WorldWideScience

Sample records for exterior surface thereof

  1. Exterior 3D lamb problem: Harmonic load distributed over a surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'yasov, Kh. Kh.; Kravtsov, A. V.; Kuznetsov, S. V.; Sekerzh-Zen'kovich, S. Ya.

    2016-06-01

    The solutions of the exterior Lamb problem with a distributed harmonic surface load acting on the boundary of an elastic half-space are studied. A load normal to the surface and distributed over the surface as the Poisson kernel is considered. The solution is constructed with the use of integral transforms and the finite-element method.

  2. Shape-selective n-alkane hydroconversion at exterior zeolite surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maesen, Th.L.M.; Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.; Smit, B.; Calero, S.; Castillo Sanchez, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the adsorption and catalysis of n- and methylalkanes demonstrates that the interior surface of TON- and MTT-type zeolites dominates both adsorption and catalysis, and that the contribution from the exterior surface is negligible. For both n- and methylalkane isomers, the experim

  3. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-02-11

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  4. Solar radiation calculation methodology for building exterior surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De la Flor, Francisco Jose Sanchez; Ortiz Cebolla, Rafael; Luis Molina Felix, Jose; Alvarez Dominguez, Servando [E S. Ingenieros. Grupo de Termotecnia, Avda. de los descubrimientos, s/n 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2005-11-01

    The present article shows a new methodology of calculation of the direct, diffuse and reflected incident solar radiation, in all type of surfaces, either in open urban environments or inside buildings. This methodology is applicable in problems related to solar access (space heating in buildings, shadowing of open spaces), solar gains (space cooling in buildings), and daylighting. Solar radiation is the most important contribution to the surface and volumetric energy balance during the daytime. Particularly, solar radiation is the main contributor to heat gains in buildings, especially in residential buildings, where internal gains are very low. Utilization of daylight in buildings may result in significant savings in electricity consumption for lighting while creating a higher quality indoor environment. Additional energy savings may also be realized during cooling season, when reduction of internal heat gains due to electric lighting results in a corresponding reduction of cooling energy consumption. The analysis of the existing calculation methods and proposed in the scientific bibliography for the calculation of the solar radiation in problems of solar access in winter, solar gains in summer, and daylighting, takes us to the necessity of outlining a new and complete methodology. This new methodology is applicable to all these problems with a great accuracy and calculation speed. (author)

  5. Discrete exterior calculus (DEC) for the surface Navier-Stokes equation

    CERN Document Server

    Nitschke, Ingo; Voigt, Axel

    2016-01-01

    We consider a numerical approach for the incompressible surface Navier-Stokes equation. The approach is based on the covariant form and uses discrete exterior calculus (DEC) in space and a semi-implicit discretization in time. The discretization is described in detail and related to finite difference schemes on staggered grids in flat space for which we demonstrate second order convergence. We compare computational results with a vorticity-stream function approach for surfaces with genus 0 and demonstrate the interplay between topology, geometry and flow properties. Our discretization also allows to handle harmonic vector fields, which we demonstrate on a torus.

  6. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Hazlini Dzinun, M. Ponraj, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Zainura Zainun Noor, Dilshah Remaz, Kenzo Iwao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite, confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  7. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  8. Biocatalysis on the surface of Escherichia coli: melanin pigmentation of the cell exterior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Martin; Hörnström, David; Lundh, Susanna; Belotserkovsky, Jaroslav; Larsson, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Today, it is considered state-of-the-art to engineer living organisms for various biotechnology applications. Even though this has led to numerous scientific breakthroughs, the enclosed interior of bacterial cells still restricts interactions with enzymes, pathways and products due to the mass-transfer barrier formed by the cell envelope. To promote accessibility, we propose engineering of biocatalytic reactions and subsequent product deposition directly on the bacterial surface. As a proof-of-concept, we used the AIDA autotransporter vehicle for Escherichia coli surface expression of tyrosinase and fully oxidized externally added tyrosine to the biopolymer melanin. This resulted in a color change and creation of a black cell exterior. The capture of ninety percent of a pharmaceutical wastewater pollutant followed by regeneration of the cell bound melanin matrix through a simple pH change, shows the superior function and facilitated processing provided by the surface methodology. The broad adsorption spectrum of melanin could also allow removal of other micropollutants. PMID:27782179

  9. Analysis of the sensible heat flux from the exterior surface of buildings using time sequential thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyano, Akira; Asano, Kohichi; Kanamaru, Takehisa

    In this study, the distribution of surface temperature on the surface of two buildings having different characteristics was measured using a thermal infrared camera. Measurements were made in the summer, the period in Japan during which heat flux from buildings is of major interest, and again in the winter for comparison purposes. The heat characteristics of each building were obtained throughout the day by time-sequential thermography (TST), and the surface temperature of each physical element was classified according to temperature, shape, material and position. When the temperature of a surface could not be determined by an infrared camera mounted on the top of a building or a pole, temperature measurements were made using a hand-held IR camera. In addition, the sensible heat flux from each surface was calculated using TST and the surface area of each element as calculated from blueprints of the buildings.

  10. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2013-10-10

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  11. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Fadhil Md Din, Hazlini Dzinun, M. Ponraj, Shreeshivadasan Chelliapan, Zainura Zainun Noor, Dilshah Remaz, Kenzo Iwao

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat gre...

  12. Antibody recognition force microscopy shows that outer membrane cytochromes OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lower, Brian H; Yongsunthon, Ruchirej; Shi, Liang; Wildling, Linda; Gruber, Hermann J; Wigginton, Nicholas S; Reardon, Catherine L; Pinchuk, Grigoriy E; Droubay, Timothy C; Boily, Jean-François; Lower, Steven K

    2009-05-01

    Antibody recognition force microscopy showed that OmcA and MtrC are expressed on the exterior surface of living Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells when Fe(III), including solid-phase hematite (Fe(2)O(3)), was the terminal electron acceptor. OmcA was localized to the interface between the cell and mineral. MtrC displayed a more uniform distribution across the cell surface. Both cytochromes were associated with an extracellular polymeric substance.

  13. Generalized exterior algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann alg...

  14. Design Considerations for Exterior and Interior Configurations of Surface Habitat Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannova, O.

    Planning for long-duration lunar and Mars exploration missions must provide appropriate human support accommodations to optimize crew comfort, health, morale, performance and safety. Important requirements to make planetary exploration missions successful are to create habitats and facilities offering the maximum possible space and volume for human and mission needs, minimize site preparation and module assembly time and offer on-site equipment readiness in the fewest number of launches. The paper addresses two general types of habitat structures: vertical and horizontal. Both of these approaches offer special advantages, but also impose special planning considerations to optimize benefits. Goals are to maximize habitability, crew safety, spatial efficiency, functional versatility and EVA access/egress from the surface. While complying with the strictly constrained diameter and length dimensions imposed by Earth launch vehicles, landing limitations and surface mobility restrictions. Illustrative concepts are presented showing examples of interior layouts, functional areas and equipment systems.

  15. Semiconductor with protective surface coating and method of manufacture thereof. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1980-09-19

    Passivation of predominantly crystalline semiconductor devices is provided for by a surface coating of sputtered hydrogenated amorphous semiconductor material. Passivation of a radiation detector germanium diode, for example, is realized by sputtering a coating of amorphous germanium onto the etched and quenched diode surface in a low pressure atmosphere of hydrogen and argon. Unlike prior germanium diode semiconductor devices, which must be maintained in vacuum at cryogenic temperatures to avoid deterioration, a diode processed in the described manner may be stored in air at room temperature or otherwise exposed to a variety of environmental conditions. The coating compensates for pre-existing undesirable surface states as well as protecting the semiconductor device against future impregnation with impurities.

  16. Unusual Complex Formation and Chemical Reaction of Haloacetate Anion on the Exterior Surface of Cucurbit[6]uril in the Gas Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tae Su; Ko, Jae Yoon; Heo, Sung Woo; Ko, Young Ho; Kim, Kimoon; Kim, Hugh I.

    2012-10-01

    Noncovalent interactions of cucurbit[6]uril (CB[6]) with haloacetate and halide anions are investigated in the gas phase using electrospray ionization ion mobility mass spectrometry. Strong noncovalent interactions of monoiodoacetate, monobromoacetate, monochloroacetate, dichloroacetate, and trichloroacetate on the exterior surface of CB[6] are observed in the negative mode electrospray ionization mass spectra. The strong binding energy of the complex allows intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which yields externally bound CB[6]-halide complex, by collisional activation. Utilizing ion mobility technique, structures of exteriorly bound CB[6] complexes of haloacetate and halide anions are confirmed. Theoretically determined low energy structures using density functional theory (DFT) further support results from ion mobility studies. The DFT calculation reveals that the binding energy and conformation of haloacetate on the CB[6] surface affect the efficiency of the intramolecular SN2 reaction of haloacetate, which correlate well with the experimental observation.

  17. Generalized exterior algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Marchuk, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    Exterior algebras and differential forms are widely used in many fields of modern mathematics and theoretical physics. In this paper we define a notion of $N$-metric exterior algebra, which depends on $N$ matrices of structure constants. The usual exterior algebra (Grassmann algebra) can be considered as 0-metric exterior algebra. Clifford algebra can be considered as 1-metric exterior algebra. $N$-metric exterior algebras for $N\\geq2$ can be considered as generalizations of the Grassmann algebra and Clifford algebra. Specialists consider models of gravity that based on a mathematical formalism with two metric tensors. We hope that the considered in this paper 2-metric exterior algebra can be useful for development of this model in gravitation theory. Especially in description of fermions in presence of a gravity field.

  18. Exterior-interior Correlation of "Heart" and Body Surface Based on Researches of Classic Literature and Modern Animal Experiments%基于经脉-脏腑相关研究心的表里关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张田宁; 周美启; 吴生兵; 曹健; 高纺; 盛红梅

    2013-01-01

    Exterior-interior relationship of meridians and zangfu organs is an important component of the theory of acu-puncturology in Chinese medicine. According to the descriptions in classic works of Chinese medicine and findings of modern experimental researches, in the present paper, the authors analyzed the close association between the "Heart" and "Small Intestine", exterior-interior correlation between the Heart Meridian and Small Intestine Meridian, and between the "Heart" and body surface (acupoints), limbs, five sensory organs, etc. In addition, the authors also summarized the underlying mechanisms of the above-mentioned exterior-interior relationship of the "Heart" and put forward some proposals for the future researches.%本文从古代文献及现代研究成果入手,分析了心与小肠的脏腑联系,心经与小肠经的表里经联系,以及心与躯体部位(穴位)、四肢百骸、五官九窍的组织联系等表里关系,阐释了其表里关系的内在机制,并就如何进一步开展心的表里关系研究提出一些设想.

  19. Exterior dimension of fat fractals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebogi, C.; Mcdonald, S. W.; Ott, E.; Yorke, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    Geometric scaling properties of fat fractal sets (fractals with finite volume) are discussed and characterized via the introduction of a new dimension-like quantity which is called the exterior dimension. In addition, it is shown that the exterior dimension is related to the 'uncertainty exponent' previously used in studies of fractal basin boundaries, and it is shown how this connection can be exploited to determine the exterior dimension. Three illustrative applications are described, two in nonlinear dynamics and one dealing with blood flow in the body. Possible relevance to porous materials and ballistic driven aggregation is also noted.

  20. Characterization of surfacing on exteriors and identification of pathologies in San Francisco de Paula (Pelotas/Rio Grande del Sud, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira, Mário M.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available San Francisco de Paula Cathedral, a nineteenth century neoclassical building, epitomizes the ballooning population and thriving economy that prevailed in Brazil at the time. Ever since its construction in 1813 under an initiative of Felício da Costa Pereira and donor Antonio Francisco de los Ángeles (Almanaque Pelotas, 1914; p. 176, it underwent enlargements, changes and remodelling. It acquired its present appearance in 1948, when the outside walls were surfaced with a blend of cement, sand and isinglass, locally known as “combed cement”. That surfacing is presently in the process of maintenance and restoration. In light of the scant and incipient literature on the subject, a study was conducted prior to rehabilitation to analyze the construction system used in the building, characterize the surfacing both physically and chemically, and identify visible pathologies.La catedral de San Francisco de Paula es un edificio en el estilo neo-renacentista, construido en el siglo XIX, que bien representa el exuberante crecimiento poblacional y económico de la época. Su edificio, que fue construido en 1813, por iniciativa del vicario Felício da Costa Pereira y del donatario de la capitanía Antonio Francisco de los Ángeles (Almanaque Pelotas, 1914; p. 176, sufrió ampliaciones, modificaciones y reformas hasta asumir su forma y apariencia definitiva, en 1948, con la aplicación en las paredes externas de un revestimiento de cemento, arena y mica, conocido en la región como cemento peinado. Actualmente, la catedral se encuentra en etapa de mantenimiento y recuperación del referido revestimiento. Teniendo en cuenta que las investigaciones bibliográficas sobre este tipo de revestimiento son incipientes, lo que dificulta su mantenimiento, se llevó a cabo un estudio inicial para su recuperación. Para esto, se hizo el análisis de la construcción del edificio, la caracterización química y física del revestimiento y la identificación de fen

  1. Exterior Powers of Symmetric Bilinear Forms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seán McGarraghy

    2002-01-01

    We study exterior powers of classes of symmetric bilinear forms in the Witt-Grothendieck ring of a field of characteristic not equal to 2, and derive their basic properties. The exterior powers are used to obtain annihilating polynomials for quadratic forms in the Witt ring.

  2. Japón: sector exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrín Solé, Ángeles

    2008-01-01

    Introducción al comercio exterior, al análisis de los principales sectores importadores y exportadores. Evolución de la inversión directa de Japón en el exterior. Análisis de la distribución geográfica y sectorial.

  3. Nanoengineered field induced charge separation membranes manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kevin C.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Bourcier, William L.; Floyd, III, William Clary

    2016-08-02

    A device according to one embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge and pore configuration characterized by a double layer overlap effect being present in pores of the membrane, where the porous membrane includes functional groups that preferentially interact with either cations or anions. A device according to another embodiment includes a porous membrane having a surface charge in pores thereof sufficient to impart anion or cation selectivity in the pores. Additional devices, systems and methods are also presented.

  4. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

  5. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed

  6. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Gertjan

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed

  7. A primer on exterior differential calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal­culus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con­nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi­tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes' and divergence theorems replaced by the more powerful exterior expression of Stokes' theorem. Examples from classical continuum mechanics and spacetime physics are discussed and worked through using the language of exterior forms. The numerous advantages of this calculus, over more traditional ma­chinery, are stressed throughout the article. .

  8. 24 CFR 3285.801 - Exterior close-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exterior close-up. 3285.801 Section... DEVELOPMENT MODEL MANUFACTURED HOME INSTALLATION STANDARDS Exterior and Interior Close-Up § 3285.801 Exterior close-up. (a) Exterior siding and roofing necessary to join all sections of the home must be...

  9. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  10. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Employment and Training Administration Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium... Assistance on March 18, 2010, applicable to workers of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson... have occurred involving workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic...

  11. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan; Kumar, Bikash

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  12. Occurrence, Distribution, and Accumulation of Pesticides in Exterior Residential Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Conkle, Jeremy L; Luo, Yuzhou; Li, Juying; Xu, Karen; Gan, Jay

    2016-12-06

    Pesticides are commonly applied around residential homes, but their occurrence on exterior surfaces (e.g., pavement) has not been thoroughly evaluated. We collected 360 dust samples from curbside gutters, sidewalks, and street surfaces at 40 houses in southern California to evaluate pesticide occurrence on urban paved surfaces as well as their spatial and temporal distributions. Pesticides and select degradates were ubiquitously detected in dust, with the median concentration of total target analytes at 85 μg kg(-1). A total of 75% of samples contained at least five pesticides. As a result of recurring pesticide applications, concentrations increased throughout the summer. The pyrethroids bifenthrin and permethrin accounted for 55% of total pesticides detected in the dust. The highest concentrations in dust were found on the sidewalk and in the gutter. Relative to indoor environments, human exposure risk to pesticides on paved surfaces was estimated to be lower, with the highest potential oral and dermal exposure predicted to be 38 ng day(-1) for permethrin. The ubiquitous detection of pesticides on residential outdoor surfaces and the fact that the exterior concentrations did not correlate to the indoor areas highlight the necessity to measure pesticides in both indoor and outdoor areas for complete residential pesticide risk assessment.

  13. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured on living animal

  14. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured o

  15. Nonstatic vacuum strings: Exterior and interior solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-06-15

    New nonstatic cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einstein's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent stringlike objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a nonvacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string.

  16. On realizations of exterior calculus with dN = 0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, V.

    1998-11-01

    We study realizations of the q-exterior calculus with exterior differential d satisfying d N = 0, N > 2 on the free associative algebra with one generator and on the generalized Clifford algebras. Analogs of the notions of connection and curvature are discussed in the case of the q-exterior calculus on the generalized Clifford algebra. We show that the q-exterior calculus on the free associative algebra with one generator is related to q-calculus on the braided line.

  17. Engineered enzymatically active bacteriophages and methods of uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James J [Newton, MA; Kobayashi, Hideki [Yokohama, JP; Kearn, Mads [Ottawa, CA; Araki, Michihiro [Minatoku, JP; Friedland, Ari [Boston, MA; Lu, Timothy Kuan-Ta [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-22

    The present invention provides engineered bacteriophages that express at least one biofilm degrading enzyme on their surface and uses thereof for degrading bacterial biofilms. The invention also provides genetically engineered bacteriophages expressing the biofilm degrading enzymes and proteins necessary for the phage to replicate in different naturally occurring biofilm producing bacteria. The phages of the invention allow a method of biofilm degradation by the use of one or only a few administration of the phage because the system using these phages is self perpetuating, and capable of degrading biofilm even when the concentration of bacteria within the biofilm is low.

  18. A NONOVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR EXTERIOR 3-D PROBLEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De-hao Yu; Ji-ming Wu; Ji-ming Wu

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a nonoverlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction(cf. [4, 13, 15]), is developed to solve the boundary value problem in exterior three-dimensional domain of general shape. Convergence analyses both for the exterior spherical domain and the general exterior domain are made. Some numerical examples are also provided to illustrate the method.

  19. Gyroidal mesoporous carbon materials and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Ulrich B.; Werner, Joerg G.

    2017-07-25

    The present invention relates to, inter alia, gyroidal mesoporous carbon materials and methods of use and manufacture thereof. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a mesoporous carbon composition comprising a gyroidal mesoporous carbon having an ordered gyroidal structure and mesopores having a pore size of greater than 2 nanometers (nm) in diameter, and more particularly greater than 11 nm in diameter.

  20. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  1. Polymeric amines and biomedical uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuis, Antonius; Zhang, Youchum; Picchioni, Francesco; Roks, Antonius

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to the field of polymers and biomedical applications thereof. In particular, it relates to the use of polymeric amines derived from alternating polyketones.Provided is the use of a polymeric amine for modulating or supporting cellular behavior, said polymeric amine being an alt

  2. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  3. PIPERIDINE OLIGOMERS AND COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to piperidine oligomers, methods for the preparation of piperidine oligomers and compound libraries thereof, and the use of piperidine oligomers as drug substances. The present invention also relates to the use of combinatorial libraries of piperidine oligomers...... in libraries (arrays) of compounds especially suitable for screening purposes....

  4. OUTDOORS ON THE SHORES OF THE BALTIC: GRADIENCE IN THE GRAMMATICALIZATION OF THE EXTERIOR-REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Karjus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The change of a lexical element into a grammatical (closed class element must necessarily include intermediary stages where the element is considered gradually less lexical and more grammatical.The central assumptions in this study are the gradualness and gradience of grammaticalization, that natural language change cannot happen overnight, and that the change is driven by individual speakers of a language community (cf. Traugott and Trousdale 2010: 23,26. Using a data sample from a questionnaire on spatial grams of the EXTERIOR-REGION (cf. Svorou 1994 in Estonian, Võro and Latvian, an attempt is made to model diachronic gradualness through synchronic gradience. The analysis and the explication thereof are carried out using multidimensional scaling, a statistical modelling method used akin to semantic maps.

  5. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosiman, G.; Wagner, R.; Schirber, T.

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  6. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosimann, Garrett [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Wagner, Rachel [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership; Schirber, Tom [Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN (United States). NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  7. Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, William [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    For this report, PNNL / the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studied a series of past exterior lighting projects at Princeton, in order to document Princeton’s experiences with solid-state lighting (SSL) and the lessons learned along the way, and to show how their approach to SSL projects evolved as their own learning expanded and as the products available improved in performance and sophistication.

  8. Stationary axisymmetric exteriors for perturbations of isolated bodies in general relativity, to second order

    CERN Document Server

    MacCallum, M A H; Vera, R; Callum, Malcolm A.H. Mac; Mars, Marc; Vera, Ra\\"ul

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed stationary axisymmetric isolated bodies, e.g. stars, represented by a matter-filled interior and an asymptotically flat vacuum exterior joined at a surface where the Darmois matching conditions are satisfied, are considered. The initial state is assumed to be static. The perturbations of the matching conditions are derived and used as boundary conditions for the perturbed Ernst equations in the exterior region. The perturbations are calculated to second order. The boundary conditions are overdetermined: necessary and sufficient conditions for their compatibility are derived. The special case of perturbations of spherical bodies is given in detail.

  9. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhardt, Paul Joseph; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Man, Weining

    2017-02-14

    This invention relates generally to the field of quasicrystalline structures. In preferred embodiments, the stopgap structure is more spherically symmetric than periodic structures facilitating the formation of stopgaps in nearly all directions because of higher rotational symmetries. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of quasicrystalline structures for optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic purposes. In some embodiments, the invention relates to manipulating, controlling, modulating and directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating in multiple directions.

  10. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Mosiman, G. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Ojczyk, C. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  11. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  12. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  13. APPLICATIONS OF FRACTIONAL EXTERIOR DIFFERENTIAL IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈勇; 闫振亚; 张鸿庆

    2003-01-01

    A brief survey of fractional calculus and fractional differential forms was firstly given. The fractional exterior transition to curvilinear coordinate at the origin were discussed and the two coordinate transformations for the fractional differentials for three-dimensional Cartesian coordinates to spherical and cylindrical coordinates are obtained, respectively. In particular, for v = m = 1 , the usual exterior transformations, between the spherical coordinate and Cartesian coordinate, as well as the cylindrical coordinate and Cartesian coordinate, are found respectively, from fractional exterior transformation.

  14. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.; Lepage, R.

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  15. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1.What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2.Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3.What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  16. Broad spectrum antibiotic compounds and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koglin, Alexander; Strieker, Matthias

    2016-07-05

    The discovery of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster in the genome of Clostridium thermocellum that produces a secondary metabolite that is assembled outside of the host membrane is described. Also described is the identification of homologous NRPS gene clusters from several additional microorganisms. The secondary metabolites produced by the NRPS gene clusters exhibit broad spectrum antibiotic activity. Thus, antibiotic compounds produced by the NRPS gene clusters, and analogs thereof, their use for inhibiting bacterial growth, and methods of making the antibiotic compounds are described.

  17. Preparation of RF-(VM-SiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu Nanocomposites, and Use Thereof for the Modification of Glass and Filter Paper Surfaces: Creation of a Glass Thermoresponsive Switching Behavior and an Efficient Separation Paper Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Sawada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric silica/alkyl-modified cellulose (AM-Cellu nanocomposites [RF-(CH2-CHSiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu; n = 2, 3; RF = CF(CF3OC3F7] were prepared by the sol-gel reactions of the corresponding oligomer [RF-(CH2-CHSi(OMe3n-RF] in the presence of AM-Cellu. The nanocomposites thus obtained were applied to the surface modification of glass to exhibit a highly oleophobic/superhydrophilic characteristic on the modified surface at 20 °C. Interestingly, a temperature dependence of contact angle values of dodecane and water was observed on the modified surface at 20~70 °C, and the dodecane contact angle values were found to decrease with increasing the temperatures from 20 to 70 °C to provide from highly oleophobic to superoleophilic characteristics on the surface. On the other hand, the increase of the water contact angle values was observed with the increase in the temperatures under similar conditions to supply superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic characteristics on the modified surface. The corresponding nanocomposites were also applied to the surface modification of the filter paper under similar conditions to afford a superoleophilic/superhydrophobic characteristic on the surface. It was demonstrated that the modified filter paper is effective for the separation membrane for W/O emulsion to isolate the transparent colorless oil.

  18. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Buildings for calculating the Energy Cost Budget. In calculating the Design Energy Consumption of the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Building exterior envelope. 434.516 Section 434.516 Energy... RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative § 434.516 Building exterior envelope....

  19. Exterior and interior metrics with quadrupole moment

    CERN Document Server

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2010-01-01

    We present the Ernst potential and the line element of an exact solution of Einstein's vacuum field equations that contains as arbitrary parameters the total mass, the angular momentum, and the quadrupole moment of a rotating mass distribution. We show that in the limiting case of slowly rotating and slightly deformed configuration, there exists a coordinate transformation that relates the exact solution with the approximate Hartle solution. It is shown that this approximate solution can be smoothly matched with an interior perfect fluid solution with physically reasonable properties. This opens the possibility of considering the quadrupole moment as an additional physical degree of freedom that could be used to search for a realistic exact solution, representing both the interior and exterior gravitational field generated by a self-gravitating axisymmetric distribution of mass of perfect fluid in stationary rotation.

  20. Liquid crystal device and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2012-10-23

    The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

  1. Fibrous microcapsules and methods of assembly and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupp, Samuel; Rozkiewicz, Dorota

    2015-01-27

    The present invention relates to assembly of peptide amphiphiles and biopolymers into fibrous microcapsules, and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention provides devices, compositions, and methods for interfacial self-assembly of peptide amphiphiles and biopolyments into fibrous microcapsules, and uses thereof.

  2. Local newforms and formal exterior square L-functions

    CERN Document Server

    Miyauchi, Michitaka

    2012-01-01

    Let F be a non-archimedean local field of characteristic zero. Jacquet and Shalika attached a family of zeta integrals to unitary irreducible generic representations $\\pi$ of GL_n(F). In this paper, we show that Jacquet-Shalika integral attains a certain L-function, so called the formal exterior square L-function, when the Whittaker function is associated to a newform for $\\pi$. By consideration on the Galois side, formal exterior square L-functions are equal to exterior square L-functions for some principal series representations.

  3. Spontaneously induced general relativity with holographic interior and general exterior

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Xiao-Qing; Yang, Guo-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The general relativity (GR) might be viewed as a spontaneously induced theory from the scalar-tensor gravity, in which the would-have-been horizon connects the exterior solution of GR with a novel core of vanishing spatial volume. Using a simple but robust analytic method, we give the nontrivial core metric for the general exterior. Then we show that all the nontrivial features of the core, including the locally holographic entropy packing, are not influenced by the general exterior. We also investigate whether other modified theories of gravity can permit the nontrivial core.

  4. Comercio exterior del sector porcino mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ernesto Bobadilla-Soto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la dinámica del comercio exterior porcino mexicano, y el efecto de las importaciones de productos porcinos en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción en México. Para la dinámica se analizaron las tasas de crecimiento (decremento y las variaciones tanto en volumen y valor del subsector, de las fracciones arancelarias agrupadas en dos grandes rubros: a animales vivos y b carnes y despojos comestibles, que tienen un impacto directo en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción nacional. El desplazamiento y sustitución se calcularon con la suma de los valores de las importaciones, su relación con los pesos en canal de los animales durante los años analizados, y su equivalente en porcentaje a número de animales. El estudio comprende de 1990 a 2008. La balanza comercial al inicio del estudio fue de -180 mil toneladas equivalente a 1.4 millones de cerdos desplazados y al 13 % de la producción nacional. Para el 2008, la balanza comercial fue -581 mil toneladas, los cerdos desplazados se incrementaron a 5.9 millones equivalente al 39 % de la producción nacional.

  5. 78 FR 17940 - Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Computerized Orthopedic Surgical Devices, Software, Implants, and Components Thereof..., Software, Implants, and Components Thereof, DN 2945; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public... devices, software, implants, and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Stanmore...

  6. Don’t get (sun) burned : exposing exterior wood to the weather prior to painting contributes to finish failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to what might be called popular myth, research shows that allowing exterior wood surfaces to weather before applying paint does not help the cause of long-term coating performance. Instead, weathering prior to painting has been shown to contribute significantly to premature failure of the finish due to loss of adhesion.

  7. Cartan for beginners differential geometry via moving frames and exterior differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Two central aspects of Cartan's approach to differential geometry are the theory of exterior differential systems (EDS) and the method of moving frames. This book presents thorough and modern treatments of both subjects, including their applications to both classic and contemporary problems in geometry. It begins with the classical differential geometry of surfaces and basic Riemannian geometry in the language of moving frames, along with an elementary introduction to exterior differential systems. Key concepts are developed incrementally, with motivating examples leading to definitions, theorems, and proofs. Once the basics of the methods are established, the authors develop applications and advanced topics. One notable application is to complex algebraic geometry, where they expand and update important results from projective differential geometry. As well, the book features an introduction to G-structures and a treatment of the theory of connections. The techniques of EDS are also applied to obtain explici...

  8. Notes on symmetric and exterior depth and annihilator numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Kampf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We survey and compare invariants of modules over the polynomial ring and the exterior algebra. In our considerations, we focus on the depth. The exterior analogue of depth was first introduced by Aramova, Avramov and Herzog. We state similarities between the two notion of depth and exhibit their relation in the case of squarefree modules. Work of Conca, Herzog and Hibi and Trung, respectively, shows that annihilator numbers are a meaningful generalization of depth over the polynomial ring. We introduce and study annihilator numbers over the exterior algebra. Despite some minor differences in the definition, those invariants show common behavior. In both situations a positive linear combination of the annihilator numbers can be used to bound the symmetric and exterior graded Betti numbers, respectively, from above.

  9. Indices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garavito, Aaron; Lopez, David; Montes, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Los indices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el analisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un pais y su repercusion sobre...

  10. Fire hazards of exterior wall assemblies containing combustible components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    White Nathan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Fire Protection Research Foundation has funded a research project on “fire hazards of exterior wall assemblies containing combustible composites”. This paper presents preliminary findings from the project. In particular, statistics relating to exterior wall fires have been reviewed. Exterior wall fires appear to account for somewhere between 1.3% and 3% of structure fires in the selected property types investigated. Fires involving combustible exterior wall assemblies are low frequency events however the resulting consequences in terms of extent of fire spread and injuries and fatalities can be large as demonstrated by selected fire incident case studies. An overview of this project and it's further work is provided.

  11. Microwave-emitting rotor, separator apparatus including same, methods of operation and design thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meikrantz, David H.

    2006-12-19

    An apparatus for use in separating, at least in part, a mixture, including at least one chamber and at least one microwave generation device configured for communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber is disclosed. The rotor assembly may comprise an electric generator for generating electricity for operating the microwave generation device. At least one microwave generation device may be positioned within a tubular interior shaft extending within the rotor assembly. At least a portion of the tubular interior shaft may be substantially transparent to microwave energy. Microwave energy may be emitted in an outward radial direction or toward an anticipated boundary surface defined between a mixture and a separated constituent thereof. A method including flowing a mixture through at least one chamber and communicating microwave energy into the at least one chamber while rotating same is disclosed. Methods of operating a centrifugal separator and design thereof are disclosed.

  12. Salazarismo y política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos JIMÉNEZ REDONDO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El sistema internacional jugó para la Portugal de Salazar un papel esencial al actuar como fuente privilegiada de la que extraer los recursos materiales (económicos, tecnológicos o financieros e inmateriales (factores de legitimación que garantizaron el programa de reforma política de la dictadura y que permitieron al país desempeñar un papel internacional desproporcionadamente relevante si consideramos su condición de pequeña potencia periférica europea. La novedad del salazarismo respecto a períodos anteriores consistió en la adecuación de esas necesidades de apertura al exterior con una fuerte percepción de los intereses nacionales, dentro de una estrategia pragmática que le permitió acomodarse a la acelerada evolución del sistema internacional y, sobre todo, al cambio que se produjo en el sistema internacional de acuerdo a la dinámica de la Guerra Fría y sus distintas fases. Palabras clave: Salazarismo, OTAN, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Guerra colonial, descolonización. ABSTRACT: The international system played for the Portugal of Salazar an essential role when acting like privileged source of which to extract the material resources (economic, technological or financial and immaterial (legitimation factors that guaranteed the program of political reform of the dictatorship and that allowed the country to play very out of proportion excellent a role international if we considered its condition of small European peripheral power. The newness of the salazarism with respect to previous periods consisted of the adjustment of those necessities of opening to the outside with a strong perception of the national interests, within a pragmatic strategy that allowed to comply him to the accelerated evolution of the international system and, mainly, to the change that took place in the international system according to the dynamics of the cold war and its different phases. Keywords: Salazarism, NATO, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Colonial

  13. Keto-isovalerate decarboxylase enzymes and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvain, Jessica; O'Keefe, Daniel P.; Paul, Brian James; Payne, Mark S.; Rothman, Steven Cary; He, Hongxian

    2016-01-19

    Provided herein are polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides which have ketoisovalerate decarboxylase activity. Also provided are recombinant host cells comprising such polypeptides and polynucleotides and methods of use thereof.

  14. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin; Jeon, Sea Ho; Mack, Nathan H.

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  15. System and method for detecting cells or components thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Marc D. (Ames, IA); Lipert, Robert J. (Ames, IA); Doyle, Robert T. (Ames, IA); Grubisha, Desiree S. (Corona, CA); Rahman, Salma (Ames, IA)

    2009-01-06

    A system and method for detecting a detectably labeled cell or component thereof in a sample comprising one or more cells or components thereof, at least one cell or component thereof of which is detectably labeled with at least two detectable labels. In one embodiment, the method comprises: (i) introducing the sample into one or more flow cells of a flow cytometer, (ii) irradiating the sample with one or more light sources that are absorbed by the at least two detectable labels, the absorption of which is to be detected, and (iii) detecting simultaneously the absorption of light by the at least two detectable labels on the detectably labeled cell or component thereof with an array of photomultiplier tubes, which are operably linked to two or more filters that selectively transmit detectable emissions from the at least two detectable labels.

  16. Switchgrass ubiquitin promoter (PVUBI2) and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C. Neal; Mann, David George James

    2013-12-10

    The subject application provides polynucleotides, compositions thereof and methods for regulating gene expression in a plant. Polynucleotides disclosed herein comprise novel sequences for a promoter isolated from Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) that initiates transcription of an operably linked nucleotide sequence. Thus, various embodiments of the invention comprise the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 2 or fragments thereof comprising nucleotides 1 to 692 of SEQ ID NO: 2 that are capable of driving the expression of an operably linked nucleic acid sequence.

  17. Seismic strengthening of RC structures with exterior shear walls

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasan Kaplan; Salih Yilmaz; Nihat Cetinkaya; Ergin Atimtay

    2011-02-01

    Vulnerable buildings and their rehabilitation are important problems for earthquake regions. In recent decades the goal of building rehabilitation and strengthening has gained research attention and numerous techniques have been developed to achieve this. However, most of these strengthening techniques disturb the occupants, who must vacate the building during renovation. In this study, a new strengthening alternative for RC structures, namely exterior shear walls, has been experimentally investigated under reversed cyclic loading. Using the proposed technique, it is possible to strengthen structures without disturbing their users or vacating the building during renovation. In this technique, shear walls are installed in parallel to the building’s exterior sides. It has been observed that the usage of exterior shear walls considerably improve the capacity and sway stiffness of RC structures. The experimental results have also been compared and found to be in agreement with the numerical solutions. Post attached exterior shear walls behaved as a monolithic member of the structure. Design considerations for the exterior shear wall-strengthened buildings have also been discussed in the paper.

  18. The Radially Symmetric Euler Equations as an Exterior Differential System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baty, Roy; Ramsey, Scott; Schmidt, Joseph

    2016-11-01

    This work develops the Euler equations as an exterior differential system in radially symmetric coordinates. The Euler equations are studied for unsteady, compressible, inviscid fluids in one-dimensional, converging flow fields with a general equation of state. The basic geometrical constructions (for example, the differential forms, tangent planes, jet space, and differential ideal) used to define and analyze differential equations as systems of exterior forms are reviewed and discussed for converging flows. Application of the Frobenius theorem to the question of the existence of solutions to radially symmetric converging flows is also reviewed and discussed. The exterior differential system is further applied to derive and analyze the general family of characteristic vector fields associated with the one-dimensional inviscid flow equations.

  19. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  20. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Ehler, Deborah S. (Los Alamos, NM); John, Kevin D. (Santa Fe, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Collis, Gavin E. (Los Alamos, NM); Minogue, Edel M. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  1. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2006-10-31

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  2. [Spatial orientation of pilot using a cockpit exterior surveillance system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuntul, A V; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V

    2013-01-01

    Spatial orientation of pilots using a cockpit exterior surveillance system was tested in real nighttime helicopter flights. Major factors complicating adequate spatial orientation and provoking visual illusions in pilots are lack of information for spatial depth (relation) perception in two-dimensional TV images altering their position along the horizontal and vertical lines of trajectory and simultaneous piloting and target search-identification operations. Reliability of pilot's spatial orientation could be improved by displaying on the exterior imaging screen also relevant flight navigation parameters.

  3. Deformed exterior algebra, quons and their coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    El-Baz, M

    2002-01-01

    We review the notion of the deformation of the exterior wedge product. This allows us to construct the deformation of the algebra of exterior forms over a vector space and also over an arbitrary manifold. We relate this approach to the generalized statistics and we study quons, as a particular case of these generalized statistics. We also give their statistical properties. A large part of the work is devoted to the problem of constructing coherent states for the deformed oscillators. We give a review of all the approaches existing in the literature concerning this point and enforce it with many examples.

  4. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLillo, T.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Pfaltzgraff, J.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  5. 40 CFR 205.55-5 - Labeling-exterior. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-exterior. 205.55-5 Section 205.55-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-5...

  6. On sets without tangents and exterior sets of a conic

    CERN Document Server

    Van de Voorde, Geertrui

    2012-01-01

    A set without tangents in $\\PG(2,q)$ is a set of points S such that no line meets S in exactly one point. An exterior set of a conic $\\mathcal{C}$ is a set of points $\\E$ such that all secant lines of $\\E$ are external lines of $\\mathcal{C}$. In this paper, we first recall some known examples of sets without tangents and describe them in terms of determined directions of an affine pointset. We show that the smallest sets without tangents in $\\PG(2,5)$ are (up to projective equivalence) of two different types. We generalise the non-trivial type by giving an explicit construction of a set without tangents in $\\PG(2,q)$, $q=p^h$, $p>2$ prime, of size $q(q-1)/2-r(q+1)/2$, for all $0\\leq r\\leq (q-5)/2$. After that, a different description of the same set in $\\PG(2,5)$, using exterior sets of a conic, is given and we investigate in which ways a set of exterior points on an external line $L$ of a conic in $\\PG(2,q)$ can be extended with an extra point $Q$ to a larger exterior set of $\\mathcal{C}$. It turns out that ...

  7. 36 CFR 910.38 - Building exterior illumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Building exterior illumination. 910.38 Section 910.38 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE DEVELOPMENT... specified in the Pennsylvania Avenue Lighting Plan of the Corporation. ...

  8. Spinoza y el naturalismo: el problema del mundo exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Barrero, Tomás

    2010-01-01

    El conocimiento del mundo exterior se presenta como un problema difícil para el racionalismo clásico, encarnado en Descartes. En este ensayo, se examinará el argumento que permite a Spinoza solucionar esta dificultad mediante un naturalismo muy singular que determina un profundo sesgo anticartesiano en su obra.

  9. Modeling of Exterior Rotor Permanent Magnet Machines with Concentrated Windings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Xuan, H.

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis modeling, analysis, design and measurement of exterior rotor permanent magnet (PM) machines with concentrated windings are dealt with. Special attention is paid to slotting effect. The PM machine is integrated in flywheel and used for small-scale ship application. Analytical model and

  10. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs.

  11. Second order perturbations of rotating bodies in equilibrium; the exterior vacuum problem

    CERN Document Server

    MacCallum, M A H; Vera, R; Callum, Malcolm A. H. Mac; Mars, Marc; Vera, Raul

    2005-01-01

    We study the exterior vacuum problem for first and second order stationary and axially symmetric perturbations of static bodies. The boundary conditions and their compatibility for the existence of an asymptotically flat exterior solution are discussed.

  12. 29 CFR 1975.5 - States and political subdivisions thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... subdivisions of a State: (5) The term “employer” means a person engaged in a business affecting commerce who... “State or political subdivision of a State”, but unusual factors to the contrary in a particular case may... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false States and political subdivisions thereof. 1975.5...

  13. 76 FR 39895 - In the Matter of Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain microprocessors, components... sale within the United States after importation of certain microprocessors, components thereof,...

  14. 77 FR 13350 - Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Automotive GPS Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... importation of certain automotive GPS navigation systems, components thereof, and products containing the...

  15. 78 FR 13083 - Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... COMMISSION Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Products Having Laminated ] Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof, DN 2940; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised...

  16. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the Investigation Based on... States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof by reason...

  17. 76 FR 22726 - Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products... multimedia display and navigation devices and systems, components thereof, and products containing same...

  18. 77 FR 16860 - Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software; Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software; Termination of... within the United States after importation of certain GPS navigation products, components thereof,...

  19. 76 FR 58041 - Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice... certain digital televisions containing integrated circuit devices and components thereof by reason of... the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital televisions containing...

  20. 77 FR 58406 - Certain LED Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain LED Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements... general exclusion order against certain LED photographic lighting devices and components thereof. The ALJ alternatively recommended a limited exclusion order against certain LED photographic lighting devices...

  1. 78 FR 19007 - Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Certain Products Having Laminated Packaging, Laminated Packaging, and Components Thereof... importation of certain products having laminated packaging, laminated packaging, and components thereof by... Investigation: Having considered the complaint, the U.S. International Trade Commission, on March 22,...

  2. 77 FR 68829 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements... limited exclusion order against certain electronic digital media devices and components thereof...

  3. 78 FR 6130 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof: Commission Determination To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof: Commission Determination To... certain electronic digital media devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of...

  4. 77 FR 20047 - Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral... States after importation of certain computer and computer peripheral devices and components thereof...

  5. THE MODERN STYLE IN INTERIOR AND EXTERIOR DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaska Sandeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The style is a way of expression, which is characterized by all the features that distinguish it from the rest. In the art indicates overall characteristics of an artist or art school, direction or time. Modern design is difficult to define. The term "modern" refers to the impact of modern art to the design of interiors and exteriors. Modern design is defined more by its own trends, which is largely unchanged for several decades. One of the most important elements in modern design of interiors and exteriors is the form. Modern design uses geometric forms including rigid squares and rectangles, with a smooth, even and curved ends. Perfect circles and oval shapes are also common in modern design. Modern design is also plain and simple.

  6. Combining interior and exterior characteristics for remote sensing image denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ni; Sun, Shujin; Wang, Runsheng; Zhong, Ping

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing image denoising faces many challenges since a remote sensing image usually covers a wide area and thus contains complex contents. Using the patch-based statistical characteristics is a flexible method to improve the denoising performance. There are usually two kinds of statistical characteristics available: interior and exterior characteristics. Different statistical characteristics have their own strengths to restore specific image contents. Combining different statistical characteristics to use their strengths together may have the potential to improve denoising results. This work proposes a method combining statistical characteristics to adaptively select statistical characteristics for different image contents. The proposed approach is implemented through a new characteristics selection criterion learned over training data. Moreover, with the proposed combination method, this work develops a denoising algorithm for remote sensing images. Experimental results show that our method can make full use of the advantages of interior and exterior characteristics for different image contents and thus improve the denoising performance.

  7. DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR THERMAL INSULATION OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN CENTRAL REGIONS OF СHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bantserova Ol'ga Leonidovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of the overall heat loss is due to the heat loss through the building envelope. According to the opinions of experts, the surface area of exterior walls has the insulation of about 65 % of the total envelope of apartment buildings; therefore, thermal protection of external walls of buildings is a key issue in ensuring the thermal performance of envelopes of apartment buildings. The author has developed design solutions that assure the thermal protection of exterior walls and that are aimed at identifying the optimal solution in terms of the location of insulation materials, their thermal performance and insulation of exterior walls of apartment buildings in central regions of China. The author presents a comparative analysis of the main methodologies of thermal insulation designated for the exterior walls of multi-storey residential buildings: internal and external insulation, as well as the insulation in-between the wall layers. The analyses of wall designs are based on the insulation performance, thermal insulation performance, methods of mounting different systems of insulation, and cost of work. As a result, practical recommendations originate from the statement that the most optimal designs of exterior walls of monolithic high-rise apartment buildings of central regions of China are those that have insulation on the outside of the building. They include layers of insulation made of extruded polystyrene, which is currently planned for use in the construction of high-rise monolithic residential buildings in central China.

  8. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effecti...

  9. Advanced exterior sensor project : final report, September 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, M. Rodema

    2004-12-01

    This report (1) summarizes the overall design of the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES) system to include detailed descriptions of system components, (2) describes the work accomplished throughout FY04 to evaluate the current health of the original prototype and to return it to operation, (3) describes the status of the AES and the AES project as of September 2004, and (4) details activities planned to complete modernization of the system to include development and testing of the second-generation AES prototype.

  10. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, WIlliam E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report focuses on four exterior solid-state lighting projects that have been completed at Princeton since 2008, when the University adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. Through these initial projects – which include a parking garage, a pedestrian path, and two parking lot installations – the school’s facilities engineering staff learned important lessons about SSL technology and gained experience in dealing with the rapidly changing landscape of lighting manufacturers and their suppliers.

  11. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  12. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, A.; Baker, R.; Prahl, D.

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  13. Nanostructured calcium-silver phosphate composite powder, method for obtaining same, and bactericidal and fungicidal uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Muñoz, Marcos; Moya, J. S.; Barba Martín-Sonseca, María Flora; Malpartida Romero, Francisco; Miranda Fernández, Miriam; Fernández, Adolfo

    2008-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a nanostructured calcium-silver phosphate composite powder which can be used as a bactericide and/or fungicide, with similar effectiveness to that of commercial products and with low toxicity. The invention also relates to a method for obtaining said nanostructured calcium-silver phosphate composite powders, which comprises preparing nanometric calcium phosphate by means of a sol-gel process and subsequently depositing silver nanoparticles on the surface thereof....

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation (BSC Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explore these topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help inform design standards and criteria.

  15. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on thestructure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explorethese topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help informdesign standards and criteria.

  16. Limit and end functors of dynamical systems via exterior spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Calcines, J M Garcia; Rodriguez, M Teresa Rivas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze some applications of the category of exterior spaces to the study of dynamical systems (flows). We study the notion of an absorbing open subset of a dynamical system; i.e., an open subset that contains the "future part" of all the trajectories. The family of all absorbing open subsets is a quasi-filter which gives the structure of an exterior space to the flow. The limit space and end space of an exterior space is used to construct the limit spaces and end spaces of a dynamical system. On the one hand, for a dynamical system two limits spaces $L^{\\r}(X)$ and $\\bar L^{\\r}(X)$ are constructed and their relations with the subflows of periodic, Poisson stable points and $\\Omega^{\\r}$-limits of $X$ are analyzed. On the other hand, different end spaces are also associated to a dynamical system having the property that any positive semi-trajectory has an end point in these end spaces. This type of construction permits us to consider the subflow containing all trajectories finishing at an end...

  17. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  18. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  19. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products containing the... cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware, and components thereof and products...

  20. 77 FR 14043 - Certain Mobile Devices, Associated Software, and Components Thereof; Determination To Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Devices, Associated Software, and Components Thereof; Determination To Review Final... certain mobile devices, associated software, and components thereof by reason of infringement of U.S... mobile devices, associated software, and components thereof containing same by reason of infringement...

  1. 77 FR 20846 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof by... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof...

  2. 78 FR 68475 - Certain Vision-Based Driver Assistance System Cameras and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ... COMMISSION Certain Vision-Based Driver Assistance System Cameras and Components Thereof; Institution of...-based driver assistance system cameras and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain... assistance system cameras and components thereof by reason of infringement of one or more of claims 1, 2,...

  3. 78 FR 29702 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping... order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011... September 15, 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as...

  4. 76 FR 10335 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect... parts thereof from Germany on May 15, 1989. See Antidumping Duty Orders: Ball Bearings,...

  5. 78 FR 9674 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of... thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through September 14, 2011.\\1\\ We..., 2011, the Department revoked the order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany as...

  6. 75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect to myonic GmbH... spherical plain bearings and parts thereof from Germany on May 15, 1989. See Antidumping Duty Orders:...

  7. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of... bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010). The... bearings and parts thereof from Germany covering the period of review May 1, 2006, through April 30,...

  8. 76 FR 47610 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of... of certain electronic digital media devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of... electronic digital media devices and components thereof ] that infringe one or more of claims 1, 3-6, and...

  9. 76 FR 41523 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...-TA-704, Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof based on a... communications and computer devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of...

  10. Modeling thermal performance of exterior walls retrofitted from insulation and modified laterite based bricks materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, Elvis; Meukam, Pierre; Damfeu, Jean Claude

    2017-06-01

    Uninsulated concrete block walls commonly found in tropical region have to be retrofitted to save energy. The thickness of insulation layer used can be reduced with the help of modified laterite based bricks layer (with the considerably lower thermal conductivity than that of concrete block layer) during the retrofit building fabrics. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum location and distribution of different materials. The investigation is carried out under steady periodic conditions under the climatic conditions of Garoua in Cameroon using a Simulink model constructed from H-Tools (the library of Simulink models). Results showed that for the continuous air-conditioned space, the best wall configuration from the maximum time lag, minimum decrement factor and peak cooling transmission load perspective, is dividing the insulation layer into two layers and placing one at the exterior surface and the other layer between the two different massive layers with the modified laterite based bricks layer at the interior surface. For intermittent cooling space, the best wall configuration from the minimum energy consumption depends on total insulation thickness. For the total insulation thickness less than 8 cm approximately, the best wall configuration is placing the half layer of insulation material at the interior surface and the other half between the two different massive layers with the modified earthen material at the exterior surface. Results also showed that, the optimum insulation thickness calculated from the yearly cooling transmission (estimated only during the occupied period) and some economic considerations slightly depends on the location of that insulation.

  11. Nucleic acids encoding antifungal polypeptides and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altier, Daniel J.; Ellanskaya, I. A.; Gilliam, Jacob T.; Hunter-Cevera, Jennie; Presnail, James K; Schepers, Eric; Simmons, Carl R.; Torok, Tamas; Yalpani, Nasser

    2010-11-02

    Compositions and methods for protecting a plant from a pathogen, particularly a fungal pathogen, are provided. Compositions include an amino acid sequence, and variants and fragments thereof, for an antipathogenic polypeptide that was isolated from a fungal fermentation broth. Nucleic acid molecules that encode the antipathogenic polypeptides of the invention, and antipathogenic domains thereof, are also provided. A method for inducing pathogen resistance in a plant using the nucleotide sequences disclosed herein is further provided. The method comprises introducing into a plant an expression cassette comprising a promoter operably linked to a nucleotide sequence that encodes an antipathogenic polypeptide of the invention. Compositions comprising an antipathogenic polypeptide or a transformed microorganism comprising a nucleic acid of the invention in combination with a carrier and methods of using these compositions to protect a plant from a pathogen are further provided. Transformed plants, plant cells, seeds, and microorganisms comprising a nucleotide sequence that encodes an antipathogenic polypeptide of the invention are also disclosed.

  12. Multi-organ technetium complexes production and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, G.A.; Pestel, G.M.

    1976-08-24

    Chemical complexes, useful as radiopharmaceuticals, are formed by reacting technetium-99m with substituted or unsubstituted alkyl monophosphonic acids and certain ester derivatives thereof. The complexes are formed by reducing pertechnetate ion chemically or electrolytically in the presence of the phosphonic acid. By chemical modification of the phosphonic acid complexing agent, it is possible to ''tailor'' complexes for kidney, liver or bone imaging. The complexes are normally used in a physiologically acceptable aqueous medium. 20 Claims, No Drawings.

  13. Fluorination utilizing thermodynamically unstable fluorides and fluoride salts thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, Neil (Orinda, CA); Whalen, J. Marc (Corning, NY); Chacon, Lisa (Corning, NY)

    2000-12-12

    A method for fluorinating a carbon compound or cationic carbon compound utilizes a fluorination agent selected from thermodynamically unstable nickel fluorides and salts thereof in liquid anhydrous hydrogen fluoride. The desired carbon compound or cationic organic compound to undergo fluorination is selected and reacted with the fluorination agent by contacting the selected organic or cationic organic compound and the chosen fluorination agent in a reaction vessel for a desired reaction time period at room temperature or less.

  14. Performance profiles of exterior fire protective building envelopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarnskjold Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fire protective envelope of any building consists of multiple elements with widely differing properties relating to a fire, such as glass, roof tiles and sheathings, wood cladding, gaps and openings. Where resistance to an exterior fire is required, all elements should be verified to provide a comparable risk of burn-through. Elements are rated by either the material response to fire or fire resistance. In Europe, cladding sheets and wall membranes can be rated by K classes, which effectively include a measure of the time to burn through. A determination of burn-through time of each element of a specific building envelope should be obtained. A design tool to verify the performance of a building's fire protective envelope has been developed. In this paper, a general description of passive elements of the envelope, which should be included in a risk assessment tool such as an index method, is presented. An illustrative approach to visualise the profiles for areas densely spaced structures where an exterior fire may trigger building-to-building fire spread is also included. The research is based on the hypothesis that a relatively subtle and pointed upgrading of an exterior building envelope will severely reduce the speed of building-to-building fire spread, thus allowing firefighting efforts to get on top of the situation. For a burning structure to expose other buildings to fire, the fire has to settle, which leads to a burn-through to the inside. Once inside, an enclosure fire needs to develop and burn through the roof or break one or more large window panes. It is estimated that a 5–10 min delay for a structure to expose other structures to fire can be sufficient to avoid loss of multiple structures. A 10–50 min burn-through time allows for an extended intervention by the fire brigade, which is significant in rural areas. A fire protective envelope may prevent an exterior fire from penetrating the protective envelope at all and the

  15. Exterior difference systems and invariance properties of discrete mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Zheng; Xie Duanqiang; Li Hongbo [Center of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Zhejiang 310027 (China); Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: lenozhengxie@yahoo.com.cn

    2008-06-27

    Invariance properties describe the fundamental physical laws in discrete mechanics. Can those properties be described in a geometric way? We investigate an exterior difference system called the discrete Euler-Lagrange system, whose solution has one-to-one correspondence with solutions of discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, and use it to define the first integrals. The preservation of the discrete symplectic form along the discrete Hamilton phase flows and the discrete Noether's theorem is also described in the language of difference forms.

  16. Implantación de ascensores exteriores en edificios existentes

    OpenAIRE

    Abad Herrero, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    En la ciudad de Barcelona desde 2001 se han construido ascensores por el exterior de edificios ya existentes, edificios los cuales no disponían. El objetivo es estudiar cómo se inicia el fenómeno, las problemáticas surgidas y soluciones adoptadas y enmarcar a nivel socio-cultural y urbanístico el origen de los barrios donde se ubican los edificios de viviendas afectados. El método empleado, limites de estudio (ciudad de Barcelona), la organización de la investigación (almacenamien...

  17. Regression on manifolds: Estimation of the exterior derivative

    CERN Document Server

    Aswani, Anil; Tomlin, Claire; 10.1214/10-AOS823

    2011-01-01

    Collinearity and near-collinearity of predictors cause difficulties when doing regression. In these cases, variable selection becomes untenable because of mathematical issues concerning the existence and numerical stability of the regression coefficients, and interpretation of the coefficients is ambiguous because gradients are not defined. Using a differential geometric interpretation, in which the regression coefficients are interpreted as estimates of the exterior derivative of a function, we develop a new method to do regression in the presence of collinearities. Our regularization scheme can improve estimation error, and it can be easily modified to include lasso-type regularization. These estimators also have simple extensions to the "large $p$, small $n$" context.

  18. Perturbation of essential spectra of exterior elliptic problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grubb, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    For a second-order symmetric strongly elliptic differential operator on an exterior domain in ℝ n , it is known from the works of Birman and Solomiak that a change in the boundary condition from the Dirichlet condition to an elliptic Neumann or Robin condition leaves the essential spectrum...... an extension of the spectral asymptotics formula for the difference between inverses of elliptic problems. The proofs rely on Kreĭn-type formulae for differences between inverses, and cutoff techniques, combined with results on singular Green operators and their spectral asymptotics....

  19. Comment on the Exterior Solutions and Their Geometry in Scalar-Tensor Theories of Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, T.; Watanabe, K.

    1999-01-01

    We study series of stationary solutions with asymptotic flatness properties in the Einstein-Maxwell-free scalar system because they are locally equivalent to the exterior solutions in some class of scalar-tensor theories of gravity. First, we classify spherical exterior solutions into two types of solutions, an apparently black hole type solution and an apparently worm hole type solution. The solutions contain three parameters, and we clarify their physical significance. Second, we reduce the field equations for the axisymmetric exterior solutions. We find that the reduced equations are partially the same as the Ernst equations. As simple examples, we derive new series of static, axisymmetric exterior solutions, which correspond to Voorhees's solutions. We then establish a non-trivial relation between the spherical exterior solutions and our new solutions. Finally, since null geodesics have conformally invariant properties, we study the local geometry of the exterior solutions by using the optical scalar equations and find some anomalous behavior of the null geodesics.

  20. Comment on the exterior solutions and their geometry in scalar-tensor theories of gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuchida, T; Tsuchida, Tooru; Watanabe, Kazuya

    1999-01-01

    We study series of the stationary solutions with asymptotic flatness properties in the Einstein-Maxwell-free scalar system because they are locally equivalent with the exterior solutions in some class of the scalar-tensor theories of gravity. First, we classify spherical exterior solutions into two types of the solutions, an apparently black hole type solution and an apparently worm hole type solution. The solutions contain three parameters, and we clarify their physical significance. Second, we reduce the field equations for the axisymmetric exterior solutions. We find that the reduced equations are partially the same as the Ernst equations. As simple examples, we derive new series of the static, axisymmetric exterior solutions, which correspond to Voorhees's solutions. We then show a non-trivial relation between the spherical exterior solutions and our new solutions. Finally, since null geodesics have conformally invariant properties, we study the local geometry of the exterior solutions by using the optica...

  1. Seismic Experimental Study on New-Type Composite Exterior Wallboard with Integrated Structural Function and Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochun Ma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the seismic performance of new-type composite exterior wallboard, a total of six exterior and interior wallboards were incorporated in the experiment of seismic performance. Seismic performance such as the stress process, damage mode, hysteresis and skeleton curve, load-carrying and ductility coefficient, damping and energy dissipation, stiffness degradation as well as material strain of the exterior wallboards were analyzed with emphasis and compared with interior wallboards. Results of the experiment and analysis showed that both interior and exterior wallboards exhibited outstanding seismic performance. Due to the existence of insulation layer and externally bonded single gypsum board, the capacity of elastoplastic deformation and seismic energy dissipation of the exterior wallboards was improved and each seismic performance indicator of the exterior wallboards outperformed the interior wallboards.

  2. La Constitución de 1991 y la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vela Orbegozo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. i. Una política exterior para un mundo en transformación. ii. El viejo orden y la transformación de las relaciones internacionales. iii. La precariedad de la política exterior colombiana. iv. A manera de conclusión: la política exterior de un Estado legítimo

  3. La Constitución de 1991 y la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Vela Orbegozo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available introducción. i. Una política exterior para un mundo en transformación. ii. El viejo orden y la transformación de las relaciones internacionales. iii. La precariedad de la política exterior colombiana. iv. A manera de conclusión: la política exterior de un Estado legítimo

  4. Detection of submicron scale cracks and other surface anomalies using positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowan, Thomas E.; Howell, Richard H.; Colmenares, Carlos A.

    2004-02-17

    Detection of submicron scale cracks and other mechanical and chemical surface anomalies using PET. This surface technique has sufficient sensitivity to detect single voids or pits of sub-millimeter size and single cracks or fissures of millimeter size; and single cracks or fissures of millimeter-scale length, micrometer-scale depth, and nanometer-scale length, micrometer-scale depth, and nanometer-scale width. This technique can also be applied to detect surface regions of differing chemical reactivity. It may be utilized in a scanning or survey mode to simultaneously detect such mechanical or chemical features over large interior or exterior surface areas of parts as large as about 50 cm in diameter. The technique involves exposing a surface to short-lived radioactive gas for a time period, removing the excess gas to leave a partial monolayer, determining the location and shape of the cracks, voids, porous regions, etc., and calculating the width, depth, and length thereof. Detection of 0.01 mm deep cracks using a 3 mm detector resolution has been accomplished using this technique.

  5. Measurement of spatial object's exterior attitude based on linear CCD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It is difficult to realize real-time measurement of exterior attitude by the traditional systems based on the area image sensor which have conflict between speed and accuracy.The subsystem for three-dimensional (3D) coordinate rcconstruction of point target (S3DCRPT) which is composed of three one-dimensional (1D) cameras based on linear charge-coupled device (CCD) can determine the distant light spots' spatial position. The attitude angle of the measured object is determined by the spatial solution while the coordinate reconstruction is separately carried on by the S3DCRPT with some point cooperation targets (PCTs) on the measured object. A new optical system is designed to solve the interference problem with one-to-one relationship between the PCTs and the S3DCRPT optical subsystems,which improves the measurement accuracy and saves space. The mathematical model of the attitude measurement is established,and partial and global calibrations are realized for the multi-camera attitude measurement system.The test results show the feasibility of the exterior attitude measurement based on linear CCD.

  6. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO JOVEM BRASILEIRO QUE VIAJA AO EXTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Nascimento Moraes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available O Estudo para compreender as características dos jovens que viaja ao exterior, foi realizada por meio de um questionário ao qual a amostra de jovens pode responder. O questionário sintético buscou entender quem era nossa amostra, como faixa etária, renda familiar e avaliar alguns dados como o envolvimento do mesmo com projetos sociais e visão de mundo, os questionamentos abrangentes e específicos nos possibilitou atingir nossa finalidade que é assimilar diversos aspectos que possam ter motivado o jovem brasileiro a viajar para o exterior. O enfoque do proposto estudo é captar e interpretar as mudanças que este jovem pós-viagem, possa ter passado após o contato com outra (s cultura, costumes e experiências que podem ter e reflexos e influenciar de maneira significante, por esse novo ambiente de contato. O trabalho busca também compreender o como a crise econômica brasileira (e mundial tem na decisão de viajar, possibilitando um novo rumo longe de famílias e amigos, em busca de novas experiências.

  7. The Search for Durable Exterior Clear Coatings for Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip D. Evans

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of a durable exterior clear coating has eluded generations of coatings technologists, despite long-standing desire amongst the public for such a coating. The journey towards this goal initially focused on modifications to coating formulation, but took a completely different direction when it was found that a UV-transparent silicone clear coating on wood modified with chromic acid met consumer expectations of coating durability. This finding sparked world-wide interest in wood pre-treatments as a way of enhancing the durability of clear coatings. This interest initially focused on transition metal compounds, but has now shifted in the direction of organic and inorganic photostabilizers or even more drastic pre-treatments. Pre-treatments that dimensionally stabilize wood, protect it from microbial degradation and photostabilize lignin, when combined with flexible, photostable, coatings provide the next way-stop on the journey towards achieving the goal of durable exterior clear coatings for wood. This paper reviews this journey, drawing upon our research and that of other groups who have focused on this elusive goal.

  8. Nuclear alkylated pyridine aldehyde polymers and conductive compositions thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembaum, A.; Singer, S. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A thermally stable, relatively conductive polymer was disclosed. The polymer was synthesized by condensing in the presence of catalyst a 2, 4, or 6 nuclear alklylated 2, 3, or 4 pyridine aldehyde or quaternary derivatives thereof to form a polymer. The pyridine groups were liked by olefinic groups between 2-4, 2-6, 2-3, 3-4, 3-6 or 4-6 positions. Conductive compositions were prepared by dissolving the quaternary polymer and an organic charge transfer complexing agent such as TCNQ in a mutual solvent such as methanol.

  9. Preparation of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline and analogs thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Rodolfo A. (Santa Fe, NM); Unkefer, Pat J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The compound 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline and analogs thereof may be used to produce an increase in carbon dioxide fixation, growth, dry weight, nutritional value (proteins and amino acids), nodulation and nitrogen fixation and photosynthetically derived chemical energy when applied to plants through their roots and/or through their foliar portions. The present invention includes an essentially quantitative chemical synthesis for this compound which is performed in a single step reaction of Fremy's Salt (potassium nitrosodisulphonate) with either glutamine or 2-pyrrolidone-5-carboxylic acid. Fremy's salt (potassium nitrosodisulphonate) is available commercially, or can be readily synthesized.

  10. Application of Vehicle Dynamic Modeling in Uavs for Precise Determination of Exterior Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaghani, M.; Skaloud, J.

    2016-06-01

    Advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and especially micro aerial vehicle (MAV) technology together with increasing quality and decreasing price of imaging devices have resulted in growing use of MAVs in photogrammetry. The practicality of MAV mapping is seriously enhanced with the ability to determine parameters of exterior orientation (EO) with sufficient accuracy, in both absolute and relative senses (change of attitude between successive images). While differential carrier phase GNSS satisfies cm-level positioning accuracy, precise attitude determination is essential for both direct sensor orientation (DiSO) and integrated sensor orientation (ISO) in corridor mapping or in block configuration imaging over surfaces with low texture. Limited cost, size, and weight of MAVs represent limitations on quality of onboard navigation sensors and puts emphasis on exploiting full capacity of available resources. Typically short flying times (10-30 minutes) also limit the possibility of estimating and/or correcting factors such as sensor misalignment and poor attitude initialization of inertial navigation system (INS). This research aims at increasing the accuracy of attitude determination in both absolute and relative senses with no extra sensors onboard. In comparison to classical INS/GNSS setup, novel approach is presented here to integrated state estimation, in which vehicle dynamic model (VDM) is used as the main process model. Such system benefits from available information from autopilot and physical properties of the platform in enhancing performance of determination of trajectory and parameters of exterior orientation consequently. The navigation system employs a differential carrier phase GNSS receiver and a micro electro-mechanical system (MEMS) grade inertial measurement unit (IMU), together with MAV control input from autopilot. Monte-Carlo simulation has been performed on trajectories for typical corridor mapping and block imaging. Results reveal

  11. Pyrin gene and mutants thereof, which cause familial Mediterranean fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastner, Daniel L [Bethesda, MD; Aksentijevichh, Ivona [Bethesda, MD; Centola, Michael [Tacoma Park, MD; Deng, Zuoming [Gaithersburg, MD; Sood, Ramen [Rockville, MD; Collins, Francis S [Rockville, MD; Blake, Trevor [Laytonsville, MD; Liu, P Paul [Ellicott City, MD; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan [Los Angeles, CA; Gumucio, Deborah L [Ann Arbor, MI; Richards, Robert I [North Adelaide, AU; Ricke, Darrell O [San Diego, CA; Doggett, Norman A [Santa Cruz, NM; Pras, Mordechai [Tel-Hashomer, IL

    2003-09-30

    The invention provides the nucleic acid sequence encoding the protein associated with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). The cDNA sequence is designated as MEFV. The invention is also directed towards fragments of the DNA sequence, as well as the corresponding sequence for the RNA transcript and fragments thereof. Another aspect of the invention provides the amino acid sequence for a protein (pyrin) associated with FMF. The invention is directed towards both the full length amino acid sequence, fusion proteins containing the amino acid sequence and fragments thereof. The invention is also directed towards mutants of the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences associated with FMF. In particular, the invention discloses three missense mutations, clustered in within about 40 to 50 amino acids, in the highly conserved rfp (B30.2) domain at the C-terminal of the protein. These mutants include M6801, M694V, K695R, and V726A. Additionally, the invention includes methods for diagnosing a patient at risk for having FMF and kits therefor.

  12. INFINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR THE EXTERIOR PROBLEMS OF THE HELMHOLTZ EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lung-an Ying

    2000-01-01

    There are two cases of the exterior problems of the Helmholtz equation. If λ > 0 the bilinear form is coercive, and if λ < 0 it is the scattering problem.We give a new approach of the infinite element method, which enables us to solve these exterior problems as well as corner problems. A numerical example of the scattering problem is given.

  13. Asia Central en la política exterior rusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas rusas hacia Asia Central han estado condicionadas por la herencia histórica anterior a la disolución de la URSS, pero también por los cambios en el sistema internacional y en la propia Rusia acaecidos desde entonces. ¿En qué medida la actuación de Rusia ha sido coherente y estable, basada en una estrategia para Asia Central fundamentada en los intereses nacionales? En este artículo examinamos los fundamentos de la política exterior rusa en relación con Asia Central, dividiéndola en tres apartados: político, económico y de seguridad.

  14. Dimensión social de la publicidad exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Marta Pacheco Rueda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La publicidad exterior moderna nace en España a principios de los años 60, en un período en que desde el gobierno se acomete una serie de iniciativas tendentes a reactivar la economía del país. La incipiente apertura económica no es desaprovechada por grandes firmas internacionales que aumentan sus inversiones e introducen en el mercado español productos con una larga tradición de consumo en los países occidentales industrializados. Se produce el asentamiento definitivo de las agencias multinacionales de publicidad, de procedencia norteamericana sobre todo, que traen consigo técnicas que responden a una filosofía de marketing, término que si en aquel momento resulta un tanto extraño, con el paso de los años se convierte en un vocablo de uso extendido.

  15. Relaciones exteriores de la Unión Europea

    OpenAIRE

    González Fernández, Sara; Ruiz, Pablo

    1998-01-01

    Distintos estudios sobre las relaciones económicas externas de la Unión Europea a través de tres apartados: una Introducción sobre el propio proceso de integración; Análisis sectorial de las políticas coumunes de agricultura, medio ambiente, cooperación para el desarrollo, política exterior y seguridad común y un tercer bloque sobre el Análisis geográfico de las relaciones comerciales con América Latina, Europa Central y Oriental, la política mediterránea y asiática y las relaciones con los p...

  16. Novel approach to analytical modelling of steady-state heat transfer from the exterior of TEFC induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel approach to analytical modelling of steady-state heat transfer from the exterior of totally enclosed fan-cooled induction motors. The proposed approach is based on the geometry simplification methods, energy balance equation, modified correlations for forced convection, the Stefan-Boltzmann law, air-flow velocity profiles, and turbulence factor models. To apply modified correlations for forced convection, the motor exterior is presented with surfaces of elementary 3-D shapes as well as the air-flow velocity profiles and turbulence factor models are introduced. The existing correlations for forced convection from a short horizontal cylinder and correlations for heat transfer from straight fins (as well as inter-fin surfaces in axial air-flows are modified by introducing the Prandtl number to the appropriate power. The correlations for forced convection from straight fins and inter-fin surfaces are derived from the existing ones for combined heat transfer (due to forced convection and radiation by using the forced-convection correlations for a single flat plate. Employing the proposed analytical approach, satisfactory agreement is obtained with experimental data from other studies.

  17. Polypeptide having beta-glucosidase activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; De Jong, Rene Marcel; Damveld, Robbertus Antonius

    2016-09-13

    The invention relates to a polypeptide comprising the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 96% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  18. Highly oxidized graphene oxide and methods for production thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tour, James M.; Kosynkin, Dmitry V.

    2016-08-30

    A highly oxidized form of graphene oxide and methods for production thereof are described in various embodiments of the present disclosure. In general, the methods include mixing a graphite source with a solution containing at least one oxidant and at least one protecting agent and then oxidizing the graphite source with the at least one oxidant in the presence of the at least one protecting agent to form the graphene oxide. Graphene oxide synthesized by the presently described methods is of a high structural quality that is more oxidized and maintains a higher proportion of aromatic rings and aromatic domains than does graphene oxide prepared in the absence of at least one protecting agent. Methods for reduction of graphene oxide into chemically converted graphene are also disclosed herein. The chemically converted graphene of the present disclosure is significantly more electrically conductive than is chemically converted graphene prepared from other sources of graphene oxide.

  19. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... Doc No: 2012-10558] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-841] Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same; Institution of... States after importation of certain computers and computer peripheral devices and components thereof and...

  20. 78 FR 25475 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain sleep-disordered breathing... after importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof...

  1. 77 FR 20417 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-04

    ... COMMISSION Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and... Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain cameras and mobile...

  2. 77 FR 15390 - Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Handbags, Luggage, Accessories, and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on... interest issues raised by the ] recommended relief, specifically issuance of a general exclusion order covering handbags, luggage, accessories, and packaging thereof that infringe U.S. Trademark...

  3. 77 FR 14423 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice... Related Items, and Packaging Thereof, DN 2883; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8(b) of the...

  4. 76 FR 68504 - Advisory Opinion Proceeding; Certain Coaxial Cable Connectors and Components Thereof and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Opinion Proceeding; Certain Coaxial Cable Connectors and Components Thereof and Products... importation of certain coaxial cable connectors and components thereof and products containing the same by... under Commission Rule 210.79 (19 CFR 210.79) that would declare that its coaxial cable...

  5. 77 FR 33159 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... rates based entirely on facts available. See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Preliminary... France, Germany, and Italy for the period May 1, 2010, through April 30, 2011. We have preliminarily...

  6. 76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems... importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof that infringe one or more...

  7. 77 FR 58579 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Institution...-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason of infringement of... after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components...

  8. 75 FR 38118 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices With Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, and... certain electronic devices with image processing systems, components thereof, and associated software that... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices with...

  9. 78 FR 19311 - Certain Radio Frequency Identification (“RFID”) Products And Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... COMMISSION Certain Radio Frequency Identification (``RFID'') Products And Components Thereof; Institution of... (``RFID'') products and components thereof by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent No. 7,081,819 (``the... sale within the United States after importation of certain radio frequency identification...

  10. 77 FR 74220 - Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Commission... importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof by reason of... likely to do so. For background, see In the Matter of Certain Devices for Connecting Computers via...

  11. 77 FR 45376 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason of infringement of... business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade...

  12. 77 FR 75188 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade Commission... certain video analytics software, systems, components thereof, and products containing same by reason...

  13. 78 FR 2281 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of... entitled Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof, DN 2930; the Commission is soliciting comments on any... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain robotic toys and...

  14. 75 FR 61177 - In the Matter of Certain Stringed Musical Instruments and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Stringed Musical Instruments and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission... States after importation of certain stringed musical instruments and components thereof by reason of... Hollywood, Florida (``McCabe'') on February 26, 2010, and supplemented on March 18, 2010. 75 FR 16838...

  15. 78 FR 49764 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final Determination...'') (collectively, ``Samsung''), from importing certain electronic digital media devices that infringe one or more... digital media devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of the '949,...

  16. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Fats, Oils, Shortenings § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  17. 75 FR 8399 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof; Notice... after importation of certain mobile communications or computer devices or components thereof that... U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Apple Inc., f/k/a Apple Computer, Inc. of Cupertino, California....

  18. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  19. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  20. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  1. The role of exterior Weyl fluids on compact stellar structures in Randall-Sundrum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ovalle, J; Pasqua, A; Sotomayor, A

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld, the minimal geometric deformation approach (MGD) is used to generate a new physically acceptable interior solution to Einstein's field equations for a spherically symmetric compact distribution. This new solution is used to elucidate the role of exterior Weyl stresses from bulk gravitons on compact stellar distributions. We found strong evidences showing that the exterior dark radiation ${\\cal U}^+$ always increases both the pressure and the compactness of stellar structures, and that the exterior "dark pressure" ${\\cal P}^+$ always reduces them.

  2. The role of exterior Weyl fluids on compact stellar structures in Randall-Sundrum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, J.; Linares, F.; Pasqua, A.; Sotomayor, A.

    2013-09-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum braneworld, the minimal geometric deformation approach is used to generate a new physically acceptable interior solution to Einstein’s field equations for a spherically symmetric compact distribution. This new solution is used to elucidate the role of exterior Weyl stresses from bulk gravitons on compact stellar distributions. We found strong evidences showing that the exterior dark radiation U^+ always increases both the pressure and the compactness of stellar structures, and that the exterior ‘dark pressure’ P^+ always reduces them.

  3. Experimental study on fire propagation over combustible exterior facades in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available With regard to the fire protection for exterior walls of building, only the fire resistance has been considered, according to the current building law of Japan. In the previous studies of the authors, a new test method for evaluation of fire propagation along combustible cladding was proposed using primarily test specimens of façade walls with exterior thermal insulation without vent layers. In this paper, newly obtained test results are discussed on other specimens of combustible façades such as wood, sandwich panel, photovoltaic sheet mounted on composite panel, combustible coating material, and exterior thermal insulation with vent layer.

  4. Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including a current collector in communication with an electrode thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Grant L.; Herring, James S.; Stoots, Carl M.; O& #x27; Brien, James E.

    2013-03-05

    Electrolytic/fuel cell bundles and systems including such bundles include an electrically conductive current collector in communication with an anode or a cathode of each of a plurality of cells. A cross-sectional area of the current collector may vary in a direction generally parallel to a general direction of current flow through the current collector. The current collector may include a porous monolithic structure. At least one cell of the plurality of cells may include a current collector that surrounds an outer electrode of the cell and has at least six substantially planar exterior surfaces. The planar surfaces may extend along a length of the cell, and may abut against a substantially planar surface of a current collector of an adjacent cell. Methods for generating electricity and for performing electrolysis include flowing current through a conductive current collector having a varying cross-sectional area.

  5. Monitoring Interior and Exterior Wall Inspections within a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two prototype applications based on the Virtual Reality (VR technology for use in maintenance planning of buildings. In a building, the paint coating applied to interior walls and the different types of materials applied to façades convey their aesthetic character and also perform an important function of protection. This a construction component which is exposed to agents of deterioration related to its use, needing the regular evaluation of its state of repair. The applications support the performance of such periodic inspections and the monitoring of interior and exterior wall maintenance, using the VR technology. Used during an inspection visit, the applications allow users to consult a database of irregularities, normally associated with the coating, classified by the most probable causes and by the recommended repair methodologies. In addition, a chromatic scale related to the degree of deterioration of the coating, defined as a function of the time between the dates of the application of the paint and the scheduled repainting, can be attributed to each element of coating monitored. This use of the VR technology allows inspections and the evaluation of the degree of wear and tear of materials to be carried out in a highly direct and intuitive manner.

  6. Exterior Orientation Estimation of Oblique Aerial Imagery Using Vanishing Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verykokou, Styliani; Ioannidis, Charalabos

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a methodology for the calculation of rough exterior orientation (EO) parameters of multiple large-scale overlapping oblique aerial images, in the case that GPS/INS information is not available (e.g., for old datasets), is presented. It consists of five main steps; (a) the determination of the overlapping image pairs and the single image in which four ground control points have to be measured; (b) the computation of the transformation parameters from every image to the coordinate reference system; (c) the rough estimation of the camera interior orientation parameters; (d) the estimation of the true horizon line and the nadir point of each image; (e) the calculation of the rough EO parameters of each image. A developed software suite implementing the proposed methodology is tested using a set of UAV multi-perspective oblique aerial images. Several tests are performed for the assessment of the errors and show that the estimated EO parameters can be used either as initial approximations for a bundle adjustment procedure or as rough georeferencing information for several applications, like 3D modelling, even by non-photogrammetrists, because of the minimal user intervention needed. Finally, comparisons with a commercial software are made, in terms of automation and correctness of the computed EO parameters.

  7. 75 FR 68379 - In the Matter of: Certain Mobile Devices, Associated Software, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Mobile Devices, Associated Software, and Components Thereof; Notice of... of certain mobile devices, associated software, and components thereof by reason of infringement of... importation of certain mobile devices, associated software, and components thereof that infringe one or...

  8. 78 FR 9740 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... of certain robotic toys and components thereof by reason of misappropriation of trade secrets, the... after importation of certain robotic toys and components thereof by reason of misappropriation of...

  9. 75 FR 16838 - In the Matter of Certain Stringed Musical Instruments and Components Thereof (II); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Stringed Musical Instruments and Components Thereof (II); Notice of... importation of certain stringed musical instruments and components thereof by reason of infringement of... importation of certain stringed musical instruments or components thereof by reason of infringement of one...

  10. 77 FR 16537 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... reviews of the orders. \\2\\ See Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, and Italy:...

  11. 75 FR 69402 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the...

  12. 76 FR 15940 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... and parts thereof from ] France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom for the period May 1... thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. See Ball Bearings and Parts...

  13. La política exterior de Sudáfrica post Apartheid

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    El embajador de Sudáfrica en Argentina realiza aquí un seguimiento de cuestiones centrales en el diseño de la política exterior de su país en los últimos 10 años. Para ello aborda 4 ejes centrales: el significado del año 2004 para Sudáfrica; los fundamentos de su política exterior, la política de relaciones exteriores de Sudáfrica dentro del sistema mundial y la dirección de la política de relaciones exteriores durante la primera década de democracia en el país. Los posicionamientos, sus razo...

  14. CONTINUOUS DEPENDENCE ON VELOCITY FOR THE BACKWARD DYNAMO EQUATION ON AN EXTERIOR DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study solutions to a forward Dynamo equation depending continuously on the velocity on an exterior domain,using Logarithmic Convexity Methods.We obtain some more weaker conditions by introducing the unbounded domain.

  15. Brane-world stars with a solid crust and vacuum exterior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, Jorge; Gergely, László Á.; Casadio, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    The minimal geometric deformation approach is employed to show the existence of brane-world stellar distributions with a vacuum Schwarzschild exterior, thus without energy leaking from the exterior of the brane-world star into the extra dimension. The interior satisfies all the elementary criteria of physical acceptability for a stellar solution, namely, it is regular at the origin, the pressure and density are positive and decrease monotonically with increasing radius, and all energy conditions are fulfilled. A very thin solid crust with negative radial pressure separates the interior from the exterior, having a thickness Δ inversely proportional to both the brane tension σ and the radius R of the star, i.e. {{Δ }-1}˜ Rσ . This brane-world star with Schwarzschild exterior would appear only thermally radiating to a distant observer and be fully compatible with the stringent constraints imposed on stellar parameters by observations of gravitational lensing, orbital evolutions or properties of accretion disks.

  16. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, A.J.W.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium fulvum, wherein said plant is not a tomato or tobacco plant. The invention also relates to methods for screening the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to at least one pathogen, wherein said path...

  17. Elementos para una perspectiva crítica de la política exterior mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Miguel Valdivia Santa María

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo nace de la inquietud por esclarecer la pregunta: ¿existe una teoría de la política exterior de México? ¿Cuáles son sus elementos constitutivos? ¿Qué capacidad explicativa y prospectiva, del fenómeno, tiene para servir de guía de acción y perfeccionamiento de la política exterior de México?

  18. Elementos para una perspectiva crítica de la política exterior mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Valdivia Santa María

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo nace de la inquietud por esclarecer la pregunta: ¿existe una teoría de la política exterior de México? ¿Cuáles son sus elementos constitutivos? ¿Qué capacidad explicativa y prospectiva, del fenómeno, tiene para servir de guía de acción y perfeccionamiento de la política exterior de México?

  19. Deformability of plastering compositions in design solutions of modern thermal protective exterior walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Vakhitov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, appearance of new constructive decisions for multilayer thermal efficient walls in the practice of design and construction caused the increasing use of protective and decorative plaster compositions. Comprehensive protective plaster systems nowadays are used in the facade insulation systems as a protective layer on the surface of polystyrene foam or mineral wool boards, forming the insulating layer to the outer walls of concrete blocks. They are also used for exterior finish of walls made of gas-concrete blocks, plastering the brickwork of the buildings operated by rehabilitation, in particular, apartment houses of old mass series. The problem of ensuring durability of thermal efficient external walls with the use of protective and decorative plaster systems were identified in this article. The factors, affecting the resistance of facade plasters to the action of external conditions in operating process were considered. The weaknesses in the necessary characteristics of plaster mixtures provided by material manufacturers are revealed. The existing methods for determining crack resistance of plaster compositions are monitored. The author's method of determining the maximum stretch of plaster compositions is given. The article presents tests results of various plaster compositions, confirming the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. Zymomonas pentose-sugar fermenting strains and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Chou, Yat-Chen; Howe, William; Eddy, Christine; Evans, Kent; Mohagheghi, Ali

    2007-05-29

    Disclosed in the present invention is a Zymomonas integrant and derivatives of these integrants that posses the ability to ferment pentose into ethanol. The genetic sequences encoding for the pentose-fermenting enzymes are integrated into the Zymomonas in a two-integration event of homologous recombination and transposition. Each operon includes more than one pentose-reducing enzyme encoding sequence. The integrant in some embodiments includes enzyme sequences encoding xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transketolase and transketolase. The Zymomonas integrants are highly stable, and retain activity for producing the pentose-fermenting enzyme for between 80 to 160 generations. The integrants are also resistant to acetate inhibition, as the integrants demonstrate efficient ethanol production even in the presence of 8 up to 16 grams acetate per liter media. These stably integrated sequences provide a unique Zymomonas that may then be used for the efficient conversion of pentose sugars (xylose, arabinose) to ethanol. Method of using the Zymomonas integrants and derivatives thereof in production of ethanol from cellulosic feedstock is also disclosed. The invention also provides a method for preparing a Zymomonas integrant as part of the present invention. The host Zymomonas strain found particularly useful in the creation of these compositions and methods is Zymomonas mobilis 31821.

  1. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium ful

  2. Nanoporous Insulating Oxide Deionization Device Having Asymmetric Electrodes and Method of Use Thereof

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A nanoporous insulating oxide deionization device, method of manufacture and method of use thereof for deionizing a water supply (such as a hard water supply), for...

  3. 78 FR 78382 - Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral Devices, and Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral Devices, and Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination Terminating the Investigation With a Finding of No Violation of Section...

  4. 78 FR 5207 - Certain Led Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... Film and TV Equipment Factory of Tianjin, China (``Tianjin''); and Stellar Lighting Systems (``Stellar... COMMISSION Certain Led Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Commission's Final Determination... general exclusion order prohibiting importation of infringing LED photographic lighting devices...

  5. 78 FR 3449 - Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Request for Statements... a limited exclusion order as to subject Intel microprocessors, but that implementation be...

  6. 78 FR 12354 - Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Microprocessors, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Termination of... microprocessors, Apple Inc. of Cupertino, California (``Apple''); and Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo...

  7. 77 FR 35427 - Certain Mobile Devices, Associated Software, and Components Thereof Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Devices, Associated Software, and Components Thereof Final Determination of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile devices, associated... the United States after importation of certain mobile devices, associated software, and...

  8. 78 FR 43916 - Certain Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Products and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Products and Components Thereof; Commission... that termination of this investigation did not impose any undue burdens on the public health...

  9. 77 FR 40381 - Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof, Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof, Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation as...

  10. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... Singapore; and Avago Technologies U.S. Inc. of San Jose, California. Letters supplementing the complaint... the United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic...

  11. Toughened and corrosion- and wear-resistant composite structures and fabrication methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Hallman, Russell L.

    2017-06-20

    Composite structures having a reinforced material interjoined with a substrate, wherein the reinforced material comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of titanium monoboride, titanium diboride, and combinations thereof.

  12. 78 FR 1881 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of the Commission's Determination Not To Review Initial Determinations Granting Complainant's Motions To Partially Terminate...

  13. 77 FR 50716 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial Determination Granting Complainant's Motions To Amend the Notice...

  14. Zeolite-catalysed preparation of alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acids and esters thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst.......A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst....

  15. Potential energy savings with exterior shades in large office buildings and the impact of discomfort glare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Sabine [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Eleanor [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Exterior shades are highly efficient for reducing solar load in commercial buildings. Their impact on net energy use depends on the annual energy balance of heating, cooling, fan and lighting energy. This paper discusses the overall energy use intensity of various external shading systems for a prototypical large office building split into the different types of energy use and for different orientations and window sizes. Lighting energy was calculated for a constant lighting power as well as for dimmed lighting fixtures (daylighting control). In Section 3, slat angles and solar cut-off angles were varied for fixed exterior slat shading systems. While the most light-blocking shades performed best for the case without daylighting controls, the optimum cut-off angle with daylighting controls was found to be 30 deg for the office building prototype used in Chicago and Houston. For large window-to-wall (WWR) ratios, window related annual energy use could be reduced by at least 70 % without daylighting control and by a minimum of 86 % with daylighting control in average over all orientations. The occurrence of discomfort glare was is considered in Section 4 of the paper, which looks at the performance of commercially available exterior shading systems when an interior shade is used in addition to the exterior shade during hours when occupants would experience discomfort glare. Glare control impacts overall energy use intensity significantly for exterior shades with high transmittance, especially when daylighting controls are used. In these cases, exterior shades are only beneficial for window-to-wall areas ≥ 45% in the hot Houston climate. For smaller windows and in a heating/cooling climate like Chicago, exterior shades can increase energy consumption

  16. Reworking on affine exterior algebra of Grassmann, Peano and his school

    CERN Document Server

    Greco, Gabriele H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a construction of affine exterior algebra of Grassmann, with a special attention to the revisitation of this subject operated by Peano and his School, is examined from a historical viewpoint. Even if the exterior algebra over a vector space is a well known concept, the construction of an exterior algebra over an affine space, in which points and vectors coexist, has been neglected. This paper wants to fill this lack. Some attention is given to the introduction of defining by abstraction (today called definition by quotienting or by equivalence relation), a procedure due to and used by Peano to define geometric forms, basic elements of an affine exterior algebra. This Peano's innovative way of defining, is a relevant contribution to mathematics. It is observed that in the construction of an affine exterior algebra on the Euclidean three-dimensional space, Grassmann and Peano make use of metric concepts: an accurate analysis shows that, in some cases, the metric aspects can be eliminated, putting ...

  17. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S; Samtaney, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the contraction operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second ord...

  18. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  19. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J.; Podorson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Excavationless: Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. This project describes an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home that uses hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  1. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  2. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  3. BOUNDARY INTEGRAL FORMULAS FOR ELASTIC PLANE PROBLEM OF EXTERIOR CIRCULAR DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Zheng-zhu; LI Shun-cai; YU De-hao

    2006-01-01

    After the stress function and the normal derivative on the boundary for the plane problem of exterior circular domain are expanded into Laurent series, comparing them with the Laurent series of the complex stress function and making use of some formulas in Fourier series and the convolutions, the boundary integral formula of the stress function is derived further. Then the stress function can be obtained directly by the integration of the stress function and its normal derivative on the boundary. Some examples are given. It shows that the boundary integral formula of the stress function is convenient to be used for solving the elastic plane problem of exterior circular domain.

  4. La política exterior colombiana en la era de Santos

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Las actuaciones en el escenario internacional desde el comienzo de la administración de Santos han suscitado un debate alrededor de la existencia o no de una nueva estrategia en política exterior. Para algunos esta transformación ha significado un cambio con relación al gobierno anterior en términos de cooperación, no confrontación y diversificación, lo que ha sido resultado de una lectura que no se reduce a convertir la política exterior en un instrumento de la política interna, sino que ha ...

  5. Gastrodiplomacia como herramienta de política exterior. estudio de caso: Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Acevedo, Martín

    2016-01-01

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la manera mediante la cual Perú ha incor- porado la gastrodiplomacia a su estrategia de diplomacia cultural como componente de su política exterior. Con el fin de cumplir este propósito, se va a defender que desde el 2008 el país Inca ha incorporado la gastrodiplomacia a su estrategia de diplomacia cultural em- pleando dos herramientas. Primero, a través de su Plan de Política Exterior Cultural, en donde se señalan objetivos claros en te...

  6. O congresso e a política de comércio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Lima,Maria Regina Soares de; Santos,Fabiano

    2001-01-01

    Como assegurar a qualidade da política nacional de comércio exterior pelo incremento concomitante (1) da eficiente delegação pelo Legislativo ao Executivo de poderes para estabelecê-la e implementá-la, e (2) do pleno funcionamento dos freios e contrapesos que permitem o controle do Executivo em sistemas presidencialistas? O desenho institucional brasileiro é insuficiente em ambas essas dimensões no que concerne à política de comércio exterior, argumentam os autores. Faz-se necessário um desen...

  7. EXPONENTIAL MESH APPROXIMATIONS FOR A 3D EXTERIOR PROBLEM IN MAGNETIC INDUCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Séraphin M. Mefire

    2005-01-01

    A numerical method combining the approaches of C.I. Goldstein and L.-A. Ying is used for the simulation in three-dimensional magnetostatics related to an exterior problem in magnetic induction. Recently introduced, this method is based on the use of a graded mesh obtained by gluing homothetic layers in the exterior domain and has been performed in the case of edge element discretizations. In this work, the theoretical and practical aspects of the method are inspected in the case of face element and volume element discretizations,for computing a magnetic induction. Error estimates, implementations, and numerical results are provided.

  8. THE OVERLAPPING DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD FOR HARMONIC EQUATION OVER EXTERIOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL DOMAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-ming Wu; De-hao Yu

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, the overlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction[1] and first suggested in [2], is applied to slove the exterior boundary value problem of harmonic equation over three-dimensional domain. The convergence and error estimates both for the continuous case and the discrete case are given. The contraction factor for the exterior spherical domain is also discussed. Moreover, numerical results are given which show that the accuracy and the convergence are in accord with the theoretical analyses.

  9. First Principles Study of Double Photoionization of H2 UsingExterior Complex Scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rescigno, Thomas N.; Vanroose, Wim; Horner, Daniel A.; Martin,Fernando; McCurdy, C. William

    2006-07-21

    Exterior complex scaling provides a practical path forfirst-principles studies of atomic and molecular ionizationproblemssince it avoids explicit enforcement of asymptotic boundary conditionsfor 3-body Coulomb breakup. We have used the method of exterior complexscaling, implemented with both the discrete variable representation andB-splines, to obtain the first-order wave function for molecular hydrogencorresponding to a single photon having been absorbed by a correlatedinitial state. These wave functions are used to construct convergedtriple differential cross sections for double photoionization of alignedH2 molecules.

  10. Analysis on construction technology of exterior insulation of building exterior wall%建筑外墙外保温施工技术解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左敬宏

    2015-01-01

    Building energy efficiency has become the inevitable trend of the development of modern architecture, building exterior insulation construction technology can effectively achieve the building energy efficiency,promote the development of China’s building energy efficiency. Exterior insulation construction of building exterior wall requires the use of external wall material and the corresponding construction technology,which can meet the requirements of energy conservation.Therefore,the construction technology of external insulation construction can not only improve people’s quality of life,but also promote the improvement of energy efficiency.In view of the construction technology of exterior insulation construction technology of building exterior insulation, external insulation construction technology is studied,and put forward a reasonable solution to promote the development of China’s construction industry.%建筑节能化已经成为了现代建筑发展的必然趋势,建筑外墙的外保温施工技术可以有效的实现建筑节能,促进我国建筑节能化的发展。建筑外墙的外保温施工需要使用符合节能要求的外部墙体材料以及相应的施工技术,保证建筑物内部的能源利用效率得到有效的提高,达到建筑节能的目的。所以建筑外墙外保温施工技术不仅可以提高人们的生活质量,还能促进能源利用效率的提升。针对建筑外墙外保温施工技术的相关问题,对外保温施工技术进行研究,提出合理的解决措施,促进我国建筑行业的发展。

  11. Hybridization-based biosensor containing hairpin probes and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Strohsahl, Christopher M.

    2010-10-12

    A sensor chip that includes: a fluorescence quenching surface; a nucleic acid probe that contains first and second ends with the first end bound to the fluorescence quenching surface, and is characterized by being able to self-anneal into a hairpin conformation; and a first fluorophore bound to the second end of the first nucleic acid molecule. When the first nucleic acid molecule is in the hairpin conformation, the fluorescence quenching surface substantially quenches fluorescent emissions by the first fluorophore; and when the first nucleic acid molecule is in a non-hairpin conformation, fluorescent emissions by the fluorophore are substantially free of quenching by the fluorescence quenching surface. Various nucleic acid probes, methods of making the sensor chip, biological sensor devices that contain the sensor chip, and their methods of use are also disclosed.

  12. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  13. Design of the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior facing of the facade thermal insulation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Veliborka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Various facade facings - systems made of thermal insulation materials with the finishing facade renders which are directly applied to the facade walls are simple for construction and are applied in the newly built structures and they are also suitable for the application in the cases of the energy revitalization of the existing buildings. The exterior walls, and especially their outer layers, are exposed to various atmospheric influences. They cause different effects in the walls, one of them being the occurrence of the water vapor condensation. In the walls with the facade thermal insulation systems, the occurrence of the water vapor condensation may be caused by the vapor diffusion characteristics of the exterior render. At certain temperatures and humidity of the external and internal air, there are several conditions for the occurrence of the water vapor condensation in the wall with the facade thermal insulation system, when the exterior render is of higher relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion. Therefore, it is useful to determine the vapor diffusion characteristics, that is, highest values of the relative resistance to the water vapor diffusion of the exterior renders which will not cause the condensation of the water vapor in the wall, or at least those that will not cause the impermissible dampening of the wall material, and will allow for the possibility of moisture drying.

  14. Exact Solution for the Exterior Field of a Rotating Neutron Star

    CERN Document Server

    Man'ko, V I; Sanabria-Gómez, J D; Manko, Vladimir S.; Mielke, Eckehard W.; Sanabria-Gómez, José D.

    2000-01-01

    A four-parameter class of exact asymptotically flat solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations involving only rational functions is presented. It is able to describe the exterior field of a slowly or rapidly rotating neutron star with poloidal magnetic field.

  15. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders are going to finding themselves required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. However, there has been a significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved and potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of a cladding. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by BSC in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full years worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  16. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders will be required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by Building Science Corporation in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading, has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full year’s worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  17. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ulloa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del siguiente libro:CHOMSKY, Noam y Gilbert Achar (2007. Estados peligrosos: oriente medio y la política exterior estadounidense. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, 349 pp.

  18. Convergence Behaviour of Some Iteration Procedures for Exterior Point Method of Centres Algorithms,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    in Reference 4, while Staha and Himmelblau 9 reported very favourably on their application of Newton’s method to the exterior point method of centres...34. .4cfta Poll- technica Scandinavica, Trondheim, 13 (1966). 9. Staha, R. L., and Himmelblau . D. M., "Evaludtion of Constrained Nonlinear Programming

  19. The Exterior Tricomi Problem for Generalized Mixed Equations with Parabolic Degeneracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chun WEN

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with the exterior Tricomi problem for generalized mixed equations with parabolic degeneracy. Firstly the representation of solutions of the problem for the equations is given, and then the uniqueness and existence of solutions are proved by a new method.

  20. Tres décadas de política exterior y democracia: interpretaciones y tensiones

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En esta exposición nos proponemos analizar las diversas interpretaciones de la política exterior argentina democrática; para ello haremos un breve recorrido por las principales tensiones explicativas existentes. Instituto de Relaciones Internacionales (IRI)

  1. Los Derechos Humanos y la política exterior de los Estados Unidos.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Forman parte de la política exterior estadounidense tres categorías principales  de derechos humanos: a) el derecho a la integridad personal; b) el derecho a satisfacer las necesidades económicas vitales; y c) los derechos civiles y políticos.

  2. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ulloa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del siguiente libro:CHOMSKY, Noam y Gilbert Achar (2007. Estados peligrosos: oriente medio y la política exterior estadounidense. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, 349 pp.

  3. Durability of fire retardant treated wood products at humid and exterior conditions. Review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ostman, B.; Voss, A.; Hughes, A.; Hovde, P.J.; Grexa, O.

    2001-01-01

    Fire retardants may considerably improve the fire properties of wood products, but the durability, e.g. in exterior applications, has not been addressed fully. This paper reviews the existing knowledge and experience mainly from the USA with the aim of supporting further development in Europe. The r

  4. Stokes coupling method for the exterior flowPart III: regularity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on the Stokes coupling method for solving the two-dimensional exterior unsteady Navier-Stokes equations, the existence of the strong solution of the Stokes coupling equations is proven. And the regularity of the solution for the reduced Stokes coupling equations is discussed.

  5. A Dynamical Approach to the Exterior Geometry of a Perfect Fluid as a Relativistic Star

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to compare some of the solution classes, which were presented for a perfect charged fluid in Ref. [8], through studying the motion of a test charged particle on a relativistic charged star. We will show that how the interior solutions of such star, can affect its exterior geometry, by illustrating the corresponding effective potentials.

  6. Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations in an exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    Under the general condition of the initial data, we will derive the crucial estimates which imply the diffusion phenomenon for the dissipative linear wave equations in an exterior domain. In order to derive the diffusion phenomenon for dissipative wave equations, the time integral method which was developed by Ikehata and Matsuyama (Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  7. Global existence of solutions for semilinear damped wave equation in 2-D exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    We consider a mixed problem of a damped wave equation utt-Δ u+ ut=| u| p in the two dimensional exterior domain case. Small global in time solutions can be constructed in the case when the power p on the nonlinear term | u| p satisfies p ∗=2Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  8. Exteriorized colon anastomosis for unprepared bowel: An alternative to routine colostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sami K Asfar; Hilal M Al-Sayer; Talib H Juma

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To see the possibility of avoiding routine colostomy in patients presenting with unprepared bowel.METHODS: The cohort is composed of 103 patients,of these, 86 patients presented as emergencies (selfinflected and iatrogenic colon injuries, stab wounds and blast injury of the colon, volvulus sigmoid, obstructing left colon cancer, and strangulated ventral hernia).Another 17 patients were managed electively for other colon pathologies. During laparotomy, the involved segment was resected and the two ends of the colon were brought out via a separate colostomy wound.One layer of interrupted 3/0 silk was used for colon anastomosis. The exteriorized segment was immediately covered with a colostomy bag. Between the 5th and 7th postoperative day, the colon was easily dropped into the peritoneal cavity. The defect in the abdominal wall was closed with interrupted nonabsorbable suture. The skin was left open for secondary closure.RESULTS: The mean hospital stay (± SD) was 11.5 ±2.6 d (8-20 d). The exteriorized colon was successfully dropped back into the peritoneal cavity in all patients except two. One developed a leak from oesophagojejunostomy and from the exteriorized colon. She subsequently died of sepsis and multiple organ failure(MOF). In a second patient the colon proximal to the exteriorized anastomosis prolapsed and developed severe serositis, an elective ileo-colic anastomosis (to the left colon) was successfully performed.CONCLUSION: Exteriorized colon anastomosis is simple, avoids the inconvenience of colostomy and can be an alternative to routine colostomy. It is suitable where colostomy is socially unacceptable or the facilities and care is not available.

  9. Configuración actual del comercio exterior en Galicia = Current foreign trade framework in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Placer Galán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La reciente crisis económica y la contracción de la demanda interna han impulsado un creciente interés por los mercados exteriores. Esta investigación pretende caracterizar la configuración actual del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia, tanto en lo relativo a los productos como a los mercados geográficos de origen y destino. Para ello se emplean una serie de indicadores, ampliamente contrastados en la investigación económica, que permiten identificar: el grado de apertura de la economía provincial leonesa; la propensión exportadora y la dependencia importadora; el grado de concentración, por producto y mercados, de sus flujos comerciales exteriores; la especialización exportadora y la ventaja comparativa sectorial; la composición inter o intra-industrial del comercio exterior; y la distribución geográfica de los flujos comerciales de la economía gallega con los mercados exteriores. The recent economic crisis and internal demand contraction have encouraged the emerging interest in international markets. This study aims at featuring the current foreign trade framework of the Galicia, in regards to both import and export products and geographical markets. For that purpose, several indexes, widely verified in this study, have been utilized to identify the trade openness level of Leon economy, its export propensity, import dependence as well as the concentration level for products and internal trade flows. Leon export specialization, its comparative advantage by sector, the inter-intra-industry trade composition and geographical distribution of trade with international markets have been likewise included in this study.   Keywords: .

  10. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C

    2014-12-23

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

  11. 78 FR 20137 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain sleep-...

  12. 78 FR 44970 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof... for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain sleep-...

  13. 77 FR 17093 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof: Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof: Notice of Receipt of Complaint... complaint entitled Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof, DN 2886; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or...

  14. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent...

  15. 78 FR 21629 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof Issuance of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent...

  16. 78 FR 76104 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of Reinstatement of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of... the United Kingdom, the Department of Commerce (the Department) revoked the Orders.\\1\\ On May 16, 2013... Value: Ball Bearings, and Cylindrical Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof From the United Kingdom, 54...

  17. 77 FR 21994 - Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... COMMISSION Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request... importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof by reason of... of Certain Devices for Connecting Computers via Telephone Lines, Inv. No. 337-TA-360, USITC Pub. No...

  18. 76 FR 59737 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Photo Frames and Image Display Devices and Components Thereof... after importation of certain digital photo frames and image display devices and components thereof that..., the sale for importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain digital...

  19. 75 FR 22840 - In the Matter of Certain Adjustable Keyboard Support Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Adjustable Keyboard Support Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain adjustable keyboard support... infringing adjustable keyboard support systems and components thereof. The ALJ further recommended...

  20. 75 FR 41238 - In the Matter of Certain Adjustable Keyboard Support Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Adjustable Keyboard Support Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of... importation of certain adjustable keyboard support systems and components thereof that infringe certain claims... a limited exclusion order barring entry into the United States of infringing adjustable...

  1. 75 FR 53661 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ..., Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews... duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United... and parts thereof from Germany, is the successor-in-interest to the pre-acquisition myonic...

  2. 76 FR 22372 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the... administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany... Germany. We invite interested parties to comment on these preliminary results. Parties who submit...

  3. 75 FR 41435 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Notice of Court Decision Not in... Germany. See SKF USA Inc., v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT July 7, 2010). The Department is now... orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

  4. 76 FR 57019 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results of Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results... parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR... France, Germany, and Italy. DATES: Effective Date: September 15, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  5. 77 FR 2511 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of... reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany,...

  6. 76 FR 55416 - In the Matter of Certain Led Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Led Photographic Lighting Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of... photographic lighting devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent... importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain LED photographic...

  7. 9 CFR 205.105 - Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format. 205.105 Section 205.105 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... product to a security interest (see § 205.102), in numerical order by social security number or...

  8. 78 FR 50445 - Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission...

  9. 78 FR 68091 - Certain Marine Sonar Imaging Devices, Products Containing the Same, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... COMMISSION Certain Marine Sonar Imaging Devices, Products Containing the Same, and Components Thereof... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain marine sonar imaging devices... sale within the United States after importation of certain marine sonar imaging devices,...

  10. 78 FR 52563 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution... within the United States after importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and... States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  11. 78 FR 76858 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ..., ``Complainants''). 78 FR 52563 (August 23, 2013). The complaint alleged violations of Section 337 of the Tariff... COMMISSION Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Commission... United States after importation of certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and...

  12. 77 FR 65413 - Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Certain Cameras and Mobile Devices, Related Software and Firmware, and Components Thereof and..., importation, or sale after importation of certain cameras and mobile devices, related software and firmware... America of New York, New York; Sony Electronics Inc. of San Diego, California; Sony Mobile...

  13. 76 FR 39896 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software; Notice... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain GPS navigation products... States, the sale for importation, or the sale within the United States after importation of certain...

  14. Process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons or mixtures thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Heijnen, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for the continuous biological production of lipids, hydrocarbons, hydrocarbon like material or mixtures thereof by conversion of a suitable substrate using micro-organisms, in which process the said substrate is continuously, anaerobically fermented to

  15. 77 FR 8898 - Certain Coaxial Cable Connectors and Components Thereof and Products Containing Same; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Certain Coaxial Cable Connectors and Components Thereof and Products Containing Same; Notice of... the sale within the United States after importation of certain coaxial cable connectors and components... declare that its coaxial cable connectors, utilizing an axial but not radial compression for...

  16. 78 FR 57414 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof, Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof, Commission Determination Finding No Violation of the Tariff Act of 1930 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission....

  17. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products... complaint filed by Avago Technologies Fiber IP (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. of Singapore (``Avago Fiber IP... importation, or sale within the United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for...

  18. 78 FR 77166 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International...

  19. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANGEL, WALTER, F; BLAINEY, PAUL; GRAZIANO, VITO; HERRMANN, ANDREAS; MCGRATH, WILLIAM, J; VAN OIJEN, ANTONIUS, MARTINUS; XIE, XIAOLIANG, SUNNEY

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  20. 77 FR 44671 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... Japan; Nintendo of America, Inc. of WA; Novatel Wireless, Inc. of CA; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of NJ; Sierra Wireless, Inc. of Canada, Sierra Wireless America... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of...

  1. 77 FR 51572 - Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    .... Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Samsung Main Building, 250, Taepyeongno 2-ga, Jung-gu, Seoul 100-742, Republic of Korea. Samsung Electronics America, Inc., 105 Challenger Road, Ridgefield Park, NJ 07660... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Consumer Electronics Devices and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

  2. INTERCALATING TRIPLEXES AND DUPLEXES USING ARYL NAPHTHOIMIDAZOL AND PROCESS FOR THE PREPARATION THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    There is provided an intercalating oligonucleotide for stabilizing natural or modified DNA and RNA triplexes, duplexes and hybrids thereof having the general structure (I) triplex forming oligonucleotides of the invention are capable of binding specifically to double stranded target nucleic acids...

  3. Cellulase variants with improved expression, activity and stability, and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aehle, Wolfgang; Bott, Richard R.; Bower, Benjamin S.; Caspi, Jonathan; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus Joannes; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Kralj, Slavko; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Nikolaev, Igor; Wallace, Louise; Van Stigt Thans, Sander; Vogtentanz, Gudrun; Sandgren, Mats

    2016-12-20

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having improved expression, activity and/or stability. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase variants, compositions comprising the cellulase variants, and methods of use thereof.

  4. Absorbing material based on starch having improved absorbent properties and process for the preparation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feil, H.; Soest, van J.J.G.; Schijndel, van R.J.G.

    1999-01-01

    A biodegradable, highly water-absorbing polymer based on starch or derivatives thereof is described, wherein the starch has not been chemically modified or only to a degree of substitution below 0.2, and has a water-absorbing power of at least 10 times its own weight, half of the water absorption be

  5. 77 FR 43612 - Certain Lighting Control Devices Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Decision To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Lighting Control Devices Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Decision To..., 2012. The Commission also requests written submissions regarding remedy, bonding, and the public... may also be obtained by accessing its Internet server at http://www.usitc.gov . The public record for...

  6. Attractant compositions for weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, D.J.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to formulations of volatile organic compounds having effects on Otiorhynchus weevils e.g., Otiorhynchus sulcatus. In some embodiments, volatile organic compounds selected from (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-pentenol, methyl eugenol and a combination thereof are effective for attr

  7. 77 FR 39509 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components... business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in the Office of the Secretary, U.S. International Trade...

  8. 77 FR 75659 - Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Video Analytics Software, Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same... investigation are or will be available for inspection during official business hours (8:45 a.m. to 5:15 p.m.) in... the United States after importation of certain video analytics software systems, components...

  9. 78 FR 44971 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial... Zuru Toys Inc. of Cambridge, New Zealand. On June 3, 2013, the complainants and respondents filed...

  10. Metal nanoparticle deposited inorganic nanostructure hybrids, uses thereof and processes for their preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenne, Reshef; Tsverin, Yulia; Burghaus, Uwe; Komarneni, Mallikharjuna Rao

    2016-01-26

    This invention relates to a hybrid component comprising at least one nanoparticle of inorganic layered compound (in the form of fullerene-like structure or nanotube), and at least one metal nanoparticle, uses thereof as a catalyst, (e.g. photocatalysis) and processes for its preparation.

  11. 76 FR 58841 - Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof, and Certain Electronic Devices Having a Blu...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... FR 12994-5 (Mar. 9, 2011). The complaints allege violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930... COMMISSION Certain Digital Televisions and Components Thereof, and Certain Electronic Devices Having a Blu...; and 5,923,711, and of certain electronic devices having a Blu-Ray disc player and components...

  12. 77 FR 23751 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain food waste disposers and... sale within the United States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components...

  13. Process for attaching molecular wires and devices to carbon nanotubes and compositions thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M. (Inventor); Bahr, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Yang, Jiping (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed towards processes for covalently attaching molecular wires and molecular electronic devices to carbon nanotubes and compositions thereof. Such processes utilize diazonium chemistry to bring about this marriage of wire-like nanotubes with molecular wires and molecular electronic devices.

  14. 78 FR 33110 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Determination To Review a Remand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Determination To Review a Remand... the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic digital media devices and..., including in the JP published unexamined application HII-288766 (``Kawano'') and the YP-T7J portable...

  15. 9 CFR 310.13 - Inflating carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; transferring caul or other fat. 310.13 Section 310.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... carcasses or parts thereof; transferring caul or other fat. (a)(1) Establishments shall not inflate... swine to facilitate the skinning operation and to minimize the loss of body fat. The method...

  16. 77 FR 4059 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof; Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ... for capturing and transmitting images, and components thereof. The complaint names Apple Inc. of Cupertino, CA; High Tech Computer Corp. (a/k/a HTC Corp.) of Taiwan; HTC America, Inc. of Bellevue, WA; and Exedea, Inc. of Houston, TX, as respondents. The complainant, proposed respondents, other...

  17. Noble metal superparticles and methods of preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yugang; Hu, Yongxing

    2016-07-12

    A method comprises heating an aqueous solution of colloidal silver particles. A soluble noble metal halide salt is added to the aqueous solution which undergoes a redox reaction on a surface of the silver particles to form noble metal/silver halide SPs, noble metal halide/silver halide SPs or noble metal oxide/silver halide SPs on the surface of the silver particles. The heat is maintained for a predetermined time to consume the silver particles and release the noble metal/silver halide SPs, the noble metal halide/silver halide SPs or the noble metal oxide/silver halide SPs into the aqueous solution. The aqueous solution is cooled. The noble metal/silver halide SPs, the noble metal halide/silver halide SPs or noble metal oxide/silver halide SPs are separated from the aqueous solution. The method optionally includes adding a soluble halide salt to the aqueous solution.

  18. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and bioactive peptides in human nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaafsma, G

    2009-10-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed and evaluated. A new concept for the safety assessment of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof is developed. Benchmarks for the evaluation are safety of total protein intake, safety of free amino acid intake, documented history of safe use, outcome of questionnaires in efficacy studies and safety studies. Similar to the intake of intact proteins with a history of safe use, the intake of hydrolysates made from them, does not raise concern about safety, provided the applied proteolytic enzymes are food grade and thus of suitable quality. The safety of hydrolysates and of fractions thereof, including the so-called bioactive peptides, should always be assessed by the company before market introduction (company safety assessment). Only when a novel protein source is used or a novel production process is applied, which results in significant changes in nutritional value, metabolic effect or increased level of undesirable substances, that products might fall under novel food regulations. This means that company safety assessment should be reviewed and approved by external independent experts (external safety evaluation) and the novel protein hydrolysate (fraction) is authorized by competent authorities before market introduction. It is argued that good judgement on the safety of hydrolysates and the fractions thereof can be obtained by comparing the anticipated intake of amino acids by these products with those levels to be reasonably expected to be ingested under normal conditions of consumption of a balanced and varied diet. The paper shows a decision tree that can be used for safety assessment.

  19. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture......On a Danish housing estate moisture sensors were installed in dwellings, partly in exterior walls and partly in attics. At each location sensors were installed within the insulation at two positions, one facing the outer cold side and the other facing the inner warm side. The exterior walls...... conditions in walls nor attics provide a risk or concern of mould growth in the thermal insulation....

  20. El futuro de la Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones y la política exterior de España

    OpenAIRE

    Celestino del ARENAL

    1992-01-01

    RESUMEN: La proyección iberoamericana de España es una de las dimensiones claves de su política exterior y, en consecuencia, una de las prioridades de su acción exterior. Sólo asumiendo este hecho, que al mismo tiempo constituye un reto para la futura política exterior española después de 1992, el proyecto de Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones, continuará con su proceso de consolidación y desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The iberoamerican dimension of Spain is one of the key aspects of the Spanish Fore...

  1. Infrared nanoantenna apparatus and method for the manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul; Leonhardt, Darin; Kim, Jin K.; Wendt, Joel R.; Klem, John F.

    2014-06-10

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention is a photodetector comprising a semiconductor body, a periodically patterned metal nanoantenna disposed on a surface of the semiconductor body, and at least one electrode separate from the nanoantenna. The semiconductor body comprises an active layer in sufficient proximity to the nanoantenna for plasmonic coupling thereto. The nanoantenna is dimensioned to absorb electromagnetic radiation in at least some wavelengths not more than 12 .mu.m that are effective for plasmonic coupling into the active layer. The electrode is part of an electrode arrangement for obtaining a photovoltage or photocurrent in operation under appropriate stimulation.

  2. La política exterior de Canadá y la sociedad civil

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    En la ponencia se analizará la proyección de la politica exterior canadiense y la participación de la sociedad civil en su diseño. Se abordarán los temas de la cooperación internacional de Canada, la participación en Operaciones de Paz de Naciones Unidas, la disfusión de la democracia, su proyección hacia América Latina y la Argentina, y las IED canadienses. Una faceta importante en el análisis será la vincualción con los Estados Unidos y los cambios que se pueden dar en la politica exterior ...

  3. Posmodernismo y constructivismo: su utilidad para analizar la política exterior colombiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Carvajal H.

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available La política exterior colombiana tradicionalmente ha sido diseñada y ejecutada de manera reactiva e improvisada, sin mayores reflexiones teóricas y conceptuales sobre el entorno internacional en el que se desarrolla, ni sobre las variables que la afectan, los objetivos que busca, ni en relación con las herramientas con las que se construirá dicha política pública. Este artículo presenta, en forma sucinta, los planteamientos de las teorías del posmodernismo y el constructivismo en relaciones internacionales, y reflexiona sobre el poder explicativo que tales marcos conceptuales tienen en la política exterior de Colombia.

  4. La evolución de la política exterior China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Esteban Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sintetiza y analiza los principales cambios experimentados por la política exterior de la República Popular China desde su fundación en 1949 hasta la actualidad. Para explicar esas transformaciones se recurre fundamentalmente a tres variables (la política interna de China, las características del sistema internacional y el contexto de seguridad, que las autoridades chinas han interpretado influidas por tres componentes ideacionales: el comunismo, el nacionalismo y el pragmatismo. A modo de conclusión se subraya que, a pesar de sus vaivenes, la política exterior de Pekín ha mantenido tres objetivos fundamentales en las últimas siete décadas: modernización, reconocimiento internacional como gran potencia y reunificación nacional.

  5. OS IMPACTOS MACROECONÔMICOS DOS INVESTIMENTOS BRASILEIROS DIRETOS NO EXTERIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Augusto Miranda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A globalização produtiva tem gerado importantes debates sobre as implicações da mesma. Nesse sentido, quais seriam as conseqüências para a nação do investimento das empresas domésticas no exterior? Tal pergunta não possui evidências empíricas robustas que corroborem um ou outro ponto de vista. Assim, o presente artigo objetiva investigar, por meio de uma abordagem econométrica, os impactos dos Investimentos Diretos Brasileiros no Exterior (IDBE sobre algumas das principais variáveis macroeconômicas brasileiras. Os resultados mostraram que o IDBE tem impactos estatisticamente significantes sobre o PIB, Investimento doméstico, Saldo na Balança de Capitais e Importações. Tais resultados convergem ao encontrado por alguns trabalhos presentes na literatura.

  6. Importance of location and exterior of city hotels as elements of guest satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepavčević Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business practices and attitudes of tourists show that hospitality represents the primary factor in the development of urban tourism. It is considered that, besides the exclusive appearance, there is no business success for hotel properties without a proper location. It is known that a typical tourist would like to be close enough to tourist attractions, to be able to reach them on foot. This paper deals with the importance of location and exterior of urban hotels on guests decision on the selection and overall satisfaction with hotel products. The survey was conducted in the hotels two largest urban centers in Serbia (Belgrade and Novi Sad. The aim of the research is an insight into the real impact of location and exterior when assessing the guest satisfaction. Descriptive statistical analysis, t-test and regression analysis were used for statistical data processing.

  7. Energy decay for solutions to semilinear systems of elastic waves in exterior domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio V. Ferreira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the dynamical system of elasticity in the exterior of a bounded open domain in 3-D with smooth boundary. We prove that under the effect of "weak" dissipation, the total energy decays at a uniform rate as $t o +infty$, provided the initial data is "small" at infinity. No assumptions on the geometry of the obstacle are required. The results are then applied to a semilinear problem proving global existence and decay for small initial data.

  8. La evolución de la política exterior China

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Esteban Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Este artículo sintetiza y analiza los principales cambios experimentados por la política exterior de la República Popular China desde su fundación en 1949 hasta la actualidad. Para explicar esas transformaciones se recurre fundamentalmente a tres variables (la política interna de China, las características del sistema internacional y el contexto de seguridad), que las autoridades chinas han interpretado influidas por tres componentes ideacionales: e...

  9. Fire propagation over combustible exterior facades exposed to intensified flame in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to fire safety for exterior walls of a building, fire-resistance performance is considered, according to the current Building Standard Law of Japan. And it was revealed that the fire safety is not specifically regulated from the viewpoint of reaction-to-fire performance, such as fire propagation caused by combustible materials or products installed on the exterior side of fire-resistant load-bearing walls. Actual fire incidents in the world have shown that massive façade fire could occur at the exterior side of building wall even when the wall itself is fire resistant. In previous studies of the authors, a test method of façade fire was proposed for evaluating the vertical fire propagation over an external wall within the same building [1,2]. Based on these studies, new domestic standard test method was established in Japan as JIS A 1310: 2015, “Test method for fire propagation over building façades” at the end of January 2015 [3]. But there was the argument that heat output of burner inside the combustion chamber was not sufficiently high in the previous study. In this paper, results of fire tests on combustible façades are discussed from the viewpoints of different strength of flame exposing facade. In this research, it was clearly found that JIS A 1310 with heat output of 900kW could be applicable for evaluating fire propagation behaviour over various types of combustible exterior façades.

  10. O lugar da China no comércio exterior brasileiro

    OpenAIRE

    DIEGO PAUTASSO

    2010-01-01

    O objetivo do presente artigo de conjuntura é compreender o lugar da China no comércio exterior brasileiro. O argumento proposto é que a condição da China de maior parceiro comercial do Brasil representa mais do que uma mudança de hierarquia, mas transformações nas relações bilaterais e no próprio sistema internacional.

  11. Comparative analysis of urethane-alkyd and water based coatings for exterior wood

    OpenAIRE

    Jaić, Milan

    2012-01-01

    The protection of wood elements in the exterior use, such as window frames and doors, can be performed with various type of coatings. The most diffused in use are conventional coatings – solvent-based (alkyd, modified alkyds etc.). Last years, because of the restrictive normative regarding the solvent emission, the trend of coatings development leads to the reduction of volatile organic components. Organic solvents are reduced or substituted by environmentally safer solvents such as water or ...

  12. Classical geometries defined by exterior differential systems on higher frame bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Frank B.; Wahlquist, Hugo D.

    1989-01-01

    Exterior differential ideals are discussed, and sets of invariant generators presented, for Reimannian, conformal and projective geometries, and for specializations such as Ricci-flat, self-dual and Einstein-Maxwell theories. The Cartan characteristic integers are explicitly calculated, and involutory basis forms found, for each of these (specialized to four dimensions), exposing their algebraic structure and showing how they generate well-posed sets of partial differential equations.

  13. Investigación - Colombia y las fuentes de financiamiento de comercio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Esta investigación pone en evidencia las fuentes de financiamiento de comercio exterior en Colombia para hacer frente al reto exportador. Así, el documento dará claridad al gremio, mostrando las alternativas de financiamiento y apoyo no económico para poder aprovechar las oportunidades que brindan los tratados de libre comercio, y otros acuerdos comerciales que tiene Colombia.

  14. On certain realizations of the q-deformed exterior differential calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Richard; Abramov, Viktor

    1999-04-01

    We investigate two particular realizations of a q-deformed differential calculus at q being a primitive root of unity, qN = 1. Particular attention is paid to the Z3-graded case N = 3. First we construct an analogue of the exterior differential calculus on a manifold, then we introduce a discrete realization of such a calculus on generalized Clifford algebras. Finally, combining both constructions, we discuss a ZN-graded generalization of gauge theory.

  15. Black Holes in the Framework of the Metric Tensor Exterior to the Sun and Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E.N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the Sun and oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system to reduce to black holes is investigated. The metric tensor exterior to oblate spheroidal masses indicates that for the Sun to reduce to a black hole, its mass must condense by a factor of 2 : 32250 10 5 . Using Schwarzschild’s metric, this factor is obtained as 2 : 3649 10 5 . Similar results are obtained for oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system.

  16. Absence of Martian Radiation Belts and Implications Thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, J A; Frank, L A; Krimigis, S M; Hills, H K

    1965-09-10

    A system of sensitive particle detectors on Mariner IV showed the presence of electrons of energy (E(e)) less than 40 kiloelectron volts out to a radial distance of 165,000 kilometers in the morning fringe of the earth's magnetosphere but failed to detect any such electrons during the close encounter with Mars on 14-15 July 1965, at the time when the minimum areocentric radial distance was 13,200 kilometers. This result can mean that the ratio of the magnetic dipole moment of Mars to that of the earth (M(M)/M(E)) is surely less than 0.001 and probably is less than 0.0005. The corresponding upper limits on the equatorial magnetic field at the surface of Mars are 200 and 100 gammas, respectively. It appears possible that the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian atmosphere.

  17. Behaviour of fibre-reinforced high-performance concrete in exterior beam-column joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthupriya, P.; Boobalan, S. C.; Vishnuram, B. G.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents the effect of reinforced high performance concrete (HPC) in exterior beam-column joint with and without fibre under monotonic loading. In this experimental investigation, cross-diagonal bars have been provided at the joint for reducing the congestion of reinforcement in joints, and also M75 grade of concrete with optimum mix proportion of 10 % silica fume and 0.3 % glass fibre was used. Four exterior beam-column joint sub-assemblages were tested. The specimens were divided into two types based on the reinforcement detailing. Type A comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per construction code of practice in India (IS 456-2000), and Type B comprises two joint sub-assemblages with joint detailing as per ductile detailing code of practice in India (IS 13920-1993). In each group there was one specimen of control mix and the remaining one specimen of fibre-reinforced mix. All the test specimens were designed to satisfy the strong column-weak beam concept. The performances of specimens were compared with the control mix and the fibre-reinforced mix. The results show that exterior beam-column joint specimens with silica fume and glass fibre in the HPC mix showed better performance.

  18. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateo Gašparović

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV photogrammetric surveying. The subject is a 3-axis brushless gimbal based on a controller board (Storm32. Only two gimbal axes are taken into consideration: roll and pitch axes. Testing was done in a flight simulation, and in indoor and outdoor flight mode, to analyze the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU and photogrammetric data. Within these tests the change of the exterior orientation parameters without the use of a gimbal is determined, as well as the potential accuracy of the stabilization with the use of a gimbal. The results show that using a gimbal has huge potential. Significantly, smaller discrepancies between data are noticed when a gimbal is used in flight simulation mode, even four times smaller than in other test modes. In this test the potential accuracy of a low budget gimbal for application in real conditions is determined.

  19. Gimbal Influence on the Stability of Exterior Orientation Parameters of UAV Acquired Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gašparović, Mateo; Jurjević, Luka

    2017-02-18

    In this paper, results from the analysis of the gimbal impact on the determination of the camera exterior orientation parameters of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) are presented and interpreted. Additionally, a new approach and methodology for testing the influence of gimbals on the exterior orientation parameters of UAV acquired images is presented. The main motive of this study is to examine the possibility of obtaining better geometry and favorable spatial bundles of rays of images in UAV photogrammetric surveying. The subject is a 3-axis brushless gimbal based on a controller board (Storm32). Only two gimbal axes are taken into consideration: roll and pitch axes. Testing was done in a flight simulation, and in indoor and outdoor flight mode, to analyze the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and photogrammetric data. Within these tests the change of the exterior orientation parameters without the use of a gimbal is determined, as well as the potential accuracy of the stabilization with the use of a gimbal. The results show that using a gimbal has huge potential. Significantly, smaller discrepancies between data are noticed when a gimbal is used in flight simulation mode, even four times smaller than in other test modes. In this test the potential accuracy of a low budget gimbal for application in real conditions is determined.

  20. La Política Exterior de Rusia en Oriente Medio. ¿Continuidad o Cambio?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Pérez del Pozo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available El recorrido histórico por la política exterior de la URSS/Rusia hacia Oriente Medio en el último siglo presenta una línea de continuidad, apenas alterada por las dinámicas espacio-temporales vividas por el país. Rusia ha ejecutado una política exterior más orientada a responder a los movimientos norteamericanos en la región que a consolidar una presencia activa, de iniciativas propias. Sin embargo, la situación creada tras los levantamientos de 2011 y el conflicto sirio le han permitido a Moscú recuperar una activa presencia regional en temas político-militares y obtener ventajas económicas y comerciales. Con una limitada intervención militar en Siria, Rusia ha consolidado su posición mundial de gran jugador estratégico, y ha obtenido unas ventajas político-diplomáticas que le permiten ejecutar una política exterior dictada por el carácter instrumental de sus propios intereses.

  1. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  2. Measurement of Exterior Foundation Insulation to Assess Durability in Energy-Saving Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehrer, Manfred [ORNL; Christian, Jeff [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2012-04-01

    The foundation of a house is a sometimes ignored component of the building because of its low visibility. It is increasingly evident, however, that attention to good foundation design and construction significantly benefits the homeowner and the builder by mitigating future problems. Good foundation design and construction practice involves not only insulating to save energy but also providing effective structural design as well as moisture, termite, and radon control techniques as appropriate. Energy efficiency in housing is augmented by use of exterior slab and basement insulation, but high moisture content in the insulation material has led to concerns about its durability. The activity under this task was to extract six different exterior insulation systems that were characterized at installation and have been in the ground for 9 months to 15 years. R-value and moisture content were measured and inspections conducted for evidence of termite intrusion or deterioration. Based on the results, the durability of the various systems has been documented and assessments made of which systems appear to be best practice. Heat flux and temperature measurement data had been archived for some of the exterior insulation tests, thereby providing a unique opportunity to assess energy-saving performance and durability over the long term. The results show that the durability of foundation insulation systems depends on insulation type as well as on foundation type and local boundary conditions, the latter of which may have a marked influence on the durability of energy-saving performance.

  3. Influence of Exterior Space to Linkage and Tourist Movement Pattern in Losari Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Adyla Suriadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Makassar City has a strategic location because located at the crossroads of good traffic from north to south and from west to east, from these advantages so Makassar City eligible to be a tourism destination. One of the hallmarks quality tourism destination is Losari Coastal Area, which is a tourist area that became an icon of the city of Makassar and has many tourist attractions i.e. Reclamation Losari Beach, Fort Rotterdam, Somba Opu Shopping Centre and Culinary Tourism Area. However, tourist movement patterns who concentrated only in Reclamation Losari Beach needs for development of linkage at tourist attractions based on tourist movement patterns. Research method used is descriptive qualitative method with cognitive mapping technique to identify of tourist movement patterns characteristic in visiting tourist attractions at Losari Coastal Area and influence of exterior space to linkage among tourist attractions. Results from this research is determine influence of exterior space to connectivity linkage and tourist movement patterns among tourist attractions and find local criteria of exterior space which can be applied in Losari Coastal Area.

  4. Los mecanismos multilaterales como instrumento de la proyección española en el exterior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gracia Abad

    2014-01-01

    ... de la Transición Política. Desde entonces, España ha tratado de incrementar su presencia en organizaciones internacionales y mecanismos multilaterales como forma de ejecutar su política exterior...

  5. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  6. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  7. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  8. OPTICAL FIBRE WITH HIGH NUMERICAL APERTURE, METHOD OF ITS PRODUCTION, AND USE THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    An article comprising an optical fibre, the fibre comprising at least one core surrounded by a first outer cladding region, the first outer cladding region being surrounded by a second outer cladding region, the first outer cladding region in the cross-section comprising a number of first outer...... an optical wavelength of light guided through the fibre when in use; a method of its production, and use thereof...

  9. 76 FR 23624 - In the Matter of Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  10. Ionic liquids, method for the production thereof, and use of same as electrolytes for electrochemical energy storage devices

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel, Irene de; Herradón García, Bernardo; Mann, Enrique; Morales, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to ionic liquids of general formula (I), to the synthesis thereof, and to the use of said ionic liquids as electrolytes in electrochemical electrical energy storage devices.

  11. 75 FR 26920 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, Preliminary Results...

  12. Proposed design method for large-stone asphalt and the implementation thereof in the rehabilitation of an airport pavement.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of a design procedure for large-stone asphalt, the implementation thereof in two sets of trial sections, the correlation of engineering properties obtained in the laboratory with field properties...

  13. SEPARATION OF POLONIUM, PROTACTINIUM OR MIXTURES THEREOF IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION FROM BISMUTH, LEAD, ZIRCONIUM AND/OR COLUMBIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Q.; Kraus, K.A.

    1959-10-27

    A process is presented for separating polonium, protactinium, or mixtures thereof in aqueous solution from bismuth, zirconium, lead, and niobium values contained in the solution. The method comprises providing hydrochloric acid in the solution in a concentration of at least 5N. contacting the aqueous solution with a substantially waterimmiscible organic solvent such as diisopropyl ketone, and separating the aqueous phase containing the bismuth, zirconium, lead, and niobium from the organic extract phase containing the polonium, protactinium, or mixture thereof.

  14. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  15. TOPICAL REVIEW: Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, C. W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T. N.

    2004-09-01

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a 'reduction to computation' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wavefunction can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  16. La ruta trazada: lineamientos generales de la política exterior brasileña

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Reig Salinas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo intenta dar una visión panorámica de la política exterior brasileña a través de sus objetivos, principios y conceptos, junto con destacar la importancia de su diplomacia. Se explora también la política regional de Brasil y su relación bilateral con Estados Unidos, abarcando hasta el período de post-guerra fría, durante el gobierno de Fernando Henrique Cardoso.

  17. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La política exterior estadounidense en Medio Oriente ha sido una cuestión que ha ocupado un papel capital tanto en estudios presentados desde diversas disciplinas como en las discusiones del publico en general. Siguiendo con este interes, Noam Chomsky, lingüística y activista politico norteamericano y Gibert Achcar, profesor de Politicas y Relaciones Internacionales que vivió varios años en Libano, deciden enriquecer y profundizar los conocimientos frente al tema de una manera novedosa, a tra...

  18. Quasilinear differential equations in exterior domains with nonlinear boundary conditions and application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Tarfulea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence of weak solutions to a class of quasilinear elliptic equations with nonlinear Neumann boundary conditions in exterior domains. Problems of this kind arise in various areas of science and technology. An important model case related to the initial data problem in general relativity is presented. As an application of our main result, we deduce the existence of the conformal factor for the Hamiltonian constraint in general relativity in the presence of multiple black holes. We also give a proof for uniqueness in this case.

  19. Análisis geográfico de las relaciones comerciales exteriores de Canarias

    OpenAIRE

    Ramón Díaz Hernández; Josefina Domínguez Mujica

    2013-01-01

    Durante la década de los noventa, el comercio exterior de Canarias empieza a sentir los efectos de la incorporación de España a la Unión Europea (1986). La armonización de los mercados de destino y de origen, a resultas de este hecho, rompe poco a poco con las ventajas comerciales tradicionales de las Islas. Ello supone, a la vez, una mayor vinculación con Europa y un estrechamiento de los intercambios con el resto del Estado Español. No obstante, como resultado de una rica experiencia mercan...

  20. Fungistatic Performance of 10,10'-Oxybisphenoxarsine in Exterior Latex and Asphalt Coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P A; Riley, W H

    1965-01-01

    10, 10'-Oxybisphenoxarsine has been found to be outstanding in its activity against bacteria and fungi. Parallel tests with known fungistats for comparison (2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol and phenylmercuric acetate) have demonstrated its superior activity and persistence in an exterior acrylate paint film and in an asphalt coating. In view of its superior antimicrobial activity and its persistence, it can be used in applications in which there is no danger of its ingestion. Further field trials are in progress to evaluate 10, 10'oxybisphenoxarsine in paint, asphalt, wood, and in marine pilings.

  1. The exterior cusp and its boundary with the magnetosheath: Cluster multi-event analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lavraud

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We report on the observation of three high-altitude cusp crossings by the Cluster spacecraft under steady northward IMF conditions. The focus of this study is on the exterior cusp and its boundaries. At the poleward edge of the cusp, large downward jets are present; they are characterized by a dawn-dusk component of the convection velocity opposite to the IMF By direction and a gradual evolution (velocity filter effect corresponding to an injection site located at the high-latitude magnetopause tailward of the cusp, with subsequent sunward convection. As one moves from the poleward edge into the exterior cusp proper, the plasma gradually becomes stagnant as the result of the mirroring and scattering of the aforementioned plasma flows. The existence of such a stagnant region (Stagnant Exterior Cusp: SEC is found in all events studied here even when the IMF By is large and the clock angle is ~90°. The SEC-magnetosheath boundary appears as a spatial structure that has a normal component of the magnetic field pointing inward, in accordance with a probable connection between the region and the magnetosheath (with northward field. This boundary generally has a deHoffmann-Teller velocity that is slow and oriented sunward and downward, compatible with a discontinuity propagating from a location near the high-latitude magnetopause. Although the tangential stress balance is not always satisfied, the SEC-magnetosheath boundary is possibly a rotational discontinuity. Just outside this boundary, there exists a clear sub-Alfvénic plasma depletion layer (PDL. These results are all consistent with the existence of a nearly steady reconnection site at the high-latitude magnetopause tailward of the cusp. We suggest that the stability of the external discontinuity (and of the whole region is maintained by the presence of the sub-Alfvénic PDL. However, examination of the electron data shows the presence of heated electrons

  2. ANÁLISIS REGIONAL DEL COMERCIO EXTERIOR AGROALIMENTARIO EN ESPAÑA

    OpenAIRE

    VICENT TUÑAS, RAMÓN

    2015-01-01

    [ES] En el trabajo se han analizado los principales resultados de los sectores exteriores agroalimentarios de las comunidades autónomas (CCAA) durante el período 2009 a 2012 en base a una serie de indicadores de competitividad comercial. Estos indicadores se nutren de los datos de producción, importación y exportación regional. Se ha realizado un desglose por subsectores agroalimentarios. Las regiones han tenido evoluciones distintas, si bien tras haber analizado los tres pr...

  3. Imigrantes e espaços públicos exteriores em Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A composição multi-étnica das sociedades e a correspondente mutação na paisagem cultural das cidades leva à necessidade de reconhecimento de uma nova amplitude de necessidades, preferências e padrões de utilização dos espaços públicos exteriores por parte de diferentes comunidades com diferentes experiências culturais. Para a arquitectura paisagista, como para outras disciplinas de planeamento e desenho urbano, torna-se cada vez mais pertinente entender as necessidades destas novas sociedades...

  4. Posmodernismo y constructivismo: su utilidad para analizar la política exterior colombiana

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Carvajal H.

    2009-01-01

    La política exterior colombiana tradicionalmente ha sido diseñada y ejecutada de manera reactiva e improvisada, sin mayores reflexiones teóricas y conceptuales sobre el entorno internacional en el que se desarrolla, ni sobre las variables que la afectan, los objetivos que busca, ni en relación con las herramientas con las que se construirá dicha política pública. Este artículo presenta, en forma sucinta, los planteamientos de las teorías del posmodernismo y el constructivismo en relaciones in...

  5. Variations of Hodge Structure Considered as an Exterior Differential System: Old and New Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Carlson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the subject of variations of Hodge structure (VHS considered as exterior differential systems (EDS. We review developments over the last twenty-six years, with an emphasis on some key examples. In the penultimate section we present some new results on the characteristic cohomology of a homogeneous Pfaffian system. In the last section we discuss how the integrability conditions of an EDS affect the expected dimension of an integral submanifold. The paper ends with some speculation on EDS and Hodge conjecture for Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  6. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Inhomogeneous Toda Lattice Equation via Semi-Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Wang, Deng-Shan; Yin, Yan-Bin

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the Lie point symmetries of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by semi-discrete exterior calculus, which is a semi-discrete version of Harrison and Estabrook’s geometric approach. A four-dimensional Lie algebra and its one-, two- and three-dimensional subalgebras are given. Two similarity reductions of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by using the symmetry vectors. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11375030, 11472315, and Department of Science and Technology of Henan Province under Grant No. 162300410223 and Beijing Finance Funds of Natural Science Program for Excellent Talents under Grant No. 2014000026833ZK19

  7. LA POLÍTICA EXTERIOR DE MÉXICO HACIA SUDAMÉRICA, 1900-1910

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La política exterior mexicana hacia Sudamérica durante la última década del gobierno de Porfirio Díaz no fue univoca, encerró distintos ritmos y diferentes intereses. Ciertamente, tampoco fue la misma que se asumió frente a Estados Unidos porque como se sabe las condiciones eran otras. La postura de los operadores de la diplomacia mexicana se guió por la posición de México frente a la nación representada, por los objetivos perseguidos y el contexto del momento. En efecto, la ca...

  8. THE ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY CONDITION FOR EXTERIOR OSEEN EQUATION IN 2-D SPACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-xiong Zheng; Hou-de Han

    2002-01-01

    A finite element method for the solution of Oseen equation in exterior domain is proposed. In this method, a circular artificial boundary is introduced to make the computational domain finite. Then, the exact relation between the normal stress and the prescribed velocity field on the artificial boundary can be obtained analytically. This relation can serve as an boundary condition for the boundary value problem defined on the finite domain bounded by the artificial boundary. Numerical experiment is presented to demonstrate the performance of the method.

  9. Acción exterior de la Comunidad Autónoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mangas, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    Este trabajo analiza la proyección internacional de la región de Castilla y León, en especial, los medios directos como los acuerdos de colaboración con regiones de otros Estados, la representación en organismos internacionales, las oficinas de representación en el exterior, la cooperación al desarrollo y la cooperación transfronteriza, y los medios indirectos como la participación y ejecución de acuerdos internacionales del España.

  10. NONLINEAR GALERKIN METHOD FOR THE EXTERIOR NONSTATIONARY NAVIER-STOKES EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何银年; 李开泰

    2002-01-01

    A new algorithm combining nonlinear Galerkin method and coupling method of finite element and boundary element is introduced to solve the exterior nonstationary Navier-Stokes equations. The regularity of the coupling variational formulation and the convergence of the approximate solution corresponding to the algorithm are proved. If the fine mesh h is choosed as coarse mesh H-sgure, the nonlinear Galerkin method, nonlinearity is only treated on the coarse grid and linearity is treated on the fine grid. Hence, the new algorithm can save a large amount of computational time.

  11. Ciudad y comunicación publicitaria: Análisis de la publicidad exterior outdoors

    OpenAIRE

    García Carrizo, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    La publicidad exterior outdoors se erige en el espacio urbano formando parte de él. A pesar de que algunos autores la rechazan argumentando que es una de las mayores fuentes de contaminación visual de la urbe, en esta investigación se pretende defender como un elemento indispensable de la misma a través del cual se pueden conseguir sinergias positivas para ambas. Así, a través de una revisión bibliográfica con su correspondiente análisis de contenido, se pretende hacer una aproximación a las ...

  12. DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION WITH NONMATCHING GRIDS FOR EXTERIOR TRANSMISSION PROBLEMS VIA FEM AND DTN MAPPING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-e Yang; De-hao Yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with a non-overlapping domain decomposition method (DDM) for exterior transmission problems in the plane. Based on the natural boundary integral operator, we combine the DDM with a Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN) mapping and provide the numerical analysis with nonmatching grids. The weak continuity of the approximation solutions on the interface is imposed by a dual basis multiplier. We show that this multiplier space can generate optimal error estimate and obtain the corresponding rate of convergence. Finally, several numerical examples confirm the theoretical results.

  13. Propuesta de internacionalización del Master en Comercio Exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Babé Núñez, José

    2013-01-01

    Este trabajo presenta una propuesta de internacionalización del Máster de Comercio Exterior de la Facultad de Comercio de la UVA, en México. Ofrece una visión dinámica de este proceso y de las opciones que existen de distribución. Incluye, la metodología para elegir un mercado objetivo, un estudio del sector educativo del postgrado en México y define la estrategia de marketing para su venta. Asimismo, incluye un diagrama de Gantt con las actividades programadas para el éxito de...

  14. ARTIFICIAL BOUNDARY METHOD FOR THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL EXTERIOR PROBLEM OF ELASTICITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hou-de Han; Chun-xiong Zheng

    2005-01-01

    The exact boundary condition on a spherical artificial boundary is derived for thethree-dimensional exterior problem of linear elasticity in this paper. After this boundary condition is imposed on the artificial boundary, a reduced problem only defined in a bounded domain is obtained. A series of approximate problems with increasing accuracy can be derived if one truncates the series term in the variational formulation, which is equivalent to the reduced problem. An error estimate is presented to show how the error depends on the finite element discretization and the accuracy of the approximate problem.In the end, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.

  15. Onda corta vs. radio online. Radio Exterior de España en la era digital

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Cuesta, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Fernández Cuesta, Antonio (2013). Onda corta vs. radio online. Radio Exterior de España en la era digital. En: adComunica. Revista Científica de Estrategias, Tendencias e Innovación en Comunicación, nº5. Castellón: Asociación para el Desarrollo de la Comunicación adComunica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid y Universitat Jaume I, 251-254. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.6035/2174- 0992.2013.5.16

  16. A FEM-BEM FORMULATION FOR AN EXTERIOR QUASILINEAR ELLIPTIC PROBLEM IN THE PLANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongjie Liu; Dehao Yu

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the finite element method and the boundary element method are combined to solve numerically an exterior quasilinear elliptic problem. Based on an appropriate transformation and the Fourier series expansion, the exact qnasilinear artificial boundary conditions and a series of the corresponding approximations for the given problem are presented. Then the original problem is reduced into an equivalent problem defined in a bounded computational domain. We provide error estimate for the Galerkin method. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the theoretical results.

  17. Isogeometric finite element analysis of time-harmonic exterior acoustic scattering problems

    CERN Document Server

    Khajah, Tahsin; Bordas, Stéphane P A

    2016-01-01

    We present an isogeometric analysis of time-harmonic exterior acoustic problems. The infinite space is truncated by a fictitious boundary and (simple) absorbing boundary conditions are applied. The truncation error is included in the exact solution so that the reported error is an indicator of the performance of the isogeometric analysis, in particular of the related pollution error. Numerical results performed with high-order basis functions (third or fourth orders) showed no visible pollution error even for very high frequencies. This property combined with exact geometrical representation makes isogeometric analysis a very promising platform to solve high-frequency acoustic problems.

  18. Infrared thermal imaging-based research on the intermediate structures of the lung and large intestine exterior-interior relationship in asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Ni, Jin-Xia; Marmori, Federico; Zhu, Qi; Tan, Cheng; Zhao, Ji-Ping

    2016-11-01

    By observing body surface temperature variation of the intermediate structures of the Lung (Fei) and Large Intestine (Dachang) exterior-interior relationship in asthmatic patients, to investigate the pathological response on the pathway of channels and to substantiate the objective existence of the intermediary structures. The study included 60 subjects meeting the bronchial asthma inclusion criteria (experimental group) and 60 healthy subjects (normal control group). ATIR-M301 infrared thermal imaging device was used for detecting body surface temperature of the subjects and collecting the infrared thermal images. The temperature values of the intermediate structures of Lung and Large Intestine exterior-interior relationship [throat, Quepen, elbow, nose, Lieque (LU 7), Pianli (LI 6)], control areas (0.2 cm lateral to the above structures) and Yintang (EX-HN 3) were measured on the infrared thermal image by infrared imaging system. Then, the above temperature values were compared and analyzed within and between two groups. There were insignificant differences between the temperature on the left and right sides of the intermediate structures (Quepen, elbow, LU 7, LI 6) in normal control group (P>0.05). Except for that of Quepen, there were insignifificant differences between the temperature of the intermediate structures and their corresponding control areas in normal control group (P>0.05). In the experimental group, the temperature on the left and right sides of the intermediate structures (Quepen, elbow, LU 7, LI 6) showed statistically signifificant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01); the temperature difference between intermediate structure (throat, Quepen, elbow, nose, LI 6) and their respective control areas were also significant (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The temperature of the intermediate structures (throat, Quepen, elbow, LU7, LI 6) between the experimental group and normal control group showed signifificant differences (P<0.05 or P<0.01). This study is an initial

  19. La política exterior y de seguridad alemana bajo el gobierno de la Cancilller Merkel: Entre continuidad y cambio. Un balance crítico

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    M. Cecilia Añaños Meza

    2008-01-01

    ... cambio en la política exterior alemana. Para ello se conocerán los lineamientos fundamentales de la política exterior y de seguridad y la forma deconducirlos por el gobierno de Merkel frente a problemas actuales de la política internacional. La exposición seguida ayuda a visualizar el panorama general de la política exterior alemana y es crítica de las tendencias que se describen.

  20. Unidad de destino en lo universal Falange y la propaganda exterior (1936-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio César MORENO CANTANO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El control de la prensa y la propaganda se convirtió desde los inicios del régimen franquista en una preocupación constante por parte de las autoridades. El presente artículo analiza el papel desempeñado por la Delegación Nacional del Servicio Exterior de Falange, órgano encargado de difundir y promocionar en el campo internacional el ideario de la Nueva España. Para la realización de esta tarea se valió de una serie de delegaciones de Prensa y Propaganda que se localizaron principalmente en América y Europa.ABSTRACT: The control on the press and the propaganda became since the beginning of the Franco regime a constant preocupation for the authorities. The present article makes an analysis of the role of National Delegation of the Falange Exterior Services made, organization who had competences on the difusion and distribution of the idea of «The New Spain». To make this promotion, this organization had the cooperation of the press delegations specially in America and Europe.

  1. Integrated Life Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Exterior Wall Systems for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Broun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the breakdown of primary energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of two common types of exterior walls in the U.K.: insulated concrete form (ICF and cavity walls. A comprehensive assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental performance of each exterior wall system over 50 years of service life in Edinburgh and Bristol. The results indicate that for both wall systems, use phase is the major contributor to the overall environmental impacts, mainly due to associated electricity consumption. For the ICF wall system in Edinburgh, 91% of GHG emissions were attributed to the use phase, with 7.8% in the pre-use and 1.2% in end-of-life phases. For the same system in Bristol, emissions were 89%, 9% and 2%, respectively. A similar trend was observed for cavity wall systems in both locations. It was concluded that in each scenario, the ICF wall system performed better when compared to the cavity wall system. The results of the sensitivity analysis clearly show that the uncertainties relevant to the change of the thickness of the wall are quite tolerable: variable up to 5%, as far as energy and greenhouse emissions are concerned.

  2. Índices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Garavito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el análisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un país y su repercusión sobre la economía nacional. Estos indicadores se usan principalmente como insumo para el estudio de los términos de intercambio, la competitividad externa y los efectos en la inflación interna de cambios en los precios internacionales. Dada su importancia, este artículo presenta la estimación mensual de los índices encadenados de precios y cantidades del comercio exterior colombiano con base en estadísticas de aduanas. La metodología propuesta sigue las recomendaciones de los organismos internacionales (FMI, CAN, EUROSTAT con el fin de afrontar los problemas de agregación y volatilidad propios de la información utilizada. Se obtienen resultados tales como la descomposición en efecto precio y cantidad del valor de las importaciones y exportaciones y los términos de intercambio bilaterales

  3. The archimedean theory of the Exterior Square L-functions over Q

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Stephen D

    2011-01-01

    The analytic properties of automorphic L-functions have historically been obtained either through integral representations (the "Rankin-Selberg method"), or properties of the Fourier expansions of Eisenstein series (the "Langlands-Shahidi method"). We introduce a method based on pairings of automorphic distributions, that appears to be applicable to a wide variety of L-functions, including all which have integral representations. In some sense our method could be considered a completion of the Rankin-Selberg method because of its common features. We consider a particular but representative example, the exterior square L-functions on GL(n), by constructing a pairing which we compute as a product of this L-function times an explicit ratio of Gamma functions. We use this to deduce that exterior square L-functions, when multiplied by the Gamma factors predicted by Langlands, are holomorphic on C-{0,1} with at most simple poles at 0 and 1, proving a conjecture of Langlands which has not been obtained by the existi...

  4. Compare the difference of architecture design in Hong Kong and Penang – Exterior wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the exterior wall of architecture design of Hong Kong and Penang, it also analyzes how light pollution affects human life. As we know, Hong Kong prefers to use steel to build skyscrapers and middle or high rise buildings. However, Penang prefers to use concrete to do the construction. So, there are some advantages and disadvantages between the glass curtain wall and concrete wall in Hong Kong and Penang. The researcher used 400 samples to determine effect of the glass curtain wall and concrete wall on human life in Hong Kong and Penang separately. The result is light pollution created by glass curtain wall in Hong Kong is a serious problem to residents’ life. The glass curtain wall seriously glaze people’s eyes who drive or walk on the street. Thus, many car accidents were caused by this problem. The concrete wall is more often contaminated by fungus and difficult to clean. But, concrete wall is more natural and green for humans. Therefore, from the sustainable aspect that concrete is more healthy for humans, the previous researchers suggest that if the exterior wall is a mixture of both glass curtain and concrete it will not cause light pollution and will be easily involved in the natural environment.

  5. Os impactos macroeconômicos dos investimentos brasileiros diretos no exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Augusto Miranda

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A globalização produtiva tem gerado importantes debates sobre as implicações da mesma. Nesse sentido, quais seriam as conseqüências para a nação do investimento das empresas domésticas no exterior? Tal pergunta não possui evidências empíricas robustas que corroborem um ou outro ponto de vista. Assim, o presente artigo objetiva investigar, por meio de uma abordagem econométrica, osimpactos dos Investimentos Diretos Brasileiros no Exterior (IDBE sobre algumas das principais variáveis macroeconômicas brasileiras. Os resultados mostraram que o IDEE tem impactos estatisticamente significantes sobre o PIB, Investimento doméstico, Saldo na Balança de Capitais e Importações. Tais resultados convergem ao encontrado por alguns trabalhos presentes na literatura.Abstract The productive globalization has created a important discussions about itsimplications. Accordingly, what are the consequences of the Outward Foreign Investment to the nation? This question have not has not strong empirical evidence to support either view. Thus, this article purposes to investigate, through an econometric approach, the impacts of the Brazilian Foreign Direct Investment (BFDI on the principal Brazilian macroeconomic variables. The results showed that OFDIhave statistically significant impacts on GDP, domestic investment, Capital Current Balance and the Imports. These results converge to that found by some studies in the literature.

  6. Basic exterior characteristics of body and head in Bulgarian scent hound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Milivoje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of dogs known as hounds is widespread and highly appreciated among the hunters on the Balkans. Hounds are referred to as hunting dogs that engage in loud pursuit of game along its trail. These dogs do not need to se the game in order to pursue it and begin to bark once they stumble upon game trail. First serious research along with zootechnical measurement was conducted in 1905, at which occasion three large groups of hounds that inhabit the Balkans were described. This undertaking provided a solid foundation for further research and standardization of certain hound breeds. Though a lot of field work and standardization efforts were undertaken since then, there are still groups of hounds not encompassed in previous research work that are well-spread on the field and frequently utilized as hunting companions. One of the variety among these non-standardized breeds are Bulgarian scent hound, which differ from described hound breeds by certain exterior characteristics. In this paper, processed and analyzed some of the basic exterior features of body and head of the Bulgarian Scent Hound. Measurements were performed in 21 males and 15 females of following parameters, the height at withers, back height, loin height, chest circumference, body length, head length, skull length, nozzle length, head width and nozzle width. The average height of males is 54.60 and female 51.73 cm. Head length of males, on average, was 23.95 cm and females 23, 53 cm.

  7. Índices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Garavito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el análisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un país y su repercusión sobre la economía nacional. Estos indicadores se usan principalmente como insumo para el estudio de los términos de intercambio, la competitividad externa y los efectos en la inflación interna de cambios en los precios internacionales. Dada su importancia, este artículo presenta la estimación mensual de los índices encadenados de precios y cantida¬des del comercio exterior colombiano con base en estadísticas de aduanas. La metodología propuesta sigue las reco¬mendaciones de los organismos internacionales (FMI, CAN, EUROSTAT con el fin de afrontar los problemas de agregación y volatilidad propios de la información utilizada. Se obtienen resultados tales como la descomposición en efecto precio y cantidad del valor de las importaciones y exportaciones y los términos de intercambio bilaterales.

  8. Estimation of exterior vertical daylight for the humid tropic of Kota Kinabalu city in East Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djamila, Harimi; Ming, Chu Chi; Kumaresan, Sivakumar [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag No. 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    In tropical regions natural daylight has been a fundamental factor in building design. It is the most efficient way of lighting a building in the daytime and has a great potential for energy conservation in buildings. In Malaysia there are a limited available data of measured illuminance which is the case of several regions in the tropics. Using established models it is possible to predict the luminous efficacy and then estimate the monthly mean hourly exterior illuminance. In this study two different models were chosen. The Perez and Du Mortier-Perraudeau-Page-Littlefair models were selected for the prediction of hourly exterior horizontal illuminance for the city of Kota Kinabalu in East Malaysia. Comparison between the two models were made. The vertical hourly illuminance was predicted also using Perez approach. The potentiality of daylight in four orientations was discussed. This study highlights the importance of Sunpath diagram on daylight illuminance during the conceptual design stage. The results in this study is hoped to contribute further insight into the potentiality of daylighting of tropical sky. (author)

  9. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems: Critical Parameters for Surface Hygrothermal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Barreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS are often used in Europe. Despite its thermal advantages, low cost, and ease of application, this system has serious problems of biological growth causing the cladding defacement. Recent studies pointed that biological growth is due to high values of surface moisture content, which mostly results from the combined effect of exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. Based on numerical simulation, this paper points the most critical parameters involved in hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS, considering the influence of thermal and hygric properties of the external rendering, the effect of the characteristics of the façade, and the consequences of the exterior and interior climate on exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. The model used was previously validated by comparison with the results of an “in situ” campaign. The results of the sensitivity analyses show that relative humidity and temperature of the exterior air, atmospheric radiation, and emissivity of the exterior rendering are the parameters that most influence exterior surface condensation. Wind-driven rain depends mostly on horizontal rain, building’s height, wind velocity, and orientation. The drying capacity is influenced by short-wave absorbance, incident solar radiation, and orientation.

  10. El futuro de la Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones y la política exterior de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestino del ARENAL

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La proyección iberoamericana de España es una de las dimensiones claves de su política exterior y, en consecuencia, una de las prioridades de su acción exterior. Sólo asumiendo este hecho, que al mismo tiempo constituye un reto para la futura política exterior española después de 1992, el proyecto de Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones, continuará con su proceso de consolidación y desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The iberoamerican dimension of Spain is one of the key aspects of the Spanish Foreign Policy, and as a consequence, one of the priorities of its foreign action. From this point of view, which constitutes at the same time a challenge for the future Spanish Foreign Policy after 1992, the project of a "Comunidad Iberoamericana de Naciones" will continue with its process of development and consolidation.

  11. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, John (Boulder, CO); Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David (Evergreen, CO); Taylor, Matthew (Golden, CO); Neuman, George A. (Holland, MI); Luten, Henry A. (Holland, MI); Forgette, Jeffrey A. (Hudsonville, MI); Anderson, John S. (Holland, MI)

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  12. Nucleic acids encoding plant glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-03-29

    Glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) proteins, nucleic acid molecules encoding GPT proteins, and uses thereof are disclosed. Provided herein are various GPT proteins and GPT gene coding sequences isolated from a number of plant species. As disclosed herein, GPT proteins share remarkable structural similarity within plant species, and are active in catalyzing the synthesis of 2-hydroxy-5-oxoproline (2-oxoglutaramate), a powerful signal metabolite which regulates the function of a large number of genes involved in the photosynthesis apparatus, carbon fixation and nitrogen metabolism.

  13. Method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell and device thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bo; Smith, David; Cousins, Peter

    2016-08-02

    Methods of fabricating back-contact solar cells and devices thereof are described. A method of fabricating a back-contact solar cell includes forming an N-type dopant source layer and a P-type dopant source layer above a material layer disposed above a substrate. The N-type dopant source layer is spaced apart from the P-type dopant source layer. The N-type dopant source layer and the P-type dopant source layer are heated. Subsequently, a trench is formed in the material layer, between the N-type and P-type dopant source layers.

  14. Chemical modification of the inner and outer surfaces of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckman, Michael A; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2014-01-01

    Viral nanoparticles derived from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) find applications in various fields. We report the purification and chemical modification of TMV which is a hollow rod-shaped plant viral nanoparticle with modifiable interior and exterior surfaces. We describe methods to isolate TMV from its tobacco plant host for spatially controlled interior and exterior chemical modification and to characterize the resulting TMV hybrid materials.

  15. Chemical Modification of the Inner and Outer Surfaces of Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruckman, Michael A.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2014-01-01

    Viral nanoparticles derive from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) has broad applications in various fields. We report the purification and chemical engineering of TMV which is a hollow rod-shaped plant viral nanoparticle with modifiable interior and exterior surfaces. Here, we describe methods to isolate TMV from its tobacco plant host for spatially controlled interior and exterior chemical modification and to characterize the resulting TMV hybrid materials.

  16. La continuidad del discurso neoconservador frente a la política exterior de la administración Obama

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A lo largo del pasado sexenio, la doctrina neoconservadora se ha convertido en la voz más beligerante contra la política exterior de la Administración Obama. Este artículo se propone analizar el contenido de la crítica neoconservadora, una crítica radical, pues no se limita a un disenso menor en torno a determinadas áreas temáticas o regionales de la política exterior estadounidense, sino que se presenta como un rechazo frontal tanto a sus fundamentos teóricos como a su implementación práct...

  17. La redistribución de los cauces del comercio exterior mexicano: una visión desde la frontera

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    En el marco de la apertura de México al comercio internacional que tuvo lugar entre 1870 y 1929, Estados Unidos desplazó a los principales socios comerciales de México y se convirtió en el socio dominante en los intercambios de este país con el exterior. La intensificación de las relaciones comerciales entre México y Estados Unidos significó una drástica redistribución de los canales del comercio exterior dentro del territorio mexicano, que favoreció al puerto de Tampico y a la franja fronter...

  18. La política exterior radical : Las relaciones con los países latinoamericanos (1983-1989)

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Germán Sergio

    2010-01-01

    El presente trabajo pretende hacer una mera descripción histórica de la Política Exterior Argentina en relación a los países Latinoamericanos durante la administración Radical (1983-1989). El 10 de diciembre de 1983 asumía la presidencia de la Republica Argentina el Dr. Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín, uno de sus objetivos fue recomponer las relaciones exteriores, bastante deterioradas luego de la última dictadura militar a causa de la violación de los derechos humanos y de la guerra de Malvinas. ...

  19. Estacionalidad y diversidad de Aspergillus en el aire exterior de Badajoz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Fernández-Rodríguez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de Aspergillus en el aire exterior e interior es importante para la salud pública. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la presencia estacional de Aspergillus en el aire exterior. Se muestreó la atmósfera exterior de Badajoz (SO España en la Universidad de Extremadura durante dos años, desde el 25 de marzo de 2009 hasta el 25 de marzo de 2011, utilizando 3 tipos de captadores volumétricos portátiles viables: dos captadores Burkard, uno con un dispositivo con estructura cónica (Bc y otro con un tamiz (Bt, y un captador Sampl’air (AES. La velocidad de flujo de aspiración fue 20 L/min. para los captadores Burkard y 100 para AES. Se emplearon dos tipos de medio de cultivo Agar Sabouraud Dextrosa (SDA y Agar Extracto de Malta (MEA. En un primer periodo (25/03/2009-26/03/2010 se muestreó con Bc y Bt y con SDA, mientras que en el segundo (30/03/2010-25/03/2011 se muestreó con AES y Bt y con MEA. Los datos se proporcionan en unidades formadoras de colonias por metro cúbico (CFU/m3. Se contabilizaron un total de 610 colonias de Aspergillus en el periodo total estudiado. La concentración promedio diaria fue de 17 CFU/m3 en todo el periodo. Se identificaron 15 especies de Aspergillus siendo las más frecuentes: A. niger, A. candidus, A. fumigatus, A. niveus y A. versicolor. Algunas especies se caracterizaron por una marcada estacionalidad, con predominancia en otoño o invierno, o ausencia en verano. Otras no mostraron estacionalidad predominante. En promedio la concentración de Aspergillus fue máxima en otoño y mínima en primavera; en verano e invierno los valores fueron intermedios. Se han encontrado diferencias significativas teniendo en cuenta los tres captadores empleados (χ2=28,491, p<0,001.

  20. Democracia y política exterior: Uruguay (1985-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia FERRO CLÉRICO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Con un abordaje histórico-descriptivo, el artículo hace un análisis de la política exterior de Uruguay entre 1985 y 2006. El comienzo del período histórico estudiado está marcado por el retorno a la democracia al cabo de la dictadura militar más larga de la historia contemporánea del país. A través de los factores internos y externos que explican la formulación y ejecución de la política exterior el artículo analiza los principales lineamientos de las estrategias de inserción del país, los actores que intervienen en el proceso de toma de decisiones en materia de política externa así como los ejes temáticos a los que se dan distintas prioridades por parte de las sucesivas administraciones que determinan la agenda resultante. Se estudia igualmente el grado de continuidad de las políticas exteriores de cada período así como el de la autonomía de las mismas.ABSTRACT: With a historic-descriptive approach, the article makes an analysis of Uruguayan foreign policy between 1985 and 2006. The beginning of the period is marked by the return to democracy at the end of the longest period of military dictatorship in the contemporary history of the country. Through the internal and external factors that explain foreign policy, the article studies the country’s international insertion, the actors that take part of the decision-making process in foreign policy as well as the themes that are prioritized by each of the successive administrations, which determine the resulting agenda. The degree of continuity of the foreign policies of each period as well as their autonomy are also studied.

  1. The importance of imagination (or lack thereof) in artificial, human and quantum decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Karl

    2016-01-13

    Enlarging upon experiments and analysis that I did jointly some years ago, in which artificial (symbolic, neural-net and pattern) learning and generalization were compared with that of humans, I will emphasize the role of imagination (or lack thereof) in artificial, human and quantum cognition and decision-making processes. Then I will look in more detail at some of the 'engineering details' of its implementation (or lack thereof) in each of these settings. In other words, the question posed is: What is actually happening? For example, we previously found that humans overwhelmingly seek, create or imagine context in order to provide meaning when presented with abstract, apparently incomplete, contradictory or otherwise untenable decision-making situations. Humans are intolerant of contradiction and will greatly simplify to avoid it. They can partially correlate but do not average. Human learning is not Boolean. These and other human reasoning properties will then be taken to critique how well artificial intelligence methods and quantum mechanical modelling might compete with them in decision-making tasks within psychology and economics.

  2. LA POLÍTICA EXTERIOR REPUBLICANA EN LOS INFORMES DIPLOMÁTICOS CHECOSLOVACOS (1931-1936)/THE REPUBLICAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE CZECHOSLOVAKIAN DIPLOMATIC REPORTS (1931-1936)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Luis Montilla Amador

    2016-01-01

    ... en los informes remitidos a Praga los temas más importantes de la política exterior republicana. Palabras clave Segunda República; Checoslovaquia; política exterior; diplomacia; Sociedad de Naciones. Abstract This research is an approach to the study of the bilateral relations between the Second Spanish Republic and Czechoslovakia. The young Central European natio...

  3. Consideraciones Legales Relativas a la Privacidad en Proyectos de Cloud Computing en el Exterior de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz González Allonca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de prestación de servicios de cómputo en la nube (cloud computing ofrece múltiples ventajas tanto técnicas como económicas para las empresas y organismos que deciden implementarla. Este modelo, sin embargo, requiere tener consideraciones de carácter legal y de cumplimiento normativo desde el inicio del proyecto. Este estudio se propone recorrer la normativa argentina relativa a la protección de datos personales bajo esta plataforma, brindándole al lector un panorama sobre el cuerpo normativo vigente que debe ser aplicado a servicios de cloud computing en el exterior del país. A su vez identifica los riesgos asociados a estos servicios que deben ser contemplados con el fin de evitar responsabilidades.

  4. El nuevo nacionalismo petrolero y la política exterior venezolana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fuentes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Desde el año 2005 el tratamiento de la seguridad energética en América Latina alcanzó gran notoriedad dentro de los debates sobre análisis de política exterior. Dos fueron los detonantes de esta preocupación creciente: la escalada de los precios del petróleo en el mercado internacional, lo cual disparó las alarmas de diferentes círculos en el principal consumidor mundial (Estados Unidos, y la aparición de una propuesta de integración regional impulsada por el gobierno de Venezuela, que involucraba componentes políticos y fue desarrollada a partir de programas de cooperación energética.

  5. Interior and exterior ballistics coupled optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xin-xin; Zhang, Nai-min; Zhang, Yan

    2016-07-01

    For solid launch vehicle performance promotion, a modeling method of interior and exterior ballistics associated optimization with constraints of attitude control and mechanical-thermal condition is proposed. Firstly, the interior and external ballistic models of the solid launch vehicle are established, and the attitude control model of the high wind area and the stage of the separation is presented, and the load calculation model of the drag reduction device is presented, and thermal condition calculation model of flight is presented. Secondly, the optimization model is established to optimize the range, which has internal and external ballistic design parameters as variables selected by sensitivity analysis, and has attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions as constraints. Finally, the method is applied to the optimal design of a three stage solid launch vehicle simulation with differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results are shown that range capability is improved by 10.8%, and both attitude control and mechanical-thermal conditions are satisfied.

  6. Associations between retail food store exterior advertisements and community demographic and socioeconomic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgor, Zeynep; Powell, Lisa; Rimkus, Leah; Chaloupka, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the association between the prevalence of various types of outdoor food and beverage advertising found on the building exteriors and properties of retail food outlets and community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition in a nationwide sample of food outlets in the U.S. Our major finding from multivariable analysis is that food stores in low-income communities have higher prevalence of all food and beverage ads, including those for unhealthy products such as regular soda, controlling for community racial/ethnic composition and other covariates. This adds to growing research pointing to socioeconomic disparities in food and beverage marketing exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann model for exterior flows with an annealing preconditioning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Khalili, Arzhang

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we propose a highly efficient and stable lattice Boltzmann method for solving low Reynolds number exterior flows using a preconditioning technique. The present method is based on replacing the constant preconditioning parameter (gamma) within uniform grids [Guo, Phys. Rev. E 70, 066706 (2004)] by a space- and time-dependent one in a nested mesh-refined domain. To do this, for the transition from a fine to the neighboring coarser grid, gamma has been divided by a factor K , which is large initially and anneals stepwise to a small value after some iterations. With this technique, more than one order of magnitude larger convergence rate can be achieved, and several orders of magnitude larger system size can be treated.

  8. Development of Exterior Anti-corrosion Coating Production Line for Large Diameter Hot Bent Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JiaoRuyi; ZhangYing

    2004-01-01

    The epoxy powder exterior anti-corrosion coating production line for bent pipes with a single (double) course production is a technologically advanced bent pipe anti-corrosion method with cost efficiency, environment friendliness and stable coating quality. The quality of the coating on the bent pipe fully meets the requirements of the current national and industrial standards. The application of the technology has filled the gap in the bent pipe anti-corrosion coating area of China, and leads the world technologically. With this technology the coating quality of the bent pipe has greatly improved, resulting in significant social and economic benefits. With the use of the technology in various large scale pipeline projects such as the “West to East Gas Pipeline Project”, it will exhibite a greater potential in the future pipeline projects with a broad application prospect.

  9. The exterior field of slowly and rapidly rotating neutron stars: Rehabilitating spacetime metrics involving hyperextreme objects

    CERN Document Server

    Manko, V S

    2016-01-01

    The 4-parameter exact solution presumably describing the exterior gravitational field of a generic neutron star is presented in a concise explicit form defined by only three potentials. In the equatorial plane, the metric functions of the solution are found to be given by particularly simple expressions that make them very suitable for the use in concrete applications. Following Pappas and Apostolatos, we perform a comparison of the multipole structure of the solution with the multipole moments of the known physically realistic Berti-Stergioulas numerical models of neutron stars to argue that the hyperextreme sectors of the solution are not less (but possibly even more) important for the correct description of rapidly rotating neutron stars than the subextreme sector involving exclusively the black-hole constituents. We have also worked out in explicit form an exact analog of the well-known Hartle-Thorne approximate metric.

  10. Adsorption of hydrogen atoms onto the exterior wall of carbon nanotubes and their thermodynamics properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, T.Y.; Ren, Y.X. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liew, K.M. [Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon (China)

    2010-05-15

    In the present work, we present a systematic analysis of the chemisorption process pathway of hydrogen atoms onto the exterior wall of (5,5) carbon nanotubes using the ONIOM2 (B3LYP(6-31+G(d,p):UFF)) scheme, and we avoid the gross assumption of fixing any of the carbon atoms during the simulation. It is shown that the adsorption of hydrogen atoms onto the sidewall of CNTs are energetically favorable and the most stable state is to form two H-C {sigma}-bonds while the original {sigma}-bond between the carbon atoms is totally severed. In particular, we examined the molecular thermodynamics properties for the reaction at a range of temperatures from 77 K to 1000 K, and the results suggests that the reaction is possible at ambient temperature, but it is less favorable than that at lower temperatures. (author)

  11. A sensitivity model for energy consumption in buildings. Part 1: Effect of exterior environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    A simple analytical model is developed for the simulation of seasonal heating and cooling loads of any class of buildings to complement available computerized techniques which make hourly, daily, and monthly calculations. An expression for the annual energy utilization index, which is a common measure of rating buildings having the same functional utilization, is derived to include about 30 parameters for both building interior and exterior environments. The sensitivity of a general class building to either controlled or uncontrolled weather parameters is examined. A hypothetical office type building, located at the Goldstone Space Communication Complex, Goldstone, California, is selected as an example for the numerical sensitivity evaluations. Several expressions of variations in local outside air temperature, pressure, solar radiation, and wind velocity are presented.

  12. PyDEC: Software and Algorithms for Discretization of Exterior Calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the algorithms, features and implementation of PyDEC, a Python library for computations related to the Discretization of Exterior Calculus (DEC). PyDEC facilitates inquiry into both physical problems on manifolds as well as purely topological problems on abstract complexes. We describe efficient algorithms for constructing the operators and objects that arise in DEC and related topological problems. Our algorithms are formulated in terms of high-level matrix operations which extend to arbitrary dimension. As a result, our implementations map well to the facilities of numerical libraries such as NumPy and SciPy. The availability of such libraries makes Python suitable for prototyping numerical methods. We demonstrate how PyDEC is used to solve physical and topological problems through several concise examples.

  13. La expansión exterior de la Banca española

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Rodríguez Inciarte

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se analizan los factores que explican el proceso de expansión exterior de la banca española en la última década. Se estudia dicho proceso mediante el análisis de los datos descriptivos del sector bancario más significativos. A continuación se estudian las razones de por qué la banca española ha invertido en Latinoamérica. El trabajo concluye destacando el alto nivel de competencia de la banca española, a nivel mundial, que permite afrontar el proceso de internacionalización alcanzando los equilibrios adecuados entre la rentabilidad y el riesgo.

  14. “LA POLITICA EXTERIOR DE MEXICO HACIA CENTROAMERICA, 1906-1908”

    OpenAIRE

    Nava Ortiz, Juana

    2012-01-01

    Nuestro país y sus vecinos del sur están unidos por su vecindad geográfica y por significativos lazos de identidad cultural, étnica e histórica. Sin embargo, sus relaciones han sido complejas, y se han estudiado poco.1 De ahí el interés de realizar un estudio enfocado a la política exterior mexicana hacia los países de Centroamérica, 2 específicamente la de los últimos años del porfiriato. Cabe señalar que hay algunos académicos que realizan el corte cronológico en 1906, año...

  15. en el exterior y su impacto en la política mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Martínez Saldaña

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia el impacto del activismo político de los migrantes mexicanos residentes en los Estados Unidos que buscan ejercer sus derechos políticos en México. Se analizan los factores que están creando las condiciones en México para hacer efectivos derechos ciudadanos fundamentales como el voto en elecciones presidenciales y la representación en el Poder Legislativo para ciudadanos en el exterior. La apertura del sistema político mexicano a los migrantes internacionales se atribuye a una convergencia de procesos, que incluyen la incipiente transición a la democracia, la institucionalización de la relación entre migrantes y partidos políticos y el activismo de los propios migrantes, quienes buscan promover reformas electorales y políticas relacionadas con su condición social

  16. A D-N Alternating Algorithm for Solving 3D Exterior Helmholtz Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonoverlapping domain decomposition method, which is based on the natural boundary reduction, is applied to solve the exterior Helmholtz problem over a three-dimensional domain. The basic idea is to introduce a spherical artificial boundary; the original unbounded domain is changed into a bounded subdomain and a typical unbounded region; then, a Dirichlet-Nuemann (D-N alternating method is presented; the finite element method and natural boundary element methods are alternately applied to solve the problems in the bounded subdomain and the typical unbounded subdomain. The convergence of the D-N alternating algorithm and its discretization are studied. Some numerical experiments are presented to show the performance of this method.

  17. A scattering theory for the wave equation on Kerr black hole exteriors

    CERN Document Server

    Dafermos, Mihalis; Shlapentokh-Rothman, Yakov

    2014-01-01

    We develop a definitive physical-space scattering theory for the scalar wave equation on Kerr exterior backgrounds in the general subextremal case |a|

  18. Relativistic Mechanics in Gravitational Fields Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous Mass Distributions within Spherical Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available General Relativistic metric tensors for gravitational fields exterior to homogeneous spherical mass distributions rotating with constant angular velocity about a fixed di- ameter are constructed. The coeffcients of affine connection for the gravitational field are used to derive equations of motion for test particles. The laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum are deduced using the generalized Lagrangian. The law of conservation of angular momentum is found to be equal to that in Schwarzschild’s gravitational field. The planetary equation of motion and the equation of motion for a photon in the vicinity of the rotating spherical mass distribution have rotational terms not found in Schwarzschild’s field.

  19. [Urethritis syndrome and atypical germ flora of the exterior female genitalia (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, A; Schmiedt, E; Weissenbacher, E R; Frank, S

    1976-10-29

    A positive microbiological evidence could be obtained 54 times from the smear of the exterior genitals of 80 women suffering from complaints that were caused by urethritis, criteria of the examinations being sterile catheter specimen, negative cystoscopical findings, and missing indications to anatomical changes in the urethral region. Cytological examinations of these cases with regard to the vaginal epithelium had the following results:Group I:6 times; group II: 37 times; group IIW:8 times; group IIId: once; group IVa:twice. The cytological tests were carried out according to the method of papanicolaou as modified by Soost. Furthermore, we could state the following degrees of purity: Degree I: 8 times; degree II:16 times; degree III: 30 times. The cytological examinations of the urethral epithelium demonstrated, in 52 cases, an increased appearance of "nude" completely exposed epithelial cell nuclei--a fact corresponding to a degenerative autolysis (according to Wied). In the 26 women with missing atypical germ flora within the region of the exterior genitals, exclusively groups I (according to Papanicolaou and Soost) and degrees of purity I were stated. These persons also demonstrated remarkably grave psychical disturbances, especially in the intimate regions. In the cases of positive microbiological evidence, the following measures have proved satisfactory: Vaginal hygienization combined with a directly aimed antibacterial therapy, and the prescription of preparations containing lactic acid. A transitory discontinuation of contraceptives is being discussed. Our examination results are emphasizing the necessity of an analysis of the germ flora in cases of complaints arising from urethritis. Also psychical disturbances must be taken into consideration in cases of missing urological and gynaecological criteria of evidence.

  20. Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo y la Transición exterior: la prioridad europea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez López, Pablo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo played an important role in Spain’s transition to democracy, serving as minister and later prime minister. His political career was closely linked to Foreign Affairs and to the process of the “Foreign Transition” as he liked to call it. This paper, largely based upon his personal archives, analyses his thought, and how his idea of Europe played an important role in the formulation and execution of his policy. Calvo-Sotelo’s ideas and achievements are compared with those of other political leaders of the time, such as Adolfo Suárez and Felipe González. The conclusions show the nature and characteristics of Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo’s pro-European ideas.Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo desempeñó importantes responsabilidades ejecutivas en los gobiernos de la Transición, incluida la presidencia del Gobierno. Su gestión estuvo intensamente vinculada a las relaciones exteriores, dentro del proyecto que él mismo denominó «transición exterior». El artículo, basado en buena medida en documentación conservada en su archivo personal, analiza cuáles fueron sus principales ideas y en qué medida su concepto de Europa desempeñó un papel relevante en la formulación y ejecución de su política. Analiza esos hechos en relación con otros dirigentes del momento, especialmente Adolfo Suárez y Felipe González. Las conclusiones permiten conocer en qué consistió el europeísmo del principal protagonista de estos hechos.

  1. Los impuestos al comercio exterior en México en la era de las exportaciones, 1872-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Uhthoff López

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la relación entre la fiscalidad y el comportamiento del comercio exterior en los años de 1872 a 1930. Especial énfasis se hace en la normatividad de la política arancelaria y la relación entre la dinámica política, el sistema fiscal y los impuestos al comercio exterior. Durante este periodo se observa, por un lado, una continuidad entre el antiguo régimen y la etapa de la revolución: el comercio exterior se mantuvo, incluso algunas ramas experimentaron un gran desarrollo y, por lo tanto, los impuestos exteriores continuaron siendo importantes. No obstante, también se registró una tendencia a la baja en los impuestos provenientes de este sector, y una disminución de su importancia en el conjunto de los ingresos federales, lo que indica que existió entre los gobiernos de esos años, tanto de la primera como de la segunda etapa, la preocupación de no depender solamente de éstos, aumentando las fuentes alternativas de ingresos internos, como es el caso del impuesto del timbre y del impuesto sobre la renta.

  2. Short communication: quantification of the transmission of microorganisms to milk via dirt attached to the exterior of teats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens and spoilage microorganisms can be transmitted to milk via dirt (e.g., feces, bedding material, soil, or a combination of these) attached to the exterior of the cows¿ teats. To determine the relevance of this pathway and to perform quantitative microbial risk analysis of the microbial cont

  3. Short communication: quantification of the transmission of microorganisms to milk via dirt attached to the exterior of teats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens and spoilage microorganisms can be transmitted to milk via dirt (e.g., feces, bedding material, soil, or a combination of these) attached to the exterior of the cows¿ teats. To determine the relevance of this pathway and to perform quantitative microbial risk analysis of the microbial cont

  4. Moisture conditions for organic and mineral-based insulation products used in exterior walls and attics in traditional Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2005-01-01

    and attics were insulated with cellulose, flax and mineral wool as thermal insulation. Exterior walls were constructed without PE vapour barriers while ceilings were constructed with PE vapour barriers. The investigation showed that for a typical Danish way to construct dwellings neither the moisture...

  5. Discrete exterior geometry approach to structure-preserving discretization of distributed-parameter port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; van der Schaft, Arjan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce a simplicial Dirac structure as a discrete analogue of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate

  6. A discrete exterior approach to structure-preserving discretization of distributed-parameter port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce simplicial Dirac structures as discrete analogues of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate t

  7. Project Overcoat - An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1-1/2-Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, Cindy [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, Pat [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Schirber, Tom [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Yost, Peter [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Murry, Tessa [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied 'band-aids' such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an 'overcoat' of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

  8. Transformation Method of Exterior Orientation Angular Elements Obtained via Position and Orientation System Under Gauss-Kruger Projection Coordinate System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Xiuxiao; ZHANG Xueping; FU Jianhong

    2010-01-01

    Data obtained via airborne position and orientation system (POS) is in WGS 84 global geocentric reference frame, while the national coordinate reference system for topographic mapping in China is generally Gauss-Kruger projection coordinate system.Therefore, data obtained via a POS must be transformed to national coordinate system. Owing to the effects of earth curvature and meridian deviation, there are some errors in the process of angle transformation from roll, pitch, and heading (φ,(I),ψ) obtained directly via a POS to the attitude angles of images (φ,ω, κ) needed in photogrammetry. On the basis of effect theories of earth curvature and meridian deviation on exterior orientation angular elements of images, a method using a compensation matrix to correct the transformation errors from attitude angles obtained via the POS to exterior orientation angular elements of images is proposed in this paper.Moreover, the rigorous formula of the compensation matrix is deduced. Two sets of actual data obtained via a POS AV 510, which are different in scale and terrain, are selected and used to perform experiments. The empirical results not only indicate that the compensation matrix proposed in this paper is correct and practical but also show that transformation accuracy of exterior orientation angular elements obtained via the POS based on compensation matrix is relevant to the selection of vertical axis (a projection of central meridian) of Gauss-Kruger projection coordinate system; the proper vertical axis should be the Gauss-Kruger projection of the central meridian of projection zone in which the survey area locates. However, the transformation accuracy of exterior orientation angular elements is irrelevant to the choice of origin of coordinate system; it is appropriate that the origin of coordinate system locates at the center point of the survey area. Moreover, transformation accuracy of exterior orientation angular elements achieved based on the compensation

  9. Polypeptide having or assisting in carbohydrate material degrading activity and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schooneveld-Bergmans, Margot Elisabeth Francoise; Heijne, Wilbert Herman Marie; Los, Alrik Pieter

    2016-02-16

    The invention relates to a polypeptide which comprises the amino acid sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or an amino acid sequence encoded by the nucleotide sequence of SEQ ID NO: 1, or a variant polypeptide or variant polynucleotide thereof, wherein the variant polypeptide has at least 76% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2 or the variant polynucleotide encodes a polypeptide that has at least 76% sequence identity with the sequence set out in SEQ ID NO: 2. The invention features the full length coding sequence of the novel gene as well as the amino acid sequence of the full-length functional polypeptide and functional equivalents of the gene or the amino acid sequence. The invention also relates to methods for using the polypeptide in industrial processes. Also included in the invention are cells transformed with a polynucleotide according to the invention suitable for producing these proteins.

  10. The financial burden of national road infrastructure and the equity thereof: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brits

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic activities in South Africa during the past decade have caused, inter alia, road traffic congestion to accelerate annually and road infrastructure to deteriorate rapidly. Motor vehicle sales, correlated with economic trends and the economic empowerment of citizens, have and still are increasing at a faster rate than the supply of necessary infrastructure. As such, congestion, especially in the Gauteng area, has reached unacceptable levels during peak hours, necessitating the upgrading and continual maintenance of these roads and other national roads. The financial burden of upgrading and maintaining road infrastructure is enormous and, although the South African government makes contributions, an income from the road infrastructure is necessary to sustain quality infrastructure. However, a road-user paying approach, especially the structure thereof, should be acceptable to society in terms of economic efficiency and various means of equity. This article reviews the relevance of a road-user paying approach as applied in South Africa.

  11. 76 FR 59425 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Set-Top Boxes and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Digital Set-Top Boxes and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission... sale within the United States after importation of certain digital set-top boxes and components...

  12. 75 FR 47027 - In the Matter of: Certain Devices Having Elastomeric Gel and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain Devices Having Elastomeric Gel and Components Thereof; Notice of.... Hearing impaired individuals are advised that information on this matter can be obtained by contacting the... the complaint is to be served: California Exotic Novelties, Inc., 14235 Ramona Avenue, Chino, CA...

  13. 77 FR 16860 - Certain Mobile Devices, and Related Software Thereof; Notice of Commission Decision To Review in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Mobile Devices, and Related Software Thereof; Notice of Commission Decision To Review in... of certain mobile devices and related software by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... the ID's analysis does not address the Commission's decision in Certain Electronic Devices with...

  14. 78 FR 11818 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... or Yasmin Nair, AD/ CVD Operations, Office 1, Import Administration, International Trade... administrative review to address Petitioner's fraud allegations.\\3\\ \\2\\ See Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof... (Final Decision Memorandum), which is hereby adopted by this notice, at Comment. Fraud Allegations We...

  15. 77 FR 58577 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for... limited exclusion order and a cease and desist order against certain video game systems and...

  16. 75 FR 2159 - In the Matter of Certain Variable Speed Wind Turbines and Components Thereof; Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Variable Speed Wind Turbines and Components Thereof; Termination of..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain variable speed wind turbines and..., Connecticut (``GE'') on February 7, 2008. 73 FR 16910. The complaint alleged violations of section 337 of...

  17. 77 FR 51045 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System... satellite communication devices, systems. The complaint names as respondents Delorme Publishing Company Inc...

  18. 76 FR 2921 - In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Printer Supplies Co. Ltd. of Shanghai, China (``Shanghai Angel''); SmartOne Services LLC d/b/a InkForSale... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Inkjet Ink Supplies and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Issuance..., 2009, based on a complaint filed by Hewlett-Packard Company of Palo Alto, California (``HP''). 74...

  19. 9 CFR 310.2 - Identification of carcass with certain severed parts thereof and with animal from which derived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... severed parts thereof and with animal from which derived. 310.2 Section 310.2 Animals and Animal Products... derived. (a) The head, tail, tongue, thymus gland, and all viscera of each slaughtered animal, and all... derived from the particular animal involved, until the post-mortem examination of the carcass and...

  20. 76 FR 13434 - In the Matter of Certain Devices Having Elastomeric Gel and Components Thereof; Notice of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... supplemented, of ] Interactive Life Forms, LLC of Austin, Texas (``ILF''). 75 FR 47027 (Aug. 4, 2010). The... add two respondents and correct the identification of two original respondents. 75 FR 64742 (Oct. 20... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Devices Having Elastomeric Gel and Components Thereof; Notice of...

  1. 78 FR 72116 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From China Institution of a Five-Year Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... COMMISSION Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From China Institution of a Five-Year Review. AGENCY: United... the scope of the five-year review, as defined by the Department of Commerce. (2) The Subject Country... seeking to appear in Commission five-year reviews are advised that they may appear in a review even if...

  2. 76 FR 60871 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Termination of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Termination of Five-Year Reviews AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The subject five-year...

  3. Venezuela, los cambios globales y su política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El mundo ha avanzado hacia la globalización, lo que exige que América Latina, con poca relevancia internacional y con una situación económica crítica, busque ajustarse a las nuevas exigencias internacionales mediante "la desregulación y la coordinación económica". También se hace prioritaria la búsqueda de la integración regional tanto a nivel público como privado a través de instituciones como Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.Este artículo plantea las incidencias de la globalización y la integración en la política exterior venezolana y los mecanismos a aplicar para ajustarse al nuevo modelo mundial. Tres son los puntos prioritarios en este sentido: los cambios globales, el petróleo y la política exterior.La situación de Venezuela como país proveedor de petróleo a Estados Unidos le ha permitido ser conservador en sus posiciones y asumir la apertura económica de forma más discreta al resto de países de la región. La democracia es otro tema que rodea las relaciones internacionales, especialmente lo relativo a los derechos humanos y al buen gobierno, y del cual Venezuela se beneficia al procurar un espacio idóneo para su desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The world has moved towards globalization, which means that Latin America, that has low international leverage and a critical economic situation, has to search for an adjustment to the new international demands by means of "deregulation and economic coordination". It is also a priority to pursue the regional integration at the prívate and public levels through institutions such as Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.This article poses the incidences of globalization and integration in the Venezuelan international policy, as wcll as the mechanisms of adjustment to the new world orden. Three elements are pointed out as priorities: the global changes, the petroleum, and the international policy.The situation of Venezuela as a US supplier of petroleum has

  4. Pretensado exterior en la pasarela del Museo de la Ciencia en Valladolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Alberto

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the practice, development and technology applied in the external prestressing cables of this singular footbridge placed in Valladolid over Pisuerga river, being part of Museum of Science urbanistic complex. There are two prestressing cable systems, the hexagonal tendons and the longitudinal ones.Hexagonal tendons have the property of having strong deviations in their layout, specific saddles were designed with low friction materials, and Freyssinet Cohestrand® was used. Real scale tests were carried out to develop these deviation devices. Hexagons stressing operations were carried out with two jacks simultaneously due to the section sensibility to non symmetrical efforts.In longitudinal tendons, with little deviations each 7 m, external prestressing grouted before stressing system was applied, which allows strand by strand substitution. Geometry adjustment of these tendons required auxiliar strand disposition as a support of a regulation system.Este artículo presenta la problemática, el desarrollo y la tecnología aplicada en el pretensado exterior de esta singular pasarela, que se encuentra en la ciudad de Valladolid sobre el río Pisuerga, integrada en el conjunto urbanístico del Museo de la Ciencia. El pretensado se divide en dos familias, los tendones hexagonales y los longitudinales.Los tendones hexagonales tienen la característica de sufrir fuertes desvíos en su trazado, para los cuales se diseñaron sillas específicas con materiales que facilitan el deslizamiento, y se empleó el cordón Cohestrand®de Freyssinet. Todo este desarrollo se apoyó en ensayos a escala real. La puesta en tensión de los hexágonos se realizó con dos gatos simultáneamente debido a la sensibilidad de la sección a esfuerzos no simétricos.En los tendones longitudinales, con suaves desvíos cada 7 m, se empleó la técnica del pretensado exterior inyectado antes de tesar, el cual permite sustituir los cordones del tendón uno a uno

  5. The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-PLC in Trypanosoma brucei forms a linear array on the exterior of the flagellar membrane before and after activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Orla; Webb, Helena; O'Byrne, Robert; Brabazon, Elaine; Treumann, Achim; Sunter, Jack D; Carrington, Mark; Voorheis, H Paul

    2009-06-01

    Bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei contain a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (GPI-PLC) that cleaves the GPI-anchor of the variable surface glycoprotein (VSG). Its location in trypanosomes has been controversial. Here, using confocal microscopy and surface labelling techniques, we show that the GPI-PLC is located exclusively in a linear array on the outside of the flagellar membrane, close to the flagellar attachment zone, but does not co-localize with the flagellar attachment zone protein, FAZ1. Consequently, the GPI-PLC and the VSG occupy the same plasma membrane leaflet, which resolves the topological problem associated with the cleavage reaction if the VSG and the GPI-PLC were on opposite sides of the membrane. The exterior location requires the enzyme to be tightly regulated to prevent VSG release under basal conditions. During stimulated VSG release in intact cells, the GPI-PLC did not change location, suggesting that the release mechanism involves lateral diffusion of the VSG in the plane of the membrane to the fixed position of the GPI-PLC.

  6. Solution of Einstein's Geometrical Gravitational Field Equations Exterior to Astrophysically Real or Hypothetical Time Varying Distributions of Mass within Regions of Spherical Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a profound and complete analytical solution to Einstein's gravitational field equations exterior to astrophysically real or hypothetical time varying distributions of mass or pressure within regions of spherical geometry. The single arbitrary function $f$ in our proposed exterior metric tensor and constructed field equations makes our method unique, mathematically less combersome and astrophysically satisfactory. The obtained solution of Einstein's gravitational field equations tends out to be a generalization of Newton's gravitational scalar potential exterior to the spherical mass or pressure distribution under consideration.

  7. Funcionalidad de los cuadernos ATA dentro de las perspectivas del comercio exterior en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marí­a Heredia Rodríguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es elaborar un manual de implementación de cuadernos ATA (Admisión Temporal para las operaciones de comercio exterior en Colombia, como mecanismo dinamizador de los regí­menes suspensivos de importación y exportación. La metodologí­a llevada a cabo fue la revisión de la normatividad internacional y la normatividad interna en Colombia; posteriormente, la aplicación de encuestas para recolectar información de fuentes primarias, llevando así­ a realizar un análisis crí­tico del tema propuesto y concluyendo posteriormente que la normatividad aduanera en Colombia debe ser acorde a los convenios internacionales, y a su vez la perspectiva de competitividad en el entorno de la globalización no se puede limitar al desarrollo logí­stico e infraestructura vial, sino que requiere implementar en su totalidad el decreto 390 de 2016 (Estatuto Aduanero y generar estrategias de facilitación de las operaciones comerciales internacionales, como los cuadernos ATA.

  8. Empresa multinacional e inversión directa española en el exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan José Durán Herrera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available La Empresa Multinacional (EM puede desarrollar simultáneamente todos los modos de entrada en el exterior -exportaciones e importaciones, inversiones directas "IDE", alianzas estratégicas y acuerdos de cooperación-. En este artículo analizamos las IDE españolas, a continuación destacaremos las ventajas competitivas de la EM y concluimos que la EM española posee más activos inmateriales que la empresa estrictamente exportadora y doméstica en general. Estos activos lo son de índole tecnológica (codificados y tácitos, de carácter comercial (marcas renombradas y capital directivo (general e internacional. La inversión directa no solo permite la protección interna de los activos intangibles, sino que puede ser la vía más eficiente para la transnacionalización de estos, especialmente los de carácter tácito.

  9. La política exterior de Estados Unidos en el Medio Oriente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Musalem Rahal

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo analiza los cambios de la administración Clinton en el conflicto palestino-israelí en la era de la posguerra fría. Israel ya no es considerado la única pieza estratégica en el Medio Oriente: Estados Unidos intenta implementar una política más equilibrada que enfatice sus relaciones con el mundo árabe, donde el petróleo sigue siendo considerado parte de los intereses nacionales estadunidenses. En este contexto de transformaciones existe un interés creciente por encontrar una solución al problema palestino, considerado la condición básica para garantizar la estabilidad de la región. Pero, esta nueva posición del ejecutivo norteamericano se enfrenta a la oposición del Congreso, quien apoya al gobierno del primer ministro israelí, B. Netanyahu. Este apoyo se debe, en parte, a la presión que ejerce el poderoso lobby pro-Israel que hay en Estados Unidos -AIPACsobre el Congreso. No obstante, Musalem concluye que por más influencia que ejerza AIPAC, lo que determinará finalmente la política exterior norteamericana son los intereses nacionales de Estados Unidos.

  10. Pakistán y la política exterior de la India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Sáez

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo intenta analizar las relaciones de Pakistán con la India en el contexto de la evolución de las relaciones exteriores y la creciente integración económica mundial de esta última. El autor pone de relieve las cuestiones fundamentales relativas a la difícil relación diplomática entre Pakistán y la India. Aunque la India parece tener la voluntad de superar un patrón de animosidad histórica con China, el autor sugiere que es poco probable que las relaciones de India con Pakistán mejoren en el largo plazo. El autor también sugiere que la cuestión de Cachemira, que parece intratable, se interpondrá en el camino de una mejora a largo plazo en las relaciones de Pakistán con la India.

  11. On L3,∞-stability of the Navier-Stokes system in exterior domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koba, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    This paper studies the stability of a stationary solution of the Navier-Stokes system with a constant velocity at infinity in an exterior domain. More precisely, this paper considers the stability of the Navier-Stokes system governing the stationary solution which belongs to the weak L3-space L 3 , ∞. Under the condition that the initial datum belongs to a solenoidal L 3 , ∞-space, we prove that if both the L 3 , ∞-norm of the initial datum and the L 3 , ∞-norm of the stationary solution are sufficiently small then the system admits a unique global-in-time strong L 3 , ∞-solution satisfying both L 3 , ∞-asymptotic stability and L∞-asymptotic stability. Moreover, we investigate L 3 , r-asymptotic stability of the global-in-time solution. Using Lp-Lq type estimates for the Oseen semigroup and applying an equivalent norm on the Lorentz space are key ideas to establish both the existence of a unique global-in-time strong (or mild) solution of our system and the stability of our solution.

  12. Interior and exterior solutions for boundary value problems in composite elastic and viscous media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Jain

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the solutions for the boundary value problems of elasticity when a homogeneous and isotropic solid of an arbitrary shape is embedded in an infinite homogeneous isotropic medium of different properties. The solutions are obtained inside both the guest and host media by an integral equation technique. The boundaries considered are an oblong, a triaxial ellipsoid and an elliptic cyclinder of a finite height and their limiting configurations in two and three dimensions. The exact interior and exterior solutions for an ellipsoidal inclusion and its limiting configurations are presented when the infinite host medium is subjected to a uniform strain. In the case of an oblong or an elliptic cylinder of finite height the solutions are approximate. Next, we present the formula for the energy stored in the infinite host medium due to the presence of an arbitrary symmetrical void in it. This formula is evaluated for the special case of a spherical void. Finally, we analyse the change of shape of a viscous incompressible ellipsoidal region embedded in a slowly deforming fluid of a different viscosity. Two interesting limiting cases are discussed in detail.

  13. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses using economical analyse for exterior walls of buildings with different masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Kon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five different cities were selected from the five climatic zones according to Turkish standard TS 825, and insulation thicknesses of exterior walls of sample buildings were calculated by using optimization. Vertical perforated bricks with density of 550 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 were chosen within the study content. Glass wool, expanded polystyrene (XPS, extruded polystyrene (EPS were considered as insulation materials. Additionally, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and LPG were utilized as fuel for heating process while electricity was used for cooling.  Life cycle cost (LCC analysis and degree-day method were the approaches for optimum insulation thickness calculations. As a result, in case of usage vertical perforated bricks with density of 550 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 resulted different values in between 0.005-0.007 m (5-7 mm in the optimum insulation thickness calculations under different insulation materials.  Minimum optimum insulation thickness was calculated in case XPS was preferred as insulation material, and the maximum one was calculated in case of using glass wool.

  14. Modified Arthroscopic Latarjet Procedure With Coracoid Exteriorization for Treatment of Anterior Glenohumeral Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranne, Juha O.; Kainonen, Terho U.; Lehtinen, Janne T.; Heinonen, Olli J.

    2013-01-01

    The Latarjet procedure for treating anterior glenohumeral instability includes transfer of the coracoid and biceps tendon to the anterior glenoid. A modified method for the arthroscopic procedure was developed to facilitate the procedure and minimize the risk of injury to the brachial plexus. The detached coracoid was exteriorized through the anteroinferior portal for drilling and shaping. A Coracoid Drill Guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to help cut the coracoid to the desired size and make 2 drill holes in the coracoid for fixation to the glenoid. The Coracoid Transfer Instrument (Acierart, Masku, Finland) was designed to facilitate coracoid transfer and serve as a pin guide for fixation. Ten patients with severe anterior glenohumeral instability were treated with this technique. They had only mild to moderate postoperative pain. There were no postoperative infections or recurrent dislocations. The safety of this operation was similar to that of other operations on the coracoid process in the proximity of the brachial plexus. The modified arthroscopic Latarjet procedure may be applied successfully to the treatment of anterior glenohumeral instability, with good patient satisfaction and functional outcome. PMID:24400183

  15. Direct Retrieval of Exterior Orientation Parameters Using A 2-D Projective Transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seedahmed, Gamal H.

    2006-09-01

    Direct solutions are very attractive because they obviate the need for initial approximations associated with non-linear solutions. The Direct Linear Transformation (DLT) establishes itself as a method of choice for direct solutions in photogrammetry and other fields. The use of the DLT with coplanar object space points leads to a rank deficient model. This rank deficient model leaves the DLT defined up to a 2-D projective transformation, which makes the direct retrieval of the exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) a non-trivial task. This paper presents a novel direct algorithm to retrieve the EOPs from the 2-D projective transformation. It is based on a direct relationship between the 2-D projective transformation and the collinearity model using homogeneous coordinates representation. This representation offers a direct matrix correspondence between the 2-D projective transformation parameters and the collinearity model parameters. This correspondence lends itself to a direct matrix factorization to retrieve the EOPs. An important step in the proposed algorithm is a normalization process that provides the actual link between the 2-D projective transformation and the collinearity model. This paper explains the theoretical basis of the proposed algorithm as well as the necessary steps for its practical implementation. In addition, numerical examples are provided to demonstrate its validity.

  16. Cluster observations of high-frequency waves in the exterior cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Khotyaintsev

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We study wave emissions, in the frequency range from above the lower hybrid frequency up to the plasma frequency, observed during one of the Cluster crossings of a high-beta exterior cusp region on 4 March 2003. Waves are localized near narrow current sheets with a thickness a few times the ion inertial length; currents are strong, of the order of 0.1-0.5μA/m2 (0.1-0.5mA/m2 when mapped to ionosphere. The high frequency part of the waves, frequencies above the electron-cyclotron frequency, is analyzed in more detail. These high frequency waves can be broad-band, can have spectral peaks at the plasma frequency or spectral peaks at frequencies below the plasma frequency. The strongest wave emissions usually have a spectral peak near the plasma frequency. The wave emission intensity and spectral character change on a very short time scale, of the order of 1s. The wave emissions with strong spectral peaks near the plasma frequency are usually seen on the edges of the narrow current sheets. The most probable generation mechanism of high frequency waves are electron beams via bump-on-tail or electron two-stream instability. Buneman and ion-acoustic instability can be excluded as a possible generation mechanism of waves. We suggest that high frequency waves are generated by electron beams propagating along the separatrices of the reconnection region.

  17. Corrosión atmosférica del zinc en ambientes exteriores e interiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño, J. G.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Good behaviour of zinc against atmospheric corrosion has leaded this material to be widely used, mainly for protection of steel. For this reason since approximately 50 years it have been making systematic studies in order to understand the mechanisms of its interaction with the atmosphere and nowadays it continues being object of intensive research. In this paper a review of the state-of-the-art in the knowledge of atmospheric corrosion of zinc is presented, when it is exposed in both outdoor and indoor atmospheres.

    El buen comportamiento del zinc frente a la corrosión atmosférica ha conducido a que este material sea utilizado ampliamente, sobre todo, como recubrimiento del acero. Por este motivo, desde hace unos 50 años, se han venido realizando estudios sistemáticos para tratar de comprender los mecanismos de su interacción con la atmósfera y, hoy en día, el tema sigue siendo objeto de intensa investigación. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de los aspectos fundamentales relacionados con el conocimiento acumulado, en este tiempo, sobre el fenómeno de la corrosión atmosférica del zinc, expuesto tanto en ambientes exteriores como en interiores.

  18. [Material base on Chinese medical theory of 'Fei and Dachang being interior-exteriorly correlated'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Cheng, Xin; Jia, Yu-Hua

    2011-02-01

    By reviewing pertinent literatures, we found that there existed some defects in studying material base on Chinese medical theory of "Fei and Dachang being interior-exteriorly related", such as the low efficacy of research methods; the neglect of intestinal and respiratory microhabitat and Chinese medical functional condition; and the unconformity of research design with evidence-based medicinal requirements. Thereby, the authors offered that the researches method of initiating merely from sole material or line linkage path should be rejected. The new research strategy should be established based on the feature of the lung and large intestine network connective structure, cutting-in from correlative changes in the two terminals (respiratory system and intestinal tissue), and the intermedial key knot of connection (blood serum), screen out in high throughput the relevant materials adopting microecological, proteomic and metabonomic techniques, and catch hold of the knots of network as much as possible. Based on these to perfect the researches on coordinating mechanism of the network, and to establish a new strategy for future researching.

  19. El comercio exterior durante la década revolucionaria: un acercamiento preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kuntz Ficker

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de este trabajo es realizar un primer acercamiento sistemático al análisis del comercio exterior de México durante la década de 1910. Tal objetivo se ha visto obstaculizado en el pasado por la escasez de fuentes cuantitativas de procedencia mexicana para los años de la revolución. Para suplir esta carencia, este artículo recurre a las estadísticas comerciales publicadas por los principales socios de México durante estos años (Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña y Francia. A partir de esta información, y con base en una amplia bibliografía secundaria acerca del periodo, se analiza la evolución general del comercio, así como el comportamiento y la composición de las importaciones y las exportaciones a lo largo del periodo.

  20. Schwarzschild-like exteriors for stars in Kaluza-Klein gravity

    CERN Document Server

    de Leon, J Ponce

    2010-01-01

    In this work we examine the effective four-dimensional world that emanates from a general class of static spherical Ricci-flat solutions in Kaluza-Klein gravity in $D$-dimensions. By means of dimensional reduction we obtain a family of asymptotically flat Schwarzschild-like metrics for which all the components of the Ricci tensor, except for $R_{11}$, are zero. Although the reduced spacetime is not empty, it is similar to vacuum in the sense that the effective matter satisfies an equation of state which is the generalization of $(\\rho + 3p) = 0$ for "nongravitating matter" in 4D. In Kaluza-Klein gravity these Schwarzschild-like metrics describe the exterior of a spherical star without rotation. In this framework, we generalize the well-known Buchdahl's theorem for perfect fluid spheres whose mass density does not increase outward. Without any additional assumptions, we develop the most general expression for the compactness limit of a star. We provide some numerical values for it, which in principle are obser...

  1. La evolución del comercio exterior de Haití, 1915 – 1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Morales Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La economía de Haití representa un caso paradigmático de rezago económico de larga duración en el tiempo. A pesar de ello, existe muy poca evidencia empírica a cerca de la magnitud de éste, así como de sus causas, en una perspectiva histórica de largo plazo. El comercio exterior haitiano durante la primera mitad del siglo XX es una primera estrategia para aproximarse a un proceso más global de fracaso económico. En este trabajo se presenta una detallada base de datos a nivel de producto y país de origen y destino, se analiza la evolución de las exportaciones e importaciones del país insular en cuanto a volumen, valor, estructura y distribución geográfica. Todo ello pone de relieve la enorme fragilidad económica de la balanza comercial haitiana en ese período.

  2. La política exterior de Estados Unidos: una visión desde la periferia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrade A.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata explica la forma como la política exterior de Estados Unidos persigue dos objetivos interrelacionados: primero, en el corto y mediano plazo consolidar y aumentar su predominio militar a nivel global y, segundo, en el largo plazo institucionalizar ese dominio en un orden político sumamente difícil –o costoso- de transformar. Así, la política exterior estadounidense hacia América Latina y, sobre todo, en relación con la Región Andina y más específicamente con el Ecuador debe estudiarse a partir de las decisiones y comportamientos de Estados Unidos, así como de los medios que emplea para lograrlos: los tratados de libre comercio (TLC; la guerra antiterrorista y la promoción de la democracia.

  3. Systematic optimization of exterior measurement locations for the determination of interior magnetic field vector components in inaccessible regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, N.; Plaster, B.

    2014-12-11

    An experiment may face the challenge of real-time determination of the magnetic field vector components present within some interior region of the experimental apparatus over which it is impossible to directly measure the field components during the operation of the experiment. As a solution to this problem, we propose a general concept which provides for a unique determination of the field components within such an interior region solely from exterior measurements at fixed discrete locations. The method is general and does not require the field to possess any type of symmetry. We describe our systematic approach for optimizing the locations of these exterior measurements which maximizes their sensitivity to successive terms in a multipole expansion of the field.

  4. Los mecanismos multilaterales como instrumento de la proyección española en el exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia Abad

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Históricamente España ha mantenido una presencia discreta en las organizaciones internacionales, que se convirtió en casi testimonial en las décadas que siguen a la guerra civil. Esta tendencia comenzó a cambiar en los años 70 con la llegada de la Transición Política. Desde entonces, España ha tratado de incrementar su presencia en organizaciones internacionales y mecanismos multilaterales como forma de ejecutar su política exterior. Este proceso forma parte de un esfuerzo para generar “poder inteligente” que ayude a la consecución de los objetivos de la política exterior española.

  5. Symmetrized complex amplitudes for He double photoionization from the time-dependent close coupling and exterior complex scaling methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horner, D.A.; Colgan, J.; Martin, F.; McCurdy, C.W.; Pindzola, M.S.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-06-01

    Symmetrized complex amplitudes for the double photoionization of helium are computed by the time-dependent close-coupling and exterior complex scaling methods, and it is demonstrated that both methods are capable of the direct calculation of these amplitudes. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with each other and in very good agreement with results of other ab initio methods and experiment.

  6. Theoretical treatment of double photoionization of helium using a B-spline implementation of exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C. William; Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; Martin, Fernando

    2004-02-19

    Calculations of absolute triple differential and single differential cross sections for helium double photoionization are performed using an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines. Results for cross sections, well-converged in partial waves, are presented and compared with both experiment and earlier theoretical calculations. These calculations establish the practicality and effectiveness of the complex B-spline approach to calculations of double ionization of atomic and molecular systems.

  7. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Exterior Insulation Pre- and Post-Retrofit, Syracuse, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-05-01

    In this study, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc., was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) to research exterior wall insulation solutions for enclosure upgrades. This case study describes the deep energy retrofit of three test homes in the Syracuse, New York area and represent these enclosure strategies: rigid foam insulation; spray foam insulation, and a control house that follows Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) guidelines.

  8. On the coupled NBEM and FEM for a class of nonlinear exterior Dirichlet problem in R2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Zhengpeng; KANG; Tong; YU; Dehao

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, based on the natural boundary reduction advanced by Feng and Yu, we couple the finite elementapproach with the natural boundary element method to study theweak solvability and Galerkin approximation of a class ofnonlinear exterior boundary value problems. The analysis is mainlybased on the variational formulation with constraints.We provethe error estimate of the finite element solution and obtain theasymptotic rate of convergence. Finally, we also give anumerical example.

  9. Building America Case Study: Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation, Cold Climate Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  10. Del "Libre Comercio" a la quiebra del sistema colonial (1789-1796. El comercio exterior de Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García, Juan Andreo

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Not available.

    Por los estudios realizados hasta el momento, sabemos del impacto positivo de la eliminación del monopolio de la Compañía Guipuzcoana en el comercio exterior de Venezuela; no obstante, en tales estudios se rompe la serie de valores de este comercio a partir de 1790, con lo cual, nos quedamos sin saber el impacto del decreto de Libre Comercio en la Capitanía General (28 de febrero de 1789, aunque conocemos los valores del puerto de la Guaira. El presente trabajo establece el valor del comercio exterior de Venezuela a partir de 1791, hasta el momento en que se produce la quiebra del sistema comercial español con la crisis bélica de 1797; los datos que se aportan demuestran que es en estos años cuando el decreto de Libre Comercio para Venezuela (1789 logra sus mayores éxitos; será pues la incorporación a ese nuevo sistema comercial y no la implantación del Consulado de Caracas, la que lleve a la Intendencia de Venezuela a las más altas cotas en su comercio exterior.

  11. La continuidad del discurso neoconservador frente a la política exterior de la administración Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo del pasado sexenio, la doctrina neoconservadora se ha convertido en la voz más beligerante contra la política exterior de la Administración Obama. Este artículo se propone analizar el contenido de la crítica neoconservadora, una crítica radical, pues no se limita a un disenso menor en torno a determinadas áreas temáticas o regionales de la política exterior estadounidense, sino que se presenta como un rechazo frontal tanto a sus fundamentos teóricos como a su implementación práctica. De este modo, se verá que el neoconservadurismo continúa firmemente apegado a sus principios, con un discurso que mantiene como eje su particular concepción del excepcionalismo americano. El neoconservadurismo sigue defendiendo la validez de sus ideas centrales y se reivindica como la mejor doctrina de política exterior posible para los EE.UU., la única adecuada para evitar su declive internacional y mantener el "orden mundial americano" en las próximas décadas. Ello nos permitirá observar cómo, pese a su actual falta de influencia política, el mismo sigue gozando de una vitalidad que contradice las recurrentes afirmaciones sobre su desaparición.

  12. Building America Case Study: Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation, Cold Climate Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Arena

    2017-01-01

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  13. Building America Case Study: Excavationless Exterior-Side Foundation Insulation for Existing Homes, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NorthernSTAR

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  14. MIGRAÇÕES FICCIONAIS DO OBSERVADOR: O OLHAR EXTERIOR SOBRE O CANADÁ E SUAS MEDIAÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Moser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pais de imigração, o Canadá é rico em textos literários – tanto anglófonos como francófonos – escritos por imigrantes. Recentemente, a crítica literária, interessada na representação da alteridade cultural, desenvolveu o paradigma da “literaturamigrante”. Ora, existe um estratagema bastante antigo para lançar um olhar estranho e estrangeiro sobre a própria cultura, que consiste em inventar um observador exterior que se desloca. Aplicado de maneira paradigmática na obra Les lettres persanes [Cartas persas], de Montesquieu, esse estratagema apresenta uma modalidade particular quando o olhar exterior é narrativamente construído pelo deslocamento de um personagem, que, longe de ser estrangeiro, vem de sua própria cultura – canadense no caso – e se desloca para lançar um olhar exterior sobre ela. De fato, esse olhar interno, transformando-se em externo, adquire um potencial crítico. Analisa-se aqui esse estratagema, com o objetivo de ressaltar seu valor crítico, em dois romances – The Englishman’s boy, de Vanderhaeghe, e The navigator of New York, de Johnston – e no filme Nô, de Robert Lepage.

  15. [Vasculogenic mimicry in human primary gallbladder carcinoma and clinical significance thereof].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue-zu; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Wen-zhong; Ge, Chun-yan

    2007-01-16

    To investigate if there is vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in human primary gallbladder carcinoma and clinical significance thereof. Seventy-four specimens of primary gallbladder carcinoma obtained from operation underwent HE staining and double staining of CD(31) and PAS to observe the existence of VM. The correlation of pathological examination and clinical outcomes was analyzed. VM was seen in 10 of the 74 (13.5%) specimens. VM was not correlated with age, sex, location, diameter, differentiation degree, Nevin stage, and invasion depth of tumor, and existence of lymph node metastasis; but was associated with histological type (chi(2) = 10.241, P = 0.017), hepatic metastasis (chi(2) = 11.904, P = 0.01), and poor overall survival (chi(2) = 5.771, P = 0.016). Cox analysis showed that existence of VM, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, hepatic metastasis, and operational method were independent risk factors of the prognosis of primary gallbladder carcinoma. VM exists in human primary gallbladder carcinoma. Those cases of human primary gallbladder carcinoma with VM have a poorer prognosis.

  16. Social relationships in IT project teams: its role, complexity and the management thereof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awie Leonard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other projects, information technology (IT projects, characterized by emergency and uncertainty, are unique. To implement an IT project successfully, many aspects need to be monitored and carefully controlled and managed. One such aspect is social relationships. All IT professionals are exposed to, and in many cases involved, in the phenomenon of social relationships. These relationships are used by software project team members for personal as well as professional purposes. In most cases the impact of these relationships on the success or failure of any given IT project is ignored by IT management. Little attention is given thereto in the literature and this paper attempts to make a contribution in terms of giving a broad perspective of the complexity, the impact, as well as the management of such relationships. This paper demonstrates that these relationships play a significant role and should be managed in such a way that the team members and the project as a whole can reap the benefits thereof. A conceptual framework is proposed for the management of these relationships.

  17. Evolución del comercio exterior del vino del campo de Cariñena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción Estella Álvarez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se exponen las vicisitudes por las que ha atravesado el vino de Cariñena para su comercialización desde el siglo pasado. Comienza con el éxito y los altos precios del vino conseguidos por la demanda francesa, tras la invasión filoxérica del país vecino, favorecidos también por la inauguración del ferrocarril de vía estrecha Zaragoza-Cariñena y seguidos de la crisis de superproducción y consiguiente descenso de los precios tras finalizar el Tratado de Comercio con Francia. Luego se explica la lenta recuperación a lo largo de este siglo, se facilitan las cantidades exportadas en el último cuarto del mismo, para analizar de forma más exhaustiva la situación del mercado exterior en la actualidad, donde el comercio europeo ha vuelto a ser el más importante y de modo especial el de la Unión Europea.In this article the different mishaps that the Cariñena wine has undergone to be commercialized since the last century are shown. The study begins with the success and the high price of the wine, due to the French demand, after the phylloxera invasión in the neighbouring country, also favoured by the opening of the narrow-gauge railway Zaragoza-Cariñena, and followed by the superproduction crises and the subsequent fall of the prices after the end of the Commercial Treaty with France. Afterwards, we explain the slow recovery along this century, giving the exported quantities in the last quarter of the century, and then analyzing more thoroughiy the situation of the foreign market nowadays, since the European trade has regained importance, specially the one in the European Union.

  18. El enlucido exterior de yeso en las rehabilitaciones de las fachadas de París

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Pigache, M.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The use, the manufacture, the putting into excution of gypsum plaster on old Paris façades -a marely manual technique- are specified since long ago. A number of gypsum plaster carried out under Louis the 14th reign, have still a good behaviour in spite of, as it is well known, gypsum in the outside is very sensible to dissolution. This study allows to clarify four fundamental parameters, and its conclusions make it possible to carry out rehabilitations both in prestigeous and in humble buildings: - The use of a mortar which components will be similar to those old materials; - A merely handwork. - An established proportion with a view to protect the gypsum plasters, cornices, moldings, etc. from drainage waters. - Bearing walls with higher mechanical characteristics than those of platers.La utilización, fabricación y puesto en obra de morteros de yeso, sobre las fachadas antiguas en el viejo París -técnica puramente manual-, están precisadas desde hace mucho tiempo. Numerosos enlucidos de mortero de yeso, realizados bajo el reinado de Luis XIV, presentan todavía un excelente comportamiento a pesar de que, como es sabido, el yeso en exteriores es muy sensible a disolverse. Este estudio ha permitido aclarar cuatro parámetros fundamentales y, sobre todo, sus conclusiones han permitido la realización de numerosas rehabilitaciones, tanto en inmuebles de prestigio como en edificaciones modestas: - El empleo de un mortero cuyos componentes sean más cercanos a los materiales antiguos. - Una aplicación puramente manual. - Una proporción establecida a fin de proteger de las aguas de desagüe los enlucidos de mortero de yeso, las cornisas, molduras y etc. - Muros portantes con las características mecánicas más elevadas que las de los enlucidos.

  19. Análisis geográfico de las relaciones comerciales exteriores de Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díaz Hernández

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante la década de los noventa, el comercio exterior de Canarias empieza a sentir los efectos de la incorporación de España a la Unión Europea (1986. La armonización de los mercados de destino y de origen, a resultas de este hecho, rompe poco a poco con las ventajas comerciales tradicionales de las Islas. Ello supone, a la vez, una mayor vinculación con Europa y un estrechamiento de los intercambios con el resto del Estado Español. No obstante, como resultado de una rica experiencia mercantil, el Archipiélago mantiene aún contactos comerciales con la mayor parte de los países y territorios de todos los continentes. Esa fortaleza patrimonial puede instrumentarse como plataforma de la Unión Europea en las relaciones Norte-Sur, pero también, como polo privilegiado en el comercio Sur-Sur, en la pugna por la expansión de los emergentes mercados del Hemisferio Sur.During the decade of the 1990s, foreign trade with the Canary 1slatids begins to feel the effects of Spain's incorporation into the European Community (1986. However, the coordination between foreign arid domestic markets has had little effect on the traditional commercial advantages of the Canary Islands. This implies, at the same time, a greater link with Europe and an increased exchange relationship with the rest of Spain. Nevertheless, as a result of a prosperous trading experience, the Canarian Archipelago still maintains commercial contacts with most of the countries in the world. This economic strength can be instrumental as a platform for the European Community in its relations between the North and the South. But, also, as a privileged pole in commerce within the South, in the struggle for expansion of the emerging markets in the Southern Hemisphere.

  20. [Experimental studies on exterior bFGF for enhancement of membrane guided bone regeneration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hong; Fan, Yubo; Chen, Jian; Pei, Fuxing; Shen, Bin

    2004-12-01

    These studies sought to evaluate the promoting effect of the exterior bFGF on membrane guided bone regeneration (MGBR). Animal models of MGBR covered with PDLLA membrane tube in bilateral radii were established in 40 New Zealand white rabbits. The membrane tubes on the left side were filled with bFGF 40 microg/100 microl and those on the contralateral side were filled with 100 microl 0.9% NaCl solution as control. The specimens were collected at 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks postoperatively. General observation, X-ray, histological grading and HE staining,and biomechanical examination were applied to studies on the repair of the models of MGBR in the two groups. Two weeks after operation, a sealed room was formed between the two bone fragments where the soft tissues covered the membrane tube. Twelve weeks after operation, PDLLA membrane became fragile and its tube shape was being maintained. Histologically, in the bFGF group numerous newly formed bone trabeculae were seen at 2 weeks after operation the radial defects had healed and the bone reconstruction and remodling had begun by the 12th week. The histological image analysis showed that the values of mean diameter and the area of new bone trabeculae in the bFGF group were higher than those in the control group (P0.05) at 8 and 12 weeks. The strength of the newly formed bone in the bFGF group was higher than that in the control group at 12 weeks postoperatively (P<0.05). Therefore, the authors concluded that bFGF could promote the new bone formation and biomechanical strength in the MGBR model.

  1. La política exterior y de seguridad alemana bajo el gobierno de la Cancilller Merkel: Entre continuidad y cambio. Un balance crítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cecilia Añaños Meza

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde la entrada de la coalición de los dos partidos más representativos al gobierno alemán en 2005 se han dado nuevos acentos en el manejo de la política exterior alemana que a primera vista indican cambios de la política exterior efectuada por gobiernos anteriores. El presente estudio se propone aclarar, cuáles son estasmodificaciones, dónde se encuentran, y si éstas atañen los fundamentos básicos de la política exterior alemana. De no ser éste último el caso, sólo se podrá hablar de continuidad y no de cambio en la política exterior alemana. Para ello se conocerán los lineamientos fundamentales de la política exterior y de seguridad y la forma deconducirlos por el gobierno de Merkel frente a problemas actuales de la política internacional. La exposición seguida ayuda a visualizar el panorama general de la política exterior alemana y es crítica de las tendencias que se describen.

  2. An approximate estimation of velocity profiles and turbulence factor models for air-flows along the exterior of TEFC induction motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimenta Dardan O.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to a number of other existing correlations for heat transfer, the empirical correlations for forced convection from a short horizontal cylinder in axial air-flows usually do not involve the effects of changes in air-flow velocity and/or air-flow turbulence. Therefore, a common analysis of the heat transfer by using only one energy balance equation for entire outer surface of a solid is considered insufficient for induction motor applications because it fails to include aforementioned effects. This paper presents a novel, empirically-based methodology to estimate approximately the values of air-flow velocities and turbulence factors, that is, velocity profiles and turbulence factor models for stationary horizontal cylinders with and without fins (frame and two end-shields in axial air-flows. These velocity profiles and turbulence factor models can then be used in analytical modelling of steady-state heat transfer from the exterior of totally enclosed fan-cooled induction motors.

  3. A Separable Insertion Method to Calculate Atomic and Molecular Resonances on a FE-DVR Grid using Exterior Complex Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeln, Brant Anthony

    The study of metastable electronic resonances, anion or neutral states of finite lifetime, in molecules is an important area of research where currently no theoretical technique is generally applicable. The role of theory is to calculate both the position and width, which is proportional to the inverse of the lifetime, of these resonances and how they vary with respect to nuclear geometry in order to generate potential energy surfaces. These surfaces are the basis of time-dependent models of the molecular dynamics where the system moves towards vibrational excitation or fragmentation. Three fundamental electronic processes that can be modeled this way are dissociative electronic attachment, vibrational excitation through electronic impact and autoionization. Currently, experimental investigation into these processes is being preformed on polyatomic molecules while theoreticians continue their fifty-year-old search for robust methods to calculate them. The separable insertion method, investigated in this thesis, seeks to tackle the problem of calculating metastable resonances by using existing quantum chemistry tools along with a grid-based method employing exterior complex scaling (ECS). Modern quantum chemistry methods are extremely efficient at calculating ground and (bound) excited electronic states of atoms and molecules by utilizing Gaussian basis functions. These functions provide both a numerically fast and analytic solution to the necessary two-electron, six-dimensional integrals required in structure calculations. However, these computer programs, based on analytic Gaussian basis sets, cannot construct solutions that are not square-integrable, such as resonance wavefunctions. ECS, on the other hand, can formally calculate resonance solutions by rotating the asymptotic electronic coordinates into the complex plane. The complex Siegert energies for resonances, Eres = ER - iGamma/2 where ER is the real-valued position of the resonance and Gamma is the width

  4. Method for the synthesis of kojibiose and the application thereof in the production of food and pharnaceutical compositions

    OpenAIRE

    Díez-Municio, M.; Moreno, F. Javier; Herrero, Miguel; Montilla, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method for the synthesis of kojibiose, characterised by its simplicity and high yield, using a starting reaction mixture containing, as the main compound thereof, the trisaccharide 2-α-D-glucopyranosyl-lactose, O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-[α-D-glucopyranosyl- (1→2)]-β-D-glucopyranose, and leucrose, lactose, fructose, glucose and saccharose, said method comprising steps of fermentation, hydrolysis and purification, allowing the production of a disaccharide w...

  5. Mutational analysis of an archaeal minichromosome maintenance protein exterior hairpin reveals critical residues for helicase activity and DNA binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster Aaron S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mini-chromosome maintenance protein (MCM complex is an essential replicative helicase for DNA replication in Archaea and Eukaryotes. While the eukaryotic complex consists of six homologous proteins (MCM2-7, the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has only one MCM protein (ssoMCM, six subunits of which form a homohexamer. We have recently reported a 4.35Å crystal structure of the near full-length ssoMCM. The structure reveals a total of four β-hairpins per subunit, three of which are located within the main channel or side channels of the ssoMCM hexamer model generated based on the symmetry of the N-terminal Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (mtMCM structure. The fourth β-hairpin, however, is located on the exterior of the hexamer, near the exit of the putative side channels and next to the ATP binding pocket. Results In order to better understand this hairpin's role in DNA binding and helicase activity, we performed a detailed mutational and biochemical analysis of nine residues on this exterior β-hairpin (EXT-hp. We examined the activities of the mutants related to their helicase function, including hexamerization, ATPase, DNA binding and helicase activities. The assays showed that some of the residues on this EXT-hp play a role for DNA binding as well as for helicase activity. Conclusions These results implicate several current theories regarding helicase activity by this critical hexameric enzyme. As the data suggest that EXT-hp is involved in DNA binding, the results reported here imply that the EXT-hp located near the exterior exit of the side channels may play a role in contacting DNA substrate in a manner that affects DNA unwinding.

  6. Interaction of the Local Interstellar Medium with the Heliosphere: Role of the Interior and Exterior Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Aaron; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A complete model of the global interaction between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium must take account of interstellar neutral atoms, interstellar ionized gas, solar and galactic magnetic fields, galactic and anomalous cosmic rays. For now, however, in view of the many uncertainties about conditions in the interstellar medium, etc., all models must be regarded as highly idealized and incomplete. In the present review I concentrate on the role of magnetic fields of solar and interstellar origin. The former, the interior field, has negligible influence on the unshocked solar wind; the immediate post-shock solar wind is probably low-beta, so that the interior magnetic field is still unimportant, but this situation changes as the plasma flows through the heliosheath, and a ridge of strong magnetic field may form to separate materials of polar and equatorial origin. The exterior (interstellar) field is likely to play an important role in determining the global morphology of the system outside the termination shock. If the exterior field is strong enough, it can compress the heliosphere (although exterior neutral and/or ionized hydrogen may play the dominant role). Even if the interstellar magnetic field does not provide the dominant pressure, its orientation can substantially affect the configuration of the heliosphere, especially the location and orientation of the heliospheric discontinuities. The configurations can be quite different for the situations in which the field and flow are (a) aligned or (b) transverse. Obliquity of the field produces asymmetry in the geometry of the system; in particular the noses of heliopause and interstellar bow shock are shifted away from the interstellar flow direction, and in opposite directions, due to the asymmetric draping of the magnetic field.

  7. Reclamando el poder: los ciudadanos en el exterior y su impacto en la política mexicana

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Martínez Saldaña

    2003-01-01

    En este artículo se estudia el impacto del activismo político de los migrantes mexicanos residentes en los Estados Unidos que buscan ejercer sus derechos políticos en México. Se analizan los factores que están creando las condiciones en México para hacer efectivos derechos ciudadanos fundamentales como el voto en elecciones presidenciales y la representación en el Poder Legislativo para ciudadanos en el exterior. La apertura del sistema político mexicano a los migrantes interna...

  8. Crisis y retos de la política exterior de México: 2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Levy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, el autor critica la política exterior del gobierno de Felipe Calderón a la luz de algunos de los anteriores mandatarios así como de frente a la intrincada realidad mundial actual. A través del escrito, se analizan los déficits en esta materia y se aventuran algunas hipótesis de lo que la administración calderonista debiera hacer a fin de reubicar a México en su tradicional posición histórica en el Continente Americano.

  9. Democratización de la política exterior: reflexiones críticas sobre el caso canadiense

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    Uno de los asuntos centrales en las relaciones internacionales hoy en día, es el de la democracia. Este tema, en el marco de la política exterior canadiense, plantea dos retos: primero, el de su seguimiento por parte del gobierno, en respuesta al compromiso de establecer la consulta con la sociedad, así como su adopción como una meta que se ha impuesto; y, segundo, para llegar a establecer su significancia es imprescindible realizar un análisis que, para que resulte apropiado y...

  10. Aspiraciones antiimperialistas e intereses nacionales: las relaciones exteriores entre México y Perú (1930-1945)

    OpenAIRE

    Eusebio Andújar de Jesús

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo se circunscribe en el análisis de las relaciones exteriores entre México y Perú en el periodo comprendido entre 1930 y 1945; para ello, se efectuó una lectura a partir de las fuentes documentales de la legación y embajada mexicana en el país andino. El estudio se realiza en torno a dos aspectos que consideramos relevantes. El primero toma en cuenta el escaso flujo comercial reportado en la correspondencia diplomática a consecuencia de la similitud en la producción destinada al c...

  11. Experimental Study on Seismic Behavior of Exterior Joints of Special-shaped Columns with Different Lengths of Limbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Four exterior joints with special-shaped columns which have different lengths of limbs are tested under low cyclic loading. Special-shaped columns adopted are L- and T-shaped in section. It can be concluded that crack pattern, failure mode and shear strength of joints are affected by the length of limb, and that shear strength and ductility increase with the length of limb; the joints with the flexural failure of the beam have better seismic behavior than those with the shear failure of the joint core.

  12. Publicidad exterior: Estudio exploratorio de recordación de marca y motivación de compra

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Torres; Juan Pablo Muñoz

    2006-01-01

    El presente estudio se centra en la medición del nivel de recordación de marca y del grado de motivación de compra del público consumidor que se expone a la publicidad exterior o en la vía pública (outdoor advertising). A través de una investigación exploratoria, por medio de entrevistas realizadas en diferentes lugares de la ciudad de Santiago de Chile y de sus estaciones del Metro (tren subterráneo), se pudo identificar, los diferentes factores que facilitan la recordación de ma...

  13. La política exterior colombiana de asistencia a connacionales detenidos en México (periodo 2010-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Murcia, Lina María

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio de caso es analizar y describir la política pública encargada de brindar asistencia consular a los colombianos detenidos en México. Dicha política implementada en el primer gobierno del presidente Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, ha contribuido a mejorar la situación de los nacionales privados de su libertad fortaleciendo la figura institucional del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores a través del Consulado y las herramientas empleadas durante su administración. S...

  14. La política exterior del gobierno del Dr. Frondizi y su huella en las relaciones franco-argentinas

    OpenAIRE

    Knecher, Lidia; Bekerman, Federico

    2002-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se analiza la vinculación del gobierno de Frondizi con la Francia del General De Gaulle, a partir de la estrategia de inserción internacional delineada por los dos mandatarios. Esta estrategia, a su vez, quedaba definida, desde el lado argentino, por la política económica interna que se encontraba implícita en el programa desarrollista de Frondizi. Nuestra tarea es, por lo tanto, contrastar los objetivos manifiestos de la política exterior argentina, con su contenido y ...

  15. Eficacia del tratamiento profiláctico de vancomicina intraventricular en pacientes con derivación ventricular al exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-García,Victor Daniel; Garza-Mercado,Román; Tamez-Montes,Dagoberto; Martínez-Ponce de León,Ángel

    2005-01-01

    Determinar la eficacia de la administración profiláctica de vancomicina intraventricular en pacientes con derivación ventricular al exterior. Material y métodos: de diciembre del 2003 a noviembre del 2004, se realizó este estudio prospectivo con grupo control, aleatorizado, doble ciego aplicando 10 mg de vancomicina intraventricular en pacientes con ventriculostomía estéril una vez al día por máximo de 10 días. Se evalúa la seguridad y eficacia profiláctica. Resultados: se incluyeron 10 pacie...

  16. 浅谈汽车外观色彩设计%The Exterior Color Design of Automobile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨剑宇

    2012-01-01

    The color design is important to automotive brand, therefore, this paper elaborates the general demands and basic process of exterior color design from the aspect of practical design and production.%汽车色彩设计对汽车品牌具有重要意义,本文从实际设计和生产过程出发,阐述了汽车外观色彩设计的一般要求和基本流程。

  17. Las claves de la política exterior de Raúl Alfonsín

    OpenAIRE

    Zurita, María Delicia

    2010-01-01

    El año 1983 marcó no sólo el comienzo de la transición a la democracia con la asunción como presidente del radical Raúl Alfonsín sino que también dio comienzo a una nueva etapa de relaciones entre Argentina y el mundo. En el presente ensayo la propuesta consiste en destacar cuáles fueron las claves de la política exterior de Alfonsín que sin duda marcaron un cambio rotundo con los años anteriores.

  18. Application of smooth exterior scaling method to study the time dependent dynamics of H2(+) in intense laser field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Dhruba Jyoti; Gupta, Ashish K

    2010-10-01

    A study of the multiphoton dissociation of H(2)(+) in intense laser field using the smooth exterior scaling method to calculate resonance states is presented. This method is very attractive as it does not disturb the interaction region. The wave functions calculated with this method provide indisputable proof in support of the mechanisms of the different phenomena happening during photodissociation. Wave functions corresponding to the "vibrationally trapped" (bond-hardening) states are found. A unequivocal mechanism for "bond-softening" is provided. It is observed that with an increase in intensity, the lifetime of low vibrational level increases. The mechanism for this novel phenomenon is also explained.

  19. La comunicación estratégica y la diplomacia de defensa en las operaciones en el exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Muñoz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Diplomacia y Defensa siempre han sido dos herramientas complementarias al servicio de la política exterior del Estado. La lista de actividades en la que participan los militares, para estrechar las relaciones diplomáticas entre los Estados, es muy larga y todas ellas podrían aunarse bajo el concepto de diplomacia de defensa. Por otra parte, la experiencia reciente en los conflictos asimétricos ha puesto de manifiesto que el “arma” más poderosa en este tipo de escenarios es el uso de la inform...

  20. La política exterior expansionista y racista del Tercer Reich en Checoslovaquia y Croacia en 1933-1943

    OpenAIRE

    Soler García, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    El objetivo de este estudio de caso es analizar la forma en la cual la política exterior expansionista y racista del Tercer Reich repercutió en la invasión militar de Checoslovaquia y en la creación de un régimen fascista en Croacia. El surgimiento del Tercer Reich implicó el desencadenamiento de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, generando un cambio en la configuración del Sistema Internacional. Desde el ascenso de Hitler al poder en 1933, Alemania proyectó una discursiva racista y expansionista en ...

  1. Del "Libre Comercio" a la quiebra del sistema colonial (1789-1796). El comercio exterior de Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    García, Juan Andreo

    1994-01-01

    Not available.

    Por los estudios realizados hasta el momento, sabemos del impacto positivo de la eliminación del monopolio de la Compañía Guipuzcoana en el comercio exterior de Venezuela; no obstante, en tales estudios se rompe la serie de valores de este comercio a partir de 1790, con lo cual, nos quedamos sin saber el impacto del decreto de Libre Comercio en la Capitanía General (28 de febrero de 1789), aunque conocemos los valores del puerto de la Guaira. El presente...

  2. Mixed Finite Element Method and Higher-Order Local Artificial Boundary Conditions for Exterior 3-D Poisson Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩厚德; 郑春雄

    2002-01-01

    The mixed finite element method is used to solve the exterior Poisson equations with higher-order local artificial boundary conditions in 3-D space. New unknowns are introduced to reduce the order of the derivatives of the unknown to two. The result is an equivalent mixed variational problem which was solved using bilinear finite elements. The primary advantage is that special finite elements are not needed on the adjacent layer of the artificial boundary for the higher-order derivatives. Error estimates are obtained for some local artificial boundary conditions with prescibed orders. A numerical example demonstrates the effectiveness of this method.

  3. Protective conversion coating on mixed-metal substrates and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Matthew J.; Maddela, Surender

    2016-09-06

    Mixed-metal automotive vehicle bodies-in-white comprising ferrous metal surfaces, zinc surfaces, aluminum alloy surfaces, and magnesium alloy surfaces are cleaned and immersed in an aqueous bath comprising an adhesion promoter and an aqueous electrocoat bath (the adhesion promoter may be in the electrocoat bath. The adhesion promoter, which may be a cerium salt, is selected to react with each metal in the body surfaces to form an oxide layer that provides corrosion resistance for the surface and adherence for the deposited polymeric paint coating. The body is cathodic in the electrocoat deposition.

  4. Rodar: a circulação dos jogadores de futebol brasileiros no exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rial

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre os milhões de brasileiros que atualmente residem no exterior, cerca de 5 mil são jogadores de futebol atuando em instituições reconhecidas, os clubes de futebol. O artigo aborda em uma perspectiva antropológica os processos migratórios desses jogadores brasileiros com carreiras de sucesso no sistema futebolístico contemporâneo, buscando compreender as características dessa circulação mundial particular de pessoas e de dinheiro, que apresenta enorme impacto no mediascape (Appadurai, 1990: de todas as "exportações" e de todas as emigrações brasileiras ora em curso, a de jogadores de futebol é a que apresenta maior impacto simbólico, tanto aqui como lá. Abordo os projetos, consumos e estilos de vida desses jogadores a partir dos dados de etnografia realizada na Espanha (Sevilha e na Holanda (Eindhoven, e da interlocução com mais de 40 jogadores brasileiros vivendo ou tendo vivido em países no exterior, em contatos realizados no Canadá (Toronto, Holanda (Almelo, Groningen, Alkmaar, Roterdã, Amsterdã, Japão (Tóquio, França (Lyon, Le Mans, Nancy, Lille, Mônaco, Bélgica (Charleroi e também no Brasil (Fortaleza, Salvador, Belém. Exploro as intersecções com idade, origem social e religião, constatando a forte presença de caçulas entre os jogadores (o caçulismo, a proveniência majoritária de camadas sociais subalternas e a adesão predominante a cultos evangélicos. Constato também uma crescente juvenilização desse fluxo emigratório. Concluo que a constante troca de instituição de trabalho ("clube" ou "clube global", de países e o grande número de "repatriados", caracterizam como uma circulação esse movimento migratório: é o "rodar" de que falam os jogadores, atribuindo a essa noção um valor positivo de propiciar experiência. Essa circulação dá-se em zonas protegidas, onde um nacionalismo banal (Billig, 1995 é constantemente ativado. Mesmo depois da obtenção da cidadania legal continuam

  5. La política exterior de América Latina hacia Siria y Líbano frente a los nuevos escenarios regionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bazán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La actual política exterior de los países latinoamericanos hacia Siria y Líbano responde a condicionantes regionales y a los cambios político-económicos donde el rol de EE.UU. como potencia hegemónica en la región está en declive. Sin embargo no es posible identificar una única política exterior latinoamericana hacia Siria y Líbano, ya que los diferentes Estados latinoamericanos adoptaron diversos objetivos y estrategias adecuadas a sus propias necesidades internas. Aunque América del Sur participa de las iniciativas América del Sur-Países Árabes (ASPA, la región no ha podido establecer vínculos políticos significativos y los pocos logros alcanzados responden más a iniciativas particulares de los Estados que a una estrategia continental. El presente trabajo analiza tres modelos paradigmáticos: Brasil, como ejemplo de una política exterior orientada al intercambio comercial pero con una fuerte impronta para posicionarse como potencia emergente internacional; Venezuela, como referente de una política exterior que establece alianzas con Estados adversarios de EE.UU. y finalmente México, con una estrategia de inserción económica sin mayores aspiraciones debido a la influencia norteamericana en su política exterior general.

  6. La redistribución de los cauces del comercio exterior mexicano: una visión desde la frontera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kuntz Ficker

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la apertura de México al comercio internacional que tuvo lugar entre 1870 y 1929, Estados Unidos desplazó a los principales socios comerciales de México y se convirtió en el socio dominante en los intercambios de este país con el exterior. La intensificación de las relaciones comerciales entre México y Estados Unidos significó una drástica redistribución de los canales del comercio exterior dentro del territorio mexicano, que favoreció al puerto de Tampico y a la franja fronteriza del norte en detrimento de los cauces tradicionales del comercio internacional. El propósito de este artículo es reconstruir la evolución de los flujos comerciales a través de la frontera norte con el fin de mostrar el impacto desigual que la redistribución del comercio tuvo sobre las distintas aduanas fronterizas y las severas fluctuaciones a que estuvieron sujetas a lo largo del periodo de estudio, explorando los diversos factores que influyeron en este proceso

  7. Effects of Exterior Abscisic Acid on Calcium Distribution of Mesophyll Cells and Calcium Concentration of Guard Cells in Maize Seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiu-lin; MA Yuan-yuan; LIU Zi-hui; LIU Bin-hui

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the direct effects of exterior abscisic acid (ABA) on both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells were examined. The distribution of Ca2+ localization were observed with calcium antimonate precipitate-electromicroscopic-cyto-chemical methods after treated with ABA and pretreated with ethylene glycol-bis-(2-aminoethylether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), verapamil (Vp), and trifluoperazine (TFP). The laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to measure the cytosolic calcium concentrations of guard cells under different treatments. The results showed that the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration of mesophyll cells was induced to increase by ABA, but to decrease in both outside cell and the vacuoles within 10 min after treatments. The cytosolic calcium concentration of guard cells was increased gradually with the lag in treatment time. However, both EGTA and TFP could inverse those effects, indicating that the increase of cytosolic calcium induced by exterior ABA was mainly caused by calcium influx. The results also showed that calmodulin could influence both the calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells. It shows that calmodulin participates in the process of ABA signal transduction, but the mechanism is not known as yet. The changes both calcium distribution of mesophyll cells and calcium concentration of guard cells further proved that the variations of cytosolic Ca2+ concentration induced by ABA were involved in the stomatal movements of maize seedlings.

  8. Automated exterior inspection of an aircraft with a pan-tilt-zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovančević, Igor; Larnier, Stanislas; Orteu, Jean-José; Sentenac, Thierry

    2015-11-01

    This paper deals with an automated preflight aircraft inspection using a pan-tilt-zoom camera mounted on a mobile robot moving autonomously around the aircraft. The general topic is image processing framework for detection and exterior inspection of different types of items, such as closed or unlatched door, mechanical defect on the engine, the integrity of the empennage, or damage caused by impacts or cracks. The detection step allows to focus on the regions of interest and point the camera toward the item to be checked. It is based on the detection of regular shapes, such as rounded corner rectangles, circles, and ellipses. The inspection task relies on clues, such as uniformity of isolated image regions, convexity of segmented shapes, and periodicity of the image intensity signal. The approach is applied to the inspection of four items of Airbus A320: oxygen bay handle, air-inlet vent, static ports, and fan blades. The results are promising and demonstrate the feasibility of an automated exterior inspection.

  9. Democratización de la política exterior: reflexiones críticas sobre el caso canadiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Neufeld

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los asuntos centrales en las relaciones internacionales hoy en día, es el de la democracia. Este tema, en el marco de la política exterior canadiense, plantea dos retos: primero, el de su seguimiento por parte del gobierno, en respuesta al compromiso de establecer la consulta con la sociedad, así como su adopción como una meta que se ha impuesto; y, segundo, para llegar a establecer su significancia es imprescindible realizar un análisis que, para que resulte apropiado y enriquecedor, se realiza desde la perspectiva de la teoría crítica -principalmente siguiendo las aportaciones de Robert Cox-. Para hacer viable esta comprehensión, se indaga sobre el lugar de Canadá en el orden mundial vigente, a través de la noción de potencia media. Ello permite explicar el proceso de democratización de la política exterior canadiense, el cual sólo es posible entender con base en el análisis de la correlación de fuerzas en el ámbito interno y algunas acciones internacionales que se determinan por la correlación de fuerzas vigentes en el nivel global.

  10. La Influencia de la Temperatura Exterior sobre los Sistemas de Ventilación Natural en Grandes Atrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espina, P.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural venting systems present numerous advantages opposite to the mechanical exhaust for the smoke control – a reduction in both facilities and maintenance costs–. Nevertheless, the influence of numerous factors affects significantly their efficacy: the architectural characteristics of the building, the direction and wind velocity, the proximity of tall buildings, the smoke temperature, the environmental interior and exterior temperatures, the existence of snow or ice on the ceiling, etc. All of them are important, but the influence of the environmental exterior temperature plays a decisive role. The goal of this Investigation Research was to evaluate the influence of the external temperature on the smoke movement and the hot layer descent regarding the efficacy of the natural venting systems installed for the smoke control in large atria. The analysis was developed using the ‘Fire Dynamics Simulator - FDS’ model (1, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model of fi re-driven fluid flow for the study of fire. The results demonstrated that a design that does not contemplate this factor can turn out to be inadequate, since it has a decisive influence to guarantee human safety. The obtained results showed very significant differences about the different parameters linked to the smoke movement in an atrium.Entre las diferentes estrategias de Control y Evacuación de los Humos del Incendio, los sistemas de ventilación natural presentan numerosas ventajas frente a la ventilación mecánica – fundamentalmente una menor inversión tanto en equipos como en gastos de mantenimiento –. Sin embargo, su eficacia depende de la influencia ejercida por numerosos factores – características arquitectónicas del edificio, dirección y velocidad del viento, proximidad de edificios de gran altura, temperatura de los humos, temperatura ambiental interior, temperatura en el exterior del recinto, existencia de nieve o hielo en

  11. El lugar del MERCOSUR en Ia política exterior argentina durante los gobiernos de Néstor Kirchner y Cristina Fernández de Kirchner

    OpenAIRE

    Zelicovich, Julieta

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo indaga acerca de cuál ha sido el lugar que los gobiernos de Néstor Kirchner y Cristina Fernández de Kirchner le han dado al MERCOSUR dentro de sus diseños de política exterior. Lo que aquí sostendremos es que el lugar que el MERCOSUR ocupe en la política exterior va a depender de cuál sea la estrategia de inserción que se adopte. Dentro de ello serán claves dos dimensiones: por un lado, el grado de congruencia entre los objetivos de la política exterior y los objetivos asi...

  12. The influence of thermal insulation position in building exterior walls on indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption of residential buildings in Chongqing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D.; Yu, W.; Zhao, X.; Dai, W.; Ruan, Y.

    2016-08-01

    This paper focused on the influence of using position of thermal insulation materials in exterior walls on the indoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption of residential building in Chongqing. In this study, four (4) typical residential building models in Chongqing were established, which have different usage of thermal insulation layer position in exterior walls. Indoor thermal comfort hours, cooling and heating energy consumption of each model were obtained by using a simulation tool, Energyplus. Based on the simulation data, the influence of thermal insulation position on indoor thermal comfort and building energy consumption in each season was analyzed. The results showed that building with internal insulation had the highest indoor thermal comfort hours and least cooling and heating energy consumption in summer and winter. In transitional season, the highest indoor thermal comfort hours are obtained when thermal insulation is located on the exterior side.

  13. Inversión exterior directa de Japón: comportamiento de la inversión manufacturera en España, La

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrín Solé, Ángeles

    1997-01-01

    En el contexto de globalización de las actividades de inversión exterior directa (IED), el objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del comportamiento de la inversión manufacturera procedente de Japón en España, en el marco de la inversión exterior directa japonesa.Para ello se repasan los aspectos teóricos de la inversión exterior directa que constituirán el marco del análisis aplicado al caso de Japón. En segundo lugar se examina la relación existente entre el desarrollo económico de Jap...

  14. La inversión exterior directa de Japón: comportamiento de la inversión manufacturera en España

    OpenAIRE

    Pelegrín Solé, Ángeles

    1997-01-01

    [spa] En el contexto de globalización de las actividades de inversión exterior directa (IED), el objetivo del presente trabajo es el estudio del comportamiento de la inversión manufacturera procedente de Japón en España, en el marco de la inversión exterior directa japonesa.Para ello se repasan los aspectos teóricos de la inversión exterior directa que constituirán el marco del análisis aplicado al caso de Japón. En segundo lugar se examina la relación existente entre el desarrollo económico ...

  15. La política exterior y la política de cooperación: paradojas del caso español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Sotillo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La cooperación internacional para el desarrollo fue uno de los elementos más importantes dela política exterior española. Como manifestación de la solidaridad, contribuía al desarrollo depaíses y pueblos, potenciaba las relaciones exteriores, reflejaba la pluralidad de actores de lacooperación y afirmaba la presencia española a favor del multilateralismo. Con la crisis comotelón de fondo, en los últimos años no sólo ha habido un gran descenso de la ayuda española, sino que ha perdido peso en la acción exterior del Gobierno y de otras instituciones, debilitando el papel de España en el mundo.

  16. Percepción de la política exterior colombiana desde un enfoque biologista de género

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Catalina Monroy Hernández

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El feminismo en las relaciones internacionales (RI reclama la invisibilidad de las mujeres en asuntos relacionados con la política exterior de los Estados (Tickner, 1992; Hudson y Leidl, 2015. Y dada su naturaleza crítica, sostiene que los enfoques teóricos tradicionales fallan en proveer explicaciones holísticas al ignorar la perspectiva femenina, siendo las ri una disciplina esencialmente masculina. De forma que, ignorar el enfoque teórico feminista impide explorar las contribuciones de las mujeres en el escenario internacional (Hudson y Leidl, 2015. Considerando lo anterior, el artículo tiene como propósito relacionar algunos de los postulados más relevantes del feminism y el estudio de la política exterior, derivados de un enfoque biologista de género, con la percepción de conocedores y practicantes de la política exterior colombiana. Este ejercicio nos permitirá explorar en qué medida las diferencias biológicas entre hombres y mujeres logran impactar o no las decisiones que se toman en materia de política exterior. Se trata de una primera aproximación para dilucidar, a través de un estudio de percepción, de qué manera se evidencian los postulados del feminism aplicado al estudio de la política exterior. Tal es el desafío teórico y práctico de este estudio, con la visión de promover la incorporación de un enfoque de género al estudio de las relaciones internacionales y la política exterior en Colombia.

  17. La política exterior de América Latina hacia Siria y Líbano frente a los nuevos escenarios regionales

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Bazán

    2012-01-01

    La actual política exterior de los países latinoamericanos hacia Siria y Líbano responde a condicionantes regionales y a los cambios político-económicos donde el rol de EE.UU. como potencia hegemónica en la región está en declive. Sin embargo no es posible identificar una única política exterior latinoamericana hacia Siria y Líbano, ya que los diferentes Estados latinoamericanos adoptaron diversos objetivos y estrategias adecuadas a sus propias necesidades internas. Aunque América del Sur par...

  18. La política exterior y el derecho internacional en los aspectos territoriales: el caso de Nicaragua en los últimos 20 años.

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel Antonio Madriz Fornos

    2002-01-01

    En la dinámica de las relaciones internacionales, en un mundo cada vez más complejo e interdependiente como el actual, la política exterior y el derecho internacional son como las dos caras de una misma moneda. Nicaragua está obligada a actuar en contra de toda política violatoria del derecho internacional, más aún cuando ésta atenta contra su soberanía e integridad territorial, haciendo uso de todos los medios que el derecho internacional pone a su disposición, incluida una política exterior...

  19. Liouville Theorems on Subelliptic Quasilinear Equations in Unbounded Exterior Domain%次椭圆拟线性方程在外区域上的Liouville定理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑神州; 卢寒芳

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the analytic properties is considered for a class of subelliptic quasi-linear equations in unbounded exterior domian. we establish various Liuoville theorems in unbounded exterior domain under the different settings with n ≥ 3.%研究一类次椭圆拟线性方程在具有Carnot-Caratheodory空间度量下的外区域的分析性质,得到了在各种情况下无界外区域上的Liouville型定理结论.

  20. O congresso e a política de comércio exterior The congress and the foreign commerce policy

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Regina Soares de Lima; Fabiano Santos

    2001-01-01

    Como assegurar a qualidade da política nacional de comércio exterior pelo incremento concomitante (1) da eficiente delegação pelo Legislativo ao Executivo de poderes para estabelecê-la e implementá-la, e (2) do pleno funcionamento dos freios e contrapesos que permitem o controle do Executivo em sistemas presidencialistas? O desenho institucional brasileiro é insuficiente em ambas essas dimensões no que concerne à política de comércio exterior, argumentam os autores. Faz-se necessário um desen...