microscopy and thrombin generation time measurements. The dataset indicated differences in hemocompatibility of the tubings. Furthermore, it appeared that discrimination between biomaterial coatings can be made only after several hours of blood-biomaterial contact. Platelet counting, myeloperoxidase quantification, and scanning electron microscopy proved to be the most useful methods. These findings are believed to be relevant with respect to the bioengineering of extracorporeal devices that should function in contact with blood for extended time.

  19. Effect of Chinese Drugs for Supplementing Qi, Nourishing Yin and Activating Blood Circulation on Myocardial Perfusion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction after Revascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-qiang; JIN Mei; QIU Sheng-lei; WANG Pei-li; ZHU Tian-gang; WANG Cheng-long; LI Tian-chang; LIU Hong-xu; BIAN Hong; YAO Li-fang; SHI Da-zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of Chinese drugs for supplementing qi, nourishing yin and activating blood circulation on the myocardial perfusion in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after revascularization. Methods: Eighty patients with anterior or inferior ventricular wall AMI, who had received revascularization by intravenous thrombolysis or coronary bypass, were randomized into the treated group and the control group equally, both treated with conventional Western medical treatment, but combined, respectively, Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed 14 days and 3 months after revascularization, respectively on every patient to observe blood perfusion extent (b value), myocardial perfusion velocity (k value) and local blood flow volume (k × b) in left ventricular infarction-related vascular segments under stressed state. Results: With 5 cases dropping out in the observation pedod (3 in the treated group and 2 in the control group), the tdal was completed in 75 patients in total. The 14-day DSE shows that the b value and k×b value of left anterior ventricular wall mid segment and apex segment, and the k value of apex segment in patients with antedor wall AMI, as well as the b value and k×b of basel segment in patients with infedor wall AMI in the treated group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The 3-month DSE shows that the b value of apex segment, k×b value of basal segment, mid segment and apex segment of left anterior ventdcular wall in patients with anterior wall AMI as well as the b value and k x b value of basal segment of left infedor ventricular wall in patients with inferior wall AMI were all higher in the treated group than those in the control group, respectively (P<0.05). The comparison between 14-day DSE and 3-month DSE in the treated group showed that the b value of apex segment of left antedor ventdcular wall in patients with antedor wall AMI and the k×b value of apex

  20. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus in blood donors from Argentina: circulation of HBsAg and reverse transcriptase mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Cecilia María; Gentile, Emiliano Alberto; Castillo, Amalia Inés; Cuestas, María Luján; Pataccini, Gabriela; Cánepa, Camila; Malan, Richard; Blejer, Jorgelina; Berini, Carolina; Eirin, María Emilia; Pedrozo, Williams; Oubiña, José Raúl; Biglione, Mirna Marcela; Mathet, Verónica Lidia

    2014-05-01

    In Argentina, current procedures to ensure the safety of the blood supply for transfusion include the serologic detection of specific blood-borne infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) in blood donor populations from two distantly located Argentine regions. Data from 56,983 blood donations from the Favaloro Foundation, in the city of Buenos Aires (Central Region), and the Central Blood Bank of Misiones Province (Northeast Region) were analyzed. Samples that were reactive for HBsAg were analyzed for HBV-DNA characterization and HDV serological and molecular analysis. The HBV prevalence was 0.12 % for HBsAg and 1.68 % for anti-HBc antibodies in Buenos Aires, and 0.73 % and 8.55 %, respectively, in Misiones. Seventy-seven HBsAg-reactive samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for HBV-DNA. Subgenotypes A2, B2, C2, F1b and F4 (Buenos Aires) and F1b and D3 (Misiones) were detected. Several mutations within the major hydrophilic region of HBsAg, the reverse transcriptase, the basal core promoter, and the precore/core were detected. HDV genotype 1 was identified in Buenos Aires. This study confirms the circulation of several HBV subgenotypes, as well as known and newly identified variants, and the presence of HDV1 in this population. A thorough investigation has to be carried out to evaluate the clinical importance of some of the documented mutations as well as those detected in the HDV1 case.

  1. Circulating tumor cells in peripheral and pulmonary venous blood predict poor long-term survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunsong; Cheng, Xu; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Yi; Liu, Zhidong; Xu, Shaofa

    2017-07-10

    We tested the hypothesis that circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in preoperative peripheral blood (PPB) and intraoperative pulmonary venous blood (IPVB) could predict poor long-term survival in resected non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. CTCs were separated from blood using magnetic beads coated with antibodies against epithelial-cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) via magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS). CTCs were quantified with fluorescence-labeled antibodies against pan-cytokeratin through flow cytometry. CTCs were quantified in PPB and IPVB in 23 consecutive stage I-IIIA patients with resected NSCLC. The association between CTCs and prognosis in these patients was evaluated after a 5-year follow-up. In NSCLC patients, outcomes were assessed according to CTC levels at surgery. NSCLC patients identified as high-risk groups exhibited >5 CTCs/15 mL in PPB and >50 CTCs/15 mL in IPVB. Univariate Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that the CTC count in PPB or IPVB was an independent risk factor for tumor-free surivival (TFS) and overall survival (OS). The high-risk group of patients had a shorter median TFS (22 months vs. >60.0 months, p 60 months, p PPB and IPVB was an independent risk factor for TFS and OS in resected NSCLC patients.

  2. Identification of six potential markers for the detection of circulating canine mammary tumour cells in the peripheral blood identified by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, A; Lenze, D; Hummel, M; Kohn, B; Gruber, A D; Klopfleisch, R

    2012-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood is a prognostic factor for survival of human breast cancer patients. CTCs in the peripheral blood of dogs with mammary tumours have not been reported definitively. The present pilot study identifies mRNA markers for CTCs by comparing the transcriptome of canine mammary carcinoma cell lines CMM26 and CMM115 and peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs). Genes with a 200-fold or higher mRNA expression in carcinoma cell lines were tested for specificity and sensitivity to detect CTCs using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Six mRNA markers, AGR2, ATP8B1, CRYAB, F3 IRX3 and SLC1A1 were expressed in cell lines, but not PBL. All PCRs were able to detect one carcinoma cell admixed in 10(6) or more PBLs. The six mRNA markers may be suitable for detection of canine mammary CTCs and allow the analysis of their spatiotemporal distribution in dogs with mammary tumours.

  3. Effect of the Principle of Activating Blood Circulation to Break Stasis on GMP-140 and D2 Dimer in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of the principle of activating blood circulation to break stasis (ABCBS) and its influence on platelet membranous protein particle (GMP-140) and D2 dimer (Ddimer) before and after treatment. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) were randomly divided into two groups, both of which were treated with conventional treatment, i.e. with western medicine (WM), with Salvia injection added through intravenously dripping.One of the two groups was used as the control and the other group as the treated group who had ABCBS herbs orally taken in addition. The duration of treatment course for both groups was 3 weeks. Results: There were changes in both groups over clinical symptoms, nerve function deficit scoring and GMP-140, D-dimer, but the treated group showed significantly better than that of the control group, (P<0.05). Conclusion: ABCBS principle could serve as an important auxiliary treating method for BSS of ACI, as it can effectively alter the blood of ACI patients which was viscous, condense, coagulant and aggregating.

  4. Potentials of the circulating pruritogenic mediator lysophosphatidic acid in development of allergic skin inflammation in mice: role of blood cell-associated lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Okudaira, Shinichi; Kimoto, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Aoki, Junken; Tokumura, Akira

    2014-05-01

    Itching and infiltration of immune cells are important hallmarks of atopic dermatitis (AD). Although various studies have focused on peripheral mediator-mediated mechanisms, systemic mediator-mediated mechanisms are also important in the pathogenesis and development of AD. Herein, we found that intradermal injection of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid, induces scratching responses by Institute of Cancer Research mice through LPA1 receptor- and opioid μ receptor-mediating mechanisms, indicating its potential as a pruritogen. The circulating level of LPA in Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia mice, a systemic AD model, with severe scratching was found to be higher than that of control BALB/c mice, probably because of the increased lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin (ATX) in the blood (mainly membrane associated) rather than in plasma (soluble). Heparan sulfate proteoglycan was shown to be involved in the association of ATX with blood cells. The sequestration of ATX protein on the blood cells by heparan sulfate proteoglycan may accelerate the transport of LPA to the local apical surface of vascular endothelium with LPA receptors, promoting the hyperpermeability of venules and the pathological uptake of immune cells, aggravating lesion progression and itching in Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia mice.

  5. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosiman, G.; Wagner, R.; Schirber, T.

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  6. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosimann, Garrett [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Wagner, Rachel [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Schirber, Tom [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  7. Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, William [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    For this report, PNNL / the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studied a series of past exterior lighting projects at Princeton, in order to document Princeton’s experiences with solid-state lighting (SSL) and the lessons learned along the way, and to show how their approach to SSL projects evolved as their own learning expanded and as the products available improved in performance and sophistication.

  8. Association between circulating white blood cell count and long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Anoop; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; Tan, Jennifer; Wang, Jie Jin

    2007-02-15

    Inflammatory processes are implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there are limited data on longitudinal associations between systemic markers of inflammation and AMD. The authors examined the prospective relation between the circulating white blood cell (WBC) count and early and late AMD in a population-based cohort of 3,654 participants, aged 49-97 years, in the Blue Mountains region, Australia. The main outcome of interest was the 10-year incidence of early and late AMD among individuals free from corresponding disease at the baseline (1992-1994). An elevated baseline WBC count was associated with early AMD incidence, independent of smoking and other major confounders. The multivariable relative risk comparing tertile 3 of WBC count (>6.7 x 10(9) cells/liter) with tertile 1 (circulating WBC count, a widely available marker of inflammation, and incidence of early AMD.

  9. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Mosiman, G. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Ojczyk, C. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  10. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  11. Storms, hanged pirates, anemia, exsanguination: the contributions of Monro, Kellie and Abercrombie in understanding intracranial blood circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Bonis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Monro-Kellie doctrine states that with an intact skull, the sum of the volume of the brain plus the cerebrospinal fluid volume plus the intracranial blood volume is constant. Therefore an increase in one should cause a reduction in one or both of the remaining two. The researcher who expressed the doctrine in such a way was indeed Harvey Cushing in 1925, during a lecture in Edinburgh. The original Monro-Kellie doctrine is the result of observations on autopsies and several animal experiments. What the original doctrine states is a dynamic explanation of the intracranial system, aimed at explaining how a pulsatile and continuous perfusion may occur in a closed-non-expandable and fully filled system. During each cardiac cycle the quantity of blood within the head must be the same: during the systole, the brain arteries dilate, and, in the mean time, a quantity of blood, equal to that which is dilating them, is passing out of the head through the veins. During the succeeding diastole, the quantity which dilated the brain arteries passes into the corresponding veins and, at the same time, as much passes from the sinuses out of the head, as enters into the head from the arteries situated between the heart and the head. Monro implicitly states that the blood coming out from the cerebral veins into the sinuses must be pulsatile and (almost synchronous with the arteries. That is deeply different from the concept of a constant content of a rigid case, as expressed by Cushing.

  12. Bioengineering of Improved Biomaterials Coatings for Extracorporeal Circulation Requires Extended Observation of Blood-Biomaterial Interaction under Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Kris N. J.; Aldenhoff, Yvette B. J.; van der Veen, Frederik H; Maessen, Jos G.; Leo H. Koole

    2007-01-01

    Extended use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) systems is often hampered by thrombus formation and infection. Part of these problems relates to imperfect hemocompatibility of the CPB circuitry. The engineering of biomaterial surfaces with genuine long-term hemocompatibility is essentially virgin territory in biomaterials science. For example, most experiments with the well-known Chandler loop model, for evaluation of blood-biomaterial interactions under flow, have be...

  13. Speech therapy changes blood circulation and oxygenation in the brain and muscle: a near-infrared spectrophotometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Martin; von Bonin, Dietrich; Wolf, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that artistic speech therapy (AST) has effects on heart rate variability. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether AST also affects hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in the brain and skeletal muscle measured by near infrared spectrophotometry(NIRS). The results show that ATS has effects on important physiological parameters, i.e., it leads to a decrease in cerebral blood flow during recitation and to brain activation thereafter.

  14. Assessment of intermittent UMTS electromagnetic field effects on blood circulation in the human auditory region using a near-infrared system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spichtig, Sonja; Scholkmann, Felix; Chin, Lydia; Lehmann, Hugo; Wolf, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the potential effects of intermittent Universal Mobile Telecommunications System electromagnetic fields (UMTS-EMF) on blood circulation in the human head (auditory region) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on two different timescales: short-term (effects occurring within 80 s) and medium-term (effects occurring within 80 s to 30 min). For the first time, we measured potential immediate effects of UMTS-EMF in real-time without any interference during exposure. Three different exposures (sham, 0.18 W/kg, and 1.8 W/kg) were applied in a controlled, randomized, crossover, and double-blind paradigm on 16 healthy volunteers. In addition to oxy-, deoxy-, and total haemoglobin concentrations ([O(2) Hb], [HHb], and [tHb], respectively), the heart rate (HR), subjective well-being, tiredness, and counting speed were recorded. During exposure to 0.18 W/kg, we found a significant short-term increase in Δ[O(2) Hb] and Δ[tHb], which is small (≈17%) compared to a functional brain activation. A significant decrease in the medium-term response of Δ[HHb] at 0.18 and 1.8 W/kg exposures was detected, which is in the range of physiological fluctuations. The medium-term ΔHR was significantly higher (+1.84 bpm) at 1.8 W/kg than for sham exposure. The other parameters showed no significant effects. Our results suggest that intermittent exposure to UMTS-EMF has small short- and medium-term effects on cerebral blood circulation and HR. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. More accurate quantification of pulmonary blood flow by magnetic resonance imaging than by lung perfusion scintigraphy in patients with fontan circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratz, Sohrab; Hess, John; Schwaiger, Markus; Martinoff, Stefan; Stern, Heiko C

    2002-09-17

    Quantitative evaluation of pulmonary perfusion using lung perfusion scintigraphy in patients with atriopulmonary anastomosis (APA) or total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) or partial cavopulmonary connection (PCPC) is difficult because of preferential draining of the venae cavae to one lung. Scintigraphy is the gold standard. Phase-velocity MRI (PV-MRI) is a new technique for determining pulmonary perfusion. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether PV-MRI is more accurate than scintigraphy for quantitative evaluation of pulmonary perfusion ratios in patients with APA, TCPC, or PCPC. We studied 15 patients with APA, TCPC, or PCPC (16+/-7 years old, 4 female). Twelve patients (15+/-8 years old, 3 female) with a single pulmonary blood source supplied by a subpulmonary ventricle, ensuring complete mixing of the radioactive tracer before entering the pulmonary circulation, served as controls. Pulmonary scintigraphy and PV-MRI were performed in all patients. Bland-Altman analysis showed a clinically unacceptable difference of 7.1% right pulmonary blood flow (27.2% upper and -13.0% lower limit of agreement) between the two methods in the study group. The two methods agreed excellently in the control group (difference, 1.6%; 4.0% upper and -7.2% lower limit of agreement), showing that the bad agreement in the study group was caused by the problems encountered using pulmonary scintigraphy in patients with APA, TCPC, or PCPC. Because of preferential caval flow into either lung, PV-MRI is more accurate for evaluating pulmonary perfusion ratios than lung perfusion scintigraphy in patients with Fontan-like circulation.

  16. [Exploration of quality control of inorganic elements in Chinese herbal medicines for stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-feng; Fan, Mei-mei; Wang, Guan-min; Tu, Long-fei; Wang, Cheng

    2007-12-01

    Researches have shown the close relationships between inorganic elements and curative efficiencies of various Chinese herbal medicines. Yet, in studies of chemical composition and quality control of Chinese herbal medicines for stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints, inorganic substances are often overlooked. In order to improve and reestablish the standard of quality control of Chinese herbal medicines, the authors attempted a method that would incorporate the composition of inorganic elements as part of the quality control. In the present study, the authors used atomic absorption spectrophotometry to measure the contents of fifteen inorganic elements, namely, Cu, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mo, Ni, Sr, V, Mn, Zn, Na, Cr, Cd, and Hg, in several Chinese herbal medicines, including Da Huo Luo Wan. The authors then discussed the relationship between these inorganic elements and curative efficiencies of these Chinese herbal medicines. By comparing the levels of inorganic elements found in Da Huo Luo Wan with those found in other Chinese herbal medicines used in the study, it was revealed that trace elements, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn, contribute to the curative efficiency of Da Huo Luo Wan. The authors' results showed that the amounts of trace elements Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn found in Chinese herbal medicine Da Huo Luo Wan are related to the following curative effects of Da Huo Luo Wan: relieving rheumatism, rectifying breathing and alleviating phlegm, stimulating blood circulation and relaxing muscles and joints. The measurement and analysis of inorganic elements in Da Huo Luo Wan will also provide evidences and references for the fingerprint establishment of Da Huo Luo Wan in the future.

  17. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  18. Nourishing Yin and Promoting Blood Circulation of TCM to Treat Hemorheologic Disorder Induced by Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Xia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, DM, is commonly accompanied with various stages of hemorheologic disturbances that are the main causes of the development of chronic DM. In this study, simple Chinese material medica [yang-yin jiang-tang preparation (YYJT] was given to alloxan-induced DM rats and analyzed to compare the changes of fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, hemorheologic parameters and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II before and after administration. The results suggested that YYJT can significantly downregulate FBG (P < 0.005, improve insulin resistance and beta-cell secretion (P < 0.05, decrease whole blood viscosity at low and high shear rates, gathering of blood index test (GIT and fibrinogen (FIB (P < 0.05, and enlarge the function of IGF-II (P < 0.05. We concluded that YYJT could prevent and treat hemorheologic disorder in DM rats by means of reducing glucose, improving insulin resistance and elevating IGF-II.

  19. Circulating Natural IgM Antibodies Against Angiogenin in the Peripheral Blood Sera of Patients with Osteosarcoma as Candidate Biomarkers and Reporters of Tumorigenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitskaya, Yulia A.; Rico, Genaro; Linares, Luis; González, Roberto; Téllez, René; Estrada, Eréndira; Marín, Norma; Martínez, Elisa; Alfaro, Alfonso; Ibarra, Clemente

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tumor immunology research has led to the identification of a number of tumor-associated self antigens, suggesting that most tumors trigger an immunogenic response, as is the case in osteosarcoma, where the detection of natural serum IgM antibodies might achieve the diagnosis of osteosarcoma. Natural IgM antibodies to tumor-associated proteins may expand the number of available tumor biomarkers for osteosarcoma and may be used together in a serum profile to enhance test sensitivity and specificity. Natural IgM antibodies can be consistently detected in the peripheral blood sera months to years before the tumor is diagnosed clinically. The study of the level of a potential biomarker many months (or years) prior to diagnosis is fundamentally important. Integrated circulating and imaging markers in clinical practice treating osteosarcoma have potential applications for controlling tumor angiogenesis. Objectives: To study the expression of natural IgM antibodies to the tumor antigens of angiogenesis in the peripheral blood sera of osteosarcoma patients and healthy individuals, and to develop serum-based predictive biomarkers. Methods: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 117 osteosarcoma patients and 117 patients with other tumors. All diagnosis was histologically confirmed. Staging of patients was performed according to the Enneking Surgical Staging System. The control group consisted of 117 age- and sex- matched healthy individuals. In this study, novel immunoconjugates were designed, synthesized and then used to develop a rapid, specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method to detect angiogenin (ANG)–IgM directly in the peripheral blood sera of humans. Results: Serum ANG–IgM levels are significantly higher in osteosarcoma patients than in healthy individuals (P osteosarcoma patients and ANG–IgM levels were significantly higher in osteosarcoma patients compared to any other tumors (P osteosarcoma patients than

  20. The identification of blood circulation in the operation of free flap transplantation%游离皮瓣移植术中血液循环判断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾加祥; 田恒; 张乃臣; 刘宏君; 潘俊博; 董佳生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of identifying blood circulation in the operation of free flap transplantation to a successful flap surgery. Methods Twenty - six patients who suffered from trauma and soft tissue loss in our hospital from Mar. 2007 to Dec. 2009 received free skin flap transplantation with latissimus dorsi muscle and thigh anterolatera flap. The correlation between flap flexibility, color, the color of the venous blood, and flap survival after surgery were observed. Results After surgery, it was found that the flap survival was good if the flap flexibility and the color of the flap had the same color with the donor area and the venous blood became mauve. Conclusion The identification of blood circulation in the operation of free flap transplantation is important to a successful flap surgery.%目的 探讨游离皮瓣移植术中血液循环判断对皮瓣手术成功的指导意义.方法 对2007年3月~2009年12月26例外伤后皮肤和软组织缺损的患者行游离背阔肌和股前外侧皮瓣移植,观察术中吻合血管后皮瓣的弹性、色泽,吻合处静脉血流的颜色和术后皮瓣的存活之间的关系.结果 游离皮瓣移植术中吻合血管后,如皮瓣的弹性正常、色泽逐渐转为原供区切取前色泽,静脉血流颜色转为(淡)紫红色,则皮瓣术后存活良好.结论 游离皮瓣移植术中静脉血流和皮瓣颜色等血液循环的判断对皮瓣存活有重要的参考的意义.

  1. Cell-Free RNA Content in Peripheral Blood as Potential Biomarkers for Detecting Circulating Tumor Cells in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Min Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs have been implicated in tumor progression and prognosis. Techniques detecting CTCs in the peripheral blood of patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC may help to identify individuals likely to benefit from early systemic treatment. However, the detection of CTCs with a single marker is challenging, owing to low specificity and sensitivity and due to the heterogeneity and rareness of CTCs. Herein, the probability of cell-free RNA content in the peripheral blood as a potential biomarker for detecting CTCs in cancer patients was investigated. An immunomagnetic enrichment of real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR technology for analysis of CTCs in NSCLC patients was also developed. The mRNA levels of four candidate genes, cytokeratin 7 (CK7, E74-like factor 3 (ELF3, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular carcinoma receptor B4 (EphB4 that were significantly elevated in tumor tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs were determined. The expression of CK7 and ELF3 in tumor tissues and EGFR in PBMCs was associated with lymph node metastasis (all p < 0.05. The expression of CK7 in PBMCs was correlated with age and EphB4 in PBMCs correlated with histopathological type, respectively (all p < 0.05. The expression of all four genes in tumor tissues and PBMCs was significantly correlated with the clinical stage (all p < 0.01. Survival analysis showed that the patients with enhanced expression of CK7, ELF3, EGFR, and EphB4 mRNA in PBMCs had poorer disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS than those without (all p < 0.0001. The present study showed that this alteration of cell-free RNA content in peripheral blood might have clinical ramifications in the diagnosis and treatment of NSCLC patients.

  2. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  3. Distal Pedicle Flap Blood Circulation Features and Clinical Signiifcance%远端蒂皮瓣的血液循环特征及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓光

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the distally based flap.Methods The clinical data of 30 cases of patients with distal pedicle flap, fresh limb specimen of forearm and leg, the characteristics and signiifcance of blood circulation in two aspects of the driven vein blood flow structure and hemodynamics.Results The distally based lfap blood supply is divided into four types: body is organized vascular network (cluster), muscle interstitial fascia, direct skin blood vessel, well-known blood vessel, there was no reverse flow, more fit with physiological.ConclusionIt is a prerequisite for the survival of the lfap to observe whether the venous relfux is smooth, Superifcial venous blood can be introduced into the lfap, from shallow to deep will increase the return load, increase the survival rate of skin lfap.%目的:探究远端蒂皮瓣的血液循环特征及临床意义。方法收集30例行远端蒂皮瓣术患者的临床资料,取前臂与小腿新鲜肢体标本,从动静脉血流构筑与血流动力学两方面探究血液循环特征与意义。结果将远端蒂皮瓣供血方式分为四种:体被组织血管网(丛)、肌间隙筋膜穿血管、直接皮肤血管、知名血管,均没有出现逆向血流,与生理性更贴合。结论观察静脉回流是否顺畅是决定皮瓣能否成活的前提,蒂部浅静脉能将远端静脉血导入皮瓣内,由浅到深将回流负荷加重,增加了皮瓣成活率。

  4. Differential inhibitory action of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of forming thrombi: Studies with circulating blood and in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujadas-Mestres, Lluis; Lopez-Vilchez, Irene; Arellano-Rodrigo, Eduardo; Reverter, Joan Carles; Lopez-Farre, Antonio; Diaz-Ricart, Maribel; Badimon, Juan Jose; Escolar, Gines

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms of action of direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) suggest a potential therapeutic use in the prevention of thrombotic complications in arterial territories. However, effects of DOACs on platelet activation and aggregation have not been explored in detail. We have investigated the effects of apixaban on platelet and fibrin components of thrombus formation under static and flow conditions. We assessed the effects of apixaban (10, 40 and 160 ng/mL) on: 1) platelet deposition and fibrin formation onto a thrombogenic surface, with blood circulating at arterial shear-rates; 2) viscoelastic properties of forming clots, and 3) thrombin generation in a cell-model of coagulation primed by platelets. In studies with flowing blood, only the highest concentration of apixaban, equivalent to the therapeutic Cmax, was capable to significantly reduce thrombus formation, fibrin association and platelet-aggregate formation. Apixaban significantly prolonged thromboelastometry parameters, but did not affect clot firmness. Interestingly, results in a platelet-based model of thrombin generation under more static conditions, revealed a dose dependent persistent inhibitory action by apixaban, with concentrations 4 to 16 times below the therapeutic Cmax significantly prolonging kinetic parameters and reducing the total amount of thrombin generated. Our studies demonstrate the critical impact of rheological conditions on the antithrombotic effects of apixaban. Studies under flow conditions combined with modified thrombin generation assays could help discriminating concentrations of apixaban that prevent excessive platelet accumulation, from those that deeply impair fibrin formation and may unnecessarily compromise hemostasis.

  5. Functional state of blood circulation and neuromuscular system of the lower limb of patients with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia after consolidation of the nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Павлович Поздеев

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional state of the neuromuscular system and the blood supply to the lower limbs of children with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT after consolidation. Material and Methods. A total of 100 patients with CPT were analyzed. We performed a clinical examination of patients, panoramic X-ray of the lower extremities, electroneuromyogram, and reovasography. Results and Conclusions. The primary complaints of patients with CPT after the consolidation of the non-union were lameness, deformations of lower extremities, and pain in the local joints. The electromyoneuromyogram data of the lower limbs of patients with CPT exhibited a decrease of the contractility of the muscles of the lower limbs, and neuropathy of the peroneal nerves of both lower limbs. The reovasography data of the lower limbs of patients with CPT displayed improvement in blood circulation in the lower extremities after the consolidation of the tibia. These data promote the current methods of treatment of patients with CPT; however, the temperature, degree of limb lengthening, and deformity correction should be considered in the future.

  6. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  7. Phenotypic characterization of circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of patients with small cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Politaki, Eleni; Kotsakis, Athanasios; Dermitzaki, Eleftheria-Kleio; Koinis, Filippos; Lagoudaki, Eleni; Koutsopoulos, Anastasios; Kallergi, Galatea; Souglakos, John

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate the phenotypic heterogeneity of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) based on the expression of proliferative, apoptotic and Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transmission (EMT) markers during front-line treatment in patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and to evaluate their clinical relevance. Methods CTCs from 108 chemotherapy-naïve patients with SCLC were analyzed by double immunofluorescence staining using anti-Ki67, anti-M30, anti-Vimentin along with anti-CKs antibodies. In 83 patients CTCs were also enumerated using the CellSearch. Results Sequential samples were available from 76 and 48 patients after one-treatment cycle and on disease progression (PD), respectively, for immunofluorescence and from 50 and 36 patients after one-cycle and on PD, respectively, for CellSearch. At baseline, 60.2% of the patients had detectable CTCs by either method. Both proliferative (CK67+) and non-proliferative (Ki67-), apoptotic (M30+) and non-apoptotic (M30-) as well as EMT (Vim+) CTCs were present in the same patient. Among 22 patients without detectable CTCs by CellSearch, CK+/Ki67+ and CK+/Vim+ CTCs could be detected in 6 (27.3%) and 6 (27.3%) patients, respectively. One-chemotherapy cycle reduced both the incidence of detection (p<0.001) and the absolute number (p<0.001) of CTCs; conversely, on PD both the incidence of detection and the number of CTCs were significantly increased (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed that the increased number of Vim+ CTCs at baseline and of non-apoptotic CTCs on PD could be emerged as independent prognostic factors associated with decreased OS(p = 0.009 and p = 0.023, respectively). Conclusions CK+/Ki67+, CK+/M30+ and CK+/Vim+ CTCs represent distinct subpopulations of CTCs in patients with SCLC, can be detected even in the absence of detectable CTCs by CellSearch; CK+/Ki67+ and CK+/Vim+ CTCs are associated with unfavorable clinical outcome. PMID:28719656

  8. [Influence of mydocalm on the degree of intra-abdominal hypertension and local blood circulation in the intestinal wall in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapegin, V I; Sapegin, I D; Il'chenko, F N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of mydocalm (tolperison, 5 mg/kg single dose) on the dynamics of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), blood circulation regulation, and oxygen balance in the tissues of intestinal wall were studied in acute experiments on rabbits. Using a special stand of original design, the initial IAH level was modeled at 200 mm H2O with the subsequent stopping of further receipt of liquid during 3 hours in an elastic container in the abdominal cavity. During 3-h observation without drug administration, no changes in IAH due to the tone of muscles of the frontal abdominal wall takes place, but there is progressive deceleration of local blood flow (-35.33 + 0.99%, p < 0.01), suppressed dilation (-20.02 + 0.54%, p < 0.01) and constriction (-60.45 + 1.17%, p < 0.01) reactivity of vessels, and decreased oxygen tension (-47.18 + 0.75%, p < 0.01) in the intestinal wall at the end of experiment. The introduction of mydocalm reduces the tone of muscles of the frontal abdominal wall, which leads to a decrease in IAH (maximum effect after 1.5 hours, -20.81 + 0.84%, p < 0.01) and prevents decrease in the local blood flow (-26.77 + 0.41%, p < 0.01), suppression of dilation (-16.51 + 0.34%, p < 0.01) and constriction (-37.85 + 0.61%, p < 0.01) reactivity of vessels, and reduction in oxygen tension (-36.60 + 1.18%, p < 0.01) at the end of experiment. The administration of mydocalm can extend the limits of application of a conservative therapy for patients with IAH and to improve the results.

  9. Loss of bone marrow adrenergic beta 1 and 2 receptors modifies transcriptional networks, reduces circulating inflammatory factors, and regulates blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Niousha; Schmidt, Jordan T; Krane, Gregory A; Malphurs, Wendi; Cunningham, Bruce E; Owen, Jennifer L; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Zubcevic, Jasenka

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a prevalent condition with complex etiology and pathophysiology. Evidence exists of significant communication between the nervous system and the immune system (IS), and there appears to be a direct role for inflammatory bone marrow (BM) cells in the pathophysiology of hypertension. However, the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying this interaction have not been characterized. Here, we transplanted whole BM cells from the beta 1 and 2 adrenergic receptor (AdrB1(tm1Bkk)AdrB2(tm1Bkk)/J) knockout (KO) mice into near lethally irradiated C57BL/6J mice to generate a BM AdrB1.B2 KO chimera. This allowed us to evaluate the role of the BM beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in mediating BM IS homeostasis and regulating blood pressure (BP) in an otherwise intact physiological setting. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting demonstrated that a decrease in systolic and mean BP in the AdrB1.B2 KO chimera is associated with a decrease in circulating inflammatory T cells, macrophage/monocytes, and neutrophils. Transcriptomics in the BM identified 7,419 differentially expressed transcripts between the C57 and AdrB1.B2 KO chimera. Pathway analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts related to several cell processes in the BM of C57 compared with AdrB1.B2 KO chimera, including processes related to immunity (e.g., T-cell activation, T-cell recruitment, cytokine production, leukocyte migration and function), the cardiovascular system (e.g., blood vessel development, peripheral nerve blood flow), and the brain (e.g., central nervous system development, neurite development) among others. This study generates new insight into the molecular events that underlie the interaction between the sympathetic drive and IS in modulation of BP.

  10. 活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎的疗效观察%Therapeutic Effect of Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎的疗效。方法:将72例类风湿性关节炎患者按照治疗方法分为治疗组和对照组各36例,治疗组采用活血化瘀法治疗,对照组采用常规西医治疗,观察两组临床疗效、临床症状和体征以及相关实验室指标。结果:治疗组总有效率优于对照组(P<0.05);两组治疗后晨僵时间、关节疼痛评分均下降(P<0.05),握力明显提高(P<0.05),且治疗组改善水平优于对照组(P<0.05);两组治疗后红细胞沉降率(ESR)、C-反应蛋白(CRP)和类风湿因子(RF)均下降(P<0.05),且治疗组下降水平优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:采用活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎能够有效改善患者的临床症状和体征,缓解关节疼痛。%Objective: To study the effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on rheumatoid arthritis. Method: The 72 cases of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were selected and divided into treatment and control groups, ac-cording to the methods of treatment, 36 cases in each. Patients were treated by blood circulation and removing blood stasis therapy in treatment group and conventional western medicine treatment in control group. The clinical efficacy, clinical symp-toms and signs, as well as relevant laboratories indicators were observed in two groups. Results: The total efficiency of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05); the morning stiffness time and joint pain score sig-nificantly decreased after treatment both in two groups (P<0.05), and grip strength significantly increased both in two groups (P<0.05); the improvement levels of the treatment group was significantly better than the control group (P<0.05); the erythro-cyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factors (RF) decreased significantly after treatment both in two groups (P<0

  11. The detection of circulating tumor cells expressing E6/E7 HR-HPV oncogenes in peripheral blood in cervical cancer patients after radical hysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismann, P; Weismanova, E; Masak, L; Mlada, K; Keder, D; Ferancikova, Z; Vizvaryova, M; Konecny, M; Zavodna, K; Kausitz, J; Benuska, J; Repiska, V

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the sensitive, specific and clinically acceptable method for detection of tumor cells (TCs) circulating in peripheral blood (PB) of cervical cancer patients without the clinically detectable risk of disease progression. The 7.5 ml of PB of healthy donor was spiked with 5 to 100 cells from SiHa or HeLa cell lines. The spiked tumor cells were collected without gradient centrifugation, by standard gradient centrifugation or by modified gradient centrifugation combined with immunomagnetic separation using EpCAM antibody with affinity for epithelial cell adhesion molecule. The number of collected TCs was determined by EpCAM-FITC-staining and their viability was detected by nested RT-PCR amplifying E6/E7 HR-HPV 16 or HR-HPV 18 oncogenes. For the technical validation of this approach the TCs separation and RT-PCRs were repeated several times. The recovery of viable TCs was reproducibly higher using modified gradient centrifugation combined with immunomagnetic separation in comparison with standard approach. The recovery of TCs in low number of spiked TCs (range from 5 - 20 TCs in 7.5 ml of PB) using modified gradient centrifugation was not reproducible. The recovery of TCs in higher number of spiked TCs (25 TCs and more in 7.5 ml of PB) was reproducible with average recovery about 50 %. The sensitivity of nested RT-PCR amplifying E6/E7 oncogenes was decisively influenced by the number of recovered TCs and the amount of cDNA introduced to RT-PCR, as well. Using this approach we were allowed to detect circulating TCs (CTCs) in cervical cancer patients without metastases, thus this procedure might become a tool to early estimation of disease progression. According to our knowledge, this is the first report describing the use of EpCAM antibody for CTCs detection in cervical cancer patients.

  12. Ultra High-Resolution In vivo Computed Tomography Imaging of Mouse Cerebrovasculature Using a Long Circulating Blood Pool Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Villamizar, Carlos A; Rendon, David; Paldino, Michael J; Milewicz, Dianna M; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Annapragada, Ananth V

    2015-05-18

    Abnormalities in the cerebrovascular system play a central role in many neurologic diseases. The on-going expansion of rodent models of human cerebrovascular diseases and the need to use these models to understand disease progression and treatment has amplified the need for reproducible non-invasive imaging methods for high-resolution visualization of the complete cerebral vasculature. In this study, we present methods for in vivo high-resolution (19 μm isotropic) computed tomography imaging of complete mouse brain vasculature. This technique enabled 3D visualization of large cerebrovascular networks, including the Circle of Willis. Blood vessels as small as 40 μm were clearly delineated. ACTA2 mutations in humans cause cerebrovascular defects, including abnormally straightened arteries and a moyamoya-like arteriopathy characterized by bilateral narrowing of the internal carotid artery and stenosis of many large arteries. In vivo imaging studies performed in a mouse model of Acta2 mutations demonstrated the utility of this method for studying vascular morphometric changes that are practically impossible to identify using current histological methods. Specifically, the technique demonstrated changes in the width of the Circle of Willis, straightening of cerebral arteries and arterial stenoses. We believe the use of imaging methods described here will contribute substantially to the study of rodent cerebrovasculature.

  13. Effect of Chinese Drugs for Promoting Blood Circulation and Eliminating Blood Stasis on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Rabbits with Glucocorticoid-induced Ischemic Necrosis of Femoral Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhen-xi; CHEN Lei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the mechanism of Chinese drugs for promoting blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis in the prevention and treatment of glueocorticoid-induced ischemic necrosis of femoral head.Methods: Thirty New Zealand adult white rabbits were randomly divided into a normal control group (n=5)and a model group (n=25). Hydroxyprednisone acetate was intramuscularly administered to the rabbits in the model group in a dosage of 7.5 mg/kg, twice per week for 6 weeks, to induce ischemic necrosis of femoral head and normal saline of the equal volume was intramuscularly administered to the rabbits in the normal control group, twice per week for 6 weeks. Then, the 5 rabbits from the normal control group and 5 rabbits selected randomly from the model group were sacrificed and the changes in histopathology and the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were observed. The other 20 rabbits in the model group were randomly divided into the treatment group 1 and the treatment group 2, and the control group 1 and the control group 2, 5 rabbits in every group. Taohong Siwu Tang (桃红四物汤 Decoction of Four Drugs with Addition of Peach Kernel and Safflower) was orally administered to the rabbits in the treatment group 1 and the treatment group 2 in a dosage of 7 ml/kg, once daily and normal saline of the equal volume was orally administered to the rabbits in the control groupl and the control group, 2 once daily. After 10 weeks the rabbits in the treatment group 1 and the control group 1 were sacrificed and after 13 weeks the rabbits in the treatment group 2 and the control group 2 were sacrificed, and the expression of VEGF was detected in these rabbits. Results: The expression of VEGF was significantly enhanced in rabbits of the model group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.01), and gradually reduced with the lapse of time. The expression of VEGF in the control groups was significantly reduced as compared with the treatment

  14. Using peripheral blood circulating DNAs to detect CpG global methylation status and genetic mutations in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriyama, Chisako [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Tomita, Akihiro, E-mail: atomita@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Hoshino, Hideaki; Adachi-Shirahata, Mizuho [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Yamada, Kiyofumi [Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circulating DNAs (CDs) can be used to detect genetic/epigenetic abnormalities in MDS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epigenetic changes can be detected more sensitively when using plasma DNA than PBMNC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation ratio in CDs may reflect the ratio in stem cell population in bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using CDs can be a safer alternate strategy compared to bone marrow aspiration. -- Abstract: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder. Several genetic/epigenetic abnormalities are deeply associated with the pathogenesis of MDS. Although bone marrow (BM) aspiration is a common strategy to obtain MDS cells for evaluating their genetic/epigenetic abnormalities, BM aspiration is difficult to perform repeatedly to obtain serial samples because of pain and safety concerns. Here, we report that circulating cell-free DNAs from plasma and serum of patients with MDS can be used to detect genetic/epigenetic abnormalities. The plasma DNA concentration was found to be relatively high in patients with higher blast cell counts in BM, and accumulation of DNA fragments from mono-/di-nucleosomes was confirmed. Using serial peripheral blood (PB) samples from patients treated with hypomethylating agents, global methylation analysis using bisulfite pyrosequencing was performed at the specific CpG sites of the LINE-1 promoter. The results confirmed a decrease of the methylation percentage after treatment with azacitidine (days 3-9) using DNAs from plasma, serum, and PB mono-nuclear cells (PBMNC). Plasma DNA tends to show more rapid change at days 3 and 6 compared with serum DNA and PBMNC. Furthermore, the TET2 gene mutation in DNAs from plasma, serum, and BM cells was quantitated by pyrosequencing analysis. The existence ratio of mutated genes in plasma and serum DNA showed almost equivalent level with that in the CD34+/38- stem cell population in BM. These data suggest that genetic

  15. APPLICATIONS OF FRACTIONAL EXTERIOR DIFFERENTIAL IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 闫振亚; 张鸿庆

    2003-01-01

    A brief survey of fractional calculus and fractional differential forms was firstly given. The fractional exterior transition to curvilinear coordinate at the origin were discussed and the two coordinate transformations for the fractional differentials for three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates to spherical and cylindrical coordinates are obtained, respectively. In particular, for v = m = 1 , the usual exterior transformations, between the spherical coordinate and Cartesian coordinate, as well as the cylindrical coordinate and Cartesian coordinate, are found respectively, from fractional exterior transformation.

  16. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    OpenAIRE

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation f...

  17. [The method of tonifying kidneys and activating blood circulation increases testosterone secretion index in late-onset hypogonadism males with kidney deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shao-Hu; Weng, Zhi-Wei; Li, Tang-Lin

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of the method of tonifying the kidney and activating blood circulation on the testosterone secretion index (TSI) in late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) male patients with kidney deficiency and its possible mechanisms. We screened 60 LOH male patients with kidney deficiency based on the scores on Partial Androgen Deficiency in Aging Males (PADAM), the levels of serum total testosterone (TT) and luteinizing hormone (LH), and TSI (TT/LH). We randomly divided the patients into a Nan Geng Ning (NGN) group (n = 40, aged 55.02 +/- 11.37 years) and a control group (n = 20, aged 54.56 +/- 12.12 years) to be treated orally with NGN decoction and testosterone undecanoate capsules, respectively, both for 12 consecutive weeks. We obtained the scores on psychological status, physical status and sexual function and observed the changes in serum TT, LH and TSI after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of treatment. Compared with the baseline, both the NGN and control groups showed a significant reduction after 12 weeks of medication in the LH level ([5.32 +/- 2.08] vs [4.89 +/- 1.46] IU/L and [5.36 +/- 2.07] vs [4.81 +/- 1.75] IU/L, P 1.5, P TSI ([2.14 +/- 0.65] vs [2.99 +/- 0.72] nmol/IU and ([2.05 +/- 0.73] vs [3.11 +/- 0.65] nmol/IU, P 0.05), TT ([14.55 +/- 0.75] vs [14.74 +/- 0.83] nmol/L, P > 0.05), TSI ([2.99 +/- 0.72] vs [3.11 +/- 0.65] nmol/IU, P > 0.05), psychological status score (2.7 +/- 1.4 vs 2.9 +/- 1.2, P > 0.05), physi- cal status score (2.9 +/- 1.6 vs 3.1 +/- 1.5, P > 0.05) and sexual function score (4.5 +/- 2.9 vs 4.8 +/- 3.0, P > 0.05). There were no adverse events in either of the two groups throughout the whole experiment. The method of tonifying the kidney and activating blood circulation could significantly improve the clinical symptoms of LOH with kidney deficiency and increase the patient's serum TT level and TSI. NGN decoction works on LOH by acting on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis.

  18. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  19. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  20. Reversal of apixaban induced alterations in hemostasis by different coagulation factor concentrates: significance of studies in vitro with circulating human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gines Escolar

    Full Text Available Apixaban is a new oral anticoagulant with a specific inhibitory action on FXa. No information is available on the reversal of the antihemostatic action of apixaban in experimental or clinical settings. We have evaluated the effectiveness of different factor concentrates at reversing modifications of hemostatic mechanisms induced by moderately elevated concentrations of apixaban (200 ng/ml added in vitro to blood from healthy donors (n = 10. Effects on thrombin generation (TG and thromboelastometry (TEM parameters were assessed. Modifications in platelet adhesive, aggregating and procoagulant activities were evaluated in studies with blood circulating through damaged vascular surfaces, at a shear rate of 600 s(-1. The potential of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs; 50 IU/kg, activated prothrombin complex concentrates (aPCCs; 75 IU/kg, or activated recombinant factor VII (rFVIIa; 270 μg/kg, at reversing the antihemostatic actions of apixaban, were investigated. Apixaban interfered with TG kinetics. Delayed lag phase, prolonged time to peak and reduced peak values, were improved by the different concentrates, though modifications in TG patterns were diversely affected depending on the activating reagents. Apixaban significantly prolonged clotting times (CTs in TEM studies. Prolongations in CTs were corrected by the different concentrates with variable efficacies (rFVIIa≥aPCC>PCC. Apixaban significantly reduced fibrin and platelet interactions with damaged vascular surfaces in perfusion studies (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. Impairments in fibrin formation were normalized by the different concentrates. Only rFVIIa significantly restored levels of platelet deposition. Alterations in hemostasis induced by apixaban were variably compensated by the different factor concentrates investigated. However, effects of these concentrates were not homogeneous in all the tests, with PCCs showing more efficacy in TG, and rFVIIa being more effective

  1. Disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and circulating tumor cells in blood of breast cancer patients: current state of detection and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Despite the progress resulting from early detection and improved adjuvant therapy, the prognosis of breast cancer patients is still limited by the occurrence of distant metastases largely due to clinically occult micrometastases that remain undetected at primary diagnosis even by high-resolution imaging approaches. Recent research efforts have concentrated on the identification of additional parameters allowing individual risk assessment and stratification of patients for targeted therapies, since traditional prognostic factors are not sufficient to predict metastatic relapse and treatment decisions are still mainly based on statistical risk parameters. Highly sensitive and specific immunocytochemical and molecular assays now enable the detection and characterization of disseminated and circulating tumor cells (DTCs and CTCs, respectively) at the single cell level in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood, providing insights into the first crucial steps of the metastatic cascade. However, because of the still high variability of results in DTC/CTC detection, the necessity of standardized approaches will be discussed. A large number of studies showed that the presence of DTCs in BM has prognostic impact for primary breast cancer patients. DTCs are likely to escape from chemotherapy by maintaining a dormant nonproliferating state. There is also evidence for a stem cell-like phenotype of DTCs, probably contributing to the opportunity to escape from dormancy control and to start expansion to manifest metastases. Blood would also be an ideal source for the detection and monitoring of CTCs because of an easy noninvasive sampling procedure enabling repeated analyses. While prognostic significance of CTCs could be reliably demonstrated for metastatic breast cancer, studies to analyze the impact of CTCs in primary breast cancer patients and the potential to replace or supplement BM analysis are still ongoing. Furthermore, molecular characterization of CTCs might contribute

  2. Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed, Mike; van Amerom, Joshua F P; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Al Nafisi, Bahiyah; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Jaeggi, Edgar; Jansz, Michael S; Macgowan, Christopher K

    2012-11-26

    We present the first phase contrast (PC) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measurements of the distribution of blood flow in twelve late gestation human fetuses. These were obtained using a retrospective gating technique known as metric optimised gating (MOG). A validation experiment was performed in five adult volunteers where conventional cardiac gating was compared with MOG. Linear regression and Bland Altman plots were used to compare MOG with the gold standard of conventional gating. Measurements using MOG were then made in twelve normal fetuses at a median gestational age of 37 weeks (range 30-39 weeks). Flow was measured in the major fetal vessels and indexed to the fetal weight. There was good correlation between the conventional gated and MOG measurements in the adult validation experiment (R=0.96). Mean flows in ml/min/kg with standard deviations in the major fetal vessels were as follows: combined ventricular output (CVO) 540 ± 101, main pulmonary artery (MPA) 327 ± 68, ascending aorta (AAo) 198 ± 38, superior vena cava (SVC) 147 ± 46, ductus arteriosus (DA) 220 ± 39,pulmonary blood flow (PBF) 106 ± 59,descending aorta (DAo) 273 ± 85, umbilical vein (UV) 160 ± 62, foramen ovale (FO)107 ± 54. Results expressed as mean percentages of the CVO with standard deviations were as follows: MPA 60 ± 4, AAo37 ± 4, SVC 28 ± 7, DA 41 ± 8, PBF 19 ± 10, DAo50 ± 12, UV 30 ± 9, FO 21 ± 12. This study demonstrates how PC CMR with MOG is a feasible technique for measuring the distribution of the normal human fetal circulation in late pregnancy. Our preliminary results are in keeping with findings from previous experimental work in fetal lambs.

  3. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  4. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation - description of a novel in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Ihle, Christoph; Mayer, Larissa; Braun, Bianca; Graeser, Jessica; Flesch, Ingo; Stöckle, Ulrich; Nussler, Andreas K; Pscherer, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts׳ maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients׳ sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients׳ serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients׳ blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β.

  5. Assessment of liver circulation by quantitative scintiangiography: Evaluation of the relative contribution of the hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to liver perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molino, G.; Squadrone, E.; Baccegal, M.; Magnani, C.

    1989-04-01

    Quantitative hepatic scintiangiography was previously used for evaluating the relative contribution of hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to the hepatic circulation. The present study compares 3 different procedures (automatic and manual integration, and slope fitting methods) for analyzing the hepatic time activity curves obtained after bolus i.v. injection of 370 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-diethylentriaminopentacetic acid. Twenty five subjects were studied: Five controls, ten cirrhotics, and ten portal hypertensive patients previously submitted to side to side portacaval anastomosis. The correspondence between results given by the different methods was satisfactory only in shunted patients, and the reproducibility of computed parameters was quite poor for all procedures. Accordingly, none of the methods can be considered as supporting reliable quantitative pathophysiological evaluations. However, the hepatic arterial/portal venous flow ratio was found to be increased in liver cirrhosis and in shunted patients and therefore, in spite of the limitations underlined before and of the absence of data on the reproducibility of consecutive injections, hepatic scintiangiography may be of some clinical utility.

  6. Circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and frequency of BDNF positive T cells in peripheral blood in human ischemic stroke: Effect on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adeline; Yan, Jun; Csurhes, Peter; Greer, Judith; McCombe, Pamela

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of circulating BDNF and the frequency of BDNF-producing T cells after acute ischaemic stroke. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate peripheral blood leukocytes that were labelled with antibodies against markers of T cells, T regulatory cells (Tregs), and intracellular BDNF. There was a slight increase in serum BDNF levels after stroke. There was no overall difference between stroke patients and controls in the frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) BDNF(+) cells, although a subgroup of stroke patients showed high frequencies of these cells. However, there was an increase in the percentage of BDNF(+) Treg cells in the CD4(+) population in stroke patients compared to controls. Patients with high percentages of CD4(+) BDNF(+) Treg cells had a better outcome at 6months than those with lower levels. These groups did not differ in age, gender or initial stroke severity. Enhancement of BDNF production after stroke could be a useful means of improving neuroprotection and recovery after stroke.

  7. Intrinsic determinants and predictors of superovulatory yields in sheep: Circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones, ovarian status, and antral follicular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Franco Oliveira, Maria Emilia; Kridli, Rami T; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian superstimulation has contributed to small ruminant reproduction around the world, impacting genetic improvement and zoosanitary programs, contributing to the conservation of endangered species, and supporting other related biotechnologies. Advanced knowledge surrounding the superovulatory treatments in sheep has resulted in enhanced control of influencing factors and improved the protocols currently used. However, in spite of minimization of some adverse factors, superovulatory responses in ewes still remain variable, preventing the more widespread use of superovulation in commercial embryo transfer programs and reproductive research in this species. Recent evidence demonstrates that changes in antral follicular populations and blood supply, and circulating concentrations of certain reproductive hormones determined at the specific time points just before or during the superovulatory treatment are associated with superovulation success in ewes. This review attempts to compile the data from available literature to identify ovarian and hormonal determinants of the superovulatory outcome in ewes, which can be used to substantially improve the existing protocols and to reduce the extra cost and unnecessary stress imposed on poorly responding animals. An overview of most commonly used and some recently developed, FSH-based ovarian stimulation protocols is given at the outset to highlight variation in the frequency and timing of gonadotropin injections, estrus synchronization methods, and follicular wave synchronization and/or ovulation induction techniques during the superovulatory treatments in ewes.

  8. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Buildings for calculating the Energy Cost Budget. In calculating the Design Energy Consumption of the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Building exterior envelope. 434.516 Section 434.516 Energy... RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.516 Building exterior envelope....

  9. Exterior and interior metrics with quadrupole moment

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2010-01-01

    We present the Ernst potential and the line element of an exact solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations that contains as arbitrary parameters the total mass, the angular momentum, and the quadrupole moment of a rotating mass distribution. We show that in the limiting case of slowly rotating and slightly deformed configuration, there exists a coordinate transformation that relates the exact solution with the approximate Hartle solution. It is shown that this approximate solution can be smoothly matched with an interior perfect fluid solution with physically reasonable properties. This opens the possibility of considering the quadrupole moment as an additional physical degree of freedom that could be used to search for a realistic exact solution, representing both the interior and exterior gravitational field generated by a self-gravitating axisymmetric distribution of mass of perfect fluid in stationary rotation.

  10. Optimizing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Moncrieff, Colin [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [Cambridge University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values ({sub mean}SUV{sub max}), target-to-background ratios ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aortic{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} and carotid{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol

  11. Summary of 32 Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X Treated by TCM Therapy of Regulating Qi Relieving Chest Stuffiness and Promoting Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jing-yuan; ZHAO Gui-feng; WANG Zhan-wu; MA Xue-peng; ZHANG Zhen-peng; LI Ming; SHAO Lei; ZHAO Chun-yan; GE Yong-bin; WANG Heng-he; WANG Qiang; ZHANG Yun; YU Dong-ling; ZHANG Yu; HUANG Qi; ZHAO Zhi-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect of Liqi Kuanxiong Huoxue method(理气宽胸活血,LKH,traditional Chinese medicine,TCM therapeutic method for regulating qi,relieving chest stuffiness and promoting blood circulation) in treating patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX).Methods:The prospective,non-randomized controlled study was conducted on 51 selected patients with CSX,who were non-randomly assigned to 2 groups,the treated group treated with LKH in addition to the conventional treatment(32 patients),and the control group treated with conventional treatment(19 patients)like nitrate,diltiazem hydrochloride,etc.The treatment course was 14 days.The changes of such symptoms as angina pectoris,TCM syndrome and indexes of treadmill exercise test before and after treatment were observed.Results:After treatment,such symptoms as chest pain and stuffy feeling and palpitation in the treated group were improved more than those in the control group(P<0.05);the total effective rate on angina pectoris and TCM syndrome in the treated group was better than that in the control group(P<0.05).The treadmill exercise test showed that the maximal metabolic equivalent(Max MET),the time of angina onset and ST segment depression by 0.1 mV were obviously improved after treatment in both groups,but the improvement in the treated group was better than that in the control group respectively (P<0.05).Conclusion:The LKH method could reduce the frequency of angina attacks and improve the clinical condition of patients with CSX.

  12. Does the extracorporeal circulation worsen anemia in hemodialysis patients? Investigation with advanced microscopes of red blood cells drawn at the beginning and end of dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamopoulos D

    2013-10-01

    phosphorus, but not, however, with that of creatinine.Conclusion: Extracorporeal circulation is not detrimental to the structural integrity of RBC membranes. Uremic milieu is a candidate cause of RBC membrane deterioration, which possibly worsens anemia.Keywords: hemodialysis, anemia, red blood cells, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy

  13. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehnert, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.ehnert@gmail.com [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Freude, Thomas, E-mail: tfreude@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Ihle, Christoph, E-mail: cihle@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Mayer, Larissa, E-mail: lara.nk@gmail.com [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Braun, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.braun@med.uni-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Graeser, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.graeser@student.reutlingen-university.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Flesch, Ingo, E-mail: iflesch@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy.

  14. Thought Analysis of Tonifying the Kidney and Promoting Blood Circulation to Improvement Endometrial Receptivity%补肾活血法改善子宫内膜容受性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东杰; 许丽绵; 冯倩怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the theoretical basis of tonifying the kidney and promoting blood circulation to improve the endometrial receptivity, providing a theoretical basis for the clinical application. Methods: Through the improvement of endometrial receptivity of tonifying kidney, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis on the basis of the literature, the modern research basis, the analysis of application of the principles and cases of the set, invigorating the kidney and activating the blood therapy is effective to improve the endometrial receptivity. Conclusion: The method of tonifying kidney and activating blood can effectively improve the endometrial receptivity-Reference citation;He Dongjie,Xu Limian, Feng Qianyi. Thought Analysis of Tonifying the Kidney and Promoting Blood Circulation to Improvement Endometrial Receptivity[J]. China Journal of Chinese Medicine,2013 ,28(5) :715 -716.%目的:探讨补肾活血法改善子宫内膜容受性的理论依据.方法:通过对补肾法、活血化瘀法改善子宫内膜容受性的文献依据、现代研究基础、临证应用原则及案例分析等方面的阐述,证明补肾活血法是行之有效的改善内膜容受性的治疗方法.结果:补肾为改善子宫内膜容受性之根本大法,活血化瘀是改善子宫内膜容受性之重要治法.结论:补肾活血法能有效改善子宫内膜容受性.

  15. 益气活血汤对癌症患者生存质量的影响%The impact of decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on quality of life of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智芬; 施智严; 刘祥珍

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on quality of life of cancer patients.Method 64 patients were randomly divided into study group (n=35)and control group(n=29),study group received decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation and control group received strong white cells enhancing tablets.Result Total effective rate for study group and control group was 82.8% and 65.5% ,respectively.For study group,quality of life was improved by 45.7% ,survival rate for 1 year was 88.6% ,median survical period was 16.5 months.For control group, quality of life was improved by 31% ,survival rate for 1 year was 58.6% ,median survival period was 9.6 months.Conclusion Decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation markedly improve immune function,lighten adverse and toxicological reactions,and hence improveing patients quality of life.

  16. Local newforms and formal exterior square L-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Miyauchi, Michitaka

    2012-01-01

    Let F be a non-archimedean local field of characteristic zero. Jacquet and Shalika attached a family of zeta integrals to unitary irreducible generic representations $\\pi$ of GL_n(F). In this paper, we show that Jacquet-Shalika integral attains a certain L-function, so called the formal exterior square L-function, when the Whittaker function is associated to a newform for $\\pi$. By consideration on the Galois side, formal exterior square L-functions are equal to exterior square L-functions for some principal series representations.

  17. Spontaneously induced general relativity with holographic interior and general exterior

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Guo-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The general relativity (GR) might be viewed as a spontaneously induced theory from the scalar-tensor gravity, in which the would-have-been horizon connects the exterior solution of GR with a novel core of vanishing spatial volume. Using a simple but robust analytic method, we give the nontrivial core metric for the general exterior. Then we show that all the nontrivial features of the core, including the locally holographic entropy packing, are not influenced by the general exterior. We also investigate whether other modified theories of gravity can permit the nontrivial core.

  18. Comercio exterior del sector porcino mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ernesto Bobadilla-Soto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la dinámica del comercio exterior porcino mexicano, y el efecto de las importaciones de productos porcinos en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción en México. Para la dinámica se analizaron las tasas de crecimiento (decremento y las variaciones tanto en volumen y valor del subsector, de las fracciones arancelarias agrupadas en dos grandes rubros: a animales vivos y b carnes y despojos comestibles, que tienen un impacto directo en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción nacional. El desplazamiento y sustitución se calcularon con la suma de los valores de las importaciones, su relación con los pesos en canal de los animales durante los años analizados, y su equivalente en porcentaje a número de animales. El estudio comprende de 1990 a 2008. La balanza comercial al inicio del estudio fue de -180 mil toneladas equivalente a 1.4 millones de cerdos desplazados y al 13 % de la producción nacional. Para el 2008, la balanza comercial fue -581 mil toneladas, los cerdos desplazados se incrementaron a 5.9 millones equivalente al 39 % de la producción nacional.

  19. Nearshore circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Sobey, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf circulation is driven primarily by wind- and tide-induced forces. It is laterally only weakly constrained so that the geostrophic (Coriolis) acceleration is manifest in the response. Nearshore circulation on the other hand is dominated by wave-induced forces associated with shallow-water. wave

  20. Significance of detecting circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in peripheral blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and its clinical value: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Yue-ru; Wang, Long; Song, Rui-mei; Zhou, Bo; Song, Zhen-shun

    2014-01-01

    Circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells may be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. We investigated the relationship between circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells and hepatoma patient survival after different managements and survival periods. Peripheral vein blood (5 ml) samples were obtained from 113 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and from 33 control subjects (9 with liver cirrhosis after hepatitis B, 14 with chronic hepatitis B, 10 healthy individuals) between January 1, 2009, and December 31, 2013. To detect circulating hepatocellular carcinoma cells in peripheral blood, alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was amplified from total RNA extracted from whole blood by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was detected in 59 blood samples from the hepatocellular carcinoma patients (59/113, 52.2%). In contrast, there were no clinical control subjects whose samples showed detectable alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA. The presence of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in blood seemed to be correlated with the stage (by TNM classification) of hepatocellular carcinoma, serum alpha-fetoprotein value, and the presence of intrahepatic metastasis, portal vein thrombosis, tumor diameter and/or distant metastasis. In addition, alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA was detected in the blood of 25 patients showing distant metastasis at extrahepatic organs (100%), in contrast to 32 of 88 cases without metastasis (36.4%). All the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were followed. Seventeen patients with resection of a T 2 stage hepatocellular carcinoma had a survival of 3.2 years after surgical management, 38 cases with resection of a T3 stage hepatocellular carcinoma had a 1.3-year survival, and only 37 cases with T4 stage disease after different treatments except surgery survived for 0.6 years (P <0.01). The presence of alpha-fetoprotein messenger RNA in peripheral blood may be an indicator of circulating

  1. Notes on symmetric and exterior depth and annihilator numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Kampf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We survey and compare invariants of modules over the polynomial ring and the exterior algebra. In our considerations, we focus on the depth. The exterior analogue of depth was first introduced by Aramova, Avramov and Herzog. We state similarities between the two notion of depth and exhibit their relation in the case of squarefree modules. Work of Conca, Herzog and Hibi and Trung, respectively, shows that annihilator numbers are a meaningful generalization of depth over the polynomial ring. We introduce and study annihilator numbers over the exterior algebra. Despite some minor differences in the definition, those invariants show common behavior. In both situations a positive linear combination of the annihilator numbers can be used to bound the symmetric and exterior graded Betti numbers, respectively, from above.

  2. Indices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garavito, Aaron; Lopez, David; Montes, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Los indices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el analisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un pais y su repercusion sobre...

  3. Fire hazards of exterior wall assemblies containing combustible components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Nathan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fire Protection Research Foundation has funded a research project on “fire hazards of exterior wall assemblies containing combustible composites”. This paper presents preliminary findings from the project. In particular, statistics relating to exterior wall fires have been reviewed. Exterior wall fires appear to account for somewhere between 1.3% and 3% of structure fires in the selected property types investigated. Fires involving combustible exterior wall assemblies are low frequency events however the resulting consequences in terms of extent of fire spread and injuries and fatalities can be large as demonstrated by selected fire incident case studies. An overview of this project and it's further work is provided.

  4. A circulação do sangue, ou o movimento no conceito de movimento Blood circulation, or the movement in the concept of motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio T. Porto

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available A prática médica contemporânea acha-se inscrita nos inflexíveis preceitos de uma ordem tecnológica. Para que esta tenha se organizado e desenvolvido, para que tenha se concretizado material e objetivamente, foi indispensável que seus produtos representassem a materialização de uma certa idéia de corpo humano e de saúde. Este artigo propõe-se a ser um estudo introdutório de certas condições de possibilidade para a construção desta ordem tecnológica na saúde. Embora tal reflexão possua, necessariamente, uma dimensão histórica, não se pretende aqui uma reconstituição factual, que celebre datas e personalidades. Seu objetivo imediato será surpreender um momento de ruptura, em que a introdução do novo conceito de movimento possibilitou uma nova concepção da fisiologia humana. Assim, mais do que uma teoria específica - a da circulação sanguínea - ou seu resultado efetivo, importará compreender o processo de aparecimento e/ou transformação dos conceitos que lhe permitiram existir.The contemporary medical practice is enrolled in the rigid principles of a technological order. In order that the development and organization of the technological order would take place, and also material and objetively made concrete, it was essential that their products represented a materialization of a certain concept of human body and of health. This paper intends to be an introductory study of certain conditions of possibility for the construction of this technological order in the area of health. Although this thought includes, necessarily, a historical dimension, we do not intend here a factual reconstitution that considers dates and personalities. Its immediate goal will be to focus a moment of rupture, in which the introduction of the new concept of motion generated a new conception of human physiology. So, more important than one specific theory - of the blood circulation - or its effective results, is to understand the process of

  5. How do the full-generation poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers activate blood platelets? Activation of circulating platelets and formation of "fibrinogen aggregates" in the presence of polycations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watala, Cezary; Karolczak, Kamil; Kassassir, Hassan; Talar, Marcin; Przygodzki, Tomasz; Maczynska, Katarzyna; Labieniec-Watala, Magdalena

    2016-04-30

    Direct use of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers as drugs may be limited, due to uncertain (cyto)toxicity. Peripheral blood components, which constitute the first line of a contact with administered pharmaceuticals, may become vastly affected by PAMAM dendrimers. The aim of this study was to explore how PAMAMs' polycationicity might affect blood platelet activation and reactivity, and thus trigger various haemostatic events. We monitored blood platelet reactivity in rats with experimental diabetes upon a long-term administration of the unmodified PAMAM dendrimers. In parallel, the effects on blood flow in a systemic circulation was recorded intravitally in mice administered with PAMAM G2, G3 or G4. Compounding was the in vitro approach to monitor the impact of PAMAM dendrimers on blood platelet activation and reactivity and on selected haemostatic and protein conformation parameters. We demonstrated the activating effects of polycations on blood platelets. Some diversity of the revealed outcomes considerably depended on the used approach and the particular technique employed to monitor blood platelet function. We discovered undesirable impact of plain PAMAM dendrimers on primary haemostasis and their prothrombotic influence. We emphasize the need of a more profound verifying of all the promising findings collected for PAMAMs with the use of well-designed in vivo preclinical studies.

  6. Circulating human B and plasma cells. Age-associated changes in counts and detailed characterization of circulating normal CD138- and CD138+ plasma cells. : Blood B-lymphocytes and plasma cells in adults

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Generation of B and plasma cells involves several organs with a necessary cell trafficking between them. A detailed phenotypic characterization of four circulating B-cell subsets (immature-, naïve-, memory- B-lymphocytes and plasma cells) of 106 healthy adults was realized by multiparametric flow cytometry. We show that CD10, CD27 and CD38 is the minimal combination of subsetting markers allowing unequivocal identification of immature (CD10(+)CD27(-)CD38(+), 6+/-6 cell...

  7. Current challenges for detection of circulating tumor cells and cell-free circulating nucleic acids, and their characterization in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. What is the best blood substrate for personalized medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilie, Marius; Hofman, Véronique; Long, Elodie; Bordone, Olivier; Selva, Eric; Washetine, Kevin; Marquette, Charles Hugo; Hofman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The practice of "liquid biopsy" as a diagnostic, prognostic and theranostic tool in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients is an appealing approach, at least in theory, since it is noninvasive and easily repeated. In particular, this approach allows patient monitoring during treatment, as well as the detection of different genomic alterations that are potentially accessible to targeted therapy or are associated with treatment resistance. However, clinical routine practice is slow to adopt the liquid biopsy. Several reasons may explain this: (I) the vast number of methods described for potential detection of circulating biomarkers, without a consensus on the ideal technical approach; (II) the multiplicity of potential biomarkers for evaluation, in particular, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) vs. circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA); (III) the difficulty in controlling the pre-analytical phase to obtain robust and reproducible results; (IV) the present cost of the currently available techniques, which limits accessibility to patients; (V) the turnaround time required to obtain results that are incompatible with the urgent need for delivery of treatment. The purpose of this review is to describe the main advances in the field of CTC and ctDNA detection in NSCLC patients and to compare the main advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches.

  8. 益气清热活血法辨治慢性萎缩性胃炎初探%Preliminary Discussion on Therapy of Benefiting Qi and Clearing Heat for Promoting Blood Circulation in Treating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore mechanism and clinical experience on therapy of benefiting qi and clearing heat for promoting blood circulation in treating chronic atrophic gastritis .Methods Through the study of literature and clinical practice , the pathological factors of CAG include exogenous, diet, emotion and fatigue.The key pathogenesis is insufficiency of the spleen , blood stasis caused by deficiency , then deficiency , heat and blood stasis were coexisted .The therapy of benefiting qi and clearing heat for promoting blood circulation is used .Result The therapy of benefiting qi and clearing heat for promoting blood circulation in treating chronic atrophic gastritis has obtained better therapeutic effect .Conclusion The therapy of benefiting qi and clearing heat for promoting blood circulation can effectively reduce the risk of the disease to the development of gastric cancer , and provide new ideas for the clinical treatment of CAG and the prevention of gastric cancer .%目的:探索健脾益气清热活血通络法(以下简称益气清热活血法)治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的机理及临床经验。方法通过研读文献及临床实践,总结慢性萎缩性胃炎的病理因素多是外感、饮食、情志、劳倦,病机关键以脾虚为本,瘀热为标,因虚致瘀,虚、热、瘀并存。以此为理论指导,采用益气清热活血法治疗本病。结果临床采用益气清热活血法治疗本病取得良好疗效。结论益气清热活血法可有效降低本病向胃癌发展的风险。为临床治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎及预防胃癌的发生提供新思路。

  9. 活血化瘀法治疗急性脑血管病的效果评价%Effect and Evaluation in Treatment Acute Cerebro Vascular Disease of Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀法治疗急性脑血管病的临床疗效。方法选取我院接收的54例急性脑血管病患者作为本次的研究对象,所有患者均采用活血化瘀法进行治疗,并对其临床资料进行回顾性分析,对活血化瘀法在急性脑血管病中的应用效果进行评价分析。结果本组54例患者采用活血化瘀法治疗后痊愈28例,显效12例,有效10例,无效4例,治疗总有效率为92.59%,无效率为7.41%。结论给予急性脑血管疾病患者活血化瘀法治疗可取的较好的治疗效果。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of activating blood and resolving stasis in treatment of acute cerebral vascular disease.MethodsChoose 54 cases of acute cerebral vascular disease patients in our hospital,al patients were treated by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method treatment,and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively,to evaluate the application effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease.Results 54 patients in this group with promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis after treatment,28 cases recovered,22 cases markedly effective,4 cases ineffective,the total effective rate was 92.59%,no effect in 7.41%.Conclusion Giving the better therapeutic effect in patients with acute cerebral vascular disease desirable and activating blood stasis treatment,the higher clinical value,should be popularized and applied.

  10. Core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in the traditional Chinese medicine compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) based on the relevance analysis between chemical HPLC fingerprint and in vivo biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Liang, Jie-ping; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Peng, Yao-yao; Zhang, Gao-min; Xie, Cheng-shi; Long, Chao-feng; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-01-01

    Compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) is an oral traditional Chinese herbal formula (CHF) comprised of Panax notoginseng (PN), Radix astragali (RA), Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM), and Radix scrophulariaceae (RS). The present investigation was designed to explore the core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in CXC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and animal studies. CXC samples were prepared with different proportions of the 4 herbs according to a four-factor, nine-level uniform design. CXC samples were assessed with HPLC, which identified 21 components. For the animal experiments, rats were soaked in ice water during the time interval between two adrenaline hydrochloride injections to reduce blood circulation. We assessed whole-blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte aggregation and red corpuscle electrophoresis indices (EAI and RCEI, respectively), plasma viscosity (PV), maximum platelet aggregation rate (MPAR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). Based on the hypothesis that CXC sample effects varied with differences in components, we performed grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), ridge regression (RR), and radial basis function (RBF) to evaluate the contribution of each identified component. Our results indicate that panaxytriol, ginsenoside Rb1, angoroside C, protocatechualdehyde, ginsenoside Rd, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside are the core bioactive components, and that they might play different roles in the alleviation of circulation dysfunction. Panaxytriol and ginsenoside Rb1 had close relevance to red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, angoroside C was related to platelet aggregation, protocatechualdehyde was involved in intrinsic clotting activity, ginsenoside Rd affected RBC deformability and plasma proteins, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside influenced extrinsic clotting activity. This study indicates that angoroside C, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, panaxytriol, and

  11. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  12. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  13. [Haemodynamic role of blood-plasma circulating cell-free DNA and contained therein high-molecular-weight CpG-rich fraction in pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis obliterans of carotid arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konorova, I L; Veĭko, N N; Ershova, E S; Antelava, A L; Chechetkin, A O

    2009-01-01

    The hydrodynamic resistance (HR) of blood is one of the components of the total peripheral resistance. High-molecular-weight DNA appears to decrease the HR in accordance with the Toms's effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate the HR and properties of cell-free DNA circulating in the blood plasma (hereinafter referred to as pDNA) of the control donors, patients suffering from either arterial hypertension (AH) alone or that combined with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries (CAs). Within the normal concentrations of pDNA, we revealed an inverse dependence of the HR thereupon and upon the content in pDNA of the high-molecular-weight CpG-rich fraction (CpG-DNA), i. e., a transcribed region of the ribosomal repeat (rDNA). A decrease or an increase in the pDNA concentration in all the patients examined was accompanied by an elevation of the rDNA concentration in the blood plasma. Exceeding a certain level thereof appeared to give rise to an increase in both the HR and arterial pressure (AP). Patients presenting with degree I essential AH were found to have a decreased endonuclease activity of the blood plasma, with the pDNA concentration being more than two-fold higher with no change in the rDNA content. Their HR appeared to be increased (parteries were typically revealed on the background of a lowered HR (parterial intima. In some of them, the pDNA concentration does not differ from the normal values, but in its composition, there is an increased content of rDNA, elevating as obliteration of the vessels' lumen increases, with the HR being decreased. The majority of them have degree II AH. In others, the pDNA concentration is by an order of magnitude higher than the normal values, while the rDNA content in pDNA is decreased, with the HR being elevated. Most of them have degree III AH. Pronounced and rough stenoses take an asymptomatic course in patients with decreased values of the HR and a slightly elevated level of pDNA and/or rDNA in the

  14. Salazarismo y política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos JIMÉNEZ REDONDO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El sistema internacional jugó para la Portugal de Salazar un papel esencial al actuar como fuente privilegiada de la que extraer los recursos materiales (económicos, tecnológicos o financieros e inmateriales (factores de legitimación que garantizaron el programa de reforma política de la dictadura y que permitieron al país desempeñar un papel internacional desproporcionadamente relevante si consideramos su condición de pequeña potencia periférica europea. La novedad del salazarismo respecto a períodos anteriores consistió en la adecuación de esas necesidades de apertura al exterior con una fuerte percepción de los intereses nacionales, dentro de una estrategia pragmática que le permitió acomodarse a la acelerada evolución del sistema internacional y, sobre todo, al cambio que se produjo en el sistema internacional de acuerdo a la dinámica de la Guerra Fría y sus distintas fases. Palabras clave: Salazarismo, OTAN, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Guerra colonial, descolonización. ABSTRACT: The international system played for the Portugal of Salazar an essential role when acting like privileged source of which to extract the material resources (economic, technological or financial and immaterial (legitimation factors that guaranteed the program of political reform of the dictatorship and that allowed the country to play very out of proportion excellent a role international if we considered its condition of small European peripheral power. The newness of the salazarism with respect to previous periods consisted of the adjustment of those necessities of opening to the outside with a strong perception of the national interests, within a pragmatic strategy that allowed to comply him to the accelerated evolution of the international system and, mainly, to the change that took place in the international system according to the dynamics of the cold war and its different phases. Keywords: Salazarism, NATO, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Colonial

  15. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja von Au

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  16. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Kaplan; Salih Yilmaz; Nihat Cetinkaya; Ergin Atimtay

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained research attention and numerous techniques have been developed to achieve this. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. In this study, a new strengthening alternative for RC structures, namely exterior shear walls, has been experimentally investigated under reversed cyclic loading. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to strengthen structures without disturbing their users or vacating the building during renovation. In this technique, shear walls are installed in parallel to the building’s exterior sides. It has been observed that the usage of exterior shear walls considerably improve the capacity and sway stiffness of RC structures. The experimental results have also been compared and found to be in agreement with the numerical solutions. Post attached exterior shear walls behaved as a monolithic member of the structure. Design considerations for the exterior shear wall-strengthened buildings have also been discussed in the paper.

  17. The Radially Symmetric Euler Equations as an Exterior Differential System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Roy; Ramsey, Scott; Schmidt, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    This work develops the Euler equations as an exterior differential system in radially symmetric coordinates. The Euler equations are studied for unsteady, compressible, inviscid fluids in one-dimensional, converging flow fields with a general equation of state. The basic geometrical constructions (for example, the differential forms, tangent planes, jet space, and differential ideal) used to define and analyze differential equations as systems of exterior forms are reviewed and discussed for converging flows. Application of the Frobenius theorem to the question of the existence of solutions to radially symmetric converging flows is also reviewed and discussed. The exterior differential system is further applied to derive and analyze the general family of characteristic vector fields associated with the one-dimensional inviscid flow equations.

  18. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  19. Deformed exterior algebra, quons and their coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    El-Baz, M

    2002-01-01

    We review the notion of the deformation of the exterior wedge product. This allows us to construct the deformation of the algebra of exterior forms over a vector space and also over an arbitrary manifold. We relate this approach to the generalized statistics and we study quons, as a particular case of these generalized statistics. We also give their statistical properties. A large part of the work is devoted to the problem of constructing coherent states for the deformed oscillators. We give a review of all the approaches existing in the literature concerning this point and enforce it with many examples.

  20. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLillo, T.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Pfaltzgraff, J.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  1. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Takashi; Hori, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  2. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Osamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA. Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A, in the tissue (MBR-T, and in the vessels (MBR-V were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  3. 中药活血化淤法改善脑出积压患者运动功能疗效观察%Observation of improvement of movement function by Chinese drugs through promoting circulation by removing blood stasis in patients with brain hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹德铭; 高聪; 沈岩松

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:Disability rate following brain hemorrhage is high.Rcovery and improvement of movement function is closely related to management of brain hemorrhage during acute phage,absorption of hematoma.According to traditional medicine principle,Chinese drugs promote absorption and functional recovery through promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis.The Chinese drugs are safe in clinic

  4. 40 CFR 205.55-5 - Labeling-exterior. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-exterior. 205.55-5 Section 205.55-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-5...

  5. On sets without tangents and exterior sets of a conic

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Voorde, Geertrui

    2012-01-01

    A set without tangents in $\\PG(2,q)$ is a set of points S such that no line meets S in exactly one point. An exterior set of a conic $\\mathcal{C}$ is a set of points $\\E$ such that all secant lines of $\\E$ are external lines of $\\mathcal{C}$. In this paper, we first recall some known examples of sets without tangents and describe them in terms of determined directions of an affine pointset. We show that the smallest sets without tangents in $\\PG(2,5)$ are (up to projective equivalence) of two different types. We generalise the non-trivial type by giving an explicit construction of a set without tangents in $\\PG(2,q)$, $q=p^h$, $p>2$ prime, of size $q(q-1)/2-r(q+1)/2$, for all $0\\leq r\\leq (q-5)/2$. After that, a different description of the same set in $\\PG(2,5)$, using exterior sets of a conic, is given and we investigate in which ways a set of exterior points on an external line $L$ of a conic in $\\PG(2,q)$ can be extended with an extra point $Q$ to a larger exterior set of $\\mathcal{C}$. It turns out that ...

  6. 36 CFR 910.38 - Building exterior illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Building exterior illumination. 910.38 Section 910.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... specified in the Pennsylvania Avenue Lighting Plan of the Corporation. ...

  7. Spinoza y el naturalismo: el problema del mundo exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero, Tomás

    2010-01-01

    El conocimiento del mundo exterior se presenta como un problema difícil para el racionalismo clásico, encarnado en Descartes. En este ensayo, se examinará el argumento que permite a Spinoza solucionar esta dificultad mediante un naturalismo muy singular que determina un profundo sesgo anticartesiano en su obra.

  8. Modeling of Exterior Rotor Permanent Magnet Machines with Concentrated Windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Xuan, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis modeling, analysis, design and measurement of exterior rotor permanent magnet (PM) machines with concentrated windings are dealt with. Special attention is paid to slotting effect. The PM machine is integrated in flywheel and used for small-scale ship application. Analytical model and

  9. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs.

  10. Second order perturbations of rotating bodies in equilibrium; the exterior vacuum problem

    CERN Document Server

    MacCallum, M A H; Vera, R; Callum, Malcolm A. H. Mac; Mars, Marc; Vera, Raul

    2005-01-01

    We study the exterior vacuum problem for first and second order stationary and axially symmetric perturbations of static bodies. The boundary conditions and their compatibility for the existence of an asymptotically flat exterior solution are discussed.

  11. 活血化瘀疗法在呼吸系统疾病中的应用探究%The application of promoting blood circulation therapy on diseases of respiratory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妍

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,asthma,interstitial lung disease,lung tumor,pneumonia and other in-fectious diseases are the most common respiratory diseases in clinic,in traditional Chinese medicine theory,"blood stasis"throughout these diseases. Therefore,promoting blood circulation therapy has an important position in clinical worK. This Kind of drug has its unique role in the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine,it also match the requirements of the mod-ern pharmacology research. This article proved the effectivity and scientific of promoting blood circulation therapy based on data compilation of clinical practices and experimental studies. This also provided foundation for the combination of tradi-tional Chinese and western medicine therapy.%呼吸系统疾病包含了慢性阻塞性肺疾病、支气管哮喘、间质性肺疾病、肺肿瘤、肺栓塞、感染性疾病等多个病种,而通过中医理论分析,这些疾病的发生发展过程中,“瘀血”贯穿始终,因此,活血化瘀疗法在呼吸系统疾病的治疗中有着非常重要的地位,临床工作中我们发现这类药物除了本身的中医治疗特色之外,也符合现代药理研究的要求,本文通过对临床实践及实验研究的资料整理,证实了活血化瘀疗法的有效性和科学性,同时也为中西医联合治疗奠定了基础。

  12. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

  13. Cell-free fetal DNA and intact fetal cells in maternal blood circulation: implications for first and second trimester non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Farideh Z; Sinacori, Mina K; Dang, Dianne D; Marquez-Do, Deborah; Horne, Cassandra; Lewis, Dorothy E; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2002-01-01

    Both intact fetal cells as well as cell-free fetal DNA are present in the maternal circulation and can be recovered for non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis. Although methods for enrichment and isolation of rare intact fetal cells have been challenging, diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy including trisomy 21 in first- and second-trimester pregnancies has been achieved with a 50-75% detection rate. Similarly, cell-free fetal DNA can be reliably recovered from maternal plasma and assessed by quantitative PCR to detect fetal trisomy 21 and paternally derived single gene mutations. Real-time PCR assays are robust in detecting low-level fetal DNA concentrations, with sensitivity of approximately 95-100% and specificity near 100%. Comparing intact fetal cell versus cell-free fetal DNA methods for non-invasive prenatal screening for fetal chromosomal aneuploidy reveals that the latter is at least four times more sensitive. These preliminary results do not support a relationship between frequency of intact fetal cells and concentration of cell-free fetal DNA. The above results imply that the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may not be dependent on circulating intact fetal cells but rather be a product of growth and cellular turnover during embryonic or fetal development.

  14. [Efficacy of troxerutin on the flow properties of blood under defined conditions of circulation. A double-blind study of patients with diabetic retinopathy and arteriosclerotic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, G; Dörfer, C; Schmitt, T; Stage, A

    1985-07-01

    In a clinically controlled double-blind study it was demonstrated that tri-(hydroxyethyl)-rutin is not capable of significantly improving blood viscosity or one of its constituent factors. On the basis of data from 58 patients, none of whom was under 43 years old, it was possible to show that the substance tested has no favorable influence on plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability and aggregation, or on the concentration of plasma proteins which promote aggregation. Thus, in the very group of patients for whom an improvement in blood flow properties by means of oral administration of tri-(hydroxyethyl)rutin had been hoped for, no therapeutic effect could be demonstrated.

  15. 清热活血方药治疗类风湿关节炎疗效分析%Analysis of Therapeutic Effect of Clearing Heat and Activating Blood Circulation in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震

    2014-01-01

    目的:对清热活血方药对类风湿关节炎患者的临床治疗效果进行分析性研究和探讨。方法选取本院2013年5月至2014年5月经我院进行治疗的80例类风湿性关节炎的患者采用清热活血方药的方法进行治疗。结果治疗后,表现出食欲不振和出现皮疹以及头痛还有恶心等症状的患者各1例,有2例患者发生不良反应,其不良反应率7.5%。P<0.05其差异有统计学意义。结论对类风湿关节炎患者采用清热活血方药进行治疗对其疼痛、肿胀、晨僵等症状有着很好的改善作用,对于提高患者的治疗效果有着积极作用,值得推广临床使用。%Objective The effect of heat treatment on clinical and promoting blood circulation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis analytical study and discussion.Methods Select hospital in May 2013 to 2014 5 menstrual hospital for treatment of 80 cases of rheumatoid arthritis were treated with heat treatment methods and promoting blood circulation.Results After treatment, patients showed a loss of appetite and a rash and headache as well as nausea and other symptoms of each one case,there are two cases of patients with adverse reactions,adverse reaction rate of 7.5%.P<0.05 the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion Rheumatoid arthritis patients treated using heat and promoting blood circulation to their pain,swelling, morning stiffness and other symptoms have a very good improvement,to improve the treatment of patients with a positive role worthy of clinical use.

  16. Quantification of damage due to low-dose radiation exposure in mice: construction and application of a biodosimetric model using mRNA indicators in circulating white blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Izumi; Yakumaru, Haruko; Tanaka, Mika; Yokochi, Kazuko; Fukutsu, Kumiko; Tajima, Katsushi; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya; Akashi, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Biodosimetry, the measurement of radiation damage in a biologic sample, is a reliable tool for increasing the accuracy of dose estimation. Although established chromosome analyses are suitable for estimating the absorbed dose after high-dose irradiation, biodosimetric methodology to measure damage following low-dose exposure is underdeveloped. RNA analysis of circulating blood containing radiation-sensitive cells is a candidate biodosimetry method. Here we quantified RNA from a small amount of blood isolated from mice following low-dose body irradiation (radiation-sensitive undifferentiated cells in the blood based on Myc RNA expression, we quantified the relative levels of RNA for DNA damage-induced (DDI) genes, such as Bax, Bbc3 and Cdkn1a. The RNA ratios of DDI genes/Myc in the blood increased in a dose-dependent manner 4 h after whole-body irradiation at doses ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy (air-kerma) of X-rays, regardless of whether the mice were in an active or resting state. The RNA ratios were significantly increased after 0.014 Gy (air-kerma) of single X-ray irradiation. The RNA ratios were directly proportional to the absorbed doses in water ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 Gy, based on gamma-irradiation from (137)Cs. Four hours after continuous irradiation with gamma-rays or by internal contamination with a beta-emitter, the increased RNA ratios resembled those following single irradiation. These findings indicate that the RNA status can be utilized as a biodosimetric tool to estimate low-dose radiation when focusing on undifferentiated cells in blood. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  17. Effects of a TASER® conducted energy weapon on the circulating red-blood-cell population and other factors in Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L; Tarango, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed for civilian use). Hematocrit increased significantly from 33.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) to 42.8 ± 4.6 % immediately after CEW exposure of eleven pigs (Sus scrofa). Red blood cell count increased significantly from 6.10 ± 0.55 × 10(12)/L to 7.45 ± 0.94 × 10(12)/L, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly from 54.5 ± 2.4 fl to 57.8 ± 2.6 fl. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from 20.5 ± 0.7 to 18.5 ± 0.6 mM. Thirty protein spots (from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, selected for detailed comparison) exhibited greater densities 30-min post-exposure compared with pre-exposure values. A greater number of echinocytes were observed following CEW exposure. On the basis of these results it appears that, during the strong muscle contractions produced by TASER CEWs, a specific population of red blood cells (RBCs) may be released from the spleen or other reservoirs within the body. The total time of CEW exposure in the present study was relatively long compared with exposures in common law-enforcement scenarios. Despite statistically significant changes in red blood cell counts (and other measures directly related to RBCs), the alterations were short-lived. The transient nature of the changes would be likely to counteract any potentially detrimental effects.

  18. William Harvey and blood circulation: his epistemological obstacles William Harvey: la circulación sanguínea y algunos de sus obstáculos epistemológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escobar Gónima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes on the importance of William Harvey as a precursor of the experimental method in medicine. It describes some of the epistemological obstacles he had to face in the elaboration of his theory of blood circulation, contradicting the galenical theory on the subject that was accepted as a doctrine at his time. Este artículo señala la importancia de William Harvey como precursor del método experimental en medicina. Se mencionan algunos obstáculos teóricos que tuvo que afrontar para elaborar su teoría de la circulación sanguínea, contradiciendo la teoría galénica aceptada como doctrina en su tiempo.

  19. The circulation physiology of agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhiping; Richard Dawson

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an effort to enlarge the understanding of the biophysical foundation of agroecosystems by using an analogy with the circulation of the blood in the human body. The circulation function in the human body can be represented as arterial pressure. The factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body have direct counterparts in the cultivation-husbandry system. The relationship between circulation pressure and the factors affecting that pressure in the cultivation-husbandry system are similar to the relationship between the arterial pressure and factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body. Furthermore, circulation resistance in the cultivation-husbandry system can be shown to be analogous to the calculation of peripheral resistance in the human body by Poiseuille's formula.

  20. THE MODERN STYLE IN INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaska Sandeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The style is a way of expression, which is characterized by all the features that distinguish it from the rest. In the art indicates overall characteristics of an artist or art school, direction or time. Modern design is difficult to define. The term "modern" refers to the impact of modern art to the design of interiors and exteriors. Modern design is defined more by its own trends, which is largely unchanged for several decades. One of the most important elements in modern design of interiors and exteriors is the form. Modern design uses geometric forms including rigid squares and rectangles, with a smooth, even and curved ends. Perfect circles and oval shapes are also common in modern design. Modern design is also plain and simple.

  1. Combining interior and exterior characteristics for remote sensing image denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ni; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Runsheng; Zhong, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing image denoising faces many challenges since a remote sensing image usually covers a wide area and thus contains complex contents. Using the patch-based statistical characteristics is a flexible method to improve the denoising performance. There are usually two kinds of statistical characteristics available: interior and exterior characteristics. Different statistical characteristics have their own strengths to restore specific image contents. Combining different statistical characteristics to use their strengths together may have the potential to improve denoising results. This work proposes a method combining statistical characteristics to adaptively select statistical characteristics for different image contents. The proposed approach is implemented through a new characteristics selection criterion learned over training data. Moreover, with the proposed combination method, this work develops a denoising algorithm for remote sensing images. Experimental results show that our method can make full use of the advantages of interior and exterior characteristics for different image contents and thus improve the denoising performance.

  2. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effecti...

  3. Advanced exterior sensor project : final report, September 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. Rodema

    2004-12-01

    This report (1) summarizes the overall design of the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) system to include detailed descriptions of system components, (2) describes the work accomplished throughout FY04 to evaluate the current health of the original prototype and to return it to operation, (3) describes the status of the AES and the AES project as of September 2004, and (4) details activities planned to complete modernization of the system to include development and testing of the second-generation AES prototype.

  4. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, WIlliam E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report focuses on four exterior solid-state lighting projects that have been completed at Princeton since 2008, when the University adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. Through these initial projects – which include a parking garage, a pedestrian path, and two parking lot installations – the school’s facilities engineering staff learned important lessons about SSL technology and gained experience in dealing with the rapidly changing landscape of lighting manufacturers and their suppliers.

  5. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  6. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  7. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  8. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation (BSC Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explore these topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help inform design standards and criteria.

  9. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on thestructure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explorethese topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help informdesign standards and criteria.

  10. Limit and end functors of dynamical systems via exterior spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Calcines, J M Garcia; Rodriguez, M Teresa Rivas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze some applications of the category of exterior spaces to the study of dynamical systems (flows). We study the notion of an absorbing open subset of a dynamical system; i.e., an open subset that contains the "future part" of all the trajectories. The family of all absorbing open subsets is a quasi-filter which gives the structure of an exterior space to the flow. The limit space and end space of an exterior space is used to construct the limit spaces and end spaces of a dynamical system. On the one hand, for a dynamical system two limits spaces $L^{\\r}(X)$ and $\\bar L^{\\r}(X)$ are constructed and their relations with the subflows of periodic, Poisson stable points and $\\Omega^{\\r}$-limits of $X$ are analyzed. On the other hand, different end spaces are also associated to a dynamical system having the property that any positive semi-trajectory has an end point in these end spaces. This type of construction permits us to consider the subflow containing all trajectories finishing at an end...

  11. Synthesis of star-branched PLA-b-PMPC copolymer micelles as long blood circulation vectors to enhance tumor-targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Li-xia [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Jin, E-mail: zhaojin@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Ke; He, Li-gang; Qian, Xiao-ming; Liu, Chao-yong; Wang, Li-mei; Yang, Xin-qi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun, Jinjin [Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300211 (China); Ren, Yu [Tianjin Research Center of Basic Medical Science, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Kang, Chun-sheng, E-mail: kang97061@yahoo.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Yuan, Xu-bo, E-mail: xbyuan@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-09-01

    Star-branched amphiphilic copolymer nanocarriers with high-density zwitterionic shell show great promise in drug delivery due to their controllable small size and excellent anti-biofouling properties. This gives the hydrophobic cargo with high stability and long blood circulation in vivo. In the present study, star-branched polylactic acid and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) copolymers with (AB{sub 3}){sub 3}–type architecture (PLA-b-PMPC{sub 3}){sub 3} were conceived as drug vectors, and the copolymers were synthesized by an “arm-first” approach via the combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and the click reaction. The self-assembled star-branched copolymer micelles (sCPM) had an average diameter of about 64.5 nm and exhibited an ultra-hydrophilic surface with an ultralow water contact angle of about 12.7°, which efficiently suppressed the adhesion of serum proteins. In vivo experiments showed that the sCPM loading strongly enhanced the blood circulation time of DiI and the plasma half-life of DiI in sCPM was 19.3 h. The relative accumulation concentration in tumor of DiI delivered by sCPM was 2.37-fold higher than that of PLA-PEG, at 4 h after intravenous injection. These results demonstrated that the star-branched copolymer (PLA-b-PMPC{sub 3}){sub 3} is a promising alternative carrier material for intravenous delivery versus classic PEG-modified strategies. - Highlights: • Star-branched amphiphilic copolymer micelles (sCPM) with zwitterionic shells were prepared. • sCPM possess an ultra-hydrophilic surface and thus inhibited the protein absorption. • sCPM can effectively prolong the cargo’s plasma circulation time. • sCPM can enhance the cargo’s passive tumor-targeted delivery.

  12. Shiga toxins present in the gut and in the polymorphonuclear leukocytes circulating in the blood of children with hemolytic-uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigotti, Maurizio; Caprioli, Alfredo; Tozzi, Alberto E; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Ricci, Francesca; Conte, Roberto; Carnicelli, Domenica; Procaccino, Maria Antonietta; Minelli, Fabio; Ferretti, Alfonso V S; Paglialonga, Fabio; Edefonti, Alberto; Rizzoni, Gianfranco

    2006-02-01

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, the main cause of acute renal failure in early childhood, is caused primarily by intestinal infections from some Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxins. The toxins released in the gut are targeted to renal endothelium after binding to polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The presence of Shiga toxins in the feces and the circulating neutrophils of 20 children with hemolytic uremic syndrome was evaluated by the Vero cell cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. The latter showed the presence of Shiga toxins on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes of 13 patients, 5 of whom had no other microbiologic or serologic evidence of infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. A positive relationship was observed between the amounts of Shiga toxins released in the intestinal lumen and those released in the bloodstream. The toxins were detectable on the neutrophils for a median period of 5 days after they were no longer detectable in stools. This investigation confirms that the immunodetection of Shiga toxins on neutrophils is a valuable tool for laboratory diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection in hemolytic-uremic syndrome and provides clues for further studies on the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of this syndrome.

  13. Shiga Toxins Present in the Gut and in the Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes Circulating in the Blood of Children with Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigotti, Maurizio; Caprioli, Alfredo; Tozzi, Alberto E.; Tazzari, Pier Luigi; Ricci, Francesca; Conte, Roberto; Carnicelli, Domenica; Procaccino, Maria Antonietta; Minelli, Fabio; Ferretti, Alfonso V. S.; Paglialonga, Fabio; Edefonti, Alberto; Rizzoni, Gianfranco

    2006-01-01

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, the main cause of acute renal failure in early childhood, is caused primarily by intestinal infections from some Escherichia coli strains that produce Shiga toxins. The toxins released in the gut are targeted to renal endothelium after binding to polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The presence of Shiga toxins in the feces and the circulating neutrophils of 20 children with hemolytic uremic syndrome was evaluated by the Vero cell cytotoxicity assay and flow cytometric analysis, respectively. The latter showed the presence of Shiga toxins on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes of 13 patients, 5 of whom had no other microbiologic or serologic evidence of infection by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. A positive relationship was observed between the amounts of Shiga toxins released in the intestinal lumen and those released in the bloodstream. The toxins were detectable on the neutrophils for a median period of 5 days after they were no longer detectable in stools. This investigation confirms that the immunodetection of Shiga toxins on neutrophils is a valuable tool for laboratory diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infection in hemolytic-uremic syndrome and provides clues for further studies on the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. PMID:16455876

  14. Cyclosporin but not everolimus inhibits chemokine receptor expression on CD4+ T cell subsets circulating in the peripheral blood of renal transplant recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerning, A; Köhler, S; Jun, C; Lu, J; Fu, J; Tebbe, B; Dolff, S; Feldkamp, T; Kribben, A; Hoyer, P F; Witzke, O

    2012-01-01

    The peripheral chemokine receptors chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) have been reported to be associated with allograft rejection. The impact of the expression of immunosuppressive drugs on peripherally circulating CD4+ T cell subsets after renal transplantion is unknown. Expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 was investigated by flow cytometry in 20 renal allograft recipients participating in a prospective, randomized trial (NCT00514514). Initial immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab, cyclosporin A (CsA), mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids. After 3 months, patients were treated either with CsA, mycophenolate sodium (MPA) plus corticosteroids (n = 6), CsA and everolimus plus corticosteroids (n = 8) or CsA-free (CsAfree) receiving everolimus, MPA and corticosteroids (n = 6). After initial reduction of CD4+forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ and CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) (P transplant percentages of Tregs were reconstituted in CsAfree and CsAlo arms compared to CsAreg 12 months post transplant. Expression of CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+FoxP3+ and CD4+FoxP3- T cells 12 months post transplant was increased in CsAfreeversus CsAreg. Increase in CCR5+CXCR3+ co-expressing CD4+FoxP3- cells between 3 and 12 months correlated negatively with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) slope/year [modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD); r = −0·59, P < 0·01]. CsA, but not everolimus, inhibits both Treg development and expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 on CD4+ T cell subsets. Increase in CCR5+CXCR3+ co-expressing CD4+FoxP3- T cells is associated with early loss in allograft function. PMID:22471287

  15. Evidence for an amoeba-like infectious stage of ichthyophonus sp. and description of a circulating blood stage: a probable mechanism for dispersal within the fish host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott; Hershberger, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Small amoeboid cells, believed to be the infectious stage of Ichthyophonus sp., were observed in the bolus (stomach contents) and tunica propria (stomach wall) of Pacific staghorn sculpins and rainbow trout shortly after they ingested Ichthyophonus sp.–infected tissues. By 24–48 hr post-exposure (PE) the parasite morphed from the classically reported multinucleate thick walled schizonts to 2 distinct cell types, i.e., a larger multinucleate amoeboid cell surrounded by a narrow translucent zone and a smaller spherical cell surrounded by a “halo” and resembling a small schizont. Both cell types also appeared in the tunica propria, indicating that they had recently penetrated the columnar epithelium of the stomach. No Ichthyophonus sp. pseudo-hyphae (“germination tubes”) were observed in the bolus or penetrating the stomach wall. Simultaneously, Ichthyophonus sp. was isolated in vitro from aortic blood, which was consistently positive from 6 to 144 hr PE, then only intermittently for the next 4 wk. Small PAS-positive cells observed in blood cultures grew into colonies consisting of non-septate tubules (pseudo-hyphae) terminating in multinucleated knob-like apices similar to those seen in organ explant cultures. Organ explants were culture positive every day; however, typical Ichthyophonus sp. schizonts were not observed histologically until 20–25 days PE. From 20 to 60 days PE, schizont diameter increased from ≤25 μm to ≥82 μm. Based on the data presented herein, we are confident that we have resolved the life cycle of Ichthyophonus sp. within the piscivorous host.

  16. Clinical studies of cerebral circulation using single photon emission computed tomography, 2; Evaluation of cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide loading on moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Toshiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1993-09-01

    To evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with moyamoya disease, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed using acetazolamide-activated {sup 133}Xe inhalation method. In the present investigation, 15 patients were subjected: 6 pediatric cases with the mean age of 10.8 years and 9 adult cases with the mean age of 44.6 years. The regional CBF (rCBF) was measured in the territory of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity was evaluated from the rCBF measured before and after administration of acetazolamide. Namely, cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity was expressed as %CBF and calculated as follows: %CBF=100 x (CBF after acetazolamide administration-CBF at rest)/CBF at rest. rCBF in adult patients was decreased in the cerebral hemisphere, while that in childhood was significantly decreased in the territory of ACA. The %CBF after acetazolamide loading was decreased in the territory of ACA and MCA in both adult and childhood. When cerebral %CBF was compared to the cerebellar %CBF, the ratio of cerebral %CBF and cerebellar %CBF resulted in markedly lower in childhood than adult. rCBF and cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity were also measured before and after extracranial and intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in three pediatric moyamoya patients. Although rCBF was increased immediately after EC-IC bypass surgery, the cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity remained blunted. These results meant that in the pediatric moyamoya patients cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity is more blunted than adult moyamoya patients. Also, the cerebral vessels in moyamoya disease were considered to be dilated to their limitation by the blood supplied through the EC-IC bypass and not to be expandable any more by acetazolamide. (author) 45 refs.

  17. 活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食道炎43例%Clinical Observation on 43 Cases of Refractory Reflux Esophagitis Treated with Promoting Blood Circulation Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏林

    2012-01-01

      目的观察活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食管炎的疗效。方法采用血府逐瘀汤加减(柴胡、枳壳、赤芍、桃仁、红花、太子参、茯苓、大枣、当归、生地黄、川牛膝、桔梗、穿山甲、浙贝母、陈皮、炙甘草等)治疗本病43例,对照组以奥美拉唑治疗本病41例,结果治疗组总有效率88%,对照组总有效率78%。结论活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食道炎疗效确切。%  Objective To observe blood circulation-based traditional Chinese medicinetreatment of refractory reflux esophagit is curative effect. Methods Use Xu-efuzhuyu Decoction Subtraction (Bupleurum,Citrus aurantium,red peony,pe-ac h kernel,safflower,heterophylla,Poria,Jujube,angeli ca,Reh-mannia,Achyranthes,Campanulaceae,Pangolin,Fritillaria,Citrus,Licorice,etc.)treatment of the disease in 43 cases.The control group treatment of the disease with Omeprazole in 41 cases.The result:treatment group efficacy is better than the control group.Conclusion this method through both strengthening is suitable to the refractory reflux esophagitis which is lingering course、blood gas deficiency and blood stasis as obvious.

  18. Research and Application of Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Children with Bronchial Asthma%浅谈活血化瘀法治疗小儿支气管哮喘的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增玲; 吴航

    2014-01-01

    Infantile bronchial asthma is pediatric common disease,The disease often repeated attacks or continue without remission. In recent years,Many physicians recognize the important role in the pathogenesis of asthma stasis in plays,Children with asthma and confirmed the performance of the body evident from the microscopic point of stasis,Consider the use of Chinese medicine treatment of blood circulation, Satisfactory results in terms of exacerbation or remission can be. I realized that in the clinical, On the basis of the syndrome differentiation accompanied by traditional blood circulation drugs, can achieve better results.%小儿哮喘是儿科常见病,本病常反复发作或持续不解。近年来,许多医家认识到血瘀在哮喘病的发病机制中所起的重要作用,并且从微观角度证实了哮喘患儿机体明显存在血瘀表现,认为运用中医活血化瘀药治疗,无论在发作期还是缓解期均可取得满意疗效。本研究发现,在传统辨证施治的基础上佐以活血化瘀药,可取得较好的疗效。

  19. Use of polyglycerol (PG), instead of polyethylene glycol (PEG), prevents induction of the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon against long-circulating liposomes upon repeated administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Lila, Amr S; Nawata, Kosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    The accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon accounts for the rapid systemic clearance of PEGylated nanocarriers upon repeated administrations. IgM production against the polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating in PEGylated liposomes is now known to be responsible for such unexpected pharmacokinetical alterations. The ABC phenomenon poses a remarkable clinical challenge by reducing the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs and causing harmful effects due to the altered tissue distribution pattern of the drugs. In this study, we investigated the in vivo performance of liposomes modified with polyglycerol (PG) upon repeated injection, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of such liposomes when they encapsulated a cytotoxic agent, doxorubicin (DXR). Repeated injection of PEG-coated liposomes in rats induced the ABC phenomenon, while repeated injection of PG-coated liposomes did not. In addition, DXR-containing PG-coated liposomes showed antitumor activity that was superior to that of free DXR and similar to that of DXR-containing PEG-coated liposomes upon repeated administration. These results indicate that polyglycerol (PG) might represent a promising alternative to PEG via enhancing the in vivo performance of liposomes by not eliciting the ABC phenomenon upon repeated administration.

  20. The particular interactions of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors with different circulating specific leukocyte subtype counts in blood: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Kunak, Tolga; Balcioğlu, Serhat; Cetin, Mustafa; Cemri, Mustafa; Timurkaynak, Timur; Boyaci, Bülent; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-11-01

    The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is multifactorial, however the impact of inflammatory cells in this process is well known. Different traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) may have specifically different effects on leukocyte subtype. Thus, these special interactions may induce different vascular involvement forms due to the altered endothelial damage and vascular repair mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is any specific relationship between the leukocyte subtypes and the traditional CVRFs and to evaluate the independency of possible relationships. The study had a cross-sectional observational design. The study population consisted of the patients who underwent coronary angiography with a suspicion of coronary artery disease (CAD) at our institution in an outpatient manner. We enrolled 677 consecutive eligible patients with CAD or normal coronary arteries (NCA) and investigated the associations of traditional CVRFs, demographic properties and biochemical parameters including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), creatinine, serum uric acid level (SUA) and lipids with total circulating inflammatory cell (WBC, leukocytes) and subtype counts including neutrophils (N), lymphocytes (L) and monocytes (M). As a dependent variable, total leukocyte count and subtypes, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio) which has been found to being related with increased vascular risk and events were investigated in the groups determined by the presence or absence of CVRFs and CAD by the univariate analyses and then multiple linear regression analyses. When we performed multiple linear regression analyses to determine the independent associations of inflammatory cell subtypes, we have found that FPG had an independent incremental association with WBC (β±SE:4.2±1.4, p=0.004) and N (β±SE:4.2±1.2, p=0.001). Current smoking had an independent incremental association with WBC and all cell subtypes (for WBC, N, L, and M: β±SE: 748±161

  1. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jie; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Liang, Shu-Min; Chen, Yu-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Nie, Ru-Qiong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis. Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed. The search terms were “circulating fibrocytes” and “cardiac fibrosis”. Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected. Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+). They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines. It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis. Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts. Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26831236

  2. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Jie Lin; Zi-Zhuo Su; Shu-Min Liang; Yu-Yang Chen; Xiao-Rong Shu; Ru-Qiong Nie; Jing-Feng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis.Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed.The search terms were "circulating fibrocytes" and "cardiac fibrosis".Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected.Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics ofhematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+).They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines.It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis.Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts.Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis.

  3. Systematic Review on Treatment of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis by Reinforcing qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Replenishing Yin%益气活血养阴法治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 刘福生; 张寅; 杜娜; 苏泽琦; 丁霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To systematically evaluate the efficacy of reinforcing qi ,promoting blood circulation and replenishing yin on treating chronic atrophic gastritis. Methods:Relevant Chinese and English literature of randomized clinical trials(RCTs) were reviewed via database. Trials were adopted if the Jadad scale score was 1 or more. Statistical heterogeneity between trials was evaluated by Revman 5.2. Heterogeneity of the in-cluded articles was tested to select proper effect models for calculation. Publication bias was investigated through visual inspection of funnel plots and Egger ’s regression model. Results:Nine RCTs including 846 patients were analyzed. The quality of RCTs are generally low. Compared with western medical treatment , reinforcing qi,promoting blood circulation and replenishing yin was better in improving the total effective rate of chronic gastritis. OR=4.57,95%CI (3.09~6.77). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.00001). Conclusion:Reinforcing qi,promoting blood circulation and replenishing yin may be superior to western medicines in improving total effective rate of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. But more high quality research is needed to increase the strength of the evidence.%目的:系统评价中医益气活血养阴法治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的疗效。方法:通过数据库检索中英文随机对照试验(RCT)文献,将Jadad积分≥1分的文章纳入研究,并提取纳入研究的特征信息。采用Revman 5.2软件进行Meta-分析,检验异质性,并根据异质性结果选择相应的效应模型,最后绘制漏斗图及Egger回归方程评定有无发表偏倚。结果:最终有9项RCT,共846例患者入选,文献质量普遍较低。益气活血养阴法治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的总体疗效优于单纯的西医治疗,其汇总OR=4.57,95%CI(3.09~6.77),差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.00001)。结论:益气活血养阴法治疗慢性萎缩

  4. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnskjold Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effectively include a measure of the time to burn through. A determination of burn-through time of each element of a specific building envelope should be obtained. A design tool to verify the performance of a building's fire protective envelope has been developed. In this paper, a general description of passive elements of the envelope, which should be included in a risk assessment tool such as an index method, is presented. An illustrative approach to visualise the profiles for areas densely spaced structures where an exterior fire may trigger building-to-building fire spread is also included. The research is based on the hypothesis that a relatively subtle and pointed upgrading of an exterior building envelope will severely reduce the speed of building-to-building fire spread, thus allowing firefighting efforts to get on top of the situation. For a burning structure to expose other buildings to fire, the fire has to settle, which leads to a burn-through to the inside. Once inside, an enclosure fire needs to develop and burn through the roof or break one or more large window panes. It is estimated that a 5–10 min delay for a structure to expose other structures to fire can be sufficient to avoid loss of multiple structures. A 10–50 min burn-through time allows for an extended intervention by the fire brigade, which is significant in rural areas. A fire protective envelope may prevent an exterior fire from penetrating the protective envelope at all and the

  5. Exterior difference systems and invariance properties of discrete mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zheng; Xie Duanqiang; Li Hongbo [Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: lenozhengxie@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-06-27

    Invariance properties describe the fundamental physical laws in discrete mechanics. Can those properties be described in a geometric way? We investigate an exterior difference system called the discrete Euler-Lagrange system, whose solution has one-to-one correspondence with solutions of discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, and use it to define the first integrals. The preservation of the discrete symplectic form along the discrete Hamilton phase flows and the discrete Noether's theorem is also described in the language of difference forms.

  6. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  7. Implantación de ascensores exteriores en edificios existentes

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Herrero, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    En la ciudad de Barcelona desde 2001 se han construido ascensores por el exterior de edificios ya existentes, edificios los cuales no disponían. El objetivo es estudiar cómo se inicia el fenómeno, las problemáticas surgidas y soluciones adoptadas y enmarcar a nivel socio-cultural y urbanístico el origen de los barrios donde se ubican los edificios de viviendas afectados. El método empleado, limites de estudio (ciudad de Barcelona), la organización de la investigación (almacenamien...

  8. Regression on manifolds: Estimation of the exterior derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Tomlin, Claire; 10.1214/10-AOS823

    2011-01-01

    Collinearity and near-collinearity of predictors cause difficulties when doing regression. In these cases, variable selection becomes untenable because of mathematical issues concerning the existence and numerical stability of the regression coefficients, and interpretation of the coefficients is ambiguous because gradients are not defined. Using a differential geometric interpretation, in which the regression coefficients are interpreted as estimates of the exterior derivative of a function, we develop a new method to do regression in the presence of collinearities. Our regularization scheme can improve estimation error, and it can be easily modified to include lasso-type regularization. These estimators also have simple extensions to the "large $p$, small $n$" context.

  9. Perturbation of essential spectra of exterior elliptic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    For a second-order symmetric strongly elliptic differential operator on an exterior domain in ℝ n , it is known from the works of Birman and Solomiak that a change in the boundary condition from the Dirichlet condition to an elliptic Neumann or Robin condition leaves the essential spectrum...... an extension of the spectral asymptotics formula for the difference between inverses of elliptic problems. The proofs rely on Kreĭn-type formulae for differences between inverses, and cutoff techniques, combined with results on singular Green operators and their spectral asymptotics....

  10. 行气活血法治疗2型糖尿病气滞血瘀证的临床研究%Clinical Study on Diabetes Type 2 of Qi Stagnation and Blood Stasis Treated with Promoting Flow of Qi and Blood Circulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁; 刘海英; 王珏; 姚燕珍; 赵志钧; 於松达; 於孝龙; 李亚平

    2009-01-01

    To observe the effects of promoting flow of qi and blood circulation method on platelet-activating factor, plasma endothelin and nitric oxide of patients with diabetes type 2 of qi stagnation and blood stasis.Meothods: 104 cases were divided into two groups, 53 cases was treatment group, 51 cases was control. Treatment group was given jiawei taohong siwu decoction, control was given taohong siwu decoction. The changes of clinical symptoms, blood viscosity,CD62p, CD63, PAC-1, ET and NO were observed and recorded.Results: To compare with before treated, the changes of clinical symptoms, blood viscosity,CD62p, CD63, PAC-1, ET and NO were improved after treated with jiawei taohong siwu decoction or taohong siwu decoction, there was obvious difference between treatment and control groups.Conclusion: The effects of promoting flow of qi and blood circulation method on diabetes type 2 of qi stagnation and blood stasis were veritable.%目的:观察行气活血法对2型糖尿病气滞血瘀证患者血小板活化因子及血浆内皮素、一氧化氮的影响.方法:104例患者,随机分为治疗组53例,对照组51例;治疗组服用加味桃红四物汤,对照组服用桃红四物汤;观察两组临床疗效、血黏度、CD62p、CD63、PAC-1和ET、NO的变化.结果:两组治疗前后组内比较,血黏度、CD62p、CD63、PAC-1和ET、NO的差异,治疗组有非常显著性意义(P<0.01),对照组有显著性意义(P<0.05);组间比较,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).结论:行气活血法能降低2型糖尿病患者的血黏度,抑制血小板活化,调节内皮素和一氧化氮的分泌失衡,作用较活血化瘀法显著.

  11. Comment on the Exterior Solutions and Their Geometry in Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1999-01-01

    We study series of stationary solutions with asymptotic flatness properties in the Einstein-Maxwell-free scalar system because they are locally equivalent to the exterior solutions in some class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. First, we classify spherical exterior solutions into two types of solutions, an apparently black hole type solution and an apparently worm hole type solution. The solutions contain three parameters, and we clarify their physical significance. Second, we reduce the field equations for the axisymmetric exterior solutions. We find that the reduced equations are partially the same as the Ernst equations. As simple examples, we derive new series of static, axisymmetric exterior solutions, which correspond to Voorhees's solutions. We then establish a non-trivial relation between the spherical exterior solutions and our new solutions. Finally, since null geodesics have conformally invariant properties, we study the local geometry of the exterior solutions by using the optical scalar equations and find some anomalous behavior of the null geodesics.

  12. Comment on the exterior solutions and their geometry in scalar-tensor theories of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchida, T; Tsuchida, Tooru; Watanabe, Kazuya

    1999-01-01

    We study series of the stationary solutions with asymptotic flatness properties in the Einstein-Maxwell-free scalar system because they are locally equivalent with the exterior solutions in some class of the scalar-tensor theories of gravity. First, we classify spherical exterior solutions into two types of the solutions, an apparently black hole type solution and an apparently worm hole type solution. The solutions contain three parameters, and we clarify their physical significance. Second, we reduce the field equations for the axisymmetric exterior solutions. We find that the reduced equations are partially the same as the Ernst equations. As simple examples, we derive new series of the static, axisymmetric exterior solutions, which correspond to Voorhees's solutions. We then show a non-trivial relation between the spherical exterior solutions and our new solutions. Finally, since null geodesics have conformally invariant properties, we study the local geometry of the exterior solutions by using the optica...

  13. Seismic Experimental Study on New-Type Composite Exterior Wallboard with Integrated Structural Function and Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochun Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the seismic performance of new-type composite exterior wallboard, a total of six exterior and interior wallboards were incorporated in the experiment of seismic performance. Seismic performance such as the stress process, damage mode, hysteresis and skeleton curve, load-carrying and ductility coefficient, damping and energy dissipation, stiffness degradation as well as material strain of the exterior wallboards were analyzed with emphasis and compared with interior wallboards. Results of the experiment and analysis showed that both interior and exterior wallboards exhibited outstanding seismic performance. Due to the existence of insulation layer and externally bonded single gypsum board, the capacity of elastoplastic deformation and seismic energy dissipation of the exterior wallboards was improved and each seismic performance indicator of the exterior wallboards outperformed the interior wallboards.

  14. High-Saturated-Fat Diet Increases Circulating Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme, Which Is Enhanced by the rs4343 Polymorphism Defining Persons at Risk of Nutrient-Dependent Increases of Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüler, Rita; Osterhoff, Martin A; Frahnow, Turid; Seltmann, Anne-Cathrin; Busjahn, Andreas; Kabisch, Stefan; Xu, Li; Mosig, Alexander S; Spranger, Joachim; Möhlig, Matthias; Hornemann, Silke; Kruse, Michael; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H

    2017-01-17

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) plays a major role in blood pressure regulation and cardiovascular homeostasis. Contrary to the assumption that ACE levels are stable, circulating ACE has been shown to be altered in obesity and weight loss. We sought to examine effects of a high-saturated-fat (HF) diet on ACE within the NUtriGenomic Analysis in Twins (NUGAT) study. Forty-six healthy and nonobese twin pairs initially consumed a carbohydrate-rich, low-fat diet over a period of 6 weeks to standardize for nutritional behavior prior to the study, followed by 6 weeks of HF diet under isocaloric conditions. After 6 weeks of HF diet, circulating ACE concentrations increased by 15% (P=1.6×10(-30)), accompanied by an increased ACE gene expression in adipose tissue (P=3.8×10(-6)). Stratification by ACE rs4343, a proxy for the ACE insertion/deletion polymorphism (I/D), revealed that homozygous carriers (GG) of the variant had higher baseline ACE concentrations (P=7.5×10(-8)) and additionally showed a 2-fold increase in ACE concentrations in response to the HF diet as compared to non- or heterozygous carriers (AA/AG, P=2×10(-6)). GG carriers also responded with higher systolic blood pressure as compared to AA/AG carriers (P=0.008). The strong gene-diet interaction was confirmed in a second independent, cross-sectional cohort, the Metabolic Syndrome Berlin Potsdam (MeSyBePo) study. The HF-diet-induced increase of ACE serum concentrations reveals ACE to be a potential molecular link between dietary fat intake and hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The GG genotype of the ACE rs4343 polymorphism represents a robust nutrigenetic marker for an unfavorable response to high-saturated-fat diets. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01631123. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  15. 论蓄血证病因及病机特点%Etiology and pathogenesis characteristics of syndrome of accumulation of stagnant blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何赛萍

    2003-01-01

    syndrome of accumulation of stagnant blood exists not only in the exterior-syndrome but also in the miscellaneous disease due to internal injury. The forming of this syndrome is closely related to the exterior evil, emotion,diet, constitution, age and so on. The main pathogenesis of this syndrome is caused by blood stasis and heat-evil.

  16. La Constitución de 1991 y la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vela Orbegozo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. i. Una política exterior para un mundo en transformación. ii. El viejo orden y la transformación de las relaciones internacionales. iii. La precariedad de la política exterior colombiana. iv. A manera de conclusión: la política exterior de un Estado legítimo

  17. La Constitución de 1991 y la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vela Orbegozo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available introducción. i. Una política exterior para un mundo en transformación. ii. El viejo orden y la transformación de las relaciones internacionales. iii. La precariedad de la política exterior colombiana. iv. A manera de conclusión: la política exterior de un Estado legítimo

  18. Effects of Tian-Shu Dripping Pills on Cerebral Blood Circulation among Anesthetized Canine%天舒滴丸对麻醉犬颅内循环的影响*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡晴晴; 唐朝辉; 曹亮; 李娜; 丁岗; 萧伟

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe the effects ofTian-ShuDripping Pills (TSDP) on cerebral hemodynamics among anesthetized dogs, in order to demonstrate its clinical treatment functional correlation on angioneurotic headache. A total of 25 hybrid dogs were randomly divided into the normal saline (NS) group, TS capsule (positive control: 0.4 g·kg-1 crude medicine) group, low-dose TSDP (0.2 g·kg-1 crude medicine) group, middle-dose TSDP (0.4 g·kg-1 crude medicine) group, and high-dose TSDP (0.8 g·kg-1 crude medicine) group.Intraduodenal administration was given once under anesthesia. Changes of mean arterial blood pressure, blood flow of vertebral artery and internal carotid artery blood flow were detected and the cerebral blood flow and cerebral vascular resistance were calculated. The results showed that TSDP of low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose group can significantly reduce the cerebral vascular resistance and increase the cerebral blood flow within 180 min after medication. It was concluded that TSDP can improve the cerebral blood circulation of anesthetized dogs. Its mechanism may be through the reduction on cerebral vascular resistance and increasing of cerebral blood flow.%目的:观察天舒滴丸对麻醉犬颅内血液循环的影响,探讨天舒滴丸治疗血管神经性头痛的机理。方法:杂种家犬25条,随机分为生理盐水组、天舒胶囊组(阳性对照:生药0.4 g·kg-1)、天舒滴丸低剂量组(生药0.2 g·kg-1)、天舒滴丸中剂量组(生药0.4 g·kg-1)、天舒滴丸高剂量组(生药0.8 g·kg-1),麻醉后一次性十二指肠给药,测量并记录平均动脉血压、椎动脉血流量和颈内动脉血流量,并计算脑血流量和脑血管阻力,观察天舒滴丸对犬脑血流量的影响。结果:天舒滴丸低、中、高剂量组均能在给药后180 min内明显降低脑血管阻力,增加脑血流量。结论:天舒滴丸具有改善犬颅内血液循环的作用,其机

  19. Measurement of spatial object's exterior attitude based on linear CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to realize real-time measurement of exterior attitude by the traditional systems based on the area image sensor which have conflict between speed and accuracy.The subsystem for three-dimensional (3D) coordinate rcconstruction of point target (S3DCRPT) which is composed of three one-dimensional (1D) cameras based on linear charge-coupled device (CCD) can determine the distant light spots' spatial position. The attitude angle of the measured object is determined by the spatial solution while the coordinate reconstruction is separately carried on by the S3DCRPT with some point cooperation targets (PCTs) on the measured object. A new optical system is designed to solve the interference problem with one-to-one relationship between the PCTs and the S3DCRPT optical subsystems,which improves the measurement accuracy and saves space. The mathematical model of the attitude measurement is established,and partial and global calibrations are realized for the multi-camera attitude measurement system.The test results show the feasibility of the exterior attitude measurement based on linear CCD.

  20. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO JOVEM BRASILEIRO QUE VIAJA AO EXTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nascimento Moraes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O Estudo para compreender as características dos jovens que viaja ao exterior, foi realizada por meio de um questionário ao qual a amostra de jovens pode responder. O questionário sintético buscou entender quem era nossa amostra, como faixa etária, renda familiar e avaliar alguns dados como o envolvimento do mesmo com projetos sociais e visão de mundo, os questionamentos abrangentes e específicos nos possibilitou atingir nossa finalidade que é assimilar diversos aspectos que possam ter motivado o jovem brasileiro a viajar para o exterior. O enfoque do proposto estudo é captar e interpretar as mudanças que este jovem pós-viagem, possa ter passado após o contato com outra (s cultura, costumes e experiências que podem ter e reflexos e influenciar de maneira significante, por esse novo ambiente de contato. O trabalho busca também compreender o como a crise econômica brasileira (e mundial tem na decisão de viajar, possibilitando um novo rumo longe de famílias e amigos, em busca de novas experiências.

  1. The Search for Durable Exterior Clear Coatings for Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Evans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of a durable exterior clear coating has eluded generations of coatings technologists, despite long-standing desire amongst the public for such a coating. The journey towards this goal initially focused on modifications to coating formulation, but took a completely different direction when it was found that a UV-transparent silicone clear coating on wood modified with chromic acid met consumer expectations of coating durability. This finding sparked world-wide interest in wood pre-treatments as a way of enhancing the durability of clear coatings. This interest initially focused on transition metal compounds, but has now shifted in the direction of organic and inorganic photostabilizers or even more drastic pre-treatments. Pre-treatments that dimensionally stabilize wood, protect it from microbial degradation and photostabilize lignin, when combined with flexible, photostable, coatings provide the next way-stop on the journey towards achieving the goal of durable exterior clear coatings for wood. This paper reviews this journey, drawing upon our research and that of other groups who have focused on this elusive goal.

  2. Occurrence, Distribution, and Accumulation of Pesticides in Exterior Residential Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Conkle, Jeremy L; Luo, Yuzhou; Li, Juying; Xu, Karen; Gan, Jay

    2016-12-06

    Pesticides are commonly applied around residential homes, but their occurrence on exterior surfaces (e.g., pavement) has not been thoroughly evaluated. We collected 360 dust samples from curbside gutters, sidewalks, and street surfaces at 40 houses in southern California to evaluate pesticide occurrence on urban paved surfaces as well as their spatial and temporal distributions. Pesticides and select degradates were ubiquitously detected in dust, with the median concentration of total target analytes at 85 μg kg(-1). A total of 75% of samples contained at least five pesticides. As a result of recurring pesticide applications, concentrations increased throughout the summer. The pyrethroids bifenthrin and permethrin accounted for 55% of total pesticides detected in the dust. The highest concentrations in dust were found on the sidewalk and in the gutter. Relative to indoor environments, human exposure risk to pesticides on paved surfaces was estimated to be lower, with the highest potential oral and dermal exposure predicted to be 38 ng day(-1) for permethrin. The ubiquitous detection of pesticides on residential outdoor surfaces and the fact that the exterior concentrations did not correlate to the indoor areas highlight the necessity to measure pesticides in both indoor and outdoor areas for complete residential pesticide risk assessment.

  3. Effects of supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on piamatral microcirculation in gerbils with cerebral ischemic reperfusion%益气活血对脑缺血再灌注沙土鼠脑膜微循环的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞国平; 戴良珏; 方敏; 谢荭

    2006-01-01

    通,红细胞中度聚集,白细胞数多,有时可见白色微小血栓,微血管周围渗出现象无明显改观.药物组经腹腔注射益气活血药后,细动、静脉开放,血液速度加快,血流量明显增加,细静脉沉积物开始减少,血栓凝块逐渐疏松,栓塞处疏通,红细胞呈轻度聚集或正常,缺血区血供较再灌流后进一步改善,微血管周围渗出现象逐渐减轻甚至消退.对照组未见明显改变.②药物组动物细动脉流速1.04~1.50 mm/s,明显高于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05~0.01).③药物组动物细静脉流速0.96~1.12 mm/s,明显高于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05~0.01).结论:益气活血法对沙土鼠脑缺血再灌注后脑膜微循环的作用确切,其直接作用与加快血流速度,扩张细动脉、细静脉管径,改善大脑血供等有关.%BACKGROUND: The key point in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction lies in inproving the blood supply of brain effectively as soon as possible as well as rescue ischemic and half diazonal nerve cells, so as to contract the local of infarction as great as possible.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of traditional treatment of cerebral piamatral microcirculation in gerbil with cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury by supplementing qi and activating blood circulation.DESIGN: Contrast animal experiment at random.SETTING: Zhabei Branch of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was performed in the Institute of Naval Medicine (key laboratory of the whole army). Twenty-two healthy Monglian gerbils of clean grade (six months old) were selected and randomly divided into medicine group and control group with 11 gerbils in each group.METHODS: Animals were routinely anaesthetized and fixed in prone position to open the cranium window in median line and expose the pia mater. The cranium window was protected by being covered with a cotton ball containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) after operation. Gerbils were fixed in dorsal

  4. Prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood as detected by qualitative and quantitative PCR in pediatric NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Busch, Kerstin; Burkhardt, Birgit; Schieferstein, Jutta; Viehmann, Susanne; Oschlies, Ilske; Klapper, Wolfram; Zimmermann, Martin; Harbott, Jochen; Reiter, Alfred; Woessmann, Willi

    2007-07-15

    Clinical and histopathological characteristics have limited prognostic value for children with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). We evaluated the presence, extent, and prognostic impact of circulating tumor cells in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) of children and adolescents with NPM-ALK-positive ALCL at diagnosis using qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for NPM-ALK. Numbers of NPM-ALK transcripts were normalized to 10(4) copies ABL (NCNs). BM was analyzed from 80 patients and PB from 52. BM was positive for NPM-ALK in 47.5% of patients, and positivity was significantly correlated with clinical stage, mediastinal or visceral involvement, microscopic BM involvement, and histologic subtype. Qualitative and quantitative PCR results in BM and PB strongly correlated. BM PCR was associated with the cumulative incidence of relapses (CI-Rs): CI-R was 50% +/- 10% for 38 PCR-positive and 15% +/- 7% for 42 PCR-negative patients (P NPM-ALK in BM had a CI-R of 71% +/- 14% compared with a CI-R of 18% +/- 6% for 59 patients with 10 or fewer NCNs (P < .001). PB PCR results led to a similar grouping. Thus, quantitative PCR in BM or PB allows identification of 20% of patients experiencing 60% of all relapses with an event-free survival of 20%.

  5. Circulating tumor cells in blood of primary breast cancer patients assessed by a novel RT-PCR test kit and comparison with status of bone marrow-disseminated tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Foekens, John A

    2009-01-01

    In breast cancer, circulating tumor cells (CTCs)/disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) may serve as independent adverse prognostic variables, to monitor the course of the disease and to predict response or failure to cancer therapy. Most of the techniques to enumerate DTCs in the bone marrow or CTCs in the bloodstream of breast cancer patients rely on a combination of an enrichment step and a detection step. A novel RT-PCR method, the AdnaTest BreastCancer kit, was developed for the enrichment of CTCs from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients followed by identification of CTC-associated marker transcripts by reverse transcription and PCR. Although this test has been demonstrated to identify breast cancer patients at risk, standardization of this technique and direct comparison with other established breast cancer CTC enrichment and detection techniques is still lacking, but highly needed. This is done best within prospective clinical trials, such as in the ongoing DETECT, SUCCESS, and BR-01-2004 trials.

  6. INFINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE EXTERIOR PROBLEMS OF THE HELMHOLTZ EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lung-an Ying

    2000-01-01

    There are two cases of the exterior problems of the Helmholtz equation. If λ > 0 the bilinear form is coercive, and if λ < 0 it is the scattering problem.We give a new approach of the infinite element method, which enables us to solve these exterior problems as well as corner problems. A numerical example of the scattering problem is given.

  7. Asia Central en la política exterior rusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas rusas hacia Asia Central han estado condicionadas por la herencia histórica anterior a la disolución de la URSS, pero también por los cambios en el sistema internacional y en la propia Rusia acaecidos desde entonces. ¿En qué medida la actuación de Rusia ha sido coherente y estable, basada en una estrategia para Asia Central fundamentada en los intereses nacionales? En este artículo examinamos los fundamentos de la política exterior rusa en relación con Asia Central, dividiéndola en tres apartados: político, económico y de seguridad.

  8. Dimensión social de la publicidad exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Marta Pacheco Rueda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La publicidad exterior moderna nace en España a principios de los años 60, en un período en que desde el gobierno se acomete una serie de iniciativas tendentes a reactivar la economía del país. La incipiente apertura económica no es desaprovechada por grandes firmas internacionales que aumentan sus inversiones e introducen en el mercado español productos con una larga tradición de consumo en los países occidentales industrializados. Se produce el asentamiento definitivo de las agencias multinacionales de publicidad, de procedencia norteamericana sobre todo, que traen consigo técnicas que responden a una filosofía de marketing, término que si en aquel momento resulta un tanto extraño, con el paso de los años se convierte en un vocablo de uso extendido.

  9. Relaciones exteriores de la Unión Europea

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández, Sara; Ruiz, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Distintos estudios sobre las relaciones económicas externas de la Unión Europea a través de tres apartados: una Introducción sobre el propio proceso de integración; Análisis sectorial de las políticas coumunes de agricultura, medio ambiente, cooperación para el desarrollo, política exterior y seguridad común y un tercer bloque sobre el Análisis geográfico de las relaciones comerciales con América Latina, Europa Central y Oriental, la política mediterránea y asiática y las relaciones con los p...

  10. A brief etymology of the collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E; Chilian, William M; Deindl, Elisabeth; van Royen, Niels; Simons, Michael

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that the protective capacity of the collateral circulation falls short in many individuals with ischemic disease of the heart, brain, and lower extremities. In the past 15 years, opportunities created by molecular and genetic tools, together with disappointing outcomes in many angiogenic trials, have led to a significant increase in the number of studies that focus on: understanding the basic biology of the collateral circulation; identifying the mechanisms that limit the collateral circulation's capacity in many individuals; devising methods to measure collateral extent, which has been found to vary widely among individuals; and developing treatments to increase collateral blood flow in obstructive disease. Unfortunately, accompanying this increase in reports has been a proliferation of vague terms used to describe the disposition and behavior of this unique circulation, as well as the increasing misuse of well-ensconced ones by new (and old) students of collateral circulation. With this in mind, we provide a brief glossary of readily understandable terms to denote the formation, adaptive growth, and maladaptive rarefaction of collateral circulation. We also propose terminology for several newly discovered processes that occur in the collateral circulation. Finally, we include terms used to describe vessels that are sometimes confused with collaterals, as well as terms describing processes active in the general arterial-venous circulation when ischemic conditions engage the collateral circulation. We hope this brief review will help unify the terminology used in collateral research.

  11. 输血后感染的HIV-1流行株分子流行病学调查%Molecular epidemiological investigation of HIV-1 circulating strain infected after blood receiving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠英; 李保军; 陈素良; 邢辉; 路新利; 李巧敏; 白广义; 赵宏儒

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解河北省沙河市受血感染者及其夫妻传播者中HIV-1亚型特点和来源.方法 采集HIV-1感染者的全血样品,分离外周血单核细胞(PBMC),提取前病毒DNA,使用套式聚合酶链反应(nested-PCR),扩增HIV-1的env基因的C2~V3区,并进行序列测定和亚型分析.结果 对7例HIV-1感染者的血标本进行nested-PCR扩增,得到6份HIV-1 env C2~V3基因片段,经序列测定分析,6份样品均为B'亚型.组内基因离散率6.22%±1.38%,基因序列与云南瑞丽株RL42(泰国B亚型)相近.受血者Heb0224及其配偶Heb0223与云南瑞丽株RL42 env的基因离散率分别为3.93%和7.71%.结论 在河北省沙河市受血感染者及其夫妻传播者中流行的为HIV-1 B'亚型.%Objective To understand the characteristics and origin of subtypes of HIV-1 strains infected blood receivers and their couples in Shahe, Hebei Province. Methods The whole blood from HIV-1 infected individuals were collected and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell were separated. The provirus DNA was extracted and amplified by nested-PCR, after which the HIV-1 env C2~ V3 gene fragments was sequenced and its subtypes were analyzed. Results Among 7 HIV-1 antibody positive cases, 6 HIV-1 env C2~ V3 gene fragments were amplified and analyzed. 6 cases were confirmed to be infected with HIV-lsubtype B' strain. The genetic distance of HIV-1 B' intersubtype was 6.22 % ± 1.38% ( n = 6), their gene sequence were closely related to RL42 in Yunnan (Thailand B). To compare with RL42, the genetic distance of blood receiver (Heb0224) was 3.39 % and that of their spouses (Heb0223) was 7.71%. Conclusions HIV-1 subtype B' was the predominant subtype circulating among blood receivers and their spouses within families in Shahe, Hebei Province.

  12. 实体瘤外周血循环肿瘤细胞与转移相关性的研究进展%Relationship between circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of solid tumor and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任传利; 韩崇旭; 王大新

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结实体瘤外周血中循环肿瘤细胞(CTC)和转移相关性的研究进展.方法:以"循环肿瘤细胞、实体瘤、转移"为关键词,检索2000-01-2010-10PubMed、Science Direct、Ovid、Springer、CNKI和维普等数据库的相关文献.纳入标准:关于实体瘤CTC与转移密切相关的分子机制、临床相关性的文献.共纳入分析42篇文献.结果:随着分子生物学和材料技术的发展,越来越多的方法有效地富集和鉴定不同类型实体瘤外周血CTC.细胞基因水平证实CTC具有恶性生物学特性,CTC自身基因和转移相关蛋白谱的表达,肿瘤微环境、免疫系统等因素影响着CTC远处器官转移灶的形成.CTC数目、特定基因、蛋白的表达与治疗疗效、预后等具有相关性.结论:研究CTC参与血液播散转移的机制,为全面、准确地阐明恶性实体瘤转移的机制、个体化的治疗提供新的工具.%OBJECTIVE: To review of the studies the relationship between circulating tumor cells (CTC)in peripheral blood of solid tumors and the mechanism of metastasis. METHODS: Keyword: circulating tumor cell (CTC), solid tumors, metastasis. Retrieval system: PubMed, Ovid, Science Direct, Springer, CNKI,Weipu Data. The time limit: 2000-01- 2010-10. The enrolled criteria: about the relationship between CTC in peripheral blood of solid tumors and the mechanism of metastasis, its clinical relevance. Overall, 42 literatures were cited. RESULTS: As the development of the advanced technique of molecular biology and material,more and more methods can be used to enrich and identify CTC. It is reported that cytogenetic evidence that CTC in patients with carcinoma are malignant. The gene and related metastatic protein profile in CTC,tumor microenvironment, immune system can influence on tumor metastasis. The number of CTC, the expression of specific genes and proteins have a relationship with the effect of treatment and evaluation of prognosis. CONCLUSION: The study

  13. 炎痛平透皮软膏的制备及活血作用的探讨%Preparation and promoting blood circulation effect of Yantongping transdermal ointments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱明; 徐洁; 王艺辉; 林世明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the best prescription method for Yantongping transdermal ointments through orthogonal design and research on the effect of promoting blood circulation. Methods With 60 minutes in vitro cumulative penetration rate, using L9(34) orthogonal experiment, the best formula and technology were found out through grinding method, and quality thereafter was e-valuated. Mice was picked up as blank groups and model groups, each respectively was divided into six smaller groups as Vaseline, Vaseline and Fatty Alcohol, Yantongping transdermal ointments( low dosage) , Yantongping transdermal ointments( medium dosage) , Yantongping transdermal ointments( high dosage) and Voltaren Emulsions. A A and AV were measured before and after modeling by microcirculation method and microscopic micro-distance measuring method , while the blood circulation function of each medicine by the scoring of the blood of veinule was compared. Results The best prescription was confirmed by A2B2C3D2, that was with the weight of the traditional Chinese drugs (TCD) Vaseline ratioes ( A) to 50% , with the weight of TCD and Fatty Alcohol ratios ( B) to 25% , the order of reagent was as follow; Fatty Alcohol, TCD, Vaseline . The grinding temperature was 80 X. , and it passed five quality evaluation as physical appearance, melting point, water value, stability, irritation. Before modeling, in the A A level measured, Yantongping group (low dosage) had statistical significance over Vaseline and Fatty Alcohol group in 30 min(P<0.05= ,while Yantongping group (medium dosage and high dosage) had obviously statistical significance over Vaseline and Fatty Alcohol group in different time periods in the A A and A V level (P<0. 01=. In the blood flow quality evaluation measured, Yantongping group (low dosage) had statistical significance over Vaseline and Fatty Alcohol group in 20 min, 30 min ( P<0. 05 ) ; while Yantongping group ( medium and high dosage) had obviously significant

  14. [Efficacy of Chinese Herbs for Supplementing Qi and Activating Blood Circulation on Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: a Clinical Observation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian-peng; Wang, Cheng-long; Wang, Pei-li; Wang, Shao-li; Gao, Zhu-ye; Zhang, Da-wu; Xu, Hao; Shi, Da-zhuo

    2015-05-01

    To observe the efficacy of Chinese herbs for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation (CHSQABC) on patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) after successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this ChiCTR-TRC-00000021, a total of 281 ACS patients complicated with type 2 DM after successful PCI were randomly assigned to the Western medicine treatment group (the control group, treated by routine Western medicine treatment) and the combined treatment group (the treatment group, treated by CHSQABC + routine Western medicine treatment). Patients in the combined treatment group took Xinyue Capsule (2 pills each time, 3 times per day) and Compound Chuanxiong Capsule (2 pills each time, 3 times per day for half a year and 1-year follow-ups). Primary endpoints covered incidence of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), ischemia-driven revascularization, and secondary endpoints included stroke, heart failure, and rehospitalization for ACS. At the same time scores for blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and the incidence of angina pectoris were evaluated before treatment, at month 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 after treatment. The incidence of ischemia-driven revascularization was obviously less in the treatment group than in the control group (P 0.05). Four patients readmitted to hospital in the treatment group, while 12 patients readmitted. There existed obvious tendency in the treatment group, but with no statistical difference when compared with that in the control group (P > 0.05). The incidence of angina was significantly lower in the treatment group at month 6, 9, and 12 than that at month 1 , but it was lower in the control group at 9 months (P < 0.05). The incidence of angina was 15. 4% in the treatment group, obviously lower than that in the control group (26.2%, P < 0.05). Compared with before treatment, scores for BSS were obviously lowered in the treatment group at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of treatment and in the control

  15. The Value of Conservative Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy by “Promoting Blood Circulation to Dissipate Blood Stasis Method”%论“活血化瘀止血法”保守治疗异位妊娠的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡道敏

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is one common acute abdominal pain of the obstetrics and gynecology .With advanced science and technology , the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is obviously improved , and provides a time and opportunity for the conservative treatment .Many clinical studies report Chinese medicine alone or with Western medicine in the conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy has a unique curative effect, and side effect is small .This paper aimed to preliminarily discuss the clinical value of “promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis” conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy .%异位妊娠( ectopic pregnancy )是妇产科常见的急腹症之一。随着科学技术的发达,异位妊娠的早期诊断率显著提高,为保守治疗提供了时间和机会。临床上有多篇研究报道中药单独或联合西药保守治疗异位妊娠具有独特疗效,不良作用小。现初步探讨“活血化瘀止血法”保守治疗异位妊娠的临床价值。

  16. Nano-structured hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: from properties, methemoglobin suppression to long circulation in blood%血红蛋白基纳米氧载体:结构特点、高铁含量控制及血循环中持久存在

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 章晓兰; 刘昌胜

    2011-01-01

    Due to the continuously insufficient supply and the disadvantages associated with the donated blood, artificial blood substitute has received extensive attentions throughout the world in recent years.Nano-structured hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (NHOCs), in particular the liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) and hemoglobin-based polymeric nanoparticles (HbPNPs), which combine the nanotechnology with the traditional cellular oxygen carriers, have shown great potential applications in blood transfusion, thrombus and cancer therapy as well.The present article firstly reports on the current status of the synthesis, properties, clinical trial and application of the LEH and HbPNPs.And then, attentions are devoted to highlight the main challenges and the proposed strategies of the NHOCs with the respect of suppression of the methemoglobin formation and prolonging the blood circulation time.These results make us confident in advancing further development of NHOCs, with the expectation of their eventual commercialization.

  17. [Material base on Chinese medical theory of 'Fei and Dachang being interior-exteriorly correlated'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Jia, Yu-Hua

    2011-02-01

    By reviewing pertinent literatures, we found that there existed some defects in studying material base on Chinese medical theory of "Fei and Dachang being interior-exteriorly related", such as the low efficacy of research methods; the neglect of intestinal and respiratory microhabitat and Chinese medical functional condition; and the unconformity of research design with evidence-based medicinal requirements. Thereby, the authors offered that the researches method of initiating merely from sole material or line linkage path should be rejected. The new research strategy should be established based on the feature of the lung and large intestine network connective structure, cutting-in from correlative changes in the two terminals (respiratory system and intestinal tissue), and the intermedial key knot of connection (blood serum), screen out in high throughput the relevant materials adopting microecological, proteomic and metabonomic techniques, and catch hold of the knots of network as much as possible. Based on these to perfect the researches on coordinating mechanism of the network, and to establish a new strategy for future researching.

  18. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  19. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  20. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  1. The role of exterior Weyl fluids on compact stellar structures in Randall-Sundrum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ovalle, J; Pasqua, A; Sotomayor, A

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld, the minimal geometric deformation approach (MGD) is used to generate a new physically acceptable interior solution to Einstein's field equations for a spherically symmetric compact distribution. This new solution is used to elucidate the role of exterior Weyl stresses from bulk gravitons on compact stellar distributions. We found strong evidences showing that the exterior dark radiation ${\\cal U}^+$ always increases both the pressure and the compactness of stellar structures, and that the exterior "dark pressure" ${\\cal P}^+$ always reduces them.

  2. The role of exterior Weyl fluids on compact stellar structures in Randall-Sundrum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.; Linares, F.; Pasqua, A.; Sotomayor, A.

    2013-09-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld, the minimal geometric deformation approach is used to generate a new physically acceptable interior solution to Einstein’s field equations for a spherically symmetric compact distribution. This new solution is used to elucidate the role of exterior Weyl stresses from bulk gravitons on compact stellar distributions. We found strong evidences showing that the exterior dark radiation U^+ always increases both the pressure and the compactness of stellar structures, and that the exterior ‘dark pressure’ P^+ always reduces them.

  3. Experimental study on fire propagation over combustible exterior facades in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the fire protection for exterior walls of building, only the fire resistance has been considered, according to the current building law of Japan. In the previous studies of the authors, a new test method for evaluation of fire propagation along combustible cladding was proposed using primarily test specimens of façade walls with exterior thermal insulation without vent layers. In this paper, newly obtained test results are discussed on other specimens of combustible façades such as wood, sandwich panel, photovoltaic sheet mounted on composite panel, combustible coating material, and exterior thermal insulation with vent layer.

  4. Repercussões do pneumoperitônio sobre o sistema venoso dos membros inferiores-estudo em porcas The effect of pneumoperitoneum in the blood circulation of the lower limbs-a swine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Valezi

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A trombose venosa profunda e a embolia pulmonar são complicações dos atos cirúrgicos nem sempre diagnosticadas. Nas operações pela via laparoscópica, a insuflação do CO2 na cavidade peritoneal é provavelmente a principal determinante da estase venosa nos membros inferiores. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar a influência do pneumoperitônio na dinâmica circulatória dos membros inferiores. Distribuíram-se trinta porcas em três grupos: sem pneumoperitônio, com pneumoperitônio de 10mmHg e de l5mmHg de pressão intra-abdominal. Foram medidas a freqüência e débito cardíacos, pressão arterial média, pressão e diâmetro da artéria e veia femorais, velocidade do fluxo arterial e venoso femorais. Após a realização do pneumoperitônio foi encontrado aumento significativo na pressão e no diâmetro da veia femoral e diminuição significativa na velocidade do fluxo venoso femoral. A elevação da pressão venosa femoral e a diminuição da velocidade do fluxo venoso femoral foram mais intensas com o aumento da pressão intra-abdominal. Todos os parâmetros analisados retornaram aos valores iniciais após o esvaziamento do pneumoperitônio.Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are complications of surgical procedures, the most of times underdiagnosticated. ln laparoscopic surgery, the carbon dioxide insuflation into the peritoneal cavity is probably the cause of venous stasis of the lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of pneumoperitoneum in the blood circulation of the lower limbs. Thirty female pigs were divided in three groups: 1- without pneumoperitoneum; I - with 10 mmHg; and II - with 15 mmHg of abdominal pressure levels. Within the clinical parameters were analysed heart rate, cardiac output and mean arterial pressure to certify that the haemodynamic changes would not be gilty for the modifications of lower limbs circulation. This analysis did not find significant

  5. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: analysis of circulating fetal DNA and cells in maternal blood El diagnóstico prenatal no invasor: análisis de células y ADN fetal circulantes en la sangre materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cecilia Jaramillo Posada

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Prenatal non invasive diagnosis by means of analyses of foetal DNA or cells circulating in maternal blood is one of the most promising areas of obstetrics. Among maternal diseases that could be diagnosed by these methods, or whose behaviour could be predicted, are preeclampsia, growth restriction and preterm labour. Some foetal conditions that could be detected are sex, chromosomal anomalies and single-gene defects. However, these are complex and expensive techniques that are not regularly performed in health care institutions. With this review we intend to provide the readers with up to date information on the main techniques available for the study of circulating foetal cells and DNA, and on their possible clinical applications. The review was based on a search for journals indexed up to 2008 in Pubmed, Scielo and Latindex. Especially relevant articles were chosen by the authors.

    El diagnóstico prenatal temprano y no invasor por medio del análisis de células o ADN fetales circulantes en la sangre materna es un área prometedora de la obstetricia moderna. Entre las enfermedades que se pueden diagnosticar o cuyo comportamiento es posible predecir por estos métodos se encuentran la preeclampsia, la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y el parto pretérmino. Algunas condiciones fetales que podrían detectarse son el sexo, ciertas anomalías cromosómicas y los defectos de un solo gen. Sin

  6. 大脑中动脉血流参数比值在胎儿高动力循环状态中的初步应用%Preliminary Application of Blood Flow Parameters Ratios of the Middle Cerebral Artery in the Fetus with Hyperdynamic Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗支农; 钟梅; 郭会平; 陈春艾; 刘刚纯; 王新玉; 曹晓桦; 韦怀新

    2001-01-01

    Purpose To study prognostic blood flow parameters ratios to fetal hyperdynamic circulation. MethodsBlood flow parameters of middle cerebral artery and head circumference were assessed in 17 fetus with hyperdynamic circulation at 17 to 31 weeks' gestation and 215 normal fetus at 16 to 31 weeks' gestation by two-dimension imaging, color Doppler power imaging and pulsed Doppler. ResultsUnit head circumference maximum and mean blood flow velocities per minute of fetus with hyperdynamic circulation were higher than that of normal fetus(P<0.001). Unit head circumference maximum and mean blood flow velocities per minute of all fetus with hyperdynamic circulation were higher than reference ranges, the increase in the latter was higher than that in the former(P<0.05). ConclusionBlood flow parameters ratios of the middle cerebral artery can predict fetal hyperdynamic circulation.%目的探讨预测胎儿高动力循环状态的血流参数比值指标。方法应用二维超声、彩色多普勒能量图及脉冲多普勒技术对17例17~31孕周高动力循环状态胎儿及215例16~31孕周正常胎儿大脑中动脉血流参数及头围进行检测。结果高动力循环状态组胎儿每分钟单位头围大脑中动脉的最大速度及平均速度均高于正常组(P<0.001)。所有高动力循环状态胎儿每分钟单位头围大脑中动脉的最大速度及平均速度均高于正常高限,平均速度与正常高限的比值大于最大速度与正常高限的比值(P<0.05)。结论大脑中动脉血流参数比值能预测胎儿高动力循环状态。

  7. Monitoring Interior and Exterior Wall Inspections within a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two prototype applications based on the Virtual Reality (VR technology for use in maintenance planning of buildings. In a building, the paint coating applied to interior walls and the different types of materials applied to façades convey their aesthetic character and also perform an important function of protection. This a construction component which is exposed to agents of deterioration related to its use, needing the regular evaluation of its state of repair. The applications support the performance of such periodic inspections and the monitoring of interior and exterior wall maintenance, using the VR technology. Used during an inspection visit, the applications allow users to consult a database of irregularities, normally associated with the coating, classified by the most probable causes and by the recommended repair methodologies. In addition, a chromatic scale related to the degree of deterioration of the coating, defined as a function of the time between the dates of the application of the paint and the scheduled repainting, can be attributed to each element of coating monitored. This use of the VR technology allows inspections and the evaluation of the degree of wear and tear of materials to be carried out in a highly direct and intuitive manner.

  8. Exterior Orientation Estimation of Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Vanishing Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokou, Styliani; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of rough exterior orientation (EO) parameters of multiple large-scale overlapping oblique aerial images, in the case that GPS/INS information is not available (e.g., for old datasets), is presented. It consists of five main steps; (a) the determination of the overlapping image pairs and the single image in which four ground control points have to be measured; (b) the computation of the transformation parameters from every image to the coordinate reference system; (c) the rough estimation of the camera interior orientation parameters; (d) the estimation of the true horizon line and the nadir point of each image; (e) the calculation of the rough EO parameters of each image. A developed software suite implementing the proposed methodology is tested using a set of UAV multi-perspective oblique aerial images. Several tests are performed for the assessment of the errors and show that the estimated EO parameters can be used either as initial approximations for a bundle adjustment procedure or as rough georeferencing information for several applications, like 3D modelling, even by non-photogrammetrists, because of the minimal user intervention needed. Finally, comparisons with a commercial software are made, in terms of automation and correctness of the computed EO parameters.

  9. Surgical myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomón Soriano Ordinola Rojas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the immediate postoperative period of patients undergoing myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation with different types of grafts. METHODS: One hundred and twelve patients, 89 (79.5% of whom were males, were revascularized without extracorporeal circulation. Their ages ranged from 39 to 85 years. The criteria for indicating myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation were as follows: revascularized coronary artery caliber > 1.5 mm, lack of intramyocardial trajectory on coronary angiography, noncalcified coronary arteries, and tolerance of the heart to the different rotation maneuvers. RESULTS: Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation was performed in 112 patients. Three were converted to extracorporeal circulation, which required a longer hospital stay but did not impact mortality. During the procedure, the following events were observed: atrial fibrillation in 10 patients, ventricular fibrillation in 4, total transient atrioventricular block in 2, ventricular extrasystoles in 58, use of a device to retrieve red blood cells in 53, blood transfusion in 8, and arterial hypotension in 89 patients. Coronary angiography was performed in 20 patients on the seventh postoperative day when the grafts were patent. CONCLUSION: Myocardial revascularization without extracorporeal circulation is a reproducible technique that is an alternative for treating ischemic heart disease.

  10. La política exterior de Sudáfrica post Apartheid

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    El embajador de Sudáfrica en Argentina realiza aquí un seguimiento de cuestiones centrales en el diseño de la política exterior de su país en los últimos 10 años. Para ello aborda 4 ejes centrales: el significado del año 2004 para Sudáfrica; los fundamentos de su política exterior, la política de relaciones exteriores de Sudáfrica dentro del sistema mundial y la dirección de la política de relaciones exteriores durante la primera década de democracia en el país. Los posicionamientos, sus razo...

  11. CONTINUOUS DEPENDENCE ON VELOCITY FOR THE BACKWARD DYNAMO EQUATION ON AN EXTERIOR DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study solutions to a forward Dynamo equation depending continuously on the velocity on an exterior domain,using Logarithmic Convexity Methods.We obtain some more weaker conditions by introducing the unbounded domain.

  12. Brane-world stars with a solid crust and vacuum exterior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Jorge; Gergely, László Á.; Casadio, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The minimal geometric deformation approach is employed to show the existence of brane-world stellar distributions with a vacuum Schwarzschild exterior, thus without energy leaking from the exterior of the brane-world star into the extra dimension. The interior satisfies all the elementary criteria of physical acceptability for a stellar solution, namely, it is regular at the origin, the pressure and density are positive and decrease monotonically with increasing radius, and all energy conditions are fulfilled. A very thin solid crust with negative radial pressure separates the interior from the exterior, having a thickness Δ inversely proportional to both the brane tension σ and the radius R of the star, i.e. {{Δ }-1}˜ Rσ . This brane-world star with Schwarzschild exterior would appear only thermally radiating to a distant observer and be fully compatible with the stringent constraints imposed on stellar parameters by observations of gravitational lensing, orbital evolutions or properties of accretion disks.

  13. 滋阴降火、活血化瘀法治疗子宫内膜异位症的临床研究%Clinical research on Nourishing Yin, Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Endometriosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邰晶

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical curative ef ect of Nourishing Yin, promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in treatment of endometriosis. Methods 40 cases of endometriosis patients were randomly divided into control group (Guizhi Fuling Capsule group), treatment group (New plus Zishui Jianghuo drink group), clinical observation. Results Treatment group total ef ectiveness 80%, the comparison group total ef ectiveness 65%, the curative ef ect of treatment group was bet er than that of the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion The dialectical to hyperactivity of fire due to yin deficiency type of EMS patients, the curative ef ect of Zishuijianghuoyin on new and exact, reliable, improve symptoms, signs after treatment. The new plus Zishui Jianghuo drink treatment of endometriosis significant ef ect, can reduce serum EMAb, regulating immunity.%目的观察滋阴降火、活血化瘀法治疗子宫内膜异位症的临床疗效。方法将40例子宫内膜异位症患者随机分成对照组(桂枝茯苓胶囊组),治疗组(新加滋水降火饮组),观察临床疗效。结果治疗组总有效率80%,对照组总有效率65%,治疗组疗效明显优于对照组(<0.05)。结论辩证为阴虚火旺型的EMS患者,用新加滋水降火饮治疗疗效确切、可靠,治疗后症状、体征改善。新加滋水降火饮治疗子宫内膜异位症疗效显著,还能降低血清EMAb,调节自身免疫。

  14. Elementos para una perspectiva crítica de la política exterior mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Miguel Valdivia Santa María

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo nace de la inquietud por esclarecer la pregunta: ¿existe una teoría de la política exterior de México? ¿Cuáles son sus elementos constitutivos? ¿Qué capacidad explicativa y prospectiva, del fenómeno, tiene para servir de guía de acción y perfeccionamiento de la política exterior de México?

  15. Elementos para una perspectiva crítica de la política exterior mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Valdivia Santa María

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo nace de la inquietud por esclarecer la pregunta: ¿existe una teoría de la política exterior de México? ¿Cuáles son sus elementos constitutivos? ¿Qué capacidad explicativa y prospectiva, del fenómeno, tiene para servir de guía de acción y perfeccionamiento de la política exterior de México?

  16. Redefining circulating tumor cells by image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Sjoerd

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the blood of patients with metastatic carcinomas are associated with poor survival and can be used to guide therapy. However, CTC are very heterogeneous in size and shape, and are present at very low frequencies. Missing or misjudging a few events may have great

  17. A new look at cerebrospinal fluid circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Thomas; Stopa, Edward; Morrison, John; Klinge, Petra

    2014-01-01

    According to the traditional understanding of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) physiology, the majority of CSF is produced by the choroid plexus, circulates through the ventricles, the cisterns, and the subarachnoid space to be absorbed into the blood by the arachnoid villi. This review surveys key developments leading to the traditional concept. Challenging this concept are novel insights utilizing molecular and cellular biology as well as neuroimaging, which indicate that CSF physiology may be much more complex than previously believed. The CSF circulation comprises not only a directed flow of CSF, but in addition a pulsatile to and fro movement throughout the entire brain with local fluid exchange between blood, interstitial fluid, and CSF. Astrocytes, aquaporins, and other membrane transporters are key elements in brain water and CSF homeostasis. A continuous bidirectional fluid exchange at the blood brain barrier produces flow rates, which exceed the choroidal CSF production rate by far. The CSF circulation around blood vessels penetrating from the subarachnoid space into the Virchow Robin spaces provides both a drainage pathway for the clearance of waste molecules from the brain and a site for the interaction of the systemic immune system with that of the brain. Important physiological functions, for example the regeneration of the brain during sleep, may depend on CSF circulation.

  18. Redefining circulating tumor cells by image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the blood of patients with metastatic carcinomas are associated with poor survival and can be used to guide therapy. However, CTC are very heterogeneous in size and shape, and are present at very low frequencies. Missing or misjudging a few events may have great cons

  19. Redefining circulating tumor cells by image processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Sjoerd

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the blood of patients with metastatic carcinomas are associated with poor survival and can be used to guide therapy. However, CTC are very heterogeneous in size and shape, and are present at very low frequencies. Missing or misjudging a few events may have great cons

  20. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  1. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  2. Clinical Observation of the Method of Removing Phlegm-Heat and Promoting Blood Circulation in Treating Acne with Phlegm Accumulate with Stagnant Blood Syndrome and Effect on Serum IL-4, IFN-γ%清热化痰活血法治疗痰瘀互结型痤疮疗效观察及对血清IL-4,IFN-γ的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张虹亚; 许光仓; 曹宇; 刘涛峰; 吴敏; 王建锋; 孙洪波

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of the method of removing phlegm-heat and promoting blood circulation in treating acne with phlegm accumulate with stagnant blood syndrome. Methods Ninety patients with phlegm accumulate with stagnant blood syndrome of acne were randomly divided into treatment group and control. 51 patients in treatment group were treated with the method of removing phlegm-heat and promoting Blood circulation, 39 patients in control group took danshentong capsule, the treatment duration was 12 weeks. The levels of serum IL-4 and IFN-7 were detected before and after the treatment. Results The total effective rate was 49.02% in treatment group, which was higher than that in the control group(41.02%). There was no significant difference between the two groups (P> 0.05). After the treatment , the level of Iiy-4 decreased and the level of IFN-"y increased significant in two groups (P < 0.01). Conclusion Clinical effi cacy of the method of removing phlegm-heat and promoting Blood circulation was obvious, which can decrease the level of IL-4 and increase the level of IFN--y.%目的 观察清热化痰活血法对痰瘀互结型痤疮的临床疗效.方法 90例痰瘀互结型痤疮患者随机分为两组,治疗组51例用清热化痰活血方,1剂/d,水煎分2次服用,对照组39例口服丹参酮胶囊1g,3次-/d,4周为一疗程,两组均治疗3个疗程.同时检测两组治疗前后血清IL-4,IFN-γ水平.结果 治疗组有效率为49.02%,对照组41.02%,两组差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).治疗后两组的IL-4,FN-γ均有不同的变化,IL-4水平降低,IFN-γ水平升高,与治疗前相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 清热化痰活血法能明显改善痰瘀互结型痤疮患者的临床症状,降低IL-4水平,升高IFN-γ水平.

  3. Potential energy savings with exterior shades in large office buildings and the impact of discomfort glare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Exterior shades are highly efficient for reducing solar load in commercial buildings. Their impact on net energy use depends on the annual energy balance of heating, cooling, fan and lighting energy. This paper discusses the overall energy use intensity of various external shading systems for a prototypical large office building split into the different types of energy use and for different orientations and window sizes. Lighting energy was calculated for a constant lighting power as well as for dimmed lighting fixtures (daylighting control). In Section 3, slat angles and solar cut-off angles were varied for fixed exterior slat shading systems. While the most light-blocking shades performed best for the case without daylighting controls, the optimum cut-off angle with daylighting controls was found to be 30 deg for the office building prototype used in Chicago and Houston. For large window-to-wall (WWR) ratios, window related annual energy use could be reduced by at least 70 % without daylighting control and by a minimum of 86 % with daylighting control in average over all orientations. The occurrence of discomfort glare was is considered in Section 4 of the paper, which looks at the performance of commercially available exterior shading systems when an interior shade is used in addition to the exterior shade during hours when occupants would experience discomfort glare. Glare control impacts overall energy use intensity significantly for exterior shades with high transmittance, especially when daylighting controls are used. In these cases, exterior shades are only beneficial for window-to-wall areas ≥ 45% in the hot Houston climate. For smaller windows and in a heating/cooling climate like Chicago, exterior shades can increase energy consumption

  4. Rodar: a circulação dos jogadores de futebol brasileiros no exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rial

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre os milhões de brasileiros que atualmente residem no exterior, cerca de 5 mil são jogadores de futebol atuando em instituições reconhecidas, os clubes de futebol. O artigo aborda em uma perspectiva antropológica os processos migratórios desses jogadores brasileiros com carreiras de sucesso no sistema futebolístico contemporâneo, buscando compreender as características dessa circulação mundial particular de pessoas e de dinheiro, que apresenta enorme impacto no mediascape (Appadurai, 1990: de todas as "exportações" e de todas as emigrações brasileiras ora em curso, a de jogadores de futebol é a que apresenta maior impacto simbólico, tanto aqui como lá. Abordo os projetos, consumos e estilos de vida desses jogadores a partir dos dados de etnografia realizada na Espanha (Sevilha e na Holanda (Eindhoven, e da interlocução com mais de 40 jogadores brasileiros vivendo ou tendo vivido em países no exterior, em contatos realizados no Canadá (Toronto, Holanda (Almelo, Groningen, Alkmaar, Roterdã, Amsterdã, Japão (Tóquio, França (Lyon, Le Mans, Nancy, Lille, Mônaco, Bélgica (Charleroi e também no Brasil (Fortaleza, Salvador, Belém. Exploro as intersecções com idade, origem social e religião, constatando a forte presença de caçulas entre os jogadores (o caçulismo, a proveniência majoritária de camadas sociais subalternas e a adesão predominante a cultos evangélicos. Constato também uma crescente juvenilização desse fluxo emigratório. Concluo que a constante troca de instituição de trabalho ("clube" ou "clube global", de países e o grande número de "repatriados", caracterizam como uma circulação esse movimento migratório: é o "rodar" de que falam os jogadores, atribuindo a essa noção um valor positivo de propiciar experiência. Essa circulação dá-se em zonas protegidas, onde um nacionalismo banal (Billig, 1995 é constantemente ativado. Mesmo depois da obtenção da cidadania legal continuam

  5. Roadmap for cardiovascular circulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Soroush; Bradley, Christopher P; Suresh, Vinod; Mithraratne, Kumar; Muller, Alexandre; Ho, Harvey; Ladd, David; Hellevik, Leif R; Omholt, Stig W; Chase, J Geoffrey; Müller, Lucas O; Watanabe, Sansuke M; Blanco, Pablo J; de Bono, Bernard; Hunter, Peter J

    2016-12-01

    Computational models of many aspects of the mammalian cardiovascular circulation have been developed. Indeed, along with orthopaedics, this area of physiology is one that has attracted much interest from engineers, presumably because the equations governing blood flow in the vascular system are well understood and can be solved with well-established numerical techniques. Unfortunately, there have been only a few attempts to create a comprehensive public domain resource for cardiovascular researchers. In this paper we propose a roadmap for developing an open source cardiovascular circulation model. The model should be registered to the musculo-skeletal system. The computational infrastructure for the cardiovascular model should provide for near real-time computation of blood flow and pressure in all parts of the body. The model should deal with vascular beds in all tissues, and the computational infrastructure for the model should provide links into CellML models of cell function and tissue function. In this work we review the literature associated with 1D blood flow modelling in the cardiovascular system, discuss model encoding standards, software and a model repository. We then describe the coordinate systems used to define the vascular geometry, derive the equations and discuss the implementation of these coupled equations in the open source computational software OpenCMISS. Finally, some preliminary results are presented and plans outlined for the next steps in the development of the model, the computational software and the graphical user interface for accessing the model. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  6. In vivo acoustic and photoacoustic focusing of circulating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Viegas, Mark G.; Malinsky, Taras I.; Melerzanov, Alexander V.; Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    In vivo flow cytometry using vessels as natural tubes with native cell flows has revolutionized the study of rare circulating tumor cells in a complex blood background. However, the presence of many blood cells in the detection volume makes it difficult to count each cell in this volume. We introduce method for manipulation of circulating cells in vivo with the use of gradient acoustic forces induced by ultrasound and photoacoustic waves. In a murine model, we demonstrated cell trapping, redirecting and focusing in blood and lymph flow into a tight stream, noninvasive wall-free transportation of blood, and the potential for photoacoustic detection of sickle cells without labeling and of leukocytes targeted by functionalized nanoparticles. Integration of cell focusing with intravital imaging methods may provide a versatile biological tool for single-cell analysis in circulation, with a focus on in vivo needleless blood tests, and preclinical studies of human diseases in animal models.

  7. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  8. Reworking on affine exterior algebra of Grassmann, Peano and his school

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Gabriele H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a construction of affine exterior algebra of Grassmann, with a special attention to the revisitation of this subject operated by Peano and his School, is examined from a historical viewpoint. Even if the exterior algebra over a vector space is a well known concept, the construction of an exterior algebra over an affine space, in which points and vectors coexist, has been neglected. This paper wants to fill this lack. Some attention is given to the introduction of defining by abstraction (today called definition by quotienting or by equivalence relation), a procedure due to and used by Peano to define geometric forms, basic elements of an affine exterior algebra. This Peano's innovative way of defining, is a relevant contribution to mathematics. It is observed that in the construction of an affine exterior algebra on the Euclidean three-dimensional space, Grassmann and Peano make use of metric concepts: an accurate analysis shows that, in some cases, the metric aspects can be eliminated, putting ...

  9. Effect of different proportions of mixed blood exchange transfusion on blood circulation in neonates with ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease%不同比例成分血对新生儿母子ABO血型不合溶血病换血治疗后内环境影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 黄瑞文; 胡月圆; 肖艾青; 廖镇宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of different proportions (the O type RBCs vs the AB type plasma)of mixed blood exchange transfusion on blood circulation in neonates with ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease. Methods From Jan. 2009 to Apr. 2010 in Hunan Children's Hospital,forty newborn infants with the disease, treated by exchange transfusion with different proportions of mixed blood (AB type plasma was mixed with 0 type red blood cell), were randomly divided into two groups: 16 patients in treatment group, who used 0 type red blood cells and AB type plasma with the proportion of 3 : 1 ( the 0 type RBCs 300 mL: the AB type plasma 100 mL) during blood transfusion; 24 patients in control group with the proportion of 2: 1. Both of the two groups received the double exchange transfusion in accordance with 150 ~ 180 mL/kg. After exchange, all the patients in controll group received 0 type RBCs transfusion with 15 ~ 20 mlAg (total volume was 60mL), while the other group did not. The other therapies in both of the two groups were the same.The indicators, which included the exchange rate of neonatal serum bilirubin, RBC, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) , the elctrocyte and gas analysis, were monitored before and after the exchange transfusion. Results The total bilirubin of the two groups were lower after the exchange transfusion, and that the treatment group was even lower(P 0.05), while in the control group the difference was significant (P 0.05). Conclusion The exchange transfusion, using 0 type red blood cells and AB type plasma with the proportion of 3 : 1 inhemolytic disease, can not only decrease the level of bilirubin in blood rapidly but also avoid the anemia.The serum electrolytes and acid-base balance have no signifi-cant differences. It is worth promoting.%目的 探讨不同比例成分血对新生儿母子ABO血型不合溶血病(HDN)换血治疗后内环境的影响.方法 对2009年1月至2010年4月湖南省儿童医院40例HDN达到换血指征的

  10. Comparison of Modified Chandler, Roller Pump, and Ball Valve Circulation Models for In Vitro Testing in High Blood Flow Conditions: Application in Thrombogenicity Testing of Different Materials for Vascular Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim van Oeveren

    2012-01-01

    We concluded that the Hemobile minimally affects blood and could be adjusted to high blood flows, simulating arterial shear stress. The Hemobile was used to measure hemocompatibility of graft material and showed Dyneema Purity UHMWPE fiber in many ways more hemocompatible than ePTFE and PET.

  11. 益气活血法对脑出血大鼠脑内凝血酶敏感蛋白-1及其受体CD36表达的影响%Effects of Replenishing Qi and Promoting Blood Circulation Treatment on the Expression of Thrombospondin-1 and Receptor CD36 of lntracerebral Hemorrhagic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏林; 邢之华; 唐涛; 刘宜峰; 阳鹤鹏; 刘清娥; 吴汉军

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To make a primary study of the mechanism of replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment for curing intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rats by observing the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its receptor CD36. METHODS 155 SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely normal group, sham operated group, ICH model group, replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment group, replenishing qi group and promoting blood circulation treatment group. ICH model was established by injecting collagenase type Ⅶ, while replenishing qi group, promoting blood circulation treatment group and replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment group were respectively administered with replenishing qi decoction, promoting blood circulation treatment decoction and Buyang Huanwu Decoction. Afterwards, brain tissue was extracted different and the expression of TSP-1 and CD36 were detected by western blotting. RESULTS There was no significant changes in the expression of TSP-1 and CD36 between normal group and sham operated group at different time. In ICH model group, TSP-1 reached peak on the fourth day,CD36 on the 4th and 28th day. In replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment group, the expression of TSP-1 was lower than that in model group on the 1st day(P<0.01); the expression of TSP-1 and CD36 was both lower than that in model group on the 4th day(P<0.01); the expression of CD36 was higher than that in model group on the 28th day(P<0.01).CONCLUSION Replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment may regulate the expression of TSP-1 and its receptor CD36 in ICH rat, thus it can lower the inhibiting effect on angiogenesis and promote the shaping and maturity of new blood vessels as well as the recovery of brain tissue injury.%目的 通过观察益气活血法对脑出血大鼠脑内损伤区凝血酶敏感蛋白-1(thrombospondin-1,TSP-1)及其受体CD36表达的影响,初步探讨益气活血法

  12. Clinical Observation on the Treatment of Primary Parkinson Disease With the Effect of Invigorating the Kidney and Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Collaterals Capsule%补肾活血通络胶囊治疗原发性帕金森病临床疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of the treatment of primary Parkinson's disease with the treatment of the kidney and activating blood circulation and collaterals capsule. Methods 98 cases of primary Parkinson's disease patients, the patients were randomly divided into control group and observation group of 49 cases in our hospital from April March 2012 ~ 2013, control group was treated with western medicine treatment, the observation group in the control group based on the use of kidney and activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis capsule, retrospectively compared two groups of clinical curative effect. Results The UPDRS-I, UPDRS-II, UPDRS-, LSIB, PDQ and UPDRS-IV in the observation group were superior to the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion Kidney and activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis capsule with attenuated effect, can improve the comprehensive function of patients with, reduce parkinsonian disability rate and its application in the treatment of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, its clinical efficacy is better than that with simple western medicine, to improve patients quality of life has a positive meaning.%目的:探讨补肾活血通络胶囊治疗原发性帕金森病的临床疗效。方法选取我院2012年3月~2013年4月收治的原发性帕金森病患者98例,随机将患者分为对照组及观察组各49例,对照组给予单纯西药治疗,观察组在对照组基础上加用补肾活血通络胶囊,回顾性比较两组的临床疗效。结果观察组的 UPDRS-I、UPDRS-II、UPDRS-Ⅲ、UPDRS-IV、LSIB 和 PDQ 评定均优于对照组,比较差异均具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论补肾活血通络胶囊具有减毒作用,可改善患者综合功能,降低帕金森病致残率,应用其治疗原发性帕金森病,其临床疗效优于单用西药,对提高患者生活治疗具有积极意义。

  13. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the contraction operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second ord...

  14. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-02-11

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  15. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  16. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Excavationless: Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. This project describes an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home that uses hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  18. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  19. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  20. Learning Circulant Sensing Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    learned dictionaries. Examples of analytic dictionaries include the discrete cosine basis, various wavelets bases , as well as tight frames. Some of them...Compressive sensing based high resolution channel estimation for OFDM system. To appear in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Signal Processing, Special...theoretical and computational properties to a (partial) circulant matrix of the same size, our discussions below are based exclusively on the circulant

  1. Blood Puriifcation for Severe Hepatitis in Vivo and Vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Exterior and interior blood purification (EIBP) refers to the combined therapy of interior blood purification (IBP) and exterior blood puriifcation (EBP) for severe hepatitis. For one thing, integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine therapy should be applied in IBP to reduce and prevent the generation and absorption of harmful substances in vivo. For another, EBP such as the artiifcial liver support system (ALSS) can extract blood from the body and various kinds of existing harmful substances in the blood can be cleared in vitro, using the treatment of plasma exchange, plasma perfusion, plasma adsorption, hemoifltration, hemodialysis. Therefore, IBP should be cooperated with EBP for the treatment of severe hepatitis, and EIBP can prevent the deterioration of this disease and lower the mortality of patients.

  2. Circulating microRNAs in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamam, Rimi; Hamam, Dana; Alsaleh, Khalid A.

    2017-01-01

    in the past several years has highlighted the potential use of peripheral blood circulating nucleic acids such as DNA, mRNA and micro (mi)RNA in breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and for monitoring response to anticancer therapy. Among these, circulating miRNA is increasingly recognized as a promising...... biomarker, given the ease with which miRNAs can be isolated and their structural stability under different conditions of sample processing and isolation. In this review, we provide current state-of-the-art of miRNA biogenesis, function and discuss the advantages, limitations, as well as pitfalls of using...... circulating miRNAs as diagnostic, prognostic or predictive biomarkers in breast cancer management....

  3. [Treatment of hydroxychloroquine poisoning with extracorporeal circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongenot, F; Gonthier, Y Tessier; Derderian, F; Durand, M; Blin, D

    2007-02-01

    We report a case of massive overdose of hydroxychloroquine treated with circulatory assistance by peripheral extracorporeal circulation (ECC). We expose the case of a 39-year-old woman who ingested 12 g of hydroxychloroquine with bromazepam, paroxetine, and zolpidem, in a suicide attempt. Patient has developed central nervous system depression, hemodynamic failure, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, and serious hypokalemia. Initially the patient has received conventional treatment with gastric lavage and activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination, blood volume expansion and vasopressive drugs, intubation and mechanical ventilation, high dose of diazepam, and potassium replacement. A ventricular fibrillation was treated with external cardiac massage. In spite of this treatment, cardiogenic shock was uncontrolled, and imposed circulatory assistance. After extracorporeal circulation, we observed a spectacular improvement of hemodynamic parameters and electrocardiographic normalization at day one. Extracorporeal circulation could be used as a rescue treatment of cardiotrope and hydroxychloroquine overdoses.

  4. BOUNDARY INTEGRAL FORMULAS FOR ELASTIC PLANE PROBLEM OF EXTERIOR CIRCULAR DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zheng-zhu; LI Shun-cai; YU De-hao

    2006-01-01

    After the stress function and the normal derivative on the boundary for the plane problem of exterior circular domain are expanded into Laurent series, comparing them with the Laurent series of the complex stress function and making use of some formulas in Fourier series and the convolutions, the boundary integral formula of the stress function is derived further. Then the stress function can be obtained directly by the integration of the stress function and its normal derivative on the boundary. Some examples are given. It shows that the boundary integral formula of the stress function is convenient to be used for solving the elastic plane problem of exterior circular domain.

  5. La política exterior colombiana en la era de Santos

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Las actuaciones en el escenario internacional desde el comienzo de la administración de Santos han suscitado un debate alrededor de la existencia o no de una nueva estrategia en política exterior. Para algunos esta transformación ha significado un cambio con relación al gobierno anterior en términos de cooperación, no confrontación y diversificación, lo que ha sido resultado de una lectura que no se reduce a convertir la política exterior en un instrumento de la política interna, sino que ha ...

  6. Gastrodiplomacia como herramienta de política exterior. estudio de caso: Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Acevedo, Martín

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la manera mediante la cual Perú ha incor- porado la gastrodiplomacia a su estrategia de diplomacia cultural como componente de su política exterior. Con el fin de cumplir este propósito, se va a defender que desde el 2008 el país Inca ha incorporado la gastrodiplomacia a su estrategia de diplomacia cultural em- pleando dos herramientas. Primero, a través de su Plan de Política Exterior Cultural, en donde se señalan objetivos claros en te...

  7. O congresso e a política de comércio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Maria Regina Soares de; Santos,Fabiano

    2001-01-01

    Como assegurar a qualidade da política nacional de comércio exterior pelo incremento concomitante (1) da eficiente delegação pelo Legislativo ao Executivo de poderes para estabelecê-la e implementá-la, e (2) do pleno funcionamento dos freios e contrapesos que permitem o controle do Executivo em sistemas presidencialistas? O desenho institucional brasileiro é insuficiente em ambas essas dimensões no que concerne à política de comércio exterior, argumentam os autores. Faz-se necessário um desen...

  8. Stationary axisymmetric exteriors for perturbations of isolated bodies in general relativity, to second order

    CERN Document Server

    MacCallum, M A H; Vera, R; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac; Mars, Marc; Vera, Ra\\"ul

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed stationary axisymmetric isolated bodies, e.g. stars, represented by a matter-filled interior and an asymptotically flat vacuum exterior joined at a surface where the Darmois matching conditions are satisfied, are considered. The initial state is assumed to be static. The perturbations of the matching conditions are derived and used as boundary conditions for the perturbed Ernst equations in the exterior region. The perturbations are calculated to second order. The boundary conditions are overdetermined: necessary and sufficient conditions for their compatibility are derived. The special case of perturbations of spherical bodies is given in detail.

  9. EXPONENTIAL MESH APPROXIMATIONS FOR A 3D EXTERIOR PROBLEM IN MAGNETIC INDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Séraphin M. Mefire

    2005-01-01

    A numerical method combining the approaches of C.I. Goldstein and L.-A. Ying is used for the simulation in three-dimensional magnetostatics related to an exterior problem in magnetic induction. Recently introduced, this method is based on the use of a graded mesh obtained by gluing homothetic layers in the exterior domain and has been performed in the case of edge element discretizations. In this work, the theoretical and practical aspects of the method are inspected in the case of face element and volume element discretizations,for computing a magnetic induction. Error estimates, implementations, and numerical results are provided.

  10. THE OVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR HARMONIC EQUATION OVER EXTERIOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ming Wu; De-hao Yu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the overlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction[1] and first suggested in [2], is applied to slove the exterior boundary value problem of harmonic equation over three-dimensional domain. The convergence and error estimates both for the continuous case and the discrete case are given. The contraction factor for the exterior spherical domain is also discussed. Moreover, numerical results are given which show that the accuracy and the convergence are in accord with the theoretical analyses.

  11. First Principles Study of Double Photoionization of H2 UsingExterior Complex Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N.; Vanroose, Wim; Horner, Daniel A.; Martin,Fernando; McCurdy, C. William

    2006-07-21

    Exterior complex scaling provides a practical path forfirst-principles studies of atomic and molecular ionizationproblemssince it avoids explicit enforcement of asymptotic boundary conditionsfor 3-body Coulomb breakup. We have used the method of exterior complexscaling, implemented with both the discrete variable representation andB-splines, to obtain the first-order wave function for molecular hydrogencorresponding to a single photon having been absorbed by a correlatedinitial state. These wave functions are used to construct convergedtriple differential cross sections for double photoionization of alignedH2 molecules.

  12. Blood sugar test - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  13. Inflammatory response and extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (EC) frequently develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgical trauma, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxaemia and blood contact to nonendothelial circuit compounds promote the activation of coagulation pathways, complement factors and a cellular immune response. This review discusses the multiple pathways leading to endothelial cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. All these factors may induce cellular damage and subsequent organ injury. Multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with EC is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In addition to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction after EC, this review deals with different therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate the inflammatory response and consequently multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery.

  14. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Tomofuji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress. Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. For instance, previous animal studies suggested that experimental periodontitis induces oxidative damage of the liver and descending aorta by increasing circulating oxidative stress. In addition, it has been revealed that clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients showed a significant improvement 2 months after periodontal treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in plasma. Improvement of periodontitis by periodontal treatment could reduce the occurrence of circulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that the increase in circulating oxidative stress following diabetes mellitus and inappropriate nutrition damages periodontal tissues. In such cases, therapeutic approaches to systemic oxidative stress might be necessary to improve periodontal health.

  15. Analysis on construction technology of exterior insulation of building exterior wall%建筑外墙外保温施工技术解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左敬宏

    2015-01-01

    Building energy efficiency has become the inevitable trend of the development of modern architecture, building exterior insulation construction technology can effectively achieve the building energy efficiency,promote the development of China’s building energy efficiency. Exterior insulation construction of building exterior wall requires the use of external wall material and the corresponding construction technology,which can meet the requirements of energy conservation.Therefore,the construction technology of external insulation construction can not only improve people’s quality of life,but also promote the improvement of energy efficiency.In view of the construction technology of exterior insulation construction technology of building exterior insulation, external insulation construction technology is studied,and put forward a reasonable solution to promote the development of China’s construction industry.%建筑节能化已经成为了现代建筑发展的必然趋势,建筑外墙的外保温施工技术可以有效的实现建筑节能,促进我国建筑节能化的发展。建筑外墙的外保温施工需要使用符合节能要求的外部墙体材料以及相应的施工技术,保证建筑物内部的能源利用效率得到有效的提高,达到建筑节能的目的。所以建筑外墙外保温施工技术不仅可以提高人们的生活质量,还能促进能源利用效率的提升。针对建筑外墙外保温施工技术的相关问题,对外保温施工技术进行研究,提出合理的解决措施,促进我国建筑行业的发展。

  16. Congenital cardiovascular malformations and the fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, A M

    2010-03-01

    After birth, gas exchange is achieved in the lung, whereas prenatally it occurs in the placenta. This is associated with differences in blood flow patterns in the fetus as compared with the postnatal circulation. Congenital cardiovascular malformations are associated with haemodynamic changes in the fetus, which differ from those occurring postnatally. Obstruction to cardiac outflow may alter myocardial development, resulting in progressive ventricular hypoplasia. Alteration of oxygen content may profoundly influence pulmonary vascular and ductus arteriosus responses. Interference in blood flow and oxygen content may affect cerebral development as a result of inadequate oxygen or energy substrate supply. The circulatory effects may be gestational dependent, related to maturation of vascular responses in different organs. These prenatal influences of congenital cardiac defects may severely affect immediate, as well as longterm, postnatal prognosis and survival. This has stimulated the development of techniques for palliation of disturbed circulation during fetal life.

  17. Blood Perfusion of Abdominal Organs during Extracorporeal Circulation Detected by 2D-Color Doppler Flow Imaging%两维彩色多普勒超声检测体外循环状态下脏器的血流灌注

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉华; 张琦; 陈如坤; 武世英; 刘跃

    1996-01-01

    用体表及心脏术中经食道超声心动图(TEE)经胃研究心脏停跳体外循环时腹部脏器及外周血管的血流灌注,发现腹主、肝、肾、脾动脉显示红或蓝色血流,动脉呈锯齿形搏动性频谱,静脉呈连续性平直频谱,并可计算血流参数,同时在体表检查颈总、眼、及桡动脉血流.经手术前,体外循环前、中、后比较认为:体表及TEE术中检测内脏与周围血管灌注,可直接实时的了解血流动态变化.%The blood perfusion of abdominal organs and peripheral vessels during extracorporeal circulation(ECC)was studied by B-mode and transesophageal echocardiography(TEE).During ECC, TEE displayed that the color of the blood flow in hepatic A,splenic A,renal A and abdominal aorta appeared red or blue.The spectrum of arteries was shown as serrate and pulsatile waves and veins flat and continuous waves.The parameters of the blood flows were calculated.The blood flows of commoncarotid A,opthalmic A and radial A were examined at the same time,Comparing the results obtained before the operation with those before.during and after ECC,it is suggested that using transthoracic and intraoperative TEE to detect the blood perfusion of abdominal organs and peripheral yesseis, provides a direct and real time observation of the dynamic changes of blood flow.

  18. Pressure passive cerebral blood flow and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier in experimental fetal asphyxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, H C; Lassen, N A; Tweed, W A

    1979-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in non-exteriorized near-term sheep fetuses using the radioactive microsphere technique. By partially occluding the umbilical vessels for a period of 1--1 1/2 hours a progressive and severe asphyxia with a final arterial pH of 6.90 was achieved. Varying...

  19. Gaussian Fibonacci Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become important tools in solving integrable system, Hamiltonian structure, and integral equations. In this paper, we prove that Gaussian Fibonacci circulant type matrices are invertible matrices for n>2 and give the explicit determinants and the inverse matrices. Furthermore, the upper bounds for the spread on Gaussian Fibonacci circulant and left circulant matrices are presented, respectively.

  20. Ocean circulation using altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minster, Jean-Francois; Brossier, C.; Gennero, M. C.; Mazzega, P.; Remy, F.; Letraon, P. Y.; Blanc, F.

    1991-01-01

    Our group has been very actively involved in promoting satellite altimetry as a unique tool for observing ocean circulation and its variability. TOPEX/POSEIDON is particularly interesting as it is optimized for this purpose. It will probably be the first instrument really capable of observing the seasonal and interannual variability of subtropical and polar gyres and the first to eventually document the corresponding variability of their heat flux transport. The studies of these phenomena require data of the best quality, unbiased extraction of the signal, mixing of these satellite data with in situ measurements, and assimilation of the whole set into a dynamic description of ocean circulation. Our group intends to develop responses to all these requirements. We will concentrate mostly on the circulation of the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans: This will be done in close connection with other groups involved in the study of circulation of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, in the altimetry measurements (in particular, those of the tidal issue), and in the techniques of data assimilation in ocean circulation models.

  1. Influence of simulated microgravity on clock genes expression rhythmicity and underlying blood circulating miRNAs-mRNA co-expression regulatory mechanism in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ke; Qu, Lina

    Purpose: It is vital for astronauts to maintain the optimal alertness and neurobehavioral function. Among various factors that exist in the space flight and long-duration mission environment, gravity changes may probably an essential environmental factor to interfere with internal circadian rhythms homeostasis and sleep quality, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Mammals' biological clock is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and peripheral organs adjust their own rhythmicity with the central signals. Nevertheless,the mechanism underlying this synchronizition process is still unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) are about 19~22nt long regulatory RNAs that serve as critical modulators of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, circulating miRNAs were found to have the regulatory role between cells and peripheral tissues, besides its function inside the cells. This study aims to investigate the regulatory signal transduction role of miRNAs between SCN and peripheral biological clock effecter tissues and to further decipher the mechanism of circadian disturbance under microgravity. Method: Firstly, based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in circadian rhythms may affect the expression of other genes, the labeled cDNA from liver and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of clock-knockout mice and control mice in different time points were cohybridized to microarrays. The fold change exceeding 2 (FC>2) was used to identify genes with altered expression levels in the knockout mice compared with control mice. Secondly, male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age were individually caged and acclimatized to the laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle) before being used for continuous core body temperature and activity monitoring. The mice were individually caged and tail suspended using a strip of adhesive surgical tape attached to a chain hanging from a pulley. Peripheral blood and liver tissues collection

  2. Design of the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior facing of the facade thermal insulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Veliborka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various facade facings - systems made of thermal insulation materials with the finishing facade renders which are directly applied to the facade walls are simple for construction and are applied in the newly built structures and they are also suitable for the application in the cases of the energy revitalization of the existing buildings. The exterior walls, and especially their outer layers, are exposed to various atmospheric influences. They cause different effects in the walls, one of them being the occurrence of the water vapor condensation. In the walls with the facade thermal insulation systems, the occurrence of the water vapor condensation may be caused by the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior render. At certain temperatures and humidity of the external and internal air, there are several conditions for the occurrence of the water vapor condensation in the wall with the facade thermal insulation system, when the exterior render is of higher relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion. Therefore, it is useful to determine the vapor diffusion characteristics, that is, highest values of the relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion of the exterior renders which will not cause the condensation of the water vapor in the wall, or at least those that will not cause the impermissible dampening of the wall material, and will allow for the possibility of moisture drying.

  3. Exact Solution for the Exterior Field of a Rotating Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I; Sanabria-Gómez, J D; Manko, Vladimir S.; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Sanabria-Gómez, José D.

    2000-01-01

    A four-parameter class of exact asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations involving only rational functions is presented. It is able to describe the exterior field of a slowly or rapidly rotating neutron star with poloidal magnetic field.

  4. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders are going to finding themselves required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. However, there has been a significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved and potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of a cladding. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by BSC in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full years worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  5. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders will be required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by Building Science Corporation in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading, has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full year’s worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  6. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ulloa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del siguiente libro:CHOMSKY, Noam y Gilbert Achar (2007. Estados peligrosos: oriente medio y la política exterior estadounidense. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, 349 pp.

  7. Convergence Behaviour of Some Iteration Procedures for Exterior Point Method of Centres Algorithms,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    in Reference 4, while Staha and Himmelblau 9 reported very favourably on their application of Newton’s method to the exterior point method of centres...34. .4cfta Poll- technica Scandinavica, Trondheim, 13 (1966). 9. Staha, R. L., and Himmelblau . D. M., "Evaludtion of Constrained Nonlinear Programming

  8. The Exterior Tricomi Problem for Generalized Mixed Equations with Parabolic Degeneracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chun WEN

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the exterior Tricomi problem for generalized mixed equations with parabolic degeneracy. Firstly the representation of solutions of the problem for the equations is given, and then the uniqueness and existence of solutions are proved by a new method.

  9. Exterior 3D lamb problem: Harmonic load distributed over a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'yasov, Kh. Kh.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Sekerzh-Zen'kovich, S. Ya.

    2016-06-01

    The solutions of the exterior Lamb problem with a distributed harmonic surface load acting on the boundary of an elastic half-space are studied. A load normal to the surface and distributed over the surface as the Poisson kernel is considered. The solution is constructed with the use of integral transforms and the finite-element method.

  10. Tres décadas de política exterior y democracia: interpretaciones y tensiones

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En esta exposición nos proponemos analizar las diversas interpretaciones de la política exterior argentina democrática; para ello haremos un breve recorrido por las principales tensiones explicativas existentes. Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI)

  11. Los Derechos Humanos y la política exterior de los Estados Unidos.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Forman parte de la política exterior estadounidense tres categorías principales  de derechos humanos: a) el derecho a la integridad personal; b) el derecho a satisfacer las necesidades económicas vitales; y c) los derechos civiles y políticos.

  12. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ulloa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del siguiente libro:CHOMSKY, Noam y Gilbert Achar (2007. Estados peligrosos: oriente medio y la política exterior estadounidense. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, 349 pp.

  13. Shape-selective n-alkane hydroconversion at exterior zeolite surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, Th.L.M.; Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.; Smit, B.; Calero, S.; Castillo Sanchez, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the adsorption and catalysis of n- and methylalkanes demonstrates that the interior surface of TON- and MTT-type zeolites dominates both adsorption and catalysis, and that the contribution from the exterior surface is negligible. For both n- and methylalkane isomers, the experim

  14. Durability of fire retardant treated wood products at humid and exterior conditions. Review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, B.; Voss, A.; Hughes, A.; Hovde, P.J.; Grexa, O.

    2001-01-01

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the fire properties of wood products, but the durability, e.g. in exterior applications, has not been addressed fully. This paper reviews the existing knowledge and experience mainly from the USA with the aim of supporting further development in Europe. The r

  15. Stokes coupling method for the exterior flowPart III: regularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Stokes coupling method for solving the two-dimensional exterior unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, the existence of the strong solution of the Stokes coupling equations is proven. And the regularity of the solution for the reduced Stokes coupling equations is discussed.

  16. A Dynamical Approach to the Exterior Geometry of a Perfect Fluid as a Relativistic Star

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare some of the solution classes, which were presented for a perfect charged fluid in Ref. [8], through studying the motion of a test charged particle on a relativistic charged star. We will show that how the interior solutions of such star, can affect its exterior geometry, by illustrating the corresponding effective potentials.

  17. Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations in an exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    Under the general condition of the initial data, we will derive the crucial estimates which imply the diffusion phenomenon for the dissipative linear wave equations in an exterior domain. In order to derive the diffusion phenomenon for dissipative wave equations, the time integral method which was developed by Ikehata and Matsuyama (Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  18. Global existence of solutions for semilinear damped wave equation in 2-D exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    We consider a mixed problem of a damped wave equation utt-Δ u+ ut=| u| p in the two dimensional exterior domain case. Small global in time solutions can be constructed in the case when the power p on the nonlinear term | u| p satisfies p ∗=2Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  19. Circulant Double Coverings of a Circulant Graph of Valency Five

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong Quan FENG; Jin Ho KWAK

    2007-01-01

    Enumerating the isomorphism classes of several types of graph covering projections is one of the central research topics in enumerative topological graph theory. A covering of G is called circulant if its covering graph is circulant. Recently, the authors [Discrete Math., 277, 73-85 (2004)]enumerated the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a certain type, called a typicalcovering, and showed that no double covering of a circulant graph of valency three is circulant. Also, in [Graphs and Combinatorics, 21, 386-400 (2005)], the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency four are enumerated. In this paper, the isomorphism classes of circulant double coverings of a circulant graph of valency five are enumerated.

  20. Toroidal bubbles with circulation in ideal hydrodynamics: A variational approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, V.P.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2003-01-01

    Incompressible, inviscid, irrotational, unsteady flows with circulation Gamma around a distorted toroidal bubble are considered. A general variational principle that determines the evolution of the bubble shape is formulated. For a two-dimensional (2D) cavity with a constant area A, exact...... pseudodifferential equations of motion are derived, based on variables that determine a conformal mapping of the unit circle exterior into the region occupied by the fluid. A closed expression for the Hamiltonian of the 2D system in terms of canonical variables is obtained. Stability of a stationary drifting 2D...... hollow vortex is demonstrated, when the gravity is small, gA(3/2)/Gamma(2)flows a simplified Lagrangian is suggested, inasmuch as the bubble shape is well described by the center line R(xi,t) and by an approximately circular cross section...

  1. Kernels in circulant digraphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Lakshmi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A kernel $J$ of a digraph $D$ is an independent set of vertices of $D$ such that for every vertex $w,in,V(D,setminus,J$ there exists an arc from $w$ to a vertex in $J.$ In this paper, among other results, a characterization of $2$-regular circulant digraph having a kernel is obtained. This characterization is a partial solution to the following problem: Characterize circulant digraphs which have kernels; it appeared in the book {it Digraphs - theory, algorithms and applications}, Second Edition, Springer-Verlag, 2009, by J. Bang-Jensen and G. Gutin.

  2. Exteriorized colon anastomosis for unprepared bowel: An alternative to routine colostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami K Asfar; Hilal M Al-Sayer; Talib H Juma

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To see the possibility of avoiding routine colostomy in patients presenting with unprepared bowel.METHODS: The cohort is composed of 103 patients,of these, 86 patients presented as emergencies (selfinflected and iatrogenic colon injuries, stab wounds and blast injury of the colon, volvulus sigmoid, obstructing left colon cancer, and strangulated ventral hernia).Another 17 patients were managed electively for other colon pathologies. During laparotomy, the involved segment was resected and the two ends of the colon were brought out via a separate colostomy wound.One layer of interrupted 3/0 silk was used for colon anastomosis. The exteriorized segment was immediately covered with a colostomy bag. Between the 5th and 7th postoperative day, the colon was easily dropped into the peritoneal cavity. The defect in the abdominal wall was closed with interrupted nonabsorbable suture. The skin was left open for secondary closure.RESULTS: The mean hospital stay (± SD) was 11.5 ±2.6 d (8-20 d). The exteriorized colon was successfully dropped back into the peritoneal cavity in all patients except two. One developed a leak from oesophagojejunostomy and from the exteriorized colon. She subsequently died of sepsis and multiple organ failure(MOF). In a second patient the colon proximal to the exteriorized anastomosis prolapsed and developed severe serositis, an elective ileo-colic anastomosis (to the left colon) was successfully performed.CONCLUSION: Exteriorized colon anastomosis is simple, avoids the inconvenience of colostomy and can be an alternative to routine colostomy. It is suitable where colostomy is socially unacceptable or the facilities and care is not available.

  3. Configuración actual del comercio exterior en Galicia = Current foreign trade framework in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Placer Galán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La reciente crisis económica y la contracción de la demanda interna han impulsado un creciente interés por los mercados exteriores. Esta investigación pretende caracterizar la configuración actual del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia, tanto en lo relativo a los productos como a los mercados geográficos de origen y destino. Para ello se emplean una serie de indicadores, ampliamente contrastados en la investigación económica, que permiten identificar: el grado de apertura de la economía provincial leonesa; la propensión exportadora y la dependencia importadora; el grado de concentración, por producto y mercados, de sus flujos comerciales exteriores; la especialización exportadora y la ventaja comparativa sectorial; la composición inter o intra-industrial del comercio exterior; y la distribución geográfica de los flujos comerciales de la economía gallega con los mercados exteriores. The recent economic crisis and internal demand contraction have encouraged the emerging interest in international markets. This study aims at featuring the current foreign trade framework of the Galicia, in regards to both import and export products and geographical markets. For that purpose, several indexes, widely verified in this study, have been utilized to identify the trade openness level of Leon economy, its export propensity, import dependence as well as the concentration level for products and internal trade flows. Leon export specialization, its comparative advantage by sector, the inter-intra-industry trade composition and geographical distribution of trade with international markets have been likewise included in this study.   Keywords: .

  4. Factors influencing the presence of circulating differentiated thyroid cancer cells in the thyroidectomy perioperative period*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wentao Wei; Qinjiang Liu; Wei Yao

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to detect circulating differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) micrometas-tasis and to investigate the factors influencing their presence in the perioperative thyroidectomy period. Methods DTC micrometastases in the peripheral blood were detected with flow cytometry, and patient clinical and pathological factors were analyzed in 327 DTC patients.Results Circulating blood micrometastases were present in the peripheral circulation at a higher rate 1 week postoperatively than preoperatively and at 4 weeks postoperatively (P 0.05). At 4 weeks postoperatively, the presence of circulating micrometastasis was not associated with tumor size or lymph node stage (P > 0.05), but was associated with poorly differentiated tumors (P < 0.05). Conclusion The presence of circulating DTC micrometastases correlates to tumor size, lymph node stage, and operative manipulation. The differentiation degree of the tumors were associated with the persistent presence of micrometastasis in the circulating blood.

  5. Blood flow measurements in the irradiated pig skin using {beta} emitters radionuclides; Mesure de la circulation sanguine cutanee chez le porc irradie a l`aide de radioisotopes emetteurs {beta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daburon, F.; Lefaix, J.L.; Leplat, J.J.; Fayart, G.; Delacroix, D.; Le Thanh, P.

    1997-01-01

    Non invasive methods of study of the skin blood flow are numerous, but generally do not give any indication on the cutaneous micro-circulatory flow, except for cutaneous laser Doppler. The isotopic exploration of the skin with injected {gamma} radionuclides, even of weak energy, doe snot allow to characterize the skin blood flow, because of the important contribution of the subcutaneous tissues. The use of {beta} emitters energy spectrum, analyzed by different quantitative methods, are proportional to the thickness of the screen localized between the radioactive source and detector. Using simple and complex phantoms composed of tissue equivalent screens, with {sup 32}P sources placed at different depths, it was possible to study the degradation of {beta} spectra, simulating respectively the sub-epidermis and sub-dermis vascular levels. A modelization and an experimental study in-vivo are proposed in this work, with {sup 32}P phosphate administered intravenously in pigs. (author).

  6. Dietary Buglossoides Arvensis Oil Increases Circulating n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in a Dose-Dependent Manner and Enhances Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Whole Blood Interleukin-10-A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, Natalie; LeBlanc, Rémi; Surette, Marc E

    2017-03-10

    Buglossoides arvensis (Ahiflower) oil is a dietary oil rich in stearidonic acid (20% SDA; 18:4 n-3). The present randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigated the effects of three Ahiflower oil dosages on omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of plasma and mononuclear cells (MCs) and of the highest Ahiflower dosage on stimulated cytokine production in blood. Healthy subjects (n = 88) consumed 9.7 mL per day for 28 days of 100% high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO); 30% Ahiflower oil (Ahi) + 70% HOSO; 60% Ahi + 40% HOSO; and 100% Ahi. No clinically significant changes in blood and urine chemistries, blood lipid profiles, hepatic and renal function tests nor hematology were measured. Linear mixed models (repeated measures design) probed for differences in time, and time × treatment interactions. Amongst significant changes, plasma and MC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5 n-3) levels increased from baseline at day 28 in all Ahiflower groups (p interleukin-10 (IL-10) was increased in the 100% Ahiflower oil group compared to 100% HOSO group (p < 0.05). IL-10 production was also increased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated M2-differentiated THP-1 macrophage-like cells in the presence of 20:4 n-3 or EPA (p < 0.05). Overall; this indicates that the consumption of Ahiflower oil is associated with an anti-inflammatory phenotype in healthy subjects.

  7. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  8. NEW SECREATING COLLEGEN PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS, CIRCULATING FIBROCYTES%外周血中一种分泌胶原的新型细胞--循环成纤维细胞

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王继峰; 牛建昭

    2005-01-01

    @@ 由于"循环成纤维细胞"(circulating fibrocytes)在组织损伤、修复重建和基因治疗中的重要功能,自2004年首次命名以来深受人们的关注[1].其实这种细胞早在1994年就被人们发现、分离和鉴定[2].在研究组织创伤修复过程中发现和确认了一种纤维细胞(fibrocytes),并且基于它们的生长特点和独特的细胞膜表型给它们定义为循环成纤维细胞(circulatlng fibrocytes)或游走成纤维细胞(alitofibrocytes).循环成纤维细胞能生成和分泌胶原蛋白和其他基质蛋白,存在于外周血中,具有显示它们造血来源(hematopoetic orgin)的细胞表面标记.这种新的白细胞亚群开始曾被叫作"纤维细胞"(fibrocytes),这个术语是由希腊语"kytos"(细胞)和拉丁语"fiber"(纤维)共同组成.然而,这个定义在解剖学术语中可能导致混淆,如在组织学、病理学中的名词"纤维细胞"(fibrocytes)指的是"成熟"的成纤维细胞(mature fibroblasts).在内耳的解剖组织名词中也有叫作"fibrocytes"的细胞是指毛细胞.所以学者们需要考虑给循环成纤维细胞一个更具特色的名称即循环成纤维细胞(circulating fibrocytes)或游走成纤维细胞(alitofibrocytes),后者词汇中"alitis"在希腊语中表示"流浪者",以强调这些细胞的血源游走性.而循环成纤维细胞则强调它们存在于血循环之中.

  9. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture......On a Danish housing estate moisture sensors were installed in dwellings, partly in exterior walls and partly in attics. At each location sensors were installed within the insulation at two positions, one facing the outer cold side and the other facing the inner warm side. The exterior walls...... conditions in walls nor attics provide a risk or concern of mould growth in the thermal insulation....

  10. El futuro de la Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones y la política exterior de España

    OpenAIRE

    Celestino del ARENAL

    1992-01-01

    RESUMEN: La proyección iberoamericana de España es una de las dimensiones claves de su política exterior y, en consecuencia, una de las prioridades de su acción exterior. Sólo asumiendo este hecho, que al mismo tiempo constituye un reto para la futura política exterior española después de 1992, el proyecto de Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones, continuará con su proceso de consolidación y desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The iberoamerican dimension of Spain is one of the key aspects of the Spanish Fore...

  11. [Circulating "tumor markers" in gastrointestinal tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlinghaus, P; Lamerz, R

    1991-09-01

    Tumor markers (TM) of the neoplastic cell can be divided into non-shedded substances and antigens shedded in blood, urine or other body fluids. For clinicians circulating TM are more important. All relevant circulating TM are not useful in screening of asymptomatic patients because of insufficient sensitivity and specificity. With caution they are useful in the observation of risk groups. Circulating TM have their main significance as additional parameters in monitoring symptomatic patients with malignancies. Several follow up determinations are more important than one single measurement. During follow up of tumor patients TM should not be checked automatically if there are no diagnostic or therapeutical consequences. The clinically most important circulating TM in non-hormone secreting tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are the oncofetal antigens CEA and AFP and antigens defined by monoclonal antibodies e. g. CA 19-9 and CA 72-4. AFP is the primary TM in hepatocellular carcinoma, often elevated in hepatoblastoma and always normal in cholangiocellular carcinoma. CEA is the TM of first choice in patients with colorectal carcinomas and liver metastasis. CA 19-9 is TM of first choice in pancreatic carcinoma and additionally of diagnostic value in cholangiocellular carcinoma and tumors of the bile ducts. In cancer of the stomach CA 19-9 and CEA are secondary TM in combination with CA 72-4 as primary TM. Care should be taken that slight and moderate elevations of TM can be observed in benign diseases of liver, pancreas and bowel.

  12. Ablation of the atrioventricular node executed after paranodal ablation of the atrioventricular node for the treatment of paroxysmal atrial-ventricular node of reentry tachycardia in conditions of artificial blood circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melikulov A.Kh.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this clinical observation is shown the data of the patient who was previously undergone paranodal ablation of atrial-ventricular junction for the treatment of atrioventricular (AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Radiofrequency ablation of right lower isthmus for treatment of the paroxysmal form of atrial flutter was made for the patient. Sick sinus node syndrome and paroxysmal form of atrial fibrillation were diagnosed. Then dual-chamber pacemaker was implanted. Antiarrhythmic therapy about the persistent form of atrial fibrillation had no effect. The decision for the implementation of radio frequency modification of atrioventricular connection using right ventriclar access failed because of the lack of verification of the His bundle's spike. Using retrograde access through the aorta we managed to create AV blockade of III degree. Taking into account the fact that in 1990-ies patients with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia were operated using paranodal ablation of the AV node using extracorporeal circulation, this case has a practical significance when endovascular catheter modification of AV nodal conduction in this category of patients is made.

  13. Ocean circulation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koblinsky, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Remotely sensed signatures of ocean surface characteristics from active and passive satellite-borne radiometers in conjunction with in situ data were utilized to examine the large scale, low frequency circulation of the world's oceans. Studies of the California Current, the Gulf of California, and the Kuroshio Extension Current in the western North Pacific were reviewed briefly. The importance of satellite oceanographic tools was emphasized.

  14. La política exterior de Canadá y la sociedad civil

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    En la ponencia se analizará la proyección de la politica exterior canadiense y la participación de la sociedad civil en su diseño. Se abordarán los temas de la cooperación internacional de Canada, la participación en Operaciones de Paz de Naciones Unidas, la disfusión de la democracia, su proyección hacia América Latina y la Argentina, y las IED canadienses. Una faceta importante en el análisis será la vincualción con los Estados Unidos y los cambios que se pueden dar en la politica exterior ...

  15. Posmodernismo y constructivismo: su utilidad para analizar la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carvajal H.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La política exterior colombiana tradicionalmente ha sido diseñada y ejecutada de manera reactiva e improvisada, sin mayores reflexiones teóricas y conceptuales sobre el entorno internacional en el que se desarrolla, ni sobre las variables que la afectan, los objetivos que busca, ni en relación con las herramientas con las que se construirá dicha política pública. Este artículo presenta, en forma sucinta, los planteamientos de las teorías del posmodernismo y el constructivismo en relaciones internacionales, y reflexiona sobre el poder explicativo que tales marcos conceptuales tienen en la política exterior de Colombia.

  16. La evolución de la política exterior China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Esteban Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sintetiza y analiza los principales cambios experimentados por la política exterior de la República Popular China desde su fundación en 1949 hasta la actualidad. Para explicar esas transformaciones se recurre fundamentalmente a tres variables (la política interna de China, las características del sistema internacional y el contexto de seguridad, que las autoridades chinas han interpretado influidas por tres componentes ideacionales: el comunismo, el nacionalismo y el pragmatismo. A modo de conclusión se subraya que, a pesar de sus vaivenes, la política exterior de Pekín ha mantenido tres objetivos fundamentales en las últimas siete décadas: modernización, reconocimiento internacional como gran potencia y reunificación nacional.

  17. Cartan for beginners differential geometry via moving frames and exterior differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Two central aspects of Cartan's approach to differential geometry are the theory of exterior differential systems (EDS) and the method of moving frames. This book presents thorough and modern treatments of both subjects, including their applications to both classic and contemporary problems in geometry. It begins with the classical differential geometry of surfaces and basic Riemannian geometry in the language of moving frames, along with an elementary introduction to exterior differential systems. Key concepts are developed incrementally, with motivating examples leading to definitions, theorems, and proofs. Once the basics of the methods are established, the authors develop applications and advanced topics. One notable application is to complex algebraic geometry, where they expand and update important results from projective differential geometry. As well, the book features an introduction to G-structures and a treatment of the theory of connections. The techniques of EDS are also applied to obtain explici...

  18. OS IMPACTOS MACROECONÔMICOS DOS INVESTIMENTOS BRASILEIROS DIRETOS NO EXTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Augusto Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A globalização produtiva tem gerado importantes debates sobre as implicações da mesma. Nesse sentido, quais seriam as conseqüências para a nação do investimento das empresas domésticas no exterior? Tal pergunta não possui evidências empíricas robustas que corroborem um ou outro ponto de vista. Assim, o presente artigo objetiva investigar, por meio de uma abordagem econométrica, os impactos dos Investimentos Diretos Brasileiros no Exterior (IDBE sobre algumas das principais variáveis macroeconômicas brasileiras. Os resultados mostraram que o IDBE tem impactos estatisticamente significantes sobre o PIB, Investimento doméstico, Saldo na Balança de Capitais e Importações. Tais resultados convergem ao encontrado por alguns trabalhos presentes na literatura.

  19. Importance of location and exterior of city hotels as elements of guest satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepavčević Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business practices and attitudes of tourists show that hospitality represents the primary factor in the development of urban tourism. It is considered that, besides the exclusive appearance, there is no business success for hotel properties without a proper location. It is known that a typical tourist would like to be close enough to tourist attractions, to be able to reach them on foot. This paper deals with the importance of location and exterior of urban hotels on guests decision on the selection and overall satisfaction with hotel products. The survey was conducted in the hotels two largest urban centers in Serbia (Belgrade and Novi Sad. The aim of the research is an insight into the real impact of location and exterior when assessing the guest satisfaction. Descriptive statistical analysis, t-test and regression analysis were used for statistical data processing.

  20. Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I, free IGF-I and IGF-II) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3, IGFBP-6, and ALS) in blood circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Hao; Mistry, J; Nicar, M J

    1999-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) play an important role in cell growth and differentiation. Clinical and epidemiological studies have indicated that measuring IGFs and IGFBPs in blood has potential implications in assessing growth-related abnormalities and risks...... of certain types of cancer. To facilitate the application, we reported a large collection of reference ranges of IGFs and IGFBPs in normal population and evaluations of these molecules in serum and plasma as well as the impact of freeze-thaw cycles on the measurement. IGF-I, IGFBP-3 andALS showed a similar...

  1. Energy decay for solutions to semilinear systems of elastic waves in exterior domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio V. Ferreira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the dynamical system of elasticity in the exterior of a bounded open domain in 3-D with smooth boundary. We prove that under the effect of "weak" dissipation, the total energy decays at a uniform rate as $t o +infty$, provided the initial data is "small" at infinity. No assumptions on the geometry of the obstacle are required. The results are then applied to a semilinear problem proving global existence and decay for small initial data.

  2. La evolución de la política exterior China

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Esteban Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo sintetiza y analiza los principales cambios experimentados por la política exterior de la República Popular China desde su fundación en 1949 hasta la actualidad. Para explicar esas transformaciones se recurre fundamentalmente a tres variables (la política interna de China, las características del sistema internacional y el contexto de seguridad), que las autoridades chinas han interpretado influidas por tres componentes ideacionales: e...

  3. Fire propagation over combustible exterior facades exposed to intensified flame in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to fire safety for exterior walls of a building, fire-resistance performance is considered, according to the current Building Standard Law of Japan. And it was revealed that the fire safety is not specifically regulated from the viewpoint of reaction-to-fire performance, such as fire propagation caused by combustible materials or products installed on the exterior side of fire-resistant load-bearing walls. Actual fire incidents in the world have shown that massive façade fire could occur at the exterior side of building wall even when the wall itself is fire resistant. In previous studies of the authors, a test method of façade fire was proposed for evaluating the vertical fire propagation over an external wall within the same building [1,2]. Based on these studies, new domestic standard test method was established in Japan as JIS A 1310: 2015, “Test method for fire propagation over building façades” at the end of January 2015 [3]. But there was the argument that heat output of burner inside the combustion chamber was not sufficiently high in the previous study. In this paper, results of fire tests on combustible façades are discussed from the viewpoints of different strength of flame exposing facade. In this research, it was clearly found that JIS A 1310 with heat output of 900kW could be applicable for evaluating fire propagation behaviour over various types of combustible exterior façades.

  4. O lugar da China no comércio exterior brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    DIEGO PAUTASSO

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do presente artigo de conjuntura é compreender o lugar da China no comércio exterior brasileiro. O argumento proposto é que a condição da China de maior parceiro comercial do Brasil representa mais do que uma mudança de hierarquia, mas transformações nas relações bilaterais e no próprio sistema internacional.

  5. Comparative analysis of urethane-alkyd and water based coatings for exterior wood

    OpenAIRE

    Jaić, Milan

    2012-01-01

    The protection of wood elements in the exterior use, such as window frames and doors, can be performed with various type of coatings. The most diffused in use are conventional coatings – solvent-based (alkyd, modified alkyds etc.). Last years, because of the restrictive normative regarding the solvent emission, the trend of coatings development leads to the reduction of volatile organic components. Organic solvents are reduced or substituted by environmentally safer solvents such as water or ...

  6. Classical geometries defined by exterior differential systems on higher frame bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.; Wahlquist, Hugo D.

    1989-01-01

    Exterior differential ideals are discussed, and sets of invariant generators presented, for Reimannian, conformal and projective geometries, and for specializations such as Ricci-flat, self-dual and Einstein-Maxwell theories. The Cartan characteristic integers are explicitly calculated, and involutory basis forms found, for each of these (specialized to four dimensions), exposing their algebraic structure and showing how they generate well-posed sets of partial differential equations.

  7. Investigación - Colombia y las fuentes de financiamiento de comercio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación pone en evidencia las fuentes de financiamiento de comercio exterior en Colombia para hacer frente al reto exportador. Así, el documento dará claridad al gremio, mostrando las alternativas de financiamiento y apoyo no económico para poder aprovechar las oportunidades que brindan los tratados de libre comercio, y otros acuerdos comerciales que tiene Colombia.

  8. On certain realizations of the q-deformed exterior differential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Richard; Abramov, Viktor

    1999-04-01

    We investigate two particular realizations of a q-deformed differential calculus at q being a primitive root of unity, qN = 1. Particular attention is paid to the Z3-graded case N = 3. First we construct an analogue of the exterior differential calculus on a manifold, then we introduce a discrete realization of such a calculus on generalized Clifford algebras. Finally, combining both constructions, we discuss a ZN-graded generalization of gauge theory.

  9. Black Holes in the Framework of the Metric Tensor Exterior to the Sun and Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E.N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the Sun and oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system to reduce to black holes is investigated. The metric tensor exterior to oblate spheroidal masses indicates that for the Sun to reduce to a black hole, its mass must condense by a factor of 2 : 32250 10 5 . Using Schwarzschild’s metric, this factor is obtained as 2 : 3649 10 5 . Similar results are obtained for oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system.

  10. The association between pulmonary function impairment and colon inflammation in ulcerative colitis patients: A scientific basis for exterior-interior correlation between lung and large intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Yun; Wang, Xin-Yue; Wu, Hua-Yang; Sun, Hui-Yi; Liu, Da-Ming; Zhang, Wen; Jin, Chen-Xi; Wang, Shuo-Ren

    2016-12-01

    To investigated the involvement of pulmonary function impairment in ulcerative colitis (UC), to explore a scientific basis for the Chinese medicine (CM) theory of exterior-interior correlation between Lung (Fei) and Large intestine (Dachang). Totally 120 patients with a diagnosis of UC were recruited and the demographics, clinical data, and blood samples were collected. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) concentrations were measured. Every patient accepted pulmonary function test and took chest radiograph (CXR).> RESULTS: Pulmonary function abnormalities were present in 72 of 120 patients. The median (interquartile range) vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) of lung, total lung capacity (TLC) and functional residual volume (FRV) were decreased in distal UC and pancolitis compared with ulcerative prochitis (P lung/alveolar ventilation (P Lung and Large intestine.

  11. Behaviour of fibre-reinforced high-performance concrete in exterior beam-column joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupriya, P.; Boobalan, S. C.; Vishnuram, B. G.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effect of reinforced high performance concrete (HPC) in exterior beam-column joint with and without fibre under monotonic loading. In this experimental investigation, cross-diagonal bars have been provided at the joint for reducing the congestion of reinforcement in joints, and also M75 grade of concrete with optimum mix proportion of 10 % silica fume and 0.3 % glass fibre was used. Four exterior beam-column joint sub-assemblages were tested. The specimens were divided into two types based on the reinforcement detailing. Type A comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per construction code of practice in India (IS 456-2000), and Type B comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per ductile detailing code of practice in India (IS 13920-1993). In each group there was one specimen of control mix and the remaining one specimen of fibre-reinforced mix. All the test specimens were designed to satisfy the strong column-weak beam concept. The performances of specimens were compared with the control mix and the fibre-reinforced mix. The results show that exterior beam-column joint specimens with silica fume and glass fibre in the HPC mix showed better performance.

  12. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Gašparović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV photogrammetric surveying. The subject is a 3-axis brushless gimbal based on a controller board (Storm32. Only two gimbal axes are taken into consideration: roll and pitch axes. Testing was done in a flight simulation, and in indoor and outdoor flight mode, to analyze the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and photogrammetric data. Within these tests the change of the exterior orientation parameters without the use of a gimbal is determined, as well as the potential accuracy of the stabilization with the use of a gimbal. The results show that using a gimbal has huge potential. Significantly, smaller discrepancies between data are noticed when a gimbal is used in flight simulation mode, even four times smaller than in other test modes. In this test the potential accuracy of a low budget gimbal for application in real conditions is determined.

  13. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, Mateo; Jurjević, Luka

    2017-02-18

    In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV photogrammetric surveying. The subject is a 3-axis brushless gimbal based on a controller board (Storm32). Only two gimbal axes are taken into consideration: roll and pitch axes. Testing was done in a flight simulation, and in indoor and outdoor flight mode, to analyze the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and photogrammetric data. Within these tests the change of the exterior orientation parameters without the use of a gimbal is determined, as well as the potential accuracy of the stabilization with the use of a gimbal. The results show that using a gimbal has huge potential. Significantly, smaller discrepancies between data are noticed when a gimbal is used in flight simulation mode, even four times smaller than in other test modes. In this test the potential accuracy of a low budget gimbal for application in real conditions is determined.

  14. La Política Exterior de Rusia en Oriente Medio. ¿Continuidad o Cambio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Pérez del Pozo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El recorrido histórico por la política exterior de la URSS/Rusia hacia Oriente Medio en el último siglo presenta una línea de continuidad, apenas alterada por las dinámicas espacio-temporales vividas por el país. Rusia ha ejecutado una política exterior más orientada a responder a los movimientos norteamericanos en la región que a consolidar una presencia activa, de iniciativas propias. Sin embargo, la situación creada tras los levantamientos de 2011 y el conflicto sirio le han permitido a Moscú recuperar una activa presencia regional en temas político-militares y obtener ventajas económicas y comerciales. Con una limitada intervención militar en Siria, Rusia ha consolidado su posición mundial de gran jugador estratégico, y ha obtenido unas ventajas político-diplomáticas que le permiten ejecutar una política exterior dictada por el carácter instrumental de sus propios intereses.

  15. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  16. Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-04-01

    The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

  17. Influence of Exterior Space to Linkage and Tourist Movement Pattern in Losari Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adyla Suriadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Makassar City has a strategic location because located at the crossroads of good traffic from north to south and from west to east, from these advantages so Makassar City eligible to be a tourism destination. One of the hallmarks quality tourism destination is Losari Coastal Area, which is a tourist area that became an icon of the city of Makassar and has many tourist attractions i.e. Reclamation Losari Beach, Fort Rotterdam, Somba Opu Shopping Centre and Culinary Tourism Area. However, tourist movement patterns who concentrated only in Reclamation Losari Beach needs for development of linkage at tourist attractions based on tourist movement patterns. Research method used is descriptive qualitative method with cognitive mapping technique to identify of tourist movement patterns characteristic in visiting tourist attractions at Losari Coastal Area and influence of exterior space to linkage among tourist attractions. Results from this research is determine influence of exterior space to connectivity linkage and tourist movement patterns among tourist attractions and find local criteria of exterior space which can be applied in Losari Coastal Area.

  18. Formation of germline chimera Gaok chicken used circulation primordial germ cells (circulation PGCs fresh and thawed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostaman T

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Formation of germline chimeras by transfer of chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs is one of the effective techniques for preservation and regeneration of genetic resources in chickens. This study attempted to form germline chimeras of Gaok chicken buy purifying circulated PGCs of donor embryo before it is transferred to the recipient (White Leghorn chickens=WL and studied the ability of recipient embryo on survival in incubators, and hatchability. This study used 200 fertile eggs of Gaok and 90 fertile WL breed all of the eggs was incubated at 380C and 60% humidity in a portable incubator. PGCs-circulation of the blood collected Gaok embryos at stage 14-16 were taken from the dorsal aorta, and then purified by centrifugation method using nycodenz. PGCs-circulation results further purification frozen in liquid nitrogen before being transferred to the recipient embryo. The results showed that for the development of embryos transferred to the fresh circulation of PGCs-circulation as many as 25 cells can survive up to day 14, while one of the transferred of 50 and 100 cells into recipient embryos was hatched (10%. On the contrari recipient embryos that are transferred to the frozen PGCs-circulation the embryos development was shorter, and only survived until day 10th (treatment 25 cells, day 14th (treatment of 50 cells and day 17th (treatment of 100 cells. It is concluded that the amount of PGCs-circulation embryos transferred to the recipient is one factor that influence the success of the development germline chimeras.

  19. Particle-based methods for multiscale modeling of blood flow in the circulation and in devices: challenges and future directions. Sixth International Bio-Fluid Mechanics Symposium and Workshop March 28-30, 2008 Pasadena, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji; Imai, Y; Matsuki, N; Xenos, Mikhail; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2010-03-01

    A major computational challenge for a multiscale modeling is the coupling of disparate length and timescales between molecular mechanics and macroscopic transport, spanning the spatial and temporal scales characterizing the complex processes taking place in flow-induced blood clotting. Flow and pressure effects on a cell-like platelet can be well represented by a continuum mechanics model down to the order of the micrometer level. However, the molecular effects of adhesion/aggregation bonds are on the order of nanometer. A successful multiscale model of platelet response to flow stresses in devices and the ensuing clotting responses should be able to characterize the clotting reactions and their interactions with the flow. This paper attempts to describe a few of the computational methods that were developed in recent years and became available to researchers in the field. They differ from traditional approaches that dominate the field by expanding on prevailing continuum-based approaches, or by completely departing from them, yielding an expanding toolkit that may facilitate further elucidation of the underlying mechanisms of blood flow and the cellular response to it. We offer a paradigm shift by adopting a multidisciplinary approach with fluid dynamics simulations coupled to biophysical and biochemical transport.

  20. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  1. Los mecanismos multilaterales como instrumento de la proyección española en el exterior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gracia Abad

    2014-01-01

    ... de la Transición Política. Desde entonces, España ha tratado de incrementar su presencia en organizaciones internacionales y mecanismos multilaterales como forma de ejecutar su política exterior...

  2. 孙伟教授治疗慢性肾脏病立足益肾清利活血法之阐微%Treatment of chronic kidney disease with tonifying the kidney and promoting blood circulation and clearing away the damp-heat by professor SUN Wei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琳琪; 孙伟

    2011-01-01

    Professor SUN-Wei has devoted himself to the kidney diseases for more than thirty years. He pursues his study precisely and is good at the combination of Chinese medicine and western medicine. He proposes the therapy of differentiating the disease with the symptoms and signs and unifying the macroscopy and microscopy to the diagnosis and treatment of the chronic kidney disease, He believes the basic pathogenesis of the chronic kidney disease is deficiency of the kidney with dampness heat and blood stasis, he also holds up the therapeutic modality of tonifying the kidney and promoting blood circulation and clearing away the damp-heat. The Professor SUN makes a point to the utmost that the priority of treatment of the chronic kidney disease is tonifying the kidney with some traditional Chinese drugs such as dodder seed.parasite scurrula and pulp of dogwood fruit, the secondly treatment with promoting blood circulation and clearing away the damp-heat. The clinical effect is remarkable that the proteinuria is reduced obviously and the function of kidney and the quality of life is improved evidently.%孙伟教授从事肾脏病的医教研工作30余年,治学严谨,笔耕不辍,学识渊博,汇通中两.特别是对慢性肾脏病的诊疗,倡用辨病辩证结合、宏观微观相印的治疗理念,认为“肾虚湿(热)瘀”是其基本病机,提出“益肾清利活血”的治疗方法.治疗力主“补肾为先”,尤喜用菟丝子、桑寄生、山萸肉等甘平益肾之品,治标则配伍清热利湿、活血通络泄浊之法,临证治疗显示出明显减少蛋白尿并有效改善肾功能,显著提高患者早中期生活质量,每使患者正气强健,五脏调和,收效卓著.

  3. Low levels of cell-free circulating miR-361-3p and miR-625* as blood-based markers for discriminating malignant from benign lung tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Roth

    Full Text Available The high mortality rate of lung cancer patients is mainly due to the late stage at which lung cancer is diagnosed. For effective cancer prevention programs and early diagnosis, better blood-based markers are needed. Hence, blood-based microarray profiling of microRNA (miR expression was performed in preoperative serum of 21 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients and 11 healthy individuals by microfluid biochips containing 1158 different miRs. Two out of the 30 most dysregulated miRs were further validated in serum of 97 NSCLC patients, 20 patients with benign lung diseases and 30 healthy individuals by TaqMan MicroRNA Assays. Microarray profiling showed that miR-361-3p and miR-625* were significantly down-regulated in serum of lung cancer patients. Their further evaluation by quantitative RT-PCR showed that the levels of miR-361-3p and miR-625* were lower in NSCLC than in benign disease (p = 0.0001 and healthy individuals (p = 0.0001, p = 0.0005, respectively. Moreover, the levels of miR-625* were significantly lower in patients with large cell lung cancer (LCLC, p = 0.014 and smoking patients (p = 0.030 than in patients with adenocarcinoma and non-smoking patients, respectively. A rise in the levels of both miRs was observed in the postoperative samples compared with the preoperative levels (p = 0.0001. Functional analyses showed that Smad2 and TGFß1 are not dysregulated by miR-361-3p and miR-625* in the lung cell line A549, respectively. Our present pilot study suggests that miR-361-3p and miR-625* might have a protective influence on the development of NSCLC, and the quantitative assessment of these miRs in blood serum might have diagnostic potential to detect NSCLC, in particular in smokers.

  4. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood, safe blood transfusions depend on careful blood typing and cross-matching. The ABO Blood Group System ... that provided by the ABO positive/negative blood typing. For example, sometimes if the donor and recipient ...

  5. Study on the Effects of Neutral Nature Drugs with Promoting Blood Circulation on Mesenteric Microcirculation and Related Activity Materials of Normal Rats%平性活血药对正常大鼠微循环及相关活性物质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓家刚; 韦玮; 黄鑫; 郑作文; 周雅君; 毛健; 黄丽贞; 唐云丽; 谭为; 伦玉宁; 兰太进

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究10味平性活血药对正常大鼠微循环及相关活性物质的影响.方法:灌胃给药,1次/天,连续14天,以5味寒性、5味温性药作对照,末次药后1h观察10味平性药对正常大鼠微循环(血流速度、血管管径、毛细血管网交点计数)及相关活性物质(5 - HT、ADP、ET/NO、cAMP/cGMP)的影响.结果:平性药血竭、王不留行、蒲黄可增加血流速度(P <0.05~0.01);合欢皮、肿节风、蒲黄、血竭可增加网交数(P<0.05~0.01);桃仁、苏木、银杏叶、血竭、三棱、合欢皮、川牛膝、王不留行、蒲黄、肿节风可降低血清中5 - HT和ADP含量(P<0.01);血竭、三棱、王不留行可升高血浆中cAMP/cGMP比值(P <0.05~0.01).结论:6味平性药能增强正常大鼠的微循环功能;10味平性药均可降低血清5 - HT和ADP含量;8味平性药可降低血液ET/NO比值;3味平性药可升高血浆cAMP/cGMP比值.%Objective: To observe the effects of ten kinds neutral drugs with promoting blood circulation on mesenteric microcirculation and related activity materials of the normal rats. Methods: Five kinds of cold drugs and five kinds of warm drugs were as the control drugs forl4 days. 1 hour after the last administration, the effect on microcirculation blood flow, capillary network junction, microvascular diameter and blood -related activity materials (5 - HT, ADP, ET/NO, cAMP/cGMP) of the normal rats were observed. Results: Neutral drugs including Dragons blood, seed of cowherb and Typha orientalis can increase the microcirculation blood flow(P<0.05 or P<0.01 ). Albizzia bark .Sarcandra glabra , Dragons blood and Typha orientalis can increase capillary network junction( P <0. 05or P <0. 01 ). Peach Kernel, Lig-num Sappan,Ginkgo Biloba, Dragon's blood,Rhizome sparganii.bark of Albizzia,Cyathula officinalis Kuan,seed of Cow-herb ,Typha orientalis and Sarcandra glubra decreased the contents of ADP and 5 - HT in blood serum( P < 0. 01

  6. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  7. Modelled Circulation In Storfjorden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogseth, R.; Asplin, L.

    The model area Storfjorden is situated between the islands Spitsbergen, Barentsöya and Edgeöya at the Svalbard Archipelago. The entrance of Storfjorden is defined by a shallow bank Storfjordbanken and some small islands Tusenöyane in southeast, and by an 115m deep sill at about 76 45' N in the south. Maximum depth in Storfjorden is 190m, which is surrounded by gradually shallower shelves in the north, the east and southeast. A steep bottom slope is present on the western side of Storfjorden. He- leysundet and Freemansundet, two sounds between respectively Spitsbergen and Bar- entsöya, and Barentsöya and Edgeöya, define two narrow and shallow entrances in the north and northeast connecting Storfjorden with the northwestern Barents Sea. Strong tidal currents exist in Heleysundet (4-5ms-1) and Freemansundet (2-3ms-1), but the general circulation in Storfjorden is not well known. The coastal current in Storfjor- den is cyclonic directed into Storfjorden south of Edgeöya from the East Spitsbergen Current and out of Storfjorden south of Spitsbergen where it is called Sørkappstrøm- men. A three-dimensional sigma layered numerical ocean model called Bergen Ocean Model (BOM) was used to simulate the circulation in Storfjorden with Freemansundet opened. Two simulations were carried out, one with heat flux (100 Wm-2) and one without heat flux from the ocean to the atmosphere. The heat flux was applied only in the proper fjord area north of the sill and not outside as a crude approximation of the effects of a polynya in the sea ice cover during winter. Both simulations had a 4km horizontal resolution and 21 sigma layers. The model is forced by winds (from the NCEP reanalyzed fields) and tides. Initial fields are from the DNMI/IMR climatol- ogy. The model simulation without heat flux gave a circulation heavily dependent on tidal forcing, showing strong tidal currents up to 2ms-1 in Freemansundet, between Tusenöyane and on Storfjordbanken southwest of Edgeöya. Earlier

  8. Cereral Circulation in Preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ivshin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the possibilities of using transcranial Doppler study in pregnant women and pueperas with preeclamp-sia. Subjects and methods. Two hundred and thirty-two pregnant women diagnosed as having varying preeclampsia were prospectively studied. A comparison group comprised 90 apparently healthy women in the third trimester of pregnancy. All the respondents underwent transcranial duplex scanning of the medial cerebral artery with the linear velocity values being determined. A number of the values reflecting the level of perfusion and intracranial pressures, hydrodynamic resistance in the system, cerebrovascular responsiveness and the state of the vascular wall were calculated. Correlation analysis was made between the parameters of cerebral circulation and the severity of preeclampsia, proteinuria, the severity of hydrops, and the parameters of central and peripheral hemodynamics. Results. The findings suggest that there is impaired cerebral perfusion in pregnant women and puerperas with varying preeclampsia, the severity of cerebral circulatory disorders being in proportion with that of preeclampsia. There is a close correlation between cerebral circulation and the individual criteria determining the severity of preeclampsia. The linear values of the Doppler spectrum, namely linear flow characteristics, are prognos-tically most significant. Conclusion. The introduction of transcranial Doppler study into obstetric care has permitted the authors not only to study cerebral circulatory disorders in healthy and pregnant women and puerperas with preeclampia in detail, but also to establish a number of highly significant prognostic criteria for the severity of this life-threatening complication of gestation. The results of transcranial Doppler study assist practitioners in timely and accurately solving the problems in the diagnosis of preeclampsia and in evaluating its severity. Cerebral circulatory values may be successfully used to

  9. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  10. World Ocean Circulation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R. Allyn

    1992-01-01

    The oceans are an equal partner with the atmosphere in the global climate system. The World Ocean Circulation Experiment is presently being implemented to improve ocean models that are useful for climate prediction both by encouraging more model development but more importantly by providing quality data sets that can be used to force or to validate such models. WOCE is the first oceanographic experiment that plans to generate and to use multiparameter global ocean data sets. In order for WOCE to succeed, oceanographers must establish and learn to use more effective methods of assembling, quality controlling, manipulating and distributing oceanographic data.

  11. Resolvability in Circulant Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad SALMAN; Imran JAVAID; Muhammad Anwar CHAUDHRY

    2012-01-01

    A set W of the vertices of a connected graph G is called a resolving set for G if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a vertex w ∈ W such that d(u,w) ≠ d(v,w).A resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a metric basis for G and the number of vertices in a metric basis is called the metric dimension of G,denoted by dim(G).For a vertex u of G and a subset S of V(G),the distance between u and S is the number mins∈s d(u,s).A k-partition H ={S1,S2,...,Sk} of V(G) is called a resolving partition if for every two distinct vertices u,v ∈ V(G) there is a set Si in Π such that d(u,Si) ≠ d(v,Si).The minimum k for which there is a resolving k-partition of V(G) is called the partition dimension of G,denoted by pd(G).The circulant graph is a graph with vertex set Zn,an additive group ofintegers modulo n,and two vertices labeled i and j adjacent if and only if i - j (mod n) ∈ C,where C C Zn has the property that C =-C and 0(∈) C.The circulant graph is denoted by Xn,△ where A =|C|.In this paper,we study the metric dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,3 with connection set C ={1,-n/2,n - 1} and prove that dim(Xn,3) is independent of choice of n by showing that 3 for all n =0 (mod 4),dim(X,n,3) ={ 4 for all n =2 (mod 4).We also study the partition dimension of a family of circulant graphs Xn,4 with connection set C ={±1,±2} and prove that pd(Xn,4) is independent of choice of n and show that pd(X5,4) =5 and 3 forall odd n≥9,pd(Xn,4) ={ 4 for all even n ≥ 6 and n =7.

  12. 颈髓损伤引起食管节段性血运障碍和气管食管瘘的护理分析%The esophageal segmental blood circulation disorder caused by tracheoesophageal fistula care

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹圣芹; 王乔利; 程银花

    2012-01-01

      Objective Explore the relevant factors of the esophageal fistula, tracheoesophageal fistula with blood supply, change. Method Retrospective analysis of hospital orthopedic cervical spinal cord injury patients treated between January 2001 to December 2010 of the cervical spinal cord injury and mechanical ventilation, tracheal intubation in patients with esophageal fistula, tracheoesophageal fistula, medical records, and literature and the actual care experience to explore the causes of fistula, tracheoesophageal fistula, analysis of respiratory muscle weakness in the cervical spinal cord injury, mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation and cervical spinal cord burst damage caused by the fistula, tracheoesophageal fistula factors, lessons learned. Result This article reports three cases in which esophageal fistula, tracheoesophageal fistula in two cases healed smoothly for further treatment. Conclusion Esophageal fistula, tracheoesophageal fistula in the cervical spinal cord injury complications, measures the degree of injury, changes in the esophageal blood supply, mechanical ventilation, endotracheal intubation, the time correlation.%  目的探讨食管瘘、气管食管瘘与血运变化的相关因素。方法回顾分析我院骨科颈髓损伤患者2001年1月-2010年12月间收治的颈髓损伤并机械通气、气管插管患者中伴发食管瘘、气管食管瘘病例记录,并结合文献及实际护理经验探讨食管瘘、气管食管瘘的成因,分析颈髓损伤后呼吸肌无力、机械通气、气管插管和颈髓爆裂损伤对造成食管瘘、气管食管瘘的相关性因素,进行经验总结。结果本文报告的3例其中食管瘘1例、气管食管瘘2例全部愈合,顺利接受进一步治疗。结论食管瘘、气管食管瘘在颈髓损伤并发症中与受伤程度、食管血运变化、机械通气、气管插管的措施、时间有相关性。

  13. Molecular diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: value of the buffy coat for the detection of circulating Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Capderou, Elodie; Bertini, Rose-Laurence; Bailly, Sébastien; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Varlet-Marie, Emmanuelle; Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Sterkers, Yvon; Touafek, Fériel; Bastien, Patrick; Pelloux, Hervé

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of Toxoplasma tachyzoites circulating in blood using PCR is recommended for immunosuppressed patients at high risk for disseminated toxoplasmosis. Using a toxoplasmosis mouse model, we show that the sensitivity of detection is higher using buffy coat isolated from a large blood volume than using whole blood for this molecular monitoring.

  14. Biodegradable long-circulating polymeric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, R; Minamitake, Y; Peracchia, M T; Trubetskoy, V; Torchilin, V; Langer, R

    1994-03-18

    Injectable nanoparticulate carriers have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery or medical imaging. Conventional carriers, however, cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To address these limitations, monodisperse biodegradable nanospheres were developed from amphiphilic copolymers composed of two biocompatible blocks. The nanospheres exhibited dramatically increased blood circulation times and reduced liver accumulation in mice. Furthermore, they entrapped up to 45 percent by weight of the drug in the dense core in a one-step procedure and could be freeze-dried and easily redispersed without additives in aqueous solutions.

  15. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  16. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  17. North Atlantic Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, R.; Bryan, K.; Schott, F.

    The intensity of the North Atlantic winddriven and thermohaline circulation and the close proximity of many oceanographic installations make the North Atlantic a particularly favored region of the world ocean from the standpoint of research in ocean circulation. Recent increases in available data and advances in numerical modeling techniques served as the impetus to convene a joint workshop of modelers and observers working on the North Atlantic with the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) Working Group (WG) 68 (“North Atlantic Circulation”). Goals of the workshop were to provide an update on data sets and models and to discuss the poleward heat flux problem and possible monitoring strategies. The joint Workshop/SCOR WG-68 meeting was convened by F. Schott (chairman of the working group; Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, Fla.), K. Bryan (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/ Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (NOAA/GFDL)), and R. Molinari (NOAA/Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (NOAA/AOML)).

  18. Squeezing red blood cells on an optical waveguide to monitor cell deformability during blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; McCourt, Peter; Oteiza, Ana; Wilkinson, James S; Huser, Thomas R; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2015-01-07

    Red blood cells squeeze through micro-capillaries as part of blood circulation in the body. The deformability of red blood cells is thus critical for blood circulation. In this work, we report a method to optically squeeze red blood cells using the evanescent field present on top of a planar waveguide chip. The optical forces from a narrow waveguide are used to squeeze red blood cells to a size comparable to the waveguide width. Optical forces and pressure distributions on the cells are numerically computed to explain the squeezing process. The proposed technique is used to quantify the loss of blood deformability that occurs during blood storage lesion. Squeezing red blood cells using waveguides is a sensitive technique and works simultaneously on several cells, making the method suitable for monitoring stored blood.

  19. Efficient quantum circuits for dense circulant and circulant like operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. S.; Wang, J. B.

    2017-05-01

    Circulant matrices are an important family of operators, which have a wide range of applications in science and engineering-related fields. They are, in general, non-sparse and non-unitary. In this paper, we present efficient quantum circuits to implement circulant operators using fewer resources and with lower complexity than existing methods. Moreover, our quantum circuits can be readily extended to the implementation of Toeplitz, Hankel and block circulant matrices. Efficient quantum algorithms to implement the inverses and products of circulant operators are also provided, and an example application in solving the equation of motion for cyclic systems is discussed.

  20. Reaproveitamento do sangue em cirurgia com circulação extracorpórea: utilização de processadora por fluxo descontínuo Re-utilization of blood in surgery with extracorporeal circulation: utilization of discontinous flow procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Galantier

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores, seguindo uma tendência de inúmeros Serviços, têm procurado técnicas visando reduzir, e em alguns casos eliminar, a utilização de sangue e derivados, em pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca com circulação extracorpórea. Tal fato objetiva reduzir os riscos de morbidade e de transmissão de doenças (principalmente hepatite e AIDS, relacionados à transfusão sangüínea. Desta forma, analisam 50 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia com circulação extracorpórea, nas quais foram utilizadas técnicas de autotransfusão pré ou transoperatória, hemodiluição total durante perfusão, reaproveitamento do sangue aspirado no campo operatório e reaproveitamento do sangue residual do oxigenador, processando-os em aparelhos de fluxo descontínuo. Com estes métodos, houve uma significativa redução no volume transfundido (324ml em média no transoperatório e 272ml no pós-operatório, sendo que 34% dos pacientes não receberam sangue no transoperatório; 36% não o utilizaram no pós-operatório e 20% não o fizeram em todo o período hospitalar. Também não houve anemia significativa (hematócrito no pós-operatório imediato de 38,4% e, no 5º dia de pós-operatório, de 35,9%, o que diminui os riscos a ela relaconados, como astenia, sonolência, inatividade, secreção pulmonar, fenômenos trombo-embólicos, etc, principalmente em pacientes idosos, sem influência no custo total de uma cirurgia com circulação extracorpórea.The authors, following the trends of several Services, have been searching for techniques aiming at reducing, and in some cases eliminating the utilization of blood and derivatives in patients submitted to heart surgery and extracorporeal circulation. This has as objetive to reduce the morbidity as well as avoiding diseases transmission (mainly hepatitis and AIDS related to blood transfusion. Fifty patients submitted to surgery with extracorporeal circulation were analyzed. Pre or trans-operative auto