WorldWideScience

Sample records for exterior surface thereof

  1. Non-invasive nuclear device for communicating pressure inside a body to the exterior thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, L.W.; Meyer, G.A.; Hittman, F.; Lyon, W.C.; Hayes, W.H. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The need for a non-invasive technique for measuring the pressure in body cavities of animals or humans is recognized as highly desirable for continuous or intermittent monitoring of body conditions. The non-invasive nuclear device of the present invention is fully implantable and is fully capable of communicating pressure inside a body to the exterior to allow readout non-invasively. In its preferred form, the invention includes a housing for subcutaneous implantation with the radioactive source. An urging means such as a bellows is provided in the housing interior. The fluid pressure from a fluid pressure sensing device within the body is transmitted to the housing interior by means of a pressure-limiting fluid through a conduit. This causes the radioactive source to move against the force out of the initial or repose shielded relationship causing a proportional increase in pressure in the body portion being monitored. The radioactive output from the radioactive source corresponds to the magnitude of the pressure within the body. The housing may be securely mounted on a supporting portion of the body and the mounting serves as a radiation shield for the body. (JTA)

  2. Numerical convergence of discrete exterior calculus on arbitrary surface meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2018-02-13

    Discrete exterior calculus (DEC) is a structure-preserving numerical framework for partial differential equations solution, particularly suitable for simplicial meshes. A longstanding and widespread assumption has been that DEC requires special (Delaunay) triangulations, which complicated the mesh generation process especially for curved surfaces. This paper presents numerical evidence demonstrating that this restriction is unnecessary. Convergence experiments are carried out for various physical problems using both Delaunay and non-Delaunay triangulations. Signed diagonal definition for the key DEC operator (Hodge star) is adopted. The errors converge as expected for all considered meshes and experiments. This relieves the DEC paradigm from unnecessary triangulation limitation.

  3. Numerical convergence of discrete exterior calculus on arbitrary surface meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2018-01-01

    Discrete exterior calculus (DEC) is a structure-preserving numerical framework for partial differential equations solution, particularly suitable for simplicial meshes. A longstanding and widespread assumption has been that DEC requires special

  4. Thermographic method for evaluation of thermal influence of exterior surface colour of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanpeng; Li, Deying; Jin, Rendong; Liu, Li; Bai, Jiabin; Feng, Jianming

    2008-12-01

    Architecture colour is an important part in urban designing. It directly affects the expressing and the thermal effect of exterior surface of buildings. It has proved that four factors affect the sign visibility, graphics, colour, lighting condition and age of the observers, and colour is the main aspect. The best method is to prevent the exterior space heating up in the first place, by reflecting heat away room the exterior surface.The colour of paint to coat building's exterior wall can have a huge impact on energy efficiency. While the suitable colour is essential to increasing the energy efficiency of paint colour during the warm summer months, those products also help paint colour efficiency and reduce heat loss from buildings during winter months making the interior more comfortable all year long. The article is based on analyzing the importance of architecture color design and existing urban colour design. The effect of external surface colour on the thermal behaviour of a building has been studied experimentally by Infrared Thermographic method in University of Science and technology Beijing insummer.The experimental results showed that different colour has quietly different thermal effect on the exterior surface of buildings. The thermal effect of carmine and fawn has nearly the same values. The main factor which is color express, give some suggest ting about urban color design. The investigation reveals that the use of suitable surface colour can dramatically reduce maximum the temperatures of the exterior wall. Keywords: architectural colour, thermal, thermographic

  5. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2016-02-11

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  6. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a combinatorial discretization of the wedge product. The governing equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. The discretization is then carried out by substituting with the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy for otherwise unstructured meshes. By construction, the method is conservative in that both mass and vorticity are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step.

  7. Hazardous drug residue on exterior vial surfaces: evaluation of a commercial manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Luci A; Sessink, Paul J M; Gesy, Kathy; Charbonneau, Flay

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous drug residue on the exterior surface of drug vials poses a potential risk for exposure of health care workers involved in handling these products. The purpose of this article is to heighten the awareness of this serious issue and to evaluate a commercial manufacturing process for removing and containing hazardous drug (HD) residue on exterior vial surfaces. Additionally, findings from this study are interpreted, incorporated into the current body of evidence, and discussed by experts in this field. This study includes separate evaluations for the presence or absence of surface drug contamination on the vials of 3 HD products: 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and methotrexate. The drug products were packaged in vials using a patented prewashing/decontamination method, application of a polyvinylchloride (PVC) base, and use of clear glass vials. An additional step of encasing the vial in a shrink-wrapped sheath was used for 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Of all 5-fluorouracil (110 vials), methotrexate (60 vials), and cisplatin (60 vials) tested, only 2 had detectable amounts of surface residue. One 5-fluorouracil vial was found to have approximately 4 mg of 5-fluorouracil on the surface of the vial. The second contaminated vial was cisplatin, which was discovered to have 131 ng of platinum, equal to 200 ng of cisplatin or 0.2 μL of cisplatin solution, on the vial sheath. Using validated extraction and analytic methods, all but 2 of the 230 tested vials were found to be free of surface drug contamination. Pharmacy leaders need to take an active role in promoting the need for clean HD vials. Manufacturers should be required to provide their clients with data derived from externally validated analytic studies, reporting the level of HD contamination on the exterior of their vial products.

  8. Investigation of thermal effect on exterior wall surface of building material at urban city area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dzinun, Hazlini; Ponraj, M.; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan; Noor, Zainura Zainun [Institute of Environmental Water Resources and Management (IPASA), Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Remaz, Dilshah [Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Iwao, Kenzo [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    This paper describes the investigation of heat impact on the vertical surfaces of buildings based on their thermal behavior. The study was performed based on four building materials that is commonly used in Malaysia; brick, concrete, granite and white concrete tiles. The thermal performances on the building materials were investigated using a surface temperature sensor, data logging system and infrared thermography. Results showed that the brick had the capability to absorb and store heat greater than other materials during the investigation period. The normalized heat (total heat/solar radiation) of the brick was 0.093 and produces high heat (51% compared to granite), confirming a substantial amount of heat being released into the atmosphere through radiation and convection. The most sensitive material that absorbs and stores heat was in the following order: brick > concrete > granite > white concrete tiles. It was concluded that the type of exterior wall material used in buildings had significant impact to the environment.

  9. Discrete exterior calculus discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier–Stokes equations is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). A distinguishing feature of our method is the use of an algebraic discretization of the interior product operator and a

  10. Liquefaction of H2 molecules upon exterior surfaces of carbon nanotube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Soo; Kang, Jeung Ku; Lee, Hyuck Mo; Duin, Adri C.T. van; Goddard, William A. III

    2005-01-01

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate interaction of H 2 molecules on the exterior surfaces of carbon nanotubes (CNTs): single and bundle types. At 80 K and 10 MPa, it is found that charge transfer occurs from a low curvature region to a high curvature region of the deformed CNT bundle, which develops charge polarization only on the deformed structure. The long-range electrostatic interactions of polarized charges on the deformed CNT bundle with hydrogen molecules are observed to induce a high local-ordering of H 2 gas that results in hydrogen liquefaction. Our predicted heat of hydrogen liquefaction on the CNT bundle is 97.6 kcal kg -1 . On the other hand, hydrogen liquefaction is not observed in the CNT of a single type. This is because charge polarization is not developed on the single CNT as it is symmetrically deformed under the same pressure. Consequently, the hydrogen storage capacity on the CNT bundle is much higher due to liquefaction than that on the single CNT. Additionally, our results indicate that it would also be possible to liquefy H 2 gas on a more strongly polarized CNT bundle at temperatures higher than 80 K

  11. Simulations of incompressible Navier Stokes equations on curved surfaces using discrete exterior calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Mohamed, Mamdouh; Hirani, Anil

    2015-11-01

    We present examples of numerical solutions of incompressible flow on 2D curved domains. The Navier-Stokes equations are first rewritten using the exterior calculus notation, replacing vector calculus differential operators by the exterior derivative, Hodge star and wedge product operators. A conservative discretization of Navier-Stokes equations on simplicial meshes is developed based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). The discretization is then carried out by substituting the corresponding discrete operators based on the DEC framework. By construction, the method is conservative in that both the discrete divergence and circulation are conserved up to machine precision. The relative error in kinetic energy for inviscid flow test cases converges in a second order fashion with both the mesh size and the time step. Numerical examples include Taylor vortices on a sphere, Stuart vortices on a sphere, and flow past a cylinder on domains with varying curvature. Supported by the KAUST Office of Competitive Research Funds under Award No. URF/1/1401-01.

  12. The influence of wall orientation and exterior surface solar absorptivity on time lag and decrement factor in the Greek region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontoleon, K.J.; Eumorfopoulou, E.A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory of Building Construction and Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (A.U.Th.), Gr-541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2008-07-15

    The aim of this study is to determine how time lag and decrement factor are affected by wall orientation and exterior surface solar absorptivity, for specific climatic conditions. Their influence forms a non-sinusoidal periodical forcing function that simulates suitably the outdoor temperature fluctuations. This novel approach, allows the predictability of building's thermal response in an efficient way. The investigation is carried out for various insulated opaque wall formations comprising typical material elements, during the summer period in the mild Greek region. This study that allows proper building planning procedures, at the very early stages of the envelope design, presents great importance. The analysed configurations are assumed to have an orientation that corresponds to each compass point. In addition, the solar absorptivity of surface coatings is assumed to be varying from 0 to 1. The transient thermal analysis is obtained via a thermal circuit that models accurately the fundamental heat transfer mechanisms on both boundaries and through the multi-layered wall configurations. Moreover, the mathematical formulation and solution of this lumped model is achieved in discrete time steps by adopting the non-linear nodal method. The simulation results are focused on the single and combined effects of orientation and solar absorptivity on the dynamic thermal characteristics of various wall configurations. (author)

  13. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  14. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2013-10-10

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  15. On exterior variational calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldrovandi, R.; Kraenkel, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Exterior variational calculus is introduced through examples in field theory. It provides a very simple technique to decide on the existence of Lagrangians for given equations of motions and, in the case, to find them. Only local aspects are discussed but the analogy to exterior calculus on finite dimensional manifolds is complete, strongly suggesting its suitability to the study of topological aspects. (Author) [pt

  16. Influence of Selective Laser Melting Processing Parameters of Co-Cr-W Powders on the Roughness of Exterior Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baciu, M. A.; Baciu, E. R.; Bejinariu, C.; Toma, S. L.; Danila, A.; Baciu, C.

    2018-06-01

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) represents an Additive Manufacturing method widely used in medical practice, mainly in dental medicine. The powder of 59% Co, 25% Cr, 2.5% W alloy (Starbond CoS Powder 55, S&S Scheftner C, Germany) was processed (SLM) on a Realizer SLM 50 device (SLM Solution, Germany). After laser processing and simple sanding with Al2O3 or two-phase sanding (Al2O3 and glass balls), measurements of surface roughness were conducted. This paper presents the influences exercised by laser power (P = 60 W, 80 W and 100 W), the scanning speed (vscan = 333 mm/s, 500 mm/s and 1000 mm/s) and exposure time (te = 20 µs, 40 µs and 60 µs) on the roughness of surfaces obtained by SLM processing. Based on the experimental results obtained for roughness (Ra), some recommendations regarding the choice of favorable combinations among the values of technological parameters under study in order to obtain the surface quality necessary for subsequent applications of the processed parts (SLM) have been made.

  17. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.; Hirani, Anil N.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy

  18. Using exterior building surface films to assess human exposure and health risks from PCDD/Fs in New York City, USA, after the World Trade Center attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra

    2005-12-09

    Concentrations of tetra- through octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in exterior window films from Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City (NYC), USA, 6 weeks after the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks of 11 September 2001. High concentrations of the 2,3,7,8-substituted congeners (P(2378)CDD/Fs) were observed, at levels up to 6600 pg-TEQ g(-1) nearest the WTC site. An equilibrium partitioning model was developed to reconstruct total gas + particle-phase atmospheric concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs at each site. The reconstructed atmospheric and window film concentrations were subsequently used in a preliminary human health risk assessment to estimate the potential cancer and non-cancer risks posed to residents of lower Manhattan from these contaminants over the 6 week exposure period between the WTC attacks and sampling dates. Residents of lower Manhattan appear to have a slightly elevated cancer risk (up to 1.6% increase over background) and increased P(2378)CDD/F body burden (up to 8.0% increase over background) because of above-background exposure to high concentrations of P(2378)CDD/Fs produced from the WTC attacks during the short period between 11 September 2001, and window film sampling 6 weeks later.

  19. Tensor spaces and exterior algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Yokonuma, Takeo

    1992-01-01

    This book explains, as clearly as possible, tensors and such related topics as tensor products of vector spaces, tensor algebras, and exterior algebras. You will appreciate Yokonuma's lucid and methodical treatment of the subject. This book is useful in undergraduate and graduate courses in multilinear algebra. Tensor Spaces and Exterior Algebra begins with basic notions associated with tensors. To facilitate understanding of the definitions, Yokonuma often presents two or more different ways of describing one object. Next, the properties and applications of tensors are developed, including the classical definition of tensors and the description of relative tensors. Also discussed are the algebraic foundations of tensor calculus and applications of exterior algebra to determinants and to geometry. This book closes with an examination of algebraic systems with bilinear multiplication. In particular, Yokonuma discusses the theory of replicas of Chevalley and several properties of Lie algebras deduced from them.

  20. Selection and application of exterior stains for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam. Williams; William C. Feist

    1999-01-01

    Exterior stains for wood protect the wood surface from sunlight and moisture. Because stains are formulated to penetrate the wood surface, they are not prone to crack or peel as can film-forming finishes, such as paints. This publication describes the properties of stains and wood, methods for applying stains, and the expected service life of stains.

  1. Concrete shielding exterior to iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurista, P.; Cossairt, D.

    1983-08-01

    A rule of thumb at Fermilab has been to use 3 feet of concrete exterior to iron shielding. A recent design of a shield with a severe dimensional constraint has prompted a re-evaluation of this rule of thumb and has led to the following calculations of the concrete thickness required to nullify this problem. 4 references, 4 figures

  2. A Study on Condensation Heat Transfer at the Exterior Surface of S.A.M. Coated Titanium Tube Using in Steam Condensers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sung-Gu; Lee, Sang-Hyup; Ji, Dae-Yun; Park, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Kwon-Yeong [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Condensation occurs when the temperature of a steam is reduced below its saturation temperature. There exist two forms of condensation on cooling surface: dropwise, and film condensations. Usually, dropwise condensation has a better heat transfer performance than film condensation, but it has limit of short period. Ma et al. executed heat transfer experiment in dropwise condensation with non-condensable gas, and studied how the amount of air and pressure difference affect condensation heat transfer coefficient. The more non-condensable gas exist, the condensation heat transfer coefficient is decreased. As a result, surface modified brass tube and stainless tube showed higher condensation heat transfer coefficient as much as 1.3 and 1.4 times comparing with their bare tubes in 70 kPa vacuum condition respectively. Most of power plants use sea water as coolant, so the surface of metal tubes could be corroded by the coolant. We had researched an experimental study related to condensation heat transfer on surface modified titanium tube. Our experimental facility was designed to show how two kinds of tube's heat transfer performances are different in a same condition. We changed the range of saturation pressure and coolant flow rate to observe tube's performance change. When saturation pressure and coolant flow rate increase, overall heat transfer coefficients were increased. When residue of non-condensable gases was decreased, the overall heat transfer coefficients were increased. S.A.M. coated tube's overall heat transfer coefficients were lower than those of bare tube, because the droplets didn't have a tendency of frequently falling down.

  3. Adaptive boundary conditions for exterior flow problems

    CERN Document Server

    Boenisch, V; Wittwer, S

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of solving numerically the stationary incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in an exterior domain in two dimensions. This corresponds to studying the stationary fluid flow past a body. The necessity to truncate for numerical purposes the infinite exterior domain to a finite domain leads to the problem of finding appropriate boundary conditions on the surface of the truncated domain. We solve this problem by providing a vector field describing the leading asymptotic behavior of the solution. This vector field is given in the form of an explicit expression depending on a real parameter. We show that this parameter can be determined from the total drag exerted on the body. Using this fact we set up a self-consistent numerical scheme that determines the parameter, and hence the boundary conditions and the drag, as part of the solution process. We compare the values of the drag obtained with our adaptive scheme with the results from using traditional constant boundary conditions. Computati...

  4. 75 FR 34170 - Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Anderson, SC; Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, Troy, MI... the Anderson, South Carolina location of Plastic Omnium Automotive Exteriors, LLC, working out of Troy... certification to include workers in support of the Anderson, South Carolina facility working out of Troy...

  5. Numerical Method for Darcy Flow Derived Using Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirani, A. N.; Nakshatrala, K. B.; Chaudhry, J. H.

    2015-05-01

    We derive a numerical method for Darcy flow, and also for Poisson's equation in mixed (first order) form, based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Exterior calculus is a generalization of vector calculus to smooth manifolds and DEC is one of its discretizations on simplicial complexes such as triangle and tetrahedral meshes. DEC is a coordinate invariant discretization, in that it does not depend on the embedding of the simplices or the whole mesh. We start by rewriting the governing equations of Darcy flow using the language of exterior calculus. This yields a formulation in terms of flux differential form and pressure. The numerical method is then derived by using the framework provided by DEC for discretizing differential forms and operators that act on forms. We also develop a discretization for a spatially dependent Hodge star that varies with the permeability of the medium. This also allows us to address discontinuous permeability. The matrix representation for our discrete non-homogeneous Hodge star is diagonal, with positive diagonal entries. The resulting linear system of equations for flux and pressure are saddle type, with a diagonal matrix as the top left block. The performance of the proposed numerical method is illustrated on many standard test problems. These include patch tests in two and three dimensions, comparison with analytically known solutions in two dimensions, layered medium with alternating permeability values, and a test with a change in permeability along the flow direction. We also show numerical evidence of convergence of the flux and the pressure. A convergence experiment is included for Darcy flow on a surface. A short introduction to the relevant parts of smooth and discrete exterior calculus is included in this article. We also include a discussion of the boundary condition in terms of exterior calculus.

  6. Biosensors and preparation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A low-temp. prepn. method for a biosensor device with a layer of reagent on the sensor surface is disclosed. During manufg. biol. interaction between the biosensor substrate and the reagent layer material is reduced, e.g. by cooling the biosensor substrate and depositing the reagent layer on the

  7. Amorphous uranium alloy and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, R.J.; McElfresh, M.W.; McGuire, T.R.; Plaskett, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    An amorphous alloy containing uranium and a member selected from the group N, P, As, Sb, Bi, S, Se, Te, Po and mixtures thereof; and use thereof for storage medium, light modulator or optical isolator. (author) figs

  8. Upstate Windows and Exteriors Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstate Windows and Exteriors (the Company) is located in Greenville, South Carolina. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Greenville and Easley, South Carolina.

  9. A primer on exterior differential calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedagogical application-oriented introduction to the cal­culus of exterior differential forms on differential manifolds is presented. Stokes' theorem, the Lie derivative, linear con­nections and their curvature, torsion and non-metricity are discussed. Numerous examples using differential calculus are given and some detailed comparisons are made with their tradi­tional vector counterparts. In particular, vector calculus on R3 is cast in terms of exterior calculus and the traditional Stokes' and divergence theorems replaced by the more powerful exterior expression of Stokes' theorem. Examples from classical continuum mechanics and spacetime physics are discussed and worked through using the language of exterior forms. The numerous advantages of this calculus, over more traditional ma­chinery, are stressed throughout the article. .

  10. Exterior differentials in superspace and Poisson brackets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroka, Dmitrij V.; Soroka, Vyacheslav A.

    2003-01-01

    It is shown that two definitions for an exterior differential in superspace, giving the same exterior calculus, yet lead to different results when applied to the Poisson bracket. A prescription for the transition with the help of these exterior differentials from the given Poisson bracket of definite Grassmann parity to another bracket is introduced. It is also indicated that the resulting bracket leads to generalization of the Schouten-Nijenhuis bracket for the cases of superspace and brackets of diverse Grassmann parities. It is shown that in the case of the Grassmann-odd exterior differential the resulting bracket is the bracket given on exterior forms. The above-mentioned transition with the use of the odd exterior differential applied to the linear even/odd Poisson brackets, that correspond to semi-simple Lie groups, results, respectively, in also linear odd/even brackets which are naturally connected with the Lie superalgebra. The latter contains the BRST and anti-BRST charges and can be used for calculation of the BRST operator cogomology. (author)

  11. Discrete Exterior Calculus Discretization of Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mohamed, Mamdouh S.

    2017-05-23

    A conservative discretization of incompressible Navier-Stokes equations over surface simplicial meshes is developed using discrete exterior calculus (DEC). Numerical experiments for flows over surfaces reveal a second order accuracy for the developed scheme when using structured-triangular meshes, and first order accuracy otherwise. The mimetic character of many of the DEC operators provides exact conservation of both mass and vorticity, in addition to superior kinetic energy conservation. The employment of barycentric Hodge star allows the discretization to admit arbitrary simplicial meshes. The discretization scheme is presented along with various numerical test cases demonstrating its main characteristics.

  12. Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudi, Ali; Svedung, Harald; Cehlin, Mathias; Rönnelid, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increase building energy efficiency by optimizing surface optical properties. ► Study different scenarios with both interior and exterior reflective coatings. ► Combined thermal effect of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. -- Abstract: The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  13. Gravitational Metric Tensor Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The covariant and contravariant metric tensors exterior to a homogeneous spherical body rotating uniformly about a common φ axis with constant angular velocity ω is constructed. The constructed metric tensors in this gravitational field have seven non-zero distinct components.The Lagrangian for this gravitational field is ...

  14. On the exterior structure of graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastler, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    After a detailed ab initio description of the exterior structure of graphs as handled by Connes and Kreimer in their work on renormalization (illustrated by the example of the φ 3 model in six dimensions) we spell out in detail their study of the Lie algebra of infinitesimal characters and of the group of characters of the Hopf algebra of Feynman graphs

  15. Relevance of exterior appraisal in pig breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, van E.J.

    1990-01-01

    In farm animals characterization of exterior is not a goal in itself but rather serves as an indicator of economically important traits, i.e. for pigs: growth performance, reproductivity and constitution. This indication might be of interest when these traits can not be measured

  16. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed

  17. Bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-19

    Provided herein are bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof. In some embodiments, the bi-metallic catalyst contains two different metal catalysts that can be used in hydrocarbon metathesis reactions, in some embodiments, the methods of making the bi-metallic catalysts can include two steps utilizing a surface organometallic chemistry approach in which the two different metal catalysts are sequentially grafted onto a support.

  18. Bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Samantaray, Manoja K.; Dey, Raju; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Kavitake, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Provided herein are bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof. In some embodiments, the bi-metallic catalyst contains two different metal catalysts that can be used in hydrocarbon metathesis reactions, in some embodiments, the methods of making the bi-metallic catalysts can include two steps utilizing a surface organometallic chemistry approach in which the two different metal catalysts are sequentially grafted onto a support.

  19. Inequivalence of interior and exterior dynamical problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santilli, R.M.

    1991-09-01

    We begin a series of notes with the review of the historical distinction by Lagrange, Hamilton, Jacobi and other Founding Fathers of analytic dynamics, between the exteriordynamical problem, consisting of motion in vacuum under action-at-a-distance interactions, and the interior dynamical problem, consisting of motion within a resistive medium with the additional presence of contact, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian internal forces. After recalling some of the historical reasons that led to the contemporary, virtually complete restriction of research to the exterior problem, we show that the interior dynamical problem cannot be reduced to the exterior one. This establishes the open character of the central objective of these notes: the identification of the space-time symmetries and relativities that are applicable to interior, nonlinear, nonlocal and nonhamiltonian systems. (author). 29 refs

  20. Process design (exterior – interior design)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The design is a complex process of spatial organization and creative problem object. It switched to the study of complex natural conditions (analysis and evaluation) and the development of compositional solution structure of the object. Construction and shaping of all buildings whether it is exterior or interior, be it street, Square apartment building, park or greater forest massif, public facility (administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, galleries etc.), residential object (garsion...

  1. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Exploratory Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosiman, G.; Wagner, R.; Schirber, T.

    2013-02-01

    The key objective of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility of the development or adoption of technologies that would enable a large percentage of existing homes in cold climates to apply a combination 'excavationless' soil removal process with appropriate insulation and water management on the exterior of existing foundations at a low cost. Our approach was to explore existing excavation and material technologies and systems to discover whether potential successful combinations existed.

  2. Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, William [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    For this report, PNNL / the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) studied a series of past exterior lighting projects at Princeton, in order to document Princeton’s experiences with solid-state lighting (SSL) and the lessons learned along the way, and to show how their approach to SSL projects evolved as their own learning expanded and as the products available improved in performance and sophistication.

  3. Realization of FRC interior and exterior furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šonka, Š.; Frantová, M.; Štemberk, P.; Havrda, J.; Janouch, P.

    2017-09-01

    This article deals with the implementation of fibre reinforced concrete for interior and exterior furniture. The use of fibre reinforced concrete for non-traditional and small structures brings some specifics in design and realization. These are, in particular, the design of a suitable mixture, the choice of the shape of the structure in relation to the technological possibilities of realization, the static effects and finally the actual production of the element.

  4. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T.; Mosiman, G.; Ojczyk, C.

    2014-10-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with a liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4" wide by 4' to 5' deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  5. Excavationless Exterior Foundation Insulation Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirber, T. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Mosiman, G. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States); Ojczyk, C. [NorthernSTAR, Minneaplolis, MN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Building science research supports installing exterior (soil side) foundation insulation as the optimal method to enhance the hygrothermal performance of new homes. With exterior foundation insulation, water management strategies are maximized while insulating the basement space and ensuring a more even temperature at the foundation wall. However, such an approach can be very costly and disruptive when applied to an existing home, requiring deep excavation around the entire house. The NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership team implemented an innovative, minimally invasive foundation insulation upgrade technique on an existing home. The approach consisted of using hydrovac excavation technology combined with liquid insulating foam. The team was able to excavate a continuous 4 inches wide by 4 feet to 5 feet deep trench around the entire house, 128 linear feet, except for one small part under the stoop that was obstructed with concrete debris. The combination pressure washer and vacuum extraction technology also enabled the elimination of large trenches and soil stockpiles normally produced by backhoe excavation. The resulting trench was filled with liquid insulating foam, which also served as a water-control layer of the assembly. The insulation was brought above grade using a liquid foam/rigid foam hybrid system and terminated at the top of the rim joist. Cost savings over the traditional excavation process ranged from 23% to 50%. The excavationless process could result in even greater savings since replacement of building structures, exterior features, utility meters, and landscaping would be minimal or non-existent in an excavationless process.

  6. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan [Gaithersburg, MD; Kumar, Bikash [Bangalore, IN

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  7. Fabrication of DNA nanotubes with an array of exterior magnetic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Adele; Zarrabi, Ali; Gill, Pooria

    2017-10-01

    Described here a methodology for arraying of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) on the surface of DNA nanotubes (DNTs). Positioning of magnetic nanoparticles at exterior surface of DNTs were shaped after self-assembling of oligonucleotide staples within an M13mp18 DNA scaffold via an origami process. The staples were partially labeled with biotin to be arrayed at the surface of DNTs. Gel retardation assay of the DNTs carrying magnetic nanoparticles indicated a reversely behavioral electrophoretic movement in comparison to the nanotubes have been demonstrated previously. Also, high resolution transmission electron microscopy confirmed positioning magnetic nanoparticles at the exterior surface of DNTs, correctly. Ultrastructural characteristics of these DNA nanotubes using atomic force microscopy demonstrated topographic heights on their surfaces formed through positioning of magnetic nanoparticles outside the tubules. This nanoarchitecture would be potential for multiple arraying of nanoparticles that those be useful as functionalized chimeric nanocarriers for developing novel nanodrugs and nanobiosensors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Cladding Attachment Over Thick Exterior Insulating Sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Lepage, R. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location (Straube and Smegal 2009, Pettit 2009, Joyce 2009, Ueno 2010). The research presented in this report is intended to help develop a better understanding of the system mechanics involved and the potential for environmental exposure induced movement between the furring strip and the framing. BSC sought to address the following research questions: 1. What are the relative roles of the mechanisms and the magnitudes of the force that influence the vertical displacement resistance of the system? 2. Can the capacity at a specified deflection be reliably calculated using mechanics based equations? 3. What are the impacts of environmental exposure on the vertical displacement of furring strips attached directly through insulation back to a wood structure?

  9. Exterior field evaluation of new generation video motion detection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advancements in video motion detection (VMD) system design and technology have resulted in several new commercial VMD systems. Considerable interest in the new VMD systems has been generated because the systems are advertised to work effectively in exterior applications. Previous VMD systems, when used in an exterior environment, tended to have very high nuisance alarm rates due to weather conditions, wildlife activity and lighting variations. The new VMD systems advertise more advanced processing of the incoming video signal which is aimed at rejecting exterior environmental nuisance alarm sources while maintaining a high detection capability. This paper discusses the results of field testing, in an exterior environment, of two new VMD systems

  10. Engineered enzymatically active bacteriophages and methods of uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, James J [Newton, MA; Kobayashi, Hideki [Yokohama, JP; Kearn, Mads [Ottawa, CA; Araki, Michihiro [Minatoku, JP; Friedland, Ari [Boston, MA; Lu, Timothy Kuan-Ta [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-22

    The present invention provides engineered bacteriophages that express at least one biofilm degrading enzyme on their surface and uses thereof for degrading bacterial biofilms. The invention also provides genetically engineered bacteriophages expressing the biofilm degrading enzymes and proteins necessary for the phage to replicate in different naturally occurring biofilm producing bacteria. The phages of the invention allow a method of biofilm degradation by the use of one or only a few administration of the phage because the system using these phages is self perpetuating, and capable of degrading biofilm even when the concentration of bacteria within the biofilm is low.

  11. Source amplitudes for active exterior cloaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Andrew N; Amirkulova, Feruza A; Parnell, William J

    2012-01-01

    The active cloak comprises a discrete set of multipole sources that destructively interfere with an incident time harmonic scalar wave to produce zero total field over a finite spatial region. For a given number of sources and their positions in two dimensions it is shown that the multipole amplitudes can be expressed as infinite sums of the coefficients of the incident wave decomposed into regular Bessel functions. The field generated by the active sources vanishes in the infinite region exterior to a set of circles defined by the relative positions of the sources. The results provide a direct solution to the inverse problem of determining the source amplitudes. They also define a broad class of non-radiating discrete sources. (paper)

  12. Inclined asymmetric librations in exterior resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voyatzis, G.; Tsiganis, K.; Antoniadou, K. I.

    2018-04-01

    Librational motion in Celestial Mechanics is generally associated with the existence of stable resonant configurations and signified by the existence of stable periodic solutions and oscillation of critical (resonant) angles. When such an oscillation takes place around a value different than 0 or π , the libration is called asymmetric. In the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, asymmetric librations have been identified for the exterior mean motion resonances (MMRs) 1:2, 1:3, etc., as well as for co-orbital motion (1:1). In exterior MMRs the massless body is the outer one. In this paper, we study asymmetric librations in the three-dimensional space. We employ the computational approach of Markellos (Mon Not R Astron Soc 184:273-281, https://doi.org/10.1093/mnras/184.2.273, 1978) and compute families of asymmetric periodic orbits and their stability. Stable asymmetric periodic orbits are surrounded in phase space by domains of initial conditions which correspond to stable evolution and librating resonant angles. Our computations were focused on the spatial circular restricted three-body model of the Sun-Neptune-TNO system (TNO = trans-Neptunian object). We compare our results with numerical integrations of observed TNOs, which reveal that some of them perform 1:2 resonant, inclined asymmetric librations. For the stable 1:2 TNO librators, we find that their libration seems to be related to the vertically stable planar asymmetric orbits of our model, rather than the three-dimensional ones found in the present study.

  13. Gravitational time dilation and length contraction in fields exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we use our new metric tensor exterior to a massiv3e oblate spheroid to study the gravitational phenomena of time dilation and length contraction. It turns out most profoundly that, the above phenomena hold good in the gravitational field exterior to an oblate spheroid. We then use the oblate spheroidal Earth to ...

  14. Gyroidal mesoporous carbon materials and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Ulrich B.; Werner, Joerg G.

    2017-07-25

    The present invention relates to, inter alia, gyroidal mesoporous carbon materials and methods of use and manufacture thereof. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a mesoporous carbon composition comprising a gyroidal mesoporous carbon having an ordered gyroidal structure and mesopores having a pore size of greater than 2 nanometers (nm) in diameter, and more particularly greater than 11 nm in diameter.

  15. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  16. PIPERIDINE OLIGOMERS AND COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to piperidine oligomers, methods for the preparation of piperidine oligomers and compound libraries thereof, and the use of piperidine oligomers as drug substances. The present invention also relates to the use of combinatorial libraries of piperidine oligomers...... in libraries (arrays) of compounds especially suitable for screening purposes....

  17. Quasicrystalline structures and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Paul J; Chaikin, Paul Michael; Man, Weining

    2013-12-03

    This invention relates generally to the field of quasicrystalline structures. In preferred embodiments, the stopgap structure is more spherically symmetric than periodic structures facilitating the formation of stopgaps in nearly all directions because of higher rotational symmetries. More particularly, the invention relates to the use of quasicrystalline structures for optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic purposes. In some embodiments, the invention relates to manipulating, controlling, modulating and directing waves including electromagnetic, sound, spin, and surface waves, for pre-selected range of wavelengths propagating in multiple directions.

  18. An intrinsic and exterior form of the Bianchi identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thoan; Prince, Geoff

    2017-09-01

    We give an elegant formulation of the structure equations (of Cartan) and the Bianchi identities in terms of exterior calculus without reference to a particular basis and without the exterior covariant derivative. This approach allows both structure equations and the Bianchi identities to be expressed in terms of forms of arbitrary degree. We demonstrate the relationship with both the conventional vector version of the Bianchi identities and to the exterior covariant derivative approach. Contact manifolds, codimension one foliations and the Cartan form of classical mechanics are studied as examples of its flexibility and utility.

  19. Comercio exterior del sector porcino mexicano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Encarnación Ernesto Bobadilla-Soto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar la dinámica del comercio exterior porcino mexicano, y el efecto de las importaciones de productos porcinos en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción en México. Para la dinámica se analizaron las tasas de crecimiento (decremento y las variaciones tanto en volumen y valor del subsector, de las fracciones arancelarias agrupadas en dos grandes rubros: a animales vivos y b carnes y despojos comestibles, que tienen un impacto directo en el desplazamiento y sustitución de la producción nacional. El desplazamiento y sustitución se calcularon con la suma de los valores de las importaciones, su relación con los pesos en canal de los animales durante los años analizados, y su equivalente en porcentaje a número de animales. El estudio comprende de 1990 a 2008. La balanza comercial al inicio del estudio fue de -180 mil toneladas equivalente a 1.4 millones de cerdos desplazados y al 13 % de la producción nacional. Para el 2008, la balanza comercial fue -581 mil toneladas, los cerdos desplazados se incrementaron a 5.9 millones equivalente al 39 % de la producción nacional.

  20. Meshes optimized for discrete exterior calculus (DEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousley, Sarah C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Deakin, Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Knupp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We study the optimization of an energy function used by the meshing community to measure and improve mesh quality. This energy is non-traditional because it is dependent on both the primal triangulation and its dual Voronoi (power) diagram. The energy is a measure of the mesh's quality for usage in Discrete Exterior Calculus (DEC), a method for numerically solving PDEs. In DEC, the PDE domain is triangulated and this mesh is used to obtain discrete approximations of the continuous operators in the PDE. The energy of a mesh gives an upper bound on the error of the discrete diagonal approximation of the Hodge star operator. In practice, one begins with an initial mesh and then makes adjustments to produce a mesh of lower energy. However, we have discovered several shortcomings in directly optimizing this energy, e.g. its non-convexity, and we show that the search for an optimized mesh may lead to mesh inversion (malformed triangles). We propose a new energy function to address some of these issues.

  1. Multifunctional Graphene-Silicone Elastomer Nanocomposite, Method of Making the Same, and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuyang (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A nanocomposite composition having a silicone elastomer matrix having therein a filler loading of greater than 0.05 wt %, based on total nanocomposite weight, wherein the filler is functional graphene sheets (FGS) having a surface area of from 300 sq m/g to 2630 sq m2/g; and a method for producing the nanocomposite and uses thereof.

  2. Preparation of Thermoplastic Poly (vinyl Alcohol), Ethylene Vinyl Acetate and Vinyl Acetate Versatic Ester Blends for Exterior Masonry Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Nahas, H.H.; Gad, Y.H.; Magida, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Blend systems including ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and vinyl acetate versatic copolymer latex (VAcVe) were prepared and used as exterior coatings. Mechanical and thermal properties of the blends were investigated using a testo meter, shore hardness tester, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The water resistance of the samples was measured. Effect of ionizing irradiation on gel content, tensile strength and surface hardness were also followed. The blend offers binder base for exterior masonry coating systems having superior water resistant and mechanical properties

  3. Notes on symmetric and exterior depth and annihilator numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa Kampf

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We survey and compare invariants of modules over the polynomial ring and the exterior algebra. In our considerations, we focus on the depth. The exterior analogue of depth was first introduced by Aramova, Avramov and Herzog. We state similarities between the two notion of depth and exhibit their relation in the case of squarefree modules. Work of Conca, Herzog and Hibi and Trung, respectively, shows that annihilator numbers are a meaningful generalization of depth over the polynomial ring. We introduce and study annihilator numbers over the exterior algebra. Despite some minor differences in the definition, those invariants show common behavior. In both situations a positive linear combination of the annihilator numbers can be used to bound the symmetric and exterior graded Betti numbers, respectively, from above.

  4. Don’t get (sun) burned : exposing exterior wood to the weather prior to painting contributes to finish failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Sam Williams

    2005-01-01

    Contrary to what might be called popular myth, research shows that allowing exterior wood surfaces to weather before applying paint does not help the cause of long-term coating performance. Instead, weathering prior to painting has been shown to contribute significantly to premature failure of the finish due to loss of adhesion.

  5. Cartan for beginners differential geometry via moving frames and exterior differential systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ivey, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Two central aspects of Cartan's approach to differential geometry are the theory of exterior differential systems (EDS) and the method of moving frames. This book presents thorough and modern treatments of both subjects, including their applications to both classic and contemporary problems in geometry. It begins with the classical differential geometry of surfaces and basic Riemannian geometry in the language of moving frames, along with an elementary introduction to exterior differential systems. Key concepts are developed incrementally, with motivating examples leading to definitions, theorems, and proofs. Once the basics of the methods are established, the authors develop applications and advanced topics. One notable application is to complex algebraic geometry, where they expand and update important results from projective differential geometry. As well, the book features an introduction to G-structures and a treatment of the theory of connections. The techniques of EDS are also applied to obtain explici...

  6. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  7. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  8. Preparation of RF-(VM-SiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu Nanocomposites, and Use Thereof for the Modification of Glass and Filter Paper Surfaces: Creation of a Glass Thermoresponsive Switching Behavior and an Efficient Separation Paper Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Sawada

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluoroalkyl end-capped vinyltrimethoxysilane oligomeric silica/alkyl-modified cellulose (AM-Cellu nanocomposites [RF-(CH2-CHSiO2n-RF/AM-Cellu; n = 2, 3; RF = CF(CF3OC3F7] were prepared by the sol-gel reactions of the corresponding oligomer [RF-(CH2-CHSi(OMe3n-RF] in the presence of AM-Cellu. The nanocomposites thus obtained were applied to the surface modification of glass to exhibit a highly oleophobic/superhydrophilic characteristic on the modified surface at 20 °C. Interestingly, a temperature dependence of contact angle values of dodecane and water was observed on the modified surface at 20~70 °C, and the dodecane contact angle values were found to decrease with increasing the temperatures from 20 to 70 °C to provide from highly oleophobic to superoleophilic characteristics on the surface. On the other hand, the increase of the water contact angle values was observed with the increase in the temperatures under similar conditions to supply superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic characteristics on the modified surface. The corresponding nanocomposites were also applied to the surface modification of the filter paper under similar conditions to afford a superoleophilic/superhydrophobic characteristic on the surface. It was demonstrated that the modified filter paper is effective for the separation membrane for W/O emulsion to isolate the transparent colorless oil.

  9. Salazarismo y política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos JIMÉNEZ REDONDO

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El sistema internacional jugó para la Portugal de Salazar un papel esencial al actuar como fuente privilegiada de la que extraer los recursos materiales (económicos, tecnológicos o financieros e inmateriales (factores de legitimación que garantizaron el programa de reforma política de la dictadura y que permitieron al país desempeñar un papel internacional desproporcionadamente relevante si consideramos su condición de pequeña potencia periférica europea. La novedad del salazarismo respecto a períodos anteriores consistió en la adecuación de esas necesidades de apertura al exterior con una fuerte percepción de los intereses nacionales, dentro de una estrategia pragmática que le permitió acomodarse a la acelerada evolución del sistema internacional y, sobre todo, al cambio que se produjo en el sistema internacional de acuerdo a la dinámica de la Guerra Fría y sus distintas fases. Palabras clave: Salazarismo, OTAN, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Guerra colonial, descolonización. ABSTRACT: The international system played for the Portugal of Salazar an essential role when acting like privileged source of which to extract the material resources (economic, technological or financial and immaterial (legitimation factors that guaranteed the program of political reform of the dictatorship and that allowed the country to play very out of proportion excellent a role international if we considered its condition of small European peripheral power. The newness of the salazarism with respect to previous periods consisted of the adjustment of those necessities of opening to the outside with a strong perception of the national interests, within a pragmatic strategy that allowed to comply him to the accelerated evolution of the international system and, mainly, to the change that took place in the international system according to the dynamics of the cold war and its different phases. Keywords: Salazarism, NATO, EFTA, Botelho Moniz, Colonial

  10. Slowly rotating charged fluid balls and their matching to an exterior domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Gyula; Perjes, Zoltan; Bradley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The slow-rotation approximation of Hartle is developed to a setting where a charged rotating fluid is present. The linearized Einstein-Maxwell equations are solved on the background of the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time in the exterior electrovacuum region. The theory is put to action for the charged generalization of the Wahlquist solution found by Garcia. The Garcia solution is transformed to coordinates suitable for the matching and expanded in powers of the angular velocity. The two domains are then matched along the zero pressure surface using the Darmois-Israel procedure. We prove a theorem to the effect that the exterior region is asymptotically flat if and only if the parameter C 2 , characterizing the magnitude of an external magnetic field, vanishes. We obtain the form of the constant C 2 for the Garcia solution. We conjecture that the Garcia metric cannot be matched to an asymptotically flat exterior electrovacuum region even to first order in the angular velocity. This conjecture is supported by a high precision numerical analysis

  11. Development and Application of High-Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels as Building Exterior Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeong H.; Lee, Yong H.; Lee, Yong D.

    2008-01-01

    Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade. It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors. Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium. To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years. High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials, which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years

  12. Development and Application of High-Cr Ferritic Stainless Steels as Building Exterior Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeong H.; Lee, Yong H.; Lee, Yong D. [POSCO Technical Reseaarch Lab., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Stainless Steels have been widely used as a building exterior materials in Asian countries for the last decade. It is required for the materials in this field to have an aesthetic appearance,a relatively high strength, and an excellent corrosion resistance. Other metallic materials such as copper, aluminum, and carbon steels have been also used as the exterior materials. Considering the cost of maintenance, stainless steel, having the outstanding corrosion resistance, is replacing other materials in the several parts in the building exteriors. Ferritic stainless steel has been applied as the roofing materials because its thermal expansion is much smaller than that of austenitic stainless steel. Therefore, it is suitable for the large-scale construction such as airport terminal, convention center, and football stadium. To improve the corrosion resistance of the ferritic stainless steels, the modification of alloy composition has been studied to develop new grade materials and the progress in the surface technology has been introduced. Corrosion properties, of these materials were evaluated in the laboratory and in the field for longer than two years. High-Cr ferritic stainless steel showed excellent corrosion resistance to the atmospheric environments. In the region close to the sea, the corrosion resistance of high-Cr ferritic stainless steel was much superior to that of other materials, which may prove this steel to be the appropriate materials for the construction around seashore. In some of the large constructions around seashore in South Korea, high-Cr ferritic stainless steels have been used as the building exterior materials for six years.

  13. QPFT operator algebras and commutative exterior differential calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yur'ev, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    The reduction of the structure theory of the operator algebras of quantum projective (sl(2, C)-invariant) field theory (QPFT operator algebras) to a commutative exterior differential calculus by means of the operation of renormalization of a pointwise product of operator fields is described. In the first section, the author introduces the concept of the operator algebra of quantum field theory and describes the operation of the renormalization of a pointwise product of operator fields. The second section is devoted to a brief exposition of the fundamentals of the structure theory of QPT operator algebras. The third section is devoted to commutative exterior differential calculus. In the fourth section, the author establishes the connection between the renormalized pointwise product of operator fields in QPFT operator algebras and the commutative exterior differential calculus. 5 refs

  14. The generalization of the exterior square of a Bieberbach group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masri, Rohaidah; Hassim, Hazzirah Izzati Mat; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Ali, Nor Muhainiah Mohd; Idrus, Nor'ashiqin Mohd

    2014-06-01

    The exterior square of a group is one of the homological functors which were originated in the homotopy theory. Meanwhile, a Bieberbach group is a torsion free crystallographic group. A Bieberbach group with cyclic point group of order two, C2, of dimension n can be defined as the direct product of that group of the smallest dimension with a free abelian group. Using the group presentation and commutator generating sequence, the exterior square of a Bieberbach group with point group C2 of dimension n is computed.

  15. Deformed exterior algebra, quons and their coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Baz, M.; Hassouni, Y.

    2002-08-01

    We review the notion of the deformation of the exterior wedge product. This allows us to construct the deformation of the algebra of exterior forms over a vector space and also over an arbitrary manifold. We relate this approach to the generalized statistics and we study quons, as a particular case of these generalized statistics. We also give their statistical properties. A large part of the work is devoted to the problem of constructing coherent states for the deformed oscillators. We give a review of all the approaches existing in the literature concerning this point and enforce it with many examples. (author)

  16. Numerical investigation on exterior conformal mappings with application to airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Rashidi Md Razali; Hu Laey Nee

    2000-01-01

    A numerical method is described in computing a conformal map from an exterior region onto the exterior of the unit disk. The numerical method is based on a boundary integral equation which is similar to the Kerzman-Stein integral equation for interior mapping. Some examples show that numerical results of high accuracy can be obtained provided that the boundaries are smooth. This numerical method has been applied to the mapping airfoils. However, due to the fact that the parametric representation of an air foil is not known, a cubic spline interpolation method has been used. Some numerical examples with satisfying results have been obtained for the symmetrical and cambered airfoils. (Author)

  17. Numerical conformal mapping methods for exterior and doubly connected regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLillo, T.K. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Pfaltzgraff, J.A. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Methods are presented and analyzed for approximating the conformal map from the exterior of the disk to the exterior a smooth, simple closed curve and from an annulus to a bounded, doubly connected region with smooth boundaries. The methods are Newton-like methods for computing the boundary correspondences and conformal moduli similar to Fornberg`s method for the interior of the disk. We show that the linear systems are discretizations of the identity plus a compact operator and, hence, that the conjugate gradient method converges superlinearly.

  18. A Probabilistic Model for Exteriors of Residential Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin; Wonka, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new framework to model the exterior of residential buildings. The main goal of our work is to design a model that can be learned from data that is observable from the outside of a building and that can be trained with widely available

  19. Non-static vacuum strings: exterior and interior solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stein-Schabes, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    New non-static cylindrically symmetric solutions of Einsteins's equations are presented. Some of these solutions represent string-like objects. An exterior vacuum solution is matched to a non-vacuum interior solution for different forms of the energy-momentum tensor. They generalize the standard static string. 12 refs

  20. Applications of exterior difference systems to variations in discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zheng; Li Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    In discrete mechanics, difference equations describe the fundamental physical laws and exhibit many geometric properties. Can these equations be obtained in a geometric way? Using some techniques in exterior difference systems, we investigate the discrete variational problem. As an application, we give a positive answer to the above question for the discrete Newton's, Euler-Lagrange, and Hamilton's equations

  1. Minimizing and predicting delamination of southern plywood in exterior exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    Southern pine plywood is substantially all being manufactured with phenolic glue for exterior use. Because panels must not delaminate in service, a reliable predictor of glueline durability is required. Drawing on the experience of the Douglas-fir plywood industry, southern manufacutrers have adopted as a predictor the percentage of wood failure(% WF) observed in...

  2. 10 CFR 434.516 - Building exterior envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Buildings for calculating the Energy Cost Budget. In calculating the Design Energy Consumption of the... assumptions for calculating the Energy Cost Budget and default assumptions for the Design Energy Consumption... without operable windows shall be assumed to be 0.038 cfm/ft2 of gross exterior wall. Hotels/motels and...

  3. Port exteriorization appendectomy in children: An alternative to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Laparoscopic appendectomy is usually performed using an intracorporeal approach. The conventional procedure uses three ports. The port exteriorization appendectomy uses two trocars to perform the entire procedure and can be considered an efficient alternative to the conventional approach, especially in ...

  4. 40 CFR 205.55-5 - Labeling-exterior. [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labeling-exterior. [Reserved] 205.55-5 Section 205.55-5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Medium and Heavy Trucks § 205.55-5 Labeling...

  5. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Institution... certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing... optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing the same that...

  6. 76 FR 78693 - Certain Electric Fireplaces, Components Thereof, and Manuals for Same, Processes for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2865] Certain Electric Fireplaces, Components Thereof, and... Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Electric Fireplaces, Components Thereof, and... fireplaces, components thereof, and manuals for same, processes for manufacturing or relating to same, and...

  7. Surface functionalization and analysis thereof by ambient mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manova, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    A challenge in the global healthcare is the lack of suitable diagnostic tools for early disease detection. One possible solution is the use of biosensors in diagnostic tests. By definition, a biosensor is a bioanalytical device that detects the presence of a compound (analyte) in the sample. The

  8. Exterior egg quality as affected by enrichment resources layout in furnished laying-hen cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Donghua; Meng, Fanyu; Su, Yingying; Wang, Lisha; Zhang, Runxiang; Li, Jianhong; Bao, Jun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of enrichment resources (a perch, dustbath, and nest) layout in furnished laying-hen cages (FC) on exterior quality of eggs. One hundred and sixty-eight (168) Hy-Line Brown laying hens at 16 weeks of age were randomly distributed to four treatments: small furnished cages (SFC), medium furnished cages type I (MFC-I), medium furnished cages type II (MFC-II), and medium furnished cages type III (MFC-III). Each treatment had 4 replicates or cages with 6 hens for SFC (24 birds for each SFC) and 12 hen/cage for MFC-I, -II, and -III (48 birds for each MFC-I, -II and -III). Following a 2-week acclimation, data collection started at 18 weeks of age and continued till 52 weeks of age. Dirtiness of egg surface or cracked shell as indicators of the exterior egg quality were recorded each week. The results showed that the proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was significantly affected by the FC type (p<0.01) in that the highest proportion of cracked or dirty eggs was found in MFC-I and the lowest proportion of dirty eggs in SFC. The results of this showed that furnished cage types affected both dirty eggs and cracked eggs (p<0.01). The results also indicated that not nest but dustbath lead to more dirty eggs. Only MFC-I had higher dirty eggs at nest than other FC (p< 0.01). The results of dirty eggs in MFC-I and MFC-II compared with SFC and MFC-III seemed suggest that a low position of dustbath led to more dirty eggs. SFC design affected exterior egg quality and the low position of dustbath in FC resulted in higher proportion of dirty eggs.

  9. Heat exchangers and methods of construction thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger is described comprising a shell having first inlet means and first outlet means for the flow of a first fluid therethrough, a plurality of tubes within the shell to provide a path for flow of a second fluid in heat exchange relation to the first fluid, second inlet means and second outlet means for flow of the second fluid to and from the tubes respectively, a tubular member concentric with at least a portion of the length of one of the tubes to define a space between the tube and the tubular member, at least one radially outwardly projecting portion on the tubular member, and a plurality of tube support means spaced apart and disposed generally perpendicular to the tube axes, wherein the tubular member is fixedly attached at one end to one of the tube support means and at the other end to an adjacent one of the tube support means, the space between the tube and the tubular member is closed to flow of both the first fluid and the second fluid, and the radially outwardly projecting portion on the tubular member extends longitudinally to allow flexing of the tubular member and expanding thereof radially outwardly during construction of the heat exchanger so as to allow insertion of the tube into the tubular member, the radially outwardly projecting portion defining a gap which contributes to the space between the tube and the tubular member. 6 figs

  10. A Probabilistic Model for Exteriors of Residential Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2016-07-29

    We propose a new framework to model the exterior of residential buildings. The main goal of our work is to design a model that can be learned from data that is observable from the outside of a building and that can be trained with widely available data such as aerial images and street-view images. First, we propose a parametric model to describe the exterior of a building (with a varying number of parameters) and propose a set of attributes as a building representation with fixed dimensionality. Second, we propose a hierarchical graphical model with hidden variables to encode the relationships between building attributes and learn both the structure and parameters of the model from the database. Third, we propose optimization algorithms to generate three-dimensional models based on building attributes sampled from the graphical model. Finally, we demonstrate our framework by synthesizing new building models and completing partially observed building models from photographs.

  11. GATEWAY Demonstrations: Exterior LED Lighting Projects at Princeton University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, WIlliam E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Murphy, Arthur [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States); Perrin, Tess [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-30

    This report focuses on four exterior solid-state lighting projects that have been completed at Princeton since 2008, when the University adopted a comprehensive sustainability plan. Through these initial projects – which include a parking garage, a pedestrian path, and two parking lot installations – the school’s facilities engineering staff learned important lessons about SSL technology and gained experience in dealing with the rapidly changing landscape of lighting manufacturers and their suppliers.

  12. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using 'L' clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and 'picture framing' the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  13. Spray Foam Exterior Insulation with Stand-Off Furring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anatasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Baker, Richard [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, was contracted by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority to research exterior wall insulation solutions. This research investigated cost-effective deep energy retrofit (DER) solutions for improving the building shell exterior while achieving a cost-reduction goal, including reduced labor costs to reach a 50/50 split between material and labor. The strategies included exterior wall insulation plus energy upgrades as needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, and basement band joist, walls, and floors. The work can be integrated with other home improvements such as siding or window replacement. This strategy minimizes physical connections to existing wall studs, encapsulates existing siding materials (including lead paint) with spray foam, and creates a vented rain screen assembly to promote drying. GreenHomes America applied construction details created by IBACOS to a test home. 2x4 framing members were attached to the wall at band joists and top plates using "L" clips, with spray foam insulating the wall after framing was installed. Windows were installed simultaneously with the framing, including extension jambs. The use of clips in specific areas provided the best strength potential, and "picture framing" the spray foam held the 2x4s in place. Short-term testing was performed at this house, with monitoring equipment installed for long-term testing. Testing measurements will be provided in a later report, as well as utility impact (before and after), costs (labor and materials), construction time, standard specifications, and analysis for the exterior wall insulation strategy.

  14. Detection of Watermelon Seeds Exterior Quality based on Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    Xiai Chen; Ling Wang; Wenquan Chen; Yanfeng Gao

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the detection of watermelon seeds exterior quality, a machine vision system based on least square support vector machine was developed. Appearance characteristics of watermelon seeds included area, perimeter, roughness, minimum enclosing rectangle and solidity were calculated by image analysis after image preprocess.The broken seeds, normal seeds and high-quality seeds were distinguished by least square support vector machine optimized by genetic algorithm. Compared to the grid...

  15. Exterior difference systems and invariance properties of discrete mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zheng; Xie Duanqiang; Li Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    Invariance properties describe the fundamental physical laws in discrete mechanics. Can those properties be described in a geometric way? We investigate an exterior difference system called the discrete Euler-Lagrange system, whose solution has one-to-one correspondence with solutions of discrete Euler-Lagrange equations, and use it to define the first integrals. The preservation of the discrete symplectic form along the discrete Hamilton phase flows and the discrete Noether's theorem is also described in the language of difference forms

  16. Multi-point observations of Ion Dispersions near the Exterior Cusp with Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C.-Philippe; Grison, Benjamin; Berchem, Jean; Trattner, Kralheinz; Pitout, Frederic; Richard, Robert; Taylor, Matt; Soucek, Jan; Laakso, Harri; Masson, Arnaud; Dunlop, Malcolm; Dandouras, Iannis; Reme, Henri; Fazakerley, Andrew; Daly, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    The exterior cusp is the most external region of the polar magnetosphere in direct contact with the plasma and the magnetic field from the solar wind. Unlike the rest of the magnetopause surface, the exterior cusp is a singular region with small and turbulent magnetic field and where large entry of plasma from solar origin takes place. The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process will take place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s and the density around 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft were still in the "magnetotail" configuration with two perfect tetrahedra of 2000 km around apogee and turning into an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions in the dispersions, we obtain an altitude of the sources of these ions between 14 and 20 RE. Using Tsyganenko model, these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. In addition, before entering the cusp, the magnetopause crossing was characterized by a large shear in By and bipolar plasma flows, suggesting that reconnection was taking place near the exterior cusp. We will discuss the extent of the reconnection line along the flank of the magnetopause based on these observations.

  17. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on thestructure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explorethese topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help informdesign standards and criteria.

  18. Expert Meeting Report: Cladding Attachment Over Exterior Insulation (BSC Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-10-01

    The addition of insulation to the exterior of buildings is an effective means of increasing the thermal resistance of both wood framed walls as well as mass masonry wall assemblies. The location of the insulation to the exterior of the structure has many direct benefits including better effective R-value from reduced thermal bridging, better condensation resistance, reduced thermal stress on the structure, as well as other commonly associated improvements such as increased air tightness and improved water management (Hutcheon 1964, Lstiburek 2007). The intent of the meeting was to review the current state of industry knowledge regarding cladding attachment over exterior insulation with a specific focus on: 1. Gravity load resistance, 2. Wind load resistance. The presentations explore these topics from an engineering design, laboratory testing, field monitoring, as well as practical construction perspective. By bringing various groups together (who have been conduction research or have experience in this area), a more holistic review of the design limits and current code language proposals can be completed and additional gaps identified. The results of which will help inform design standards and criteria.

  19. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  20. TRANSURANIC METAL HALIDES AND A PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION THEREOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, S.

    1951-03-20

    Halides of transuranic elements are prepared by contacting with aluminum and a halogen, or with an aluminum halide, a transuranic metal oxide, oxyhalide, halide, or mixture thereof at an elevated temperature.

  1. Keto-isovalerate decarboxylase enzymes and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvain, Jessica; O'Keefe, Daniel P.; Paul, Brian James; Payne, Mark S.; Rothman, Steven Cary; He, Hongxian

    2016-01-19

    Provided herein are polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides which have ketoisovalerate decarboxylase activity. Also provided are recombinant host cells comprising such polypeptides and polynucleotides and methods of use thereof.

  2. Global smooth solutions of 3-D null-form wave equations in exterior domains with Neumann boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Li; Huicheng, Yin

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to investigating long time behavior of smooth small data solutions to 3-D quasilinear wave equations outside of compact convex obstacles with Neumann boundary conditions. Concretely speaking, when the surface of a 3-D compact convex obstacle is smooth and the quasilinear wave equation fulfills the null condition, we prove that the smooth small data solution exists globally provided that the Neumann boundary condition on the exterior domain is given. One of the main ingredients in the current paper is the establishment of local energy decay estimates of the solution itself. As an application of the main result, the global stability to 3-D static compressible Chaplygin gases in exterior domain is shown under the initial irrotational perturbation with small amplitude.

  3. Modeling thermal performance of exterior walls retrofitted from insulation and modified laterite based bricks materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati, Elvis; Meukam, Pierre; Damfeu, Jean Claude

    2017-12-01

    Uninsulated concrete block walls commonly found in tropical region have to be retrofitted to save energy. The thickness of insulation layer used can be reduced with the help of modified laterite based bricks layer (with the considerably lower thermal conductivity than that of concrete block layer) during the retrofit building fabrics. The aim of this study is to determine the optimum location and distribution of different materials. The investigation is carried out under steady periodic conditions under the climatic conditions of Garoua in Cameroon using a Simulink model constructed from H-Tools (the library of Simulink models). Results showed that for the continuous air-conditioned space, the best wall configuration from the maximum time lag, minimum decrement factor and peak cooling transmission load perspective, is dividing the insulation layer into two layers and placing one at the exterior surface and the other layer between the two different massive layers with the modified laterite based bricks layer at the interior surface. For intermittent cooling space, the best wall configuration from the minimum energy consumption depends on total insulation thickness. For the total insulation thickness less than 8 cm approximately, the best wall configuration is placing the half layer of insulation material at the interior surface and the other half between the two different massive layers with the modified earthen material at the exterior surface. Results also showed that, the optimum insulation thickness calculated from the yearly cooling transmission (estimated only during the occupied period) and some economic considerations slightly depends on the location of that insulation.

  4. Local density of states in two-dimensional topological superconductors under a magnetic field: Signature of an exterior Majorana bound state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shu-Ichiro; Kawaguchi, Yuki; Tanaka, Yukio

    2018-04-01

    We study quasiparticle states on a surface of a topological insulator (TI) with proximity-induced superconductivity under an external magnetic field. An applied magnetic field creates two Majorana bound states: a vortex Majorana state localized inside a vortex core and an exterior Majorana state localized along a circle centered at the vortex core. We calculate the spin-resolved local density of states (LDOS) and demonstrate that the shrinking of the radius of the exterior Majorana state, predicted in R. S. Akzyanov et al., Phys. Rev. B 94, 125428 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevB.94.125428, under a strong magnetic field can be seen in LDOS without smeared out by nonzero-energy states. The spin-resolved LDOS further reveals that the spin of the exterior Majorana state is strongly spin-polarized. Accordingly, the induced odd-frequency spin-triplet pairs are found to be spin-polarized as well. In order to detect the exterior Majorana states, however, the Fermi energy should be closed to the Dirac point to avoid contributions from continuum levels. We also study a different two-dimensional topological-superconducting system where a two-dimensional electron gas with the spin-orbit coupling is sandwiched between an s -wave superconductor and a ferromagnetic insulator. We show that the radius of an exterior Majorana state can be tuned by an applied magnetic field. However, on the contrary to the results at a TI surface, neither the exterior Majorana state nor the induced odd-frequency spin-triplet pairs are spin-polarized. We conclude that the spin polarization of the Majorana state is attributed to the spin-polarized Landau level, which is characteristic for systems with the Dirac-like dispersion.

  5. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  6. The effect of lighting exterior and interior design

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Light, whether natural or artificial is a very important element in interior and exterior design. It actually helps us to see color because color is visible to our eye because the substances of which was obtained reflect wavelengths of light. Light as an element of design influences other elements. It can make the space large or small, showy and bright or dark and unpleasant. Places that are well-lit with clean, clear light make the space seem larger, while the fading light and shadows ...

  7. Numerical Simulation of Antennae by Discrete Exterior Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Zheng; Ye Zheng; Ma Yujie

    2009-01-01

    Numerical simulation of antennae is a topic in computational electromagnetism, which is concerned with the numerical study of Maxwell equations. By discrete exterior calculus and the lattice gauge theory with coefficient R, we obtain the Bianchi identity on prism lattice. By defining an inner product of discrete differential forms, we derive the source equation and continuity equation. Those equations compose the discrete Maxwell equations in vacuum case on discrete manifold, which are implemented on Java development platform to simulate the Gaussian pulse radiation on antennaes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Boundary conditions for the numerical solution of elliptic equations in exterior regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayliss, A.; Gunzburger, M.; Turkel, E.

    1982-01-01

    Elliptic equations in exterior regions frequently require a boundary condition at infinity to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. Examples of practical applications include the Helmholtz equation and Laplace's equation. Computational procedures based on a direct discretization of the elliptic problem require the replacement of the condition at infinity by a boundary condition on a finite artificial surface. Direct imposition of the condition at infinity along the finite boundary results in large errors. A sequence of boundary conditions is developed which provides increasingly accurate approximations to the problem in the infinite domain. Estimates of the error due to the finite boundary are obtained for several cases. Computations are presented which demonstrate the increased accuracy that can be obtained by the use of the higher order boundary conditions. The examples are based on a finite element formulation but finite difference methods can also be used

  9. 30 CFR 75.1708-1 - Surface structures; fireproof construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surface structures; fireproof construction. 75... Surface structures; fireproof construction. Structures of fireproof construction is interpreted to mean structures with fireproof exterior surfaces. ...

  10. Fabrication of High-Temperature Heat Exchangers by Plasma Spraying Exterior Skins on Nickel Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, P.; Yugeswaran, S.; Chandra, S.; Mostaghimi, J.; Coyle, T. W.

    2016-06-01

    Thermal-sprayed heat exchangers were tested at high temperatures (750 °C), and their performances were compared to the foam heat exchangers made by brazing Inconel sheets to their surface. Nickel foil was brazed to the exterior surface of 10-mm-thick layers of 10 and 40 PPI nickel foam. A plasma torch was used to spray an Inconel coating on the surface of the foil. A burner test rig was built to produce hot combustion gases that flowed over exposed face of the heat exchanger. Cooling air flowed through the foam heat exchanger at rates of up to 200 SLPM. Surface temperature and air inlet/exit temperature were measured. Heat transfer to air flowing through the foam was significantly higher for the thermally sprayed heat exchangers than for the brazed heat exchangers. On an average, thermally sprayed heat exchangers show 36% higher heat transfer than conventionally brazed foam heat exchangers. At low flow rates, the convective resistance is large (~4 × 10-2 m2 K/W), and the effect of thermal contact resistance is negligible. At higher flow rates, the convective resistance decreases (~2 × 10-3 m2 K/W), and the lower contact resistance of the thermally sprayed heat exchanger provides better performance than the brazed heat exchangers.

  11. A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caravanos, Jack [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Weiss, Arlene L [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States); School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States); Blaise, Marc J [Hunter College-CUNY, School of Health Sciences (United States); Jaeger, Rudolph J [Environmental Medicine Inc., 263 Center Avenue, Westwood, NJ 07675 (United States) and School of Medicine, New York University, NY 10016 (United States)

    2006-02-15

    This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), the Bronx (382{mu}g/ft{sup 2}), Queens (198{mu}g/ft{sup 2}) and finally, Manhattan (175{mu}g/ft{sup 2}). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40{mu}g/ft{sup 2}, our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources.

  12. A survey of spatially distributed exterior dust lead loadings in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravanos, Jack; Weiss, Arlene L.; Blaise, Marc J.; Jaeger, Rudolph J.

    2006-01-01

    This work documents ambient lead dust deposition values (lead loading) for the boroughs of New York City in 2003-2004. Currently, no regulatory standards exist for exterior concentrations of lead in settled dust. This is in contrast to the clearance and risk assessment standards that exist for interior residential dust. The reported potential for neurobehavioral toxicity and adverse cognitive development in children due to lead exposure prompts public health concerns about undocumented lead sources. Such sources may include settled dust of outdoor origin. Dust sampling throughout the five boroughs of NYC was done from the top horizontal portion of pedestrian traffic control signals (PTCS) at selected street intersections along main thoroughfares. The data (n=214 samples) show that lead in dust varies within each borough with Brooklyn having the highest median concentration (730μg/ft 2 ), followed in descending order by Staten Island (452μg/ft 2 ), the Bronx (382μg/ft 2 ), Queens (198μg/ft 2 ) and finally, Manhattan (175μg/ft 2 ). When compared to the HUD/EPA indoor lead in dust standard of 40μg/ft 2 , our data show that this value is exceeded in 86% of the samples taken. An effort was made to determine the source of the lead in the dust atop of the PTCS. The lead in the dust and the yellow signage paint (which contains lead) were compared using isotopic ratio analysis. Results showed that the lead-based paint chip samples from intact signage did not isotopically match the dust wipe samples taken from the same surface. We know that exterior dust containing lead contributes to interior dust lead loading. Therefore, settled leaded dust in the outdoor environment poses a risk for lead exposure to children living in urban areas, namely, areas with elevated childhood blood lead levels and background lead dust levels from a variety of unidentified sources

  13. Asia Central en la política exterior rusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Morales

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas rusas hacia Asia Central han estado condicionadas por la herencia histórica anterior a la disolución de la URSS, pero también por los cambios en el sistema internacional y en la propia Rusia acaecidos desde entonces. ¿En qué medida la actuación de Rusia ha sido coherente y estable, basada en una estrategia para Asia Central fundamentada en los intereses nacionales? En este artículo examinamos los fundamentos de la política exterior rusa en relación con Asia Central, dividiéndola en tres apartados: político, económico y de seguridad.

  14. Dimensión social de la publicidad exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Marta Pacheco Rueda

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La publicidad exterior moderna nace en España a principios de los años 60, en un período en que desde el gobierno se acomete una serie de iniciativas tendentes a reactivar la economía del país. La incipiente apertura económica no es desaprovechada por grandes firmas internacionales que aumentan sus inversiones e introducen en el mercado español productos con una larga tradición de consumo en los países occidentales industrializados. Se produce el asentamiento definitivo de las agencias multinacionales de publicidad, de procedencia norteamericana sobre todo, que traen consigo técnicas que responden a una filosofía de marketing, término que si en aquel momento resulta un tanto extraño, con el paso de los años se convierte en un vocablo de uso extendido.

  15. Covariant differential calculus on the quantum exterior vector space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parashar, P.; Soni, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    We formulate a differential calculus on the quantum exterior vector space spanned by the generators of a non-anticommutative algebra satisfying r ij = θ i θ j +B kl ij θ k θ l =0 i, j=1, 2, ..., n. and (θ i ) 2 =(θ j ) 2 =...=(θ n ) 2 =0, where B kl ij is the most general matrix defined in terms of complex deformation parameters. Following considerations analogous to those of Wess and Zumino, we are able to exhibit covariance of our calculus under ( 2 n )+1 parameter deformation of GL(n) and explicitly check that the non-anticommutative differential calculus satisfies the general constraints given by them, such as the 'linear' conditions dr ij ≅0 and the 'quadratic' condition r ij x n ≅0 where x n =dθ n are the differentials of the variables. (orig.)

  16. The use of exterior forms in Einstein's gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirring, W.; Wallner, R.

    1978-01-01

    Cartan's calculus is used to reformulate the general variational principle and conservation laws in terms of exterior forms. In applying this method to Einstein's gravitation theory, we do not only benefit from the great economy of Cartan's formalism but also gain a deeper understanding of fundamental results already known. So the existence of superpotential-forms may be deduced from d o d identical to 0 and as a consequence the vanishing of total energy and momentum in a closed universe is affirmed in a more general way. Simple expressions for the sundry superpotential are obtained quite naturally. As a byproduct, Einstein's equations are rewritten in a form where the coderivative of a 2-form (the superpotential-form) is a current, and therefore resembles the inhomogeneous Maxwell equations. In passing from the Lagrangian to the Hamiltonian 4-form, the ADM formalism is immediately entered without lengthy calculations [pt

  17. Cluster Observations of Particle Injections in the Exterior Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C. P.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Lavraud, B.; Pitout, F.; Soucek, J.; Richard, R. L.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2014-12-01

    The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process takes place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the dusk or dawn sides (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed lower than usual around 280 km/s with the density of order 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft had an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. Using the time of flight technique on the upgoing and downgoing ions, which leads to energy dispersions, we obtain distances of the ion sources between 14 and 20 RE from the spacecraft. Using Tsyganenko model, we find that these sources are located on the dusk flank, past the terminator. The first injection by C3 is seen at approximately the same time as the 2nd injection on C1 but their sources at the magnetopause were separated by more than 7 RE. This would imply that two distinct sources were active at the same time on the dusk flank of the magnetosphere. In addition, a flow reversal was observed at the magnetopause on C4 which would be an indication that reconnection is taking place near the exterior cusp.

  18. Investigation of vessel exterior air cooling for a HLMC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sienicki, J. J.; Spencer, B. W.

    2000-01-01

    The Secure Transportable Autonomous Reactor (STAR) concept under development at Argonne National Laboratory provides a small (300 MWt) reactor module for steam supply that incorporates design features to attain proliferation resistance, heightened passive safety, and improved cost competitiveness through extreme simplification. Examples are the achievement of 100%+ natural circulation heat removal from the low power density/low pressure drop ultra-long lifetime core and utilization of lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) coolant enabling elimination of main coolant pumps as well as the need for an intermediate heat transport circuit. It is required to provide a passive means of removing decay heat and effecting reactor cooldown in the event that the normal steam generator heat sink, including its normal shutdown heat removal mode, is postulated to be unavailable. In the present approach, denoted as the Reactor Exterior Cooling System (RECS), passive decay heat removal is provided by cooling the outside of the containment/guard vessel with air. RECS is similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) incorporated into the PRISM design. However, to enhance the heat removal, RECS incorporates fins on the containment vessel exterior to enhance heat transfer to air as well as removable steel venetian conductors that provide a conduction heat transfer path across the reactor vessel-containment vessel gap to enhance heat transfer between the vessels. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effectiveness of air cooling in removing heat from the vessel and limiting the coolant temperature increase following a sudden complete loss of the steam generator heat sink

  19. Accuracy analysis of exterior orientation elements on vertical parallax in POS-supported aerial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenli; Yuan, Xiuxiao

    2009-10-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of exterior orientation elements on vertical parallax, especially using the orientation parameters of aerial images obtained by a POS (Positioning and Orientation System) after calibration. Firstly, based on the theory of analytical relative orientation of consecutive photo connection, the exterior orientation elements can be easily translated to relative orientation elements. Then, the formula of vertical parallax can be deduced. The results of vertical parallax in left image space coordinate system are compared with the results calculated in the image coordinate system which are parallel to those of the object coordinate system. The validity and feasibility of the mathematical model are tested using two sets of actual data at different images scales. Finally, the differences between the effects of exterior orientation parameters on vertical parallax are compared using exterior orientation parameters obtained by traditional bundle block adjustment and by a POS after calibrated. And how the single element of exterior orientation effected on vertical parallax and how they worked together are analyzed. The empirical results indicate that the effects of different elements of exterior orientation on vertical parallax are different, all exterior orientation parameters can be affected by each other, so the overall effect of vertical parallax accuracy can be restricted by all exterior orientation parameters.

  20. 77 FR 35427 - Certain Mobile Devices, Associated Software, and Components Thereof Final Determination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-744] Certain Mobile Devices, Associated... importation of certain mobile devices, associated software, and components thereof by reason of infringement... importation of certain mobile devices, associated software, and components thereof containing same by reason...

  1. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may be...

  2. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may be...

  3. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be marked...

  4. 77 FR 23751 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Institution of Investigation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof by reason... States after importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof by reason... importation of certain food waste disposers and components and packaging thereof that infringe the claim of U...

  5. 78 FR 2281 - Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-10

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2930] Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof... Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Robotic Toys and Components Thereof, DN 2930... States after importation of certain robotic toys and components thereof. The complaint names as...

  6. Reactor container and controlling method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    An object of the present invention is to prevent stress corrosion crack caused in pipelines made of stainless steels by preventing deposition of chlorine, etc. on the surface, etc. of the pipelines. That is, an internal evolving gas elimination system comprises a gas extraction device for extracting gases in the reactor container, an obstacle elimination device for eliminating obstacles contained in the extracted gases and an internal gas elimination device for eliminating internal evolving gases contained in the extracted gases. Further, gases in the upper portion of the reactor container are extracted and then the ingredients of the internal evolving gases contained in the gases are eliminated and, thereafter, the gases are supplied to the lower portion of the container to keep the relative humidity in the reactor container to less than 20%RH. As a result, since the internal evolving gases are eliminated and the relative humidity at the inside is kept to less than 20%RH, deposition of chlorine or salts on the pipelines can be prevented to thereby prevent the stress corrosion cracks. (I.S.)

  7. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Analyses of a Robotic System for Automated Exterior Wall Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young S. Kim

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately 6,677,000 apartment housing units in South Korea. Exterior wall painting for such multi-dwelling apartment housings in South Korea represents a typical area to which construction automation technology can be applied for improvement in safety, productivity, quality, and cost over the conventional method. The conventional exterior wall painting is costly and labor-intensive, and it especially exposes workers to significant health and safety risks. The primary objective of this study is to design a conceptual model of an exterior wall painting robot which is applicable to apartment housing construction and maintenance, and to conduct its technical?economical feasibility analyses. In this study, a design concept using a high ladder truck is proposed as the best alternative for automation of the exterior wall painting. Conclusions made in this study show that the proposed exterior wall painting robot is technically and economically feasible, and can greatly enhance safety, productivity, and quality compared to the conventional method. Finally, it is expected that the conceptual model of the exterior wall painting robot would be efficiently used in various applications in exterior wall finishing and maintenance of other architectural and civil structures such as commercial buildings, towers, and high-rise storage tanks.

  8. Recovery of fission products from acidic waste solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, W.W.; Darlington, W.B.; Dubois, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Fission products, e.g., palladium, ruthenium and technetium, are removed from aqueous, acidic waste solutions thereof. The acidic waste solution is electrolyzed in an electrolytic cell under controlled cathodic potential conditions and technetium, ruthenium, palladium and rhodium are deposited on the cathode. Metal deposit is removed from the cathode and dissolved in acid. Acid insoluble rhodium metal is recovered, dissolved by alkali metal bisulfate fusion and purified by electrolysis. In one embodiment, the solution formed by acid dissolution of the cathode metal deposit is treated with a strong oxidizing agent and distilled to separate technetium and ruthenium (as a distillate) from palladium. Technetium is separated from ruthenium by organic solvent extraction and then recovered, e.g., as an ammonium salt. Ruthenium is disposed of as waste by-product. Palladium is recovered by electrolysis of an acid solution thereof under controlled cathodic potential conditions. Further embodiments wherein alternate metal recovery sequences are used are described. (U.S.)

  9. Advantages of modern collapsible systems for exterior finishing of buildings in urban areas in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolstova Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the method of finishing interior spaces, as well as exterior surfaces and architectural and structural elements of buildings and structures is widely used, when layers of building materials or finishing structures are applied in a strict sequence, allowing them to eventually form an unbroken whole - a “monolith”. This method of finishing, its technology and results not only depend significantly on the quality of the materials used and the mechanization of processes, but also require high qualification and specialization of construction workers. The execution of such a finish is more an art than a reproduced with a given level of quality of results by a technological process. An alternative to “monolith” is a variety of collapsible (they are also called “hinged” systems for finishing urban buildings, the elements of which are manufactured in the construction industry, requiring, as a rule, only installation and assembly in internal premises (the so-called “evroremont”, Or on the external surfaces of a building or structure.

  10. Multi-organ technetium complexes production and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, G.A.; Pestel, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    Chemical complexes, useful as radiopharmaceuticals, are formed by reacting technetium-99m with substituted or unsubstituted alkyl monophosphonic acids and certain ester derivatives thereof. The complexes are formed by reducing pertechnetate ion chemically or electrolytically in the presence of the phosphonic acid. By chemical modification of the phosphonic acid complexing agent, it is possible to ''tailor'' complexes for kidney, liver or bone imaging. The complexes are normally used in a physiologically acceptable aqueous medium. 20 Claims, No Drawings

  11. Diseño de un armario eléctrico para alumbrado exterior

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeil, Bastien

    2009-01-01

    El Proyecto tiene como objetivo el diseño de un armario eléctrico de alumbrado exterior que proporcione un valor añadido a los existentes actualmente. Este producto, diseñado para proteger los sistemas de alimentación y control de las instalaciones eléctricas, guardará esta función principal, tendrá un diseño exterior nuevo, y nuevas funcionalidades. Ahora, estas instalaciones permiten de alimentar la calle, los alumbradores exteriores en electricidad y gestionar las diferentes líneas desd...

  12. Measure Guideline: Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This measure guideline provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ inches and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  13. Measure Guideline. Incorporating Thick Layers of Exterior Rigid Insulation on Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This measure guideline, written by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America team Building Science Corporation, provides information about the design and construction of wall assemblies that use layers of rigid exterior insulation thicker than 1-½ in. and that require a secondary cladding attachment location exterior to the insulation. The guideline is separated into several distinct sections that cover: (1) fundamental building science principles relating to the use of exterior insulation on wall assemblies; (2) design principles for tailoring this use to the specific project goals and requirements; and (3) construction detailing to increase understanding about implementing the various design elements.

  14. Monitoring Interior and Exterior Wall Inspections within a Virtual Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Sampaio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes two prototype applications based on the Virtual Reality (VR technology for use in maintenance planning of buildings. In a building, the paint coating applied to interior walls and the different types of materials applied to façades convey their aesthetic character and also perform an important function of protection. This a construction component which is exposed to agents of deterioration related to its use, needing the regular evaluation of its state of repair. The applications support the performance of such periodic inspections and the monitoring of interior and exterior wall maintenance, using the VR technology. Used during an inspection visit, the applications allow users to consult a database of irregularities, normally associated with the coating, classified by the most probable causes and by the recommended repair methodologies. In addition, a chromatic scale related to the degree of deterioration of the coating, defined as a function of the time between the dates of the application of the paint and the scheduled repainting, can be attributed to each element of coating monitored. This use of the VR technology allows inspections and the evaluation of the degree of wear and tear of materials to be carried out in a highly direct and intuitive manner.

  15. Numerical electromagnetic frequency domain analysis with discrete exterior calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu C.; Chew, Weng Cho

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we perform a numerical analysis in frequency domain for various electromagnetic problems based on discrete exterior calculus (DEC) with an arbitrary 2-D triangular or 3-D tetrahedral mesh. We formulate the governing equations in terms of DEC for 3-D and 2-D inhomogeneous structures, and also show that the charge continuity relation is naturally satisfied. Then we introduce a general construction for signed dual volume to incorporate material information and take into account the case when circumcenters fall outside triangles or tetrahedrons, which may lead to negative dual volume without Delaunay triangulation. Then we examine the boundary terms induced by the dual mesh and provide a systematical treatment of various boundary conditions, including perfect magnetic conductor (PMC), perfect electric conductor (PEC), Dirichlet, periodic, and absorbing boundary conditions (ABC) within this method. An excellent agreement is achieved through the numerical calculation of several problems, including homogeneous waveguides, microstructured fibers, photonic crystals, scattering by a 2-D PEC, and resonant cavities.

  16. Lighting in the urban context case study: Exterior decorative lighting of St. Marko's Church in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Lidija

    2006-01-01

    façade; Glass facades in daylight conditions reflect the surroundings creating an attractive effect, especially due to the intensity and color change of daylight. In night conditions, glass facades are adequate for negative lighting, enabling the transformation of the façade into a transparent surface exhibiting the building interior. St. Marko's Church in Belgrade is chosen as a case study, due to the fact that the quality of its exterior decorative lighting provided this building an attractive night presentation, strengthened its role as a city landmark and its significance in the panoramic view of the city. The range of possibilities, which can contribute to the presentation, and significance of a building in an urban context are presented through an analysis of different factors, which influenced the quality of exterior decorative lighting of St. Marko's Church. Excellent lighting quality was achieved through lamp color appearance and rendering, as well as through the position of the luminaries. The lighting rhythm follows the rhythm of the façade and allows moderate contrasts. Particular spot lighting is devoted to highly valuable details. The result is a luminance distribution which contributes in great deal to the recognition and expression of the building, as well as to the visual comfort of the observers. The dynamic expression and rhythm, which represent the two main characteristics of the façade of St. Marko's Church, are stressed by warm color of light and adequate luminance distribution on surfaces different in value. Dome lighting, greatly important for the panoramic view of St. Marko's Church, contributes as much to its experience from the immediate surroundings, as well as from the street view. The decorative lighting of St. Marko's Church represents a contribution to its appearance and the presentation of its architecture.

  17. New exact solution for the exterior gravitational field of a charged spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamorro, A.; Manko, V.S.; Denisova, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    An exact asymptotically flat solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations describing the exterior gravitational field of a charged rotating axisymmetric mass possessing an arbitrary set of multipole moments is presented explicitly

  18. New exact solution for the exterior gravitational field of a spinning mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manko, V.S.

    1990-01-01

    An exact asymptotically flat solution of the vacuum Einstein equations representing the exterior gravitational field of a stationary axisymmetric mass with an arbitrary mass-multipole structure is presented

  19. Cluster Observations of Ion Dispersions near the Exterior Cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoubet, C.; Grison, B.; Berchem, J.; Trattner, K. J.; Pitout, F.; Richard, R. L.; Taylor, M. G.; Laakso, H. E.; Masson, A.; Dunlop, M. W.; Dandouras, I. S.; Reme, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Daly, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    The cusps are the places where the Earth's magnetic field lines, connected to the inner side of the magnetopause, converge. It is therefore the place where signatures of processes occurring near the subsolar point, in the tail lobes, as well as near the dawn and dusk flanks are observed. The main process that injects solar wind plasma into the polar cusp is now generally accepted to be magnetic reconnection. Depending on the IMF direction, this process will take place equatorward (for IMF southward), poleward (for IMF northward) or on the side (for IMF azimuthal) of the cusp. We report a Cluster crossing on 5 January 2002 near the exterior cusp on the southern dusk side. The IMF was mainly azimuthal (IMF-By around -5 nT), the solar wind speed around 280 km/s and the density around 5 cm-3. The four Cluster spacecraft were still in the "magnetotail" configuration with two perfect tetrahedra of 2000 km around apogee and turning into an elongated configuration near the magnetopause. C4 was the first spacecraft to enter the cusp around 19:52:04 UT, followed by C2 at 19:52:35 UT, C1 at 19:54:24 UT and C3 at 20:13:15 UT. C4 and C1 observed two ion energy dispersions at 20:10 UT and 20:40 UT and C3 at 20:35 UT and 21:15 UT. We will investigate the origin of the injections forming the dispersions and if these can be explained by the reconnection between the interplanetary magnetic field and the Earth's magnetic field.

  20. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  1. Exterior Insulation Implications for Heating and Cooling Systems in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia; Poerschke, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) is interested in finding cost-effective solutions for deep energy retrofits (DERs) related to exterior wall insulation in a cold climate, with targets of 50% peak load reduction and 50% space conditioning energy savings. The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team, IBACOS, in collaboration with GreenHomes America, Inc. (GHA), was contracted by NYSERDA to research exterior wall insulation solutions. In addition to exterior wall insulation, the strategies included energy upgrades where needed in the attic, mechanical and ventilation systems, basement, band joist, walls, and floors. Under Building America, IBACOS is studying the impact of a “thermal enclosure” DER on the sizing of the space conditioning system and the occupant comfort if the thermal capacity of the heating and cooling system is dramatically downsized without any change in the existing heating and cooling distribution system (e.g., size, tightness and supply outlet configurations).

  2. Evaluating an Exterior Insulation and Finish System for Deep Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Podorson, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exterior insulation and finish systems (EIFS) are proprietary synthetic formulations that are applied to the exterior walls of buildings to serve as insulation and exterior cladding. The insulation thickness can vary from less than one inch to a foot or more. In this project the applicability of EIFS for residential deep energy retrofits was investigated through modeling and a case study home. The home was retrofitted using a site-applied four-inch-thick EIFS. Site-specific details were developed as required for the residential retrofit application. Site work and the costs of the EIFS system were documented. The demonstration home was modeled using Building Energy Optimization energy and cost analysis software to explore cost effectiveness of various EIFS insulation thicknesses in two climate locations.

  3. Implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines to solve atomic and molecular collision problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C William; MartIn, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    B-spline methods are now well established as widely applicable tools for the evaluation of atomic and molecular continuum states. The mathematical technique of exterior complex scaling has been shown, in a variety of other implementations, to be a powerful method with which to solve atomic and molecular scattering problems, because it allows the correct imposition of continuum boundary conditions without their explicit analytic application. In this paper, an implementation of exterior complex scaling in B-splines is described that can bring the well-developed technology of B-splines to bear on new problems, including multiple ionization and breakup problems, in a straightforward way. The approach is demonstrated for examples involving the continuum motion of nuclei in diatomic molecules as well as electronic continua. For problems involving electrons, a method based on Poisson's equation is presented for computing two-electron integrals over B-splines under exterior complex scaling

  4. Water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

    2017-12-05

    Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

  5. 77 FR 27078 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of... entitled Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof... the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet...

  6. 77 FR 34063 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S... the United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including mobile phones and tablet... mobile phones and tablet computers, and components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 1-3 and 5...

  7. 77 FR 16860 - Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software; Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-783] Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software; Termination of Investigation on the Basis of Settlement AGENCY: U.S... GPS navigation products, components thereof, and related software, by reason of the infringement of...

  8. 78 FR 36572 - Certain Crawler Cranes and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2960] Certain Crawler Cranes and Components Thereof... Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Crawler Cranes and Components Thereof, DN...) of the Commission's Rules of Practice and Procedure filed on behalf of Manitowoc Cranes, LLC on June...

  9. 78 FR 55294 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof Commission Determination To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-10

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-800] Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof Commission Determination To Review the Final Initial Determination Finding... importation of certain wireless devices with 3G capabilities and components thereof by reason of infringement...

  10. 16 CFR 1605.3 - Compulsory processes and the service thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compulsory processes and the service thereof... Investigations, Inspections and Inquiries § 1605.3 Compulsory processes and the service thereof. (a) In addition... inquired of. (c) The date of service of any form of compulsory process shall be the date on which the...

  11. 76 FR 69284 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof: Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... the United States after importation of certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof... certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof that infringe one or more of claims 6 and 10... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power...

  12. 77 FR 39736 - Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... certain integrated solar power systems and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-811] Certain Integrated Solar Power Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of Termination of the Investigation Based on Settlement AGENCY: U.S...

  13. 77 FR 75187 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-835] Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof; Commission Determination Not To Review an... containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof by reason of infringement of U.S...

  14. 77 FR 14423 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2883] Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and... Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof, DN 2883; the Commission is... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items, and packaging thereof. The...

  15. 76 FR 58041 - Certain Digital Televisions Containing Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... integrated circuit devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent... after importation of certain digital televisions containing integrated circuit devices and components...

  16. 77 FR 58579 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1337... certain two-way global satellite communication devices, system and components thereof that infringe one or... within the United States after importation of certain two-way global satellite communication devices...

  17. 78 FR 19311 - Certain Radio Frequency Identification (“RFID”) Products And Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Identification (``RFID'') Products And Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to 19 U.S.C... sale within the United States after importation of certain radio frequency identification (``RFID... after importation of certain radio frequency identification (``RFID'') products and components thereof...

  18. 75 FR 8399 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... States after importation of certain mobile communications and computer devices and components thereof by... importation of certain mobile communications or computer devices or components thereof that infringe one or... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-704] In the Matter of Certain Mobile...

  19. 76 FR 43345 - In the Matter of: Certain Electric Fireplaces, Components Thereof, Manuals for Same, Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-791] In the Matter of: Certain Electric Fireplaces... within the United States after importation of certain electric fireplaces, components thereof, manuals... electric fireplaces, components thereof, manuals for same, certain processes for manufacturing or relating...

  20. Elementos para una política exterior ambiental (Tema Central)

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, Íñigo

    2002-01-01

    La necesidad de una política exterior ecuatoriana en lo ambiental surge de la naturaleza global del medio ambiente, de la responsabilidad del Ecuador como país privilegiado por su megadiversidad, de la vinculación inevitable entre la pobreza que le aqueja y la degradación del ambiente y de los compromisos internacionales por él adquiridos. Una política exterior ambiental debe resultar de un proceso de diseño en que participen todos los actores de la temática ambiental, aunque su ejecución deb...

  1. Exterior domain problems and decomposition of tensor fields in weighted Sobolev spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Günter

    1996-01-01

    The Hodge decompOsition is a useful tool for tensor analysis on compact manifolds with boundary. This paper aims at generalising the decomposition to exterior domains G ⊂ IR n. Let L 2a Ω k(G) be the space weighted square integrable differential forms with weight function (1 + |χ|²)a, let d a be the weighted perturbation of the exterior derivative and δ a its adjoint. Then L 2a Ω k(G) splits into the orthogonal sum of the subspaces of the d a-exact forms with vanishi...

  2. Being the corresponding accents of red in one interior and one exterior as

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina; Namicev, Petar; Ignatov, Aleksandar

    2013-01-01

    What is the emphasis in the interior and what is exterior accent? Thair next goal is to attract attention and to clarify the answer to his location i.e. to highlight the special effect of the composition, which we have set. The color is the emphasis that has been selected for analysis. From the color palette, accent color is red, a primary color and while contrast to green or color that represented 60% of the exterior and is dominant. Ability of the human eye to focus and take depending on th...

  3. La dolarización y su incidencia en el Comercio Exterior Ecuatoriano.

    OpenAIRE

    Tanicuchi, Jorge Arturo

    2004-01-01

    En razón de que la economía ecuatoriana depende en gran medida del desempeño de su comercio exterior, así como del funcionamiento del esquema de la dolarización, surge, entonces, la necesidad de comprender una serie de inquietudes en torno a este delicado tema, especialmente en lo concerniente al ¿cómo está respondiendo la dolarización a las necesidades del comercio exterior del país, al sector de los exportadores e importadores y a la economía nacional misma?; ¿cómo está...

  4. Acción exterior de la Unión Europea: UE-Rusia

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Garzón, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    El principal objetivo de este trabajo ha sido desarrollar las competencias de la UE en materia de acción exterior, así como su alcance sobre un tercer Estado, la Federación Rusa. Se parte de la identificación de la UE como sujeto con personalidad jurídica y un régimen jurídico propio. Se va a especificar las instituciones y organismos competentes que desarrollan las políticas exteriores. Después se analiza la estructura de la Federación Rusa junto con sus relaciones con la UE. ...

  5. A dual exterior point simplex type algorithm for the minimum cost network flow problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geranis George

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A new dual simplex type algorithm for the Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem (MCNFP is presented. The proposed algorithm belongs to a special 'exterior- point simplex type' category. Similarly to the classical network dual simplex algorithm (NDSA, this algorithm starts with a dual feasible tree-solution and reduces the primal infeasibility, iteration by iteration. However, contrary to the NDSA, the new algorithm does not always maintain a dual feasible solution. Instead, the new algorithm might reach a basic point (tree-solution outside the dual feasible area (exterior point - dual infeasible tree.

  6. 76 FR 54252 - In the Matter of Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation Institution of... States after importation of certain wireless devices with 3G capabilities and components thereof by... after [[Page 54253

  7. Effects of Exterior Insulation on Moisture Performance of Wood-Frame Walls in the Pacific Northwest: Measurements and Hygrothermal Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Borjen Yeh; Benjamin J. Herzog

    2016-01-01

    Continuous exterior insulation on above-grade walls is becoming more common in many parts of North America. It is generally accepted that exterior insulation provides advantages for energy performance, by reducing thermal bridging, and for moisture performance, by warming the wood structural members, thereby reducing the potential for wintertime moisture accumulation....

  8. 77 FR 25136 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of..., U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230... certain parts thereof from the People's Republic of China. See Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof from...

  9. 75 FR 29314 - Hand Trucks and Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... thereof from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The review covers one exporter. The period of review... Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... review of the antidumping duty order on hand trucks and certain parts thereof from the People's Republic...

  10. Motion of particles of non-zero rest masses exterior to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, we extend the metric tensor exterior to astrophysically real or imaginary spherical distributions of mass whose tensor field varies with polar angle only; to derive equations of motion for test particles in this field. The time, radial, polar and azimuthal equations of motion for particles of non-zero rest masses moving ...

  11. Improved iterative image reconstruction algorithm for the exterior problem of computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yumeng; Zeng, Li

    2017-01-01

    In industrial applications that are limited by the angle of a fan-beam and the length of a detector, the exterior problem of computed tomography (CT) uses only the projection data that correspond to the external annulus of the objects to reconstruct an image. Because the reconstructions are not affected by the projection data that correspond to the interior of the objects, the exterior problem is widely applied to detect cracks in the outer wall of large-sized objects, such as in-service pipelines. However, image reconstruction in the exterior problem is still a challenging problem due to truncated projection data and beam-hardening, both of which can lead to distortions and artifacts. Thus, developing an effective algorithm and adopting a scanning trajectory suited for the exterior problem may be valuable. In this study, an improved iterative algorithm that combines total variation minimization (TVM) with a region scalable fitting (RSF) model was developed for a unilateral off-centered scanning trajectory and can be utilized to inspect large-sized objects for defects. Experiments involving simulated phantoms and real projection data were conducted to validate the practicality of our algorithm. Furthermore, comparative experiments show that our algorithm outperforms others in suppressing the artifacts caused by truncated projection data and beam-hardening.

  12. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders are going to finding themselves required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. However, there has been a significant resistance to its widespread implementation due to a lack of research and understanding of the mechanisms involved and potential creep effects of the assembly under the sustained dead load of a cladding. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by BSC in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full years worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  13. Initial and Long-Term Movement of Cladding Installed Over Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Peter [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Changes in the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) from 2009 to 2012 have resulted in the use of exterior rigid insulation becoming part of the prescriptive code requirements. With more jurisdictions adopting the 2012 IECC builders will be required to incorporate exterior insulation in the construction of their exterior wall assemblies. For thick layers of exterior insulation (levels greater than 1.5 inches), the use of wood furring strips attached through the insulation back to the structure has been used by many contractors and designers as a means to provide a convenient cladding attachment location. This research was an extension on previous research conducted by Building Science Corporation in 2011, and 2012. Each year the understanding of the system discrete load component interactions, as well as impacts of environmental loading, has increased. The focus of the research was to examine more closely the impacts of screw fastener bending on the total system capacity, effects of thermal expansion and contraction of materials on the compressive forces in the assembly, as well as to analyze a full year’s worth of cladding movement data from assemblies constructed in an exposed outdoor environment.

  14. Bondability of ipê (Tabebuia spp.) wood using ambient-curing exterior wood adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel J. Yelle

    2016-01-01

    Ipê is an extremely difficult species to bond because of its high density, interlocking grain, and high volumetric swelling–shrinkage under prolonged wet conditions. Despite its difficulties, the wood is known to be extremely durable in exterior conditions because of its resistance to microbial and insect degradation. Therefore, investigating its bondability with...

  15. Solutions for Creating the Main Elements which Condition the Energy Consumption. Exterior Windows - Roof

    OpenAIRE

    Rubnicu, Alin

    2013-01-01

    The envelope of the building often has a complex geometry in which a multitude of different sub-assemblies can be identified. The envelope elements specific to roof areas can generally be of three types: walk and non-walk terrace roof as well as roof truss. The exterior joinery analysed is PVC type with four glass sheets.

  16. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Arun

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  17. Deformation of the exterior algebra and the GLq (r, included in) algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassouni, A.; Hassouni, Y.; Zakkari, M.

    1993-06-01

    The deformation of the associative algebra of exterior forms is performed. This operation leads to a Y.B. equation. Its relation with the braid group B n-1 is analyzed. The correspondence of this deformation with the GL q (r, included in) algebra is developed. (author). 9 refs

  18. La “caja negra” de la política exterior estadounidense en Oriente Medio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Ulloa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reseña del siguiente libro:CHOMSKY, Noam y Gilbert Achar (2007. Estados peligrosos: oriente medio y la política exterior estadounidense. Barcelona: Ediciones Paidós Ibérica, 349 pp.

  19. Initial boundary value problems of nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yunmei.

    1987-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the existence and uniqueness of the global solutions to the initial boundary value problems of nonlinear wave equations in an exterior domain. When the space dimension n >= 3, the unique global solution of the above problem is obtained for small initial data, even if the nonlinear term is fully nonlinear and contains the unknown function itself. (author). 10 refs

  20. Improved iterative image reconstruction algorithm for the exterior problem of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yumeng [Chongqing University, College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing 401331 (China); Chongqing University, ICT Research Center, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing 400044 (China); Zeng, Li, E-mail: drlizeng@cqu.edu.cn [Chongqing University, College of Mathematics and Statistics, Chongqing 401331 (China); Chongqing University, ICT Research Center, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology and System of the Education Ministry of China, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-01-11

    In industrial applications that are limited by the angle of a fan-beam and the length of a detector, the exterior problem of computed tomography (CT) uses only the projection data that correspond to the external annulus of the objects to reconstruct an image. Because the reconstructions are not affected by the projection data that correspond to the interior of the objects, the exterior problem is widely applied to detect cracks in the outer wall of large-sized objects, such as in-service pipelines. However, image reconstruction in the exterior problem is still a challenging problem due to truncated projection data and beam-hardening, both of which can lead to distortions and artifacts. Thus, developing an effective algorithm and adopting a scanning trajectory suited for the exterior problem may be valuable. In this study, an improved iterative algorithm that combines total variation minimization (TVM) with a region scalable fitting (RSF) model was developed for a unilateral off-centered scanning trajectory and can be utilized to inspect large-sized objects for defects. Experiments involving simulated phantoms and real projection data were conducted to validate the practicality of our algorithm. Furthermore, comparative experiments show that our algorithm outperforms others in suppressing the artifacts caused by truncated projection data and beam-hardening.

  1. Global existence of solutions for semilinear damped wave equation in 2-D exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    We consider a mixed problem of a damped wave equation utt-Δ u+ ut=| u| p in the two dimensional exterior domain case. Small global in time solutions can be constructed in the case when the power p on the nonlinear term | u| p satisfies p ∗=2Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  2. Diffusion phenomenon for linear dissipative wave equations in an exterior domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehata, Ryo

    Under the general condition of the initial data, we will derive the crucial estimates which imply the diffusion phenomenon for the dissipative linear wave equations in an exterior domain. In order to derive the diffusion phenomenon for dissipative wave equations, the time integral method which was developed by Ikehata and Matsuyama (Sci. Math. Japon. 55 (2002) 33) plays an effective role.

  3. Exterior Decay of Wood-Plastic Composite Boards: Characterization and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Grace Sun; Marek Gnatowski; Jessie Glaeser; Mathew Leung; John Haight

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate free water content and distribution in wood-plastic composite (WPC) materials decayed during exterior exposure near Hilo, Hawaii. Two segments of the same board blend were selected from 6 commercial decking boards that had fungal fruiting bodies. One of the two board segments was exposed in sun, the other in shadow...

  4. Finishes checklist : a guide to achieving optimum coating performance on exterior wood surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tony Bonura; Steve Bussjeager; Lynne Christensen; George Daisey; Tom Daniels; Mark Hirsch; Charles J. Jourdain; D. Douglas Mall; Bob Springate; Louis E. Wagner; Warren Harry; R. Sam Williams

    2004-01-01

    When the time comes for a consumer to select the wood and finish types for a given outdoor project, there is a wide variety of sources of information, articles, and opinions available. Occasionally, these sources will conflict, mostly due to the data available at the time of publication, or practical experience based on a snapshot of conditions at a given time period....

  5. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium fulvum, wherein said plant is not a tomato or tobacco plant. The invention also relates to methods for screening the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to at least one pathogen, wherein said path...

  6. Configuración actual del comercio exterior en Galicia = Current foreign trade framework in Galicia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Placer Galán

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La reciente crisis económica y la contracción de la demanda interna han impulsado un creciente interés por los mercados exteriores. Esta investigación pretende caracterizar la configuración actual del comercio exterior de la Comunidad Autónoma de Galicia, tanto en lo relativo a los productos como a los mercados geográficos de origen y destino. Para ello se emplean una serie de indicadores, ampliamente contrastados en la investigación económica, que permiten identificar: el grado de apertura de la economía provincial leonesa; la propensión exportadora y la dependencia importadora; el grado de concentración, por producto y mercados, de sus flujos comerciales exteriores; la especialización exportadora y la ventaja comparativa sectorial; la composición inter o intra-industrial del comercio exterior; y la distribución geográfica de los flujos comerciales de la economía gallega con los mercados exteriores. The recent economic crisis and internal demand contraction have encouraged the emerging interest in international markets. This study aims at featuring the current foreign trade framework of the Galicia, in regards to both import and export products and geographical markets. For that purpose, several indexes, widely verified in this study, have been utilized to identify the trade openness level of Leon economy, its export propensity, import dependence as well as the concentration level for products and internal trade flows. Leon export specialization, its comparative advantage by sector, the inter-intra-industry trade composition and geographical distribution of trade with international markets have been likewise included in this study.   Keywords: .

  7. Exteriorized colon anastomosis for unprepared bowel: An alternative to routine colostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfar, Sami K; Al-Sayer, Hilal M; Juma, Talib H

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To see the possibility of avoiding routine colostomy in patients presenting with unprepared bowel. METHODS: The cohort is composed of 103 patients, of these, 86 patients presented as emergencies (self-inflected and iatrogenic colon injuries, stab wounds and blast injury of the colon, volvulus sigmoid, obstructing left colon cancer, and strangulated ventral hernia). Another 17 patients were managed electively for other colon pathologies. During laparotomy, the involved segment was resected and the two ends of the colon were brought out via a separate colostomy wound. One layer of interrupted 3/0 silk was used for colon anastomosis. The exteriorized segment was immediately covered with a colostomy bag. Between the 5th and 7th postoperative day, the colon was easily dropped into the peritoneal cavity. The defect in the abdominal wall was closed with interrupted nonabsorbable suture. The skin was left open for secondary closure. RESULTS: The mean hospital stay (± SD) was 11.5 ± 2.6 d (8-20 d). The exteriorized colon was successfully dropped back into the peritoneal cavity in all patients except two. One developed a leak from oesophago-jejunostomy and from the exteriorized colon. She subsequently died of sepsis and multiple organ failure (MOF). In a second patient the colon proximal to the exteriorized anastomosis prolapsed and developed severe serositis, an elective ileo-colic anastomosis (to the left colon) was successfully performed. CONCLUSION: Exteriorized colon anastomosis is simple, avoids the inconvenience of colostomy and can be an alternative to routine colostomy. It is suitable where colostomy is socially unacceptable or the facilities and care is not available. PMID:17589900

  8. Exteriorization or in-situ repair, comparison of options for uterine repair at cesarean delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, B.; Shehzad, F.; Safdar, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective of study is to compare peri-operative complications between exteriorization and intraabdominal repair of uterus after cesarean delivery. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Pakistan Ordinance Factory Hospital, Wah Cantt, from 1st April 2010 to 30th September 2010. Material and Methods: Patients planned for 1st cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated by lottery method to exteriorized (A) or in situ uterine repair (B) group. Patients with history of uterine surgeries and cesarean section were excluded from study. Variables analyzed were operation time, peri-operative hemoglobin (Hb) fall, nausea and vomiting during the cesarean delivery. Results: The study analyzed 170 patients and divided them in 2 groups, having no significant difference with respect to maternal demographics, procedure statistics and indication of cesarean section. Significant difference was observed in operation time being 32.78 min in exteriorized group and 36.38 min in situ uterine repair group (p-value 0.0001). Hb percent fall was 0.85 g/dl and 0.92 g/dl respectively in both groups (p-value 0.62) Nausea and vomiting was 23.5 percent in group A and 11.8 percent in group B (p-value 0.02, 0.04 respectively) Conclusion: Peri-operative complications like operative time and Hb fall are less in uterine repair after temporary exteriorization as compared to intra-abdominal repair of uterus after cesarean delivery. Nausea and vomiting were increased in exteriorized group but proper regional anesthetic technique and achieving adequate analgesia can reduce patient discomfort. (author)

  9. Vacuum vessel of thermonuclear device and manufacturing method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Genichi; Nagashima, Keisuke; Uchida, Takaho; Shibui, Masanao; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki; Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device using, as a material of a plasma vacuum vessel, a material to be less activated and having excellent strength as well as a manufacturing method thereof. Namely, the vacuum vessel is made of titanium or a titanium alloy. In addition, a liner layer comprising a manganese alloy, nickel alloy, nickel-chromium alloy or aluminum or aluminum alloy is formed. With such a constitution, the wall substrate made of titanium or a titanium alloy can be isolated by the liner from hydrogen or plasmas. As a result, occlusion of hydrogen to titanium or the titanium alloy can be prevented thereby enabling to prevent degradation of the material of the wall substrate of the vacuum vessel. In addition, since the liner layer has relatively high electric resistance, a torus circumferential resistance value required for plasma ignition can be ensured by using it together with the vessel wall made of titanium alloy. (I.S.)

  10. Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, P.F.; Mcmurtry, C.H.; Naum, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A composite, neutron absorbing, coated article, suitable for installation in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel and for other neutron absorbing applications, includes a backing member, preferably of flexible material such as woven fiberglass cloth, a synthetic organic polymeric coating or a plurality of such coatings on the backing member, preferably of cured phenolic resin, such as phenol formaldehyde or trimethylolphenol formaldehyde and boron carbide particles held to the backing member by the cured coating or a plurality of such coatings. Also within the invention is a method for the manufacture of the neutron absorbing coated article and the use of such an article. In a preferred method the backing member is first coated on both sides thereof with a filling coating of thermosettable liquid phenolic resin, which is then partially cured to solid state, one side of the backing member is then coated with a mixture of thermosettable liquid resin and finely divided boron carbide particles and the resin is partially cured to solid state, the other side is coated with a similar mixture, larger boron carbide particles are applied to it and the resin is partially cured to solid state, such side of the article is coated with thermosettable liquid phenolic resin, the resin is partially cured to solid state and such resin, including previously applied partially cured resins, is cured to final cross-linked and permanently set form

  11. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium

  12. Toughened and corrosion- and wear-resistant composite structures and fabrication methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Hallman, Russell L.

    2017-06-20

    Composite structures having a reinforced material interjoined with a substrate, wherein the reinforced material comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of titanium monoboride, titanium diboride, and combinations thereof.

  13. Nanoporous Insulating Oxide Deionization Device Having Asymmetric Electrodes and Method of Use Thereof

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A nanoporous insulating oxide deionization device, method of manufacture and method of use thereof for deionizing a water supply (such as a hard water supply), for...

  14. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Gaming and Entertainment Consoles, Related Software, and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-752] Certain Gaming and Entertainment... importation of certain gaming and entertainment consoles, related software, and components thereof by reason... violation of [[Page 32691

  15. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination... United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications... Fiber IP (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. of Singapore (``Avago Fiber IP''); Avago General IP and Avago...

  16. 76 FR 22726 - Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-694] Certain Multimedia Display and Navigation Devices and Systems, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain multimedia display and...

  17. 78 FR 1881 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of the Commission's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-838] Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of the Commission's Determination Not To Review Initial Determinations Granting Complainant's Motions To Partially Terminate the Investigation and To Withdraw the...

  18. 78 FR 13895 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    ... the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless communications base stations... United States after importation of certain wireless communications base stations and components thereof... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-871] Certain Wireless Communications Base...

  19. 78 FR 6344 - Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations and Components.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Wireless Communications Base Stations... communications base stations and components thereof. The complaint names as respondents Telefonaktiebolaget LM...

  20. 76 FR 70164 - Certain Devices With Secure Communication Capabilities, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... capabilities, components thereof, and products containing the same. The complaint names Apple Inc. of Cupertino... behalf of VirnetX, Inc. on November 4, 2011. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of the...

  1. Zeolite-catalysed preparation of alpha-hydroxy carboxylic acids and esters thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst.......A process for the production of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof by conversion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, xylose and glycolaldehyde dissolved in a solvent in presence of a solid Lewis acidic catalyst....

  2. Devices and methods of operation thereof for providing stable flow for centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Stevens, Mark A. (Inventor); Jett, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Centrifugal compressor flow stabilizing devices and methods of operation thereof are disclosed that act upon the flow field discharging from the impeller of a centrifugal compressor and modify the flow field ahead of the diffuser vanes such that flow conditions contributing to rotating stall and surge are reduced or even eliminated. In some embodiments, shaped rods and methods of operation thereof are disclosed, whereas in other embodiments reverse-tangent air injection devices and methods are disclosed.

  3. Estrutura de informação sobre comércio exterior em Santa Catarina

    OpenAIRE

    Lino, Sônia Regina Lamego

    2001-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Sócio-Econômico O trabalho tem como objetivo geral estudar a estrutura de informação sobre comércio exterior em Santa Catarina e o uso dessa estrutura de informação pelos usuários das médias empresas do setor moveleiro catarinense que exportam para o MERCOSUL. Os objetivos específicos são: 1) identificar as instituições públicas e privadas que mantêm estrutura de informações sobre comércio exterior em Santa Catarina; 2...

  4. Importance of location and exterior of city hotels as elements of guest satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepavčević Jelena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Business practices and attitudes of tourists show that hospitality represents the primary factor in the development of urban tourism. It is considered that, besides the exclusive appearance, there is no business success for hotel properties without a proper location. It is known that a typical tourist would like to be close enough to tourist attractions, to be able to reach them on foot. This paper deals with the importance of location and exterior of urban hotels on guests decision on the selection and overall satisfaction with hotel products. The survey was conducted in the hotels two largest urban centers in Serbia (Belgrade and Novi Sad. The aim of the research is an insight into the real impact of location and exterior when assessing the guest satisfaction. Descriptive statistical analysis, t-test and regression analysis were used for statistical data processing.

  5. La evolución de la política exterior China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Esteban Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo sintetiza y analiza los principales cambios experimentados por la política exterior de la República Popular China desde su fundación en 1949 hasta la actualidad. Para explicar esas transformaciones se recurre fundamentalmente a tres variables (la política interna de China, las características del sistema internacional y el contexto de seguridad, que las autoridades chinas han interpretado influidas por tres componentes ideacionales: el comunismo, el nacionalismo y el pragmatismo. A modo de conclusión se subraya que, a pesar de sus vaivenes, la política exterior de Pekín ha mantenido tres objetivos fundamentales en las últimas siete décadas: modernización, reconocimiento internacional como gran potencia y reunificación nacional.

  6. Comercio Exterior Argentino (1935-1946: Comportamiento de las Importaciones en un Contexto de Turbulencia Internacional.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresita Gomez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La estructura de la economía argentina, hasta la crisis de los años treinta, se había conformado de acuerdo a su inserción en el mercado internacional como exportador de bienes primarios alimentarios e importador de bienes energéticos y manufacturados. A partir de las modificaciones que se producen a nivel del comercio, especialmente la dificultad de las importaciones de bienes, se desarrolla la industrialización, orientada hacia la sustitución de importaciones. Nos interesa analizar la contribución del comercio exterior a esta transformación de estructura que se va produciendo. Se utilizan como fuentes: series de comercio exterior correspondientes a esos años (1935-1947, revistas especializadas y periódicos.

  7. Child-directed marketing inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam; Isgor, Zeynep; Rimkus, Leah; Powell, Lisa M; Barker, Dianne C; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Children who eat fast food have poor diet and health outcomes. Fast food is heavily marketed to youth, and exposure to such marketing is associated with higher fast food consumption. To examine the extent of child-directed marketing (CDM) inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants. Data were collected from 6,716 fast food restaurants located in a nationally representative sample of public middle- and high-school enrollment areas in 2010, 2011, and 2012. CDM was defined as the presence of one or more of seven components inside or on the exterior of the restaurant. Analyses were conducted in 2014. More than 20% of fast food restaurants used CDM inside or on their exterior. In multivariate analyses, fast food restaurants that were part of a chain, offered kids' meals, were located in middle- (compared to high)-income neighborhoods, and in rural (compared to urban) areas had significantly higher odds of using any CDM; chain restaurants and those located in majority black neighborhoods (compared to white) had significantly higher odds of having an indoor display of kids' meal toys. Compared to 2010, there was a significant decline in use of CDM in 2011, but the prevalence increased close to the 2010 level in 2012. CDM inside and on the exterior of fast food restaurants is prevalent in chain restaurants; majority black communities, rural areas, and middle-income communities are disproportionately exposed. The fast food industry should limit children's exposure to marketing that promotes unhealthy food choices. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Black Holes in the Framework of the Metric Tensor Exterior to the Sun and Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E.N.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The conditions for the Sun and oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system to reduce to black holes is investigated. The metric tensor exterior to oblate spheroidal masses indicates that for the Sun to reduce to a black hole, its mass must condense by a factor of 2 : 32250 10 5 . Using Schwarzschild’s metric, this factor is obtained as 2 : 3649 10 5 . Similar results are obtained for oblate spheroidal planets in the solar system.

  9. Fire propagation over combustible exterior facades exposed to intensified flame in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio Yuhei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With regard to fire safety for exterior walls of a building, fire-resistance performance is considered, according to the current Building Standard Law of Japan. And it was revealed that the fire safety is not specifically regulated from the viewpoint of reaction-to-fire performance, such as fire propagation caused by combustible materials or products installed on the exterior side of fire-resistant load-bearing walls. Actual fire incidents in the world have shown that massive façade fire could occur at the exterior side of building wall even when the wall itself is fire resistant. In previous studies of the authors, a test method of façade fire was proposed for evaluating the vertical fire propagation over an external wall within the same building [1,2]. Based on these studies, new domestic standard test method was established in Japan as JIS A 1310: 2015, “Test method for fire propagation over building façades” at the end of January 2015 [3]. But there was the argument that heat output of burner inside the combustion chamber was not sufficiently high in the previous study. In this paper, results of fire tests on combustible façades are discussed from the viewpoints of different strength of flame exposing facade. In this research, it was clearly found that JIS A 1310 with heat output of 900kW could be applicable for evaluating fire propagation behaviour over various types of combustible exterior façades.

  10. Energy decay for solutions to semilinear systems of elastic waves in exterior domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio V. Ferreira

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider the dynamical system of elasticity in the exterior of a bounded open domain in 3-D with smooth boundary. We prove that under the effect of "weak" dissipation, the total energy decays at a uniform rate as $t o +infty$, provided the initial data is "small" at infinity. No assumptions on the geometry of the obstacle are required. The results are then applied to a semilinear problem proving global existence and decay for small initial data.

  11. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Inhomogeneous Toda Lattice Equation via Semi-Discrete Exterior Calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiang; Wang Deng-Shan; Yin Yan-Bin

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the Lie point symmetries of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by semi-discrete exterior calculus, which is a semi-discrete version of Harrison and Estabrook’s geometric approach. A four-dimensional Lie algebra and its one-, two- and three-dimensional subalgebras are given. Two similarity reductions of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by using the symmetry vectors. (paper)

  12. Los grabados exteriores de Santo Adriano (Tuñón. Santo Adriano. Asturias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. Fortea Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se dan a conocer los grabados exteriores de la cueva de Santo Adriano, que se comparan con grabados del mismo tipo existentes en la Región Cantábrica, a lo largo de una franja territorial de 220 km, entre las cuencas de los ríos Nalón al oeste y el Asón al este.

  13. Optimisation of the Lowest Robin Eigenvalue in the Exterior of a Compact Set

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčiřík, David; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2018), s. 319-337 ISSN 0944-6532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Robin Laplacian * negative boundary parameter * exterior of a convex set * spectral isoperimetric inequality * spectral isochoric inequality * parallel coordinates Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.496, year: 2016

  14. Influence of Connection Placement to the Behavior of Precast Concrete Exterior Beam-Column Joint

    OpenAIRE

    Elly Tjahjono; Heru Purnomo

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of connection placement to the behaviour of exterior beamcolumn joint of precast concrete structure under semi cyclic loading. Four half-scale beam-column specimens were investigated. Three beam-columns were jointed through connection that are placed in beam-column joint region and the forth is connected at the plastic hinge potensial region of the beam. Crack patterns, strength, stiffness and ductility of the test specimens have been...

  15. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings

    2016-07-13

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  16. The Weathering Study of PC/ASA Alloy For Automotive Exterior Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Öztürk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Polycarbonates (PC are used in automotive industry due to high physical and mechanical properties like high impact resistance and ductility. Polycarbonates are blended with ABS (Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene and ASA (Acrylonitrile-Styrene-Acrylate terpolymers for interior and exterior applications of automotive components to achieve good physical and mechanical properties. Other reason for choosing such alloys for interior applications is the IZOD impact resistance requirement higher than 40kJ/m2. Recently, grades of PC/ASA with UV stabilized are developed for non-painted exterior applications. The aim of our study is to investigate whether new developed PC/ASA could be chosen for exterior applications of automotive industry. In this study, the samples are prepared from injection molding and the weathering performance of PC/ASA was tested by a weather-o-meter for 1500h at a total of 1890 kJ/m2 at 340nm with a cut-off filter at λ<290nm. The results are evaluated by FT-IR, DSC, TGA and SEM. It has been observed that UV degradation of PC/ASA leads to several major changes in its IR spectrum like broad bands occurred in the hydroxyl region around 3300 cm-1, and carbonyl stretching region increased around 1728 cm-1. The main degradations were based on photo-oxidation and photo-Fries rearrangement of PC. In our study, the photo-oxidation was followed by the color shift to yellowing of the polymer.

  17. Evaluation of the effectiveness of lamination for preventing discoloration and fading of radiation warning signs posted on the exterior of radiation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroi, Tomoko; Ootaki, Masanori; Nawa, Yukino; Kuwabara, Rie; Tatsunami, Shinobu; Matsui, Hiroaki; Kumazawa, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Takio

    2014-01-01

    Radiation warning signs posted on the exterior of radiation facilities become faded and discolored with time. There are various types of commercially available laminating films for protecting signs from ultraviolet light. We examined the protection effect of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), acrylic resin and fluororesin films applied to the surface of radiation warning signs. The laminated signs were exposed to direct sunlight on the wall of an air filter chamber of a radiation facility for 1200 days. Simultaneously, another set of laminated signs was exposed to light from a xenon-arc weatherometer for 1200 hours. After exposure, the colors on the surface of each sign were evaluated digitally by using a spectrum colorimeter. The results indicated that lamination with a film that blocks ultraviolet light is effective for protecting the signs from fading and discoloration. For long-term protection under direct sunlight, PVC was the most effective among the three materials tested. (author)

  18. Selection of exterior wall using advantageousness comparison; Ulkoseinaen valinta elinkaariedullisuuden perusteella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, A.; Vesa, M.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the study was to clarify the advantageousness of six chosen exterior wall solutions and at the same time to produce the procedure the measurement of the advantageousness. The examined wall types were: (1) brick wall, (2) brick-wool-concrete wall, (2b) brick-wool-concrete wall (not plastered), (3) brick-wool-wood wall, (4) precast concrete wall, and (5) plaster-wool-concrete wall. The analysis was made to a residential construction project which is built in a frame municipality of the metropolitan area. Here the life cycle costs, environmental burdens, and other factors (the aesthetic character, image, a comfort and easy maintenance) have an affect to the advantageousness of exterior wall. The averages of appreciation of the seven members of the supervising body of this study were used as the weights of the aforementioned value factors in the comparison. The result of the analysis was that the unplastered brick-wool-concrete wall had the equal life cycle costs as the precast concrete wall (an annual cost FIM 70 per apartment floor area). They were superior in relation to other examined wall types. In turn the brick wall had the highest life cycle costs (an annual cost nearly FIM 200 per apartment floor area) from the examined wall solutions on the advantageousness measuring straightforwardly likewise. It was chosen for an examination time period for 50 years. Likewise the brick wall was the distinctly weakest solution eco-economically, irrespective of, how costs and environmental factors are weighted. The brick wall was both the most expensive and unecological from the examined exterior wall types. It had a weak ecological qualities because considerably more building material than to other examined wall types. Also it's thermal insulation capacity was the weakest. But if in the decision-making also the aesthetic character, image, the effect on the comfort, and easy maintenance of the exterior wall indeed are included in addition to the eco

  19. Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, Lois B. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States). Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB)

    2016-07-13

    High R-value wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs such as the U.S. Department of Energy Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House, Net Zero Energy Home challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used double-wall systems to achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double-wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathings, structural bracings, house wraps or building paper, window and door flashings, and siding attachments are usually identical to good details in conventional framed-wall systems. However, although the details in double-wall systems are very similar to those in conventional stick framing, there is sometimes less room for error. Several studies have confirmed colder temperatures of exterior sheathing in high R-value wall assemblies that do not have exterior rigid foam insulation. These colder temperatures can lead to increased chances for condensation from air exfiltration, and they have the potential to result in moisture-related problems (Straube and Smegal 2009, Arena 2014, Ueno 2015). The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and reduce material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. Although this document focuses on double-wall framing techniques, the majority of the information about how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture-related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and

  20. Obtaining Approximate Values of Exterior Orientation Elements of Multi-Intersection Images Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, S. W.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm, two experiments are

  1. OBTAINING APPROXIMATE VALUES OF EXTERIOR ORIENTATION ELEMENTS OF MULTI-INTERSECTION IMAGES USING PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an efficient global optimization algorithm in the field of artificial intelligence, named Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, is introduced into close range photogrammetric data processing. PSO can be applied to obtain the approximate values of exterior orientation elements under the condition that multi-intersection photography and a small portable plane control frame are used. PSO, put forward by an American social psychologist J. Kennedy and an electrical engineer R.C. Eberhart, is a stochastic global optimization method based on swarm intelligence, which was inspired by social behavior of bird flocking or fish schooling. The strategy of obtaining the approximate values of exterior orientation elements using PSO is as follows: in terms of image coordinate observed values and space coordinates of few control points, the equations of calculating the image coordinate residual errors can be given. The sum of absolute value of each image coordinate is minimized to be the objective function. The difference between image coordinate observed value and the image coordinate computed through collinear condition equation is defined as the image coordinate residual error. Firstly a gross area of exterior orientation elements is given, and then the adjustment of other parameters is made to get the particles fly in the gross area. After iterative computation for certain times, the satisfied approximate values of exterior orientation elements are obtained. By doing so, the procedures like positioning and measuring space control points in close range photogrammetry can be avoided. Obviously, this method can improve the surveying efficiency greatly and at the same time can decrease the surveying cost. And during such a process, only one small portable control frame with a couple of control points is employed, and there are no strict requirements for the space distribution of control points. In order to verify the effectiveness of this algorithm

  2. Hybridization-based biosensor containing hairpin probes and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin L.; Strohsahl, Christopher M.

    2010-10-12

    A sensor chip that includes: a fluorescence quenching surface; a nucleic acid probe that contains first and second ends with the first end bound to the fluorescence quenching surface, and is characterized by being able to self-anneal into a hairpin conformation; and a first fluorophore bound to the second end of the first nucleic acid molecule. When the first nucleic acid molecule is in the hairpin conformation, the fluorescence quenching surface substantially quenches fluorescent emissions by the first fluorophore; and when the first nucleic acid molecule is in a non-hairpin conformation, fluorescent emissions by the fluorophore are substantially free of quenching by the fluorescence quenching surface. Various nucleic acid probes, methods of making the sensor chip, biological sensor devices that contain the sensor chip, and their methods of use are also disclosed.

  3. Synthesis and Properties of Nanoparticle Forms Saponite Clay, Cancrinite Zeolite and Phase Mixtures Thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Hua; Pinnavaia, Thomas J

    2010-09-01

    The low-temperature synthesis (90°C) of nanoparticle forms of a pure phase smectic clay (saponite) and zeolite (cancrinite) is reported, along with phase mixtures thereof. A synthesis gel corresponding to the Si:Al:Mg unit cell composition of saponite (3.6:0.40:3.0) and a NaOH/Si ratio of 1.39 affords the pure phase clay with disordered nanolayer stacking. Progressive increases in the NaOH/Si ratio up to a value of 8.33 results in the co-crystallization of first garronite and then cancrinite zeolites with nanolath morphology. The resulting phase mixtures exhibit a compound particulate structure of intertwined saponite nanolayers and cancrinite nanolaths that cannot be formed through physical mixing of the pure phase end members. Under magnesium-free conditions, pure phase cancrinite nanocrystals are formed. The Si/Al ratio of the reaction mixture affects the particle morphology as well as the chemical composition of the cancrinite zeolite. Ordinarily, cancrinite crystallizes with a Si/Al ratio of 1.0, but a silicon-rich form of the zeolite (Si/Al=1.25) is crystallized at low temperature from a silica rich synthesis gel, as evidenced by (29)Si NMR spectroscopy and XEDS-TEM. Owing to the exceptionally high external surface areas of the pure phase clay (875 m(2)/g) and zeolite end members (8.9 - 40 m(2)/g), as well as their unique mixed phase composites (124 - 329 m(2)/g), these synthetic derivatives are promising model nanoparticles for studies of the bioavailability of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons immobilized in silicate bearing sediments and soils.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyls in the exterior caulk of San Francisco Bay Area buildings, California, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosterhaus, Susan; McKee, Lester J; Yee, Donald; Kass, Jamie M; Wong, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Extensive evidence of the adverse impacts of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to wildlife, domestic animals, and humans has now been documented for over 40 years. Despite the ban on production and new use of PCBs in the United States in 1979, a number of fish consumption advisories remain in effect, and there remains considerable uncertainty regarding ongoing environmental sources and management alternatives. Using a blind sampling approach, 25 caulk samples were collected from the exterior of ten buildings in the San Francisco Bay Area and analyzed for PCBs using congener-specific gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and chlorine using portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF). PCBs were detected in 88% of the caulk samples collected from the study area buildings, with 40% exceeding 50 ppm. Detectable PCB concentrations ranged from 1 to 220,000 ppm. These data are consistent with previous studies in other cities that have identified relatively high concentrations of PCBs in concrete and masonry buildings built between 1950 and 1980. Portable XRF was not a good predictor of the PCB content in caulk and the results indicate that portable XRF analysis may only be useful for identifying caulk that contains low concentrations of Cl (≤ 10,000 ppm) and by extension low or no PCBs. A geographic information system-based approach was used to estimate that 10,500 kg of PCBs remain in interior and exterior caulk in buildings located in the study area, which equates to an average of 4.7 kg PCBs per building. The presence of high concentrations in the exterior caulk of currently standing buildings suggests that building caulk may be an ongoing source of PCBs to the San Francisco Bay Area environment. Further studies to expand the currently small international dataset on PCBs in caulking materials in buildings of countries that produced or imported PCBs appear justified in the context of both human health and possible ongoing environmental release. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  5. Solving the three-body Coulomb breakup problem using exterior complex scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCurdy, C.W.; Baertschy, M.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-05-17

    Electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom is the prototypical three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. The combination of subtle correlation effects and the difficult boundary conditions required to describe two electrons in the continuum have made this one of the outstanding challenges of atomic physics. A complete solution of this problem in the form of a ''reduction to computation'' of all aspects of the physics is given by the application of exterior complex scaling, a modern variant of the mathematical tool of analytic continuation of the electronic coordinates into the complex plane that was used historically to establish the formal analytic properties of the scattering matrix. This review first discusses the essential difficulties of the three-body Coulomb breakup problem in quantum mechanics. It then describes the formal basis of exterior complex scaling of electronic coordinates as well as the details of its numerical implementation using a variety of methods including finite difference, finite elements, discrete variable representations, and B-splines. Given these numerical implementations of exterior complex scaling, the scattering wave function can be generated with arbitrary accuracy on any finite volume in the space of electronic coordinates, but there remains the fundamental problem of extracting the breakup amplitudes from it. Methods are described for evaluating these amplitudes. The question of the volume-dependent overall phase that appears in the formal theory of ionization is resolved. A summary is presented of accurate results that have been obtained for the case of electron-impact ionization of hydrogen as well as a discussion of applications to the double photoionization of helium.

  6. Moisture performance properties of exterior sheathing products made of spruce plywood or OSB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojanen, T.; Ahonen, J. [VTT Building and Transport, Espoo (Finland)

    2005-02-01

    Plywood and OSB (Oriented Strand Board) are building boards that are made of timber and glue and that have good structural strength. OSB is a relatively new product that is produced from various timber materials and even some wastewood can be used as raw material for this product. Due to the easy access of raw material and economical reasons, the use of OSB has been highly increasing. The moisture safety of the building envelope depends on the properties of the building products. The moisture performance properties of the sheathing boards have not got enough attention, too often these wood based materials are equated without considering the real properties and their effect on the overall moisture performance. This research was carried out to experimentally determine the material properties and performance characteristics that have an effect on the moisture performance of building structures where OSB or spruce plywood are applied as exterior sheathing boards. A relatively representative amount of samples were used to study the moisture properties of European OSB and plywood products and a comparison to one Canadian OSB and one plywood product was done. All the products used in this research were meant to be used also as exterior sheathing boards. The results shows clearly the differences between OSB and plywood products. The products are not interchangeable. The main differences can be found from the vapour permeability levels that have an effect on the drying efficiency of building structures. The products have different performance criteria, and the climate conditions and moisture loads have to be studied to evaluate their suitability and moisture safety aspects in different applications. Water repellent features and drying efficiency are somewhat opposite properties of the products and the dimensional changes under varying moisture contents can set some boundary conditions when the optimum solution for the exterior sheathing is considered. (orig.)

  7. Variations of Hodge Structure Considered as an Exterior Differential System: Old and New Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Carlson

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a survey of the subject of variations of Hodge structure (VHS considered as exterior differential systems (EDS. We review developments over the last twenty-six years, with an emphasis on some key examples. In the penultimate section we present some new results on the characteristic cohomology of a homogeneous Pfaffian system. In the last section we discuss how the integrability conditions of an EDS affect the expected dimension of an integral submanifold. The paper ends with some speculation on EDS and Hodge conjecture for Calabi-Yau manifolds.

  8. Comércio exterior : mercado para as empresas pernambucanas de base tecnológica

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Sandro Severino de

    2008-01-01

    Este trabalho estuda as empresas de base tecnológica do Estado de Pernambuco, que são notórias por valerem-se das práticas de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento para gerarem inovações tecnológicas. O objetivo deste estudo é descrever o perfil dessas organizações, de seus empreendedores e de suas potencialidades para o comércio exterior. Para tanto, foi realizada uma pesquisa descritiva onde fez-se uso de dois instrumentos de coleta de dados: pesquisa bibliográfica e pesquisa de campo. ...

  9. Experimental and FE Analysis of Exterior Plastic Components of Cars under Static and Dynamic Loading Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Faghihi, Hassan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is composed by an experimental part and numerical part, aimed at contributing to a better knowledge of the behavior of plastic parts under different loading conditions. The study is intended to validate a FE model for simulating exterior plastic components of car especially the A-decor and plastic clips in the context of thermal and static load analysis. From the comparison of numerical and experimental results in the terms of thermal and static deformation of the A-decor, it is c...

  10. Development of an anti-flood board to protect the interiors and exteriors of the infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel; Sevcik, Ladislav; Martinec, Tomas; Kulhavy, Petr

    2018-06-01

    This article deals with the development of an anti-flood board to protect the interior and exterior of various infrastructures, such a houses, cottages or industrial buildings. It was designed prototypes and assembled numerical simulations. In Central Europe and in particular in the Czech Republic, floods are an integral part of the natural water cycle and cause great loss of life and great property damage. The development of new types of mobile anti-flood boards is very important as the design solution is developed for flood protection with regard to minimizing weight, cost of production, easy manipulation, simplicity and speed of installation.

  11. Electron-helium scattering in the S-wave model using exterior complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, Daniel A.; McCurdy, C. William; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    Electron-impact excitation and ionization of helium is studied in the S-wave model. The problem is treated in full dimensionality using a time-dependent formulation of the exterior complex scaling method that does not involve the solution of large linear systems of equations. We discuss the steps that must be taken to compute stable ionization amplitudes. We present total excitation, total ionization and single differential cross sections from the ground and n=2 excited states and compare our results with those obtained by others using a frozen-core model

  12. Lie Symmetry Analysis of the Inhomogeneous Toda Lattice Equation via Semi-Discrete Exterior Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiang; Wang, Deng-Shan; Yin, Yan-Bin

    2017-06-01

    In this work, the Lie point symmetries of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by semi-discrete exterior calculus, which is a semi-discrete version of Harrison and Estabrook’s geometric approach. A four-dimensional Lie algebra and its one-, two- and three-dimensional subalgebras are given. Two similarity reductions of the inhomogeneous Toda lattice equation are obtained by using the symmetry vectors. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11375030, 11472315, and Department of Science and Technology of Henan Province under Grant No. 162300410223 and Beijing Finance Funds of Natural Science Program for Excellent Talents under Grant No. 2014000026833ZK19

  13. Identification of complex model thermal boundary conditions based on exterior temperature measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianming; Ouyang Guangyao; Zhang Ping; Rong Bojun

    2012-01-01

    Combining the advantages of the finite element software in temperature field analyzing with the multivariate function optimization arithmetic, a feasibility method based on the exterior temperature was proposed to get the thermal boundary conditions, which was required in temperature field analyzing. The thermal boundary conditions can be obtained only by some temperature measurement values. Taking the identification of the convection heat transfer coefficient of a high power density diesel engine cylinder head as an example, the calculation result shows that when the temperature measurement error was less than 0.5℃, the maximum relative error was less than 2%. It is shown that the new method was feasible (authors)

  14. Time-dependent approach to collisional ionization using exterior complex scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, C. William; Horner, Daniel A.; Rescigno, Thomas N.

    2002-01-01

    We present a time-dependent formulation of the exterior complex scaling method that has previously been used to treat electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atom accurately at low energies. The time-dependent approach solves a driven Schroedinger equation, and scales more favorably with the number of electrons than the original formulation. The method is demonstrated in calculations for breakup processes in two dimensions (2D) and three dimensions for systems involving short-range potentials and in 2D for electron-impact ionization in the Temkin-Poet model for electron-hydrogen atom collisions

  15. Synthetic pubovaginal sling (TVT: failure in conservative treatment following vaginal exteriorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Thorell

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Female, 57 year-old patient, reported having undergone surgery for correction of urinary incontinence due to sphincteric insufficiency with the implantation of a synthetic pubovaginal sling 14 months earlier. Though she did not present urine loss any longer, approximately 60 days following the surgical procedure she started to report dysuria, pollakiuria and dyspareunia. Attempts of a conservative solution were ineffective. The appearance of a vaginal infra-urethral granuloma and the exteriorization of the synthetic material led to its removal.

  16. El comercio exterior durante la década revolucionaria: un acercamiento preliminar

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Kuntz Ficker

    2001-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es realizar un primer acercamiento sistemático al análisis del comercio exterior de México durante la década de 1910. Tal objetivo se ha visto obstaculizado en el pasado por la escasez de fuentes cuantitativas de procedencia mexicana para los años de la revolución. Para suplir esta carencia, este artículo recurre a las estadísticas comerciales publicadas por los principales socios de México durante estos años (Estados Unidos, Gran Bretaña y Francia). A pa...

  17. Institucionalidad y política exterior del Ecuador a inicios de la República

    OpenAIRE

    Núñez Endara, Pablo

    2000-01-01

    La investigación que planteamos pretende visualizar, en un período histórico corto, los mecanismos utilizados por el Estado para lograr el reconocimiento político de la comunidad internacional, ya sea a través de la suscripción de Tratados Comerciales, al establecimiento de relaciones diplomáticas o la apertura de oficinas consulares, entre otros. Simultáneamente, la investigación se propone utilizar el manejo de la Política Exterior como uno de los vehículos para entender la o...

  18. Influence of Connection Placement to the Behavior of Precast Concrete Exterior Beam-Column Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elly Tjahjono

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the influence of connection placement to the behaviour of exterior beamcolumn joint of precast concrete structure under semi cyclic loading. Four half-scale beam-column specimens were investigated. Three beam-columns were jointed through connection that are placed in beam-column joint region and the forth is connected at the plastic hinge potensial region of the beam. Crack patterns, strength, stiffness and ductility of the test specimens have been evaluated. The test result indicated that all beam-column specimens show good ductility behavior.

  19. 75 FR 62763 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ...On July 7, 2010, the United States Court of International Trade (CIT) sustained the Department of Commerce's (the Department) results of redetermination on remand concerning the final results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc. v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT 2010). The Department is amending the final results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany covering the period of review May 1, 2006, through April 30, 2007, to reflect the CIT's order.

  20. Radiation curable coatings containing hydroxy functional polyethers and polyesters of monoethylenic acids or hydroxy esters thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, M.L.

    1978-01-01

    Relatively water insoluble hydroxy functional monoethylenic polyethers or polyesters of monoethylenic carboxylic acids or hydroxy alkyl esters thereof are formed by adducting the monoethylenic acid or its hydroxy ester with an anhydride selected from monoepoxides, lactones, or mixtures thereof in the presence of a Lewis acid catalyst, such as BF 3 etherate, at a temperature below that at which the unsaturation is consumed, typically about 30 to 70 0 C. These adducts are of low volatility and of low toxicity and can be radiation cured in admixture with polyacrylates to form coatings having improved resistance to elevated temperature exposure

  1. Direct mounted photovoltaic device with improved adhesion and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boven, Michelle L; Keenihan, James R; Lickly, Stan; Brown, Jr., Claude; Cleereman, Robert J; Plum, Timothy C

    2014-12-23

    The present invention is premised upon a photovoltaic device suitable for directly mounting on a structure. The device includes an active portion including a photovoltaic cell assembly having a top surface portion that allows transmission of light energy to a photoactive portion of the photovoltaic device for conversion into electrical energy and a bottom surface having a bottom bonding zone; and an inactive portion immediately adjacent to and connected to the active portion, the inactive portion having a region for receiving a fastener to connect the device to the structure and having on a top surface, a top bonding zone; wherein one of the top and bottom bonding zones comprises a first bonding element and the other comprises a second bonding element, the second bonding element designed to interact with the first bonding element on a vertically overlapped adjacent photovoltaic device to bond the device to such adjacent device or to the structure.

  2. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  3. Work Models in the Design Process for House Interior and Exterior: Physical or Virtual?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradecki, Tomasz; Uherek-Bradecka, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the effects of research on different types of models of single family houses and multifamily houses. Exterior layout and interior functional layout are the main drivers for the final result of a design. Models are an important medium for presentation of architectural designs and play a pivotal role in explaining the first idea to people and potential clients. Although 3D models have unlimited possibilities of representation, some people cannot understand or ‘feel’ the designed space. The authors try to test how to combine the interior and the exterior in a single synthetic model. Several models of different houses have been presented in the article. All the case studies were developed with physical models, 3D models, and 2D hand sketches. The main focus of the work with the models was to achieve a coherent vision for future feeling of open space in designed houses. The research shows how synthetic models might be helpful in the design process. The research was carried in the URBAN model research group (urbanmodel.org, Gliwice, Poland) that consists of academic researchers and architects. The models reflect architectural experience gathered by the authors during their work on theoretical models, architectural projects and by supervision on site during construction site visits. Conclusions might be helpful for developers, architects, interior designers and architecture students.

  4. Automotive Exterior Noise Optimization Using Grey Relational Analysis Coupled with Principal Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuming; Wang, Dengfeng; Liu, Bo

    This paper investigates optimization design of the thickness of the sound package performed on a passenger automobile. The major characteristics indexes for performance selected to evaluate the processes are the SPL of the exterior noise and the weight of the sound package, and the corresponding parameters of the sound package are the thickness of the glass wool with aluminum foil for the first layer, the thickness of the glass fiber for the second layer, and the thickness of the PE foam for the third layer. In this paper, the process is fundamentally with multiple performances, thus, the grey relational analysis that utilizes grey relational grade as performance index is especially employed to determine the optimal combination of the thickness of the different layers for the designed sound package. Additionally, in order to evaluate the weighting values corresponding to various performance characteristics, the principal component analysis is used to show their relative importance properly and objectively. The results of the confirmation experiments uncover that grey relational analysis coupled with principal analysis methods can successfully be applied to find the optimal combination of the thickness for each layer of the sound package material. Therefore, the presented method can be an effective tool to improve the vehicle exterior noise and lower the weight of the sound package. In addition, it will also be helpful for other applications in the automotive industry, such as the First Automobile Works in China, Changan Automobile in China, etc.

  5. Compare the difference of architecture design in Hong Kong and Penang – Exterior wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Wen Tao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the exterior wall of architecture design of Hong Kong and Penang, it also analyzes how light pollution affects human life. As we know, Hong Kong prefers to use steel to build skyscrapers and middle or high rise buildings. However, Penang prefers to use concrete to do the construction. So, there are some advantages and disadvantages between the glass curtain wall and concrete wall in Hong Kong and Penang. The researcher used 400 samples to determine effect of the glass curtain wall and concrete wall on human life in Hong Kong and Penang separately. The result is light pollution created by glass curtain wall in Hong Kong is a serious problem to residents’ life. The glass curtain wall seriously glaze people’s eyes who drive or walk on the street. Thus, many car accidents were caused by this problem. The concrete wall is more often contaminated by fungus and difficult to clean. But, concrete wall is more natural and green for humans. Therefore, from the sustainable aspect that concrete is more healthy for humans, the previous researchers suggest that if the exterior wall is a mixture of both glass curtain and concrete it will not cause light pollution and will be easily involved in the natural environment.

  6. Integrated Life Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Analysis of Exterior Wall Systems for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Broun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the breakdown of primary energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of two common types of exterior walls in the U.K.: insulated concrete form (ICF and cavity walls. A comprehensive assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental performance of each exterior wall system over 50 years of service life in Edinburgh and Bristol. The results indicate that for both wall systems, use phase is the major contributor to the overall environmental impacts, mainly due to associated electricity consumption. For the ICF wall system in Edinburgh, 91% of GHG emissions were attributed to the use phase, with 7.8% in the pre-use and 1.2% in end-of-life phases. For the same system in Bristol, emissions were 89%, 9% and 2%, respectively. A similar trend was observed for cavity wall systems in both locations. It was concluded that in each scenario, the ICF wall system performed better when compared to the cavity wall system. The results of the sensitivity analysis clearly show that the uncertainties relevant to the change of the thickness of the wall are quite tolerable: variable up to 5%, as far as energy and greenhouse emissions are concerned.

  7. Unidad de destino en lo universal Falange y la propaganda exterior (1936-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio César MORENO CANTANO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El control de la prensa y la propaganda se convirtió desde los inicios del régimen franquista en una preocupación constante por parte de las autoridades. El presente artículo analiza el papel desempeñado por la Delegación Nacional del Servicio Exterior de Falange, órgano encargado de difundir y promocionar en el campo internacional el ideario de la Nueva España. Para la realización de esta tarea se valió de una serie de delegaciones de Prensa y Propaganda que se localizaron principalmente en América y Europa.ABSTRACT: The control on the press and the propaganda became since the beginning of the Franco regime a constant preocupation for the authorities. The present article makes an analysis of the role of National Delegation of the Falange Exterior Services made, organization who had competences on the difusion and distribution of the idea of «The New Spain». To make this promotion, this organization had the cooperation of the press delegations specially in America and Europe.

  8. Basic exterior characteristics of body and head in Bulgarian scent hound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urošević Milivoje

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A group of dogs known as hounds is widespread and highly appreciated among the hunters on the Balkans. Hounds are referred to as hunting dogs that engage in loud pursuit of game along its trail. These dogs do not need to se the game in order to pursue it and begin to bark once they stumble upon game trail. First serious research along with zootechnical measurement was conducted in 1905, at which occasion three large groups of hounds that inhabit the Balkans were described. This undertaking provided a solid foundation for further research and standardization of certain hound breeds. Though a lot of field work and standardization efforts were undertaken since then, there are still groups of hounds not encompassed in previous research work that are well-spread on the field and frequently utilized as hunting companions. One of the variety among these non-standardized breeds are Bulgarian scent hound, which differ from described hound breeds by certain exterior characteristics. In this paper, processed and analyzed some of the basic exterior features of body and head of the Bulgarian Scent Hound. Measurements were performed in 21 males and 15 females of following parameters, the height at withers, back height, loin height, chest circumference, body length, head length, skull length, nozzle length, head width and nozzle width. The average height of males is 54.60 and female 51.73 cm. Head length of males, on average, was 23.95 cm and females 23, 53 cm.

  9. Estimation of exterior vertical daylight for the humid tropic of Kota Kinabalu city in East Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djamila, Harimi; Ming, Chu Chi; Kumaresan, Sivakumar [School of Engineering and Information Technology, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Locked Bag No. 2073, 88999 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    In tropical regions natural daylight has been a fundamental factor in building design. It is the most efficient way of lighting a building in the daytime and has a great potential for energy conservation in buildings. In Malaysia there are a limited available data of measured illuminance which is the case of several regions in the tropics. Using established models it is possible to predict the luminous efficacy and then estimate the monthly mean hourly exterior illuminance. In this study two different models were chosen. The Perez and Du Mortier-Perraudeau-Page-Littlefair models were selected for the prediction of hourly exterior horizontal illuminance for the city of Kota Kinabalu in East Malaysia. Comparison between the two models were made. The vertical hourly illuminance was predicted also using Perez approach. The potentiality of daylight in four orientations was discussed. This study highlights the importance of Sunpath diagram on daylight illuminance during the conceptual design stage. The results in this study is hoped to contribute further insight into the potentiality of daylighting of tropical sky. (author)

  10. Iteratively-coupled propagating exterior complex scaling method for electron-hydrogen collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, Philip L; Stelbovics, Andris T; Bray, Igor

    2004-01-01

    A newly-derived iterative coupling procedure for the propagating exterior complex scaling (PECS) method is used to efficiently calculate the electron-impact wavefunctions for atomic hydrogen. An overview of this method is given along with methods for extracting scattering cross sections. Differential scattering cross sections at 30 eV are presented for the electron-impact excitation to the n = 1, 2, 3 and 4 final states, for both PECS and convergent close coupling (CCC), which are in excellent agreement with each other and with experiment. PECS results are presented at 27.2 eV and 30 eV for symmetric and asymmetric energy-sharing triple differential cross sections, which are in excellent agreement with CCC and exterior complex scaling calculations, and with experimental data. At these intermediate energies, the efficiency of the PECS method with iterative coupling has allowed highly accurate partial-wave solutions of the full Schroedinger equation, for L ≤ 50 and a large number of coupled angular momentum states, to be obtained with minimal computing resources. (letter to the editor)

  11. BWR fuel assembly having fuel rod spacers axially positioned by exterior springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    In a fuel assembly having spaced fuel rods, an outer hollow tubular flow channel surrounding the fuel rods so as to direct flow of coolant/moderator fluid there-along, and at least one spacer being disposed along the channel and about the fuel rods so as to maintain them in side-by-side spaced relationship, an arrangement for disposing the spacer in a desired axial position along the fuel rods is described comprising: yieldably resilient springs disposed between an interior side of the outer channel and an exterior side of the spacer. The springs have an inherent spring bias directed away from the exterior sides of the spacers and toward the interior side of the channel such that by contact with the channel and spacer the springs assume states in which they are deflected away from the channel interior side so as to exert sufficient compressive contacting force thereon to maintain the spacer substantially stationary in the desired axial position along the fuel rods

  12. Índices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Garavito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el análisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un país y su repercusión sobre la economía nacional. Estos indicadores se usan principalmente como insumo para el estudio de los términos de intercambio, la competitividad externa y los efectos en la inflación interna de cambios en los precios internacionales. Dada su importancia, este artículo presenta la estimación mensual de los índices encadenados de precios y cantida¬des del comercio exterior colombiano con base en estadísticas de aduanas. La metodología propuesta sigue las reco¬mendaciones de los organismos internacionales (FMI, CAN, EUROSTAT con el fin de afrontar los problemas de agregación y volatilidad propios de la información utilizada. Se obtienen resultados tales como la descomposición en efecto precio y cantidad del valor de las importaciones y exportaciones y los términos de intercambio bilaterales.

  13. Índices de valor unitario y quantum del comercio exterior colombiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarón Garavito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Los índices de valor unitario y quantum de las importaciones y exportaciones son una herramienta importante para el análisis del comportamiento del comercio exterior de un país y su repercusión sobre la economía nacional. Estos indicadores se usan principalmente como insumo para el estudio de los términos de intercambio, la competitividad externa y los efectos en la inflación interna de cambios en los precios internacionales. Dada su importancia, este artículo presenta la estimación mensual de los índices encadenados de precios y cantidades del comercio exterior colombiano con base en estadísticas de aduanas. La metodología propuesta sigue las recomendaciones de los organismos internacionales (FMI, CAN, EUROSTAT con el fin de afrontar los problemas de agregación y volatilidad propios de la información utilizada. Se obtienen resultados tales como la descomposición en efecto precio y cantidad del valor de las importaciones y exportaciones y los términos de intercambio bilaterales

  14. 75 FR 60480 - In the Matter of Certain Bulk Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... Welding Wire Containers and Components Thereof and Welding Wire; Notice of Commission Determination To... within the United States after importation of certain bulk welding wire containers, components thereof, and welding wire by reason of infringement of certain claims of United States Patent Nos. 6,260,781; 6...

  15. 77 FR 26788 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof Determination Not To Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-800] Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof Determination Not To Review Initial Determination To Amend the Notice of... importation of certain wireless devices with 3G capabilities and components thereof by reason of infringement...

  16. 49 CFR 510.3 - Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims for confidential treatment, and terms of compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compulsory process, the service thereof, claims... OF TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION GATHERING POWERS § 510.3 Compulsory process, the service thereof... description of the documents or things to be produced. (c) Service of the compulsory processes specified in...

  17. 77 FR 2031 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Time Limit..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW..., finished and unfinished from the People's Republic of China. See Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof...

  18. 77 FR 51045 - Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof, DN 2907; the... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Docket No. 2907] Certain Two-Way Global Satellite Communication Devices, System and Components Thereof; Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating...

  19. 77 FR 55806 - Floor-Standing, Metal-Top Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-11

    ... Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping...-standing, metal-top ironing tables and certain parts thereof from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ This review covers one exporter, Foshan Shunde Yongjian Housewares & Hardwares Co., Ltd. (Foshan Shunde...

  20. External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems: Critical Parameters for Surface Hygrothermal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Barreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available External Thermal Insulation Composite Systems (ETICS are often used in Europe. Despite its thermal advantages, low cost, and ease of application, this system has serious problems of biological growth causing the cladding defacement. Recent studies pointed that biological growth is due to high values of surface moisture content, which mostly results from the combined effect of exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. Based on numerical simulation, this paper points the most critical parameters involved in hygrothermal behaviour of ETICS, considering the influence of thermal and hygric properties of the external rendering, the effect of the characteristics of the façade, and the consequences of the exterior and interior climate on exterior surface condensation, wind-driven rain, and drying process. The model used was previously validated by comparison with the results of an “in situ” campaign. The results of the sensitivity analyses show that relative humidity and temperature of the exterior air, atmospheric radiation, and emissivity of the exterior rendering are the parameters that most influence exterior surface condensation. Wind-driven rain depends mostly on horizontal rain, building’s height, wind velocity, and orientation. The drying capacity is influenced by short-wave absorbance, incident solar radiation, and orientation.

  1. 78 FR 63492 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-847] Certain Electronic Devices, Including Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is...

  2. 78 FR 42800 - Certain Crawler Cranes and Components Thereof; Institution of Investigation Pursuant to United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-887] Certain Crawler Cranes and... amended, 19 U.S.C. 1337, on behalf of Manitowoc Cranes, LLC of Manitowoc, Wisconsin. The complaint alleges... the sale within the United States after importation of certain crawler cranes and components thereof...

  3. 77 FR 11588 - Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-831] Certain Electronic Devices for Capturing and Transmitting Images, and Components Thereof AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission... Trade Commission on January 10, 2012, under section 337 of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, 19 U.S.C...

  4. 75 FR 68618 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From China and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... is threatened with material injury by reason of imports from China and Korea of diamond sawblades and... threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of diamond sawblades and parts thereof from China... Diamond, Punxsutawney, PA; Hyde Manufacturing, Southbridge, MA; [[Page 68619

  5. 77 FR 40082 - Certain Gaming and Entertainment Consoles, Related Software, and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-745] Certain Gaming and Entertainment... gaming and entertainment consoles, related software, and components thereof by reason of infringement of... finally concluded that an industry exists within the United States that practices the '896, '094, '571...

  6. 77 FR 53844 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France and Italy. The period of review is May 1, 2011, through September 14, 2011. As a result of the withdrawals of the requests for review, the Department is rescinding these reviews.

  7. 76 FR 327 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...In response to requests from interested parties, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from France. The period of review is May 1, 2009, through April 30, 2010. The Department is rescinding this review in part.

  8. 78 FR 9674 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ...The Department of Commerce (the Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through September 14, 2011.\\1\\ We preliminarily find that subject merchandise has not been sold at less than normal value. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  9. 75 FR 3444 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ...Pursuant to section 751(b) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended, and 19 CFR 351.216 and 351.221(c)(3), the Department of Commerce is initiating a changed-circumstances review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany with respect to myonic GmbH.

  10. Knowledge Theory in Ibn Rushd Literature and Reflection Thereof on Its Educational Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rsa'i, Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine Ibn Rushd perceptions in terms of Knowledge and reflection thereof on his educational philosophy. This study reached at a conclusion that Ibn Rushd partaking had its important role in framing the Knowledge theory and maintain it away from deviations and in the same time originated much jurisprudences starting from…

  11. 78 FR 77166 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-860] Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  12. 77 FR 68829 - Certain Electronic Digital Media Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... electronic digital media devices and components thereof imported by respondents Samsung Electronics Co, Ltd. of Korea; Samsung Electronics America, Inc. of Ridgefield Park, New Jersey; and Samsung Telecommunications America, LLC of Richardson, Texas (collectively ``Samsung''), and cease and desist orders against...

  13. A novel Y-xylosidase, nucleotide sequence encoding it and use thereof.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de L.H.; Peij, van N.N.M.E.; Broeck, van den H.C.; Visser, J.

    1996-01-01

    A nucleotide sequence is provided which encodes a peptide having beta-xylosidase activity and exhibits at least 30mino acid identity with the amino acid sequence shown in SEQ ID NO. 1 or hybridises under stringent conditions with a nucleotide sequence shown in SEQ ID NO. 1, or a part thereof having

  14. Cellulase variants with improved expression, activity and stability, and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aehle, Wolfgang; Bott, Richard R; Bower, Benjamin; Caspi, Jonathan; Estell, David A; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus W.J.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Kralj, Slavko; Van Lieshout, Johan; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Stigt Thans, Sander; Wallace, Louise; Vogtentanz, Gudrun; Sandgren, Mats

    2014-03-25

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having improved expression, activity and/or stability. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase variants, compositions comprising the cellulase variants, and methods of use thereof.

  15. Cellulase variants with improved expression, activity and stability, and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aehle, Wolfgang; Bott, Richard R.; Bower, Benjamin S.; Caspi, Jonathan; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus Joannes; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Kralj, Slavko; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Nikolaev, Igor; Wallace, Louise; Van Stigt Thans, Sander; Vogtentanz, Gudrun; Sandgren, Mats

    2016-12-20

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having improved expression, activity and/or stability. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase variants, compositions comprising the cellulase variants, and methods of use thereof.

  16. 77 FR 26041 - Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-841] Certain Computers and Computer Peripheral... after importation of certain computers and computer peripheral devices and components thereof and... industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The complainant...

  17. 77 FR 20047 - Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2889] Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and... Certain Computer and Computer Peripheral Devices and Components Thereof and Products Containing the Same... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain computer and computer...

  18. 78 FR 25475 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof: Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-879] Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing... States after importation of certain sleep-disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof... (202) 205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to...

  19. 78 FR 52563 - Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing Treatment Systems and Components Thereof; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-890] Certain Sleep-Disordered Breathing... certain sleep- disordered breathing treatment systems and components thereof by reason of infringement of... terminal on (202) 205-1810. Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining...

  20. 76 FR 41523 - In the Matter of Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and Components Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... in its entirety Inv. No. 337-TA-704, Certain Mobile Communications and Computer Devices and... importation of certain mobile communications and computer devices and components thereof by reason of... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-704] In the Matter of Certain Mobile...

  1. 9 CFR 205.105 - Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Master list and portion thereof distributed to registrants-format. 205.105 Section 205.105 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... means recording on paper by any technology in a form that can be read by humans without special...

  2. 77 FR 50716 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-838] Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not to Review an Initial Determination Granting Complainant's Motions To Amend the Notice of Investigation and Complaint AGENCY: U.S...

  3. 78 FR 75942 - Certain Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-13

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-847] Certain Mobile Phones and Tablet Computers, and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To Review in Part a Final Initial Determination... Qualcomm Magellan and Odyssey transceiver chips have become a de facto standard in the mobile devices...

  4. Attractant compositions for weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, D.J.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to formulations of volatile organic compounds having effects on Otiorhynchus weevils e.g., Otiorhynchus sulcatus. In some embodiments, volatile organic compounds selected from (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-pentenol, methyl eugenol and a combination thereof are effective for

  5. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; Reis, Signo T.; Velez, Mariano; Day, Delbert E.

    2010-01-26

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  6. 76 FR 52970 - In the Matter of Certain Biometric Scanning Devices, Components Thereof, Associated Software, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-720] In the Matter of Certain Biometric... 17, 2010 based on a complaint filed on May 11, 2010, by Cross Match Technologies, Inc. (``Cross Match... certain biometric scanning devices, components thereof, associated software, and products containing the...

  7. Molecular sleds comprising a positively -charged amino acid sequence and a molecular cargo and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangel, F Walter; Blainey, Paul C; Graziano, Vito; Herrmann, Andreas; McGrath, William J; van Oijen, Antonius Martinus; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions which may comprise a molecular sled linked to cargo and uses thereof. In particular, the present invention relates to a non-naturally occurring or engineered composition which may comprise a molecular sled, linkers and a molecular cargo connected to the

  8. Super Riemann surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Alice

    1990-01-01

    A super Riemann surface is a particular kind of (1,1)-dimensional complex analytic supermanifold. From the point of view of super-manifold theory, super Riemann surfaces are interesting because they furnish the simplest examples of what have become known as non-split supermanifolds, that is, supermanifolds where the odd and even parts are genuinely intertwined, as opposed to split supermanifolds which are essentially the exterior bundles of a vector bundle over a conventional manifold. However undoubtedly the main motivation for the study of super Riemann surfaces has been their relevance to the Polyakov quantisation of the spinning string. Some of the papers on super Riemann surfaces are reviewed. Although recent work has shown all super Riemann surfaces are algebraic, some areas of difficulty remain. (author)

  9. Infrared nanoantenna apparatus and method for the manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David W.; Davids, Paul; Leonhardt, Darin; Kim, Jin K.; Wendt, Joel R.; Klem, John F.

    2014-06-10

    An exemplary embodiment of the present invention is a photodetector comprising a semiconductor body, a periodically patterned metal nanoantenna disposed on a surface of the semiconductor body, and at least one electrode separate from the nanoantenna. The semiconductor body comprises an active layer in sufficient proximity to the nanoantenna for plasmonic coupling thereto. The nanoantenna is dimensioned to absorb electromagnetic radiation in at least some wavelengths not more than 12 .mu.m that are effective for plasmonic coupling into the active layer. The electrode is part of an electrode arrangement for obtaining a photovoltage or photocurrent in operation under appropriate stimulation.

  10. Análisis del yeso empleado en revestimientos exteriores mediante técnicas geológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Arauz, David

    2011-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el yeso fabricado en hornos tradicionales y empleado históricamente para la ejecución de revestimientos exteriores. Para ello se realiza un estudio documental y un trabajo experimental mediante técnicas geológicas. En el estudio documental se ha pasado revisión a la historia del yeso como material de construcción con especial atención a su empleo en revestimientos exteriores, desde la antigüedad hasta mitad del siglo XX, momento en el que la industrializaci...

  11. [Ca2+]i in exterior of cells effected on apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ziyi; Meng Qingyong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate of the different [Ca 2+ ]i in exterior of cells promotion function on apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by irradiation. Methods: To put ration dose 32 P and different [Ca 2+ ]i into culture of HL-60 and measure the apoptosis rate with FCM after 24 and 48 hours. Result: Apoptosis rate increased with the increase of [Ca 2+ ]i which shows an obvious function to promote apoptosis, r 24 =0.9001 (P=0.0145); r48=0.9343 (P=0.0063). Conclusion: [Ca 2+ ]i in exterior of cells has a obvious function in promoteing apoptosis induced by irradiation. (authors)

  12. La incidencia del totalitarismo en la configuración de una política exterior aislacionista

    OpenAIRE

    Patiño García, Andres Felipe

    2016-01-01

    El presente estudio de caso consiste en identificar la incidencia del totalitarismo en la configuración de una política exterior aislacionista, tomando los casos del Tercer Reich y la República Democrática Popular de Corea; se trata de inferir si la incidencia de un régimen totalitario en la configuración de una política exterior aislacionista es directa, en tanto que responde al interés nacional del Estado con el fin de implementar reformas y actos que conlleven al aislamiento de la nación d...

  13. Análisis del yeso empleado en revestimientos exteriores mediante técnicas geológicas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Arauz, David

    2009-01-01

    El presente trabajo se centra en el yeso fabricado en hornos tradicionales y empleado históricamente para la ejecución de revestimientos exteriores. Para ello se realiza un estudio documental y un trabajo experimental mediante técnicas geológicas. En el estudio documental se ha pasado revisión a la historia del yeso como material de construcción con especial atención a su empleo en revestimientos exteriores, desde la antigüedad hasta mitad del siglo XX, momento en el que la industrializaci...

  14. La política exterior de Estados Unidos: una visión desde la periferia

    OpenAIRE

    Andrade A., Pablo

    2004-01-01

    Este artículo trata explica la forma como la política exterior de Estados Unidos persigue dos objetivos interrelacionados: primero, en el corto y mediano plazo consolidar y aumentar su predominio militar a nivel global y, segundo, en el largo plazo institucionalizar ese dominio en un orden político sumamente difícil –o costoso- de transformar. Así, la política exterior estadounidense hacia América Latina y, sobre todo, en relación con la Región Andina y más específicamente con el Ecuador debe...

  15. Nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacture thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element having a sheath of zirconium or a zirconium alloy and a cross-linked siloxane lacquer coating on the inner surface of the sheath and separating the nuclear fuel material from the sheath is described. The siloxane lacquer coating retards cracking of the sheath by iodine vapor emitted by the fuel during burn-up, and acts as a lubricant for the fuel to prevent rupture of the sheath by thermal ratchetting of the fuel against the sheath and caused by differential thermal expansion between the fuel and the sheath. A silicone grease is applied as a thin layer in the sheath and then baked so that oxidative cleavage of the side chains of the grease occurs to form a cross-linked siloxane lacquer coating bonded to the sheath

  16. Consideraciones Legales Relativas a la Privacidad en Proyectos de Cloud Computing en el Exterior de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cruz González Allonca

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available El modelo de prestación de servicios de cómputo en la nube (cloud computing ofrece múltiples ventajas tanto técnicas como económicas para las empresas y organismos que deciden implementarla. Este modelo, sin embargo, requiere tener consideraciones de carácter legal y de cumplimiento normativo desde el inicio del proyecto. Este estudio se propone recorrer la normativa argentina relativa a la protección de datos personales bajo esta plataforma, brindándole al lector un panorama sobre el cuerpo normativo vigente que debe ser aplicado a servicios de cloud computing en el exterior del país. A su vez identifica los riesgos asociados a estos servicios que deben ser contemplados con el fin de evitar responsabilidades.

  17. Associations between retail food store exterior advertisements and community demographic and socioeconomic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isgor, Zeynep; Powell, Lisa; Rimkus, Leah; Chaloupka, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the association between the prevalence of various types of outdoor food and beverage advertising found on the building exteriors and properties of retail food outlets and community racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition in a nationwide sample of food outlets in the U.S. Our major finding from multivariable analysis is that food stores in low-income communities have higher prevalence of all food and beverage ads, including those for unhealthy products such as regular soda, controlling for community racial/ethnic composition and other covariates. This adds to growing research pointing to socioeconomic disparities in food and beverage marketing exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sustainable refurbishment of exterior walls and building facades. Final report, Part A - Methods and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkinen, T. (ed.)

    2012-11-01

    This report is the final report of Sustainable refurbishment of building facades and exterior walls (SUSREF). SUSREF project was a collaborative (small/medium size) research project within the 7th Framework Programme of the Commission and it was financed under the theme Environment (including climate change) (Grant agreement no. 226858). The project started in October 1st 2009 and ended in April 30th 2012. The project included 11 partners from five countries. SUSREF developed sustainable concepts and technologies for the refurbishment of building facades and external walls. This report together with SUSREF Final report Part B and SUSREF Final Report Part C introduce the main results of the project. Part A focuses on methodological issues. The descriptions of the concepts and the assessment results of the developed concepts are presented in SUSREF Final report part B (generic concepts) and SUSREF Final report Part C (SME concepts). (orig.)

  19. Interior and exterior resonances in acoustic scattering. pt. 1 - spherical targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaunaurd, G.C.; Tanglis, E.; Uberall, H.; Brill, D.

    1983-01-01

    In acoustic scattering from elastic objects, resonance features appear in the returned echo at frequencies at which the object's eigenfrequencies are located, which are explained by the excitation of 'interior' creeping waves. Corresponding resonance terms may be split off from the total scattering amplitude, leaving behind an apparently nonresonant background amplitude. This is demonstrated here for scatterers of spherical geometry and in a companion paper also for scatterers of arbitrary geometry, by using the T-matrix approach. For the case of near-impenetrable spheres, it is subsequently shown that the background amplitude can be split further into specularly reflected contributions, plus highly attenuated resonance terms which are explained by the excitation of 'exterior' (Franz-type) creeping waves. The singularity structure of the scattering function is shown mathematically, by using the R-matrix approach of the nuclear-scattering theory, as that of a meromorphic function 'without' any additional 'entire function' (as had been postulated by the singularity expansion method)

  20. Relativistic Mechanics in Gravitational Fields Exterior to Rotating Homogeneous Mass Distributions within Spherical Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available General Relativistic metric tensors for gravitational fields exterior to homogeneous spherical mass distributions rotating with constant angular velocity about a fixed di- ameter are constructed. The coeffcients of affine connection for the gravitational field are used to derive equations of motion for test particles. The laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum are deduced using the generalized Lagrangian. The law of conservation of angular momentum is found to be equal to that in Schwarzschild’s gravitational field. The planetary equation of motion and the equation of motion for a photon in the vicinity of the rotating spherical mass distribution have rotational terms not found in Schwarzschild’s field.

  1. A new numerical approach for uniquely solvable exterior Riemann-Hilbert problem on region with corners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamzamir, Zamzana; Murid, Ali H. M.; Ismail, Munira

    2014-06-01

    Numerical solution for uniquely solvable exterior Riemann-Hilbert problem on region with corners at offcorner points has been explored by discretizing the related integral equation using Picard iteration method without any modifications to the left-hand side (LHS) and right-hand side (RHS) of the integral equation. Numerical errors for all iterations are converge to the required solution. However, for certain problems, it gives lower accuracy. Hence, this paper presents a new numerical approach for the problem by treating the generalized Neumann kernel at LHS and the function at RHS of the integral equation. Due to the existence of the corner points, Gaussian quadrature is employed which avoids the corner points during numerical integration. Numerical example on a test region is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this formulation.

  2. Exterior Space Retrofitting Planning with Possible Effect on Building Thermal Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezin, D. V.

    2017-11-01

    The problems of mass housing which was serially designed and produced throughout Eastern European and former Soviet cities in the middle of the 20th century, in regard to its solar-related thermal conditions improvement by refurbishing are raised in the paper. The impact of functional zones’ dimensions (based on the dwellers’ domestic actions) on shading properties of balconies and loggias is analyzed. As a result, the ratios of exterior space area (as a complex of shading elements related to balconies/loggias) to the windows area that reflect the frequency of the indoor air overheating are determined which can serve as a simple evaluative thermal comfort-related tool for projected and existing buildings under a real solar activity between the geographic latitudes 55° - 56°.

  3. en el exterior y su impacto en la política mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Martínez Saldaña

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se estudia el impacto del activismo político de los migrantes mexicanos residentes en los Estados Unidos que buscan ejercer sus derechos políticos en México. Se analizan los factores que están creando las condiciones en México para hacer efectivos derechos ciudadanos fundamentales como el voto en elecciones presidenciales y la representación en el Poder Legislativo para ciudadanos en el exterior. La apertura del sistema político mexicano a los migrantes internacionales se atribuye a una convergencia de procesos, que incluyen la incipiente transición a la democracia, la institucionalización de la relación entre migrantes y partidos políticos y el activismo de los propios migrantes, quienes buscan promover reformas electorales y políticas relacionadas con su condición social

  4. Extraperitoneal exteriorization for treatment of colonic injuries:a report of 24 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-yang ZHANG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effectiveness and safety of extraperitoneal exteriorization after repair or anastomosis of colonic injuries.Methods The clinical data of 24 cases of colonic injuries from Jan.2001 to Nov.2010 were retrospectively analyzed,including 13 males and 11 females,age from 12 to 77 with a mean of 37.4 years.The causes of colon injury were blunt trauma in 17 cases,penetrating injury in 5 cases,and iatrogenic in 2 cases.Of them 15 were admitted to our hospital directly after the injury,and the rest were transferred from other hospitals after emergency surgical management.Data on colonic injury score,incision infection,intra-abdominal abscess,colonic fistula,pulmonary infection and death rate were recorded.Results The injured region was respectively cecum,ascending colon,decending colon and sigmoid colon.Abbreviated injury scale(AIS of colonic injuries ranged form 2 to 4(with a mean of 2.57.Multiple injuries in abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity were found in 12 patients.The time from injury to definitive operation ranged from 3 to 26(mean,9.8 hours.Twenty-three patient recovered and 1 patient died of hemorrhagic shock.Complications occurred in 5 cases(20.8%,including incision infection in 3 cases,colonic fistula in 1 case and low small intestine obstruction in 1 case.Conclusion Extra-peritoneal exteriorization of colon following repair of rapture or anastomosis is an effective and safe method in treating colonic injuries,especially in patients with delayed operation,and one-stage operation rate can be increased by this procedure.

  5. Method of the Determination of Exterior Orientation of Sensors in Hilbert Type Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stępień, Grzegorz

    2018-03-17

    The following article presents a new isometric transformation algorithm based on the transformation in the newly normed Hilbert type space. The presented method is based on so-called virtual translations, already known in advance, of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems-interior and exterior orientation of sensors-to a common, known in both systems, point. Each of the systems is translated along its axis (the systems have common origins) and at the same time the angular relative orientation of both coordinate systems is constant. The translation of both coordinate systems is defined by the spatial norm determining the length of vectors in the new Hilbert type space. As such, the displacement of two relative oblique orthogonal systems is reduced to zero. This makes it possible to directly calculate the rotation matrix of the sensor. The next and final step is the return translation of the system along an already known track. The method can be used for big rotation angles. The method was verified in laboratory conditions for the test data set and measurement data (field data). The accuracy of the results in the laboratory test is on the level of 10 -6 of the input data. This confirmed the correctness of the assumed calculation method. The method is a further development of the author's 2017 Total Free Station (TFS) transformation to several centroids in Hilbert type space. This is the reason why the method is called Multi-Centroid Isometric Transformation-MCIT. MCIT is very fast and enables, by reducing to zero the translation of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems, direct calculation of the exterior orientation of the sensors.

  6. Method of the Determination of Exterior Orientation of Sensors in Hilbert Type Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Stępień

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The following article presents a new isometric transformation algorithm based on the transformation in the newly normed Hilbert type space. The presented method is based on so-called virtual translations, already known in advance, of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems—interior and exterior orientation of sensors—to a common, known in both systems, point. Each of the systems is translated along its axis (the systems have common origins and at the same time the angular relative orientation of both coordinate systems is constant. The translation of both coordinate systems is defined by the spatial norm determining the length of vectors in the new Hilbert type space. As such, the displacement of two relative oblique orthogonal systems is reduced to zero. This makes it possible to directly calculate the rotation matrix of the sensor. The next and final step is the return translation of the system along an already known track. The method can be used for big rotation angles. The method was verified in laboratory conditions for the test data set and measurement data (field data. The accuracy of the results in the laboratory test is on the level of 10−6 of the input data. This confirmed the correctness of the assumed calculation method. The method is a further development of the author’s 2017 Total Free Station (TFS transformation to several centroids in Hilbert type space. This is the reason why the method is called Multi-Centroid Isometric Transformation—MCIT. MCIT is very fast and enables, by reducing to zero the translation of two relative oblique orthogonal coordinate systems, direct calculation of the exterior orientation of the sensors.

  7. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Burchell, Timothy D.; Choudhury, Ashok

    2006-07-04

    A thermally conductive carbon foam is provided, normally having a thermal conductivity of at least 40 W/mK. The carbon foam usually has a specific thermal conductivity, defined as the thermal conductivity divided by the density, of at least about 75 Wcm.sup.3/m.degree. Kgm. The foam also has a high specific surface area, typically at least about 6,000 m.sup.2/m.sup.3. The foam is characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern having "doublet" 100 and 101 peaks characterized by a relative peak split factor no greater than about 0.470. The foam is graphitic and exhibits substantially isotropic thermal conductivity. The foam comprises substantially ellipsoidal pores and the mean pore diameter of such pores is preferably no greater than about 340 microns. Other materials, such as phase change materials, can be impregnated in the pores in order to impart beneficial thermal properties to the foam. Heat exchange devices and evaporatively cooled heat sinks utilizing the foams are also disclosed.

  8. Pitch-based carbon foam and composites and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klett, James W.; Burchell, Timothy D.; Choudhury, Ashok

    2004-01-06

    A thermally conductive carbon foam is provided, normally having a thermal conductivity of at least 40 W/m.multidot.K. The carbon foam usually has a specific thermal conductivity, defined as the thermal conductivity divided by the density, of at least about 75 W.multidot.cm.sup.3 /m.multidot..degree.K.multidot.gm. The foam also has a high specific surface area, typically at least about 6,000 m.sup.2 /m.sup.3. The foam is characterized by an x-ray diffraction pattern having "doublet" 100 and 101 peaks characterized by a relative peak split factor no greater than about 0.470. The foam is graphitic and exhibits substantially isotropic thermal conductivity. The foam comprises substantially ellipsoidal pores and the mean pore diameter of such pores is preferably no greater than about 340 microns. Other materials, such as phase change materials, can be impregnated in the pores in order to impart beneficial thermal properties to the foam. Heat exchange devices and evaporatively cooled heat sinks utilizing the foams are also disclosed.

  9. PROCESS FOR RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM IMPURE SOLUTIONS THEREOF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilner, S.B.

    1959-11-01

    A process is presented for the recovery of uraninm values from impure solutions which are obtained, for example, by washing residual uranium salt or uranium metal deposits from stainless steel surfaces using an aqueous or certain acidic aqueous solutions. The solutions include uranyl and oxidized iron, chromium, nickel, and copper ions and may contain manganese, zinc, and silver ions. In accordance with one procedure. the uranyl ions are reduced to the uranous state, and the impurity ions are complexed with cyanide under acidic conditions. The solution is then treated with ammonium hydroxide or alkali metal hydroxide to precipitate uranous hydroxide away from the complexed impurity ions in the solution. Alternatively, an excess of alkali metal cyanide is added to the reduced solution until the solution becomes sufficiently alkaline for the uranons hydroxide to precipitate. An essential feature in operating the process is in maintaining the pH of the solution sufficiently acid during the complexing operation to prevent the precipitation of the impurity metal hydroxides.

  10. Los impuestos al comercio exterior en México en la era de las exportaciones, 1872-1930

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz María Uhthoff López

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la relación entre la fiscalidad y el comportamiento del comercio exterior en los años de 1872 a 1930. Especial énfasis se hace en la normatividad de la política arancelaria y la relación entre la dinámica política, el sistema fiscal y los impuestos al comercio exterior. Durante este periodo se observa, por un lado, una continuidad entre el antiguo régimen y la etapa de la revolución: el comercio exterior se mantuvo, incluso algunas ramas experimentaron un gran desarrollo y, por lo tanto, los impuestos exteriores continuaron siendo importantes. No obstante, también se registró una tendencia a la baja en los impuestos provenientes de este sector, y una disminución de su importancia en el conjunto de los ingresos federales, lo que indica que existió entre los gobiernos de esos años, tanto de la primera como de la segunda etapa, la preocupación de no depender solamente de éstos, aumentando las fuentes alternativas de ingresos internos, como es el caso del impuesto del timbre y del impuesto sobre la renta.

  11. 24 CFR 200.946 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems, use of Materials... product, the administrator's validation mark and the manufacturer's certification of compliance with the... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Building product standards and...

  12. Discrete exterior geometry approach to structure-preserving discretization of distributed-parameter port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; van der Schaft, Arjan; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.

    This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce a simplicial Dirac structure as a discrete analogue of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate

  13. A discrete exterior approach to structure-preserving discretization of distributed-parameter port-Hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seslija, Marko; Scherpen, Jacquelien M.A.; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of structure-preserving discretization of open distributed-parameter systems with Hamiltonian dynamics. Employing the formalism of discrete exterior calculus, we introduce simplicial Dirac structures as discrete analogues of the Stokes-Dirac structure and demonstrate

  14. Project Overcoat - An Exploration of Exterior Insulation Strategies for 1-1/2-Story Roof Applications in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojczyk, Cindy [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Mosiman, Garrett [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Huelman, Pat [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Schirber, Tom [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Yost, Peter [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States); Murry, Tessa [NorthernSTAR Building America Partnership, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The development of an alternative method to interior-applied insulation strategies or exterior applied 'band-aids' such as heat tapes and ice belts may help reduce energy needs of millions of 1-1/2 story homes while reducing the risk of ice dam formation. A potential strategy for energy improvement of the roof is borrowed from new construction best practices: Here an 'overcoat' of a continuous air, moisture, and thermal barrier is applied on the outside of the roof structure for improved overall performance. The continuous insulation of this approach facilitates a reduction in thermal bridging which could further reduce energy consumption and bring existing homes closer to meeting the Building America goals for energy reduction. Research favors an exterior approach to deep energy retrofits and ice dam prevention in existing homes. The greatest amount of research focuses on whole house deep energy retrofits leaving a void in roof-only applications. The research is also void of data supporting the hygrothermal performance, durability, constructability, and cost of roof-only exterior overcoat strategies. Yet, contractors interviewed for this report indicate an understanding that exterior approaches are most promising for mitigating ice dams and energy loss and are able to sell these strategies to homeowners.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging used for the evaluation of water presence in wood plastic composite boards exposed to exterior conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek Gnatowski; Rebecca Ibach; Mathew Leung; Grace Sun

    2014-01-01

    Two wood plastic composite (WPC) boards, one experimental and one commercial, were exposed to exterior conditions and evaluated non-destructively using a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit for moisture content (MC) and distribution. The experimental board was exposed in Vancouver, British Columbia, for more than 8 years, and the commercial board was exposed...

  16. Short communication: quantification of the transmission of microorganisms to milk via dirt attached to the exterior of teats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.M.M.; Driehuis, F.; Giffel, M.C.T.; Jong, de P.; Lankveld, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens and spoilage microorganisms can be transmitted to milk via dirt (e.g., feces, bedding material, soil, or a combination of these) attached to the exterior of the cows¿ teats. To determine the relevance of this pathway and to perform quantitative microbial risk analysis of the microbial

  17. Mounting Systems for Structural Members, Fastening Assemblies Thereof, and Vibration Isolation Systems Including the Same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Ken (Inventor); Hindle, Timothy (Inventor); Barber, Tim Daniel (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Mounting systems for structural members, fastening assemblies thereof, and vibration isolation systems including the same are provided. Mounting systems comprise a pair of mounting brackets, each clamped against a fastening assembly forming a mounting assembly. Fastening assemblies comprise a spherical rod end comprising a spherical member having a through opening and an integrally threaded shaft, first and second seating members on opposite sides of the spherical member and each having a through opening that is substantially coaxial with the spherical member through opening, and a partially threaded fastener that threadably engages each mounting bracket forming the mounting assembly. Structural members have axial end portions, each releasably coupled to a mounting bracket by the integrally threaded shaft. Axial end portions are threaded in opposite directions for permitting structural member rotation to adjust a length thereof to a substantially zero strain position. Structural members may be vibration isolator struts in vibration isolation systems.

  18. 78 FR 29702 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-21

    ...On February 11, 2013, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results and partial rescission of its administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. The period of review (POR) is May 1, 2011, through September 14, 2011.\\1\\ We received no comments from interested parties. Accordingly, for the final results we continue to find that subject merchandise has not been sold at less than normal value. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  19. Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Anne C.; Heben, Michael J.; Gennett, Thomas; Parilla, Philip A.

    2007-01-09

    Metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes and production thereof. The metal-doped single-walled carbon nanotubes may be produced according to one embodiment of the invention by combining single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material and metal in a solution, and mixing the solution to incorporate at least a portion of the metal with the single-walled carbon nanotube precursor material. Other embodiments may comprise sputter deposition, evaporation, and other mixing techniques.

  20. Process for the recovery of alkali metal salts from aqueous solutions thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitner, J.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the recovery of alkakli metal phenates and carboxylates from aqueous solutions thereof, the aqueous solution is spray dried and the drying gas stream is contacted with an aqueous alkali metal salt solution which dissolves the particles of the alkali metal salt that were entrained in the drying gas stream. The salt-free inert gas stream is then dried, heated, and returned to the spray dryer

  1. Enzymes that cleave non-glycosidic ether bonds between lignins or derivatives thereof and saccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravit, Nancy G.; Schmidt, Katherine A.

    2017-10-24

    The patent application relates to isolated polypeptides that specifically cleave non-glycosidic ether bonds between lignins or derivatives thereof and saccharides, and to cDNAs encoding the polypeptides. The patent application also relates to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors and host cells comprising the cDNAs, as well as methods of producing and using the isolated polypeptides for treating pulp and biomass to increase soluble saccharide yield and enrich lignin fractions.

  2. Proposed design method for large-stone asphalt and the implementation thereof in the rehabilitation of an airport pavement.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of a design procedure for large-stone asphalt, the implementation thereof in two sets of trial sections, the correlation of engineering properties obtained in the laboratory with field properties...

  3. 77 FR 5568 - Certain Muzzle-Loading Firearms and Components Thereof Determination Not To Review an Initial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-777] Certain Muzzle-Loading Firearms and Components Thereof Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination Terminating the Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. [[Page 5569

  4. Surface treatment of zirconia ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A method of chemically micropitting and/or microcratering at least a portion of a smooth surface of an impervious zirconia-base ceramic is described, comprising (a) contacting the smooth surface with a liquid leachant selected from concentrated sulphuric acid, ammonium bisulphate, alkali metal bisulphates and mixtures thereof at a temperature of at least 250 0 C for a period of time sufficient to effect micropitting and/or microcratering generally uniformly distributed throughout the microstructure of the resultant leached surface; (b) removing the leached surface from contact with the leachant; (c) contacting the leached surface with hydrochloric acid to effect removal from the leached surface of a residue thereon comprising sulphate of metal elements including zirconium in the ceramic; (d) removing the leached surface from contact with the hydrochloric acid; and (e) rinsing the leached surface with water to effect removal of acid residue from that surface. (author)

  5. Venezuela, los cambios globales y su política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. ROMERO

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El mundo ha avanzado hacia la globalización, lo que exige que América Latina, con poca relevancia internacional y con una situación económica crítica, busque ajustarse a las nuevas exigencias internacionales mediante "la desregulación y la coordinación económica". También se hace prioritaria la búsqueda de la integración regional tanto a nivel público como privado a través de instituciones como Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.Este artículo plantea las incidencias de la globalización y la integración en la política exterior venezolana y los mecanismos a aplicar para ajustarse al nuevo modelo mundial. Tres son los puntos prioritarios en este sentido: los cambios globales, el petróleo y la política exterior.La situación de Venezuela como país proveedor de petróleo a Estados Unidos le ha permitido ser conservador en sus posiciones y asumir la apertura económica de forma más discreta al resto de países de la región. La democracia es otro tema que rodea las relaciones internacionales, especialmente lo relativo a los derechos humanos y al buen gobierno, y del cual Venezuela se beneficia al procurar un espacio idóneo para su desarrollo.ABSTRACT: The world has moved towards globalization, which means that Latin America, that has low international leverage and a critical economic situation, has to search for an adjustment to the new international demands by means of "deregulation and economic coordination". It is also a priority to pursue the regional integration at the prívate and public levels through institutions such as Mercosur y la Comunidad Andina de Naciones.This article poses the incidences of globalization and integration in the Venezuelan international policy, as wcll as the mechanisms of adjustment to the new world orden. Three elements are pointed out as priorities: the global changes, the petroleum, and the international policy.The situation of Venezuela as a US supplier of petroleum has

  6. Solution of Einstein's Geometrical Gravitational Field Equations Exterior to Astrophysically Real or Hypothetical Time Varying Distributions of Mass within Regions of Spherical Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a profound and complete analytical solution to Einstein’s gravitational field equations exterior to astrophysically real or hypothetical time varying distribu- tions of mass or pressure within regions of spherical geometry. The single arbitrary function f in our proposed exterior metric tensor and constructed field equations makes our method unique, mathematically less combersome and astrophysically satisfactory. The obtained solution of Einstein’s gravitational field equations tends out to be a gen- eralization of Newton’s gravitational scalar potential exterior to the spherical mass or pressure distribution under consideration

  7. Determination of optimum insulation thicknesses using economical analyse for exterior walls of buildings with different masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Kon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five different cities were selected from the five climatic zones according to Turkish standard TS 825, and insulation thicknesses of exterior walls of sample buildings were calculated by using optimization. Vertical perforated bricks with density of 550 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 were chosen within the study content. Glass wool, expanded polystyrene (XPS, extruded polystyrene (EPS were considered as insulation materials. Additionally, natural gas, coal, fuel oil and LPG were utilized as fuel for heating process while electricity was used for cooling.  Life cycle cost (LCC analysis and degree-day method were the approaches for optimum insulation thickness calculations. As a result, in case of usage vertical perforated bricks with density of 550 kg/m3 and 1000 kg/m3 resulted different values in between 0.005-0.007 m (5-7 mm in the optimum insulation thickness calculations under different insulation materials.  Minimum optimum insulation thickness was calculated in case XPS was preferred as insulation material, and the maximum one was calculated in case of using glass wool.

  8. La evolución del comercio exterior de Haití, 1915 – 1955

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Morales Álvarez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La economía de Haití representa un caso paradigmático de rezago económico de larga duración en el tiempo. A pesar de ello, existe muy poca evidencia empírica a cerca de la magnitud de éste, así como de sus causas, en una perspectiva histórica de largo plazo. El comercio exterior haitiano durante la primera mitad del siglo XX es una primera estrategia para aproximarse a un proceso más global de fracaso económico. En este trabajo se presenta una detallada base de datos a nivel de producto y país de origen y destino, se analiza la evolución de las exportaciones e importaciones del país insular en cuanto a volumen, valor, estructura y distribución geográfica. Todo ello pone de relieve la enorme fragilidad económica de la balanza comercial haitiana en ese período.

  9. Cluster observations of high-frequency waves in the exterior cusp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Khotyaintsev

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available We study wave emissions, in the frequency range from above the lower hybrid frequency up to the plasma frequency, observed during one of the Cluster crossings of a high-beta exterior cusp region on 4 March 2003. Waves are localized near narrow current sheets with a thickness a few times the ion inertial length; currents are strong, of the order of 0.1-0.5μA/m2 (0.1-0.5mA/m2 when mapped to ionosphere. The high frequency part of the waves, frequencies above the electron-cyclotron frequency, is analyzed in more detail. These high frequency waves can be broad-band, can have spectral peaks at the plasma frequency or spectral peaks at frequencies below the plasma frequency. The strongest wave emissions usually have a spectral peak near the plasma frequency. The wave emission intensity and spectral character change on a very short time scale, of the order of 1s. The wave emissions with strong spectral peaks near the plasma frequency are usually seen on the edges of the narrow current sheets. The most probable generation mechanism of high frequency waves are electron beams via bump-on-tail or electron two-stream instability. Buneman and ion-acoustic instability can be excluded as a possible generation mechanism of waves. We suggest that high frequency waves are generated by electron beams propagating along the separatrices of the reconnection region.

  10. Funcionalidad de los cuadernos ATA dentro de las perspectivas del comercio exterior en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Marí­a Heredia Rodríguez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación es elaborar un manual de implementación de cuadernos ATA (Admisión Temporal para las operaciones de comercio exterior en Colombia, como mecanismo dinamizador de los regí­menes suspensivos de importación y exportación. La metodologí­a llevada a cabo fue la revisión de la normatividad internacional y la normatividad interna en Colombia; posteriormente, la aplicación de encuestas para recolectar información de fuentes primarias, llevando así­ a realizar un análisis crí­tico del tema propuesto y concluyendo posteriormente que la normatividad aduanera en Colombia debe ser acorde a los convenios internacionales, y a su vez la perspectiva de competitividad en el entorno de la globalización no se puede limitar al desarrollo logí­stico e infraestructura vial, sino que requiere implementar en su totalidad el decreto 390 de 2016 (Estatuto Aduanero y generar estrategias de facilitación de las operaciones comerciales internacionales, como los cuadernos ATA.

  11. Corrosión atmosférica del zinc en ambientes exteriores e interiores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castaño, J. G.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Good behaviour of zinc against atmospheric corrosion has leaded this material to be widely used, mainly for protection of steel. For this reason since approximately 50 years it have been making systematic studies in order to understand the mechanisms of its interaction with the atmosphere and nowadays it continues being object of intensive research. In this paper a review of the state-of-the-art in the knowledge of atmospheric corrosion of zinc is presented, when it is exposed in both outdoor and indoor atmospheres.

    El buen comportamiento del zinc frente a la corrosión atmosférica ha conducido a que este material sea utilizado ampliamente, sobre todo, como recubrimiento del acero. Por este motivo, desde hace unos 50 años, se han venido realizando estudios sistemáticos para tratar de comprender los mecanismos de su interacción con la atmósfera y, hoy en día, el tema sigue siendo objeto de intensa investigación. En este artículo se presenta una revisión de los aspectos fundamentales relacionados con el conocimiento acumulado, en este tiempo, sobre el fenómeno de la corrosión atmosférica del zinc, expuesto tanto en ambientes exteriores como en interiores.

  12. Exterior orientation of CBERS-2B imagery using multi-feature control and orbital data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcato Junior, J.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.

    2013-05-01

    The major contribution of this paper relates to the practical advantages of combining Ground Control Points (GCPs), Ground Control Lines (GCLs) and orbital data to estimate the exterior orientation parameters of images collected by CBERS-2B (China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite) HRC (High-resolution Camera) and CCD (High-resolution CCD Camera) sensors. Although the CBERS-2B is no longer operational, its images are still being used in Brazil, and the next generations of the CBERS satellite will have sensors with similar technical features, which motivates the study presented in this paper. The mathematical models that relate the object and image spaces are based on collinearity (for points) and coplanarity (for lines) conditions. These models were created in an in-house developed software package called TMS (Triangulation with Multiple Sensors) with multi-feature control (GCPs and GCLs). Experiments on a block of four CBERS-2B HRC images and on one CBERS-2B CCD image were performed using both models. It was observed that the combination of GCPs and GCLs provided better bundle block adjustment results than conventional bundle adjustment using only GCPs. The results also demonstrate the advantages of using primarily orbital data when the number of control entities is reduced.

  13. A política exterior do Brasil: 1990-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo destaca a continuidade na política exterior do Brasil, identificando duas vertentes principais: participar ativamente do ordenamento mundial e tornar-se ator central no cenário internacional, tomando como importante referência o Mercosul e a construção de parcerias estratégicas - pautadas sobretudo no desenvolvimento econômico. As relações com a Argentina, da competição à integração, são destacadas na agenda de relações econômicas internacionais. O Brasil, nesse contexto, representa potência regional ante a América Latina e potência média ante o restante do mundo.The article highlights the continuity of the actions of the Brazilian external policy, identifying two main slopes: to participate actively in the world order and become a central actor in the international scenery, taking as important reference Mercosur and the construction of strategic partnerships - based mainly in the economic development. The relations with Argentina, from competition to integration, are outstanding in the agenda of international economic relations. In this context, Brazil represents a regional power in the ambit of Latin America, and a medium power in the ambit of the world.

  14. Differences in exterior conformation between primitive, Half-bred, and Thoroughbred horses: anatomic-breeding approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komosa, M; Frackowiak, H; Purzyc, H; Wojnowska, M; Gramacki, A; Gramacki, J

    2013-04-01

    The study included 249 horses belonging to 3 horse breeds. Konik horses, comprising the first group, is an example of a breed similar to the extinct Tarpan. In our study, these horses were taken to be a primitive anatomical model of the horse body. The other groups comprised the Polish Half-bred horse and Thoroughbred horse. The biometric characteristics of the horses were compared based on 24 indices. The aim of the paper was to find a reduced set of indices that can be used to determine group membership of the horses. To do this, we used statistical methods to find the most important indices that best discriminate breeds from each other. Chi-squared statistics, linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and 1-way ANOVA showed that the discrimination among groups of horses is connected with these 5 indices: scapula, smaller trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and coxal tuber), greater trunk (distance between tubercle of humerus and ischial tuberosity), metacarpus circumference, and hind autopodium-smaller trunk. Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are clearly different in exterior conformation from Konik horses. The differences between Thoroughbred and Half-bred horses are more subtle. The conformation of Thoroughbreds is jointly determined by relatively small differences in a range of features.

  15. Tracking boundary movement and exterior shape modelling in lung EIT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biguri, A; Soleimani, M; Grychtol, B; Adler, A

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has shown significant promise for lung imaging. One key challenge for EIT in this application is the movement of electrodes during breathing, which introduces artefacts in reconstructed images. Various approaches have been proposed to compensate for electrode movement, but no comparison of these approaches is available. This paper analyses boundary model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. The aim is to evaluate the extent to which various algorithms tolerate movement, and to determine if a patient specific model is required for EIT lung imaging. Movement data are simulated from a CT-based model, and image analysis is performed using quantitative figures of merit. The electrode movement is modelled based on expected values of chest movement and an extended Jacobian method is proposed to make use of exterior boundary tracking. Results show that a dynamical boundary tracking is the most robust method against any movement, but is computationally more expensive. Simultaneous electrode movement and conductivity reconstruction algorithms show increased robustness compared to only conductivity reconstruction. The results of this comparative study can help develop a better understanding of the impact of shape model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. (paper)

  16. Tracking boundary movement and exterior shape modelling in lung EIT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biguri, A; Grychtol, B; Adler, A; Soleimani, M

    2015-06-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) has shown significant promise for lung imaging. One key challenge for EIT in this application is the movement of electrodes during breathing, which introduces artefacts in reconstructed images. Various approaches have been proposed to compensate for electrode movement, but no comparison of these approaches is available. This paper analyses boundary model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT. The aim is to evaluate the extent to which various algorithms tolerate movement, and to determine if a patient specific model is required for EIT lung imaging. Movement data are simulated from a CT-based model, and image analysis is performed using quantitative figures of merit. The electrode movement is modelled based on expected values of chest movement and an extended Jacobian method is proposed to make use of exterior boundary tracking. Results show that a dynamical boundary tracking is the most robust method against any movement, but is computationally more expensive. Simultaneous electrode movement and conductivity reconstruction algorithms show increased robustness compared to only conductivity reconstruction. The results of this comparative study can help develop a better understanding of the impact of shape model mismatch and electrode movement in lung EIT.

  17. Glossário terminológico de comércio exterior chinês/português

    OpenAIRE

    Yinping Liu

    2006-01-01

    A dissertação \\"Glossário Terminológico de Comércio Exterior\\" Chinês/ Português/Chinês tem por objetivo elaborar uma pesquisa terminográfica bilíngüe das unidades de conhecimento especializado relacionadas à área de comércio exterior relevantes para a relação Brasil-China, por meio da organização dessas unidades em um glossário terminológico. Inicialmente faz-se uma revisão da história cultural e comercial entre o mundo lusófono e o chinês com o objetivo de justificar a demanda de um trabalh...

  18. Soft Power de Argentina : La política exterior del gobierno de Néstor Kirchner

    OpenAIRE

    Bravi, Bárbara

    2016-01-01

    La presente tesis tiene como punto de partida el interés que despertase una arista de estudio de las relaciones internacionales, más específicamente en el campo de la política exterior, y que tiene que ver con el poder simbólico. Este enfoque, como veremos más adelante, tiene de particular que no sólo aborda la praxis de la política exterior, con esto nos referimos a los hechos, o los resultados; sino que se enfoca en un tiempo anterior. De allí que no sólo importan los efectos y la...

  19. Systematic optimization of exterior measurement locations for the determination of interior magnetic field vector components in inaccessible regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouri, N.; Plaster, B.

    2014-12-11

    An experiment may face the challenge of real-time determination of the magnetic field vector components present within some interior region of the experimental apparatus over which it is impossible to directly measure the field components during the operation of the experiment. As a solution to this problem, we propose a general concept which provides for a unique determination of the field components within such an interior region solely from exterior measurements at fixed discrete locations. The method is general and does not require the field to possess any type of symmetry. We describe our systematic approach for optimizing the locations of these exterior measurements which maximizes their sensitivity to successive terms in a multipole expansion of the field.

  20. La política exterior de Estados Unidos: una visión desde la periferia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Andrade A.

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata explica la forma como la política exterior de Estados Unidos persigue dos objetivos interrelacionados: primero, en el corto y mediano plazo consolidar y aumentar su predominio militar a nivel global y, segundo, en el largo plazo institucionalizar ese dominio en un orden político sumamente difícil –o costoso- de transformar. Así, la política exterior estadounidense hacia América Latina y, sobre todo, en relación con la Región Andina y más específicamente con el Ecuador debe estudiarse a partir de las decisiones y comportamientos de Estados Unidos, así como de los medios que emplea para lograrlos: los tratados de libre comercio (TLC; la guerra antiterrorista y la promoción de la democracia.

  1. Symmetrized complex amplitudes for He double photoionization from the time-dependent close coupling and exterior complex scaling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horner, D.A.; Colgan, J.; Martin, F.; McCurdy, C.W.; Pindzola, M.S.; Rescigno, T.N.

    2004-01-01

    Symmetrized complex amplitudes for the double photoionization of helium are computed by the time-dependent close-coupling and exterior complex scaling methods, and it is demonstrated that both methods are capable of the direct calculation of these amplitudes. The results are found to be in excellent agreement with each other and in very good agreement with results of other ab initio methods and experiment

  2. MIGRAÇÕES FICCIONAIS DO OBSERVADOR: O OLHAR EXTERIOR SOBRE O CANADÁ E SUAS MEDIAÇÕES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Moser

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pais de imigração, o Canadá é rico em textos literários – tanto anglófonos como francófonos – escritos por imigrantes. Recentemente, a crítica literária, interessada na representação da alteridade cultural, desenvolveu o paradigma da “literaturamigrante”. Ora, existe um estratagema bastante antigo para lançar um olhar estranho e estrangeiro sobre a própria cultura, que consiste em inventar um observador exterior que se desloca. Aplicado de maneira paradigmática na obra Les lettres persanes [Cartas persas], de Montesquieu, esse estratagema apresenta uma modalidade particular quando o olhar exterior é narrativamente construído pelo deslocamento de um personagem, que, longe de ser estrangeiro, vem de sua própria cultura – canadense no caso – e se desloca para lançar um olhar exterior sobre ela. De fato, esse olhar interno, transformando-se em externo, adquire um potencial crítico. Analisa-se aqui esse estratagema, com o objetivo de ressaltar seu valor crítico, em dois romances – The Englishman’s boy, de Vanderhaeghe, e The navigator of New York, de Johnston – e no filme Nô, de Robert Lepage.

  3. La continuidad del discurso neoconservador frente a la política exterior de la administración Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A lo largo del pasado sexenio, la doctrina neoconservadora se ha convertido en la voz más beligerante contra la política exterior de la Administración Obama. Este artículo se propone analizar el contenido de la crítica neoconservadora, una crítica radical, pues no se limita a un disenso menor en torno a determinadas áreas temáticas o regionales de la política exterior estadounidense, sino que se presenta como un rechazo frontal tanto a sus fundamentos teóricos como a su implementación práctica. De este modo, se verá que el neoconservadurismo continúa firmemente apegado a sus principios, con un discurso que mantiene como eje su particular concepción del excepcionalismo americano. El neoconservadurismo sigue defendiendo la validez de sus ideas centrales y se reivindica como la mejor doctrina de política exterior posible para los EE.UU., la única adecuada para evitar su declive internacional y mantener el "orden mundial americano" en las próximas décadas. Ello nos permitirá observar cómo, pese a su actual falta de influencia política, el mismo sigue gozando de una vitalidad que contradice las recurrentes afirmaciones sobre su desaparición.

  4. Building America Case Study: Construction Guidelines for High R-Value Walls without Exterior Rigid Insulation, Cold Climate Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    High-R wall assemblies (R-40 and above) are gaining popularity in the market due to programs like the DOE's Zero Energy Ready Home program, Passive House (PH), Net Zero Energy Home (NZEH) challenges in several states, and highly incentivized retrofit programs. In response to this demand, several builders have successfully used 'double wall' systems to more practically achieve higher R-values in thicker, framed walls. To builders of conventional stick-framed homes, often one of the most appealing features of double wall systems is that there are very few new exterior details. Exterior sheathing, structural bracing, house wrap or building paper, window and door flashing, and siding attachment are usually identical to good details in conventional framed wall systems. The information presented in this guide is intended to reduce the risk of failure in these types of assemblies, increase durability, and result in a reduction of material brought to landfills due to failures and resulting decay. While this document focuses on double wall framing techniques, the majority of the information on how to properly construct and finish high R-value assemblies is applicable to all wall assemblies that do not have foam insulation installed on the exterior of the structural sheathing. The techniques presented have been shown through field studies to reduce the likelihood of mold growth and moisture related damage and are intended for builders, framing contractors, architects, and consultants involved in designing and building super insulated homes.

  5. Non-immunogenic, hydrophilic/cationic block copolymers and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Charles W.; Huang, Faqing; McCormick, Charles L.

    2010-05-18

    The present invention provides novel non-immunogenic, hydrophilic/cationic block copolymers comprising a neutral-hydrophilic polymer and a cationic polymer, wherein both polymers have well-defined chain-end functionality. A representative example of such a block copolymer comprises poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) (PHPMA) and poly(N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]methacrylamide) (PDMAPMA). Also provided is a synthesis method thereof in aqueous media via reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Further provided are uses of these block copolymers as drug delivery vehicles and protection agents.

  6. Formation of toxic peptides in irradiated rats and binding thereof with blood serum proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomatin, V.V.; Efimenko, G.P.; Lifshits, R.I.

    1985-01-01

    Whole-body γ-irradiation of rats with a dose of 9.0 Gy caused a 1.5-fold and a 5-fold increase in excretion of bas peptides (molecular mass of 500-2000) in urea on the 2nd and 5th postirradiation days, respectively. These peptides possessed toxic activity and ability to form complexes with macroglobulins, immunoglobulins, and blood serum albumins, in particular. Irradiation decreased binding ability of serum proteins, and preliminary washing thereof by ultrafiltration increased it

  7. Ruggedized downhole tool for real-time measurements and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Ryan Falcone; Lindblom, Scott C.; Yelton, William G.; Limmer, Steven J.; Boyle, Timothy J.; Cieslewski, Grzegorz

    2018-01-09

    The present invention relates to ruggedized downhole tools and sensors, as well as uses thereof. In particular, these tools can operate under extreme conditions and, therefore, allow for real-time measurements in geothermal reservoirs or other potentially harsh environments. One exemplary sensor includes a ruggedized ion selective electrode (ISE) for detecting tracer concentrations in real-time. In one embodiment, the ISE includes a solid, non-conductive potting material and an ion selective material, which are disposed in a temperature-resistant electrode body. Other electrode configurations, tools, and methods are also described.

  8. Bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2004-07-06

    Bulk, superhard, B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof. The bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compact is a well-sintered compact and includes nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B-C-N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compact has a Vicker's hardness of about 41-68 GPa. It is prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture, and sintering the encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a pressure of about 5-25 GPa and at a temperature of about 1000-2500 K.

  9. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  10. Method of improving the green strength of nuclear fuel pellets, and products thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.I.; Brassfield, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method of preparing an admixture comprising a particulate material and a fugitive binder for producing green pellets free of flaws and having improved strength, comprising the steps of: a) fluidizing and agitating a mass of particulate material with a fluidized bed system; b) adding a fugitive binder to the fluidizing and agitating mass of particulate material and blending the binder with the particulate material, said fugitive binder being comprised of ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof; c) aging the blended binder and particulate material for a period of greater than 48 hours; and d) forming the resulting aged blend by pressing into a green body

  11. Evolución del comercio exterior del vino del campo de Cariñena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Concepción Estella Álvarez

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se exponen las vicisitudes por las que ha atravesado el vino de Cariñena para su comercialización desde el siglo pasado. Comienza con el éxito y los altos precios del vino conseguidos por la demanda francesa, tras la invasión filoxérica del país vecino, favorecidos también por la inauguración del ferrocarril de vía estrecha Zaragoza-Cariñena y seguidos de la crisis de superproducción y consiguiente descenso de los precios tras finalizar el Tratado de Comercio con Francia. Luego se explica la lenta recuperación a lo largo de este siglo, se facilitan las cantidades exportadas en el último cuarto del mismo, para analizar de forma más exhaustiva la situación del mercado exterior en la actualidad, donde el comercio europeo ha vuelto a ser el más importante y de modo especial el de la Unión Europea.In this article the different mishaps that the Cariñena wine has undergone to be commercialized since the last century are shown. The study begins with the success and the high price of the wine, due to the French demand, after the phylloxera invasión in the neighbouring country, also favoured by the opening of the narrow-gauge railway Zaragoza-Cariñena, and followed by the superproduction crises and the subsequent fall of the prices after the end of the Commercial Treaty with France. Afterwards, we explain the slow recovery along this century, giving the exported quantities in the last quarter of the century, and then analyzing more thoroughiy the situation of the foreign market nowadays, since the European trade has regained importance, specially the one in the European Union.

  12. Sustainable refurbishment of exterior walls and building facades. Final report, Part B - General refurbishment concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vares, S.; Pulakka, S.; Toratti, T. [and others

    2012-11-01

    This report is the second part of the final report of Sustainable refurbishment of building facades and exterior walls (SUSREF). SUSREF project was a collaborative (small/medium size) research project within the 7th Framework Programme of the Commission and it was financed under the theme Environment (including climate change) (Grant agreement no. 226858). The project started in October 1st 2009 and ended in April 30th 2012. The project included 11 partners from five countries. SUSREF developed sustainable concepts and technologies for the refurbishment of building facades and external walls. This report together with SUSREF Final report Part B and SUSREF Final Report Part C introduce the main results of the project. Part A focuses on methodological issues. The descriptions of the concepts and the assessment results of the developed concepts are presented in SUSREF Final report part B (generic concepts) and SUSREF Final report Part C (SME concepts). The following list shows the sustainability assessment criteria defined by the SUSREF project. These are Durability; Impact on energy demand for heating; Impact on energy demand for cooling; Impact on renewable energy use potential; Impact on daylight; Environmental impact of manufacture and maintenance; Indoor air quality and acoustics; Structural stability; Fire safety; Aesthetic quality; Effect on cultural heritage; Life cycle costs; Need for care and maintenance; Disturbance to the tenants and to the site; Buildability. This report presents sustainability assessment results of general refurbishment concepts and gives recommendations on the basis of the results. The report covers the following refurbishment cases - External insulation - Internal insulation - Cavity wall insulation - Replacement Insulation during renovation.

  13. Análisis geográfico de las relaciones comerciales exteriores de Canarias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Díaz Hernández

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Durante la década de los noventa, el comercio exterior de Canarias empieza a sentir los efectos de la incorporación de España a la Unión Europea (1986. La armonización de los mercados de destino y de origen, a resultas de este hecho, rompe poco a poco con las ventajas comerciales tradicionales de las Islas. Ello supone, a la vez, una mayor vinculación con Europa y un estrechamiento de los intercambios con el resto del Estado Español. No obstante, como resultado de una rica experiencia mercantil, el Archipiélago mantiene aún contactos comerciales con la mayor parte de los países y territorios de todos los continentes. Esa fortaleza patrimonial puede instrumentarse como plataforma de la Unión Europea en las relaciones Norte-Sur, pero también, como polo privilegiado en el comercio Sur-Sur, en la pugna por la expansión de los emergentes mercados del Hemisferio Sur.During the decade of the 1990s, foreign trade with the Canary 1slatids begins to feel the effects of Spain's incorporation into the European Community (1986. However, the coordination between foreign arid domestic markets has had little effect on the traditional commercial advantages of the Canary Islands. This implies, at the same time, a greater link with Europe and an increased exchange relationship with the rest of Spain. Nevertheless, as a result of a prosperous trading experience, the Canarian Archipelago still maintains commercial contacts with most of the countries in the world. This economic strength can be instrumental as a platform for the European Community in its relations between the North and the South. But, also, as a privileged pole in commerce within the South, in the struggle for expansion of the emerging markets in the Southern Hemisphere.

  14. El enlucido exterior de yeso en las rehabilitaciones de las fachadas de París

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Pigache, M.

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The use, the manufacture, the putting into excution of gypsum plaster on old Paris façades -a marely manual technique- are specified since long ago. A number of gypsum plaster carried out under Louis the 14th reign, have still a good behaviour in spite of, as it is well known, gypsum in the outside is very sensible to dissolution. This study allows to clarify four fundamental parameters, and its conclusions make it possible to carry out rehabilitations both in prestigeous and in humble buildings: - The use of a mortar which components will be similar to those old materials; - A merely handwork. - An established proportion with a view to protect the gypsum plasters, cornices, moldings, etc. from drainage waters. - Bearing walls with higher mechanical characteristics than those of platers.La utilización, fabricación y puesto en obra de morteros de yeso, sobre las fachadas antiguas en el viejo París -técnica puramente manual-, están precisadas desde hace mucho tiempo. Numerosos enlucidos de mortero de yeso, realizados bajo el reinado de Luis XIV, presentan todavía un excelente comportamiento a pesar de que, como es sabido, el yeso en exteriores es muy sensible a disolverse. Este estudio ha permitido aclarar cuatro parámetros fundamentales y, sobre todo, sus conclusiones han permitido la realización de numerosas rehabilitaciones, tanto en inmuebles de prestigio como en edificaciones modestas: - El empleo de un mortero cuyos componentes sean más cercanos a los materiales antiguos. - Una aplicación puramente manual. - Una proporción establecida a fin de proteger de las aguas de desagüe los enlucidos de mortero de yeso, las cornisas, molduras y etc. - Muros portantes con las características mecánicas más elevadas que las de los enlucidos.

  15. 76 FR 35401 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Notice of Court Decision Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ...On June 1, 2005, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated and the International Trade Commission (ITC) instituted the second sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom. On April 20, 2011, the Court of International Trade (CIT) entered its final judgment sustaining the ITC's remand redetermination that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from Japan and the United Kingdom would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time.

  16. 76 FR 57019 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany and Italy: Final Results of Sunset Reviews...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ...On August 1, 2011, the Department of Commerce (the Department) initiated the sunset reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset'') Review, 76 FR 45778 (August 1, 2011) (Initiation Notice). Because no domestic interested party filed a notice of intent to participate in response to the notice of initiation of the sunset reviews by the applicable deadline, the Department is revoking the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy.

  17. Mutational analysis of an archaeal minichromosome maintenance protein exterior hairpin reveals critical residues for helicase activity and DNA binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brewster Aaron S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mini-chromosome maintenance protein (MCM complex is an essential replicative helicase for DNA replication in Archaea and Eukaryotes. While the eukaryotic complex consists of six homologous proteins (MCM2-7, the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus has only one MCM protein (ssoMCM, six subunits of which form a homohexamer. We have recently reported a 4.35Å crystal structure of the near full-length ssoMCM. The structure reveals a total of four β-hairpins per subunit, three of which are located within the main channel or side channels of the ssoMCM hexamer model generated based on the symmetry of the N-terminal Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (mtMCM structure. The fourth β-hairpin, however, is located on the exterior of the hexamer, near the exit of the putative side channels and next to the ATP binding pocket. Results In order to better understand this hairpin's role in DNA binding and helicase activity, we performed a detailed mutational and biochemical analysis of nine residues on this exterior β-hairpin (EXT-hp. We examined the activities of the mutants related to their helicase function, including hexamerization, ATPase, DNA binding and helicase activities. The assays showed that some of the residues on this EXT-hp play a role for DNA binding as well as for helicase activity. Conclusions These results implicate several current theories regarding helicase activity by this critical hexameric enzyme. As the data suggest that EXT-hp is involved in DNA binding, the results reported here imply that the EXT-hp located near the exterior exit of the side channels may play a role in contacting DNA substrate in a manner that affects DNA unwinding.

  18. SASP '86: Symposium on atomic and surface physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howorka, F.; Lindinger, W.; Maerk, T.D.

    1986-02-01

    71 papers are presented on subject matters indicated in the section headings: 1) Ion-neutral and neutral-neutral interactions in the gas phase; 2) Laser physics and photonics; 3) Electron collisions and electronic capture; 4) Ion-surface interaction and plasma-related effects; 5) Cluster physics. 70 thereof are of INIS interested and are treated separately. (G.Q.)

  19. Rodar: a circulação dos jogadores de futebol brasileiros no exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rial

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre os milhões de brasileiros que atualmente residem no exterior, cerca de 5 mil são jogadores de futebol atuando em instituições reconhecidas, os clubes de futebol. O artigo aborda em uma perspectiva antropológica os processos migratórios desses jogadores brasileiros com carreiras de sucesso no sistema futebolístico contemporâneo, buscando compreender as características dessa circulação mundial particular de pessoas e de dinheiro, que apresenta enorme impacto no mediascape (Appadurai, 1990: de todas as "exportações" e de todas as emigrações brasileiras ora em curso, a de jogadores de futebol é a que apresenta maior impacto simbólico, tanto aqui como lá. Abordo os projetos, consumos e estilos de vida desses jogadores a partir dos dados de etnografia realizada na Espanha (Sevilha e na Holanda (Eindhoven, e da interlocução com mais de 40 jogadores brasileiros vivendo ou tendo vivido em países no exterior, em contatos realizados no Canadá (Toronto, Holanda (Almelo, Groningen, Alkmaar, Roterdã, Amsterdã, Japão (Tóquio, França (Lyon, Le Mans, Nancy, Lille, Mônaco, Bélgica (Charleroi e também no Brasil (Fortaleza, Salvador, Belém. Exploro as intersecções com idade, origem social e religião, constatando a forte presença de caçulas entre os jogadores (o caçulismo, a proveniência majoritária de camadas sociais subalternas e a adesão predominante a cultos evangélicos. Constato também uma crescente juvenilização desse fluxo emigratório. Concluo que a constante troca de instituição de trabalho ("clube" ou "clube global", de países e o grande número de "repatriados", caracterizam como uma circulação esse movimento migratório: é o "rodar" de que falam os jogadores, atribuindo a essa noção um valor positivo de propiciar experiência. Essa circulação dá-se em zonas protegidas, onde um nacionalismo banal (Billig, 1995 é constantemente ativado. Mesmo depois da obtenção da cidadania legal continuam

  20. K+-pNPPase located at the gastric epithelial cell exterior accounts for half of the total K+-pNPPase associated with Na+, K+-ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, J.; Levine, R.A.; Das, P.K.; Ray, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    Highly enriched and viable surface epithelial cells (SEC) isolated from rabbit stomach were used to study the ouabain-sensitive Na + , K + -ATPase and K + -pNPPase activities before and after lysis of the intact SEC. The viability of the SEC was monitored by erythrosin B dye exclusion. The function of the Na + , K + -ATPase pump was evaluated by measuring the ouabain-sensitive 86 Rb + uptake, which reached a steady-state (40-50 nmoles/10 6 cells) within 15-20 min at 37 0 C and maintained such a level for 60 min. Absence of any ouabain-insensitive H + , K + -ATPase activity in the lysed cells ensured negligible contamination from parietal cells. The intact SEC showed no Na + , K + -ATPase and insignificant Mg +2 -ATPase activity. However, a significant K + -pNPPase (0.93 +/- .034 μmoles/h.10 6 cells) responsive to oubain inhibition was demonstrated by localizing its activity to the cell surface exterior. The lysed SEC, on the other hand, demonstrated both the ouabain-sensitive Na + , K + -ATPase and K + -pNPPase activities and were 1.14 and 1.84 μmoles/h.10 6 cells, respectively. The data demonstrated the ATP hydrolytic site of the Na + K + ATPase to be facing the cytosol while the associated K + -pNPPase to be distributed equally across both sides of the plasma membrane. The data are consistent with a recent model of the monovalent cation transporting ATPase systems reported in gastric microsomes

  1. La política exterior colombiana de asistencia a connacionales detenidos en México (periodo 2010-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Murcia, Lina María

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente estudio de caso es analizar y describir la política pública encargada de brindar asistencia consular a los colombianos detenidos en México. Dicha política implementada en el primer gobierno del presidente Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, ha contribuido a mejorar la situación de los nacionales privados de su libertad fortaleciendo la figura institucional del Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores a través del Consulado y las herramientas empleadas durante su administración. S...

  2. Stabilization of a semilinear parabolic equation in the exterior of a bounded domain by means of boundary controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, A V

    2003-01-01

    The problem of the stabilization of a semilinear equation in the exterior of a bounded domain is considered. In view of the impossibility of an exponential stabilization of the form e -σt of the solution of a parabolic equation in an unbounded domain no matter what the boundary control is, one poses the problem of power-like stabilization by means of a boundary control. For a fixed initial condition and parameter k>0 of the rate of stabilization the existence of a boundary control such that the solution approaches zero at the rate 1/t k is demonstrated

  3. An exterior Poisson solver using fast direct methods and boundary integral equations with applications to nonlinear potential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D. P.; Woo, A. C.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Johnson, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    A general method is developed combining fast direct methods and boundary integral equation methods to solve Poisson's equation on irregular exterior regions. The method requires O(N log N) operations where N is the number of grid points. Error estimates are given that hold for regions with corners and other boundary irregularities. Computational results are given in the context of computational aerodynamics for a two-dimensional lifting airfoil. Solutions of boundary integral equations for lifting and nonlifting aerodynamic configurations using preconditioned conjugate gradient are examined for varying degrees of thinness.

  4. Internacionalización si «modernización»: el caso del ministerio de relaciones exteriores de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN: El artículo examina una aparente paradoja: desde la transición a la democracia se produjo una alta y dinámica internacionalización de Chile expresada en cambios en términos políticos, sociales y económicos, proceso que no ha tenido una esperada transformación burocrática- institucional en el Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores. Los intentos de reforma han fracasado y el statu quo ha prevalecido. Mientras alguna literatura institucionalista explicaría esta situación debido a resistenc...

  5. Votantes coreanos residentes en el exterior: su historia y el desarrollo de la primera experiencia electoral en Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bavoleo, Bárbara

    2018-01-01

    Resumen En las últimas elecciones presidenciales coreanas de diciembre del 2012, los coreanos residentes en el extranjero fueron habilitados para votar por primera vez en la historia de su sistema de gobierno democrático. Se sumaron así a los 180 países, según la base de datos del Instituto para la Democracia y la Asistencia Electoral (IDEA, su sigla en inglés, 2016), que poseen legislación que garantiza la participación electoral de sus ciudadanos en el exterior. La comunidad coreana en Arge...

  6. Cálculo y análisis de indicadores sectoriales de comercio exterior para el caso ecuatoriano

    OpenAIRE

    Velín, Margarita; Medina, Paúl L.

    2011-01-01

    Este trabajo calcula y analiza el comportamiento de indicadores sectoriales de comercio exterior para el caso ecuatoriano, en el período 2002-2010. El análisis está centrado en ramas de actividades correspondientes al sector económico primario y al sector secundario que considerando la industria manufacturera. El cálculo y análisis se lo realiza también a nivel agregado y, a nivel de productos con relevancia en términos de productos alimenticios básicos y con mayor generación de empleo. Basán...

  7. Ecuador : ¿planificación democrática y consensuada de su política exterior?

    OpenAIRE

    Carrión Mena, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    En un ejercicio poco usual, Ecuador fijó en noviembre de 2006 un Plan Nacional de Política Exterior de largo plazo (hasta el 2020) después de un proceso democrático de diálogo y consultas con los más diversos sectores políticos, sociales y locales para identificar sus aspiraciones e intereses y proyectarlos al mundo competitivo y desafiante en que vivimos. El proceso que contempló talleres, seminarios y conferencias se desarrolló durante diez meses fijó en un documento gu...

  8. Genetic Regulation of Bone and Cells by Electromagnetic Stimulation Fields and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); Shackelford, Linda C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The present invention provides methods to modify the genetic regulation of mammalian tissue, bone, cells or any combination thereof by preferential activation, up-regulation and/or down-regulation. The method comprises steps of tuning the predetermined profiles of one or more time-varying stimulation fields by manipulating the B-Field magnitude, rising slew rate, rise time, falling slew rate, fall time, frequency, wavelength, and duty cycle, and exposing mammalian cells or tissues to one or more tuned time-varying stimulation fields with predetermined profiles. Examples of mammalian cells or tissues are chondrocytes, osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteoclasts, nucleus pulposus, associated tissue, or any combination. The resulted modification on gene regulation of these cells, tissues or bones may promote the retention, repair of and reduction of compromised mammalian cartilage, bone, and associated tissue.

  9. The financial burden of national road infrastructure and the equity thereof: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Brits

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic activities in South Africa during the past decade have caused, inter alia, road traffic congestion to accelerate annually and road infrastructure to deteriorate rapidly. Motor vehicle sales, correlated with economic trends and the economic empowerment of citizens, have and still are increasing at a faster rate than the supply of necessary infrastructure. As such, congestion, especially in the Gauteng area, has reached unacceptable levels during peak hours, necessitating the upgrading and continual maintenance of these roads and other national roads. The financial burden of upgrading and maintaining road infrastructure is enormous and, although the South African government makes contributions, an income from the road infrastructure is necessary to sustain quality infrastructure. However, a road-user paying approach, especially the structure thereof, should be acceptable to society in terms of economic efficiency and various means of equity. This article reviews the relevance of a road-user paying approach as applied in South Africa.

  10. Methods for controlling pore morphology in aerogels using electric fields and products thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Olson, Tammy Y.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Rose, Klint A.

    2017-12-16

    In one embodiment, an aerogel or xerogel includes column structures of a material having minor pores therein and major pores devoid of the material positioned between the column structures, where longitudinal axes of the major pores are substantially parallel to one another. In another embodiment, a method includes heating a sol including aerogel or xerogel precursor materials to cause gelation thereof to form an aerogel or xerogel and exposing the heated sol to an electric field, wherein the electric field causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation, which is retained by the aerogel or xerogel. In one approach, an aerogel has elongated pores extending between a material arranged in column structures having structural characteristics of being formed from a sol exposed to an electric field that causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation which is retained by the elongated pores of the aerogel.

  11. 78 FR 958 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G and/or 4G Capabilities and Components Thereof Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-07

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2929] Certain Wireless Devices With 3G and/or 4G Capabilities... with 3G and/or 4G Capabilities and Components Thereof, DN 2929; the Commission is soliciting comments... importation of certain wireless devices with 3g and/or 4g capabilities and components thereof. The complaint...

  12. La política exterior de América Latina hacia Siria y Líbano frente a los nuevos escenarios regionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bazán

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La actual política exterior de los países latinoamericanos hacia Siria y Líbano responde a condicionantes regionales y a los cambios político-económicos donde el rol de EE.UU. como potencia hegemónica en la región está en declive. Sin embargo no es posible identificar una única política exterior latinoamericana hacia Siria y Líbano, ya que los diferentes Estados latinoamericanos adoptaron diversos objetivos y estrategias adecuadas a sus propias necesidades internas. Aunque América del Sur participa de las iniciativas América del Sur-Países Árabes (ASPA, la región no ha podido establecer vínculos políticos significativos y los pocos logros alcanzados responden más a iniciativas particulares de los Estados que a una estrategia continental. El presente trabajo analiza tres modelos paradigmáticos: Brasil, como ejemplo de una política exterior orientada al intercambio comercial pero con una fuerte impronta para posicionarse como potencia emergente internacional; Venezuela, como referente de una política exterior que establece alianzas con Estados adversarios de EE.UU. y finalmente México, con una estrategia de inserción económica sin mayores aspiraciones debido a la influencia norteamericana en su política exterior general.

  13. 75 FR 11120 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Parts Thereof from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Five-year (Sunset) Review... the People's Republic of China (PRC) pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as amended... section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Reviews, 74 FR 56593 (November 2, 2009...

  14. 76 FR 41761 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Japan and the United Kingdom: Revocation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and... Commerce (the Department) is revoking the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from...: Background On May 15, 1989, the Department published the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts...

  15. 77 FR 73417 - Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... Republic of China (``PRC''). The period of review (``POR'') is November 1, 2010 through October 31, 2011... have been calculated in accordance with section 772 of the Act. Because the PRC is a nonmarket economy...

  16. 75 FR 49945 - In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... Toyota hybrid vehicles of claims of U.S. Patent No. 5,343,970. On July 19, 2010, Paice and Toyota moved... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [ Inv. No. 337-TA-688] In the Matter of Certain Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an Initial Determination...

  17. 75 FR 14126 - Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From the Republic of Korea... Department'') published its notice of final determination of sales at less than fair value (``LTFV'') in the... Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Final Determination of Critical...

  18. 76 FR 5206 - In the Matter of Certain Game Devices, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-757] In the Matter of Certain Game Devices... importation of certain game devices, components thereof, and products containing the same by reason of... alleges that an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The...

  19. 78 FR 8191 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G and/or 4G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-868] Certain Wireless Devices With 3G and... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless devices with 3G and... devices with 3G and/or 4G capabilities and components thereof by reason of infringement of one or more of...

  20. 76 FR 81527 - Certain Wireless Devices with 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Determination Not to Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-800] Certain Wireless Devices with 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Determination Not to Review Initial Determination Granting Motion for... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain wireless devices with 3G...

  1. 78 FR 42107 - Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-800] Certain Wireless Devices With 3G Capabilities and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S..., specifically a limited exclusion order against certain wireless devices with 3G capabilities and components...

  2. 75 FR 28651 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-718] In the Matter of Certain Electronic Paper Towel Dispensing Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation AGENCY: International Trade... that a complaint was filed with the U.S. International Trade Commission on April 19, 2010, under...

  3. 75 FR 26920 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801, A-588-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews, Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances Review, Rescission of Antidumpin...

  4. 77 FR 16537 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES:...

  5. 77 FR 75973 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews; 2010-2011 Correction In notice document 2012-29770, appearing on pages 73415-73417 in the issue of Monday, December 10, 2012, make...

  6. 76 FR 2647 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801, A-588-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  7. 77 FR 2511 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES:...

  8. 76 FR 58768 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Amended Final Results of Antidumping Administrative Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce EFFECTIVE DATE: September 22, 2011. FOR...

  9. 75 FR 2108 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801, A-588-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof from France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Reviews AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade...

  10. 76 FR 15940 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-427-801, A-428-801, A-475-801, A-588-804, A-412-801] Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative and Changed-Circumstances Reviews AGENCY: Import...

  11. 76 FR 71354 - Certain Muzzle-Loading Firearms and Components Thereof Determination To Review in Part ALJ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-777] Certain Muzzle-Loading Firearms and Components Thereof Determination To Review in Part ALJ Initial Determination; Denial of Temporary Relief... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain muzzle-loading firearms and...

  12. 75 FR 8400 - In the Matter of Certain Notebook Computer Products and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Inv. No. 337-TA-705] In the Matter of Certain Notebook Computer... United States after importation of certain notebook computer products and components thereof by reason of... an industry in the United States exists as required by subsection (a)(2) of section 337. The...

  13. 76 FR 76143 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ..., the United Steel, Paper and Forestry, Rubber, Manufacturing, Energy, Allied Industrial and Service... manufacturing of tapered roller bearings and parts thereof in the United States, also notified the Department... manufacturing the domestic like product, and therefore, is an interested party pursuant to section 771(9)(D) of...

  14. 75 FR 2159 - In the Matter of Certain Variable Speed Wind Turbines and Components Thereof; Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-641] In the Matter of Certain Variable Speed Wind Turbines and Components Thereof; Termination of Investigation With Final Determination of No..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain variable speed wind turbines and...

  15. 77 FR 16860 - Certain Mobile Devices, and Related Software Thereof; Notice of Commission Decision To Review in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-750] Certain Mobile Devices, and Related... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain mobile devices and related... Certain Electronic Devices with Image Processing Systems, Components Thereof, And Associated Software, 337...

  16. 77 FR 17093 - Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof: Notice of Receipt of Complaint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2886] Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Food Waste Disposers and Components and Packaging Thereof, DN 2886; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by...

  17. 75 FR 844 - Tapered Roller Bearings and Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, from the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Parts Thereof, Finished and Unfinished, from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the 2007... Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2007-2008 Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order..., through May 31, 2008. The administrative [[Page 845

  18. 77 FR 27425 - Floor-Standing, Metal-Top Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-10

    ... Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of review (POR) is August 1, 2010, through July 31, 2011. The review covers one respondent Foshan Shunde Yongjian Housewares & Hardware Co., Ltd...

  19. 77 FR 14499 - Floor-Standing, Metal-Top Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... Ironing Tables and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping... floor-standing, metal-top ironing tables from the People's Republic of China (PRC).\\1\\ On January 10, 2012, we extended the final results of this administrative review by 60 days.\\2\\ This review covers one...

  20. 9 CFR 310.2 - Identification of carcass with certain severed parts thereof and with animal from which derived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of carcass with certain... INSPECTION § 310.2 Identification of carcass with certain severed parts thereof and with animal from which... derived from the particular animal involved, until the post-mortem examination of the carcass and parts...

  1. Política exterior española: El juego europeo de España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieva Machín

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available España tradicionalmente ha sido un miembro activo dentro de la unión Europea con un profundo carácter europeísta. Sin embargo los intereses de España están cada vez más distanciados de los de la corriente principal. La política exterior española carece de rumbo marcado y objetivos concretos establecidos y consensuados siendo ya más que evidente la carencia de una reflexión estratégica sobre qué se quiere lograr en Europa y como se quiere hacer. La falta de iniciativas y la pérdida de peso político de España en Europa y en el mundo, tras los efectos de la crisis económica y la indecisión gubernamental al respecto, ha afectado negativamente la imagen internacional de España como potencia media limitando su capacidad de influencia internacional. España está todavía a tiempo de reconducir su política exterior hacia Europa si se toman las medidas oportunas.

  2. Difference in electron thermal diffusivity and profile between interior and exterior of TFTR L-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroe, S.; Johnson, D.W.; Goldston, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The local properties such as scale lengths of the electron density (L n e ), temperature (L T e ), and pressure (L p e ), and the electron thermal diffusivity χ e (r) (m 2 /s) for r/a > 0.3 have been studied for TFTR L-mode discharges under the assumption of χ e = χ i . The scale lengths and the electron thermal diffusivity in the interior 0.3 e can be expressed as (with correlation coefficient R = 0.61), χ e (r) = 1.44 x 10 18 (r/a) 1.0 T e (r) 0.1 q(r) 0.1 /n e 0.9 (r). In the exterior region (0.55 e can be described as (with R = 0.68), χ e (r) = 2.3 x 10 3 (r/a) 1.7 T e (r) 0.7 q(r) 0.8 /n e 0.2 (r). It is interesting to note the negative n e dependence of χ e in the interior and the positive T e dependence of χ e in the exterior

  3. Histopathologic changes induced in rats by localized x-irradiation of an exteriorized segment of the small intestine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebes, J I; Zaldivar, R; Vogel, Jr, H H [Tennessee Univ., Memphis (USA). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Tennessee Univ., Memphis (USA). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology)

    1975-10-01

    The sequence of histopathological changes was described after X-irradiation of the exteriorized segment (3 cm) of the rat ileum with a single dose of 2,200 R. A one-year follow-up was provided in rats whose exteriorized intestinal segments were irradiated. Comparisons were made between one group of animals in which the superior mesenteric artery and vein were clamped during irradiation and a second group in which these vessels were not clamped. A third group of sham-irradiated controls was used for comparisons. There was a delay in the onset and progression of the radiation damage to the mucosa of the hypoxic animals in the acute post-irradiation phase. In addition, prolongation of survival in the rats with the superior mesenteric vessels clamped was observed. Mucosal regeneration was noted, occurring at 52 days post-exposure. No adenocarcinomas were found up to 354 days after irradiation. An angiofibroma and a highly differentiated osteoid lesion were described.

  4. La redistribución de los cauces del comercio exterior mexicano: una visión desde la frontera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Kuntz Ficker

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En el marco de la apertura de México al comercio internacional que tuvo lugar entre 1870 y 1929, Estados Unidos desplazó a los principales socios comerciales de México y se convirtió en el socio dominante en los intercambios de este país con el exterior. La intensificación de las relaciones comerciales entre México y Estados Unidos significó una drástica redistribución de los canales del comercio exterior dentro del territorio mexicano, que favoreció al puerto de Tampico y a la franja fronteriza del norte en detrimento de los cauces tradicionales del comercio internacional. El propósito de este artículo es reconstruir la evolución de los flujos comerciales a través de la frontera norte con el fin de mostrar el impacto desigual que la redistribución del comercio tuvo sobre las distintas aduanas fronterizas y las severas fluctuaciones a que estuvieron sujetas a lo largo del periodo de estudio, explorando los diversos factores que influyeron en este proceso

  5. La Influencia de la Temperatura Exterior sobre los Sistemas de Ventilación Natural en Grandes Atrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espina, P.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Natural venting systems present numerous advantages opposite to the mechanical exhaust for the smoke control – a reduction in both facilities and maintenance costs–. Nevertheless, the influence of numerous factors affects significantly their efficacy: the architectural characteristics of the building, the direction and wind velocity, the proximity of tall buildings, the smoke temperature, the environmental interior and exterior temperatures, the existence of snow or ice on the ceiling, etc. All of them are important, but the influence of the environmental exterior temperature plays a decisive role. The goal of this Investigation Research was to evaluate the influence of the external temperature on the smoke movement and the hot layer descent regarding the efficacy of the natural venting systems installed for the smoke control in large atria. The analysis was developed using the ‘Fire Dynamics Simulator - FDS’ model (1, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD model of fi re-driven fluid flow for the study of fire. The results demonstrated that a design that does not contemplate this factor can turn out to be inadequate, since it has a decisive influence to guarantee human safety. The obtained results showed very significant differences about the different parameters linked to the smoke movement in an atrium.Entre las diferentes estrategias de Control y Evacuación de los Humos del Incendio, los sistemas de ventilación natural presentan numerosas ventajas frente a la ventilación mecánica – fundamentalmente una menor inversión tanto en equipos como en gastos de mantenimiento –. Sin embargo, su eficacia depende de la influencia ejercida por numerosos factores – características arquitectónicas del edificio, dirección y velocidad del viento, proximidad de edificios de gran altura, temperatura de los humos, temperatura ambiental interior, temperatura en el exterior del recinto, existencia de nieve o hielo en

  6. Solving the incompressible surface Navier-Stokes equation by surface finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, Sebastian; Voigt, Axel

    2018-01-01

    We consider a numerical approach for the incompressible surface Navier-Stokes equation on surfaces with arbitrary genus g (S ) . The approach is based on a reformulation of the equation in Cartesian coordinates of the embedding R3, penalization of the normal component, a Chorin projection method, and discretization in space by surface finite elements for each component. The approach thus requires only standard ingredients which most finite element implementations can offer. We compare computational results with discrete exterior calculus simulations on a torus and demonstrate the interplay of the flow field with the topology by showing realizations of the Poincaré-Hopf theorem on n-tori.

  7. Polychlorinated dioxins and furans from the World Trade Center attacks in exterior window films from lower Manhattan in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayne, Sierra; Ikonomou, Michael G; Butt, Craig M; Diamond, Miriam L; Truong, Jennifer

    2005-04-01

    Samples of ambient organic films deposited on exterior window surfaces from lower Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City were collected six weeks after the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center (WTC) on September 11, 2001 and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total tetra- through octa-CDD/F concentrations in window films within 1 km of the WTC site in lower Manhattan ranged up to 630,000 pg/m2 (estimated as a mass concentration of ca. 1,300,000 pg/ g) and a maximum toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration of 4700 TEQ/m2 (ca. 10 000 pg TEQ/g). Measurements at a background site 3.5 km away in Brooklyn showed lower concentrations at 130 pg TEQ/m2 (260 pg TEQ/g). Ambient gas-phase PCDD/F concentrations estimated for each site using an equilibrium partitioning model suggested concentrations ranging from ca. 2700 fg-TEQ/m3 near the WTC site to the more typical urban concentration of 20 fg-TEQ/m3 atthe Brooklyn site. Multivariate analyses of 2,3,7,8-substitued congeners and homologue group profiles suggested unique patterns in films near the WTC site compared to that observed at background sites in the study area and in other literature-derived combustion source profiles. Homologue profiles near the WTC site were dominated by tetra-, penta-, and Hexa-CDD/Fs, and 2,3,7,8-substituted profiles contained mostly octa- and hexachlorinated congeners. In comparison, profiles in Brooklyn and near mid-Manhattan exhibited congener and homologue patterns comprised mainly of hepta- and octa-CDDs, similar to that commonly reported in background air and soil.

  8. Análisis de la política exterior rusa frente a Abjasia en el período 2000-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Ropero Santiago, Andrés Felipe

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de la presente monografía de grado es analizar la relación entre la identidad dentro de Rusia y la política exterior de dicho Estado hacia la región de Abjasia. Se analiza y explica la manera en que los referentes identitarios dentro de Rusia en el periodo 2000-2008 influyen en las decisiones de política exterior que Rusia tomó hacia Abjasia en el campo militar y político. Se efectúa una revisión de textos (transcripciones de intervenciones y textos escritos) del Presidente ...

  9. Transformaciones de la política exterior egipcia en materia de seguridad, frente al Estado de Israel, desde la caída de Mubarak. 2002- 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Morales, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    El presente estudio de caso identifica las transformaciones de la política exterior egipcia en materia de seguridad frente al Estado de Israel, desde la Caída de Mubarak. La hipótesis que sustenta este ejercicio académico repasa las principales transformaciones que ha sufrido la política exterior egipcia en términos de seguridad frente a Israel pasando por la seguridad fronteriza, las relaciones diplomáticas, y el cambio del discurso gubernamental hasta la incidencia y actual importancia de ...

  10. A conservação e o restauro de revestimentos exteriores de edifícios antigos - Uma Metodologia de Estudo e Reparação

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, M.

    2009-01-01

    Este registo pertence ao Repositório Científico do LNEC O presente trabalho reporta-se ao tema geral da conservação e restauro de revestimentos exteriores de edifícios antigos, destacando-se como tema específico as questões do desenvolvimento de uma metodologia de estudo e reparação. Com este estudo foi possível um maior entendimento do comportamento dos revestimentos exteriores de edifícios antigos com base em cal, bem como estabelecer um maior rigor na aplicação de metodol...

  11. Generación de un nuevo revestimiento arquitectónico, a partir del grafeno, aplicado a las pinturas exteriores de los edificios

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Benítez, Pedro Rafael de la

    2017-01-01

    En este trabajo, realizado para optar al grado de doctor, se investigan las posibilidades que ofrece la nanotecnología en la arquitectura a través de la aplicación del grafeno en las pinturas exteriores que actualmente se utilizan en la construcción. Mediante la experimentación y el análisis de los procesos es posible demostrar que el grafeno es un revestimiento arquitectónico que mejora las propiedades mecánicas y de durabilidad de las pinturas exteriores. Los objetivos de esta investigación...

  12. El Internacionalismo de Theodore Roosevelt : el excepcionalismo enérgico de su política exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fco. Ramos Josa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available el objetivo de este artículo es estudiar el legado político de Theodore Roosevelt bajo la perspectiva de su política exterior y demostrar así su vigencia en pleno siglo XXI, tanto por su influencia en la evolución del pensamiento político estadounidense como por sus propias características. T. Roosevelt fue el primer Presidente en abandonar el unilateralismo aislacionista en materia de política exterior, para colocar a Estados Unidos en la senda internacionalista que hoy le caracteriza, de ahí que sea imprescindible analizar su pensamiento político en lo relativo a la política exterior. El excepcionalismo enérgico fue la respuesta elaborada por T. Roosevelt para resolver la ecuación formulada por el ascenso de Estados Unidos a potencia mundial y su tradicional retraimiento a la hora de participar en los asuntos mundiales. A partir de entonces y bajo su impulso, comenzó un debate que está lejos de resolverse sobre qué papel debe desempeñar Estados Unidos en la comunidad internacional y cómo debe desempeñarlo.the aim of this article is to study the polical legacy of Theodore Roosevelt under the perspective of his foreign policy and to show its relevance in the XXI century, both for his influence in the evolution of the american political thought and for its own characteristics. T. Roosevelt was the first President who dropped out the isolationist unilateralism in the realm of foreign policy, in order to put America in the internationalist path, hence it is essential to analyze his political thought relating to foreign policy. The strenuous internationalism was the answer that T. Roosevelt devised to settle the equation formulated by the rise of the United States to a world power status and its traditional shyness to be an active player in foreign affaires. Since then, and under his impetus, a debate was started that is far from being resolved about which is the rol that America should play in the internacional community and how

  13. Plasma membrane surface potential: dual effects upon ion uptake and toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical properties of plasma membranes (PMs), partially controlled by the ionic composition of the bathing medium, play significant roles in the distribution of ions at the exterior surface of PMs and in the transport of ions across PMs. The effects of coexistent cations (commonly Al3+, Ca2+, Mg...

  14. Discrete Calderon’s projections on parallelepipeds and their application to computing exterior magnetic fields for FRC plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansa, E.; Shumlak, U.; Tsynkov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Confining dense plasma in a field reversed configuration (FRC) is considered a promising approach to fusion. Numerical simulation of this process requires setting artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) for the magnetic field because whereas the plasma itself occupies a bounded region (within the FRC coils), the field extends from this region all the way to infinity. If the plasma is modeled using single fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), then the exterior magnetic field can be considered quasi-static. This field has a scalar potential governed by the Laplace equation. The quasi-static ABC for the magnetic field is obtained using the method of difference potentials, in the form of a discrete Calderon boundary equation with projection on the artificial boundary shaped as a parallelepiped. The Calderon projection itself is computed by convolution with the discrete fundamental solution on the three-dimensional Cartesian grid.

  15. Astrophysically Satisfactory Solutions to Einstein's R-33 Gravitational Field Equations Exterior/Interior to Static Homogeneous Oblate Spheroidal Masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formulate solutions to Einstein's geometrical field equations derived using our new approach. Our field equations exterior and interior to the mass distribution have only one unknown function determined by the mass or pressure distribution. Our obtained solutions yield the unknown function as generalizations of Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Thus, our solution puts Einstein's geometrical theory of gravity on same footing with Newton's dynamical theory; with the dependence of the field on one and only one unknown function comparable to Newton's gravitational scalar potential. Our results in this article are of much significance as the Sun and planets in the solar system are known to be more precisely oblate spheroidal in geometry. The oblate spheroidal geometries of these bodies have effects on their gravitational fields and the motions of test particles and photons in these fields.

  16. Convergence of exterior solutions to radial Cauchy solutions for $\\partial_t^2U-c^2\\Delta U=0$

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge Kristian Jenssen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Consider the Cauchy problem for the 3-D linear wave equation $\\partial_t^2U-c^2\\Delta U=0$ with radial initial data $U(0,x=\\Phi(x=\\varphi(|x|$, $U_t(0,x=\\Psi(x=\\psi(|x|$. A standard result states that $U$ belongs to $C([0,T];H^s(\\mathbb{R}^3$ whenever $(\\Phi,\\Psi\\in H^s\\times H^{s-1}(\\mathbb{R}^3$. In this article we are interested in the question of how U can be realized as a limit of solutions to initial-boundary value problems on the exterior of vanishing balls $B_\\varepsilon$ about the origin. We note that, as the solutions we compare are defined on different domains, the answer is not an immediate consequence of $H^s$ well-posedness for the wave equation.

  17. Clientelismo y Sistema Político. El Caso del Servicio Exterior Costarricense (1940-1990. Algunos Apuntes Preliminares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Humberto Cascante Segura

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza a grandes rasgos las relaciones entre sistema político y servicio exterior, mediante el concepto de clientelismo empleado en las Ciencias Políticas. El objetivo central es determinar la existencia de un sistema clientelar que permitió el desarrollo de un modelo político durante la segunda mitad del siglo XX, a partir del estudio de la integración y patrones seguidos por el grupo de personas que desempeñaron el cargo de jefes de misión. Desde esta perspectiva el estudio sugiere la existencia de ese sistema, así como ciertas pautas que pueden explican su éxito y funcionamiento.

  18. Redes de Franquia Brasileiras Internacionalizadas: Evolução do Método de Entrada no Exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder de Souza Aguiar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo analisa os métodos de entrada das franquias brasileiras quando optam por se instalar fora do Brasil. A partir de um estudo multicasos, foram realizadas entrevistas presenciais em 2012 com 21 redes de franquias internacionalizadas. Dentre os resultados, observou-se uma mudança de postura das redes de franquias brasileiras ao longo do tempo, com alteração no método de entrada em mercados internacionais. Destaca-se a intensificação da procura por parte de agentes externos dispostos a levar a marca para o exterior, fato que possibilitou que a estratégia predominante a partir de 2008 fosse franquear suas atividades diretamente a partir do Brasil. DOI:10.5585/riae.v13i1.1985

  19. Numerical experiments using CHIEF to treat the nonuniqueness in solving acoustic axisymmetric exterior problems via boundary integral equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel A.K. Mohsen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of nonuniqueness (NU of the solution of exterior acoustic problems via boundary integral equations is discussed in this article. The efficient implementation of the CHIEF (Combined Helmholtz Integral Equations Formulation method to axisymmetric problems is studied. Interior axial fields are used to indicate the solution error and to select proper CHIEF points. The procedure makes full use of LU-decomposition as well as the forward solution derived in the solution. Implementations of the procedure for hard spheres are presented. Accurate results are obtained up to a normalised radius of ka = 20.983, using only one CHIEF point. The radiation from a uniformly vibrating sphere is also considered. Accurate results for ka up to 16.927 are obtained using two CHIEF points.

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring the axial power distribution within the core of a nuclear reactor, exterior of the reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, K.F.; Gopal, R.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus for establishing the axial flux distribution of a reactor core from monitored responses obtained exterior of the reactor is described. The monitored responses are obtained from at least three axially spaced flux responsive detectors that are positioned within proximity of the periphery of the reactor core. The detectors provide corresponding electrical outputs representative of the flux monitored. The axial height of the core is figuratively divided at a plurality of space coordinates sufficient to provide reconstruction in point representation of the relative flux shape along the core axis. The relative value of flux at each of the spaced coordinates is then established from a sum of the electrical outputs of the detectors, respectively, algebraically modified by a corresponding preestablished constant

  1. Spheroidal models of the exterior gravitational field of Asteroids Bennu and Castalia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, Josef; Bezděk, Aleš; Pešek, I.; Henych, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 272, July (2016), s. 70-79 ISSN 0019-1035 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : asteroids surfaces * near-Earth objects * geophysics Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.131, year: 2016

  2. Measurement of radioactive contamination and decontamination on wooden exteriors and garden trees in Northern Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Hiroyuki; Kawano, Keisuke; Kayama, Yukihiko

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and decontamination of surface of trees and surrounding wooden structures contaminated by radioactive substance were studied in the gardens and public parks of Northern Fukushima Prefecture which experienced radioactive contamination due to the accident at the TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant. The counts per minute (CPM) above the centre surface of wooden garden tables in open air were 1.5 times higher than those of garden benches and 9 times higher than that of a garden bench in the square gazebo. Decontamination of wooden garden benches by high-pressure washing was more effective than planing. The counts per minute (CPM) above the soil around garden trees increased by 1.2 times after high-pressure washing. Radioactivity counting rate did not decrease when the leaves fallen from zelocova trees were removed; however, they decreased by about half when soil cover was installed at the base of the trees. Clearly, the upper surfaces of garden trees and wooden surrounding structures were strongly contaminated by radioactive substances, and they should be decontaminated by high-pressure washing before removing the surface soil. (author)

  3. Use of nanomaterials in the European construction industry and some occupational health aspects thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhuizen, Pieter; van Broekhuizen, Fleur; Cornelissen, Ralf; Reijnders, Lucas

    2011-02-01

    In the European construction industry in 2009, the use of engineered nanoparticles appears to be confined to a limited number of products, predominantly coatings, cement and concrete. A survey among representatives of workers and employers from 14 EU countries suggests a high level of ignorance about the availability and use of nanomaterials for the construction industry and the safety aspects thereof. Barriers for a large-scale acceptance of products containing engineered nanoparticles (nanoproducts) are high costs, uncertainties about long-term technical material performance, as well as uncertainties about health risks of nanoproducts. Workplace measurements suggest a modest exposure of construction workers to nanoparticles (NPs) associated with the use of nanoproducts. The measured particles were within a size range of 20-300 nm, with the median diameter below 53 nm. Positive assignment of this exposure to the nanoproduct or to additional sources of ultrafine particles, like the electrical equipment used was not possible within the scope of this study and requires further research. Exposures were below the nano reference values proposed on the basis of a precautionary approach.

  4. Use of nanomaterials in the European construction industry and some occupational health aspects thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broekhuizen, Pieter van; Broekhuizen, Fleur van; Cornelissen, Ralf; Reijnders, Lucas

    2011-01-01

    In the European construction industry in 2009, the use of engineered nanoparticles appears to be confined to a limited number of products, predominantly coatings, cement and concrete. A survey among representatives of workers and employers from 14 EU countries suggests a high level of ignorance about the availability and use of nanomaterials for the construction industry and the safety aspects thereof. Barriers for a large-scale acceptance of products containing engineered nanoparticles (nanoproducts) are high costs, uncertainties about long-term technical material performance, as well as uncertainties about health risks of nanoproducts. Workplace measurements suggest a modest exposure of construction workers to nanoparticles (NPs) associated with the use of nanoproducts. The measured particles were within a size range of 20–300 nm, with the median diameter below 53 nm. Positive assignment of this exposure to the nanoproduct or to additional sources of ultrafine particles, like the electrical equipment used was not possible within the scope of this study and requires further research. Exposures were below the nano reference values proposed on the basis of a precautionary approach.

  5. Geometrical treatment of non-potential interactions: the exterior variational calculus, dynamical systems, physical 1-forms and variational selfadjointness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trostel, R.

    1982-01-01

    A mathematical objective of this paper is to provide geometrical formulation of the integrability conditions for the existence of an action functional, that is, to provide a geometrical counterpart (similar to that by Abraham, Marsden, and Hughes) of the variational and functional approach to self-adjointness. This objective is achieved via the exterior variational calculus, an exterior differential calculus on the vector space of functions depending on time or space time, using from the outset extensively the concept of functional differentiation as its foundation. Variational self-adjointness equals the variational closure of the physical 1-form, the vanishing of a generalized curl-operation applied to the equations of motion. The convenience of this more formal approach is demonstrated, not only when deriving the conditions of variational self-adjointness for materials of differential type of arbitrary order (particles or fields), using roughly no more than Dirac's delta-distributions, but also when treating materials of a broader class (including causal and acausal constitutive functionals, materials of rate type, integral type, etc.). A physical objective of this paper is achieved by pointing out that, as physics is primarily concerned with the solutions of the evolution equations, i.e., with the set of the zero points of the physical 1-form, an equivalence relation among the physical 1-forms on the infinite dimensional vector space of functions is constructed by leaving the set of their zero points unchanged. Using this result, a direct Lagrangian universality is indicated and an almost one presented. Moreover, all physical 1-forms connected by invertible supermatrices (thus mixing the evolution law of different times or space-time) are equivalent. Choosing these supermatrices to be diagonal in time or space-time yields the indirect analytical representation factors

  6. 77 FR 58577 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Notice of Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...Notice is hereby given that the presiding administrative law judge has issued a Final Initial Determination and Recommended Determination on Remedy and Bonding in the above-captioned investigation. The Commission is soliciting comments on public interest issues raised by the recommended relief, specifically a limited exclusion order and a cease and desist order against certain video game systems and wireless controllers and components thereof, imported by respondent Nintendo Co., Ltd., of Kyoto, Japan and Nintendo America, Inc. of Redmond, Washington (collectively, ``Nintendo'').

  7. 75 FR 41435 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From Germany: Notice of Court Decision Not in Harmony With Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ...On July 7, 2010, the United States Court of International Trade sustained the Department of Commerce's results of redetermination on remand concerning the final results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on ball bearings and parts thereof from Germany. See SKF USA Inc., v. United States, Slip Op. 10-76 (CIT July 7, 2010). The Department is now issuing this notice of court decision not in harmony with the Department of Commerce's determination.

  8. 77 FR 73415 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy: Final Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...On June 5, 2012, the Department of Commerce (the Department) published the preliminary results of the administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy. On October 16, 2012, the Department released its post-preliminary analysis in these reviews. For these final results, we continue to find that sales of the subject merchandise have not been made at prices below normal value.

  9. Estudios de caso de la política exterior española hacia el Mundo Árabe y Musulmán: Egipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Azaola Piazza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se basa en el análisis de una serie de nuevos indicadores en el estudio de las relaciones exteriores españolas hacia Egipto. Los datos que aporta la Base de Datos sobre Política Exterior (BDPEX destacan la importancia de Egipto en la política exterior española. La presencia histórica española en el país a través de su red de representaciones en el exterior, el número de representantes españoles residentes en el país, el intercambio de visitas de alto nivel, la firma de convenios y tratados, las cifras económicas, la aportación española a la cooperación internacional y la presencia egipcia en el debate parlamentario español así lo demuestran. This article is based on the analysis of a series of new indicators in the study of Spanish foreign relations with Egypt. The data provided by the BDPEX emphasize the centrality of Egypt in Spanish foreign policy. The Spanish historical presence in the country through its network of offices abroad, the number of Spanish representatives resident in the country, the exchange of high level visits, the signing of agreements and treaties, economic data, the Spanish contribution to international cooperation and the Egyptian presence in the Spanish parliamentary debate are used as evidence.

  10. Research on the recycling industry development model for typical exterior plastic components of end-of-life passenger vehicle based on the SWOT method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongshen; Chen, Ming

    2013-11-01

    In-depth studies on the recycling of typical automotive exterior plastic parts are significant and beneficial for environmental protection, energy conservation, and sustainable development of China. In the current study, several methods were used to analyze the recycling industry model for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles in China. The strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and challenges of the current recycling industry for typical exterior parts of passenger vehicles were analyzed comprehensively based on the SWOT method. The internal factor evaluation matrix and external factor evaluation matrix were used to evaluate the internal and external factors of the recycling industry. The recycling industry was found to respond well to all the factors and it was found to face good developing opportunities. Then, the cross-link strategies analysis for the typical exterior parts of the passenger car industry of China was conducted based on the SWOT analysis strategies and established SWOT matrix. Finally, based on the aforementioned research, the recycling industry model led by automobile manufacturers was promoted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ideales democráticos, religión y el destino manifiesto en la política exterior de los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Aya Smitmans

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available La política exterior de los Estados Unidos a pesar de sus orígenes idealistas, se define, de manera usual, como realista. Sin embargo, ese idealismo siempre está presente en el manejo de sus asuntos internacionales. Desde el

  12. Evidence concerning oxidation as a surface reaction in Baltic amber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    , obtained from pressed amber powder, were subjected to accelerated thermal ageing. Cross-sections of the pellets were analyzed by infrared micro-spectroscopy, in order to identify and quantify changes in chemical properties. The experimental results showed strong oxidation exclusively at the exterior part...... of cross-sections from samples subjected to long-term thermal ageing, confirming that oxidation of Baltic amber starts from the surface....

  13. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  14. Application of multidisciplinary treatment using chemoradiotherapy for advanced esophageal cancer and problems thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaka, Yoshiaki; Takagi, Yuu; Hoshino, Sumito; Shinohara, M.; Ogata, Takashi; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Aoki, Tatsuya

    2007-01-01

    Application of multidisciplinary treatment using chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for advanced esophageal cancer and the problems thereof were examined by stage. Subjects consisted of 169 cases of patients with advanced esophageal cancer who underwent CRT from 1998 to 2004 (stage III/IVa/IVb: 102/55/12 cases). Mean age was 63.4 years old, and male-to-female ratio was 145: 24. In all cases, low dose FP+radiation 40 Gy (4 weeks) was performed. Surgery was performed for resectable cases, and additional irradiation of 20-30 Gy for unresectable cases and those who refused surgery. Considerations included percentage of effectiveness, side effects, and prognosis. Side effects: Low white blood cell (WBC) was 65.1%, esophagitis was 30.2%, anemia was 21.3%, and thrombocytopenia was 12.4%. Stage III: Percentage of effectiveness was 52.0%. Survival rate of 5: 51.0% for resected cases (n=69) and 16.8% for unresected cases (n=33) (p=0.0002). Reasons for unresection: 17 cases of refusal of surgery, 11 cases comprising physical reasons, and 5 cases of others. Stage IVa: The percentage of effectiveness was 45.4%. Survival rate of 5: 23.1% in resected cases (n=13), and 9.8% in unresected cases (n=42). Stage IVb (all cases unresected): The percentage of effectiveness was 25.0%. Survival rate of 1: 11.7%. Survival rate of 2: 0%. In stage III, if prognosis of resected cases after CRT was good and resection was possible after CRT, surgery was desirable. In stage IVa, if it is a single organ T4 case, resection is possible after CRT, which is a good application of CRT. The stage IVb prognosis is poor, so chemotherapy with new regimens should be considered. (author)

  15. Degradation of quinoline and isoquinoline by vacuum ultraviolet light and mechanism thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Dazhang; Ni Yaming; Sun Dongmei; Wang Shilong; Sun Xiaoyu; Yao Side

    2010-01-01

    Since the wavelength is shorter than 190 nm, vacuum ultraviolet light has high energy enough to break the H-O bonds of water to produce HO·, as well as the protection is very easy, degradation of organic contaminants in water by vacuum ultraviolet light has obviously excellent feature of no reagent adding to the wastewater among advanced oxidation technologies. In this paper, it was reported that quinoline and isoquinoline were degraded in water by the irradiation of low-pressure quartz mercury light with the electric power of 200 W which mainly emitted the light of 185 nm and 254 nm. The change regulation of the concentration of substrates, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total organic carbon (TOC) were investigated as well as the degradation processes of quinoline and isoquinoline were compared. It showed that both quinoline and isoquinoline could be degraded very fast under the given conditions. The concentration of the substrates decreased to nearly 0 in 10 minutes while the apparent first reaction rate constants were 0.41 ± 0.02 min -1 and 0.19 ± 0.01 min -1 , respectively. Meanwhile, the COD and TOC decreased to nearly 0 in 30 minutes. Quinoline has the faster degradation rate. In order to investigate mechanism thereof, pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis of quinoline and isoquinoline aqueous solution were performed, respectively. Pulse radiolysis indicated that the reaction rate constant of quinoline and HO· was faster than that of isoquinoline. In the meanwhile, laser flash photolysis indicated that both quinoline and isoquinoline could be ionized by the UV-C light while the photo-ionization efficiency of quinoline was higher than that of quinoline. These two reasons caused the faster degradation rate of quinoline. (authors)

  16. Exterior Noise Due to Interaction of Tire-Thermoplastic Transverse Rumble Strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haron Zaiton

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transverse rumble strips (TRS are a common choice to reduce vehicle speed and increase driver alertness on roadways. However, there is a potential trade-off using them on rural roadway due to the noise problem created when vehicles go over the strips. The present study investigated the noise level, spectral analysis and the possible noise generation mechanism when the TRS hit by a vehicle. Ten-raised-rumbler (RR and three-layer-overlapped (TLO were selected in this study as they have received complaints from the public. Results showed that RR generated relatively higher noise and impulse at low speed, and increased sound level in each octave band. Based on these results, RR may irritate human ears even when the vehicle travels at low speed. It was found that RR increased all noise generation mechanism of tire-pavement interaction whilst for the TLO increased structural resonance, sidewall and surface texture vibration.

  17. Estudos no exterior e mediação de modelos institucionais: o caso dos juristas brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Engelmann

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto constitui uma análise do perfil dos estudos no exterior dos professores de mestrado e doutorado em Direito no Brasil, a partir das informações fornecidas por eles nos currículos registrados na Plataforma Lattes, do Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq, em 2006. Esses dados são analisados no contexto de uma discussão sobre os efeitos da internacionalização das perícias de gestão do Estado e dos usos das "Ciências Sociais Aplicadas", já que a utilização de tais perícias está relacionada às estratégias mobilizadas pelos agentes nas disputas pelas posições de poder e pela definição do sentido de "Estado", "política" e "justiça". Assim, pode-se elaborar hipóteses sobre a relação entre a circulação internacional de juristas brasileiros e os movimentos de importação e exportação de modelos institucionais, bem como suas repercussões no espaço jurídico e político nacionais. As reconversões de agentes - até então dedicados principalmente ao "mundo operacional" - em direção à carreira acadêmica e à produção intelectual, por meio dos investimentos em titulação de doutorado e em estudos no exterior, podem ser analisadas em estreita correspondência com a demanda pela refundamentação e com a internacionalização dos conhecimentos relacionados ao Estado e à gestão das instituições políticas e jurídicas. Da mesma forma, esse processo, no caso dos juristas, contempla a fundamentação intelectual da resistência aos modelos institucionais que apontam para o enfraquecimento dos pressupostos do Estado-nação.

  18. Effects of post heat-treatment on surface characteristics and adhesive bonding performance of medium density fiberboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilimis; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2009-01-01

    A series of commercially manufactured medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels were exposed to a post-manufacture heat-treatment at various temperatures and durations using a hot press and just enough pressure to ensure firm contact between the panel and the press platens. Post-manufacture heat-treatment improved surface roughness of the exterior MDF panels. Panels...

  19. Surface modification method for reactor incore structural component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Minoru; Sudo, Akira.

    1996-01-01

    A large number of metal or ceramic small spheres accelerated by pressurized air are collided against a surface of a reactor incore structures or a welded surface of the structural components, and then finishing is applied by polishing to form compression stresses on the surface. This can change residual stresses into compressive stress without increasing the strength of the surface. Accordingly, stress corrosion crackings of the incore structural components or welded portions thereof can be prevented thereby enabling to extend the working life of equipments. (T.M.)

  20. SUBSTANTIATION OF DESIGN MEASURES TO INCREASE ENERGY EFFICIENCY OF EXTERIOR WALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musorina Tat'yana Aleksandrovna

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: multi-layer building envelope is the subject of the paper. Recently, in the context of energy conservation policies, the heat engineering requirements for enveloping structures of buildings and structures have significantly increased. At the same time, their moisture condition has a significant impact on the operational properties of materials of structures and on microclimate of rooms constrained by these structures. Research objectives: emphasize importance of the task of predicting the temperature and moisture condition of the walling at the stage of design and construction of building envelopes. In this paper, the temperature distributions in layered walls are analyzed. Materials and methods: to achieve the objectives, computational and experimental studies are conducted. By alternating (rearranging layers and preserving the thermal resistance of the wall on the whole, we find the optimal alternation of layers that minimizes deviation of the maximum wall temperature from the average temperature. Results: for the optimal location of layers in the wall’s structure, the moisture penetration into the wall is minimal or absent altogether. This is possible if the heat-insulating layer is mounted on the outer surface of the structure. Conclusions: the obtained results of computational and experimental studies allow us to verify appropriateness of accounting for alternation of layers in multilayer structures. These calculations proved that the higher the average temperature level, the more energy-efficient the structure will be.

  1. Depression cathode structure for cathode ray tubes having surface smoothness and method for producing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rychlewski, T.V.

    1984-01-01

    Depression cathode structures for cathode ray tubes are produced by dispensing liquid cathode material into the depression of a metallic supporting substrate, removing excess cathode material by passing a doctor blade across the substrate surface and over the depression, and drying the cathode layer to a substantially immobile state. The cathode layer may optionally be further shaped prior to substantially complete drying thereof

  2. Entre efectos colaterales y constreñimientos de orden doméstico e internacional : el papel de la política exterior estadounidense en el régimen de los Somoza en Nicaragua (1936 – 1979)

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte Leal, Diego Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Esta monografía busca explicar la construcción de la política exterior estadounidense hacia Nicaragua y su incidencia en el régimen de los Somoza (1936 – 1979). Se explicará la construcción de la política exterior estadounidense a partir de la teoría de Fareed Zakaria, en la que se analizarán los factores domésticos y sistémicos que incidieron en ese proceso. Posteriormente, siguiendo los postulados de Giulio Gallarotti, se identificará la incidencia de la política exterior estadounidense en ...

  3. Las fuentes estadísticas para el estudio del comercio exterior mexicano entre 1920 Y 1947

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Avella Alaminos

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo la autora identifica, examina y confronta las principales series estadísticas disponibles para estudiar el valor del comercio exterior de México entre 1920 y 1947, cuando tuvo lugar la transición del país hacia el modelo de sustitución de importaciones. A partir de ello, establece el porqué de las diferencias que existen entre dichas series, así como sus limitaciones, con el fin de que los estudiosos del tema sepan las implicaciones de trabajar con estas fuentes.In this article the author identifies, examines and compares the main statistical data which is available to study the value of Mexico's foreign trade between 1920 and 1947, a period when the country entered the import substitution era. Based on this analysis, the author establishes the origin of the differences between the series, and also points out its limitations, so that the researchers interested in the topic are aware of the nature of the data they must deal with.

  4. The effect of vasopressin on hormone secretion and blood flow from the thyroid vein in sheep with exteriorized thyroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, I R

    1968-12-01

    1. Vasopressin has been shown to activate the thyroid in some species, and also to be released into the bloodstream after emotional and other stresses.2. Emotional stimuli applied to sheep have previously been shown to increase thyroid secretion and the possible influence of vasopressin in this process has been investigated. Sheep bearing exteriorized thyroid glands were used, so that thyroid vein blood could be collected in undisturbed conscious animals.3. (125)I or (131)I (50 muc) was injected I.M. into the sheep; 4-7 days later, samples of thyroid vein blood were collected at 10 min intervals for 4 hr, and the concentration of total and protein bound (125)I or (131)I was measured. Intravenous infusions of 0.3, 3.0 or 31 m-u./min arginine or lysine vasopressin, or close arterial infusions of 3.0 or 31 m-u./min arginine vasopressin were administered 1.5 hr after commencement of blood sampling. Blood flow from the thyroid was measured by a plethysmographic technique during similar experiments.4. No significant changes in thyroid hormone secretion were observed as a result of vasopressin infusion, and it was concluded that vasopressin release does not play a part in the activation of the thyroid resulting from emotional stimulus in the sheep.

  5. A busca de um novo paradigma: política exterior, comércio externo e federalismo no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Flávio Sombra Saraiva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo examina o processo de inserção das entidades federativas no cenário do comércio internacional. Para tanto, faz uma análise das relações entre o Estado federativo do Brasil e as relações internacionais do mesmo, com vista ao comércio exterior. Ressalta a nova conjuntura, na qual se faz mister a participação dos Estados-membro articulados com o governo central brasileiro. Destaca o papel do Nordeste, em especial o Ceará, nesse novo contexto econômico.This article examines the process whereby federation members participate in international trade. To this end, it surveys relations within the Brazilian Federative State and the latter's international relations linked to foreign trade. The article stresses the new circumstances, which requires coordination between federation members and the Brazilian central government. It also points out the role of the Northeast and of the state of Ceara in particular in this new economic context.

  6. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  7. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of the exterior land areas at the Grand Junction Projects Office facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1995-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility occupies approximately 56.4 acres (22.8 hectares) along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. The site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium-refining activities conducted by the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot-milling experiments conducted for the US Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC`s) domestic uranium procurement program. The GJPO facility was the collection and assay point for AEC uranium and vanadium oxide purchases until the early 1970s. The DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program sponsored the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project (GJPORAP) to remediate the facility lands, site improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor, Rust Geotech, was the Remedial Action Contractor for GJPORAP. The exterior land areas of the facility assessed as contaminated have been remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unrestricted use. Restoration of the aquifer will be accomplished through the natural flushing action of the aquifer during the next 50 to 80 years. The remediation of the DOE-GJPO facility buildings is ongoing and will be described in a separate report.

  8. Development of Acacia Glulam Wood Exterior Beam-to-Column Connection with Angles and Steel Rods System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simanta Djoni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two models (M9B1 and M9B2 connection types of acacia glulam wood exterior beam-to-column connections with angles and steel rod system have been developed. Both models have been tested experimentally under monotonic static and cyclic loadings. The behaviour of each model under static and cyclic loadings, maximum displacement, maximum moment, equivalent viscous damping ratio, stiffness degradation, rotational stiffness and ductility have been observed. From the test results it can be concluded that the behaviour of the connections were influenced by the number of bearing steel rods at the beam, wood quality, and thickness of the angles. The M9B1 connection type has more flexibility than the M9B2 connection type. Three dimensional finite element analyses considering anisotropic plasticity have been conducted for both models. It can be concluded that in M9B1 connection type, the tensile forces due to the moment are received by the combination of tensile steel rods and bearing force in the steel rod and wood around it. Overall performance of M9B2 connection type is better than that of M9B1 connection type because the former has higher initial stiffness and higher rotational ductility than the later.

  9. El modelo de seguridad alimentaria de la Unión Europea y su dimensión exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Guinea

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La Unión Europea, tercer grupo humano del planeta, es el primer importador mundial y segundo exportador de productos alimenticios. Es un actor global en materia de seguridad alimentaria, cuyas decisiones afectan sustancialmente al comercio mundial de alimentos y, por tanto, a las políticas alimentarias del resto de los Estados, especialmente, de aquellos que necesitan del comercio para asegurar una oferta suficiente de alimentos para su población. En este trabajo nos proponemos examinar el modelo de seguridad alimentaria de la UE, regulado a través de la PAC, y la dimensión exterior de este modelo, esto es, las relaciones comerciales sobre productos agrícolas que la UE mantiene con sus socios así como la cooperación para el desarrollo. Esto es relevante para los países del Magreb, ya que la UE determina con sus políticas internas tanto la disponibilidad de alimentos como los precios de los mercados internacionales. Tiene que ser un referente para el resto de los países de su entorno y, especialmente, con aquellos con los que tiene relaciones comerciales específicas en materia de comercio de alimentos.

  10. La política exterior de España hacia Asia Central (2000-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alonso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Aunque las relaciones de España con los actuales países de Asia Central se remontan a varios siglos atrás, fue la desaparición de la Unión Soviética la que abrió una ventana de oportunidades para profundizar en dichas relaciones. España tuvo que confeccionar una Política Exterior orientada hacia estos países, aunque se centró, casi exclusivamente, en su relación con los dos más grandes: Kazajstán y Uzbekistán. Los sucesivos Gobiernos han ampliado y profundizado la cooperación con aquellos actores, sobre todo en materia de seguridad y energía. No obstante, la presencia española en la zona es muy tímida y escasa, a pesar de la buena relación existente entre el Rey D. Juan Carlos y los respectivos Presidentes de las repúblicas centroasiáticas.

  11. Desafíos de los entes locales: un nuevo modelo de gobierno con proyección exterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Remedios Zamora Roselló

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available La Administración local está llamada a convertirse en un actor básico en la adopción de decisiones a todos los niveles institucionales. Las novedades que esta realidad presenta en el panorama administrativo permiten abordar el estudio de dos de los aspectos básicos de los futuros entes locales: su activa participación en la gobernanza multinivel y la perspectiva exterior de su actividad, a través de la cooperación y la colaboración con entes locales vecinos o de otros Estados. La diversidad de nuestras sociedades y la consecución de la cohesión económica, social y territorial a nivel comunitario determinan el sentido de los Entes locales y las funciones que deberán asumir. >strong>The local authority is called to be a core actor in the decision-making at all institutional levels. These developments in the administrative context can approach the study of two basic aspects of future local authorities: their active participation in multi-level governance and the external perspective of its activities, through cooperation and collaboration with neighboring local governments or from other States. The diversity of our societies and the attainment of economic, social and territorial cohesion at EU level determine the meaning of local organizations and the roles they will assume.

  12. Hygrothermal analysis of surface layers of historical masonry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kočí, Václav; Maděra, Jiří; Keppert, Martin; Černý, Robert

    2017-11-01

    The paper deals with the hygrothermal analysis of surface layers of historical masonry. Solid brick provided with a traditional and two modified lime-based plasters is studied. The heat and moisture transport in the envelope is induced by an exposure of the wall from the exterior side to dynamic climatic conditions of Olomouc, Czech Republic. The transport processes are described using diffusion type of mathematical model based on experimentally determined material properties. The computational results indicate that hygric transport and accumulation properties of exterior plasters affect the hygrothermal performance of the underlying solid brick in a very significant way, being able to regulate the amount of transported moisture. The modified lime plasters are not found generally superior to the traditional lime plasters in that respect. Therefore, their suitability for historical masonry should be assessed case by case, with a particular attention to the climatic conditions and to the properties of the load bearing structure.

  13. 76 FR 60871 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France, Germany, and Italy; Termination of Five-Year Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ...The subject five-year reviews were initiated in August 2011 to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on ball bearings and parts thereof from France, Germany, and Italy would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury. The Department of Commerce published notice that it was revoking the order effective September 15, 2011, because ``no domestic interested party filed a notice of intent to participate in response to the notice of initiation of the sunset reviews by the applicable deadline.'' (76 FR 57019). Accordingly, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), the subject reviews are terminated.

  14. La política exterior y el derecho internacional en los aspectos territoriales: el caso de Nicaragua en los últimos 20 años.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Antonio Madriz Fornos

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available En la dinámica de las relaciones internacionales, en un mundo cada vez más complejo e interdependiente como el actual, la política exterior y el derecho internacional son como las dos caras de una misma moneda. Nicaragua está obligada a actuar en contra de toda política violatoria del derecho internacional, más aún cuando ésta atenta contra su soberanía e integridad territorial, haciendo uso de todos los medios que el derecho internacional pone a su disposición, incluida una política exterior más beligerante sobre el tema. Dentro de esta lógica se enmarcan los dos juicios presentados por Nicaragua ante la Corte Internacional de Justicia de la Haya, uno contra Honduras y otro contra Colombia.

  15. Estratégias de Promoção para o Comércio Exterior Brasileiro: O Caso do Setor Têxtil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Raphaeta Borges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available O comércio exterior brasileiro vem crescendo continuamente. Sua participação no comércio mundial, no entanto, não ultrapassa 1,1 %. Barreiras internas de ordem estrutural, política, econômica e cultural por um lado, associadas à baixa cultura exportadora por outro, explicam parte de tal desempenho. Este trabalho procurou identificar as principais estratégias de promoção aplicadas ao comércio exterior e, em especial ao setor têxtil. Observou-se que o setor têxtil, embora tenha participação expressiva no grupo de manufaturados da pauta exportadora brasileira, atinge mercados restritos, como conseqüência das estratégias adotadas que têm como foco a comercialização e verticalização, em vez da tecnologia.

  16. La débil Europa: consideraciones críticas sobre la política exterior de la Unión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor C. Pascual Planchuelo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo tiene como objetivo analizar la Política Exterior de la Unión Europea. Para ello se revisa la orientación general de todos los países miembros, sus agendas diplomáticas y posturas geoestratégicas. En un contexto global en el que la Unión Europea desempeña un rol de simple observador, sin posibilidad de ejercer un poder decisorio sobre los aspectos fundamentales de la política internacional, la única opción válida es la de reforzar la Política Exterior. La Unión Europea tiene la obligación de hablar ante el mundo con una sola voz, y no delegar los temas de defensa y seguridad al aliado de costumbre, los Estados Unidos.

  17. Las contradicciones entre las políticas interior y exterior en la Rumania de la Guerra Fría (1956-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Dolores Ferrero Blanco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo va a tratar del desarrollo paralelo de las políticas interior y exterior del gobierno rumano en la Guerra Fría. Para ello se ha utilizado documentación proveniente del Ministerio de Asuntos Exteriores y de la Hemeroteca Nacional. Se ha buscado contrastar la información proveniente de medios oficiales (informes de embajadores, cónsules o representantes comerciales con la ofrecida por los rumanos exiliados en España (principalmente a través de su publicación El Boletín Rumano. Asimismo, se han consultado los fondos de periódicos como Ya, ABC o Arriba. Como principal conclusión, se extrae que entre las políticas interior y exterior funcionó un mecanismo de retroalimentación que las completaba entre sí, apuntalando el régimen. Este mismo efecto fue provocado por las relaciones y contactos mantenidos por países del exterior del bloque.________________ABSTRACT:This article deals with the parallel development of domestic and foreign policy of the Rumanian government during the Cold War. For it, documentation of the Foreign Ministry and the National Hemeroteque has been used. The aim was to contrast the information coming from official sources (such as reports of ambassadors, consuls or sales representatives with attestations made by the Romanians exiled in Spain (principally thanks to their publication, called El Boletín Rumano. Likewise, the newspaper archives of Ya, ABC or Arriba have been consulted. The most important result, is that it is attested that there were a feedback mechanism between domestic and foreign policy which matched them, supporting the regime. The same effect was caused by relations and contacts with western countries.

  18. Method for forming nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction and the product thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B.-C.; Rosenbaum, H.S.; Armijo, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of producing a composite nuclear fuel container is described which comprises a casing or fuel sheath of zirconium or its alloy with a lining cladding of deposited copper superimposed over the inside surface of the zirconium or alloy and a layer of oxide of the zirconium or alloy formed on the inside surface of the casing or sheath. (U.K.)

  19. 75 FR 73128 - Certain Printing and Imaging Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Commission Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... fixing, paper path geometry, contact angle and surface roughness characteristics and testing of... the fixing member which easily satisfy the above-mentioned surface physical properties.'' (c) Under... public health and welfare, (2) competitive conditions in the U.S. economy, (3) U.S. production of...

  20. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  1. Análisis de la política exterior de Venezuela en materia energética dirigida a Centro América. Estudio de Caso: Petrocaribe instrumento del ALBA. Periodo 2005-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Castillo, Diana Marcela

    2012-01-01

    Análisis de la imfluencia de Petrocaribe en la política exterior de Venezuela, utilizando el petróleo como herramienta de acercamiento en las relaciones comerciales entre Venezuela y los paises del Caribe.

  2. Exterior indicators and physiological signs' indices of juveniles Salmo salar L. in the rivers of the Kola Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anokhina V. S.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The range of background values of main parameters of the exterior and indices of morphophysiological features of autumn juvenile salmon Salmon salar L. in four rivers of the Kola Peninsula not affected by hatchery production have been investigated. The importance of such studies is associated with intensification of artificial reproduction of salmon and occurrence of hatchery fish with characters different from wild individuals in the rivers. Currently hatchery reproduction of Atlantic salmon is not carried out in the European North of Russia, however, the need to choose a local salmon population for further hatchery reproduction is obvious. Accumulation of biological data on salmon in the rivers of the Kola Peninsula is important for population monitoring of wild stocks. Samples of juveniles widely varying in size have been collected by electrofishing in the Rivers Pechenga, Zapadnaya Litsa and Titovka of the Barents Sea basin, as well as in the tributaries of the River Varzuga inflowing the White Sea. For each sample individual and group indices of elongation, girth and massiveness have been calculated. The physiological state of the fish has been assessed with allowance for the fatness factor (according to Clark and indices of internal organs. It has been found that in the autumn season (September the average statistical values of the morphological indices characterizing the appearance of the fry from four rivers differ with a high degree of reliability. Individual fluctuations in morphological parameters are in the range of values: elongation – from 311 to 725 %; girth – from 41 to 85 %; massiveness – from 150 to 530 %. The mean values of morphophysiological indices for each of the four river populations have been presented. The obtained values of the studied parameters of juveniles of Atlantic salmon can be used for subsequent monitoring of populations.

  3. Influencia de la asimetría de las rectrices exteriores en la eficiencia de vuelo del Rabihorcado (Fregata magnificens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica González-Jaramillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available La asimetría de las rectrices exteriores en Fregata magnificens (rabihorcado influye en su eficiencia de vuelo, mientras que la cola, profundamente bifurcada de esta especie sexualmente dimórfica, juega un papel crucial en su desempeño aerodinámico. Para evaluar la presión de la selección natural en la asimetría de la cola, modelamos el desempeño de rabihorcados machos y hembras simétricos y asimétricos adultos durante el vuelo de planeo en la colonia reproductiva de Isla Isabel, México, mediante la proporción levante:arrastre y las polares y superpolares de planeo. Encontramos diferencias significativas entre rabihorcados machos y hembras, simétricos y asimétricos cuando analizamos su desempeño en el vuelo de planeo y sus costos de compensación asociados. El modelo teórico indicó que la asimetría de la cola tendrá un efecto más grande en los machos que en las hembras durante el vuelo, y que los individuos asimétricos volarán menos eficientemente que los simétricos corrigiendo su asimetría en función de la velocidad al incorporar más costos de arrastre. Investigación futura para estimar las tasas de supervivencia de individuos simétricos y asimétricos, costos de construcción de nido y de éxito reproductivo podría revelar las ventajas de tener una cola simétrica en esta especie y elucidar si la asimetría tiene un costo en la adecuación.

  4. Exterior Site Occupancy Infers Chloride-Induced Proton Gating in a Prokaryotic Homolog of the ClC Chloride Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, David L.; Berkowitz, Max L.

    2004-01-01

    The ClC family of anion channels mediates the efficient, selective permeation of Cl− across the biological membranes of living cells under the driving force of an electrochemical gradient. In some eukaryotes, these channels are known to exhibit a unique gating mechanism, which appears to be triggered by the permeant Cl− anion. We infer details of this gating mechanism by studying the free energetics of Cl− occupancy in the pore of a prokaryotic ClC homolog. These free energetics were gleaned from 30 ns of molecular dynamics simulation on an ∼133,000-atom system consisting of a hydrated membrane embedded StClC transporter. The binding sites for Cl− in the transporter were determined for the cases where the putative gating residue, Glu148, was protonated and unprotonated. When the glutamate gate is protonated, Cl− favorably occupies an exterior site, Sext, to form a queue of anions in the pore. However, when the glutamate gate is unprotonated, Cl− cannot occupy this site nor, consequently, pass through the pore. An additional, previously undetected, site was found in the pore near the outer membrane that exists regardless of the protonation state of Glu148. Although this suggests that, for the prokaryotic homolog, protonation of Glu148 may be the first step in transporting Cl− at the expense of H+ transport in the opposite direction, an evolutionary argument might suggest that Cl− opens the ClC gate in eukaryotic channels by inducing the conserved glutamate's protonation. During an additional 20 ns free dynamics simulation, the newly discovered outermost site, Sout, and the innermost site, Sint, were seen to allow spontaneous exchange of Cl− ions with the bulk electrolyte while under depolarization conditions. PMID:15345547

  5. All-Elastomer 3-Axis Contact Resistive Tactile Sensor Arrays and Micromilled Manufacturing Methods Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambides, Alexandros (Inventor); Bergbreiter, Sarah (Inventor); Penskiy, Ivan (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    At least one tactile sensor includes an insulating layer and a conductive layer formed on the surface of the insulating layer. The conductive layer defines at least one group of flexible projections extending orthogonally from the surface of the insulating layer. The flexible projections include a major projection extending a distance orthogonally from the surface and at least one minor projection that is adjacent to and separate from the major projection wherein the major projection extends a distance orthogonally that is greater than the distance that the minor projection extends orthogonally. Upon a compressive force normal to, or a shear force parallel to, the surface, the major projection and the minor projection flex such that an electrical contact resistance is formed between the major projection and the minor projection. A capacitive tactile sensor is also disclosed that responds to the normal and shear forces.

  6. Tuning antimicrobial properties of biomimetic nanopatterned surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Martyna; Gambacorta, Francesca; Divan, Ralu; Aranson, Igor S; Sokolov, Andrey; Noirot, Philippe; Laible, Philip D

    2018-04-05

    Nature has amassed an impressive array of structures that afford protection from microbial colonization/infection when displayed on the exterior surfaces of organisms. Here, controlled variation of the features of mimetics derived from etched silicon allows for tuning of their antimicrobial efficacy. Materials with nanopillars up to 7 μm in length are extremely effective against a wide range of microbial species and exceed the performance of natural surfaces; in contrast, materials with shorter/blunter nanopillars (<2 μm) selectively killed specific species. Using a combination of microscopies, the mechanisms by which bacteria are killed are demonstrated, emphasizing the dependence upon pillar density and tip geometry. Additionally, real-time imaging reveals how cells are immobilized and killed rapidly. Generic or selective protection from microbial colonization could be conferred to surfaces [for, e.g., internal medicine, implants (joint, dental, and cosmetic), food preparation, and the agricultural industry] patterned with these materials as coatings.

  7. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  8. Point-of-care salivary microbial tests for detection of cariogenic species - Clinical relevance thereof - review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lenčová, E.; Broukal, Z.; Spížek, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 55 (2010), s. 559-568 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06011 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : CARIES RISK-ASSESSMENT * EARLY-CHILDHOOD CARIES * ROOT SURFACE CARIES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.977, year: 2010

  9. Pequena Miss Sunshine: para além de uma subjetividade exterior Little Miss Sunshine: beyond external subjectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Maria Bueno Fischer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute as relações entre cultura do sucesso e sexualidade, com foco na infância - tema caro às diferentes mídias, como a televisão e o cinema. Faz-se uma análise do filme Pequena Miss Sunshine, a partir de autores como Foucault, Alain Badiou, Ismail Xavier e Jurandir Costa, com ênfase nos conceitos de modos de subjetivação, imagem fílmica e subjetividade exterior. O objetivo é pensar questões de gênero e sexualidade na cultura do espetáculo, a partir de uma narrativa cinematográfica em que tais valores são questionados. A ênfase é dada à análise do olhar e do corpo infantil, na figura da personagem Olive, de modo a pensar a gestualidade própria da criança, em seu silêncio, enigma e mistério, mais do que mera revelação de sentidos. O texto aponta que tal exercício pode sugerir outros modos de pensar as relações entre mídia, infância e questões de gênero e sexualidade.This article explores the relations between the culture of success and sexuality, with a focus on childhood as an important issue for the different kinds of media, such as television and the cinema. An analysis of the movie Little Miss Sunshine is developed, with the use of theoretical references from Foucault, Alain Badiou, Jurandir Costa and Ismail Xavier, about the concepts of audiovisual images, ways of subjectivation and external subjectivity. The aim of the study is to reflect on gender and sexuality issues in a spectacle culture, from a movie narrative in which such values are questioned. There is an analysis of children's bodies and their way of seeing the world, as expressed by the character Olive, with gestures, silence and mystery, rather than a revelation of senses. Such practices may suggest other ways of considering the relations between media, childhood and gender and sexuality issues.

  10. As Novas Estratégias de Promoção do Brasil no Exterior: estudo de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Raquel Pérez-Nebra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este estudo de caso tem como objetivo a análise das estratégias utilizadas pela EMBRATUR após suas novas atribuições ocorridas em 2003. O foco dessas estratégias é a modificação do posicionamento da atual imagem do Brasil no exterior. O trabalho foi estruturado considerando Brasil como uma marca. Primeiro foi apresentada a base da organização, para posteriormente apresentar o cenário do turismo internacional e como o Brasil está inserido nele. Finalmente as estratégias adotadas pelo órgão e uma avaliação crítica de tais estratégias. É possível concluir acreditando que houve mudança quantitativa no quadro do turismo brasileiro; entretanto a mudança qualitativa não é possível inferir adequadamente com o pouco tempo de implementação. A marca-Brasil e suas estratégias foram avaliadas, e possibilidades de desenvolvimento são sugeridos ao final do trabalho, principalmente ligados à pesquisa e desenvolvimento. Palavras-chave: EMBRATUR; estratégias; imagem; marca; imagem do destino turístico Abstract The goal of this case study is to analyze the strategies used by EMBRATUR after the new guidelines were established in 2003. The aim of these strategies was to modify the current positioning of the image that Brazil has abroad. This study was structured considering Brazil as a brand. First, we began by providing the background of the organization, then the scenery of international tourism and how Brazil is inserted in it. Finally the strategies adopted by the agency and a critical evaluation of such strategies. The conclusion suggests a perception of quantitative change in the scenario of the Brazilian tourism; although the qualitative rate was not possible to assess due to time constraints. Brand-Brazil and its strategies were assessed, and possibility of development was suggested at the end of the work, mainly on research and development. Keywords: EMBRATUR; strategies; image; brand; tourism destination

  11. La España de Franco desde el exterior: el inacabado camino hacia Occidente (1955-1975

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hipólito de la Torre Gómez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata de combinar la ya bien conocida evolución política de la España de Franco con las percepciones que generó en las potencias occidentales. El bienio 1957-1959 (guerra de Ifni y colaboración con Francia; reorientación de la política económica supuso un importante viraje hacia Occidente de la diplomacia de Madrid. El franquismo carecía ya de cualquier alternativa. La modernización socio-económica lo estaba consolidando, al tiempo que preparaba las bases de un futuro democrático tras la desaparición de Franco. Las potencias democráticas tenían que aceptar la realidad de una España nueva, que ya no era aquella quantité négligeable de los primeros tiempos, pero cuya naturaleza política impedía el pleno desarrollo de todas sus potencialidades exteriores. Entre tanto los poderes occidentales debían ir apostando por el momento de la sucesión. This article tries to combine the wellknown political developments in Franco’s Spain and the perceptions generated by these in Western powers. The biennium 1957-1959 (War of Ifni and collaboration with France; reorientation of economic policy was a major turning point in Madrid’s diplomacy towards the West. Franco´s regime was already a reality without choice. Socio-economic modernization was backing the dictatorship, while laying the foundations for a democratic future after the Caudillo´s demise. The western powers had to accept the reality of this New Spain, which was no longer the quantité négligeable of early days, but whose political hindrances prevented the full development of its international potential. Meanwhile, the democracies had to go betting on the succession.

  12. Evolución de las acciones educativas en el exterior (AEE de España en Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Remedios González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza cómo se enfrentan los alumnos que terminan el Bachillerato a su futuro laboral y formativo a través de una encuesta realizadas en la primavera del 2011 a alumnos del distrito madrileño de la Universidad Complutense, entre los que se encuentran los del Liceo Español de París. La comparación entre los resultados de los alumnos del Liceo y los de sus compañeros parece indicar un cambio de modelo en los receptores de las acciones educativas españolas en el exterior. Por otro lado y desde hace años, la política común y los objetivos educativos europeos han estado marcados por la llamada «Estrategia de Lisboa» que ha apostado por empleos de calidad, basados en la formación, que llevarían a la innovación y al desarrollo tecnológico y esta política debería tener refl ejo en las expectativas de los alumnos. La situación de crisis económica que atraviesa Europa y en particular España, desde el 2008, introduce un nuevo escenario que puede influir en la toma de decisiones en este periodo tan significativo de final de la Enseñanza Secundaria que coincide con la incorporación de los alumnos a la ciudadanía plena y, en ocasiones, con su incorporación al mundo laboral.This article discusses how to confront students completing high school to their future employment and training through a survey conducted in the spring of 2011 with students in the Madrid’s district of Complutense University, among which are those of the Spanish Lyceum of Paris. The comparison between the results of the Lyceum students and their peers suggests a paradigm shift in the receptor of Spanish international education actions. On the other hand and for years now, the common policies and the European educational objectives have been marked by the «Lisbon Strategy » which has made a high bet on quality jobs, based on good education, which would lead to innovation and technological development and this policy should be reflected in

  13. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cindy H.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, wilfred

    2008-02-14

    Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

  14. CONTROL Y VIGILANCIA EN FRONTERAS. PAPEL DE SANIDAD EXTERIOR DURANTE LAS FASES DE CONTENCIÓN DE LA PANDEMIA (H1 N1 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Dávila Cornejo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Los controles sanitarios en fronteras, establecidos con el objetivo de retrasar la entrada del virus pandémico en España, constituyen una de las actividades propias de las fases de contención de la enfermedad. Su puesta en práctica como estrategia de salud pública en respuesta a epidemias es responsabilidad de la Dirección General de Salud Pública y Sanidad Exterior del Ministerio de Sanidad y Política Social, a través de la Subdirección General de Sanidad Exterior, y para ello se requiere una actuación coordinada con otros organismos implicados. Este trabajo tiene como finalidad describir las actuaciones realizadas en los aeropuertos internacionales durante dichas fases, así como evaluar su efectividad en la consecución del objetivo para el que fueron diseñadas. En este sentido, se establece una hipótesis que trata de explicar cómo las medidas adoptadas por Sanidad Exterior y la colaboración con los Servicios de Vigilancia Epidemiológica de las Comunidades Autónomas podrían haber contribuido a retrasar la propagación del virus en nuestro país. Se destaca la necesidad de consolidar los sistemas de vigilancia en fronteras potenciando dicha colaboración, así como la importancia de diseñar una estrategia clara de comunicación a la población en estos escenarios, que debe acompañar a la implementación de las demás medidas para evitar situaciones de incertidumbre.

  15. Micro-fabricated integrated coil and magnetic circuit and method of manufacturing thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovich, Robert E.; Papavasiliou, Alex P.; Mehrotra, Vivek; Stupar, Philip A.; Borwick, III, Robert L.; Ganguli, Rahul; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.

    2017-03-28

    A micro-fabricated electromagnetic device is provided for on-circuit integration. The electromagnetic device includes a core. The core has a plurality of electrically insulating layers positioned alternatingly between a plurality of magnetic layers to collectively form a continuous laminate having alternating magnetic and electrically insulating layers. The electromagnetic device includes a coil embedded in openings of the semiconductor substrate. An insulating material is positioned in the cavity and between the coil and an inner surface of the core. A method of manufacturing the electromagnetic device includes providing a semiconductor substrate having openings formed therein. Windings of a coil are electroplated and embedded in the openings. The insulating material is coated on or around an exposed surface of the coil. Alternating magnetic layers and electrically insulating layers may be micro-fabricated and electroplated as a single and substantially continuous segment on or around the insulating material.

  16. Paro y libre comercio exterior: una contradicción incómoda para economistas y políticos

    OpenAIRE

    Vergés i Jaime, Joaquim

    2009-01-01

    Liberalización mundial del comercio exterior, y deslocalización: ¿Este binomio hace que los países industrializados ayuden realmente a los subdesarrollados (más allá de beneficiar a las empresas importadoras -en los segundos- y a las deslocalizadoras –en los primeros)? Y, en caso afirmativo, ¿quines –en los países ‘industrializados’-soportan el coste de esa ayuda? Esto suscita cuestiones incómodas – generalmente no abordadas, precisamente por ello- entre los profesionales de la economía y los...

  17. CREACIÓN DE DEPARTAMENTOS DE COMERCIO EXTERIOR ARTICULADORES DE PROYECCIÓN SOCIAL EN UN PROGRAMA ACADÉMICO UNIVERSITARIO

    OpenAIRE

    Cáceres-Castañeda, Carlos Arturo

    2013-01-01

    El objetivo general del trabajo persigue ejecutar una propuesta para crear departamentos de comercio exterior articuladores de la proyección social del programa de Administración de Negocios en diferentes sedes de la Universidad del Quindío, Colombia, donde se logre identificar el estado actual de los procesos de proyección social del programa de Administracion de Negocios; identificar y caracterizar las organizaciones y empresas tipo MIPYMES participantes en la propuesta; diseñar la propuest...

  18. A inserção das pequenas e médias empresas no comércio exterior : uma abordagem da viabilidade e do desempenho exportador

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel de Miranda Melo Júnior, José

    2003-01-01

    O presente estudo tem como abordagem principal fornecer subsídios para a discussão sobre a inserção das pequenas e médias empresas (PMEs) brasileiras no comércio exterior, com enfoque para o vetor viabilidade e desempenho desse segmento no mercado internacional. Tal escolha deu-se em função de duas razões: a primeira enquanto uma forma de recolocar na agenda de discussões brasileiras a questão da importância do desenvolvimento das PMEs como agente dinamizador das exportações e ...

  19. Stabilizing a solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes system in the exterior of a bounded domain by means of a control on the boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkov, Aleksei V

    2012-01-01

    The problem of stabilizing a solution of the 2D Navier-Stokes system defined in the exterior of a bounded domain with smooth boundary is investigated. For a given initial velocity field a control on the boundary of the domain must be constructed such that the solution stabilizes to a prescribed vortex solution or trivial solution at the rate of 1/t k . On the way, related questions are investigated, concerning the behaviour of the spectrum of an operator under a relatively compact perturbation and the existence of attracting invariant manifolds. Bibliography: 21 titles.

  20. Viabilidade de inserção competitiva do setor de jóias de Pernambuco no comércio exterior

    OpenAIRE

    ANDRADE, Josefa Batista de Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    O presente trabalho teve por objetivo principal a análise da estrutura produtiva do setor de jóias de Pernambuco e a possibilidade de sua inserção no comércio exterior. O trabalho envolveu dados secundários e dados primários colhidos no âmbito da pesquisa com a finalidade de identificar e avaliar os determinantes da produtividade no setor e quais as ações específicas que podem contribuir para ampliar as vantagens competitivas existentes e dinamizar as vantagens competitiv...

  1. Mapas de ruta para comprender los intereses estratégicos y éticos de la política exterior y de seguridad canadiense

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Morales, Federmán

    2010-01-01

    Este artículo intenta explorar los intereses estratégicos y éticos de la política exterior y de seguridad canadiense. La investigación sugiere que no solo la relación estratégica con los Estados Unidos sino también la necesidad de consolidar su liderazgo internacional, junto con sus preocupaciones liberales, sustentan la naturaleza de la agenda de seguridad internacional de Canadá. Estos intereses han sido explicados a la luz de los respectivos “mapas de ru-ta” que les imprimen sentido. Por u...

  2. Modificaciones a las infracciones y sanciones de los operadores de comercio exterior según lo dispuesto en el Decreto Legislativo N° 1235 y normas complementarias

    OpenAIRE

    Huamán Sialer, Marco Antonio

    2017-01-01

    En el presente artículo se analizan las últimas modificaciones realizadas a la Ley General de Aduanas aprobada por Decreto Legislativo N° 1053 en materia de infracciones y sanciones aplicables a los distintos operadores de comercio exterior que intervienen en los procesos y/o despachos aduaneros de los regímenes de ingreso y salida de mercancías, haciendo un breve resumen de losantecedentes que motivaron dichas modificaciones; asimismo se comentan los temas más relevantes en el proceso sancio...

  3. La toma de decisiones en política de comercio exterior del Ecuador. Estudio de caso: ingreso a la OMC

    OpenAIRE

    Tobar Robalino, Bayardo

    2002-01-01

    Mediante la aplicación del modelo de investigación sobre la dinámica decisoria en temas de política exterior, elaborado por Roberto Russel, se sistematiza el proceso de adhesión del Ecuador al GATT/ OMC (Acuerdo General sobre Tarifas y Comercio/ Organización Mundial del Comercio), en el período 1992-1996. Después de poner de relieve las transformaciones que se han producido en el orden mundial y las características más importantes del sistema político ecuatoriano, que conforman...

  4. La política exterior canadiense en el gobierno de Stephen Harper: entre la convicción y la polémica

    OpenAIRE

    Santín Peña, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Resumen: Este trabajo revisa acontecimientos que han marcado la política exterior canadiense del gobierno del primer ministro Stephen Harper, explicando los orígenes y dinámicas que han posibilitado nuevos posicionamientos en la arena internacional al ir alejándose de postulados tradicionales que privilegiaban el multilateralismo y la protección del medio ambiente, lo cual ha generado polémicas y cuestionamientos al gobierno conservador de Ottawa, sobre todo a raíz de su salida del Protocolo ...

  5. Las relaciones entre Ecuador y Colombia: un ejemplo de la necesidad de una política exterior democrática (Coyuntura)

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce Leiva, Javier

    2005-01-01

    El autor realiza una revisión de las que considera han sido las deficiencias de la política exterior ecuatoriana hacia Colombia. La carencia de consensos básicos, la escasa coordinación civil-militar, la falta de participación ciudadana, la débil vinculación entre política externa e interna y la usencia de una agenda específica para Colombia, son algunos de los aspectos analizados por Ponce, quien finalmente plantea algunos de los elementos que deberían fundamentar la elaboración de una polít...

  6. Proyecto de Agenda de Política Exterior Ecuatoriana frente a la OMC y la Cuenca del Pacífico.

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce Villacís, Marco Vicente

    2002-01-01

    A raíz del conflicto del Cenepa entre Ecuador y Perú, el posterior inicio de las conversaciones y luego las negociaciones de paz que culminaron con el acuerdo de Brasillia que selló definitivamente la frontera entre los dos países, surgen nuevas necesidades y lineamientos políticos dentro de la Política Exterior. De esta manera el Ecuador debe abocarse a los temas principales determinados por los objetivos nacionales permanentes como son: integración nacional, justicia social, desarrollo inte...

  7. Process for the conversion of sugars to lactic acid and 2-hydroxy-3-butenoic acid or esters thereof comprising a metallo-silicate material and a metal ion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A process for the preparation of lactic acid and 2-hydroxy- 3-butenoic acid or esters thereof from a sugar in the presence of a metallo-silicate material, a metal ion and a solvent, wherein the metal ion is selected from one or more of the group consisting of potassium ions, sodium ions, lithium...

  8. Parameter design for a phase change material board installed on the inner surface of building exterior envelopes for cooling in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Quan; Medina, Mario A.; Lee, Kyoung Ok; Liao, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Phase change material (PCM) boards were simulated in building envelopes. • The buildings were located in four cities with different climatic conditions. • Energy and mass efficiency was proposed to evaluate utilization of PCM board. • The optimal melting temperature increased with increasing mean air temperature. - Abstract: Phase change materials (PCMs) can be used for building envelope thermal management and for energy conservation because of their potential to absorb and release large amounts of heat with small wall temperature variations. In this paper, the heat transfer theory of a PCM board used for building envelopes is presented, together with a mathematical model based on the moving heat-source method. It was found that the model accurately predicted the position of the solid–liquid interface in time and space, comparing with the published data. Energy and mass efficiency (EME) was proposed to evaluate the energy efficiency of PCM boards in office buildings located in various climatic regions in China for cooling. The influences on EME of parameters, including melting temperature of PCM, PCM board thickness and the heat transfer coefficient of building envelope, were analyzed. The optimal melting temperatures of PCM board, which resulted in the peak EME, in office building were 24.1 °C in Shenyang, 25.0 °C in Kunming, 25.3 °C in Zhengzhou and 25.5 °C Changsha, respectively. The EME increased with the increasing heat transfer coefficient of building envelope. For the city of Changsha with higher outdoor air temperature, none of the PCM boards modeled contributed effectively.

  9. On automatic visual inspection of reflective surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulmann, Lionel

    1995-01-01

    surfaces, providing new and exciting applications subject to automated visual inspection. Several contextual features have been surveyed along with introduction of novel methods to perform data-dependent enhancement of local surface appearance . Morphological methods have been described and utilized......This thesis descrbes different methods to perform automatic visual inspection of reflective manufactured products, with the aim of increasing productivity, reduce cost and improve the quality level of the production. We investigate two different systems performing automatic visual inspection....... The first is the inspection of highly reflective aluminum sheets, used by the Danish company Bang & Olufsen, as a part of the exterior design and general appearance of their audio and video products. The second is the inspection of IBM hard disk read/write heads for defects during manufacturing. We have...

  10. Self-assembly of supramolecular triarylamine nanowires in mesoporous silica and biocompatible electrodes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licsandru, Erol-Dan; Schneider, Susanne; Tingry, Sophie; Ellis, Thomas; Moulin, Emilie; Maaloum, Mounir; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Barboiu, Mihail; Giuseppone, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Biocompatible silica-based mesoporous materials, which present high surface areas combined with uniform distribution of nanopores, can be organized in functional nanopatterns for a number of applications. However, silica is by essence an electrically insulating material which precludes applications for electro-chemical devices. The formation of hybrid electroactive silica nanostructures is thus expected to be of great interest for the design of biocompatible conducting materials such as bioelectrodes. Here we show that we can grow supramolecular stacks of triarylamine molecules in the confined space of oriented mesopores of a silica nanolayer covering a gold electrode. This addressable bottom-up construction is triggered from solution simply by light irradiation. The resulting self-assembled nanowires act as highly conducting electronic pathways crossing the silica layer. They allow very efficient charge transfer from the redox species in solution to the gold surface. We demonstrate the potential of these hybrid constitutional materials by implementing them as biocathodes and by measuring laccase activity that reduces dioxygen to produce water.Biocompatible silica-based mesoporous materials, which present high surface areas combined with uniform distribution of nanopores, can be organized in functional nanopatterns for a number of applications. However, silica is by essence an electrically insulating material which precludes applications for electro-chemical devices. The formation of hybrid electroactive silica nanostructures is thus expected to be of great interest for the design of biocompatible conducting materials such as bioelectrodes. Here we show that we can grow supramolecular stacks of triarylamine molecules in the confined space of oriented mesopores of a silica nanolayer covering a gold electrode. This addressable bottom-up construction is triggered from solution simply by light irradiation. The resulting self-assembled nanowires act as highly conducting

  11. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  12. Fronteras exteriores e interiores en la creación de un reino medieval: Valencia en el siglo XIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enric GUINOT RODRÍGUEZ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: La génesis de las fronteras de los reinos cristianos medievales en España tiene mucho que ver con los procesos de guerra y conquista frente a al-Andalus. Éste es el caso del reino de Valencia, creado por el rey Jaime I en el año 1240 a partir de varios territorios musulmanes. Sus fronteras exteriores se crearon a partir de los límites entre cristianos y musulmanes en aquel momento y también por los pactos políticos con la corona de Castilla repartiéndose el territorio de al-Andalus. Pero estas fronteras no fueron definitivas y aún durante más de un siglo los conflictos entre la corona de Aragón y la de Castilla llevaron a cambios importantes en ellas.Por otro lado, la conquista feudal de Valencia implicó su reparto en señoríos y villas reales con la consiguiente necesidad de crear fronteras interiores para delimitarlos. Muchas veces estos límites se basaron en los existentes en época islámica, si bien fue usual que la sociedad feudal los interpretase según criterios propios y locales. Además, al estar ya en pleno siglo XIII, la organización de municipios se convirtió en la unidad básica de organización territorial, si bien existió una jerarquía entre las villas y los pueblos de su término.ABSTRACT: The origin of the borders of the medieval Christian kingdoms in Spain has much to do with the processes military and conquers over al-Andalus. This is the case of the kingdom of Valencia, created by King Jaime I in 1240 from several Muslim territories. Their outer borders were created from the boundaries between Christians and Muslims at that moment, but also by the political pacts with the crown of Castile distributing the territory of al-Andalus. But these borders were not definitive and still for more than a century the conflicts between Aragon and Castile took to important changes in them.On the other hand, the feudal conquest of Valencia implied its distribution between seigneuries and royal cities with the

  13. Determination of Exterior Orientation Parameters Through Direct Geo-Referencing in a Real-Time Aerial Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Lee, J.; Choi, K.; Lee, I.

    2012-07-01

    Rapid responses for emergency situations such as natural disasters or accidents often require geo-spatial information describing the on-going status of the affected area. Such geo-spatial information can be promptly acquired by a manned or unmanned aerial vehicle based multi-sensor system that can monitor the emergent situations in near real-time from the air using several kinds of sensors. Thus, we are in progress of developing such a real-time aerial monitoring system (RAMS) consisting of both aerial and ground segments. The aerial segment acquires the sensory data about the target areas by a low-altitude helicopter system equipped with sensors such as a digital camera and a GPS/IMU system and transmits them to the ground segment through a RF link in real-time. The ground segment, which is a deployable ground station installed on a truck, receives the sensory data and rapidly processes them to generate ortho-images, DEMs, etc. In order to generate geo-spatial information, in this system, exterior orientation parameters (EOP) of the acquired images are obtained through direct geo-referencing because it is difficult to acquire coordinates of ground points in disaster area. The main process, since the data acquisition stage until the measurement of EOP, is discussed as follows. First, at the time of data acquisition, image acquisition time synchronized by GPS time is recorded as part of image file name. Second, the acquired data are then transmitted to the ground segment in real-time. Third, by processing software for ground segment, positions/attitudes of acquired images are calculated through a linear interpolation using the GPS time of the received position/attitude data and images. Finally, the EOPs of images are obtained from position/attitude data by deriving the relationships between a camera coordinate system and a GPS/IMU coordinate system. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of the EOP decided by direct geo-referencing in our system. To perform this

  14. DETERMINATION OF EXTERIOR ORIENTATION PARAMETERS THROUGH DIRECT GEO-REFERENCING IN A REAL-TIME AERIAL MONITORING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid responses for emergency situations such as natural disasters or accidents often require geo-spatial information describing the on-going status of the affected area. Such geo-spatial information can be promptly acquired by a manned or unmanned aerial vehicle based multi-sensor system that can monitor the emergent situations in near real-time from the air using several kinds of sensors. Thus, we are in progress of developing such a real-time aerial monitoring system (RAMS consisting of both aerial and ground segments. The aerial segment acquires the sensory data about the target areas by a low-altitude helicopter system equipped with sensors such as a digital camera and a GPS/IMU system and transmits them to the ground segment through a RF link in real-time. The ground segment, which is a deployable ground station installed on a truck, receives the sensory data and rapidly processes them to generate ortho-images, DEMs, etc. In order to generate geo-spatial information, in this system, exterior orientation parameters (EOP of the acquired images are obtained through direct geo-referencing because it is difficult to acquire coordinates of ground points in disaster area. The main process, since the data acquisition stage until the measurement of EOP, is discussed as follows. First, at the time of data acquisition, image acquisition time synchronized by GPS time is recorded as part of image file name. Second, the acquired data are then transmitted to the ground segment in real-time. Third, by processing software for ground segment, positions/attitudes of acquired images are calculated through a linear interpolation using the GPS time of the received position/attitude data and images. Finally, the EOPs of images are obtained from position/attitude data by deriving the relationships between a camera coordinate system and a GPS/IMU coordinate system. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of the EOP decided by direct geo-referencing in our system

  15. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago—a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area, in which high heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability, and uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies are uncomfortable for residents. In this project, the Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by DOE to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  16. O congresso e a política de comércio exterior The congress and the foreign commerce policy

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    Maria Regina Soares de Lima

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Como assegurar a qualidade da política nacional de comércio exterior pelo incremento concomitante (1 da eficiente delegação pelo Legislativo ao Executivo de poderes para estabelecê-la e implementá-la, e (2 do pleno funcionamento dos freios e contrapesos que permitem o controle do Executivo em sistemas presidencialistas? O desenho institucional brasileiro é insuficiente em ambas essas dimensões no que concerne à política de comércio exterior, argumentam os autores. Faz-se necessário um desenho alternativo, que dê conta das exigências constitucionais democráticas sem perda de eficiência nas decisões restritas ao Executivo.How to assure the quality of a foreign commerce policy through the concomitant increment (I of the efficient delegation from the Legislative to the Executive of powers for establishing and implementing it and (2 of the full operation of the checks and balances which allow for the control of the Executive in Presidential systems? The Brazilian institutional design is lacking on both these dimensions in what concerns the foreign commerce policy, argue the authors. An alternate design is needed, one that takes into account the constitutional democratic demands without loss of efficiency in the decisions belonging to the Executive.

  17. Argentina e Irán entre 1989 y 1999: Entre las sobras de los atentados terroristas y el cambio de política exterior argentina

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    Paulo Botta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las relaciones argentino-iraníes se encuentran, a nivel político, en el punto más bajo de su historia. Suele afirmarse que tal situación es la relación directa de los atentados terroristas ocurridos en Buenos Aires en 1992 y 1994 donde las autoridades judiciales argentinas han presentado indicios que relacionarían a funcionarios iraníes. En este trabajo se afirma que aunque tales hechos han tenido influencia las relaciones argentino iraníes constituyen una variable dependiente de los modelos de inserción internacional de Argentina. En tal sentido, la década del gobierno de Carlos Menem (1989-1999 es estudiada como modelo para analizar tales cambios en la política exterior argentina y su impacto en las relaciones argentino-iraníes. Por otra parte, se ha incluido en el análisis el papel de lobbies comunitarios como grupos con incidencia en el proceso de toma de decisiones además de considerar las influencias externas como condicionantes de la política exterior argentina.

  18. STRUCTURAL SOLUTIONS AND SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE THERMAL PROTECTION ANALYSIS OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF BUILDINGS MADE OF AUTOCLAVED GAS-CONCRETE BLOCKS

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    Bedov Anatolij Ivanovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Relevant structural solutions, physical and mechanical characteristics, coefficients of thermal conductivity for exterior masonry walls made of autoclaved gas-concrete blocks are provided in the article. If a single-layer wall is under consideration, an autoclaved gas-concrete block is capable of performing the two principal functions of a shell structure, including the function of thermal protection and the bearing function. The functions are performed simultaneously. Therefore, the application of the above masonry material means the design development and erection of exterior walls of residential buildings noteworthy for their thermal efficiency. In the event of frameless structures, the height of the residential building in question may be up to 5 stories, while the use of a monolithic or a ready-made frame makes it possible to build high-rise buildings, and the number of stories is not limited in this case. If the average block density is equal to 400…500 kilograms per cubic meter, the designed wall thickness is to be equal to 400 mm. Its thermal resistance may be lower than the one set in the event of the per-element design of the thermal protection (Rreq = 3.41 м2 C/Watt, in Ufa, although it will meet the requirements of the applicable regulations if per-unit power consumption rate is considered.

  19. Análisis de Detectores y Descriptores de Características Visuales en SLAM en Entornos Interiores y Exteriores

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    M. Ballesta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El objetivo de este artículo es encontrar un extractor de características visuales que pueda ser utilizado en un proceso de SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping. Este extractor de características consiste en la combinación de un detector que extrae puntos significativos del entorno, y un descriptor local que caracteriza dichos puntos. Este artículo presenta la comparación de un conjunto de detectores de puntos de interés y de descriptores locales que se utilizan como marcas visuales en un proceso de SLAM. El análisis comparativo se divide en dos fases diferenciadas: detección y descripción. Se evalúa la repetibilidad de los detectores, así como la invariabilidad de los descriptores ante cambios de vista, escala e iluminación. Los experimentos se han realizado a partir de un conjunto de secuencias de imágenes tanto interiores (entorno de oficinas como exteriores, con diversas variaciones en la imagen (iluminación y posición, representando así de una forma bastante general los entornos típicos de un robot. Se considera que los resultados de este trabajo pueden ser útiles a la hora de seleccionar una marca adecuada en SLAM visual, tanto para entornos interiores como exteriores. Palabras clave: SLAM visual, marcas visuales, detectores de puntos de interés, descriptores locales

  20. RETURNED FOOT EXTERIOR CHORD BROOCHES MADE OF A SINGLE METAL PIECE (TYPE ALMGREN 158 RECENTLY DISCOVERED IN THE WESTERN PLAIN OF ROMANIA.

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    Vitalie Bârcă

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study, without aiming at exhaustiveness, attempts, based on returned foot exterior chord brooches made of a single metal pieces (type Almgren 158 discovered in 2010 following the rescue archaeological excavations performed as a result of the construction of the Arad-Timişoara Highway, respectively section Arad-Seceani, in a series of Sarmatian graves of the cemetery investigated at Hunedoara Timișană, Șagu commune, Arad county, to analyse the brooches in this type discovered in the western territories of Romania.The author examines the four specimens at Hunedoara Timișană within a broader context and concludes that similar brooches in both the Barbarian and Roman environments, where they are imports, date mainly to the chronological interval comprised between the last two decades of the 2nd c. – early 4th c. AD (stages C1a-C2.The analysis of the graves in the cemetery showed that the graves where returned foot exterior chord brooches were found date sometime in the chronological interval comprised between the end of the 2nd c. AD and the third quarter of the 3rd c. AD. Moreover, the author notes that the distribution area of this brooch type is mainly the Barbarian world of German origin (the Przeworsk culture environment or that in constant contact with the latter. Based on the analysis of the distribution area of the Almgren 158 type brooches it was concluded they originate in the Przeworsk culture environment from where they disseminated in the neighbouring south and south-east cultural environments. Last but not least, the author reaches the conclusion that brooches of the type were assumed by the Sarmatians in the Pannonian Plain from the German populations (most likely the Vandals living in the northern vicinity of the area they inhabited. Another conclusion is that such returned foot exterior chord brooches are lacking from the north and north-west Pontic areas, including the Chernyakhov area. Finally, the author argues that