WorldWideScience

Sample records for extented growth curve

  1. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls co...

  2. Growth curves for Laron syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laron, Z; Lilos, P; Klinger, B

    1993-01-01

    Growth curves for children with Laron syndrome were constructed on the basis of repeated measurements made throughout infancy, childhood, and puberty in 24 (10 boys, 14 girls) of the 41 patients with this syndrome investigated in our clinic. Growth retardation was already noted at birth, the birth length ranging from 42 to 46 cm in the 12/20 available measurements. The postnatal growth curves deviated sharply from the normal from infancy on. Both sexes showed no clear pubertal spurt. Girls completed their growth between the age of 16-19 years to a final mean (SD) height of 119 (8.5) cm whereas the boys continued growing beyond the age of 20 years, achieving a final height of 124 (8.5) cm. At all ages the upper to lower body segment ratio was more than 2 SD above the normal mean. These growth curves constitute a model not only for primary, hereditary insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) deficiency (Laron syndrome) but also for untreated secondary IGF-I deficiencies such as growth hormone gene deletion and idiopathic congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency. They should also be useful in the follow up of children with Laron syndrome treated with biosynthetic recombinant IGF-I. PMID:8333769

  3. Growth curves for twins in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricelj, Katja; Blickstein, Isaac; Bržan-Šimenc, Gabrijela; Janša, Vid; Lučovnik, Miha; Verdenik, Ivan; Trojner-Bregar, Andreja; Tul, Nataša

    2017-02-01

    Abnormalities of fetal growth are more common in twins. We introduce the growth curves for monitoring fetal growth in twin pregnancies in Slovenia. Slovenian National Perinatal Information System for the period between 2002 and 2010 was used to calculate birth weight percentiles for all live born twins for each week from 22nd to 40th week. The calculated percentiles of birth weight for all live-born twins in Slovenia served as the basis for drawing 'growth' curves. The calculated growth curves for twins will help accurately diagnose small or large twin fetuses for their gestational age in the native central European population.

  4. Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2011-01-01

    Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes, and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and…

  5. Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.

    2012-11-18

    A mathematical framework is developed to model the kinematics of surface growth for objects that can be generated by evolving a curve in space, such as seashells and horns. Growth is dictated by a growth velocity vector field defined at every point on a generating curve. A local orthonormal basis is attached to each point of the generating curve and the velocity field is given in terms of the local coordinate directions, leading to a fully local and elegant mathematical structure. Several examples of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying growth process. Direct access to cell tracks and local orientation enables for connections to be made to the underlying growth process. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. Nonlinear Growth Curves in Developmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam; Hamagami, Fumiaki

    2011-01-01

    Developmentalists are often interested in understanding change processes and growth models are the most common analytic tool for examining such processes. Nonlinear growth curves are especially valuable to developmentalists because the defining characteristics of the growth process such as initial levels, rates of change during growth spurts, and asymptotic levels can be estimated. A variety of growth models are described beginning with the linear growth model and moving to nonlinear models of varying complexity. A detailed discussion of nonlinear models is provided, highlighting the added insights into complex developmental processes associated with their use. A collection of growth models are fit to repeated measures of height from participants of the Berkeley Growth and Guidance Studies from early childhood through adulthood. PMID:21824131

  7. Growth Curves for Girls with Turner Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Bertapelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to review the growth curves for Turner syndrome, evaluate the methodological and statistical quality, and suggest potential growth curves for clinical practice guidelines. The search was carried out in the databases Medline and Embase. Of 1006 references identified, 15 were included. Studies constructed curves for weight, height, weight/height, body mass index, head circumference, height velocity, leg length, and sitting height. The sample ranged between 47 and 1,565 (total = 6,273 girls aged 0 to 24 y, born between 1950 and 2006. The number of measures ranged from 580 to 9,011 (total = 28,915. Most studies showed strengths such as sample size, exclusion of the use of growth hormone and androgen, and analysis of confounding variables. However, the growth curves were restricted to height, lack of information about selection bias, limited distributional properties, and smoothing aspects. In conclusion, we observe the need to construct an international growth reference for girls with Turner syndrome, in order to provide support for clinical practice guidelines.

  8. Growth curve models and statistical diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Jian-Xin

    2002-01-01

    Growth-curve models are generalized multivariate analysis-of-variance models. These models are especially useful for investigating growth problems on short times in economics, biology, medical research, and epidemiology. This book systematically introduces the theory of the GCM with particular emphasis on their multivariate statistical diagnostics, which are based mainly on recent developments made by the authors and their collaborators. The authors provide complete proofs of theorems as well as practical data sets and MATLAB code.

  9. Residual Structures in Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Widaman, Keith F.

    2010-01-01

    Several alternatives are available for specifying the residual structure in latent growth curve modeling. Two specifications involve uncorrelated residuals and represent the most commonly used residual structures. The first, building on repeated measures analysis of variance and common specifications in multilevel models, forces residual variances…

  10. To what extent does banks' credit stimulate economic growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the extent to which banks' credit affects economic growth in Nigeria. The data used was collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria statistical bulletin for a period of 24 years from 1990 to 2013. We used credit to the private sector, credit to the public sector and inflation to proxy commercial bank credit ...

  11. On the solar curve of growth of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foy, R.

    1975-01-01

    Our purpose in the present work is to investigate whether or not the splitting of the solar curve of growth found in the case of iron applies to other elements. We show that, contrary to the solar curve of growth for iron, that for titanium is not split in its damping part; this result emphasizes that reference curves of growth have to be used very carefully in detailed analysis of stellar atmospheres. We confirm that the microturbulent velocity is very low in the solar photosphere, namely within the limits: 0.5 [de

  12. A curve fitting approach to estimate the extent of fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Weening, D.; Jonkers, E.; Boer, T.; Stellaard, F.; Small, A. C.; Preston, T.; Vonk, R. J.; Priebe, M. G.

    Background Information about the extent of carbohydrate digestion and fermentation is critical to our ability to explore the metabolic effects of carbohydrate fermentation in vivo. We used cooked (13)C-labelled barley kernels, which are rich in indigestible carbohydrates, to develop a method which

  13. A curve fitting approach to estimate the extent of fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Weening, D.; Jonkers, E.; Boer, T.; Stellaard, F.; Small, A. C.; Preston, T.; Vonk, R. J.; Priebe, M. G.

    2008-01-01

    Background Information about the extent of carbohydrate digestion and fermentation is critical to our ability to explore the metabolic effects of carbohydrate fermentation in vivo. We used cooked (13)C-labelled barley kernels, which are rich in indigestible carbohydrates, to develop a method which

  14. Modelling growth curves of Nigerian indigenous normal feather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to predict the growth curve parameters using Bayesian Gompertz and logistic models and also to compare the two growth function in describing the body weight changes across age in Nigerian indigenous normal feather chicken. Each chick was wing-tagged at day old and body weights were ...

  15. Modeling error distributions of growth curve models through Bayesian methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong

    2016-06-01

    Growth curve models are widely used in social and behavioral sciences. However, typical growth curve models often assume that the errors are normally distributed although non-normal data may be even more common than normal data. In order to avoid possible statistical inference problems in blindly assuming normality, a general Bayesian framework is proposed to flexibly model normal and non-normal data through the explicit specification of the error distributions. A simulation study shows when the distribution of the error is correctly specified, one can avoid the loss in the efficiency of standard error estimates. A real example on the analysis of mathematical ability growth data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 is used to show the application of the proposed methods. Instructions and code on how to conduct growth curve analysis with both normal and non-normal error distributions using the the MCMC procedure of SAS are provided.

  16. Interactions of cosmic rays in the atmosphere: growth curves revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obermeier, A.; Boyle, P.; Müller, D. [Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Hörandel, J., E-mail: a.obermeier@astro.ru.nl [Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen, 6525-HP Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of cosmic-ray abundances on balloons are affected by interactions in the residual atmosphere above the balloon. Corrections for such interactions are particularly important for observations of rare secondary particles such as boron, antiprotons, and positrons. These corrections either can be calculated if the relevant cross sections in the atmosphere are known or may be empirically determined by extrapolation of the 'growth curves', i.e., the individual particle intensities as functions of atmospheric depth. The growth-curve technique is particularly attractive for long-duration balloon flights where the periodic daily altitude variations permit rather precise determinations of the corresponding particle intensity variations. We determine growth curves for nuclei from boron (Z = 5) to iron (Z = 26) using data from the 2006 Arctic balloon flight of the TRACER detector for cosmic-ray nuclei, and we compare the growth curves with predictions from published cross section values. In general, good agreement is observed. We then study the boron/carbon abundance ratio and derive a simple and energy-independent correction term for this ratio. We emphasize that the growth-curve technique can be developed further to provide highly accurate tests of published interaction cross section values.

  17. Estimated impact of global population growth on future wilderness extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, E.

    2012-06-01

    Wilderness areas in the world are threatened by the environmental impacts of the growing global human population. This study estimates the impact of birth rate on the future surface area of biodiverse wilderness and on the proportion of this area without major extinctions. The following four drivers are considered: human population growth (1), agricultural efficiency (2), groundwater drawdown by irrigation (3), and non-agricultural space used by humans (buildings, gardens, roads, etc.) (4). This study indicates that the surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land will reduce with about 5.4% between 2012 and 2050. Further, it indicates that the biodiverse land without major extinctions will reduce with about 10.5%. These percentages are based on a commonly used population trajectory which assumes that birth rates across the globe will reduce in a similar way as has occurred in the past in many developed countries. Future birth rate is however very uncertain. Plausible future birth rates lower than the expected rates lead to much smaller reductions in surface area of biodiverse unmanaged land (0.7% as opposed to 5.4%), and a reduction in the biodiverse land without major extinctions of about 5.6% (as opposed to 10.5%). This indicates that birth rate is an important factor influencing the quality and quantity of wilderness remaining in the future.

  18. PMAnalyzer: a new web interface for bacterial growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Daniel A; Edwards, Robert A

    2017-06-15

    Bacterial growth curves are essential representations for characterizing bacteria metabolism within a variety of media compositions. Using high-throughput, spectrophotometers capable of processing tens of 96-well plates, quantitative phenotypic information can be easily integrated into the current data structures that describe a bacterial organism. The PMAnalyzer pipeline performs a growth curve analysis to parameterize the unique features occurring within microtiter wells containing specific growth media sources. We have expanded the pipeline capabilities and provide a user-friendly, online implementation of this automated pipeline. PMAnalyzer version 2.0 provides fast automatic growth curve parameter analysis, growth identification and high resolution figures of sample-replicate growth curves and several statistical analyses. PMAnalyzer v2.0 can be found at https://edwards.sdsu.edu/pmanalyzer/ . Source code for the pipeline can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzer . Source code for the online implementation can be found on GitHub at https://github.com/dacuevas/PMAnalyzerWeb . dcuevas08@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  19. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  20. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  1. Growth Curve Models and Applications : Indian Statistical Institute

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Growth curve models in longitudinal studies are widely used to model population size, body height, biomass, fungal growth, and other variables in the biological sciences, but these statistical methods for modeling growth curves and analyzing longitudinal data also extend to general statistics, economics, public health, demographics, epidemiology, SQC, sociology, nano-biotechnology, fluid mechanics, and other applied areas.   There is no one-size-fits-all approach to growth measurement. The selected papers in this volume build on presentations from the GCM workshop held at the Indian Statistical Institute, Giridih, on March 28-29, 2016. They represent recent trends in GCM research on different subject areas, both theoretical and applied. This book includes tools and possibilities for further work through new techniques and modification of existing ones. The volume includes original studies, theoretical findings and case studies from a wide range of app lied work, and these contributions have been externally r...

  2. Genomic growth curves of an outbred pig population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current post-genomic era, the genetic basis of pig growth can be understood by assessing SNP marker effects and genomic breeding values (GEBV based on estimates of these growth curve parameters as phenotypes. Although various statistical methods, such as random regression (RR-BLUP and Bayesian LASSO (BL, have been applied to genomic selection (GS, none of these has yet been used in a growth curve approach. In this work, we compared the accuracies of RR-BLUP and BL using empirical weight-age data from an outbred F2 (Brazilian Piau X commercial population. The phenotypes were determined by parameter estimates using a nonlinear logistic regression model and the halothane gene was considered as a marker for evaluating the assumptions of the GS methods in relation to the genetic variation explained by each locus. BL yielded more accurate values for all of the phenotypes evaluated and was used to estimate SNP effects and GEBV vectors. The latter allowed the construction of genomic growth curves, which showed substantial genetic discrimination among animals in the final growth phase. The SNP effect estimates allowed identification of the most relevant markers for each phenotype, the positions of which were coincident with reported QTL regions for growth traits.

  3. Estimation of growth curve parameters in Konya Merino sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the fitness of Quadratic, Cubic, Gompertz and Logistic functions to the growth curves of Konya Merino lambs obtained by using monthly records of live weight from birth to 480 days of age. The models were evaluated according to determination coefficient (R2), mean square ...

  4. Sensitivity of Fit Indices to Misspecification in Growth Curve Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; West, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitivity of fit indices to model misspecification in within-individual covariance structure, between-individual covariance structure, and marginal mean structure in growth curve models. Five commonly used fit indices were examined, including the likelihood ratio test statistic, root mean square error of…

  5. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  6. Short communication Estimation of growth curve parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ikeskin

    The shape of growth curves has been reported to vary according to the species of .... a,b,c The means within columns with different superscripts are significantly .... J. Anim. Sci. 84, 2642-2654. The South African Journal of Animal Science is ...

  7. Predicting Change in Postpartum Depression: An Individual Growth Curve Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Trey

    Recently, methodologists interested in examining problems associated with measuring change have suggested that developmental researchers should focus upon assessing change at both intra-individual and inter-individual levels. This study used an application of individual growth curve analysis to the problem of maternal postpartum depression.…

  8. Developmental trajectories of adolescent popularity: a growth curve modelling analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillessen, Antonius H N; Borch, Casey

    2006-12-01

    Growth curve modelling was used to examine developmental trajectories of sociometric and perceived popularity across eight years in adolescence, and the effects of gender, overt aggression, and relational aggression on these trajectories. Participants were 303 initially popular students (167 girls, 136 boys) for whom sociometric data were available in Grades 5-12. The popularity and aggression constructs were stable but non-overlapping developmental dimensions. Growth curve models were run with SAS MIXED in the framework of the multilevel model for change [Singer, J. D., & Willett, J. B. (2003). Applied longitudinal data analysis. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press]. Sociometric popularity showed a linear change trajectory; perceived popularity showed nonlinear change. Overt aggression predicted low sociometric popularity but an increase in perceived popularity in the second half of the study. Relational aggression predicted a decrease in sociometric popularity, especially for girls, and continued high-perceived popularity for both genders. The effect of relational aggression on perceived popularity was the strongest around the transition from middle to high school. The importance of growth curve models for understanding adolescent social development was discussed, as well as specific issues and challenges of growth curve analyses with sociometric data.

  9. Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods. PMID:24834004

  10. Environmental Kuznets curve and growth source in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghari Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC, exists between these variables. The source of growth explanation is important for two reasons. First, it demonstrates how the pollution consequences of growth depend on the source of growth. Therefore, the analogy drawn by some in the environmental community between the damaging effects of economic development and those of liberalized trade is, at best, incomplete. Second, the source of growth explanation demonstrates that a strong policy response to income gains is not necessary for pollution to fall with growth. The aim of this paper investigates the role of differences source of growth in environmental quality of Iran. The results show the two growth resources in Iran cause, in the early stages, CO2 emission decreases until turning point but beyond this level of income per capita, economic growth leads to environmental degradation. I find a U relationship between environmental degradation (CO2 emission and economic growth in Iran.

  11. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND AIR POLLUTION IN THECZECHREPUBLIC: DECOUPLING CURVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Šauer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The decoupling curve, together with the Environmental Kuznets Curve, has beenrecognized as one of the important indicators showing relations betweeneconomic growth and environmental degradation/pollution. Many boththeoreticaland empirical studies have been published on it. Our paper brings models whichinvestigate relations between the economic growth per capita and selectedindicators of air pollution in theCzechRepublic. The analysis tried to go beforethe year 1990, despite the difficulties when dealing with different macroeconomicindicators published during the socialist period and those introduced after thetransition to a market economy. The results might be somehow surprising forthose dealing only with data generated after the year 1990: it is possible todiscover the turning points for some of the airborne pollutants already in the1980s.

  12. ECONOMIC GROWTH, TRADE AND ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES: TESTING ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Budiman Hakim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ASEAN experiences a dynamic economic growth due to its liberalised markets. However concerns arise related to environmental issues resulting from the economic activities. It reflects tradeoffs between economic growth driven by trade and foreign direct investment (FDI, and environment. To investigate such a relation the Environmental Kuznets Curve was applied by regressing amount of carbon emission with gross domestic product (GDP, quadratic GDP, trade openness and FDI. The result reveals that amount of carbon emission is linearly and positively correlated with GDP per capita. It is predicted that as ASEAN economies grow, carbon emission increases. Trade openness is also found to contribute to carbon emission. Keywords: Kuznets curve, carbon emission, gross domestic product, trade, foreign direct investment JEL classification number: F15, F18

  13. Predicting Madura cattle growth curve using non-linear model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widyas, N.; Prastowo, S.; Widi, T. S. M.; Baliarti, E.

    2018-03-01

    Madura cattle is Indonesian native. It is a composite breed that has undergone hundreds of years of selection and domestication to reach nowadays remarkable uniformity. Crossbreeding has reached the isle of Madura and the Madrasin, a cross between Madura cows and Limousine semen emerged. This paper aimed to compare the growth curve between Madrasin and one type of pure Madura cows, the common Madura cattle (Madura) using non-linear models. Madura cattles are kept traditionally thus reliable records are hardly available. Data were collected from small holder farmers in Madura. Cows from different age classes (5years) were observed, and body measurements (chest girth, body length and wither height) were taken. In total 63 Madura and 120 Madrasin records obtained. Linear model was built with cattle sub-populations and age as explanatory variables. Body weights were estimated based on the chest girth. Growth curves were built using logistic regression. Results showed that within the same age, Madrasin has significantly larger body compared to Madura (plogistic models fit better for Madura and Madrasin cattle data; with the estimated MSE for these models were 39.09 and 759.28 with prediction accuracy of 99 and 92% for Madura and Madrasin, respectively. Prediction of growth curve using logistic regression model performed well in both types of Madura cattle. However, attempts to administer accurate data on Madura cattle are necessary to better characterize and study these cattle.

  14. Distortion-product otoacoustic emission growth curves in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Alves Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recording of otoacoustic emissions (OAE enabled us to prove that the cochlea is able not only to receive sounds but also to produce acoustic energy. Through the use of distortion-product otoacoustic emission measurements, the growth of the response was seen according to the intensity of the sound stimulus presented (growth curve. Objective: to determine the thresholds for the emergence of distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE on frequencies of 2000 and 4000 Hz with a stimulus varying from 20 to 65dB SPL, and to establish the slope values obtained in the growth curves. Methods: 39 neonates aged 5 to 28 days without risk indicators of hearing loss were studied. The DPOAE growth curves were obtained on the frequencies from 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz with a level of intensity ranging from 20 to 65dB SPL divided into two paradigms (20 to 40dB SPL and 40-65dB SPL. Results: there was a statistically significant difference in the thresholds for the emergence of DPOAE depending on the criteria used. The thresholds were on average higher at 4000 Hz than 2000 Hz and the slope was higher on average at 2000 Hz than 4000 Hz, although not statistically significant in either case. Conclusion: the thresholds were on average 30dB SPL at 2000Hz and 35dB SPL at 4000Hz. The slope values varied between 3 and 4 on average, reaching 15 in some cases.

  15. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weiming; Lee, Grace W.M.; Wu Chihcheng

    2008-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced

  16. Growth curve of buffalo grazing on a grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Alves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 17 buffaloes (Mediterranean, from birth to slaughter age (720 days with monthly measures of weight, thoracic perimeter, body length, and height at withers. At the end of experimental period, the animals were separated into two different groups for statistical analysis according to slaughter weight: light body weight (LBW, mean 517 kg and heavy body weight (HBW, mean 568 kg. Buffalo growth occurs in the same way up to weaning age, and after that, two distinct groups grow in different forms in the same conditions of management and feeding. Body weight can be estimated according to age, thoracic perimeter, height, and length, showing high correlations. Buffaloes show growth in a sigmoid-curve model.

  17. Academia-industry collaboration feeds exponential growth curve

    CERN Document Server

    Jones Bey Hassaun, A

    2004-01-01

    The use of silicon strip detectors in high-energy particle tracking is discussed. The functional strength of silicon for high-energy particle physics as well as astrophysics lies in the ability to detect passage of charged particles with micron-scale spatial resolution. In addition to vertex detection, silicon strip detectors also provide full tracking detection to include momentum determination of particles in the magnetic field. Even if silicon detectors for basic science applications do not continue to grow larger, exponential growth of the technology for terrestrial commercial applications is likely to follow a healthy growth curve, as researchers continue to adapt silicon detector technology for low- dose medical x-ray imaging. (Edited abstract)

  18. Relation between extent of myostatin depletion and muscle growth in mature mice

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, Stephen; Burgess, Kerri; Thornton, Charles A.; Tawil, Rabi

    2009-01-01

    Myostatin is a negative regulator of muscle growth and fiber size. Changes in myostatin expression might contribute to changes in muscle mass associated with various conditions, and reducing the amount of active myostatin is a potential strategy for preventing or reversing muscle atrophy. The present study was done to determine the extent to which myostatin levels must decline to induce growth of mature muscles. Myostatin expression was reduced by activating Cre recombinase in adult mice with...

  19. [Customized and non-customized French intrauterine growth curves. II - Comparison with existing curves and benefits of customization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ego, A; Prunet, C; Blondel, B; Kaminski, M; Goffinet, F; Zeitlin, J

    2016-02-01

    Our aim is to compare the new French EPOPé intrauterine growth curves, developed to address the guidelines 2013 of the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, with reference curves currently used in France, and to evaluate the consequences of their adjustment for fetal sex and maternal characteristics. Eight intrauterine and birthweight curves, used in France were compared to the EPOPé curves using data from the French Perinatal Survey 2010. The influence of adjustment on the rate of SGA births and the characteristics of these births was analysed. Due to their birthweight values and distribution, the selected intrauterine curves are less suitable for births in France than the new curves. Birthweight curves led to low rates of SGA births from 4.3 to 8.5% compared to 10.0% with the EPOPé curves. The adjustment for maternal and fetal characteristics avoids the over-representation of girls among SGA births, and reclassifies 4% of births. Among births reclassified as SGA, the frequency of medical and obstetrical risk factors for growth restriction, smoking (≥10 cigarettes/day), and neonatal transfer is higher than among non-SGA births (P<0.01). The EPOPé curves are more suitable for French births than currently used curves, and their adjustment improves the identification of mothers and babies at risk of growth restriction and poor perinatal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth Curve Analysis and Change-Points Detection in Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2016-05-15

    The thesis consists of two coherent projects. The first project presents the results of evaluating salinity tolerance in barley using growth curve analysis where different growth trajectories are observed within barley families. The study of salinity tolerance in plants is crucial to understanding plant growth and productivity. Because fully-automated smarthouses with conveyor systems allow non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping of large number of plants, it is now possible to apply advanced statistical tools to analyze daily measurements and to study salinity tolerance. To compare different growth patterns of barley variates, we use functional data analysis techniques to analyze the daily projected shoot areas. In particular, we apply the curve registration method to align all the curves from the same barley family in order to summarize the family-wise features. We also illustrate how to use statistical modeling to account for spatial variation in microclimate in smarthouses and for temporal variation across runs, which is crucial for identifying traits of the barley variates. In our analysis, we show that the concentrations of sodium and potassium in leaves are negatively correlated, and their interactions are associated with the degree of salinity tolerance. The second project studies change-points detection methods in extremes when multiple time series data are available. Motived by the scientific question of whether the chances to experience extreme weather are different in different seasons of a year, we develop a change-points detection model to study changes in extremes or in the tail of a distribution. Most of existing models identify seasons from multiple yearly time series assuming a season or a change-point location remains exactly the same across years. In this work, we propose a random effect model that allows the change-point to vary from year to year, following a given distribution. Both parametric and nonparametric methods are developed

  1. Parent involvement and science achievement: A latent growth curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Yvette

    This study examined science achievement growth across elementary and middle school and parent school involvement using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten Class of 1998--1999 (ECLS-K). The ECLS-K is a nationally representative kindergarten cohort of students from public and private schools who attended full-day or half-day kindergarten class in 1998--1999. The present study's sample (N = 8,070) was based on students that had a sampling weight available from the public-use data file. Students were assessed in science achievement at third, fifth, and eighth grades and parents of the students were surveyed at the same time points. Analyses using latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates in an SEM framework revealed a positive relationship between science achievement and parent involvement at eighth grade. Furthermore, there were gender and racial/ethnic differences in parents' school involvement as a predictor of science achievement. Findings indicated that students with lower initial science achievement scores had a faster rate of growth across time. The achievement gap between low and high achievers in earth, space and life sciences lessened from elementary to middle school. Parents' involvement with school usually tapers off after elementary school, but due to parent school involvement being a significant predictor of eighth grade science achievement, later school involvement may need to be supported and better implemented in secondary schooling.

  2. Economic growth and energy regulation in the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Daniel Balsalobre; Álvarez-Herranz, Agustín

    2016-08-01

    This study establishes the existence of a pattern of behavior, between economic growth and environmental degradation, consistent with the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for 17 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries between 1990 and 2012. Based on this EKC pattern, it shows that energy regulation measures help reduce per capita greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. To validate this hypothesis, we also add the explanatory variables: renewable energy promotion, energy innovation processes, and the suppression effect of income level on the contribution of renewable energy sources to total energy consumption. It aims to be a tool for decision-making regarding energy policy. This paper provides a two-stage econometric analysis of instrumental variables with the aim of correcting the existence of endogeneity in the variable GDP per capita, verifying that the instrumental variables used in this research are appropriate for our aim. To this end, it first makes a methodological contribution before incorporating additional variables associated with environmental air pollution into the EKC hypothesis and showing how they positively affect the explanation of the correction in the GHG emission levels. This study concludes that air pollution will not disappear on its own as economic growth increases. Therefore, it is necessary to promote energy regulation measures to reduce environmental pollution.

  3. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei Ming; Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106 (China); Wu, Chih Cheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233 (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced. (author)

  4. GHG emissions, GDP growth and the Kyoto Protocol: A revisit of Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Weiming [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Grace W.M. [Graduate Institute of Environmental Engineering, National Taiwan University, 71, Chou-Shan Road, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: gracelee@ntu.edu.tw; Wu Chihcheng [Energy and Air Pollution Control Section, New Materials R and D Department, China Steel Corporation, 1, Chung-Kang Road, Siaogang District, Kaohsiung 81233, Taiwan (China)

    2008-01-15

    The Kyoto Protocol attempts through political negotiations to guide participating industrialized countries' greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a positive growing trend, to reach a peak point (or turning point), and then be reduced to a negative growth. That means the relationship between decreasing GHG emissions and economic growth may be described by an inverted-U curve (or called a bell-shaped curve), which is consistent with the concept of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This research observed that the economic development and GHG emissions in Economies in Transition (EITs) exhibit a hockey-stick curve trend (or called quasi-L-shape curve), that also generates a lot of 'hot air' which is significant to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. In addition, through the analysis of single-country time series data and GDP data, this research demonstrated that statistical data for most of the Annex II countries do not possess evidence that supports the EKC hypothesis for GHG emissions. The results from this study also indicated that the 38 industrialized countries are unable to meet their targets under the Kyoto Protocol within the specified time period, which are probably caused by the econometric method's inability to predict accurately the extents and development of innovative technologies and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects. If the international community truly wants to reduce the GHG emissions, the effectiveness of the existing international framework for emissions reduction needs to be reconsidered seriously, and the global cooperation mechanism also needs to be greatly enhanced.

  5. Integrated healthcare networks' performance: a growth curve modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Thomas T H; Wang, Bill B L

    2003-05-01

    This study examines the effects of integration on the performance ratings of the top 100 integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) in the United States. A strategic-contingency theory is used to identify the relationship of IHNs' performance to their structural and operational characteristics and integration strategies. To create a database for the panel study, the top 100 IHNs selected by the SMG Marketing Group in 1998 were followed up in 1999 and 2000. The data were merged with the Dorenfest data on information system integration. A growth curve model was developed and validated by the Mplus statistical program. Factors influencing the top 100 IHNs' performance in 1998 and their subsequent rankings in the consecutive years were analyzed. IHNs' initial performance scores were positively influenced by network size, number of affiliated physicians and profit margin, and were negatively associated with average length of stay and technical efficiency. The continuing high performance, judged by maintaining higher performance scores, tended to be enhanced by the use of more managerial or executive decision-support systems. Future studies should include time-varying operational indicators to serve as predictors of network performance.

  6. The Biasing Effects of Unmodeled ARMA Time Series Processes on Latent Growth Curve Model Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivo, Stephen; Fan, Xitao; Witta, Lea

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the robustness of estimated growth curve models when there is stationary autocorrelation among manifest variable errors. The results suggest that when, in practice, growth curve models are fitted to longitudinal data, alternative rival hypotheses to consider would include growth models that also specify…

  7. Growth and development in internationally adopted children: extent and timing of recovery after early adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jesús; Román, Maite; Camacho, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Following initial adversity, internationally adopted children arrive with significant growth and developmental delays. Post-placement recovery has been widely documented, but little has been known about its extent and timing several years after placement and in children with diverse pre-adoptive experiences. A total of 289 children adopted from six countries into Spanish families were studied. Growth and psychological development were considered on arrival and after an average of over 3 years. Growth and developmental initial delays affected a substantial percentage of the children. Post-adoption recovery seemed quicker and more complete in weight and height than in head circumference and psychological development. Initial and later values were correlated, but growth-development relation on arrival subsequently lost significance. Most of the catch-up happened in the first three post-adoption years. Adoption offers an impressive opportunity for recovery after previous adversity, although continuity between past and present persists. The improvement is more marked in some areas than in others and more substantial in the first post-adoption years. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Growth curves in Down syndrome with congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline D’Azevedo Sica

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Introduction: To assess dietary habits, nutritional status and food frequency in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS and congenital heart disease (CHD. Additionally, we attempted to compare body mass index (BMI classifications according to the World Health Organization (WHO curves and curves developed for individuals with DS. Method: Cross-sectional study including individuals with DS and CHD treated at a referral center for cardiology, aged 2 to 18 years. Weight, height, BMI, total energy and food frequency were measured. Nutritional status was assessed using BMI for age and gender, using curves for evaluation of patients with DS and those set by the WHO. Results: 68 subjects with DS and CHD were evaluated. Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD was the most common heart disease (52.9%. There were differences in BMI classification between the curves proposed for patients with DS and those proposed by the WHO. There was an association between consumption of vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conclusion: Results showed that individuals with DS are mostly considered normal weight for age, when evaluated using specific curves for DS. Reviews on specific curves for DS would be the recommended practice for health professionals so as to avoid precipitated diagnosis of overweight and/or obesity in this population.

  9. Breast meat quality of chickens with divergent growth rates and its relation to growth curve parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Muth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the increase of body weight of contemporary broilers during growth on functional meat quality and color characteristics of the chicken breast muscle are controversially debated. Therefore, male chickens (n = 264 of a fast-growing commercial broiler (Ross 308 and two slow-growing experimental meat-type chicken lines were compared at equal age and at similar body weight in order to investigate the effect of growth rate on selected functional breast meat traits and meat color. Additionally, the breast meat characteristics of birds with different growth profiles were compared within lines. When the body weight of commercial broilers reached about 40 to 60 % of their growth potential, they exhibited particularly high ultimate pH values compared with slow-growing lines. The ability of the meat of fast-growing broilers to retain water during cooking was impaired (5 to 16 percentage points increased cooking loss compared to slow-growing lines, which, in contrast to pH, was only marginally affected by body weight and/or age at slaughter. No unfavorable correlations of breast meat quality traits with the growth profile, represented by growth curve parameters derived from the Gompertz–Laird equation, were detected within any of the investigated chicken lines. It is noteworthy that the associations of ultimate pH and cooking loss with maximum growth speed indicate a non-linear relationship. Thus, some of the functional characteristics of breast meat of the fast-growing broiler resembled the white-striping defect described for poultry meat, but the hypothesis that selection on increased growth rates is detrimental for meat quality per se could not be confirmed. In fact, an elevated growth potential in particular, i.e., body weight at maturity, could have some beneficial effects for the water-holding capacity of breast meat, regardless of the genotypic growth rate.

  10. Curve-of-growth analysis of M-type giants. beta. and. beta. Peg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanni, L.; Kipper, M.

    1975-01-01

    The curve-of-growth analysis is carried out with high-dispersion spectrograms of the region lambda lambda 5050--6150 for two M-type stars ..beta.. And (MOIII) and ..beta.. Peg (M2II-III) by using the newest oscillator strengths available. It has been found that the form of our empirical curve of growth is consistent with that of the theoretical curve by Wrubel. By making use of the data derived from the curve-of-growth analyses, atmospheric parameters such as THETA/sub ex/, rho/sub e/, ..nu../sub t/ and the abundances of the elements have been determined.

  11. Modeling Math Growth Trajectory--An Application of Conventional Growth Curve Model and Growth Mixture Model to ECLS K-5 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    To model students' math growth trajectory, three conventional growth curve models and three growth mixture models are applied to the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Kindergarten-Fifth grade (ECLS K-5) dataset in this study. The results of conventional growth curve model show gender differences on math IRT scores. When holding socio-economic…

  12. A Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Approach to Predicting Student Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kilchan; Goldschmidt, Pete

    2012-01-01

    Value-added models and growth-based accountability aim to evaluate school's performance based on student growth in learning. The current focus is on linking the results from value-added models to the ones from growth-based accountability systems including Adequate Yearly Progress decisions mandated by No Child Left Behind. We present a new…

  13. An integral parametrization of the bacterial growth curve experimental demonstration with E. coli C600 bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, F.; Vidania, R. de

    1984-01-01

    In this work an integral parametrization of the bacterial growth curve is presented. The values of the parameters are obtained by fitting to the experimental data. Those parameters, with allow to describe the growth in its different phases, are the followings: slopes of the curve in its three parts and the time which divides the last two phases of the bacterial growth. The experimental data are bacterial densities measured by optical methods. The bacteria used was the E. coli C 6 00. (Author)

  14. Extent of Spine Deformity Predicts Lung Growth and Function in Rabbit Model of Early Onset Scoliosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Casey Olson

    Full Text Available Early onset deformity of the spine and chest wall (initiated <8 years of age is associated with increased morbidity at adulthood relative to adolescent onset deformity of comparable severity. Presumably, inhibition of thoracic growth during late stage alveolarization leads to an irreversible loss of pulmonary growth and thoracic function; however the natural history of this disease from onset to adulthood has not been well characterized. In this study we establish a rabbit model of early onset scoliosis to establish the extent that thoracic deformity affects structural and functional respiratory development. Using a surgical right unilateral rib-tethering procedure, rib fusion with early onset scoliosis was induced in 10 young New Zealand white rabbits (3 weeks old. Progression of spine deformity, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, and lung mass was tracked through longitudinal breath-hold computed tomography imaging up to skeletal maturity (28 weeks old. Additionally at maturity forced vital capacity and regional specific volume were calculated as functional measurements and histo-morphometry performed with the radial alveolar count as a measure of acinar complexity. Data from tethered rib rabbits were compared to age matched healthy control rabbits (N = 8. Results show unilateral rib-tethering created a progressive spinal deformity ranging from 30° to 120° curvature, the severity of which was strongly associated with pulmonary growth and functional outcomes. At maturity rabbits with deformity greater than the median (55° had decreased body weight (89%, right (59% and left (86% lung mass, right (74% and left (69% radial alveolar count, right lung volume at total lung capacity (60%, and forced vital capacity (75%. Early treatment of spinal deformity in children may prevent pulmonary complications in adulthood and these results provide a basis for the prediction of pulmonary development from thoracic structure. This model may

  15. Curve progression and spinal growth in brace treated idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonseth, KA; Veldhuizen, AG; Cool, JC; van Horn, [No Value

    The risk of progression of idiopathic scoliosis is correlated primarily to factors that predict potential remaining skeletal growth. The aim of the current study was to evaluate spinal growth, measured as the length of the scoliotic spine on serial longitudinal radiographs, and its relationship to

  16. Computerized tomography and head growth curve infantile macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eda, Isematsu; Kitahara, Tadashi; Takashima, Sachio; Takeshita, Kenzo

    1982-01-01

    Macrocephaly was defined as a head measuring larger than 98th percentile. We have evaluated CT findings and head growth curves in 25 infants with large heads. Ten (40%) of 25 infants with large heads were normal developmentally and neurologically. Five (20%) of those were mentally retarded. The other 10 infants (40%) included hydrocephalus (4 cases), malformation syndrome (3 cases), brain tumor (1 case), metabolic disorder (1 case) and degenerative disorder (1 case). Their head growth curves were typed as (I), (II) and (III): Type (I) (excessive head growth curve to 2 SDs above normal); Type (II) (head growth curve gradually approached to 2 SDs above normal); Type (III) (head growth curve parallel to 2 SDs above normal). Ten of macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development were studied clinically and radiologically in details. They were all male. CT pictures of those showed normal or various abnormal findings: ventricular dilatations, wide frontal and temporal subdural spaces, wide interhemispheric fissures, wide cerebral sulci, and large sylvian fissures. CT findings in 2 of those, which because normal after repeated CT examinations, resembled benign subdural collection. CT findings in one of those were external hydrocephalus. Head growth curves were obtained from 8 of those. Six cases revealed type (II) and two cases did type (III). The remaining 2 cases could not be followed up. We consider that CT findings of infants showed macrocephaly with normal psychomotor development reveals normal or various abnormal (ventricular dilatations, benign subdural collection, external hydrocephalus) and their head growth curves are not at least excessive. Infants with mental retardation showed similar CT findings and head growth curves as those with normal psychomotor development. It was difficult to distinguish normal from mentally retarded infants by either CT findings or head growth curves. (author)

  17. An Approach of Estimating Individual Growth Curves for Young Thoroughbred Horses Based on Their Birthdays

    Science.gov (United States)

    ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We propose an approach of estimating individual growth curves based on the birthday information of Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. The compensatory growth patterns appear during only the winter and spring seasons in the life of growing horses, and the meeting point between winter and spring depends on the birthday of each horse. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Based on the equations, a parameter denoting the birthday information was added for the modeling of the individual growth curves for each horse by shifting the meeting points in the compensatory growth periods. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of Thoroughbred colts and fillies, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements of both sexes were used in the analyses. The results of predicted error difference and Akaike Information Criterion showed that the individual growth curves using birthday information better fit to the body weight and withers height data than not using them. The individual growth curve for each horse would be a useful tool for the feeding managements of young Japanese Thoroughbreds in compensatory growth periods. PMID:25013356

  18. Climate-induced seasonal changes in smallmouth bass growth rate potential at the southern range extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Christopher R.; Kessinger, Brin; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2018-01-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change over the coming century will likely affect smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) growth in lotic systems at the southern extent of their native range. However, the thermal response of a stream to warming climate conditions could be affected by the flow regime of each stream, mitigating the effects on smallmouth bass populations. We developed bioenergetics models to compare change in smallmouth bass growth rate potential (GRP) from present to future projected monthly stream temperatures across two flow regimes: runoff and groundwater-dominated. Seasonal differences in GRP between stream types were then compared. The models were developed for fourteen streams within the Ozark–Ouachita Interior Highlands in Arkansas, Oklahoma and Missouri, USA, which contain smallmouth bass. In our simulations, smallmouth bass mean GRP during summer months decreased by 0.005 g g−1 day−1 in runoff streams and 0.002 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams by the end of century. Mean GRP during winter, fall and early spring increased under future climate conditions within both stream types (e.g., 0.00019 g g−1 day−1 in runoff and 0.0014 g g−1 day−1 in groundwater streams in spring months). We found significant differences in change in GRP between runoff and groundwater streams in three seasons in end-of-century simulations (spring, summer and fall). Potential differences in stream temperature across flow regimes could be an important habitat component to consider when investigating effects of climate change as fishes from various flow regimes that are relatively close geographically could be affected differently by warming climate conditions.

  19. Two-peaked dose curves for irradiated pollen growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejchenko, S.V.; Grodzinskij, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on growth activity of bicellular pollen of hybrid petunia has been investigated. Irradiation of pollen with doses of 5 to 70 Gy increases the pollen tube growth in an artificial culture medium. As the radiation dose increases the germination ability of pollen gradually decreases and the mean pollen tube length shortens, which is accompanied by the suppression of the generative cell division into spermia and inhibition of the unscheduled incorporation of labelled thymidine into DNA. With radiation doses of 1200 to 1700 Gy some pollen tubes grow intensively. It is suggested that the phenomenon observed lays the basis for the gametic transformation

  20. Growth Curve Analysis and Change-Points Detection in Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2016-01-01

    of salinity tolerance in plants is crucial to understanding plant growth and productivity. Because fully-automated smarthouses with conveyor systems allow non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping of large number of plants, it is now possible to apply

  1. Growth curve of buffalo grazing on a grass pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Cristina Alves; Raul Franzolin

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of 17 buffaloes (Mediterranean), from birth to slaughter age (720 days) with monthly measures of weight, thoracic perimeter, body length, and height at withers. At the end of experimental period, the animals were separated into two different groups for statistical analysis according to slaughter weight: light body weight (LBW, mean 517 kg) and heavy body weight (HBW, mean 568 kg). Buffalo growth occurs in the same way up to w...

  2. Investigation of Mediational Processes Using Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, JeeWon; MacKinnon, David P.; Khoo, Siek Toon

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated a method to evaluate mediational processes using latent growth curve modeling. The mediator and the outcome measured across multiple time points were viewed as 2 separate parallel processes. The mediational process was defined as the independent variable influencing the growth of the mediator, which, in turn, affected the growth of the outcome. To illustrate modeling procedures, empirical data from a longitudinal drug prevention program, Adolescents Training and Learning to Avoid Steroids, were used. The program effects on the growth of the mediator and the growth of the outcome were examined first in a 2-group structural equation model. The mediational process was then modeled and tested in a parallel process latent growth curve model by relating the prevention program condition, the growth rate factor of the mediator, and the growth rate factor of the outcome. PMID:20157639

  3. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Griebeler

    Full Text Available To estimate the body temperature (BT of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation. The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006. I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs, ornithischians (two, theropods (three, prosauropods (three, and sauropods (nine. For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006 I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately

  4. Body temperatures in dinosaurs: what can growth curves tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Eva Maria

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the body temperature (BT) of seven dinosaurs Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) used an equation that predicts BT from the body mass and maximum growth rate (MGR) with the latter preserved in ontogenetic growth trajectories (BT-equation). The results of these authors evidence inertial homeothermy in Dinosauria and suggest that, due to overheating, the maximum body size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. In this paper, I revisit this hypothesis of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006). I first studied whether BTs derived from the BT-equation of today's crocodiles, birds and mammals are consistent with core temperatures of animals. Second, I applied the BT-equation to a larger number of dinosaurs than Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) did. In particular, I estimated BT of Archaeopteryx (from two MGRs), ornithischians (two), theropods (three), prosauropods (three), and sauropods (nine). For extant species, the BT value estimated from the BT-equation was a poor estimate of an animal's core temperature. For birds, BT was always strongly overestimated and for crocodiles underestimated; for mammals the accuracy of BT was moderate. I argue that taxon-specific differences in the scaling of MGR (intercept and exponent of the regression line, log-log-transformed) and in the parameterization of the Arrhenius model both used in the BT-equation as well as ecological and evolutionary adaptations of species cause these inaccuracies. Irrespective of the found inaccuracy of BTs estimated from the BT-equation and contrary to the results of Gillooly, Alleen, and Charnov (2006) I found no increase in BT with increasing body mass across all dinosaurs (Sauropodomorpha, Sauropoda) studied. This observation questions that, due to overheating, the maximum size in Dinosauria was ultimately limited by BT. However, the general high inaccuracy of dinosaurian BTs derived from the BT-equation makes a reliable test of whether body size in dinosaurs was ultimately limited

  5. Parent Involvement and Science Achievement: A Cross-Classified Multilevel Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ursula Y.; Hull, Darrell M.

    2014-01-01

    The authors examined science achievement growth at Grades 3, 5, and 8 and parent school involvement at the same time points using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999. Data were analyzed using cross-classified multilevel latent growth curve modeling with time invariant and varying covariates. School-based…

  6. Growth Curve and Structural Equation Modeling : Topics from the Indian Statistical Institute

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some recent trends in GCM research on different subject areas, both theoretical and applied. This includes tools and possibilities for further work through new techniques and modification of existing ones. A growth curve is an empirical model of the evolution of a quantity over time. Growth curves in longitudinal studies are used in disciplines including biology, statistics, population studies, economics, biological sciences, sociology, nano-biotechnology, and fluid mechanics. The volume includes original studies, theoretical findings and case studies from a wide range of applied work. This volume builds on presentations from a GCM workshop held at the Indian Statistical Institute, Giridih, January 18-19, 2014. This book follows the volume Advances in Growth Curve Models, published by Springer in 2013. The results have meaningful application in health care, prediction of crop yield, child nutrition, poverty measurements, estimation of growth rate, and other research areas.

  7. Growth curves and the international standard: How children's growth reflects challenging conditions in rural Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Phoebe R; Sanders, Katherine A; Judge, Debra S

    2018-02-01

    Population-specific growth references are important in understanding local growth variation, especially in developing countries where child growth is poor and the need for effective health interventions is high. In this article, we use mixed longitudinal data to calculate the first growth curves for rural East Timorese children to identify where, during development, deviation from the international standards occurs. Over an eight-year period, 1,245 children from two ecologically distinct rural areas of Timor-Leste were measured a total of 4,904 times. We compared growth to the World Health Organization (WHO) standards using z-scores, and modeled height and weight velocity using the SuperImposition by Translation And Rotation (SITAR) method. Using the Generalized Additive Model for Location, Scale and Shape (GAMLSS) method, we created the first growth curves for rural Timorese children for height, weight and body mass index (BMI). Relative to the WHO standards, children show early-life growth faltering, and stunting throughout childhood and adolescence. The median height and weight for this population tracks below the WHO fifth centile. Males have poorer growth than females in both z-BMI (p = .001) and z-height-for-age (p = .018) and, unlike females, continue to grow into adulthood. This is the most comprehensive investigation to date of rural Timorese children's growth, and the growth curves created may potentially be used to identify future secular trends in growth as the country develops. We show significant deviation from the international standard that becomes most pronounced at adolescence, similar to the growth of other Asian populations. Males and females show different growth responses to challenging conditions in this population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Supplementary Material for: Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  9. Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.

  10. Colombian reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index and head circumference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Paola; Merker, Andrea; Briceño, Germán; Colón, Eugenia; Line, Dionne; Abad, Verónica; Del Toro, Kenny; Chahín, Silvia; Matallana, Audrey Mary; Lema, Adriana; Llano, Mauricio; Céspedes, Jaime; Hagenäs, Lars

    2016-03-01

    Published Growth studies from Latin America are limited to growth references from Argentina and Venezuela. The aim of this study was to construct reference growth curves for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and head circumference of Colombian children in a format that is useful for following the growth of the individual child and as a tool for public health. Prospective measurements from 27 209 Colombian children from middle and upper socio-economic level families were processed using the generalised additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). Descriptive statistics for length and height, weight, BMI and head circumference for age are given as raw and smoothed values. Final height was 172.3 cm for boys and 159.4 cm for girls. Weight at 18 years of age was 64.0 kg for boys and 54 kg for girls. Growth curves are presented in a ± 3 SD format using logarithmic axes. The constructed reference growth curves are a start for following secular trends in Colombia and are also in the presented layout an optimal clinical tool for health care. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A longitudinal study of interethnic contacts in Germany: estimates from a multilevel growth curve model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, B.; van Tubergen, F.; Maas, I.

    2015-01-01

    Interethnic ties are considered important for the cohesion in society. Previous research has studied the determinants of interethnic ties with cross-sectional data or lagged panel designs. This study improves on prior research by applying multilevel growth curve modelling techniques with lagged

  12. A longitudinal study of interethnic contacts in Germany : Estimates from a multilevel growth curve model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinovic, Borja|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822752; van Tubergen, Frank|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/271429534; Maas, Ineke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075229390

    2015-01-01

    Interethnic ties are considered important for the cohesion in society. Previous research has studied the determinants of interethnic ties with cross-sectional data or lagged panel designs. This study improves on prior research by applying multilevel growth curve modelling techniques with lagged

  13. Curve-of-growth analysis of a red giant in the globular cluster M13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, R.

    1979-01-01

    A coude spectrogram of a red giant (L973) in the globular cluster M13 is analysed, with respect to α Boo, by the differential curve-of-growth technique. The overall metal abundance is found to be approximately one-tenth of that of α Boo, or one-fortieth that of the Sun. (author)

  14. Using Growth Curves To Determine the Timing of the Booster Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Michael; Bolan, Gail A.; Hoxworth, Tamara; Iatesta, Michael; Rhodes, Fen; Zenilman, Jonathan M.

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates an application of a method for using growth curves to determine the timing of booster sessions to reinforce the cognitive messages or behavior changes of interventions. Uses data from a multisite randomized experiment that compared three counseling and testing methods for preventing sexual disease transmission. Presents…

  15. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    López, S.; France, J.; Odongo, N.E.; McBride, R.A.; Kebreab, E.; Alzahal, O.; McBride, B.W.; Dijkstra, J.

    2015-01-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records

  16. Candidate genes and growth curves for adiposity in African- and European-American youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Podolsky, R. H.; Barbeau, P.; Kang, H-S; Zhu, H.; Treiber, F. A.; Snieder, H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Obesity is associated with multiple health problems and often originates in childhood. This study investigated the association of genes with the development of general and central obesity from childhood into adulthood. Design: Individual growth curves for measures of general adiposity

  17. Assessment of the extent of bacterial growth in reverse osmosis system for improving drinking water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-keun; Hu, Jiang Yong

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess reverse osmosis (RO) treatment efficacy of drinking water in terms of biological stability in the distribution system. Two flat-sheet RO membranes were used in this study. Experiments were designed to investigate the growth of biofilm and bulk phase bacteria for the RO-treated water flowing through a model distribution system under controlled conditions without disinfectants. RO membranes improved the water quality of drinking water in terms of inorganic, organic and bacterial contents. Organic matter including the fraction available for microbes was efficiently removed by the RO membranes tested. More than 99% of bacterial cells in the tap water was retained by the RO membranes, leaving water. In spite of the low nutrient contents and few cells in the RO permeates, monitoring of the model distribution systems receiving the RO permeates showed that remarkable biofilm accumulation and bulk cell growth occurred in the RO permeate water. In quasi-steady state, the total cell numbers in the biofilm and bulk water were of order 10(3) cells/cm(2) and 10(3) cells/mL, respectively, which were about 2 orders of magnitude lower than those grown in the tap water produced from conventional water treatment. The culturable heterotrophic bacteria constituted a significant part of the total cells (20.7-32.1% in biofilms and 21.3-46.3% in bulk waters). Biofilm maximum density and production rate were of the order 10(4) cells/cm(2) and 10(2) cells/cm(2)/day, respectively. The specific cell growth rate of bacteria in the biofilms was found to be much lower than those in the bulk waters (0.04-0.05 day(-1) versus 0.28-0.36 day(-1)). The overall specific cell growth rate which indicates the growth potential in the whole system was calculated as 0.07-0.08 day(-1), representing a doubling time of 9.1-10.1 days. These observations can be indicative of possibilities for bacterial growth in the RO permeate water with easily assimilable organic carbon

  18. From Experiment to Theory: What Can We Learn from Growth Curves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareva, Irina; Karev, Georgy

    2018-01-01

    Finding an appropriate functional form to describe population growth based on key properties of a described system allows making justified predictions about future population development. This information can be of vital importance in all areas of research, ranging from cell growth to global demography. Here, we use this connection between theory and observation to pose the following question: what can we infer about intrinsic properties of a population (i.e., degree of heterogeneity, or dependence on external resources) based on which growth function best fits its growth dynamics? We investigate several nonstandard classes of multi-phase growth curves that capture different stages of population growth; these models include hyperbolic-exponential, exponential-linear, exponential-linear-saturation growth patterns. The constructed models account explicitly for the process of natural selection within inhomogeneous populations. Based on the underlying hypotheses for each of the models, we identify whether the population that it best fits by a particular curve is more likely to be homogeneous or heterogeneous, grow in a density-dependent or frequency-dependent manner, and whether it depends on external resources during any or all stages of its development. We apply these predictions to cancer cell growth and demographic data obtained from the literature. Our theory, if confirmed, can provide an additional biomarker and a predictive tool to complement experimental research.

  19. [Reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Gómez Campos, Rossana; Vargas Vitoria, Rodrigo; Hochmuller Fogaça, Rosalvo Tadeu; de Arruda, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Wistar rats are one of the most popular strains routinely used for research in the laboratory to serve as an important research tool, so it requires strict control of variables such as age, sex and body weight, and Thus to extrapolate the results to the human model. To develop reference curves for assessing the physical growth of male Wistar rats according to chronological age and somatic maturation from a non-invasive. The subjects studied were 731 male Wistar rats transversely. We assessed age, body weight and body surface. LMS method was used to construct percentile curves based on weight and somatic maturation. The proposed physical growth curves are used to track the physical growth and nutritional status diagnosis of male Wistar rats. Budgets by cutting points are: P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90 and P97. The results suggest that scientists from different areas can use such references, in order to extrapolate somatic growth phases of the laboratory rat and the human model is a non-invasive alternative to assess growth and nutritional status. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Genome association study through nonlinear mixed models revealed new candidate genes for pig growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabyano Fonseca e Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Genome association analyses have been successful in identifying quantitative trait loci (QTLs for pig body weights measured at a single age. However, when considering the whole weight trajectories over time in the context of genome association analyses, it is important to look at the markers that affect growth curve parameters. The easiest way to consider them is via the two-step method, in which the growth curve parameters and marker effects are estimated separately, thereby resulting in a reduction of the statistical power and the precision of estimates. One efficient solution is to adopt nonlinear mixed models (NMM, which enables a joint modeling of the individual growth curves and marker effects. Our aim was to propose a genome association analysis for growth curves in pigs based on NMM as well as to compare it with the traditional two-step method. In addition, we also aimed to identify the nearest candidate genes related to significant SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism markers. The NMM presented a higher number of significant SNPs for adult weight (A and maturity rate (K, and provided a direct way to test SNP significance simultaneously for both the A and K parameters. Furthermore, all significant SNPs from the two-step method were also reported in the NMM analysis. The ontology of the three candidate genes (SH3BGRL2, MAPK14, and MYL9 derived from significant SNPs (simultaneously affecting A and K allows us to make inferences with regards to their contribution to the pig growth process in the population studied.

  1. Estimation of the growth curve and heritability of the growth rate for giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) cubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, T D; Wang, C D; Jin, L; Wei, M; Wu, K; Zhang, Y H; Zhang, H M; Li, D S

    2015-03-27

    Giant panda cubs have a low survival rate during the newborn and early growth stages. However, the growth and developmental parameters of giant panda cubs during the early lactation stage (from birth to 6 months) are not well known. We examined the growth and development of giant panda cubs by the Chapman growth curve model and estimated the heritability of the maximum growth rate at the early lactation stage. We found that 83 giant panda cubs reached their maximum growth rate at approximately 75-120 days after birth. The body weight of cubs at 75 days was 4285.99 g. Furthermore, we estimated that the heritability of the maximum growth rate was moderate (h(2) = 0.38). Our study describes the growth and development of giant panda cubs at the early lactation stage and provides valuable growth benchmarks. We anticipate that our results will be a starting point for more detailed research on increasing the survival rate of giant panda cubs. Feeding programs for giant panda cubs need further improvement.

  2. On the analysis of Canadian Holstein dairy cow lactation curves using standard growth functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, S; France, J; Odongo, N E; McBride, R A; Kebreab, E; AlZahal, O; McBride, B W; Dijkstra, J

    2015-04-01

    Six classical growth functions (monomolecular, Schumacher, Gompertz, logistic, Richards, and Morgan) were fitted to individual and average (by parity) cumulative milk production curves of Canadian Holstein dairy cows. The data analyzed consisted of approximately 91,000 daily milk yield records corresponding to 122 first, 99 second, and 92 third parity individual lactation curves. The functions were fitted using nonlinear regression procedures, and their performance was assessed using goodness-of-fit statistics (coefficient of determination, residual mean squares, Akaike information criterion, and the correlation and concordance coefficients between observed and adjusted milk yields at several days in milk). Overall, all the growth functions evaluated showed an acceptable fit to the cumulative milk production curves, with the Richards equation ranking first (smallest Akaike information criterion) followed by the Morgan equation. Differences among the functions in their goodness-of-fit were enlarged when fitted to average curves by parity, where the sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection (Richards and Morgan) outperformed the other 4 equations. All the functions provided satisfactory predictions of milk yield (calculated from the first derivative of the functions) at different lactation stages, from early to late lactation. The Richards and Morgan equations provided the most accurate estimates of peak yield and total milk production per 305-d lactation, whereas the least accurate estimates were obtained with the logistic equation. In conclusion, classical growth functions (especially sigmoidal functions with a variable point of inflection) proved to be feasible alternatives to fit cumulative milk production curves of dairy cows, resulting in suitable statistical performance and accurate estimates of lactation traits. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Construction of the World Health Organization child growth standards: Selection of methods for attained growth curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghi, E.; Onis, M. de; Garza, C.; Broeck, J. van den; Frongillo, E.A.; Grummer-Strawn, L.; Buuren, S. van; Pan, H.; Molinari, L.; Martorell, R.; Onyango, A.W.; Martines, J.C.; Pinol, A.; Siyam, A.; Victoria, C.G.; Bhan, M.K.; Araújo, C.L.; Lartey, A.; Owusu, W.B.; Bhandari, N.; Norum, K.R.; Bjoerneboe, G.-E.Aa.; Mohamed, A.J.; Dewey, K.G.; Belbase, K.; Chumlea, C.; Cole, T.; Shrimpton, R.; Albernaz, E.; Tomasi, E.; Cássia Fossati da Silveira, R. de; Nader, G.; Sagoe-Moses, I.; Gomez, V.; Sagoe-Moses, C.; Taneja, S.; Rongsen, T.; Chetia, J.; Sharma, P.; Bahl, R.; Baerug, A.; Tufte, E.; Alasfoor, D.; Prakash, N.S.; Mabry, R.M.; Al Rajab, H.J.; Helmi, S.A.; Nommsen-Rivers, L.A.; Cohen, R.J.; Heinig, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with a number of research institutions worldwide, is developing new child growth standards. As part of a broad consultative process for selecting the best statistical methods, WHO convened a group of statisticians and child growth experts to

  4. Using the Yield Curve in Forecasting Output Growth and In‡flation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillebrand, Eric Tobias; Huang, Huiyu; Lee, Tae-Hwy

    Following Diebold and Li (2006), we use the Nelson-Siegel (NS, 1987) yield curve factors. However the NS yield curve factors are not supervised for a specifi…c forecast target in the sense that the same factors are used for forecasting different variables, e.g., output growth or infl‡ation. We...... analytically and numerically how supervision works. For both CF and CI schemes, principal components (PC) may be used in place of the NS factors. In out-of-sample forecasting of U.S. monthly output growth and infl‡ation, we fi…nd that supervised CF-factor models (CF-NS, CF-PC) are substantially better than...

  5. Evaluation of water beef buffalo from birth to two years using different growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.R. Lamberson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The buffalo is a domestic animal species of growing world-wide importance. Research to improve genetic improvement programs is important to maintain the productivity of buffalo. The objective this research was to evaluate the growth of Brazilian buffalo to two years of age with different growth curves. Growth curves consolidate the information contained in the weight-age data into three or four biologically meaningful parameters. The data included 31,452 weights at birth and 120, 205, 365, 550 and 730 days of buffalo (n = 5,178 raised on pasture without supplementation. Logistic, Gompertz, quadratic logarithmic, and linear hyperbolic curves (designated L, G, QL, and LH, respectively were fitted to the data by using proc NLIN of SAS (SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC, USA. The parameters estimates for L [WT= A * (((1 + exp (-k * AGE**-m] were A = 865.1 ± 5.42; k= 0.0028 ± 0.00002; M= 3.808 ± 0.007; R2 = 0.95. For G [WT= A * exp (-b * exp (-k * age] the parameters estimates were A= 967.6 ± 7.23; k = 0.00217 ± 0.000015; b = -2.8152 ± 0.00532. For QL [WT= A + b*age + k*(age*age + m*log (age] parameters estimates were A= 37.41 ± 0.48; k= 0.00019 ± 6.4E-6; b= 0.539 ± 0.006; m= 2.32 ± 0.23; R2=0.96. For LH [WT= A + b*AGE + k*(1/AGE] the parameters estimates were A= 23.15 ± 0.44; k=15.16 ± 0.66; b= 0.707 ± 0.001; R2= 0.96. Each of these curves fit these data equally well and could be used for characterizing growth to two years in beef buffalo.

  6. Self-Regulation and Recall: Growth Curve Modeling of Intervention Outcomes for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    West, Robin L.; Hastings, Erin C.

    2011-01-01

    Memory training has often been supported as a potential means to improve performance for older adults. Less often studied are the characteristics of trainees that benefit most from training. Using a self-regulatory perspective, the current project examined a latent growth curve model to predict training-related gains for middle-aged and older adult trainees from individual differences (e.g., education), information processing skills (strategy use) and self-regulatory factors such as self-effi...

  7. SERIAL ULTRASOUND TO ESTIMATE FETAL GROWTH CURVES IN SOUTHERN TAMANDUA (TAMANDUA TETRADACTYLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel; Wolf, Tiffany M; Robertson, Heather; Colburn, Margarita Woc; Moreno, Alexis; Moresco, Anneke; Napier, Anne Elise; Nofs, Sally A

    2017-06-01

    From 2012 to 2015, 16 pregnancies were monitored by ultrasonography in nine tamanduas ( Tamandua tetradactyla ) housed in three zoological facilities. Sonographic measurements were recorded to establish fetal growth curves using thoracic and skull landmarks described for giant anteaters ( Myrmecophaga tridactyla ). All pregnancies resulted in the uncomplicated delivery of healthy offspring, thus gestational development was considered normal. These data may be used as a reference for normal fetal development with potential for estimating parturition date in the absence of breeding data.

  8. The extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends strongly on the organism and conditions for growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Købmann, Brian Jensen; Westerhoff, H.V.; Snoep, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Using molecular genetics we have introduced uncoupled ATPase activity in two different bacterial species, Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis, and determined the elasticities of the growth rate and glycolytic flux towards the intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. During balanced growth in batch...... cultures of E. coli the ATP demand was found to have almost full control on the glycolytic flux (FCC=0.96) and the flux could be stimulated by 70%. In contrast to this, in L. lactis the control by ATP demand on the glycolytic flux was close to zero. However, when we used non-growing cells of L. lactis...... (which have a low glycolytic flux) the ATP demand had a high flux control and the flux could be stimulated more than two fold. We suggest that the extent to which ATP demand controls the glycolytic flux depends on how much excess capacity of glycolysis is present in the cells....

  9. Is cancer a pure growth curve or does it follow a kinetics of dynamical structural transformation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Maraelys Morales; Joa, Javier Antonio González; Cabrales, Luis Enrique Bergues; Pupo, Ana Elisa Bergues; Schneider, Baruch; Kondakci, Suleyman; Ciria, Héctor Manuel Camué; Reyes, Juan Bory; Jarque, Manuel Verdecia; Mateus, Miguel Angel O'Farril; González, Tamara Rubio; Brooks, Soraida Candida Acosta; Cáceres, José Luis Hernández; González, Gustavo Victoriano Sierra

    2017-03-07

    Unperturbed tumor growth kinetics is one of the more studied cancer topics; however, it is poorly understood. Mathematical modeling is a useful tool to elucidate new mechanisms involved in tumor growth kinetics, which can be relevant to understand cancer genesis and select the most suitable treatment. The classical Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami as well as the modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth are used and compared with the Gompertz modified and Logistic models. Viable tumor cells (1×10 5 ) are inoculated to 28 BALB/c male mice. Modified Gompertz, Logistic, Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami classical and modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models fit well to the experimental data and agree with one another. A jump in the time behaviors of the instantaneous slopes of classical and modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models and high values of these instantaneous slopes at very early stages of tumor growth kinetics are observed. The modified Kolmogorov-Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation can be used to describe unperturbed fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor growth. It reveals that diffusion-controlled nucleation/growth and impingement mechanisms are involved in tumor growth kinetics. On the other hand, tumor development kinetics reveals dynamical structural transformations rather than a pure growth curve. Tumor fractal property prevails during entire TGK.

  10. Economic growth and CO2 emissions in Malaysia: A cointegration analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, Behnaz; Sulaiman, Jamalludin; Mohd, Saidatulakmal

    2012-01-01

    This paper attempts to establish a long-run as well as causal relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions for Malaysia. Using data for the years from 1980 to 2009, the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis was tested utilizing the Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology. The empirical results suggest the existence of a long-run relationship between per capita CO 2 emissions and real per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) when the CO 2 emissions level is the dependent variable. We found an inverted-U shape relationship between CO 2 emissions and GDP in both short and long-run, thus supporting the EKC hypothesis. The Granger Causality test based on the Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) presents an absence of causality between CO 2 emissions and economic growth in the short-run while demonstrating uni-directional causality from economic growth to CO 2 emissions in the long-run. - Highlights: ► We tested the dynamic relationship between economic growth and CO 2 emissions. ► The Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis was tested using bounds testing approach. ► The empirical analysis confirms the existence of EKC for Malaysia. ► Causality results in an absence of causality between CO 2 and income in the short-run. ► There is uni-directional causality from income to CO 2 emissions in the long-run.

  11. Economic growth and emissions reconsidering the empirical basis of environmental Kuznets curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, S.M.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Opschoor, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Recent empirical research indicates that certain types of emissions follow an inverted-U or environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) as income grows. This regularity has been interpreted as a possible de-linking of economic growth and patterns of certain pollutants for developed economies. In this paper the empirical basis of this result is investigated, by considering some statistical particularities of the various EKC studies performed. It is argued that the inverted-U relationship between income and emissions estimated from panel data need not hold for specific individual countries over time. Based on insights from 'intensity-of-use' analysis in resource economics an alternative growth model is specified and estimated for three types of emissions (CO 2 , NO x and SO 2 ) in four countries (Netherlands, UK, USA and Western Germany). It is found that the time patterns of these emissions correlate positively with economic growth and that emission reductions may have been achieved as a result of structural and technological changes in the economy. 'Sustainable growth' is defined as the rate of economic growth that does not lead to growth in emissions. Its rate is calculated for each type of emission and country, based on estimated parameter values. The resulting indicators reflect a balance between the positive influence of growth and negative influence of structural change and technological progress on emission levels

  12. Nonlinear Growth Models as Measurement Models: A Second-Order Growth Curve Model for Measuring Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Dumas, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Recent methodological work has highlighted the promise of nonlinear growth models for addressing substantive questions in the behavioral sciences. In this article, we outline a second-order nonlinear growth model in order to measure a critical notion in development and education: potential. Here, potential is conceptualized as having three components-ability, capacity, and availability-where ability is the amount of skill a student is estimated to have at a given timepoint, capacity is the maximum amount of ability a student is predicted to be able to develop asymptotically, and availability is the difference between capacity and ability at any particular timepoint. We argue that single timepoint measures are typically insufficient for discerning information about potential, and we therefore describe a general framework that incorporates a growth model into the measurement model to capture these three components. Then, we provide an illustrative example using the public-use Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten data set using a Michaelis-Menten growth function (reparameterized from its common application in biochemistry) to demonstrate our proposed model as applied to measuring potential within an educational context. The advantage of this approach compared to currently utilized methods is discussed as are future directions and limitations.

  13. An introduction to latent variable growth curve modeling concepts, issues, and application

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, Terry E; Strycker, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to latent variable growth curve modeling (LGM) for analyzing repeated measures. It presents the statistical basis for LGM and its various methodological extensions, including a number of practical examples of its use. It is designed to take advantage of the reader's familiarity with analysis of variance and structural equation modeling (SEM) in introducing LGM techniques. Sample data, syntax, input and output, are provided for EQS, Amos, LISREL, and Mplus on the book's CD. Throughout the book, the authors present a variety of LGM techniques that are useful for many different research designs, and numerous figures provide helpful diagrams of the examples.Updated throughout, the second edition features three new chapters-growth modeling with ordered categorical variables, growth mixture modeling, and pooled interrupted time series LGM approaches. Following a new organization, the book now covers the development of the LGM, followed by chapters on multiple-group is...

  14. Growth curve of Atlantoscia floridana (van Name (Crustacea, Isopoda, Philosciidae from a Brazilian Restinga Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Beatriz Araujo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial isopod Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 occurs from the U.S.A. (Florida to Brazil and Argentina. In the southernmost Brazilian State, Rio Grande do Sul, the species is recorded in many localities, in urban and in non-urban areas. The growth curve of Atlantoscia floridana based on field data is presented. The specimens were sampled from April, 2000 to October, 2001 at the Reserva Biológica do Lami (RBL, Rio Grande do Sul. Captured individuals were sexed and had their cephalothorax width measured, with the data analyzed with von Bertalanffy's model. The growth curves for males and females are described, respectively, by the equations: Wt = 1.303 [1 - e-0.00941 (t + 50.37] and Wt = 1.682 [1 - e-0.00575 (t + 59.13]. The curves showed differential growth between sexes, where females reach a higher Wµ with a slower growth rate. Based on the growth curves it was also possible to estimate life expectancy for males and females.O isópodo terrestre Atlantoscia floridana (van Name, 1940 ocorre desde os Estados Unidos (Flórida até o Brasil e Argentina. No Rio Grande do Sul a espécie é registrada em muitas localidades, em áreas urbanas e não-urbanas. Este trabalho apresenta a curva de crescimento de Atlantoscia floridana, baseada em dados de campo. Os espécimes foram amostrados desde abril, 2000 a outubro, 2001 na Reserva Biológica do Lami (RBL, Rio Grande do Sul. Os indivíduos capturados foram sexados e tiveram o cefalotórax medido. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o modelo de von Bertalanffy. A curva de crescimento para machos e fêmeas são descritas, respectivamente, pelas equações Wt = 1.303 [1 - e-0.00941 (t + 50.37] e Wt = 1.682 [1 - e -0.00575 (t + 59.13]. As curvas mostraram crescimento diferencial entre os sexos, onde as fêmeas atingem o maior Wµ com uma taxa de crescimento menor. Com base nas curvas de crescimento também foi possível estimar a expectativa de vida para machos e fêmeas.

  15. The Growth Path of Agricultural Labor Productivity in China: A Latent Growth Curve Model at the Prefectural Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Bin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the shrinking proportion of agriculture output and the growing mobility of the labor force in China, how agricultural labor productivity develops has become an increasingly attractive topic for researchers and policy makers. This study aims to depict the development trajectory of agricultural labor productivity in China after its WTO entry. Based on a balanced panel data containing 287 Chinese prefectures from 2000 to 2013, this study applies the Latent Growth Curve Model (LGCM and finds that the agricultural labor productivity follows a piecewise growth path with two breaking points in the years of 2004 and 2009. This may stem from some exogenous stimulus, such as supporting policies launched in the breaking years. Further statistical analysis shows an expanding gap of agricultural labor productivity among different Chinese prefectures.

  16. PENILAIAN PROGRAM PRAKTIKUM TERHADAP PENINGKATAN KUALITI GURU PRA PERKHIDMATAN: ANALISIS BERDASARKAN LATENT GROWTH CURVE MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizah Sarkowi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Practicum is an important component in teacher education programs. This study identify the improvement in the quality of pre-service teachers for three phases practicum. Multi-point prospective panel study has been conducted on a 541 pre-service teachers at the Institute of Teacher Education. Teacher’s quality is measured based on the achievement of program learning outcomes. Based on matching last six digit identification card number for three studies series, 337 questionnaires were analyzed using a latent growth curve model using AMOS 18.0. Latent Analysis shows that the model achieve goodness of fit. There is a linear trend of improvement in the performance of the three phases of the practicum. This increase varies between individuals and the rate of growth depends on the level of achievement at practicum phase I. Studies indicate that the increase in the practicum period of teacher education policy should be continued.

  17. Two Aspects of the Simplex Model: Goodness of Fit to Linear Growth Curve Structures and the Analysis of Mean Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandys, Frantisek; Dolan, Conor V.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    1994-01-01

    Studied the conditions under which the quasi-Markov simplex model fits a linear growth curve covariance structure and determined when the model is rejected. Presents a quasi-Markov simplex model with structured means and gives an example. (SLD)

  18. Nonlinear models for fitting growth curves of Nellore cows reared in the Amazon Biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedma Nayra da Silva Marinho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth curves of Nellore cows were estimated by comparing six nonlinear models: Brody, Logistic, two alternatives by Gompertz, Richards and Von Bertalanffy. The models were fitted to weight-age data, from birth to 750 days of age of 29,221 cows, born between 1976 and 2006 in the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima and Tocantins. The models were fitted by the Gauss-Newton method. The goodness of fit of the models was evaluated by using mean square error, adjusted coefficient of determination, prediction error and mean absolute error. Biological interpretation of parameters was accomplished by plotting estimated weights versus the observed weight means, instantaneous growth rate, absolute maturity rate, relative instantaneous growth rate, inflection point and magnitude of the parameters A (asymptotic weight and K (maturing rate. The Brody and Von Bertalanffy models fitted the weight-age data but the other models did not. The average weight (A and growth rate (K were: 384.6±1.63 kg and 0.0022±0.00002 (Brody and 313.40±0.70 kg and 0.0045±0.00002 (Von Bertalanffy. The Brody model provides better goodness of fit than the Von Bertalanffy model.

  19. Spontaneous growth in growth hormone deficiency from birth until 7 years of age: development of disease-specific growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M; Schmitt, K; Kapelari, K; Frisch, H; Köstl, G; Voigt, M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about spontaneous growth of growth hormone (GH)-deficient children during infancy and childhood. Retrospectively, we calculated disease-specific pretreatment percentiles for height, weight, BMI and growth velocity of 113 GH-deficient boys and 41 GH-deficient girls from birth until 7 years of age, by mean and standard deviation. Infants with idiopathic GH deficiency (GHD) grow in disease-specific percentile channels. There is a significant difference in length and weight from birth onward compared to regional reference (pgrowth velocity, despite a wide variance in the first years, so height deficit became more evident with increasing age. GHD is a congenital disease no matter when height deficit becomes clinically evident, because GH-deficient children grow in disease-specific percentile channels with a highly significantly reduced length and weight, which demonstrates that GH is essential for adequate growth in infancy and early childhood. Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Relationship Between Crack Growth Resistance KR Curve and Specimen Width for 2060 - T8E30 Lithium Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Di Hua

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available KR crack growth resistance curve can be used to predict crack propagation behavior, estimate the crack component bearing capacity after the crack, so KR curve research occupies very important position in the fracture mechanics. Based on crack growth resistance KR test curve of 2060 - T8E30 lithium aluminum alloy under the same thickness for different width, studies have shown that under the same thickness, the influence of the width on the resistance curve of crack propagation can be neglected. Empirical equation of resistance curve of crack extension of the smaller width specimen is given. Extending the fitting equation to that of larger width, it can be found that it is highly coincided with the experimental results.

  1. Growth curves and their implications in hand-fed Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petzinger C

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Christina Petzinger,1,2 J Jill Heatley,3 John E Bauer1,2 1Comparative Animal Nutrition Research Laboratory, Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, 2Intercollegiate Faculty of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, 3Zoological Medicine Service, Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX, USA Abstract: Monk parrots (Myiopsitta monachus were hand-fed over two chick seasons spanning of 2010 to 2011. Information from the growth curve of chicks hand-fed in 2010 was used to develop a feeding protocol for the 2011 season (Protocol-2011. This protocol addressed the problems of delayed followed by excessive growth experienced by parrots hand fed in 2010. Monk parrots that were hand-fed in 2011 following the new protocol experienced delayed growth after 20 days of age. However, some Monk parrots were fed in excess of Protocol-2011 and did not experience a major delay in growth. The energy requirement equations used to construct Protocol-2011 were low when compared to adult Monk parrot maintenance energy requirements. The data suggest that growing birds do not require approximately twice their adult maintenance energy requirements, as is the case for growing dogs. Additionally, there appear to be fluctuations in energy needs as Monk parrots grow. A major increase in energy needs occurred between days 18 and 23 posthatching, which corresponds to feather development and growth in Monk parrot chicks. Thus, multiple equations estimating energy requirements, rather than just one equation, are likely needed from hatching to fledging in order to ensure adequate energy is provided to chicks. More research on the energy requirements of growing Monk parrots, especially around the time of fledging and weaning, is needed to improve hand-fed methods and potentially the adult health of hand-fed birds. Keywords

  2. Environmental degradation, economic growth and energy consumption: Evidence of the environmental Kuznets curve in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboori, Behnaz; Sulaiman, Jamalludin

    2013-01-01

    This paper tests for the short and long-run relationship between economic growth, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions and energy consumption, using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) by employing both the aggregated and disaggregated energy consumption data in Malaysia for the period 1980–2009. The Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) methodology and Johansen–Juselius maximum likelihood approach were used to test the cointegration relationship; and the Granger causality test, based on the vector error correction model (VECM), to test for causality. The study does not support an inverted U-shaped relationship (EKC) when aggregated energy consumption data was used. When data was disaggregated based on different energy sources such as oil, coal, gas and electricity, the study does show evidences of the EKC hypothesis. The long-run Granger causality test shows that there is bi-directional causality between economic growth and CO 2 emissions, with coal, gas, electricity and oil consumption. This suggests that decreasing energy consumption such as coal, gas, electricity and oil appears to be an effective way to control CO 2 emissions but simultaneously will hinder economic growth. Thus suitable policies related to the efficient consumption of energy resources and consumption of renewable sources are required. - Highlights: • We investigated the EKC hypothesis by using Malaysian energy aggregated and disaggregated data. • It was found that the EKC is not supported, using the aggregated data (energy consumption). • However using disaggregated energy data (oil, coal and electricity) there is evidence of EKC. • Causality shows no causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption in the short-run. • Economic growth Granger causes energy consumption and energy consumption causes CO 2 emissions in long-run

  3. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia. An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodha, Mouez [Paris School of Economics and CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques, 106-112 Bd de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris (France); Zaghdoud, Oussama [CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Department of Economics, High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis, 4 Rue Abou Zakaria El Hafsi, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO{sub 2} emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to 1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to 3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run. (author)

  4. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodha, Mouez, E-mail: fodha@univ-paris1.f [Paris School of Economics and CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques, 106-112 Bd de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris (France); Zaghdoud, Oussama [CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Department of Economics, High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis, 4 Rue Abou Zakaria El Hafsi, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO{sub 2} emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to $1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to $3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run.

  5. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodha, Mouez; Zaghdoud, Oussama

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO 2 emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to $1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to $3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run.

  6. Relationship between Industrial Water Use and Economic Growth in China: Insights from an Environmental Kuznets Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alun Gu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Global inequity and the unbalance of water resources has been a critical issue for many years; and the Chinese per capita water resources are only 1/4 of the global average. Meanwhile, as the Chinese economy is growing rapidly, the demand of Chinese industrial water use is also increasing. In this case, it is important to balance the relationship between economic growth and industrial water use. In this study, a reduction model is established for the northeastern, northern coastal, eastern coastal, southern coastal, middle Yellow River, middle Yangtze River, southwestern, and northwestern regions to verify the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC for their respective industrial water use and provide theoretical support for decision making from an economic perspective. It adopts the per capita industrial water use and GDP of the eight economic zones from 2002 to 2014. The unit root test and co-integration test were adopted to analyze the stationarity of the data, and the triple reduction model was used for the fitting of variables. The relationship between per capita industrial water use and GDP showed an inverted U-shaped curve from 2002 to 2014 for China, as well as for the eastern coastal and middle Yangtze River regions, with the coordinates of the turning points being (9.8749, 4.6735, (10.3098, 5.4783, and (9.8184, 5.0622, respectively. The per capita GDP at the turning point of the inverted U-shaped curve is 18,000–30,000 Yuan (at constant prices from 2000. This study provides important thoughts and lessons for collaborative research into the relationship between industrial water consumption and economic development. The central government should focus on the central and western regions when creating policies for water resource management and technological development to improve their industrial water use efficiency.

  7. Proposal of fatigue crack growth rate curve in air for nickel-base alloys used in BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Takuya; Itatani, Masao; Nagase, Hiroshi; Aoike, Satoru; Yoneda, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    When the defects are detected in the nuclear components in Japan, structural integrity assessment should be performed for the technical judgment on continuous service based on the Rules on Fitness-for-Service for Nuclear Power Plants of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers Code (JSME FFS Code). Fatigue crack growth analysis is required when the cyclic loading would be applied for the components. Recently, fatigue crack growth rate curve in air environment for Nickel-base alloys weld metal used in BWR was proposed by the authors and it was adopted as a code case of JSME FFS Code to evaluate the embedded flaw. In this study, fatigue crack growth behavior for heat-affected zone (HAZ) of Nickel-base alloys in air was investigated. And a unified fatigue crack growth rate curve in air for HAZ and weld metal of Nickel-base alloys used in BWR was evaluated. As a result, it was found that the curve for weld metal could be applied as a curve for both HAZ and weld metal since moderately conservative assessment of fatigue crack growth rate of HAZ is possible by the curve for weld metal in the Paris region. And the threshold value of stress intensity far range (ΔK th ) is determined to 3.0 MPa√m based on the fatigue crack growth rate of HAZ. (author)

  8. Escaping the snare of chronological growth and launching a free curve alternative: general deviance as latent growth model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Phillip Karl; Jackson, Kristina M

    2013-08-01

    Researchers studying longitudinal relationships among multiple problem behaviors sometimes characterize autoregressive relationships across constructs as indicating "protective" or "launch" factors or as "developmental snares." These terms are used to indicate that initial or intermediary states of one problem behavior subsequently inhibit or promote some other problem behavior. Such models are contrasted with models of "general deviance" over time in which all problem behaviors are viewed as indicators of a common linear trajectory. When fit of the "general deviance" model is poor and fit of one or more autoregressive models is good, this is taken as support for the inhibitory or enhancing effect of one construct on another. In this paper, we argue that researchers consider competing models of growth before comparing deviance and time-bound models. Specifically, we propose use of the free curve slope intercept (FCSI) growth model (Meredith & Tisak, 1990) as a general model to typify change in a construct over time. The FCSI model includes, as nested special cases, several statistical models often used for prospective data, such as linear slope intercept models, repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance, various one-factor models, and hierarchical linear models. When considering models involving multiple constructs, we argue the construct of "general deviance" can be expressed as a single-trait multimethod model, permitting a characterization of the deviance construct over time without requiring restrictive assumptions about the form of growth over time. As an example, prospective assessments of problem behaviors from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (Silva & Stanton, 1996) are considered and contrasted with earlier analyses of Hussong, Curran, Moffitt, and Caspi (2008), which supported launch and snare hypotheses. For antisocial behavior, the FCSI model fit better than other models, including the linear chronometric growth curve

  9. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, 830 Dennison Building., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); D' Alessio, P. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58089 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Espaillat, C. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Sargent, B. [Center for Imaging Science and Laboratory for Multiwavelength Astrophysics, Rochester Institute of Technology, 54 Lomb Memorial Drive, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States); Watson, D. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Hernández, J., E-mail: melisma@umich.edu, E-mail: ncalvet@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: lingleby@umich.edu, E-mail: p.dalessio@astrosmo.unam.mx, E-mail: cespaillat@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: baspci@rit.edu, E-mail: dmw@pas.rochester.edu, E-mail: hernandj@cida.ve [Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía (CIDA), Mérida 5101-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10{sup –8} to 10{sup –10} M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10{sup –4} of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system.

  10. CURVED WALLS: GRAIN GROWTH, SETTLING, AND COMPOSITION PATTERNS IN T TAURI DISK DUST SUBLIMATION FRONTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, M. K.; Calvet, N.; Hartmann, L.; Ingleby, L.; D'Alessio, P.; Espaillat, C.; Sargent, B.; Watson, D. M.; Hernández, J.

    2013-01-01

    The dust sublimation walls of disks around T Tauri stars represent a directly observable cross-section through the disk atmosphere and midplane. Their emission properties can probe the grain size distribution and composition of the innermost regions of the disk, where terrestrial planets form. Here we calculate the inner dust sublimation wall properties for four classical T Tauri stars with a narrow range of spectral types and inclination angles and a wide range of mass accretion rates to determine the extent to which the walls are radially curved. Best fits to the near- and mid-IR excesses are found for curved, two-layer walls in which the lower layer contains larger, hotter, amorphous pyroxene grains with Mg/(Mg+Fe) = 0.6 and the upper layer contains submicron, cooler, mixed amorphous olivine and forsterite grains. As the mass accretion rates decrease from 10 –8 to 10 –10 M ☉ yr –1 , the maximum grain size in the lower layer decreases from ∼3 to 0.5 μm. We attribute this to a decrease in fragmentation and turbulent support for micron-sized grains with decreasing viscous heating. The atmosphere of these disks is depleted of dust with dust-gas mass ratios 1 × 10 –4 of the interstellar medium (ISM) value, while the midplane is enhanced to eight times the ISM value. For all accretion rates, the wall contributes at least half of the flux in the optically thin 10 μm silicate feature. Finally, we find evidence for an iron gradient in the disk, suggestive of that found in our solar system

  11. Parent Prevention Communication Profiles and Adolescent Substance Use: A Latent Profile Analysis and Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Miller-Day, Michelle; Shin, YoungJu; Hecht, Michael L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Krieger, Janice L.; Lee, JeongKyu; Graham, John W.

    2017-01-01

    This current study identifies distinct parent prevention communication profiles and examines whether youth with different parental communication profiles have varying substance use trajectories over time. Eleven schools in two rural school districts in the Midwestern United States were selected, and 784 students were surveyed at three time points from the beginning of 7th grade to the end of 8th grade. A series of latent profile analyses were performed to identify discrete profiles/subgroups of substance-specific prevention communication (SSPC). The results revealed a 4-profile model of SSPC: Active-Open, Passive-Open, Active-Silent, and Passive-Silent. A growth curve model revealed different rates of lifetime substance use depending on the youth’s SSPC profile. These findings have implications for parenting interventions and tailoring messages for parents to fit specific SSPC profiles. PMID:29056872

  12. Atmospheric emissions and economic growth. Environmental Kuznets Curve and Kyoto protocol; Emisiones atmosfericas y crecimiento economico en Espana. La Curve de Kuznets ambiental y el protocolo de Kyoto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca Jusmet, J.; Padilla Rosa, E.

    2004-07-01

    From the beginning of the 90s the analysis of the relationships between economic growth and environmental pressures has been influenced by the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis or inverted-U shaped relationship between environmental pressure and per capita income. Following this hypothesis, once achieved certain income level, more economic growth is followed by environmental quality improvement. In this paper, we analyse and discuss the theories that support this hypothesis as well as the empirical evidence on this subject. Further on we analyse the relationship between per capita income and the main environmental pollutants for the case does not support the hypothesis. The empirical evidence shows that economic growth, by itself, does not entail a pollution reduction. (Author) 35 refs.

  13. The extent of intrauterine growth restriction determines the severity of cerebral injury and neurobehavioural deficits in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Crystal A; Faulkner, Stuart D; Rumajogee, Prakasham; Beldick, Stephanie; Foltz, Warren; Corrigan, Jennifer; Basilious, Alfred; Jiang, Shangjun; Thiyagalingam, Shanojan; Yager, Jerome Y; Fehlings, Michael G

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies. To address these key knowledge gaps, we characterized a chronic placental insufficiency (PI) model, using bilateral uterine artery ligation (BUAL) of dams. This injury model results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) in pups, and animals recapitulate the human phenotype both in terms of neurobehavioural and anatomical deficits. Effects of BUAL were studied using luxol fast blue (LFB)/hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and Catwalk neurobehavioural tests. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed regional ventricular enlargement and corpus callosum thinning in IUGR animals, which was correlated with the extent of growth restriction. Olig2 staining revealed reductions in oligodendrocyte density in white and grey matter structures, including the corpus callosum, optic chiasm, and nucleus accumbens. The caudate nucleus, along with other brain structures such as the optic chiasm, internal capsule, septofimbrial and lateral septal nuclei, exhibited reduced size in animals with IUGR. The size of the pretectal nucleus was reduced only in moderately injured animals. MAG/NF200 staining demonstrated reduced myelination and axonal counts in the corpus callosum of IUGR animals. NeuN staining revealed changes in neuronal density in the hippocampus and in the thickness of hippocampal CA2 and CA3 regions. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) revealed regional white and grey matter changes at 3

  14. The extent of intrauterine growth restriction determines the severity of cerebral injury and neurobehavioural deficits in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A Ruff

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy (CP is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b can be used to evaluate new translational therapies. To address these key knowledge gaps, we characterized a chronic placental insufficiency (PI model, using bilateral uterine artery ligation (BUAL of dams. This injury model results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR in pups, and animals recapitulate the human phenotype both in terms of neurobehavioural and anatomical deficits.Effects of BUAL were studied using luxol fast blue (LFB/hematoxylin & eosin (H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI, and Catwalk neurobehavioural tests.Neuroanatomical analysis revealed regional ventricular enlargement and corpus callosum thinning in IUGR animals, which was correlated with the extent of growth restriction. Olig2 staining revealed reductions in oligodendrocyte density in white and grey matter structures, including the corpus callosum, optic chiasm, and nucleus accumbens. The caudate nucleus, along with other brain structures such as the optic chiasm, internal capsule, septofimbrial and lateral septal nuclei, exhibited reduced size in animals with IUGR. The size of the pretectal nucleus was reduced only in moderately injured animals. MAG/NF200 staining demonstrated reduced myelination and axonal counts in the corpus callosum of IUGR animals. NeuN staining revealed changes in neuronal density in the hippocampus and in the thickness of hippocampal CA2 and CA3 regions. Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI revealed regional white and grey matter

  15. Assessing Trust and Effectiveness in Virtual Teams: Latent Growth Curve and Latent Change Score Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Coovert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trust plays a central role in the effectiveness of work groups and teams. This is the case for both face-to-face and virtual teams. Yet little is known about the development of trust in virtual teams. We examined cognitive and affective trust and their relationship to team effectiveness as reflected through satisfaction with one’s team and task performance. Latent growth curve analysis reveals both trust types start at a significant level with individual differences in that initial level. Cognitive trust follows a linear growth pattern while affective trust is overall non-linear, but becomes linear once established. Latent change score models are utilized to examine change in trust and also its relationship with satisfaction with the team and team performance. In examining only change in trust and its relationship to satisfaction there appears to be a straightforward influence of trust on satisfaction and satisfaction on trust. However, when incorporated into a bivariate coupling latent change model the dynamics of the relationship are revealed. A similar pattern holds for trust and task performance; however, in the bivariate coupling change model a more parsimonious representation is preferred.

  16. Economic growth and environmental pollution in Myanmar: an analysis of environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Thiri Shwesin; Saboori, Behnaz; Rasoulinezhad, Ehsan

    2017-09-01

    This empirical study examines the short- and long-run relationship between GDP as an economic growth indicator and CO 2 emissions as an environmental pollution indicator in Myanmar by using annual time series data over the period of 1970-2014. It also carefully considered other proxies, such as trade openness, financial openness and urbanization, and structural breaks in the country. The fundamental objective of this study is to test the validity of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in the context of Myanmar. The dynamic estimates of the long- and short-term relationship among greenhouse gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , N 2 O), GDP, trade intensity, financial openness, and urbanization growth are built through an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model. The empirical findings indicate that there is positive short- and long-run relationship between CO 2 and GDP and thus, no evidence of EKC hypothesis is found for CO 2 in Myanmar. Nevertheless, the existence of the EKC is observed for CH 4 and N 2 O. On the other hand, trade and financial openness have inverse relationship with CO 2 emissions. These results demonstrate that trade liberalization and financial openness will improve the environment quality in Myanmar in the long run.

  17. Economic growth, trade and energy. Implications for the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suri, Vivek; Chapman, Duane

    1998-01-01

    The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis asserts that pollution follows an inverted-U path with respect to economic growth. The EKC has been explained in terms of structural changes in the composition of economic output and increased environmental regulation at higher income levels. While some authors have incorporated the impact of trade policy orientation on the EKC, the impact of the actual movement between countries of goods that embody pollution has not been considered. This paper attempts to econometrically quantify the effect using pooled cross-country and time-series data. The EKC hypothesis is examined with respect to commercial energy consumption, the source of many serious environmental problems. It was found that while both industrializing and industrialized countries have added to their energy requirements by exporting manufactured goods, the growth has been substantially higher in the former. At the same time, industrialized countries have been able to reduce their energy requirements by importing manufactured goods. Exports of manufactured goods by industrialized countries has thus been an important factor in generating the upward sloping portion of the EKC and imports by industrialized countries have contributed to the downward slope

  18. Establishment of Uropygial Gland Growth Curves for White, Three-Way Crossed Mule Ducklings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YH Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Growth curves for the uropygial gland (UG of white, 3-way crossed mule ducklings were established using the Gompertz function. In total, 144 ducklings were fed in 12 floor pens with 12 birds in each pen. Each pen contained an equal number of animals of each sex. Feed and water were supplied ad libitumthroughout the entire experimental period. The weekly change in UG weight was recorded in males and females from hatch to 8 weeks of age. The weight and length of the UG, the width of the lobus glandulae uropygialis, the length and width of the pluma of the circulus uropygialis, and the index of the papilla uropygialis were measured once a week in individual ducklings in one pen. The average UG weight gain observed in white, 3-way crossed drakes was significantly higher than that of ducks of 21-56 days of age (P< 0.05. The UG length was 1.64-2.23 times the width of the left or right lobe, and the development of the UG was delayed from 3-4 weeks of age. The morphology of the UG changed from elliptical to elongated-elliptical with age. The right and left lobus glandulae uropygialis were symmetrical. The Gompertz growth functions of the UG in drakes and ducks were W=5.49e-e-0.675(t-1.955 and W=4.76e-e-0.685(t-1.936, respectively, where t represents age in weeks. These equations indicated that the maximum growth rate for drakes occurred at 14.1 days of age and for ducks at 13.6 days of age.

  19. Growth curves of preschool children in the northeast of iran: a population based study using quantile regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payande, Abolfazl; Tabesh, Hamed; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Saki, Azadeh; Safarian, Mohammad

    2013-01-14

    Growth charts are widely used to assess children's growth status and can provide a trajectory of growth during early important months of life. The objectives of this study are going to construct growth charts and normal values of weight-for-age for children aged 0 to 5 years using a powerful and applicable methodology. The results compare with the World Health Organization (WHO) references and semi-parametric LMS method of Cole and Green. A total of 70737 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 0 to 5 years were recruited in July 2004 for 20 days from those attending community clinics for routine health checks as a part of a national survey. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained health staff using WHO methodology. The nonparametric quantile regression method obtained by local constant kernel estimation of conditional quantiles curves using for estimation of curves and normal values. The weight-for-age growth curves for boys and girls aged from 0 to 5 years were derived utilizing a population of children living in the northeast of Iran. The results were similar to the ones obtained by the semi-parametric LMS method in the same data. Among all age groups from 0 to 5 years, the median values of children's weight living in the northeast of Iran were lower than the corresponding values in WHO reference data. The weight curves of boys were higher than those of girls in all age groups. The differences between growth patterns of children living in the northeast of Iran versus international ones necessitate using local and regional growth charts. International normal values may not properly recognize the populations at risk for growth problems in Iranian children. Quantile regression (QR) as a flexible method which doesn't require restricted assumptions, proposed for estimation reference curves and normal values.

  20. Self-regulation and recall: growth curve modeling of intervention outcomes for older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robin L; Hastings, Erin C

    2011-12-01

    Memory training has often been supported as a potential means to improve performance for older adults. Less often studied are the characteristics of trainees that benefit most from training. Using a self-regulatory perspective, the current project examined a latent growth curve model to predict training-related gains for middle-aged and older adult trainees from individual differences (e.g., education), information processing skills (strategy use) and self-regulatory factors such as self-efficacy, control, and active engagement in training. For name recall, a model including strategy usage and strategy change as predictors of memory gain, along with self-efficacy and self-efficacy change, showed comparable fit to a more parsimonious model including only self-efficacy variables as predictors. The best fit to the text recall data was a model focusing on self-efficacy change as the main predictor of memory change, and that model showed significantly better fit than a model also including strategy usage variables as predictors. In these models, overall performance was significantly predicted by age and memory self-efficacy, and subsequent training-related gains in performance were best predicted directly by change in self-efficacy (text recall), or indirectly through the impact of active engagement and self-efficacy on gains (name recall). These results underscore the benefits of targeting self-regulatory factors in intervention programs designed to improve memory skills.

  1. [In vitro study over statins effects on cellular growth curves and its reversibility with mevalonate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan Núñez-Cortés, Jesús; Alvarez Rodriguez, Ysmael; Alvarez Novés, Granada; Recarte Garcia-Andrade, Carlos; Alvarez-Sala Walther, Luis

    2014-01-01

    HMG-CoA-Reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are currently the most powerful cholesterol-lowering drugs available on the market. Clinical trials and experimental evidence suggest that statins have heavy anti-atherosclerotic effects. These are in part consequence of lipid lowering but also result from pleiotropic actions of the drugs. These so-called pleiotropic properties affect various aspects of cell function, inflammation, coagulation, and vasomotor activity. These effects are mediated either indirectly through LDL-c reduction or via a direct effect on cellular functions. Although many of the pleiotropic properties of statins may be a class effect, some may be unique to certain agents and account for differences in their pharmacological activity. So, although statins typically have similar effects on LDL-c levels, differences in chemical structure and pharmacokinetic profile can lead to variations in pleiotropic effects. In this paper we analize the in vitro effects of different statins over different cell lines from cells implicated in atherosclerotic process: endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and vascular muscular cells. In relation with our results we can proof that the effects of different dosis of different statins provides singular effects over growth curves of different cellular lines, a despite of a class-dependent effects. So, pleiotropic effects and its reversibility with mevalonate are different according with the molecule and the dosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  2. Existence of a common growth curve for silt-sized quartz OSL of loess from different continents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Zhongping; Brueckner, Helmut; Zoeller, Ludwig; Fuelling, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Recent publications revealed different opinions regarding the existence of a common growth curve (CGC) for OSL of quartz. In the current study, 18 loess samples were collected from four continents (Asia, America, Africa, and Europe) in order to further examine this issue. Except the three samples from Chile in South America, 15 samples display similar dose-response curves up to a regeneration dose of 200 Gy using the SAR protocol, suggesting the existence of a global CGC for loess from different continents. For samples with equivalent doses (D e ) from ∼10 to ∼170Gy, the D e s determined by the CGC are in good agreement with the D e s by the SAR protocol. The Chilean samples posses a growth curve that differs from the CGC, showing much lower saturation doses. We suggest that it may be due to contamination with heavy minerals

  3. The Effect of Divergent Selection on 4-wk BW on the Shape of Growth Curve in Japanese Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Beyki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to investigate the effect of short-term divergent selection on the shape growth curve in different lines of Japanese quail. The Quail lines utilized in this study were two divergently selected for high (HW and low (LW 4-wk body weight during 7 generation and also a control line (C. The Richard function parameters were used to describe growth curves of different lines. The weight at hatch was approximately similar among lines (8.08 g, 7.55 g and 8.76 g for HW, LW and C line respectively. The results of current study indicated that the selected lines (HW & LW were immediately diverged from the C line after hatch. Sexes within each line had no difference in average growth rate, age and body weight at inflection point and adult body weight. However significant differences were found in the growth curve parameters among lines. The results of current study indicated that short term divergent selection for 4-wk BW in Japanese quail can change the growth pattern and the carcass compartments of the selected birds. Therefore to avoid undesirable side effects due to selection in Japanese quails it is recommended to consider the growth pattern changes of the selected birds in the breeding programs

  4. Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behaviour, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozos, de los J.; Garcia Ruiz, A.I.; Hartog, den L.A.; Villamide, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work has been to assess the effect of diet density [control (CON) or 15% diluted (DIL)] and growth curve [recommended by the genetic line (RBW) or 15% heavier (HBW)] and their interaction on BW uniformity, feeding motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeder pullets.

  5. Impact of Witnessing Violence on Growth Curves for Problem Behaviors among Early Adolescents in Urban and Rural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Albert D.; Sullivan, Terri N.

    2004-01-01

    Two studies used latent growth-curve analysis to examine the relation between witnessing violence and changes in problem behaviors (drug use, aggression, and delinquency) and attitudes during early adolescence. In Study 1, six waves of data covering 6th to 8th grades were collected from 731 students in urban schools serving mostly African-American…

  6. Height growth and site index curves for western white pine in the Cascade Range of Washington and Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert O. Curtis; Nancy M. Diaz; Gary W. Clendenen

    1990-01-01

    Height growth and site index curves were constructed from stem analyses of mature western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl. ex D. Don) growing in high-elevation forests of the Cascade Range in the Mount Hood and Gifford Pinchot National Forests of Oregon and Washington, respectively. Alternate systems using reference ages for site index of 50 and...

  7. Estimation of heritability and genetic correlation of body weight gain and growth curve parameters in Korean native chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabuddha Manjula

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study estimated the genetic parameters for body weight gain and growth curve parameter traits in Korean native chicken (KNC. Methods A total of 585 F1 chickens were used along with 88 of their F0 birds. Body weights were measured every 2 weeks from hatching to 20 weeks of age to measure weight gain at 2-week intervals. For each individual, a logistic growth curve model was fitted to the longitudinal growth dataset to obtain three growth curve parameters (α, asymptotic final body weight; β, inflection point; and γ, constant scale that was proportional to the overall growth rate. Genetic parameters were estimated based on the linear-mixed model using a restricted maximum likelihood method. Results Heritability estimates of body weight gain traits were low to high (0.057 to 0.458. Heritability estimates for α, β, and γ were 0.211±0.08, 0.249±0.09, and 0.095±0.06, respectively. Both genetic and phenotypic correlations between weight gain traits ranged from −0.527 to 0.993. Genetic and phenotypic correlation between the growth curve parameters and weight gain traits ranged from −0.968 to 0.987. Conclusion Based on the results of this study population, we suggest that the KNC could be used for selective breeding between 6 and 8 weeks of age to enhance the overall genetic improvement of growth traits. After validation of these results in independent studies, these findings will be useful for further optimization of breeding programs for KNC.

  8. Teacher-student interpersonal relationships do change and affect academic motivation: a multilevel growth curve modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Bosker, Roel

    2014-09-01

    Research has shown that the teacher-student interpersonal relationship (TSIR) is important for student motivation. Although TSIR has received a growing interest, there are only few studies that focus on changes and links between TSIR and student academic motivation in a longitudinal fashion in non-Western contexts. This study investigated changes in TSIR and links with academic motivation as perceived by first-grade secondary school students in Indonesia. TSIR was studied from the perspective of interpersonal behaviour in terms of Influence and Proximity. Students' academic motivation was studied from the perspective of self-determination theory. A total of 504 first-grade secondary school students of 16 mathematics and English classes participated in the study. Surveys were administered in five waves throughout the school year. Multilevel growth curve modelling was applied. Contrary to the (limited) general research findings from Western contexts, we found that the quality of TSIR (student perceptions) increased over time. The increase was slightly more pronounced for Proximity than for Influence. In accordance with the findings for the Western countries, the level of students' controlled motivation increased, while that of autonomous motivation decreased over time. However, the negative change in autonomous motivation was less pronounced. As in Western countries, TSIR was longitudinally linked with academic motivation, in particular, with autonomous motivation. Evidence is found that TSIR can change in a favourable way, and this positively affects student motivation. Future research could benefit from unravelling the influences of cultures on changes in TSIR in broader contexts. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  9. Longitudinal associations between exercise identity and exercise motivation: A multilevel growth curve model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Stenling, A; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Vlachopoulos, S; Lindwall, M; Gucciardi, D F; Tsakonitis, C

    2018-02-01

    Past work linking exercise identity and exercise motivation has been cross-sectional. This is the first study to model the relations between different types of exercise identity and exercise motivation longitudinally. Understanding the dynamic associations between these sets of variables has implications for theory development and applied research. This was a longitudinal survey study. Participants were 180 exercisers (79 men, 101 women) from Greece, who were recruited from fitness centers and were asked to complete questionnaires assessing exercise identity (exercise beliefs and role-identity) and exercise motivation (intrinsic, identified, introjected, external motivation, and amotivation) three times within a 6 month period. Multilevel growth curve modeling examined the role of motivational regulations as within- and between-level predictors of exercise identity, and a model in which exercise identity predicted exercise motivation at the within- and between-person levels. Results showed that within-person changes in intrinsic motivation, introjected, and identified regulations were positively and reciprocally related to within-person changes in exercise beliefs; intrinsic motivation was also a positive predictor of within-person changes in role-identity but not vice versa. Between-person differences in the means of predictor variables were predictive of initial levels and average rates of change in the outcome variables. The findings show support to the proposition that a strong exercise identity (particularly exercise beliefs) can foster motivation for behaviors that reinforce this identity. We also demonstrate that such relations can be reciprocal overtime and can depend on the type of motivation in question as well as between-person differences in absolute levels of these variables. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Estimating Common Growth Patterns in Juvenile Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha from Diverse Genetic Stocks and a Large Spatial Extent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale A L Goertler

    Full Text Available Life history variation in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp. supports species resilience to natural disturbances and fishery exploitation. Within salmon species, life-history variation often manifests during freshwater and estuarine rearing, as variation in growth. To date, however, characterizing variability in growth patterns within and among individuals has been difficult via conventional sampling methods because of the inability to obtain repeated size measurements. In this study we related otolith microstructures to growth rates of individual juvenile Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha from the Columbia River estuary over a two-year period (2010-2012. We used dynamic factor analysis to determine whether there were common patterns in growth rates within juveniles based on their natal region, capture location habitat type, and whether they were wild or of hatchery origin. We identified up to five large-scale trends in juvenile growth rates depending on month and year of capture. We also found that hatchery fish had a narrower range of trend loadings for some capture groups, suggesting that hatchery fish do not express the same breadth of growth variability as wild fish. However, we were unable to resolve a relationship between specific growth patterns and habitat transitions. Our study exemplifies how a relatively new statistical analysis can be applied to dating or aging techniques to summarize individual variation, and characterize aspects of life history diversity.

  11. GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF HYBRID PIG PREDICTED BY MEANS OF ASYMMETRIC S-CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Kušec

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed on 24 pigs distributed over two MHS-genotypes (NN, Nn and two feeding regimes (intensive, restrictive. These pigs were investigated as the last of four trials in the experiment carried out by Kušec et al. (2005. The data on muscle and fatty tissue volumes were obtained by means of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. For the growth depiction and for the predictions of live weight as well as of muscle and fat tissue, four models developed by Kušec et al. (2007 were used. These models were set up on the basis of the general form of asymmetric S-function. This function seemed to fit well to the data collected in the present study; but the inaccuracy of the models appeared to increase with age. At the age of 124 days, the estimated values of live weight, muscle and fat volumes were close to the actual values measured in the group of intensively fed pigs; in the group of restrictively fed pigs live weight and muscle volume were underestimated while the volume of fat was overestimated. At the time of the last MR imaging (154 days of age, live weight and muscle volume was to some extent overestimated in the pigs fed intensively and underestimated in those fed restrictively. The volume of fatty tissue was estimated with favourable accuracy in all investigated groups of pigs. For further predictions, two approaches were used. In the first approach to predict individual live weights, at the age of 124 days, the predictions were fairly accurate for most of the pigs, falling in the range within one week; 4 of them being estimated falsely by more than ±7 days. Generally, when expressed as absolute value, the average misestimate was ~4 days in all groups, except for the restrictively fed MHS-gene carrier pigs which were estimated with 6 days difference on the average. At the age of 154 days, the predictions were to some extent less accurate; 7 pigs (in total were incorrectly predicted by more than a week. The prediction accuracy

  12. Validity limits in J-resistance curve determination: A computational approach to ductile crack growth under large-scale yielding conditions. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, C.F.; Xia, L.; Hutchinson, J.W.

    1995-02-01

    In this report, Volume 2, Mode I crack initiation and growth under plane strain conditions in tough metals are computed using an elastic/plastic continuum model which accounts for void growth and coalescence ahead of the crack tip. The material parameters include the stress-strain properties, along with the parameters characterizing the spacing and volume fraction of voids in material elements lying in the plane of the crack. For a given set of these parameters and a specific specimen, or component, subject to a specific loading, relationships among load, load-line displacement and crack advance can be computed with no restrictions on the extent of plastic deformation. Similarly, there is no limit on crack advance, except that it must take place on the symmetry plane ahead of the initial crack. Suitably defined measures of crack tip loading intensity, such as those based on the J-integral, can also be computed, thereby directly generating crack growth resistance curves. In this report, the model is applied to five specimen geometries which are known to give rise to significantly different crack tip constraints and crack growth resistance behaviors. Computed results are compared with sets of experimental data for two tough steels for four of the specimen types. Details of the load, displacement and crack growth histories are accurately reproduced, even when extensive crack growth takes place under conditions of fully plastic yielding. A description of material resistance to crack initiation and subsequent growth is essential for assessing structural integrity such as nuclear pressure vessels and piping

  13. Supplementary Material for: Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui; Saade, Stephanie; Kurtek, Sebastian; Berger, Bettina; Brien, Chris; Pillen, Klaus; Tester, Mark A.; Sun, Ying

    2017-01-01

    of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we

  14. Income inequality and economic growth¡ª¡ªthe Kuznets curve revisited

    OpenAIRE

    YIN Heng; GONG Liutang; ZOU Heng-fu

    2006-01-01

    In a neoclassical growth framework with a typical political-economy mechanism, this paper reexamines the relationship between the income inequality and economic growth by introducing government spending into the production function and the utility function. It demonstrates that Kuznets famous inverted-U shape relationship between inequality and economic growth will hold the growth rate will be first increasing with the income inequality before the growth rate decreases with inequality.

  15. Quantitative analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy based on generalized curves of growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragón, C., E-mail: carlos.aragon@unavarra.es; Aguilera, J.A.

    2015-08-01

    A method for quantitative elemental analysis by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is proposed. The method (Cσ-LIBS) is based on Cσ graphs, generalized curves of growth which allow including several lines of various elements at different concentrations. A so-called homogeneous double (HD) model of the laser-induced plasma is used, defined by an integration over a single-region of the radiative transfer equation, combined with a separated treatment for neutral atoms (z = 0) and singly-charged ions (z = 1) in Cσ graphs and characteristic parameters. The procedure includes a criterion, based on a model limit, for eliminating data which, due to a high line intensity or concentration, are not well described by the HD model. An initial procedure provides a set of parameters (βA){sup z}, (ηNl){sup z}, T{sup z} and N{sub e}{sup z} (z = 0, 1) which characterize the plasma and the LIBS system. After characterization, two different analytical procedures, resulting in relative and absolute concentrations, may be applied. To test the method, fused glass samples prepared from certified slags and pure compounds are analyzed. We determine concentrations of Ca, Mn, Mg, V, Ti, Si and Al relative to Fe in three samples prepared from slags, and absolute concentrations of Fe, Ca and Mn in three samples prepared from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CaCO{sub 3} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The accuracy obtained is 3.2% on the average for relative concentrations and 9.2% for absolute concentrations. - Highlights: • Method for quantitative analysis by LIBS, based on Csigma graphs • Conventional calibration is replaced with characterization of the LIBS system. • All elements are determined from measurement of one or two Csigma graphs. • The method is tested with fused glass disks prepared from slags and pure compounds. • Accurate results for relative (3.2%) and absolute concentrations (9.2%)

  16. Curvas de crescimento na produção animal Growth curves in animal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram discutidas as propriedades de sete modelos não-lineares, considerando-se o ajuste de curvas de crescimento na produção animal. Os modelos utilizados: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy e duas alternativas de Gompertz e de Logístico foram ajustados, pelo método de Gauss Newton por meio do procedimento NLIN do SAS, a dados peso-idade de oito espécies: camarão-d'água-doce, rã-pimenta, coelho, frango, ovino, caprino, suíno e bovino. Considerando-se os critérios como: convergência ou não, coeficiente de determinação e interpretabilidade biológica dos parâmetros, concluiu-se que: a o modelo Logístico y= A/(1 + e-ktm estimou o peso em todas as espécies animais, enquanto o de Von Bertalanffy apenas não foi adequado para camarão; b os dois modelos Gompertz foram adequados para camarão, rã, frango, suíno e bovino; c em cada espécie, pelo menos dois dos sete modelos mostraram-se adequados para estimar o crescimento corporal das espécies animais estudadas, pois os coeficientes de determinação foram superiores a 92,0%.The properties of seven nonlinear models were discussed concerning its applications in the fitting of growth curves in animal production. The models used: Brody, Richards, Von Bertalanffy and two alternatives of Gompertz and Logistic models, were fitted by Gauss Newton method to weight-age data from eight animal species: freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, rabbit, poultry, sheep, goat, swine and cattle. Considering results of the fitted models such as convergence or not, coefficient of determination and biological interpretation of parameters, it was concluded that: a the Logisticmethod y = A/(1 + e-ktm estimated body weight in all species, while the Von Bertalanffy model was not adequate only for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi; b both Gompertz models were adequate for freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergi, pepper frog, poultry, swine and cattle; c for each specie, at least two

  17. High-resolution time series of Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene expression and rhamnolipid secretion through growth curve synchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier João B

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online spectrophotometric measurements allow monitoring dynamic biological processes with high-time resolution. Contrastingly, numerous other methods require laborious treatment of samples and can only be carried out offline. Integrating both types of measurement would allow analyzing biological processes more comprehensively. A typical example of this problem is acquiring quantitative data on rhamnolipid secretion by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa cell growth can be measured by optical density (OD600 and gene expression can be measured using reporter fusions with a fluorescent protein, allowing high time resolution monitoring. However, measuring the secreted rhamnolipid biosurfactants requires laborious sample processing, which makes this an offline measurement. Results Here, we propose a method to integrate growth curve data with endpoint measurements of secreted metabolites that is inspired by a model of exponential cell growth. If serial diluting an inoculum gives reproducible time series shifted in time, then time series of endpoint measurements can be reconstructed using calculated time shifts between dilutions. We illustrate the method using measured rhamnolipid secretion by P. aeruginosa as endpoint measurements and we integrate these measurements with high-resolution growth curves measured by OD600 and expression of rhamnolipid synthesis genes monitored using a reporter fusion. Two-fold serial dilution allowed integrating rhamnolipid measurements at a ~0.4 h-1 frequency with high-time resolved data measured at a 6 h-1 frequency. We show how this simple method can be used in combination with mutants lacking specific genes in the rhamnolipid synthesis or quorum sensing regulation to acquire rich dynamic data on P. aeruginosa virulence regulation. Additionally, the linear relation between the ratio of inocula and the time-shift between curves produces high-precision measurements of

  18. Anthropometric evaluation of indigenous Brazilian children under 60 months of age using NCHS/1977 and WHO/2005 growth curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Jesem D Y; Santos, Ricardo V; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Leite, Maurício S

    2009-01-01

    To perform a comparative analysis of anthropometric data from Suruí, Xavánte and Wari' indigenous children under 60 months of age using the NCHS/1977 and the WHO/2005 growth curves. Anthropometric measurements followed standard procedures and the data obtained were converted into z scores using the Epi-Info (Version 3.4) and WHO-Anthro (Version Beta) softwares. The indices height/age (H/A), weight/age (W/A) and weight/height (W/H) were descriptors of nutritional status for all children under 60 months of age, as well as the body mass index (BMI) for children 24-59 months old. The frequencies of Suruí children Wari' 61.7 and 68.3%. The frequencies of Suruí children Wari' 51.7 and 45.0%. None of the Suruí children were Wari' 1.7 and 0.0%. The frequencies of Suruí children > 2 z scores for W/H were 3.9 (NCHS/1977) and 3.9% (WHO/2005); Xavánte 0.0 and 0.8%; Wari' 0.0 and 0.0%. The frequency of Suruí children aged 24-59 months > 2 z scores for BMI was 5.4% (WHO/2005); Xavánte 9.5%; and Wari' 0.0%. Our findings revealed important differences in the results from nutritional assessment, according to the set of growth curves used; however, the use of both growth curves revealed a high prevalence of malnutrition. Therefore, future studies with indigenous populations should present their results using two sets of growth curves to allow consistent comparison.

  19. Effect of single-dose x irradiation on the growth curves of a human malignant melanoma transplanted into nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spang-Thomsen, M.; Visfeldt, J.; Nielsen, A.

    1981-01-01

    A human malignant melanoma transplanted into nude mice was exposed to single-dose x irradiation. Experimental growth data described mathematically according to a transformed Gompertz function were used to determine the effect of irradiation on growth delay, growth rate, and tumor shrinkage. The radiation-induced changes in the histology of the tumors were also described. The results showed that irradiation induced a dose-dependent growth delay; this parameter was therefore found suitable for the assessment of relative therapeutic effect. The treatment also induced a dose-dependent reduction in growth rate during regrowth. As a result of this effect on growth rate, extrapolation of tumor shrinkage to the time of treatment became directly misleading as a measure of the effect of the treatment. From this it can be deduced that in therapeutic studies where treatment induces nonparallel posttherapeutic growth curves, growth delay for various tumors and therapies cannot be compared directly. The transformed Gompertz function proved to be extremely well suited for evaluating these conditions

  20. Estimating water use of mature pecan orchards: A six stage crop growth curve approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ibraimo, NA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available previous study in New Mexico, revealed that a six stage crop coefficient curve should be considered for pecans, together with higher mid-season crop coefficient (K(subc)) values for mature orchards. More accurate estimates of monthly ET for mature pecan...

  1. Environmental quality and economic growth: Searching for environmental Kuznets curves for air and water pollutants in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orubu, Christopher O.; Omotor, Douglason G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation in Africa, using longitudinal data on suspended particulate matter and organic water pollutants. The specific objective was to estimate environmental Kuznets curves for two indicators of environmental quality and to establish whether the estimated relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. The results of the empirical investigation generally suggest the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. In the case of organic water pollutants, the evidence weighs more in favor of rising pollution as per capita income increases. The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators of environmental quality were however generally low, when compared to evidence from existing studies. On the face value, this suggests that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income, much in line with the emerging idea of a 'revised environmental Kuznets curve'. The results also suggest that economic growth and rising incomes may matter in African countries in order to curb pollution from these pollutants, but more stringent policy measures, particularly at the industrial level would be required to curb environmental degradation from organic water pollutants. - Highlights: → The specific objective was to establish whether the relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. → Evidence suggests the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. → The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators were however generally low. → We conclude that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income.

  2. Environmental quality and economic growth: Searching for environmental Kuznets curves for air and water pollutants in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orubu, Christopher O. [Department of Economics, Delta State University, Abraka (Nigeria); Omotor, Douglason G., E-mail: yomotor@yahoo.com [Department of Economics, Delta State University, Abraka (Nigeria)

    2011-07-15

    This study investigated the relationship between per capita income and environmental degradation in Africa, using longitudinal data on suspended particulate matter and organic water pollutants. The specific objective was to estimate environmental Kuznets curves for two indicators of environmental quality and to establish whether the estimated relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. The results of the empirical investigation generally suggest the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. In the case of organic water pollutants, the evidence weighs more in favor of rising pollution as per capita income increases. The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators of environmental quality were however generally low, when compared to evidence from existing studies. On the face value, this suggests that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income, much in line with the emerging idea of a 'revised environmental Kuznets curve'. The results also suggest that economic growth and rising incomes may matter in African countries in order to curb pollution from these pollutants, but more stringent policy measures, particularly at the industrial level would be required to curb environmental degradation from organic water pollutants. - Highlights: > The specific objective was to establish whether the relationships conform to the inverted U-shape hypothesis. > Evidence suggests the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve for suspended particulate matter. > The turning point levels of income established for the two indicators were however generally low. > We conclude that African countries may be turning the corner of the environmental Kuznets curve, much faster, and at lower levels of income.

  3. Changing curves. Monitoring growth of children and adolescents in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonbeck, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monitoring human growth is important. It is used to detection of abnormal growth trajectories of children, which may reflect nutritional problems or underlying illness. In a larger population, it can provide information about the health status of this population, for example the

  4. Changing curves: monitoring growth of children and adolescents in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonbeck, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Monitoring human growth is important. It is used to detection of abnormal growth trajectories of children, which may reflect nutritional problems or underlying illness. In a larger population, it can provide information about the health status of this population, for example the

  5. Growth curves of three human malignant tumors transplanted to nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spang-Thomsen, M; Nielsen, A; Visfeldt, J

    1980-01-01

    Experimental growth data for three human malignant tumors transplanted to nude mice of BALB/c origin are analyzed statistically in order to investigate whether they can be described according to the Gompertz function. The aim is to set up unequivocal standards for planned therapeutic experiments...... as a standard, e.g. in therapeutic experiments. The course of tumor growth is independent of the size of the transplant, and whether tumors are transplanted in the right or left or both flanks of the recipient mice. Furthermore, the growth does not vary in a systematic way with the number of passages in nude...

  6. Growth curves and sustained commissioning modelling of renewable energy: Investigating resource constraints for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidsson, Simon; Grandell, Leena; Wachtmeister, Henrik; Höök, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Several recent studies have proposed fast transitions to energy systems based on renewable energy technology. Many of them dismiss potential physical constraints and issues with natural resource supply, and do not consider the growth rates of the individual technologies needed or how the energy systems are to be sustained over longer time frames. A case study is presented modelling potential growth rates of the wind energy required to reach installed capacities proposed in other studies, taking into account the expected service life of wind turbines. A sustained commissioning model is proposed as a theoretical foundation for analysing reasonable growth patterns for technologies that can be sustained in the future. The annual installation and related resource requirements to reach proposed wind capacity are quantified and it is concluded that these factors should be considered when assessing the feasibility, and even the sustainability, of fast energy transitions. Even a sustained commissioning scenario would require significant resource flows, for the transition as well as for sustaining the system, indefinitely. Recent studies that claim there are no potential natural resource barriers or other physical constraints to fast transitions to renewable energy appear inadequate in ruling out these concerns. - Highlights: • Growth rates and service life is important when evaluating energy transitions. • A sustained commissioning model is suggested for analysing renewable energy. • Natural resource requirements for renewable energy are connected to growth rates. • Arguments by recent studies ruling out physical constraints appear inadequate

  7. Growth curve analyses of the relationship between early maternal age and children's mathematics and reading performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, D Diego

    2015-03-01

    Regarding the methods used to examine the early maternal age-child academic outcomes relationship, the extant literature has tended to examine change using statistical analyses that fail to appreciate that individuals vary in their rates of growth. Of the one study I have been able to find that employs a true growth model to estimate this relationship, the authors only controlled for characteristics of the maternal household after family formation; confounding background factors of mothers that might select them into early childbearing, a possible source of bias, were ignored. The authors' findings nonetheless suggested an inverse relationship between early maternal age, i.e., a first birth between the ages of 13 and 17, and Canadian adolescents' mean math performance at age 10. Early maternal age was not related to the linear slope of age. To elucidate whether the early maternal age-child academic outcomes association, treated in a growth context, is consistent with this finding, the present study built on it using US data and explored children's mathematics and reading trajectories from age 5 on. Its unique contribution is that it further explicitly controlled for maternal background factors and employed a three-level growth model with repeated measures of children nested within their mothers. Though the strength of the relationship varied between mean initial academic performance and mean academic growth, results confirmed that early maternal age was negatively related to children's mathematics and reading achievement, net of post-teen first birth child-specific and maternal household factors. Once maternal background factors were included, there was no statistically significant relationship between early maternal age and either children's mean initial mathematics and reading scores or their mean mathematics and reading growth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. An Attempt To Estimate The Contribution Of Variability Of Wetland Extent On The Variability Of The Atmospheric Methane Growth Rate In The Years 1993-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringeval, B.; de Noblet-Ducoudre, N.; Prigent, C.; Bousquet, P.

    2006-12-01

    The atmospheric methane growth rate presents lots of seasonal and year-to-year variations. Large uncertainties still exist in the relative part of differents sources and sinks on these variations. We have considered, in this study, the main natural sources of methane and the supposed main variable source, i.e. wetlands, and tried to simulate the variations of their emissions considering the variability of the wetland extent and of the climate. For this study, we use the methane emission model of Walter et al. (2001) and the quantification of the flooded areas for the years 1993-2000 obtained with a suite of satellite observations by Prigent et al. (2001). The data necessary to the Walter's model are obtained with simulation of a dynamic global vegetation model ORCHIDEE (Krinner et al. (2005)) constrained by the NCC climate data (Ngo-Duc et al. (2005)) and after imposing a water-saturated soil to approach productivity of wetlands. We calculate global annual methane emissions from wetlands to be 400 Tg per year, that is higher than previous results obtained with fixed wetland extent. Simulations are realised to estimate the part of variability in the emissions explained by the variability of the wetland extent. It seems that the year-to-year emission variability is mainly explained by the interannual variability of wetland extent. The seasonnal variability is explained for 75% in the tropics and only for 40% in the north of 30°N by variability of wetlands extend. Finally, we compare results with a top-down approach of Bousquet et al.(2006).

  9. Structural equation modeling of latent growth curves of weight gain among treated tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalingam Vasantha

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis still remains a major public health problem even though it is treatable and curable. Weight gain measurement during anti tuberculosis (TB treatment period is an important component to assess the progress of TB patients. In this study, Latent Growth Models (LGMs were implemented in a longitudinal design to predict the change in weight of TB patients who were given three different regimens under randomized controlled clinical trial for anti-TB treatment. Linear and Quadratic LGMs were fitted using Mplus software. The age, sex and treatment response of the TB patients were used as time invariant independent variables of the growth trajectories. The quadratic trend was found to be better in explaining the changes in weight without grouping than the quadratic model for three group comparisons. A significant increase in the change of weight over time was identified while a significant quadratic effect indicated that weights were sustained over time. The growth rate was similar in both the groups. The treatment response had significant association with the growth rate of weight scores of the patients.

  10. Divergent selection for shape of growth curve in Japanese quail. 4. Carcase composition and thyroid hormones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena; Darras, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 2 (2008). s. 96-102 ISSN 0007-1668 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA523/99/1262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : Japanese quail * Growth phases * Carcase quality Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.134, year: 2008

  11. Effects of growth curve plasticity on size-structured population dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lai; Lin, Zhigui; Pedersen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The physiological-structured population models assume that a fixed fraction of energy intake is utilized for individual growth and maintenance while the remaining for adult fertility. The assumption results in two concerns: energy loss for juveniles and a reproduction dilemma for adults. The dile...

  12. Structural Change, Economic Growth and the Environmental Kuznets Curve: A Theoretical Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.F. de Groot (Henri)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThe question of whether economic growth will ultimately resolve environmental problems has recently been discussed in a mainly empirical literature. One of the mechanisms that can explain the finding of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and emissions relies on the changes

  13. Incorporating Measurement Non-Equivalence in a Cross-Study Latent Growth Curve Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, David B; Curran, Patrick J; Hussong, Andrea M; Edwards, Michael C

    2008-10-01

    A large literature emphasizes the importance of testing for measurement equivalence in scales that may be used as observed variables in structural equation modeling applications. When the same construct is measured across more than one developmental period, as in a longitudinal study, it can be especially critical to establish measurement equivalence, or invariance, across the developmental periods. Similarly, when data from more than one study are combined into a single analysis, it is again important to assess measurement equivalence across the data sources. Yet, how to incorporate non-equivalence when it is discovered is not well described for applied researchers. Here, we present an item response theory approach that can be used to create scale scores from measures while explicitly accounting for non-equivalence. We demonstrate these methods in the context of a latent curve analysis in which data from two separate studies are combined to create a single longitudinal model spanning several developmental periods.

  14. Using bivariate latent basis growth curve analysis to better understand treatment outcome in youth with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Catherine E; Wonderlich, Joseph A; Curby, Timothy; Fischer, Sarah; Lock, James; Le Grange, Daniel

    2018-04-25

    This study explored the relation between eating-related obsessionality and weight restoration utilizing bivariate latent basis growth curve modelling. Eating-related obsessionality is a moderator of treatment outcome for adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN). This study examined the degree to which the rate of change in eating-related obsessionality was associated with the rate of change in weight over time in family-based treatment (FBT) and individual therapy for AN. Data were drawn from a 2-site randomized controlled trial that compared FBT and adolescent focused therapy for AN. Bivariate latent basis growth curves were used to examine the differences of the relations between trajectories of body weight and symptoms associated with eating and weight obsessionality. In the FBT group, the slope of eating-related obsessionality scores and the slope of weight were significantly (negatively) correlated. This finding indicates that a decrease in overall eating-relating obsessionality is significantly associated with an increase in weight for individuals who received FBT. However, there was no relation between change in obsessionality scores and change in weight in the adolescent focused therapy group. Results suggest that FBT has a specific impact on both weight gain and obsessive compulsive behaviour that is distinct from individual therapy. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Visible bands of ammonia: band strengths, curves of growth, and the spatial distribution of ammonia on Jupiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, B.L.; Owen, T.

    1980-01-01

    We report room-temperature laboratory studies of the 5520 A (6ν 1 ) and 6475 A (5ν 1 ) bands of self-broadened ammonia at column densities ranging from 1.7--435.7 meter-amagats (m-am). Detailed equivalent-width measurements at 24 different pressure-pathlength combinations corresponding to four pressures between 44 and 689 torr and pathlengths between 32 and 512 m are used to determin curves of growth and integrated band strengths. The band strengths for the 6ν 1 and 5ν 1 overtones are 5520 A: S=0.096 +- 0.005 cm -1 (m-am) -1 and 6475 A: S=0.63 +- 0.03 cm -1 (m-am) -1 , respectively.Using these band strengths and curves of growth, we analyze new spatially resolved spectra of Jupiter showing a nonhomogeneous distribution of ammonia in the Jovian atmosphere. The observed variations in the CH 4 /NH 3 mixing ratio are interpreted as evidence of altitude-dependent depletion of ammonia in the atmosphere

  16. Structural Change, Economic Growth and the Environmental Kuznets Curve. A Theoretical Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, H.L.F.

    1999-01-01

    The question of whether economic growth will ultimately resolve environmental problems has recently been discussed in a mainly empirical literature. One of the mechanisms that can explain the finding of an inverted U-shaped relationship between income and emissions relies on the changes in the sectoral composition of economies associated with economic growth. This paper develops a multi-sector general-equilibrium model to study the dynamic relationships between technological progress, economic development, the sectoral composition of economies and emissions. In the model, structural change is the outcome of a complex interplay between factors of demand and supply, and results from both differences in technological progress on a sectoral level and from differences in income elasticities of demand for different goods. We will derive under what conditions such changes can give rise to a hump-shaped relationship between per capita income and emissions. 39 refs

  17. Curve Modulation and Apex Migration Using Shilla Growth Guidance Rods for Early-onset Scoliosis at 5-Year Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, John T; Songy, Chad E; Bumpass, David B; McCullough, Francis L; McCarthy, Richard E

    2017-04-03

    The Shilla procedure was designed to correct and control early-onset spinal deformity while harnessing a child's remaining spinal growth. It allows for controlled axial skeletal growth within the construct, avoiding the need for frequent surgeries to lengthen implants. We hypothesized that curve characteristics evolve over time after initial apex fusion and placement of the Shilla implants. The purpose of this study was to identify trends in curve evolution after Shilla implantation and understand how these changes influence ultimate outcome. A single-center, retrospective review of all patients with Shilla implants in place for ≥5 years yielded 21 patients. Charts and radiographs were reviewed to compare coronal curve characteristics preoperatively, postoperatively, and at last follow-up to note changes in the apex of the primary curve. Also noted were the development of adjacent compensatory curves, the overall vertical spinal growth, and the need for definitive spinal fusion once skeletal maturity was reached. Of the 21 patients, the curve apex migrated caudally in 12 patients (57%) and cephalad in 1 patient (5%), with a mean migration of 2.7 vertebral levels. Two patients (10%) developed new, significant compensatory curves (1 caudal and 1 cephalad). All patients demonstrated spinal growth in T1-S1 length following index surgery (mean, 45 mm). At skeletal maturity, 10 patients underwent definitive posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation, and 3 underwent implant removal alone. This study constitutes the longest follow-up of Shilla patients evaluating curve and implant behavior. Results of this review suggest that the apex of the fused primary curve shifts in approximately 62% of patients, with nearly all of these (92%) involving a distal migration. Compensatory curves did develop after Shilla placement as well. Overall, these findings represent adding-on distal to the apex after Shilla instrumentation rather than a crankshaft phenomenon about the apex. A

  18. Rayleigh-Taylor instability under curved substrates: An optimal transient growth analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestra, Gioele; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, François

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the stability of thin viscous films coated on the inside of a horizontal cylindrical substrate. In such a case, gravity acts both as a stabilizing force through the progressive drainage of the film and as a destabilizing force prone to form droplets via the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The drainage solution, derived from lubrication equations, is found asymptotically stable with respect to infinitesimally small perturbations, although in reality, droplets often form. To resolve this paradox, we perform an optimal transient growth analysis for the first-order perturbations of the liquid's interface, generalizing the results of Trinh et al. [Phys. Fluids 26, 051704 (2014), 10.1063/1.4876476]. We find that the system displays a linear transient growth potential that gives rise to two different scenarios depending on the value of the Bond number (prescribing the relative importance of gravity and surface tension forces). At low Bond numbers, the optimal perturbation of the interface does not generate droplets. In contrast, for higher Bond numbers, perturbations on the upper hemicircle yield gains large enough to potentially form droplets. The gain increases exponentially with the Bond number. In particular, depending on the amplitude of the initial perturbation, we find a critical Bond number above which the short-time linear growth is sufficient to trigger the nonlinear effects required to form dripping droplets. We conclude that the transition to droplets detaching from the substrate is noise and perturbation dependent.

  19. Customized versus population-based growth curves: prediction of low body fat percent at term corrected gestational age following preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Tameeka L; Katikaneni, Lakshmi D; Taylor, Sarah N; Korte, Jeffrey E; Ebeling, Myla D; Wagner, Carol L; Newman, Roger B

    2012-07-01

    Compare customized versus population-based growth curves for identification of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and body fat percent (BF%) among preterm infants. Prospective cohort study of 204 preterm infants classified as SGA or appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) by population-based and customized growth curves. BF% was determined by air-displacement plethysmography. Differences between groups were compared using bivariable and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Customized curves reclassified 30% of the preterm infants as SGA. SGA infants identified by customized method only had significantly lower BF% (13.8 ± 6.0) than the AGA (16.2 ± 6.3, p = 0.02) infants and similar to the SGA infants classified by both methods (14.6 ± 6.7, p = 0.51). Customized growth curves were a significant predictor of BF% (p = 0.02), whereas population-based growth curves were not a significant independent predictor of BF% (p = 0.50) at term corrected gestational age. Customized growth potential improves the differentiation of SGA infants and low BF% compared with a standard population-based growth curve among a cohort of preterm infants.

  20. Prediction of Accurate Mixed Mode Fatigue Crack Growth Curves using the Paris' Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajith, S.; Krishna Murthy, K. S. R.; Robi, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate information regarding crack growth times and structural strength as a function of the crack size is mandatory in damage tolerance analysis. Various equivalent stress intensity factor (SIF) models are available for prediction of mixed mode fatigue life using the Paris' law. In the present investigation these models have been compared to assess their efficacy in prediction of the life close to the experimental findings as there are no guidelines/suggestions available on selection of these models for accurate and/or conservative predictions of fatigue life. Within the limitations of availability of experimental data and currently available numerical simulation techniques, the results of present study attempts to outline models that would provide accurate and conservative life predictions.

  1. Growth in Adolescent Self-Regulation and Impact on Sexual Risk-Taking: A Curve-of-Factors Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; Magnusson, Brianna M; Novilla, M Lelinneth B

    2018-04-01

    Adolescent self-regulation is increasingly seen as an important predictor of sexual risk-taking behaviors, but little is understood about how changes in self-regulation affect later sexual risk-taking. Family financial stress may affect the development of self-regulation and later engagement in sexual risk-taking. We examined whether family financial stress influences self-regulation in early adolescence (age 13) and growth in self-regulation throughout adolescence (from age 13-17 years). We then assessed the effects of family financial stress, baseline self-regulation, and the development of self-regulation on adolescent sexual risk-taking behaviors at age 18 years. Using a curve-of-factors model, we examined these relationships in a 6-year longitudinal study of 470 adolescents (52% female) and their parents from a large northwestern city in the United States. Results indicated that family financial stress was negatively associated with baseline self-regulation but not with growth in self-regulation throughout adolescence. Both baseline self-regulation and growth in self-regulation were predictive of decreased likelihood of engaging in sexual risk-taking. Family financial stress was not predictive of later sexual risk-taking. Intervening to support the development of self-regulation in adolescence may be especially protective against later sexual risk-taking.

  2. The influence of maternal care and overprotection on youth adrenocortical stress response: a multiphase growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Lopez, Chrystal; Chaudoir, Stephenie; Bublitz, Margaret; O'Reilly Treter, Maggie; Stroud, Laura

    2016-11-01

    We examined the association between two dimensions of maternal parenting style (care and overprotection) and cortisol response to an acute laboratory-induced stressor in healthy youth. Forty-three participants completed the Parental Bonding Instrument and an adapted version of the Trier Social Stress Test-Child (TSST-C). Nine cortisol samples were collected to investigate heterogeneity in different phases of youth's stress response. Multiphase growth-curve modeling was utilized to create latent factors corresponding to individual differences in cortisol during baseline, reactivity, and recovery to the TSST-C. Youth report of maternal overprotection was associated with lower baseline cortisol levels, and a slower cortisol decline during recovery, controlling for maternal care, puberty, and gender. No additive or interactive effects involving maternal care emerged. These findings suggest that maternal overprotection may exert a unique and important influence on youth's stress response.

  3. Gender and Facebook motives as predictors of specific types of Facebook use: A latent growth curve analysis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frison, Eline; Eggermont, Steven

    2016-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that specific types of Facebook use (i.e., active private, active public, and passive Facebook use) are differently related to adolescents' well-being, little is known how these types function over the course of adolescence and whether gender and Facebook motives may predict the initial level and changes in these types over time. To address these gaps, Flemish adolescents (ages 12-19) were questioned at three different time points, with six months in between (NTime1 = 1866). Latent growth curve models revealed that active private Facebook use increased over the course of adolescence, whereas public Facebook use decreased. Passive Facebook use, however, remained stable. In addition, gender and Facebook motives were related to initial levels of specific types of Facebook use, and predictive of dynamic change in specific types of Facebook use over time. The discussion focuses on the understanding and implications of these findings. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Economic Growth and Environmental Quality in the European Union Countries – Is there Evidence for the Environmental Kuznets Curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Anna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research empirically explores the relation between carbon dioxide emission and economic growth during the period 1992-2010, using panel data on the European Union countries. Both fixed and random effect models are employed to test the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC relationship between CO2 emissions and GDP per capita. While no U-shaped EKC was confirmed empirically for all 28 current EU member states, the graphical analysis demonstrates a justified turning point for CO2 emissions as GDP per capita reaches the level of 23,000 USD. Furthermore, there is a firm empirical ground for the EKC hypothesis based on data from 16 older, relatively high-income EU states. Thus, though not empirically confirmed, there is ample data verifying the existence of the EKC in EU economies.

  5. Trend in BMI z-score among Private Schools’ Students in Delhi using Multiple Imputation for Growth Curve Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to assess the trend in mean BMI z-score among private schools’ students from their anthropometric records when there were missing values in the outcome. Methodology: The anthropometric measurements of student from class 1 to 12 were taken from the records of two private schools in Delhi, India from 2005 to 2010. These records comprise of an unbalanced longitudinal data that is not all the students had measurements recorded at each year. The trend in mean BMI z-score was estimated through growth curve model. Prior to that, missing values of BMI z-score were imputed through multiple imputation using the same model. A complete case analysis was also performed after excluding missing values to compare the results with those obtained from analysis of multiply imputed data. Results: The mean BMI z-score among school student significantly decreased over time in imputed data (β= -0.2030, se=0.0889, p=0.0232 after adjusting age, gender, class and school. Complete case analysis also shows a decrease in mean BMI z-score though it was not statistically significant (β= -0.2861, se=0.0987, p=0.065. Conclusions: The estimates obtained from multiple imputation analysis were better than those of complete data after excluding missing values in terms of lower standard errors. We showed that anthropometric measurements from schools records can be used to monitor the weight status of children and adolescents and multiple imputation using growth curve model can be useful while analyzing such data

  6. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  7. Silver ion-mediated killing of a food pathogen: Melting curve analysis data of silver resistance genes and growth curve data

    OpenAIRE

    Kuppan Gokulan; Katherine Williams; Sangeeta Khare

    2017-01-01

    Limited antibacterial activity of silver ions leached from silver-impregnated food contact materials could be due to: 1) the presence of silver resistance genes in tested bacteria; or 2) lack of susceptibility to silver ion-mediated killing in the bacterial strain (K. Williams, L. Valencia, K. Gokulan, R. Trbojevich, S. Khare, 2016 [1]). This study contains data to address the specificity of silver resistance genes in Salmonella Typhimurium during the real time PCR using melting curve analysi...

  8. Exploring the link between environmental pollution and economic growth in EU-28 countries: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    Full Text Available This study examines the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis (EKC, considering the primary energy consumption among other country-specific variables, for a panel of the EU-28 countries during the period 1990-2014. By estimating pooled OLS regressions with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors in order to account for cross-sectional dependence, the results confirm the EKC hypothesis in the case of emissions of sulfur oxides and emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds. In addition to pooled estimations, the output of fixed-effects regressions with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors support the EKC hypothesis for greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption, emissions of nitrogen oxides, emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds and emissions of ammonia. Additionally, the empirical findings from panel vector error correction model reveal a short-run unidirectional causality from GDP per capita growth to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a bidirectional causal link between primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, since there occurred no causal link between economic growth and primary energy consumption, the neo-classical view was confirmed, namely the neutrality hypothesis.

  9. Exploring the link between environmental pollution and economic growth in EU-28 countries: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeanu, Daniel; Vintilă, Georgeta; Andrei, Jean Vasile; Gherghina, Ştefan Cristian; Drăgoi, Mihaela Cristina; Teodor, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis (EKC), considering the primary energy consumption among other country-specific variables, for a panel of the EU-28 countries during the period 1990-2014. By estimating pooled OLS regressions with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors in order to account for cross-sectional dependence, the results confirm the EKC hypothesis in the case of emissions of sulfur oxides and emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds. In addition to pooled estimations, the output of fixed-effects regressions with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors support the EKC hypothesis for greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption, emissions of nitrogen oxides, emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds and emissions of ammonia. Additionally, the empirical findings from panel vector error correction model reveal a short-run unidirectional causality from GDP per capita growth to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a bidirectional causal link between primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, since there occurred no causal link between economic growth and primary energy consumption, the neo-classical view was confirmed, namely the neutrality hypothesis.

  10. Exploring the link between environmental pollution and economic growth in EU-28 countries: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armeanu, Daniel; Vintilă, Georgeta; Gherghina, Ştefan Cristian; Drăgoi, Mihaela Cristina; Teodor, Cristian

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis (EKC), considering the primary energy consumption among other country-specific variables, for a panel of the EU-28 countries during the period 1990–2014. By estimating pooled OLS regressions with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors in order to account for cross-sectional dependence, the results confirm the EKC hypothesis in the case of emissions of sulfur oxides and emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds. In addition to pooled estimations, the output of fixed-effects regressions with Driscoll-Kraay standard errors support the EKC hypothesis for greenhouse gas emissions, greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption, emissions of nitrogen oxides, emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds and emissions of ammonia. Additionally, the empirical findings from panel vector error correction model reveal a short-run unidirectional causality from GDP per capita growth to greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a bidirectional causal link between primary energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, since there occurred no causal link between economic growth and primary energy consumption, the neo-classical view was confirmed, namely the neutrality hypothesis. PMID:29742169

  11. Coupling of online control and inhibitory systems in children with atypical motor development: A growth curve modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Scott; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Piek, Jan; Sugden, David; Hyde, Christian; Morris, Sue; Rigoli, Daniela; Steenbergen, Bert; Wilson, Peter

    2016-11-01

    Previous research indicates that children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) show deficits performing online corrections, an issue exacerbated by adding inhibitory constraints; however, cross-sectional data suggests that these deficits may reduce with age. Using a longitudinal design, the aim of the study presented here was to model the coupling that occurs between inhibitory systems and (predictive) online control in typically developing children (TDC) and in those with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) over an extended period of time, using a framework of interactive specialization. We predicted that TDC would show a non-linear growth pattern, consistent with re-organisation in the coupling during the middle childhood period, while DCD would display a developmental lag. A group of 196 children (111 girls and 85 boys) aged between 6 and 12years participated in the study. Children were classified as DCD according to research criteria. Using a cohort sequential design, both TDC and DCD groups were divided into age cohorts. Predictive (online) control was defined operationally by performance on a Double-Jump Reaching Task (DJRT), which was assessed at 6-month intervals over two years (5 time points in total). Inhibitory control was examined using an anti-jump condition of the DJRT paradigm whereby children were instructed to touch a target location in the hemispace opposite a cued location. For the TDC group, model comparison using growth curve analysis revealed that a quadratic trend was the most appropriate fit with evidence of rapid improvement in anti-reach performance up until middle childhood (around 8-9years of age), followed by a more gradual rate of improvement into late childhood and early adolescence. This pattern was evident on both chronometric and kinematic measures. In contrast, for children with DCD, a linear function provided the best to fit on the key metrics, with a slower rate of improvement than controls. We conclude that

  12. Silver ion-mediated killing of a food pathogen: Melting curve analysis data of silver resistance genes and growth curve data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuppan Gokulan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Limited antibacterial activity of silver ions leached from silver-impregnated food contact materials could be due to: 1 the presence of silver resistance genes in tested bacteria; or 2 lack of susceptibility to silver ion-mediated killing in the bacterial strain (K. Williams, L. Valencia, K. Gokulan, R. Trbojevich, S. Khare, 2016 [1]. This study contains data to address the specificity of silver resistance genes in Salmonella Typhimurium during the real time PCR using melting curve analysis and an assessment of the minimum inhibitory concentration of silver ions for Salmonella.

  13. Silver ion-mediated killing of a food pathogen: Melting curve analysis data of silver resistance genes and growth curve data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokulan, Kuppan; Williams, Katherine; Khare, Sangeeta

    2017-04-01

    Limited antibacterial activity of silver ions leached from silver-impregnated food contact materials could be due to: 1) the presence of silver resistance genes in tested bacteria ; or 2) lack of susceptibility to silver ion-mediated killing in the bacterial strain (K. Williams, L. Valencia, K. Gokulan, R. Trbojevich, S. Khare, 2016 [1]). This study contains data to address the specificity of silver resistance genes in Salmonella Typhimurium during the real time PCR using melting curve analysis and an assessment of the minimum inhibitory concentration of silver ions for Salmonella .

  14. Growth curve and diet density affect eating motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeders during rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Los Mozos, J; García-Ruiz, A I; den Hartog, L A; Villamide, M J

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this work has been to assess the effect of diet density [control (CON) or 15% diluted (DIL)] and growth curve [recommended by the genetic line (RBW) or 15% heavier (HBW)] and their interaction on BW uniformity, feeding motivation, behavior, and body composition of broiler breeder pullets. A total of 3,000 one-day-old female breeders Ross 308, distributed in 20 pens, was randomly assigned to each treatment. Feed allowance was weekly adjusted to reach the desired BW. Feed was provided as pelleted (zero to 3 wk) and crumble (4 to 19 wk). Time eating was measured at 7, 11, and 19 weeks. A feeding rate test was performed after 11 weeks. Behavior was observed at 9 and 15 wk, by visual scan. At 6, 13, and 19 wk of age, one bird/pen was slaughtered for weighing different organs and analyzing the composition of empty whole bodies. Treatments did not affect BW uniformity; relative weights of the ovary, oviduct, or gizzard; or protein content of empty BW. Time eating varied with the growth curve at 19 wk (P motivation. Behavior was affected by the age and by the time of the d measured, but it did not change with the treatments. Birds spent most time pecking objects (50%), feeding (28%), and drinking (17%). Pullets fed DIL had 8% lower breast yield at different ages and higher empty digestive tracts at 6 weeks. Body composition varied with age; fat content increased from 12.7 to 15.9 to 19.8% for 6, 13, and 19 wk, respectively. The lowest body fat was observed for RBW pullets fed DIL (P = 0.003) at 19 weeks. Feeding DIL diets to HBW pullets could be done to increase the time spent eating and reduce their feeling of hunger without negative effects on body composition. However, its influence on behavior and BW uniformity was not proved. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  15. Influence of Asthma on the Longitudinal Trajectories of Cigarette Use Behaviors From Adolescence to Adulthood Using Latent Growth Curve Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisuk Bae

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: While epidemiologic research indicates that the prevalence of risk-taking behaviors including cigarette smoking among young people with asthma is substantial, the longitudinal patterns of cigarette smoking in this vulnerable population have received little attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in the longitudinal trajectories of cigarette use behaviors from adolescence to adulthood between young people with and without asthma. Methods: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health during the years 1994 to 1995 (Wave I, adolescence, 2001 to 2002 (Wave III, young adulthood, and 2007 to 2008 (Wave IV, adulthood were analyzed (n=12 244. Latent growth curve models were used to examine the longitudinal trajectories of cigarette use behaviors during the transition to adulthood according to asthma status. Results: Regardless of asthma status, the trajectory means of cigarette use behaviors were found to increase, and then slightly decrease from adolescence to adulthood. In total participants, there were no statistically significant differences in initial levels and changes in cigarette use behaviors according to asthma status. However, in select sex and race subgroups (i.e., females and non-whites, former asthmatics showed greater escalation in cigarette use behaviors than did non-asthmatics or current asthmatics. Conclusions: This study indicated that the changing patterns of cigarette use behaviors during the transition to adulthood among young people with asthma are comparable to or even more drastic than those among young people without asthma.

  16. Relations between the development of school investment, self-confidence, and language achievement in elementary education: A multivariate latent growth curve approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, R.D.; Peetsma, T.T.D.; Roeleveld, J.

    2001-01-01

    Latent growth curve (LGC) analysis of longitudinal data for pupils' school investment, self confidence and language ability is presented. A multivariate model is tested that relates the three developmental processes to each other and to intelligence. All processes show significant differences

  17. The Impact of Salient Role Stress on Trajectories of Health in Late Life among Survivors of a Seven-Year Panel Study: Analyses of Individual Growth Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Benjamin A.; Krause, Neal

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study is twofold: 1) to model changes in health over time among older adults; and 2) to assess the degree to which stress arising in salient social roles accounts for individual variation in these changes. Individual growth curve analyses using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) software were employed with longitudinal data…

  18. Longitudinal Examination of Procrastination and Anxiety, and Their Relation to Self-Efficacy for Self- Regulated Learning: Latent Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerdelen, Sündüs; McCaffrey, Adam; Klassen, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal association between students' anxiety and procrastination and the relation of self-efficacy for self-regulation to these constructs. Latent Growth Curve Modeling was used to analyze data gathered from 182 undergraduate students (134 female, 48 male) at 4 times during a semester. Our results showed that…

  19. The Impact of Student Teaching Experience on Pre-Service Teachers' Readiness for Technology Integration: A Mixed Methods Study with Growth Curve Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Strobel, Johannes; Newby, Timothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Adopting a two-phase explanatory sequential mixed methods research design, the current study examined the impact of student teaching experiences on pre-service teachers' readiness for technology integration. In phase-1 of quantitative investigation, 2-level growth curve models were fitted using online repeated measures survey data collected from…

  20. Latest Rate, Extent, and Temporal Evolution of Growth Faulting over Greater Houston Region Revealed by Multi- Band InSAR Time-Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, F.; Lu, Z.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Growth faults are common and continue to evolve throughout the unconsolidated sediments of Greater Houston (GH) region in Texas. Presence of faults can induce localized surface displacements, aggravate localized subsidence, and discontinue the integrity of ground water flow. Property damages due to fault creep have become more evident during the past few years over the GH area, portraying the necessity of further study of these faults. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has been proven to be effective in mapping creep along and/or across faults. However, extracting a short wavelength, as well as small amplitude of the creep signal (about 10-20 mm/year) from long time span interferograms is extremely difficult, especially in agricultural or vegetated areas. This paper aims to map and monitor the latest rate, extent, and temporal evolution of faulting at a highest spatial density over GH region using an improved Multi-temporal InSAR (MTI) technique. The method, with maximized usable signal and correlation, has the ability to identify and monitor the active faults to provide an accurate and elaborate image of the faults. In this study, two neighboring ALOS tracks and Sentinel-1A datasets are used. Many zones of steep phase gradients and/or discontinuities have been recognized from the long term velocity maps by both ALOS (2007-2011) and Sentinei-1A (2015-2017) imagery. Not only those previously known faults position but also the new fault traces that have not been mapped by other techniques are imaged by our MTI technique. Fault damage and visible cracking of ground were evident at most locations through our field survey. The discovery of new fault activation, or faults moved from earlier locations is a part of the Big Barn Fault and Conroe fault system, trending from southwest to northeast between Hockley and Conroe. The location of area of subsidence over GH is also shrinking and migrating toward the northeast (Montgomery County) after 2000. The

  1. Bracing can reduce high degree curves and improve aesthetics immediately after the end of growth. Final results of a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Zaina, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that idiopathic scoliosis (IS) curves can be reduced with bracing, and it has been proposed that this could be useful in non-surgically treated high degree curves even after Risser 3. Moreover, bracing has been shown to be able to improve aesthetics, and this could be another reason to treat some patients with cosmetic needs. Our aim is to preliminary check if results can be obtained in IS patients after Risser 3. Design. Retrospective uncontrolled cohort study. Inclusion criteria. All IS patients treated on a voluntary basis for aesthetic reasons and/or for curve reduction; Risser 4-5 at start; end of treatment reached. Population. 34 females and 2 males, age 16.2±1.6 years, Cobb angle 27.6°±8.9°. Treatment. Lyon or SPoRT braces 18 to 24 hours/day, specific SEAS exercises, rapid weaning (2-3 hours every 6 months). Outcome criteria: SRS (unchanged; worsened over 6°; over 45° at the end of treatment; surgically treated), radiographic and clinical. Statistics. ANOVA and chi-test. The reported compliance during the 2.8 ± 1.1 treatment years was 95.1%, while residual growth was 0.9 ± 1.1 cm. Improvements were found in 39% of this cohort, (46% in curves over 30°). Only 1 patient progressed 6°. We found highly statistically significant reductions of maximal (-4.4°), thoracic (-6.0°) and thoracolumbar (-6.6°) curves. Statistically significant improvements were found for Aesthetic Index. Before 20 years of age, even in skeletally mature patients, it is possible to reach radiographic and aesthetic improvements, although not as good as during growth. Correction is based on bone growth, but ligaments and neuromuscular control of posture can also be involved.

  2. An integrated specification for the nexus of water pollution and economic growth in China: Panel cointegration, long-run causality and environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chen; Wang, Yuan; Song, Xiaowei; Kubota, Jumpei; He, Yanmin; Tojo, Junji; Zhu, Xiaodong

    2017-12-31

    This paper concentrates on a Chinese context and makes efforts to develop an integrated process to explicitly elucidate the relationship between economic growth and water pollution discharge-chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge and ammonia nitrogen (NH 3 -N), using two unbalanced panel data sets covering the period separately from 1990 to 2014, and 2001 to 2014. In our present study, the panel unit root tests, cointegration tests, and Granger causality tests allowing for cross-sectional dependence, nonstationary, and heterogeneity are conducted to examine the causal effects of economic growth on COD/NH 3 -N discharge. Further, we simultaneously apply semi-parametric fixed effects estimation and parametric fixed effects estimation to investigate environmental Kuznets curve relationship for COD/NH 3 -N discharge. Our empirical results show a long-term bidirectional causality between economic growth and COD/NH 3 -N discharge in China. Within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology framework, we find evidence in support of an inverted U-shaped curved link between economic growth and COD/NH 3 -N discharge. To the best of our knowledge, there have not been any efforts made in investigating the nexus of economic growth and water pollution in such an integrated manner. Therefore, this study takes a fresh look on this topic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Economic growth and the environment: reassessing the environmental Kuznets Curve for air pollution emissions in OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiev, E.S.; Mihaylov, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx , CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Liangshan Pig Muscle Development at the Growth Curve Inflection Point and Asymptotic Stages Using Digital Gene Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jingjing; Liu, Chendong; Wu, Xiaoqian; Pu, Qiang; Fu, Yuhua; Tang, Qianzi; Liu, Yuanrui; Li, Qiang; Yang, Runlin; Li, Xuewei; Tang, Guoqing; Jiang, Yanzhi; Li, Mingzhou; Zhang, Shunhua; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Animal growth curves can provide essential information for animal breeders to optimize feeding and management strategies. However, the genetic mechanism underlying the phenotypic differentiation between the inflection point and asymptotic stages of the growth curve is not well characterized. Here, we employed Liangshan pigs in stages of growth at the inflection point (under inflection point: UIP) and the two asymptotic stages (before the inflection point: BIP, after the inflection point: AIP) as models to survey global gene expression in the longissimus dorsi muscle using digital gene expression (DGE) tag profiling. We found Liangshan pigs reached maximum growth rate (UIP) at 163.6 days of age and a weight of 134.6 kg. The DGE libraries generated 117 million reads of 5.89 gigabases in length. 21,331, 20,996 and 20,139 expressed transcripts were identified BIP, UIP and AIP, respectively. Among them, we identified 757 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between BIP and UIP, and 271 DEGs between AIP and UIP. An enrichment analysis of DEGs proved the immune system was strengthened in the AIP stage. Energy metabolism rate, global transcriptional activity and bone development intensity were highest UIP. Meat from Liangshan pigs had the highest intramuscular fat content and most favorable fatty acid composition in the AIP. Three hundred eighty (27.70%) specific expression genes were highly enriched in QTL regions for growth and meat quality traits. This study completed a comprehensive analysis of diverse genetic mechanisms underlying the inflection point and asymptotic stages of growth. Our findings will serve as an important resource in the understanding of animal growth and development in indigenous pig breeds. PMID:26292092

  5. Thermoluminescence glow curve involving any extent of retrapping ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a set of three equations, which controls the traffic of electrons from the trap centre to the ... probabilities of recombination and retrapping are equal in systems involving ..... If the concentration is low and the relaxation is Debye type, one cannot.

  6. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  7. A Growth Curve Analysis of Literacy Performance among Second-Grade, Spanish-Speaking, English-Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiierrez, Gabriel; Vanderwood, Mike L.

    2013-01-01

    The literacy growth of 260 second-grade English learners (ELs) with varying degrees of English language proficiency (e.g., Beginning, Early Intermediate, Intermediate, Early Advanced and Advanced English language proficiency) was assessed with English literacy skill assessments. Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills measures were…

  8. The relation between electromyography and growth velocity of the spine in the evaluation of curve progression in idiopathic scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, J.; Veldhuizen, A.G.; Halbertsma, J.P.; Maurits, N.M.; Sluiter, W.J.; Cool, J.C.; van Horn, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    Study Design. A prospective study in which patients with idiopathic scoliosis were examined longitudinally by radiographic and electromyographic measurements according to a protocol. Objectives. To measure the growth velocity of the spine and the electromyographic ratio of the paraspinal muscles to

  9. How economic growth affects emissions? An investigation of the environmental Kuznets curve in Portuguese and Spanish economic activity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moutinho, Victor; Varum, Celeste; Madaleno, Mara

    2017-01-01

    It is a disquieting reality that increased economic growth for many years now in the Western world is at odds with environmental degradation. In this paper the relationship between economic growth and environmental variables is analyzed under two non-linear specifications, a quadratic and a cubic specification. The study is conducted for Portugal and Spain in the period 1975–2012, using data for 13 sectors. GVA is used as proxy for income, while energy use and carbon dioxide account for environmental degradation. There is evidence for an inverted U-shaped EKC. However, there are also other inverted N–shaped functions that explain the relationship between economic growth and emissions. Altogether, empirical results do indicate particular differences between Portuguese and Spanish sectors. The results are of interest not only for researchers but also for policy-makers. Political mitigation measures are also analyzed. - Highlights: • We study the EKC hypothesis using economic activity sectors in the Iberian Market. • There is evidence for a clear N-shaped EKC in Portugal. • Inverted N–shaped function explains the economic growth and emissions relationship. • Positive and significant effect of energy consumption in emissions for sectors. • Promote renewables substitution and tax benefits are urgent to accomplish goals.

  10. Radiosensitivity of different human tumor cells lines grown as multicellular spheroids determined from growth curves and survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwachoefer, J.H.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.; van Gasteren, J.J.; Hoogenhout, J.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Kal, H.B.; Theeuwes, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    Five human tumor cell lines were grown as multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) to determine whether multicellular tumor spheroids derived from different types of tumors would show tumor-type dependent differences in response to single-dose irradiation, and whether these differences paralleled clinical behavior. Multicellular tumor spheroids of two neuroblastoma, one lung adenocarcinoma, one melanoma, and a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue, were studied in terms of growth delay, calculated cell survival, and spheroid control dose50 (SCD50). Growth delay and cell survival analysis for the tumor cell lines showed sensitivities that correlated well with clinical behavior of the tumor types of origin. Similar to other studies on melanoma multicellular tumor spheroids our spheroid control dose50 results for the melanoma cell line deviated from the general pattern of sensitivity. This might be due to the location of surviving cells, which prohibits proliferation of surviving cells and hence growth of melanoma multicellular tumor spheroids. This study demonstrates that radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines can be evaluated in terms of growth delay, calculated cell survival, and spheroid control dose50 when grown as multicellular tumor spheroids. The sensitivity established from these evaluations parallels clinical behavior, thus offering a unique tool for the in vitro analysis of human tumor radiosensitivity

  11. Brief report: Examining children's disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, C K Fred; Miller, Kimberly A; Eddy, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Brief Report: Examining children’s disruptive behavior in the wake of trauma - A two-piece growth curve model before and after a school shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yue; Shonkoff, Eleanor T.; Barnett, Elizabeth; Wen, CK Fred; Miller, Kimberly A.; Eddy, J. Mark

    2015-01-01

    School shootings may have serious negative impacts on children years after the event. Previous research suggests that children exposed to traumatic events experience heightened fear, anxiety, and feelings of vulnerability, but little research has examined potential aggressive and disruptive behavioral reactions. Utilizing a longitudinal dataset in which a local school shooting occurred during the course of data collection, this study sought to investigate whether the trajectory of disruptive behaviors was affected by the shooting. A two-piece growth curve model was used to examine the trajectory of disruptive behaviors during the pre-shooting years (i.e., piece one) and post-shooting years (i.e., piece two). Results indicated that the two-piece growth curve model fit the data better than the one-piece model and that the school shooting precipitated a faster decline in aggressive behaviors. This study demonstrated a novel approach to examining effects of an unexpected traumatic event on behavioral trajectories using an existing longitudinal data set. PMID:26298676

  13. A New Method for Re-Analyzing Evaluation Bias: Piecewise Growth Curve Modeling Reveals an Asymmetry in the Evaluation of Pro and Con Arguments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Jirschitzka

    Full Text Available In four studies we tested a new methodological approach to the investigation of evaluation bias. The usage of piecewise growth curve modeling allowed for investigation into the impact of people's attitudes on their persuasiveness ratings of pro- and con-arguments, measured over the whole range of the arguments' polarity from an extreme con to an extreme pro position. Moreover, this method provided the opportunity to test specific hypotheses about the course of the evaluation bias within certain polarity ranges. We conducted two field studies with users of an existing online information portal (Studies 1a and 2a as participants, and two Internet laboratory studies with mostly student participants (Studies 1b and 2b. In each of these studies we presented pro- and con-arguments, either for the topic of MOOCs (massive open online courses, Studies 1a and 1b or for the topic of M-learning (mobile learning, Studies 2a and 2b. Our results indicate that using piecewise growth curve models is more appropriate than simpler approaches. An important finding of our studies was an asymmetry of the evaluation bias toward pro- or con-arguments: the evaluation bias appeared over the whole polarity range of pro-arguments and increased with more and more extreme polarity. This clear-cut result pattern appeared only on the pro-argument side. For the con-arguments, in contrast, the evaluation bias did not feature such a systematic picture.

  14. Analysis of the relationship between economic growth and industrial pollution in Zaozhuang, China-based on the hypothesis of the environmental Kuznets curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Wei-Liang; Lu, Shao-Yong; Wang, Yu-Fan; Ren, Zongming

    2016-08-01

    In Zaozhuang, economic development affects the discharge amount of industrial wastewater, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N). To reveal the trend of water environmental quality related to the economy in Zaozhuang, this paper simulated the relationships between industrial wastewater discharge, COD, NH3-N load, and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for Zaozhuang (2002-2012) using environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) models. The results showed that the added value of industrial GDP, the per capita GDP, and wastewater emission had average annual growth rates of 16.62, 16.19, and 17.89 %, respectively, from 2002 to 2012, while COD and NH3-N emission in 2012, compared with 2002, showed average annual decreases of 10.70 and 31.12 %, respectively. The export of EKC models revealed that industrial wastewater discharge had a typical inverted-U-shaped relationship with per capita GDP. However, both COD and NH3-N showed the binding curve of the left side of the "U" curve and left side U-shaped curve. The economy in Zaozhuang had been at the "fast-growing" stage, with low environmental pollution according to the industrial pollution level. In recent years, Zaozhuang has abated these heavy-pollution industries emphatically, so pollutants have been greatly reduced. Thus, Zaozhuang industrial wastewater treatment has been quite effective, with water quality improved significantly. The EKC models provided scientific evidence for estimating industrial wastewater discharge, COD, and NH3-N load as well as their changeable trends for Zaozhuang from an economic perspective.

  15. Aging, Maturation and Growth of Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs as Deduced from Growth Curves Using Long Bone Histological Data: An Assessment of Methodological Constraints and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griebeler, Eva Maria; Klein, Nicole; Sander, P Martin

    2013-01-01

    Information on aging, maturation, and growth is important for understanding life histories of organisms. In extinct dinosaurs, such information can be derived from the histological growth record preserved in the mid-shaft cortex of long bones. Here, we construct growth models to estimate ages at death, ages at sexual maturity, ages at which individuals were fully-grown, and maximum growth rates from the growth record preserved in long bones of six sauropod dinosaur individuals (one indeterminate mamenchisaurid, two Apatosaurus sp., two indeterminate diplodocids, and one Camarasaurus sp.) and one basal sauropodomorph dinosaur individual (Plateosaurus engelhardti). Using these estimates, we establish allometries between body mass and each of these traits and compare these to extant taxa. Growth models considered for each dinosaur individual were the von Bertalanffy model, the Gompertz model, and the logistic model (LGM), all of which have inherently fixed inflection points, and the Chapman-Richards model in which the point is not fixed. We use the arithmetic mean of the age at the inflection point and of the age at which 90% of asymptotic mass is reached to assess respectively the age at sexual maturity or the age at onset of reproduction, because unambiguous indicators of maturity in Sauropodomorpha are lacking. According to an AIC-based model selection process, the LGM was the best model for our sauropodomorph sample. Allometries established are consistent with literature data on other Sauropodomorpha. All Sauropodomorpha reached full size within a time span similar to scaled-up modern mammalian megaherbivores and had similar maximum growth rates to scaled-up modern megaherbivores and ratites, but growth rates of Sauropodomorpha were lower than of an average mammal. Sauropodomorph ages at death probably were lower than that of average scaled-up ratites and megaherbivores. Sauropodomorpha were older at maturation than scaled-up ratites and average mammals, but

  16. Aging, Maturation and Growth of Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs as Deduced from Growth Curves Using Long Bone Histological Data: An Assessment of Methodological Constraints and Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Griebeler

    Full Text Available Information on aging, maturation, and growth is important for understanding life histories of organisms. In extinct dinosaurs, such information can be derived from the histological growth record preserved in the mid-shaft cortex of long bones. Here, we construct growth models to estimate ages at death, ages at sexual maturity, ages at which individuals were fully-grown, and maximum growth rates from the growth record preserved in long bones of six sauropod dinosaur individuals (one indeterminate mamenchisaurid, two Apatosaurus sp., two indeterminate diplodocids, and one Camarasaurus sp. and one basal sauropodomorph dinosaur individual (Plateosaurus engelhardti. Using these estimates, we establish allometries between body mass and each of these traits and compare these to extant taxa. Growth models considered for each dinosaur individual were the von Bertalanffy model, the Gompertz model, and the logistic model (LGM, all of which have inherently fixed inflection points, and the Chapman-Richards model in which the point is not fixed. We use the arithmetic mean of the age at the inflection point and of the age at which 90% of asymptotic mass is reached to assess respectively the age at sexual maturity or the age at onset of reproduction, because unambiguous indicators of maturity in Sauropodomorpha are lacking. According to an AIC-based model selection process, the LGM was the best model for our sauropodomorph sample. Allometries established are consistent with literature data on other Sauropodomorpha. All Sauropodomorpha reached full size within a time span similar to scaled-up modern mammalian megaherbivores and had similar maximum growth rates to scaled-up modern megaherbivores and ratites, but growth rates of Sauropodomorpha were lower than of an average mammal. Sauropodomorph ages at death probably were lower than that of average scaled-up ratites and megaherbivores. Sauropodomorpha were older at maturation than scaled-up ratites and average

  17. Growth curves and age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum parameters, and intestinal transporter gene expression in domestic pigeon (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, C Q; Yang, J X; Chen, M X; Yan, H C; Wang, X Q

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to fit growth curves, and determine age-related changes in carcass characteristics, organs, serum biochemical parameters, and gene expression of intestinal nutrient transporters in domestic pigeon (Columba livia). In experiment 1, body weight (BW) of 30 pigeons was respectively determined at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days old to fit growth curves and to describe the growth of pigeons. In experiment 2, eighty-four 1-day-old squabs were grouped by weight into 7 groups. On d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35, twelve birds from each group were randomly selected for slaughter and post-slaughter analysis. The results showed that BW of pigeons increased rapidly from d 1 to d 28 (a 25.7-fold increase), and then had little change until d 35. The Logistic, Gompertz, and Von Bertalanffy functions can all be well fitted with the growth curve of domestic pigeons (R2>0.90) and the Gompertz model showed the highest R2value among the models (R2=0.9997). The equation of Gompertz model was Y=507.72×e-(3.76exp(-0.17t))(Y=BW of pigeon (g); t=time (day)). In addition, breast meat yield (%) increased with age throughout the experiment, whereas the leg meat yield (%) reached to the peak on d 14. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and glucose concentration were increased with age, whereas serum uric acid concentration was decreased (P<0.05). Furthermore, the gene expressions of nutrient transporters (y+LAT2, LAT1, B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2) in jejunum of pigeon were increased with age. The results of correlation analysis showed the gene expressions of B0AT1, PepT1, and NHE2 had positive correlations with BW (0.73

  18. Effect of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the growth of micropropagated potato plantlets and on the extent of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, M K; Tweddell, R J; Désilets, H

    2002-10-01

    Two micropropagated potato cultivars, Goldrush and LP89221, were inoculated into sowing trays with either Glomus etunicatum or G. intraradices in a greenhouse. After 2 weeks, plantlets were transplanted into pots and roots were challenged 7 days later with Rhizoctonia solani. At different times after R. solani infection, disease severity, mortality rate, root colonization levels, various growth parameters, and shoot mineral content were evaluated. In Goldrush, only inoculation with G. etunicatum led to a significant reduction in disease severity, ranging between 60.2% and 71.2%, on both shoot and crown. This decrease was not observed in LP89221. Compared with the control plantlets, inoculation of Goldrush with G. etunicatum or G. intraradices reduced significantly the mortality rate by 77% and 26%, respectively, whereas vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi did not significantly influence the mortality rate in LP89221. In Goldrush, inoculation with G. etunicatum significantly increased shoot fresh weight, root dry weight and the number of tubers produced per plant, whereas G. intraradices only significantly increased the number of tubers. Tuber and root fresh weights of both potato cultivars were significantly reduced by R. solani infection. However, R. solani-infected plantlets of both Goldrush and LP89221, inoculated with G. etunicatum, produced significantly greater tuber fresh weight than non-VAM plantlets. In R. solani-infected plantlets of Goldrush but not LP89221, G. etunicatum and G. intraradices increased root fresh weight by approximately 140.3% and 76.5%, respectively, compared with non-VAM plants. The potato cultivars Goldrush and LP89221 responded differently to VAM fungal inoculation and to R. solani infection in terms of shoot mineral content.

  19. Development of hot and cool executive functions in middle childhood: Three-year growth curves of decision making and working memory updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensing, Nele; Elsner, Birgit

    2018-05-07

    Although middle childhood is an important period for the development of hot and cool executive functions (EFs), longitudinal studies investigating trajectories of childhood EF development are still limited and little is known about predictors for individual developmental trajectories. The current study examined the development of two typical facets of cool and hot EFs over a 3-year period during middle childhood, comparing a younger cohort (6- and 7-year-olds at the first wave [T1]; n = 621) and an older cohort (8- and 9-year-olds at T1; n = 975) of children. "Cool" working memory updating (WM) was assessed using a backward digit span task, and "hot" decision making (DM) was assessed using a child variant of the Iowa Gambling Task. Linear latent growth curve analyses revealed evidence for developmental growth as well as interindividual variance in the initial level and rate of change in both EF facets. Initial level of WM was positively associated with age (both between and within cohorts), socioeconomic status, verbal ability, and processing speed, whereas initial levels of DM were, in addition to a (potentially age-related) cohort effect, exclusively predicted by gender, with boys outperforming girls. None of the variables predicted the rate of change, that is, the developmental trajectories. However, younger children, as compared with older children, had slightly steeper WM growth curves over time, hinting at a leveling off in the development of WM during middle childhood. In sum, these data add important evidence to the understanding of hot and cool EF development during middle childhood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Predicting Condom Use Using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model: A Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model often guides sexual risk reduction programs even though no studies have examined covariation in the theory’s constructs in a dynamic fashion with longitudinal data. Purpose Using new developments in latent growth modeling, we explore how changes in information, motivation, and behavioral skills over 9 months relate to changes in condom use among STD clinic patients. Methods Participants (N = 1281, 50% female, 66% African American) completed measures of IMB constructs at three time points. We used parallel process latent growth modeling to examine associations among intercepts and slopes of IMB constructs. Results Initial levels of motivation, behavioral skills, and condom use were all positively associated, with behavioral skills partially mediating associations between motivation and condom use. Changes over time in behavioral skills positively related to changes in condom use. Conclusions Results support the key role of behavioral skills in sexual risk reduction, suggesting these skills should be targeted in HIV prevention interventions. PMID:21638196

  1. Divergent selection for shape of the growth curve in Japanese quail. 8. Effect of long-term selection on embryonic development and growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hyánková, L.; Novotná, Božena; Starosta, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), s. 184-194 ISSN 0007-1668 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : chick juvenile growth * egg storage * sex-differences * body-weight * hatchability * age * quality * hatch * fluid * time Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2015

  2. Recalibration of the yellow Rhizocarpon growth curve in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) and implications for LIA chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomelli, V.; Grancher, D.; Brunstein, D.; Solomina, O.

    2008-01-01

    A new lichen dating method and new moraine observations enabled us to improve the chronology of glacier advances in the Cordillera Blanca (Peru) during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Our results reveal that an early LIA glacial advance occurred around AD 1330 ± 29. However, a second major glacial advance at the beginning of the 17th century overlapped the earlier stage for most glaciers. Hence, this second glacial stage, dated from AD 1630 ± 27, is considered as the LIA maximum glacial advance in the Cordillera Blanca. During the 17th-18th centuries, at least three glacial advances were recorded synchronously for the different glaciers (AD 1670 ± 24, 1730 ± 21, and 1760 ± 19). The moraines corresponding to the two first stages are close to the one in 1630 suggesting a slow recession of about 18% in the total length of the glacier. From the LIA maximum extent to the beginning of the 20th century, the 24 glaciers have retreated a distance of about 1000 m, corresponding to a reduction of 30% in their length. This rate is comparable to that observed during the 20th century. Estimates of palaeo-Equilibrium Line Altitudes show an increase in altitude of about 100 m from the LIA maximum glacial extension at the beginning of the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Because long time series are not available for precipitation and temperature, this glacial retreat is difficult to explain by past climate changes. However, there is a fair correspondence between changes in glacier length and the δ18O recorded in the Quelccaya ice core at a century timescale. Our current knowledge of tropical glaciers and isotope variations leads us to suggest that this common tropical signal reflects a change from a wet LIA to the drier conditions of today. Finally, a remarkable synchronicity is observed with glacial variations in Bolivia, suggesting a common regional climatic pattern during the LIA.

  3. Overcoming the anaerobic hurdle in phenotypic microarrays: Generation andvisualization of growth curve data for Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borglin, Sharon E; Joyner, Dominique; Jacobsen, Janet; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hazen, Terry C.

    2008-10-04

    Growing anaerobic microorganisms in phenotypic microarrays (PM) and 96-well microtiter plates is an emerging technology that allows high throughput survey of the growth and physiology and/or phenotype of cultivable microorganisms. For non-model bacteria, a method for phenotypic analysis is invaluable, not only to serve as a starting point for further evaluation, but also to provide a broad understanding of the physiology of an uncharacterized wild-type organism or the physiology/phenotype of a newly created mutant of that organism. Given recent advances in genetic characterization and targeted mutations to elucidate genetic networks and metabolic pathways, high-throughput methods for determining phenotypic differences are essential. Here we outline challenges presented in studying the physiology and phenotype of a sulfate reducing anaerobic delta proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. Modifications of the commercially available OmniLog(TM) system (Hayward, CA) for experimental setup, and configuration, as well as considerations in PM data analysis are presented. Also highlighted here is data viewing software that enables users to view and compare multiple PM data sets. The PM method promises to be a valuable strategy in our systems biology approach to D. vulgaris studies and is readily applicable to other anaerobic and aerobic bacteria.

  4. An integral parametrization of the bacterial growth curve experimental demonstration with E. coli C{sub 6}00 bacteria; Parametrizacion integrada de la curva de crecimiento bacteriano. Comprobacion experimental para E. coli C{sub 6}00

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, F; Vidania, R de

    1984-07-01

    In this work an integral parametrization of the bacterial growth curve is presented. The values of the parameters are obtained by fitting to the experimental data. Those parameters, with allow to describe the growth in its different phases, are the followings: slopes of the curve in its three parts and the time which divides the last two phases of the bacterial growth. The experimental data are bacterial densities measured by optical methods. The bacteria used was the E. coli C{sub 6}00. (Author)

  5. Abordagem Bayesiana das curvas de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro Bayesian approach in the growth curves of two cultivars of common bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Martins Filho

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi utilizada a metodologia Bayesiana para ajustar o modelo não-linear logístico para dados de crescimento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro, "Neguinho" e "Carioca". O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com vinte repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, sendo que os tratamentos principais foram constituídos pelas cultivares e as subparcelas foram constituídas por 17 períodos de avaliações, do plantio até aos 85 dias. A metodologia permitiu comparar as curvas de crescimentos sem utilizar a teoria assintótica e estes resultados mostraram um maior incremento em altura para a cultivar "Carioca".In this paper the Bayesian methodology was used to fit the logistic nonlinear model to growth data of two common bean cultivars, 'Neguinho' and 'Carioca'. The experiment was a split plot under a completely randomized design with twenty replicates, being the main treatments constituted by cultivars and the sub plots constituted by seventeen periods of evaluations, from planting to 85 days. The methodology allowed comparing the growth curves without using the asymptotic theory, and these results showed a larger height increment for the 'Carioca' cultivar.

  6. The Moderated Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Exercise Among Older Adults in an Online Bone Health Intervention Study: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shijun; Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Friedmann, Erika; Brown, Clayton; Park, Jumin; Cheon, Jooyoung; Park, DoHwan

    2017-07-01

    This secondary data analyses of a longitudinal study assessed whether self-efficacy for exercise (SEE) mediated online intervention effects on exercise among older adults and whether age (50-64 vs. ≥65 years) moderated the mediation. Data were from an online bone health intervention study. Eight hundred sixty-six older adults (≥50 years) were randomized to three arms: Bone Power (n = 301), Bone Power Plus (n = 302), or Control (n = 263). Parallel process latent growth curve modeling (LGCM) was used to jointly model growths in SEE and in exercise and to assess the mediating effect of SEE on the effect of intervention on exercise. SEE was a significant mediator in 50- to 64-year-old adults (0.061, 95 BCI: 0.011, 0.163) but not in the ≥65 age group (-0.004, 95% BCI: -0.047, 0.025). Promotion of SEE is critical to improve exercise among 50- to 64-year-olds.

  7. Growth curves of crossbred cows sired by Hereford, Angus, Belgian Blue, Brahman, Boran, and Tuli bulls, and the fraction of mature body weight and height at puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Kuehn, L A; Cundiff, L V

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth curves of females to determine if mature size and relative rates of maturation among breeds differed. Body weight and hip height data were fitted to the nonlinear function BW = f(age) = A - Be(k×age), where A is an estimate of mature BW and k determines the rate that BW or height moves from B to A. Cows represented progeny from 28 Hereford, 38 Angus, 25 Belgian Blue, 34 Brahman, 8 Boran, and 9 Tuli sires. Bulls from these breeds were mated by AI to Angus, Hereford, and MARC III composite (1/4 Angus, 1/4 Hereford, 1/4 Red Poll, and 1/4 Pinzgauer) cows to produce calves in 1992, 1993, and 1994. These matings resulted in 516 mature cows whose growth curves were subsequently evaluated. Hereford-sired cows tended to have heavier mature BW, as estimated by parameter A, than Angus- (P=0.09) and Brahman-sired cows (P=0.06), and were heavier than the other breeds (P Angus-sired cows were heavier than Boran- (P Angus-sired cows did not differ from Brahman-sired cows (P=0.94). Brahman-sired cows had a heavier mature BW than Boran- (P Angus-sired cows matured faster (k) than cows sired by Hereford (P=0.03), Brahman (P Angus-sired cows (P=0.09), and had reached a greater proportion of their mature BW at puberty than had Hereford- (P < 0.001), Tuli- (P < 0.001), and Belgian Blue-sired cows (P < 0.001). Within species of cattle, the relative range in proportion of mature BW at puberty (Bos taurus 0.56 through 0.58, and Bos indicus 0.60) was highly conserved, suggesting that proportion of mature BW is a more robust predictor of age at puberty across breeds than is absolute weight or age. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  8. Cronograma de amostragem de alface cultivada em hidroponia para ajuste de curvas de crescimento vegetativo Sampling chronology of hydroponics lettuce plants for adjusting vegetative growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidinei José Lopes

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o cronograma de amostragem de plantas de alface hidropônica, para ajuste de curvas de crescimento durante o período vegetativo. Foram realizados dois cultivos de alface, variedade Regina, de 8/9/2004 a 19/11/2004 (primavera/verão e 22/2/2005 a 24/5/2005 (verão/outono, em estufas de plástico do Dep. de Fitotecnia, da UFSM, Santa Maria, RS. A partir do ajuste do modelo co-seno com amostragem diária, registrada como padrão, diferentes intervalos entre as amostragens foram simulados para o ajuste do mesmo modelo. A fim de se encontrar o intervalo adequado, foi comparada a variância de falta de ajuste do modelo de amostragem diária com as variâncias de falta de ajuste dos modelos com diferentes intervalos de amostragens pelo teste F. Os cronogramas de amostragens para ajuste de curvas de crescimento de plantas de alface sob hidroponia, para experimentos de primavera/verão e verão/outono, possuem intervalos iguais a dois dias, para fitomassa seca total da planta e da folha; intervalos de quatro dias, para fitomassa de raiz; e, diariamente, para área foliar.The objective of this work was to determinate a sampling chronology to adjust lettuce hidroponic growth curves during its vegetative development. The variety Regina was grown from September 8, 2004 until November 19, 2004 (spring/summer and February 22, 2005 until May 24, 2005 (summer/fall. Plants were placed inside a plastic covered greenhouse in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. Based on the adjusted cosine model, daily samples were taken as standard and different sampling intervals were simulated in order to better adjust the same model. To estimate de adequate sampling interval a comparison was conducted between the variance of lack of adjustment of the daily sampling with the variance of lack of adjustment of different samplings intervals using an F test. Sampling chronograms for adjusting crop growth curves of hydroponics lettuce plants for both

  9. Exercise self-efficacy and symptoms of depression after cardiac rehabilitation: predicting changes over time using a piecewise growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarter, Alisha D; Bennett, Kymberley K; Barber, Carolyn E; Gessner, Stacia N; Clark, Jillian M R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation is often recommended after experiencing a cardiac event and has been shown to significantly improve health outcomes among patients. Several psychosocial variables have been linked with cardiac rehabilitation program success, including exercise self-efficacy. However, little is known about temporal patterns in patients' exercise self-efficacy after program completion. This study examined changes in exercise self-efficacy among 133 cardiac rehabilitation patients and whether symptoms of depression impacted the rate of change in exercise self-efficacy. Participants completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of cardiac rehabilitation and at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Growth curve analyses showed that exercise self-efficacy levels were highest at the beginning of cardiac rehabilitation, significantly declined 6 months after cardiac rehabilitation, and leveled off over the next 18 months. Results also showed that baseline depressive symptoms interacted with time: Compared with participants with fewer symptoms, participants high in depressive symptoms began cardiac rehabilitation with lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and evidenced significant declines 6 months after cardiac rehabilitation. At no time were they equal to their counterparts in exercise self-efficacy, and their means were lower 2 years after cardiac rehabilitation than before cardiac rehabilitation. Our findings imply that patients show unrealistic optimism surrounding the ease of initiating and maintaining an exercise program and that integrating efficacy-building activities into cardiac rehabilitation, especially for patients who show signs of distress, is advisable.

  10. Patterns and sources of adult personality development: growth curve analyses of the NEO PI-R scales in a longitudinal twin study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Kandler, Christian; Riemann, Rainer; Spinath, Frank M; Angleitner, Alois

    2009-07-01

    The present study examined the patterns and sources of 10-year stability and change of adult personality assessed by the 5 domains and 30 facets of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory. Phenotypic and biometric analyses were performed on data from 126 identical and 61 fraternal twins from the Bielefeld Longitudinal Study of Adult Twins (BiLSAT). Consistent with previous research, LGM analyses revealed significant mean-level changes in domains and facets suggesting maturation of personality. There were also substantial individual differences in the change trajectories of both domain and facet scales. Correlations between age and trait changes were modest and there were no significant associations between change and gender. Biometric extensions of growth curve models showed that 10-year stability and change of personality were influenced by both genetic as well as environmental factors. Regarding the etiology of change, the analyses uncovered a more complex picture than originally stated, as findings suggest noticeable differences between traits with respect to the magnitude of genetic and environmental effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Curves of growth of spectral lines emitted by a laser-induced plasma: influence of the temporal evolution and spatial inhomogeneity of the plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, J.A.; Bengoechea, J.; Aragon, C. E-mail: carlos.aragon@unavarra.es

    2003-02-03

    The curves of growth (COG) of five Fe I lines emitted from a laser-induced plasma, generated with Fe-Ni alloys in air at atmospheric pressure, have been investigated. Spectral lines with different energy levels and line widths, emitted with a broad range of optical depths, have been included in the study in order to check the validity of theoretical models proposed for COG generation, based in the radiative transfer within a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The COGs have been measured at time windows of 4-5 {mu}s and 15-18 {mu}s. The Stark widths of the Fe I lines have been obtained, and the line widths have been determined by measuring the plasma electron density at the time windows selected. It is shown that at a time window of 4-5 {mu}s, the inhomogeneity of the plasma magnitudes has an important influence on the COGs of intense lines. For this time window, a two-region model of the plasma has been used to generate theoretical COGs that describe satisfactorily the experimental curves of all the lines using a single set of plasma parameters. The results reveal the existence of considerable gradients between the inner and the outer plasma regions in the temperature (9400-7800 K) and in the density of Fe atoms (4x10{sup 16}-0.02x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for a sample with 100% Fe). On the contrary, at the time window 15-18 {mu}s, at which the plasma has suffered most of its expansion and cooling process, the COGs of all the lines may be described by a single-region model, corresponding to a plasma with uniform temperature (6700 K) and density of Fe atoms (0.06x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} for a sample with 100% Fe). It is also shown that at initial times, the plasma inhomogeneity has an important effect in the line profiles of intense spectral lines, which are described by using the two-region model of the laser-induced plasma.

  12. Curvas de crescimento intra-uterino de uma população de alto nível socioeconômico Intrauterine growth curves in a high-income population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição A. M. Segre

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: as curvas de percentil constituem uma das formas de avaliação do crescimento intra-uterino e podem predizer doenças do recém-nascido como também caracterizar uma população. Este trabalho teve por objetivo construir as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino dos recém-nascidos da Maternidade do Hospital Albert Einstein (MAE, hospital que atende a uma população de alto nível socioeconômico, e comparar com as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino de uma população norte-americana da Califórnia. MÉTODOS: foram construídas curvas de crescimento intra-uterino a partir do peso do recém-nascido de parto único, tomado logo após o nascimento, e da idade gestacional segundo informações maternas, a partir da 32ª. semana de idade gestacional, abrangendo os nascimentos ocorridos na MAE no período de fevereiro de 1995 a fevereiro de 1999. Foram calculados os percentis 10, 50 e 90 do peso ao nascer para cada idade gestacional e comparados com os das curvas da Califórnia. RESULTADOS: as curvas dos percentis 10 e 50 na população da MAE não diferiram das curvas da Califórnia. Para o percentil 90, a curva da MAE ficou abaixo das curvas da Califórnia. Houve número menor de pequenos e grandes para a idade gestacional (PIG e GIG quando classificados pelas curvas da Califórnia. A classificação em PIG, AIG, GIG mostrou-se relacionada significantemente com o ganho de peso materno nos dois sexos. CONCLUSÕES: as duas populações analisadas segundo as curvas de crescimento intra-uterino são diferentes entre si; deverão ser identificados fatores específicos que atuem na população da MAE.OBJECTIVE: growth curves can be used to assess intrauterine growth, to predict diseases in newborns, and to characterize different populations. The objective of this study was to obtain intrauterine growth curves of newborns from the maternity ward of the Hospital Albert Einstein (MAE and compare them with intrauterine growth curves of a population

  13. Curva de crescimento de frutos de pêssego em regiões subtropicais Growth curve of peach fruits in subtropical enviroment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Dela Bruna

    2007-01-01

    to improve the fruit quality. The correct time for fruit pruning can be defined through the knowledge of the curve of fruit growth. Fruit growth, fresh weight (PV and dry weight (PS of 20 peach varieties had been evaluated at Epagri's Agriculture Research Station of Urussanga, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil (latitude 28º31'S, altitude 48 m. The plants had been grouped in varieties of short, medium and long cycle, related to the period from budding to fruit harvest, ranging from W77 to 85 days, 86 to 109 days and more than 109 days, respectively. Weekly, from blossom to harvest, green fruits have been harvested, then weighed (PV and dehydrated in a stove at 70ºC to determine the PS. All the varieties had presented a very high initial relative growth (PS daily gain / PS total of the fruit, which was reducing until the maturation of the fruits for the varieties of short and medium cycle. However, the long cycle varieties had an increase on the relative growth in the end of the cycle. Long cycle varieties presented three stages of fruit growth, considering the PS, PV and the daily accumulation of PS and PV: Stage I, with exponential growth; Stage II, with little growth; Stage III, with exponential growth culminating with the fruit maturation. On the other hand, varieties of medium and short cycle had not presented the Stage II, with little growth, switching directly from Stage I to Stage III.

  14. Curvas de crecimiento de la circunferencia de la cintura en niños y adolescentes habaneros Growth curves of waist circumference in Havana children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Esquivel Lauzurique

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. En los últimos decenios, el sobrepeso y la obesidad han aumentado en los niños y adolescentes cubanos, por lo que son necesarios instrumentos sencillos que permitan analizar en la práctica asistencial las características y evolución de la obesidad. Por esta razón, se decidió desarrollar curvas de crecimiento de la circunferencia de la cintura en niños y adolescentes habaneros, dimensión que muestra una alta correlación con la masa grasa intraabdominal y, por ende, con un perfil lipídico aterogénico. MÉTODOS. Se estimaron valores de percentiles de esta circunferencia según grupos de edad y sexo, utilizando el método de transformación de potencia de tipo Box-Cox (BCPE, en 4 360 niños y adolescentes entre 7,5 y 19,0 años, que integraron las muestras de los estudios transversales de crecimiento y desarrollo efectuados en La Habana durante los años 1998 y 2005. RESULTADOS. La circunferencia de la cintura aumentó de forma significativa con la edad en uno y otro sexo. Los niños mostraron cifras superiores a las de las niñas y los valores que se obtuvieron tienden a ser inferiores a los reportados en otros estudios. CONCLUSIONES. Estas curvas podrían usarse provisionalmente con propósitos clínicos y epidemiológicos hasta que se disponga de referencias de carácter nacional para la identificación de niños escolares y adolescentes con riesgo de desarrollar trastornos relacionados con la adiposidad visceral.INTRODUCTION. In past decades, the excess weight and obesity have increased in Cuban children and adolescents, thus, are necessaries simple tools allowing analyzing in health practice the characteristics and evolution of obesity. By this reason, we decide to develop growth curves of waist circumference in Havanan children and adolescents, a dimension showing a high correlation with the intra-abdominal fatty mass and consequently, with an atherogenic lipid profile. METHODS. Authors estimated the percentile

  15. Longitudinal associations between sleep and anxiety during pregnancy, and the moderating effect of resilience, using parallel process latent growth curve models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwan, Judith Esi; de Vente, Wieke; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Karlsson, Hasse; Buil, J Marieke; Koot, Hans M; Paavonen, E Juulia; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Huizink, Anja C; Karlsson, Linnea

    2017-12-01

    For many women, pregnancy-related sleep disturbances and pregnancy-related anxiety change as pregnancy progresses and both are associated with lower maternal quality of life and less favorable birth outcomes. Thus, the interplay between these two problems across pregnancy is of interest. In addition, psychological resilience may explain individual differences in this association, as it may promote coping with both sleep disturbances and anxiety, and thereby reduce their mutual effects. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine whether sleep quality and sleep duration, and changes in sleep are associated with the level of and changes in anxiety during pregnancy. Furthermore, the study tested the moderating effect of resilience on these associations. At gestational weeks 14, 24, and 34, 532 pregnant women from the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study in Finland filled out questionnaires on general sleep quality, sleep duration and pregnancy-related anxiety; resilience was assessed in week 14. Parallel process latent growth curve models showed that shorter initial sleep duration predicted a higher initial level of anxiety, and a higher initial anxiety level predicted a faster shortening of sleep duration. Changes in sleep duration and changes in anxiety over the course of pregnancy were not related. The predicted moderating effect of resilience was not found. The results suggested that pregnant women reporting anxiety problems should also be screened for sleeping problems, and vice versa, because women who experienced one of these pregnancy-related problems were also at risk of experiencing or developing the other problem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in teachers' involvement versus rejection and links with academic motivation during the first year of secondary education: a multilevel growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulana, Ridwan; Opdenakker, Marie-Christine; Stroet, Kim; Bosker, Roel

    2013-09-01

    Research consistently shows that the learning environment plays an important role for early adolescents' learning and outcomes and suggests that good teacher-student relationships can serve as a protective factor for maintaining young adolescents' interest and active engagement in learning. However, less is known about the dynamic nature of teacher-student relationships and how they link with academic motivation development. Furthermore, little is known about the nature and the effects of teacher-student relationships in a cross-national context. The present study investigated changes in two components of teacher-student relationships (teachers' involvement vs. rejection) and examined links with students' academic motivation during the first grade of secondary school. Ten Dutch and ten Indonesian teachers (65 % female) from 24 classes were videoed 12 times across the school year, and four videos for each class were selected randomly and coded on teachers' involvement versus rejection. A total of 713 students (52 % girls) completed four-wave measures of their academic motivation after each video observation. Multilevel growth curve modeling revealed that the teacher's involvement changed in a curvilinear way and decreased across the first year of secondary education, while changes in the teacher's rejection did not follow a linear time function. Academic motivation changed in an undesirable way: controlled motivation increased, while autonomous motivation decreased over time. Teachers' involvement had a unique contribution in preventing high levels of controlled motivation in both countries. Findings suggest that teacher-student relationships (teachers' involvement) play an essential role in early adolescents' motivation regardless of the nations and should be a priority for schools.

  17. Longitudinal associations between body mass index, physical activity, and healthy dietary behaviors in adults: A parallel latent growth curve modeling approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngdeok Kim

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA and healthy dietary behaviors (HDB are two well-documented lifestyle factors influencing body mass index (BMI. This study examined 7-year longitudinal associations between changes in PA, HDB, and BMI among adults using a parallel latent growth curve modeling (LGCM.We used prospective cohort data collected by a private company (SimplyWell LLC, Omaha, NE, USA implementing a workplace health screening program. Data from a total of 2,579 adults who provided valid BMI, PA, and HDB information for at least 5 out of 7 follow-up years from the time they entered the program were analyzed. PA and HDB were subjectively measured during an annual online health survey. Height and weight measured during an annual onsite health screening were used to calculate BMI (kg·m2. The parallel LGCMs stratified by gender and baseline weight status (normal: BMI30 were fitted to examine the longitudinal associations of changes in PA and HDB with change in BMI over years.On average, BMI gradually increased over years, at rates ranging from 0.06 to 0.20 kg·m2·year, with larger increases observed among those of normal baseline weight status across genders. The increases in PA and HDB were independently associated with a smaller increase in BMI for obese males (b = -1.70 and -1.98, respectively, and overweight females (b = -1.85 and -2.46, respectively and obese females (b = -2.78 and -3.08, respectively. However, no significant associations of baseline PA and HDB with changes in BMI were observed.Our study suggests that gradual increases in PA and HDB are independently associated with smaller increases in BMI in overweight and obese adults, but not in normal weight individuals. Further study is warranted to address factors that check increases in BMI in normal weight adults.

  18. Dynamics of curved fronts

    CERN Document Server

    Pelce, Pierre

    1989-01-01

    In recent years, much progress has been made in the understanding of interface dynamics of various systems: hydrodynamics, crystal growth, chemical reactions, and combustion. Dynamics of Curved Fronts is an important contribution to this field and will be an indispensable reference work for researchers and graduate students in physics, applied mathematics, and chemical engineering. The book consist of a 100 page introduction by the editor and 33 seminal articles from various disciplines.

  19. Genetic aspects of the growth curve characteristics in Anglo-Nubian goats Aspectos genéticos da curva de crescimento de caprinos Anglo-Nubiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Oliveira do Ó

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Data of Anglo-Nubian goats from experimental herds of Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba (EMEPA-PB, recorded between 1980 and 2005 were used, with the objective to study the adjustment of Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, Richards and Von Bertalanffy functions on the growth curve and to estimate genetic parameters for the traits obtained from best fitting function. Functions were fitted using NLIN procedure of Statistical Analysis System software (SAS, by GAUSS method. The best fitting was obtained using the Brody function. The respective values of mature weight and maturation rate estimated by Brody function were 28.22kg and 0.0054/day. The Brody function was used to estimate genetic parameters and the (covariance components for traits of economic importance using the Derivative Free Restricted Maximum Likelihood method, using the WOMBAT software. The estimates direct heritability of mature weight and maturation rate were, respectively, 0.10, and 0.12, and the direct heritability of other weights recorded ranged from 0.10 to 0.28. The results observed in this study indicates small genetic progress using individual selection.Foram utilizados dados de caprinos da raça Anglo-Nubiana controlados entre os anos de 1980 e 2005 na Empresa Estadual de Pesquisa Agropecuária da Paraíba – EMEPA com o objetivo de estudar o ajuste das funções de Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, Richards e Von Bertalanffy sobre a curva de crescimento e estimar parâmetros genéticos para características obtidas a partir da função de melhor ajuste. Para o ajuste das curvas, foi utilizado o procedimento NLIN do software Statistical Analysis System (SAS, por meio do método de GAUSS. A curva de Brody foi a que promoveu melhor ajuste. Os valores do peso adulto e da taxa de maturação estimados pela função de Brody foram de 28,22kg e 0.0054/dia, respectivamente. A função de Brody foi usada para estimar parâmetros genéticos e componentes de (covari

  20. Effect of 17 beta-oestradiol on growth curves and flow cytometric DNA distribution of two human breast carcinomas grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L

    1983-01-01

    distribution could be demonstrated following the treatment. The results indicate that the oestradiol-induced cell kill could be explained to some extent by the induction of polyploid cells, which eventually die. Since the cell cycle changes monitored by FCM in the receptor-positive breast carcinoma appeared...

  1. Investigation on relationship between epicentral distance and growth curve of initial P-wave propagating in local heterogeneous media for earthquake early warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kyosuke; Tsuno, Seiji

    2015-10-01

    In the earthquake early warning (EEW) system, the epicenter location and magnitude of earthquakes are estimated using the amplitude growth rate of initial P-waves. It has been empirically pointed out that the growth rate becomes smaller as epicentral distance becomes far regardless of the magnitude of earthquakes. So, the epicentral distance can be estimated from the growth rate using this empirical relationship. However, the growth rates calculated from different earthquakes at the same epicentral distance mark considerably different values from each other. Sometimes the growth rates of earthquakes having the same epicentral distance vary by 104 times. Qualitatively, it has been considered that the gap in the growth rates is due to differences in the local heterogeneities that the P-waves propagate through. In this study, we demonstrate theoretically how local heterogeneities in the subsurface disturb the relationship between the growth rate and the epicentral distance. Firstly, we calculate seismic scattered waves in a heterogeneous medium. First-ordered PP, PS, SP, and SS scatterings are considered. The correlation distance of the heterogeneities and fractional fluctuation of elastic parameters control the heterogeneous conditions for the calculation. From the synthesized waves, the growth rate of the initial P-wave is obtained. As a result, we find that a parameter (in this study, correlation distance) controlling heterogeneities plays a key role in the magnitude of the fluctuation of the growth rate. Then, we calculate the regional correlation distances in Japan that can account for the fluctuation of the growth rate of real earthquakes from 1997 to 2011 observed by K-NET and KiK-net. As a result, the spatial distribution of the correlation distance shows locality. So, it is revealed that the growth rates fluctuate according to the locality. When this local fluctuation is taken into account, the accuracy of the estimation of epicentral distances from initial P

  2. Modification by preirradiation growth conditions of the shoulder of the UV fluence-survival curve of Escherichia coli B/r WP2 thy trp and changes in mutagenic response toward tryptophan prototrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doudney, C.O.

    1978-01-01

    The distinct three-section UV fluence-mutation frequency response (MFR) curve demonstrated in Escherichia coli strain B/r WP2 thy trp and its uvrA derivative supports the SOS hypothesis and suggests that trp + revertants can arise either from isolated lesions (1DM) plus SOS induction or from two lesions in proximity (2DM). Preirradiation growth on arabinose instead of glucose converted the fluence-survival curve from highly shouldered to exponential but did not affect the three-section MFR curve. Prestarvation of the uvrA + strain for typtophan, which drastically increases the expanse of the shoulder of the survival curve, greatly decreased both 1DM and 2DM. With the uvrA strain the increase in shoulder expanse after typtophan prestarvation was accompanied by greatly increased 2DM but no change in 1DM. Preincubation with chloramphenicol induced an even greater increase in 2DM response than amino acid prestarvation. Nalidixic acid, which prevents DNA accumulation, eliminated the response. (Auth.)

  3. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  4. Rate of Language Growth in Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Early Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Carla Wood; Schatschneider, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study explored the rate of language growth of children in an early intervention program providing auditory-verbal therapy. A retrospective investigation, the study applied a linear growth model to estimate a mean growth curve and the extent of individual variation in language performance on the Preschool Language Scale, 4th ed.…

  5. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  6. Development of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Spanish-Speaking Language Minority Learners: A Parallel Process Latent Growth Curve Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, Michael J.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2012-01-01

    Despite acknowledgement of the limited English vocabularies demonstrated by many language minority (LM) learners, few studies have identified skills that relate to variation in vocabulary growth in this population. This study investigated the concurrent development of morphological awareness (i.e., students' understanding of complex words as…

  7. Step-growth polymerizing systems of general type “AfiBgi” : calculating the radius of gyration and the g-curve using generating functions and recurrences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillegers, L.T.M.E.; Slot, J.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Step-growth polymerized systems of general type “AfiBgi” are considered. One or more of the monomer species carries at least three reactive groups and thus can act as a branching point in a polymeric molecule. An algorithmic method is presented to calculate the topology-averaged square radius of

  8. ECM using Edwards curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernstein, Daniel J.; Birkner, Peter; Lange, Tanja

    2013-01-01

    -arithmetic level are as follows: (1) use Edwards curves instead of Montgomery curves; (2) use extended Edwards coordinates; (3) use signed-sliding-window addition-subtraction chains; (4) batch primes to increase the window size; (5) choose curves with small parameters and base points; (6) choose curves with large...

  9. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): the CASPIAN-III study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10–19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. Methods In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10–19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI)-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. Results The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44%) participants aged 10–14 years , and 3118 (58%) with 15–19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%), 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%), and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children’s growth. Similar to most low-and middle income populations, Iranian children aged 10–19 years are facing a double burden of weight disorders, notably under- and over- nutrition, which should be considered in

  10. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): the CASPIAN-III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Marjan; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Aminaee, Tahereh; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-09-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10-19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10-19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI)-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44%) participants aged 10-14 years , and 3118 (58%) with 15-19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%), 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%), and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P < 0.001). The mean BMI-for-age, and the average height-for-age of Iranian children aged 10-19 years were lower than the WHO 2007 and United states Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC2000) references. The current growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children's growth. Similar to most low

  11. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA: the CASPIAN-III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansourian Marjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10–19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. Methods In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10–19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. Results The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44% participants aged 10–14 years , and 3118 (58% with 15–19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%, 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%, and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P  Conclusions The current growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children’s growth. Similar to most low-and middle income populations, Iranian children aged 10–19 years are facing a double burden of weight disorders, notably under- and

  12. Herdabilidades de parâmetros de curvas de crescimento não-lineares em zebuínos, no estado de Pernambuco Heritabilities of nonlinear growth curve parameters in zebu breeds, in Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Régis Santoro

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estimar parâmetros genéticos e fenotípicos de curvas de crescimento de modelos não-lineares. Foram analisados dados de pesagem constantes no banco de dados de Controle de Desenvolvimento Ponderal da Associação Brasileira de Criadores de Zebu (ABCZ, referentes a 24.028 animais Zebu, nascidos entre 1960 e 2000, das raças Guzerá, Nelore e Nelore Mocho. As pesagens ocorreram ao nascimento e em intervalos de 90 dias até dois anos de idade. Os seguintes modelos não-lineares foram utilizados na análise dos dados de peso-idade: Brody, Gompertz, Logístico, von Bertalanffy e Richards. Os efeitos fixos estudados no modelo misto foram sexo, rebanho, ano e mês de nascimento e regime de criação. As herdabilidades para os parâmetros foram de baixa a alta magnitude, em geral, para todos os modelos. As correlações genéticas entre peso assintótico e taxa de maturidade e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento foram negativas, enquanto aquelas entre taxa de maturidade e velocidade de crescimento foram positivas. As correlações fenotípicas foram negativas entre peso assintótico e taxa de crescimento e entre peso assintótico e velocidade de crescimento e positivas entre taxa e velocidade de crescimento. Encontrou-se variabilidade possível de ser explorada em um programa de melhoramento genético, especialmente para a raça Nelore, que apresentou amostra de dados e resultados mais consistentes.Weight records of 24.028 zebu animals from Guzerá, Nelore, and Polled Nelore breeds available from Brazilian Association of Zebu Breeders (ABCZ database were used to estimate heritabilities of growth curve parameters. Non-linear Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Mitscherlich, von Bertalanffy, Richards, and Double Logistic models including sex, farm, year of birth, month of birth, raising system, and interaction sex*raising system as fixed effects and sire and dam, as random effects were adjusted using weight-age records of animals

  13. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  14. Curva de crescimento e marcha de absorção de macronutrientes em mudas de goiabeira Growth and macronutrient uptake curves in guava seedling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudenir Facincani Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de mudas de goiabeira com adequado estado nutricional determina o sucesso da implantação de um pomar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes em mudas de duas cultivares de goiabeira obtidas por estaquia herbácea. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com parcelas subdivididas, com três repetições. Assim, foram utilizadas como parcelas duas cultivares de goiabeira (Paluma e Século XXI e, como subparcelas, sete coletas de plantas ao longo do período experimental (120 dias, em solução nutritiva. As plantas foram avaliadas quinzenalmente quanto a: altura, número de folhas, diâmetro do caule, área foliar e massa de matéria seca (folhas, caule e raízes. Nos diferentes órgãos das mudas, determinou-se o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Houve acúmulo quadrático de matéria seca das mudas de goiabeira com o tempo de cultivo. A muda de goiabeira da cultivar Século XXI tem maior exigência de macronutrientes que a da cultivar Paluma, e o período de maior exigência é a partir dos 75 e 45 dias, para ambas as cultivares. O acúmulo de macronutrientes pelas mudas de goiabeira das cultivares Paluma e Século XXI foi de: K (726 e 696, N (552 e 585, Ca (293 e 302, S (73 e 66, P (64 e 66 e Mg (39 e 41 mg por planta, respectivamente.The use of guava seedlings with adequate nutritional status determines the success of an orchard installation. This study was conducted to determine plant growth and macronutrient accumulation in herbaceous seedlings of two guava cultivars. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design in split-plots with three replications. Plots consisted of the two guava cultivars (Paluma and Século XXI in nutrient solution and the sub-plots were the seven sampling dates in a 120 day period. Plant height, number of leaves, stem diameter, leaf area and dry mass (leaves, stem and roots were determined biweekly. The accumulation of

  15. MICA: Multiple interval-based curve alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Kahle, Hans-Peter; Beck, Matthias; Bender, Bela Johannes; Spiecker, Heinrich; Backofen, Rolf

    2018-01-01

    MICA enables the automatic synchronization of discrete data curves. To this end, characteristic points of the curves' shapes are identified. These landmarks are used within a heuristic curve registration approach to align profile pairs by mapping similar characteristics onto each other. In combination with a progressive alignment scheme, this enables the computation of multiple curve alignments. Multiple curve alignments are needed to derive meaningful representative consensus data of measured time or data series. MICA was already successfully applied to generate representative profiles of tree growth data based on intra-annual wood density profiles or cell formation data. The MICA package provides a command-line and graphical user interface. The R interface enables the direct embedding of multiple curve alignment computation into larger analyses pipelines. Source code, binaries and documentation are freely available at https://github.com/BackofenLab/MICA

  16. Growth curve of lambs from three systems of production in Northeastern BrazilCurva de crescimento de cordeiros oriundos de três sistemas de produção na Região Nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Costa Teixeira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to analyze nonlinear models to describe growth of lambs in three production systems. The models used were: Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Gompertz and Richards. In a 1 production system was used lambs in “creep feeding”, weaned at 60 days old and kept on pasture until they reach average 20 kg, when they were confined, slaughtered between 28 and 30 kg. In the 2 production system, lambs weaned at 90 days and kept on cultivated pasture and slaughtered between 28 and 30 kg, were used. In 3 Production System, lambs weaned at 90 days old and kept in an area of native pasture supplemented with elephant grass and leucena, in the critical period of the year and slaughtered at 28 to 30 kg were used. 17 weights of 30 animals, 10 animals for each system, from birth to 450 days, were used. Based on the study of the growth curves that are best adapted to predict the results of growth were those of Richards and Brody models, however none of the models simulated curve showed satisfactory results for the three production systems.O objetivo foi analisar modelos não lineares para descrever o crescimento de cordeiros criados em três Sistemas de produção. Os modelos utilizados forram: Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Richards e Gompertz. No Sistema de produção 1 utilizaram-se cordeiros alimentados em “creep-feeding”, desmamados aos 60 dias de idade e mantidos em pastagem cultivada até atingirem media de 20 kg, quando foram confinados, e abatidos entre 28 e 30 kg. No Sistema de produção 2 utilizaram-se cordeiros desmamados aos 90 dias e mantidos em pastagem cultivada, sendo abatidos entre 28 e 30 kg. No Sistema de produção 3 utilizaram-se cordeiros desmamados com 90 dias de idade e mantidos em área de pastagem nativa suplementados com feno de capim elefante e de leucena no período crítico do ano e abatidos aos 28 e 30 kg. Foram utilizadas 17 pesagens de 30 animais, sendo 10 animais para cada Sistema, do nascimento aos 450 dias. Com base no

  17. JUMPING THE CURVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Pellissier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the notion ofjump ing the curve,following from Handy 's S-curve onto a new curve with new rules policies and procedures. . It claims that the curve does not generally lie in wait but has to be invented by leadership. The focus of this paper is the identification (mathematically and inferentially ofthat point in time, known as the cusp in catastrophe theory, when it is time to change - pro-actively, pre-actively or reactively. These three scenarios are addressed separately and discussed in terms ofthe relevance ofeach.

  18. Surface growth kinematics via local curve evolution

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, Derek E.; Goriely, Alain

    2012-01-01

    of increasing complexity are provided, and we demonstrate how biologically relevant structures such as logarithmic shells and horns emerge as analytical solutions of the kinematics equations with a small number of parameters that can be linked to the underlying

  19. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  20. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  1. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  2. Image scaling curve generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  3. Image scaling curve generation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of generating an image scaling curve, where local saliency is detected in a received image. The detected local saliency is then accumulated in the first direction. A final scaling curve is derived from the detected local saliency and the image is then

  4. Tempo curves considered harmful

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desain, P.; Honing, H.

    1993-01-01

    In the literature of musicology, computer music research and the psychology of music, timing or tempo measurements are mostly presented in the form of continuous curves. The notion of these tempo curves is dangerous, despite its widespread use, because it lulls its users into the false impression

  5. The curve shortening problem

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Kai-Seng

    2001-01-01

    Although research in curve shortening flow has been very active for nearly 20 years, the results of those efforts have remained scattered throughout the literature. For the first time, The Curve Shortening Problem collects and illuminates those results in a comprehensive, rigorous, and self-contained account of the fundamental results.The authors present a complete treatment of the Gage-Hamilton theorem, a clear, detailed exposition of Grayson''s convexity theorem, a systematic discussion of invariant solutions, applications to the existence of simple closed geodesics on a surface, and a new, almost convexity theorem for the generalized curve shortening problem.Many questions regarding curve shortening remain outstanding. With its careful exposition and complete guide to the literature, The Curve Shortening Problem provides not only an outstanding starting point for graduate students and new investigations, but a superb reference that presents intriguing new results for those already active in the field.

  6. Embryonic developmental temperatures modulate thermal acclimation of performance curves in tadpoles of the frog Limnodynastes peronii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Seebacher

    Full Text Available Performance curves of physiological rates are not fixed, and determining the extent to which thermal performance curves can change in response to environmental signals is essential to understand the effect of climate variability on populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how temperatures experienced during early embryonic development affect thermal performance curves of later life history stages in the frog Limnodynastes peronii. We tested the hypotheses that a the embryonic environment affects mean trait values only; b temperature at which performance of tadpoles is maximal shifts with egg incubation temperatures so that performance is maximised at the incubation temperatures, and c incubation temperatures modulate the capacity for reversible acclimation in tadpoles. Growth rates were greater in warm (25°C compared to cold (15°C acclimated (6 weeks tadpoles regardless of egg developmental temperatures (15°C or 25°C, representing seasonal means. The breadth of the performance curve of burst locomotor performance (measured at 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30°C, representing annual range is greatest when egg developmental and acclimation temperatures coincide. The mode of the performance curves shifted with acclimation conditions and maximum performance was always at higher temperatures than acclimation conditions. Performance curves of glycolytic (lactate dehydrogenase activities and mitochondrial (citrate synthase and cytochrome c oxidase enzymes were modulated by interactions between egg incubation and acclimation temperatures. Lactate dehydrogenase activity paralleled patterns seen in burst locomotor performance, but oxygen consumption rates and mitochondrial enzyme activities did not mirror growth or locomotor performance. We show that embryonic developmental conditions can modulate performance curves of later life-history stages, thereby conferring flexibilty to respond to environmental conditions later in life.

  7. Assessing the extent and determinates of induced growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    Transportation improvements affect the accessibility of places, which in turn can result in changes in land use in : combination with factors that support or discourage development (such as land prices, market demand, local land : use regulations, an...

  8. Learning Curve? Which One?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Prochno

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Learning curves have been studied for a long time. These studies provided strong support to the hypothesis that, as organizations produce more of a product, unit costs of production decrease at a decreasing rate (see Argote, 1999 for a comprehensive review of learning curve studies. But the organizational mechanisms that lead to these results are still underexplored. We know some drivers of learning curves (ADLER; CLARK, 1991; LAPRE et al., 2000, but we still lack a more detailed view of the organizational processes behind those curves. Through an ethnographic study, I bring a comprehensive account of the first year of operations of a new automotive plant, describing what was taking place on in the assembly area during the most relevant shifts of the learning curve. The emphasis is then on how learning occurs in that setting. My analysis suggests that the overall learning curve is in fact the result of an integration process that puts together several individual ongoing learning curves in different areas throughout the organization. In the end, I propose a model to understand the evolution of these learning processes and their supporting organizational mechanisms.

  9. The crime kuznets curve

    OpenAIRE

    Buonanno, Paolo; Fergusson, Leopoldo; Vargas, Juan Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We document the existence of a Crime Kuznets Curve in US states since the 1970s. As income levels have risen, crime has followed an inverted U-shaped pattern, first increasing and then dropping. The Crime Kuznets Curve is not explained by income inequality. In fact, we show that during the sample period inequality has risen monotonically with income, ruling out the traditional Kuznets Curve. Our finding is robust to adding a large set of controls that are used in the literature to explain the...

  10. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  11. SRHA calibration curve

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — an UV calibration curve for SRHA quantitation. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Chang, X., and D. Bouchard. Surfactant-Wrapped Multiwalled...

  12. Bragg Curve Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhn, C.R.

    1981-05-01

    An alternative utilization is presented for the gaseous ionization chamber in the detection of energetic heavy ions, which is called Bragg Curve Spectroscopy (BCS). Conceptually, BCS involves using the maximum data available from the Bragg curve of the stopping heavy ion (HI) for purposes of identifying the particle and measuring its energy. A detector has been designed that measures the Bragg curve with high precision. From the Bragg curve the range from the length of the track, the total energy from the integral of the specific ionization over the track, the dE/dx from the specific ionization at the beginning of the track, and the Bragg peak from the maximum of the specific ionization of the HI are determined. This last signal measures the atomic number, Z, of the HI unambiguously

  13. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  14. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  15. Curves and Abelian varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeev, Valery; Clemens, C Herbert; Beauville, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to recent progress in the study of curves and abelian varieties. It discusses both classical aspects of this deep and beautiful subject as well as two important new developments, tropical geometry and the theory of log schemes. In addition to original research articles, this book contains three surveys devoted to singularities of theta divisors, of compactified Jacobians of singular curves, and of "strange duality" among moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic varieties.

  16. Flow characteristics of curved ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf P.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Curved channels are very often present in real hydraulic systems, e.g. curved diffusers of hydraulic turbines, S-shaped bulb turbines, fittings, etc. Curvature brings change of velocity profile, generation of vortices and production of hydraulic losses. Flow simulation using CFD techniques were performed to understand these phenomena. Cases ranging from single elbow to coupled elbows in shapes of U, S and spatial right angle position with circular cross-section were modeled for Re = 60000. Spatial development of the flow was studied and consequently it was deduced that minor losses are connected with the transformation of pressure energy into kinetic energy and vice versa. This transformation is a dissipative process and is reflected in the amount of the energy irreversibly lost. Least loss coefficient is connected with flow in U-shape elbows, biggest one with flow in Sshape elbows. Finally, the extent of the flow domain influenced by presence of curvature was examined. This isimportant for proper placement of mano- and flowmeters during experimental tests. Simulations were verified with experimental results presented in literature.

  17. Growth and uptake of nutrients curves in star fruit plants budded with nota 10 cultivar Marcha de absorção de nutrientes e crescimento de mudas de caramboleira enxertada com a cultivar nota-10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Burani Arouca

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional state of star fruit seedlings must be adequate for a successful field implementation. The objective of the present work was to study the growth and uptake of macro e micronutrients curves by star fruit plants budded with Nota 10 cultivar in nutrient solution conditions. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks, with four replications and six treatments, which were consisted by the times of collects during the 150 days of the experiment (each 25 days. In each collection, the plant growth was evaluated by the division of the plants in root, stem and leaves in order to obtain the height, diameter of the stem, leave area and the dry matter. The accumulation of dry matter followed sigmoidal adjustment, while the uptake of nutrients followed quadratic adjustment, except Mg, P, and Cu that followed sigmoidal adjustment. The accumulation of nutrients by star fruit seedlings ‘nota 10’ followed the sequence: NO adequado estado nutricional das mudas de caramboleira permite o sucesso da implantação de um pomar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a marcha de absorção de nutrientes e o crescimento de mudas enxertadas de caramboleira ‘Nota 10’ produzida em solução nutritiva. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos tempos de coleta (25; 50; 75; 100; 125 e 150 dias após o início da brotação das borbulhas. As plantas foram avaliadas quanto a: altura, diâmetro do enxerto e do porta-enxerto, área foliar e massa da matéria seca (folhas, caule e raízes. Nos diferentes órgãos das mudas, determinou-se o acúmulo de macronutrientes. O acúmulo de massa seca das mudas de caramboleira apresentou ajuste sigmoidal, enquanto o acúmulo de nutrientes apresentou incremento quadrático, exceto Mg, P e Cu, que foi sigmoidal, obedecendo à seguinte sequência: N>K>Ca>P>S>Mg>Fe>Mn>Zn>B>Cu, sendo maior nas

  18. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  19. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  20. Curved electromagnetic missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.M.; Shen, H.M.; Wu, T.T.

    1989-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic fields can exhibit interesting behavior in the limit of great distances from their sources. In situations of finite total radiated energy, the energy reaching a distant receiver can decrease with distance much more slowly than the usual r - 2 . Cases of such slow decrease have been referred to as electromagnetic missiles. All of the wide variety of known missiles propagate in essentially straight lines. A sketch is presented here of a missile that can follow a path that is strongly curved. An example of a curved electromagnetic missile is explicitly constructed and some of its properties are discussed. References to details available elsewhere are given

  1. Algebraic curves and cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, V Kumar

    2010-01-01

    It is by now a well-known paradigm that public-key cryptosystems can be built using finite Abelian groups and that algebraic geometry provides a supply of such groups through Abelian varieties over finite fields. Of special interest are the Abelian varieties that are Jacobians of algebraic curves. All of the articles in this volume are centered on the theme of point counting and explicit arithmetic on the Jacobians of curves over finite fields. The topics covered include Schoof's \\ell-adic point counting algorithm, the p-adic algorithms of Kedlaya and Denef-Vercauteren, explicit arithmetic on

  2. IGMtransmission: Transmission curve computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christopher M.; Meiksin, Avery; Stock, David

    2015-04-01

    IGMtransmission is a Java graphical user interface that implements Monte Carlo simulations to compute the corrections to colors of high-redshift galaxies due to intergalactic attenuation based on current models of the Intergalactic Medium. The effects of absorption due to neutral hydrogen are considered, with particular attention to the stochastic effects of Lyman Limit Systems. Attenuation curves are produced, as well as colors for a wide range of filter responses and model galaxy spectra. Photometric filters are included for the Hubble Space Telescope, the Keck telescope, the Mt. Palomar 200-inch, the SUBARU telescope and UKIRT; alternative filter response curves and spectra may be readily uploaded.

  3. 27 CFR 4.2 - Territorial extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Territorial extent. 4.2 Section 4.2 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Scope § 4.2 Territorial extent. This part...

  4. Learning from uncertain curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mallasto, Anton; Feragen, Aasa

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel framework for statistical analysis of populations of nondegenerate Gaussian processes (GPs), which are natural representations of uncertain curves. This allows inherent variation or uncertainty in function-valued data to be properly incorporated in the population analysis. Us...

  5. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  6. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  7. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  8. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  9. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across

  10. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  11. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  12. Power curve report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...

  13. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  14. ECM using Edwards curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Birkner, P.; Lange, T.; Peters, C.P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces EECM-MPFQ, a fast implementation of the elliptic-curve method of factoring integers. EECM-MPFQ uses fewer modular multiplications than the well-known GMP-ECM software, takes less time than GMP-ECM, and finds more primes than GMP-ECM. The main improvements above the

  15. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of a peer-led education intervention to improve the patient safety attitudes of junior pharmacy students: a cross-sectional study using a latent growth curve modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpola, Ramesh L; Fois, Romano A; McLachlan, Andrew J; Chen, Timothy F

    2015-12-08

    Despite the recognition that educating healthcare students in patient safety is essential, changing already full curricula can be challenging. Furthermore, institutions may lack the capacity and capability to deliver patient safety education, particularly from the start of professional practice studies. Using senior students as peer educators to deliver practice-based education can potentially overcome some of the contextual barriers in training junior students. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a peer-led patient safety education programme for junior pharmacy students. A repeat cross-sectional design utilising a previously validated patient safety attitudinal survey was used to evaluate attitudes prior to, immediately after and 1 month after the delivery of a patient safety education programme. Latent growth curve (LGC) modelling was used to evaluate the change in attitudes of first-year students using second-year students as a comparator group. Undergraduate university students in Sydney, Australia. 175 first-year and 140 second-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Pharmacy programme at the University of Sydney. An introductory patient safety programme was implemented into the first-year Bachelor of Pharmacy curriculum at the University of Sydney. The programme covered introductory patient safety topics including teamwork, communication skills, systems thinking and open disclosure. The programme consisted of 2 lectures, delivered by a senior academic, and a workshop delivered by trained final-year pharmacy students. A full LGC model was constructed including the intervention as a non-time-dependent predictor of change (χ(2) (51)=164.070, root mean square error of approximation=0.084, comparative fit index=0.913, standardised root mean square=0.056). First-year students' attitudes significantly improved as a result of the intervention, particularly in relation to internalising errors (p=0.010), questioning behaviours (pmethod that

  17. Codes and curves

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, Judy L

    2000-01-01

    When information is transmitted, errors are likely to occur. Coding theory examines efficient ways of packaging data so that these errors can be detected, or even corrected. The traditional tools of coding theory have come from combinatorics and group theory. Lately, however, coding theorists have added techniques from algebraic geometry to their toolboxes. In particular, by re-interpreting the Reed-Solomon codes, one can see how to define new codes based on divisors on algebraic curves. For instance, using modular curves over finite fields, Tsfasman, Vladut, and Zink showed that one can define a sequence of codes with asymptotically better parameters than any previously known codes. This monograph is based on a series of lectures the author gave as part of the IAS/PCMI program on arithmetic algebraic geometry. Here, the reader is introduced to the exciting field of algebraic geometric coding theory. Presenting the material in the same conversational tone of the lectures, the author covers linear codes, inclu...

  18. Carbon Lorenz Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groot, L. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Janskerkhof 12, 3512 BL Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-11-15

    The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it exhibits that standard tools in the measurement of income inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini-index, can successfully be applied to the issues of inequality measurement of carbon emissions and the equity of abatement policies across countries. These tools allow policy-makers and the general public to grasp at a single glance the impact of conventional distribution rules such as equal caps or grandfathering, or more sophisticated ones, on the distribution of greenhouse gas emissions. Second, using the Samuelson rule for the optimal provision of a public good, the Pareto-optimal distribution of carbon emissions is compared with the distribution that follows if countries follow Nash-Cournot abatement strategies. It is shown that the Pareto-optimal distribution under the Samuelson rule can be approximated by the equal cap division, represented by the diagonal in the Lorenz curve diagram.

  19. International Wage Curves

    OpenAIRE

    David G. Blanchflower; Andrew J. Oswald

    1992-01-01

    The paper provides evidence for the existence of a negatively sloped locus linking the level of pay to the rate of regional (or industry) unemployment. This "wage curve" is estimated using microeconomic data for Britain, the US, Canada, Korea, Austria, Italy, Holland, Switzerland, Norway, and Germany, The average unemployment elasticity of pay is approximately -0.1. The paper sets out a multi-region efficiency wage model and argues that its predictions are consistent with the data.

  20. Anatomical curve identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Adrian W.; Katina, Stanislav; Smith, Joanna; Brown, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Methods for capturing images in three dimensions are now widely available, with stereo-photogrammetry and laser scanning being two common approaches. In anatomical studies, a number of landmarks are usually identified manually from each of these images and these form the basis of subsequent statistical analysis. However, landmarks express only a very small proportion of the information available from the images. Anatomically defined curves have the advantage of providing a much richer expression of shape. This is explored in the context of identifying the boundary of breasts from an image of the female torso and the boundary of the lips from a facial image. The curves of interest are characterised by ridges or valleys. Key issues in estimation are the ability to navigate across the anatomical surface in three-dimensions, the ability to recognise the relevant boundary and the need to assess the evidence for the presence of the surface feature of interest. The first issue is addressed by the use of principal curves, as an extension of principal components, the second by suitable assessment of curvature and the third by change-point detection. P-spline smoothing is used as an integral part of the methods but adaptations are made to the specific anatomical features of interest. After estimation of the boundary curves, the intermediate surfaces of the anatomical feature of interest can be characterised by surface interpolation. This allows shape variation to be explored using standard methods such as principal components. These tools are applied to a collection of images of women where one breast has been reconstructed after mastectomy and where interest lies in shape differences between the reconstructed and unreconstructed breasts. They are also applied to a collection of lip images where possible differences in shape between males and females are of interest. PMID:26041943

  1. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  2. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  3. Comparação entre as curvas de crescimento do Centers for Disease Control and Prevention e da Organização Mundial da Saúde para lactentes com idade de seis a 12 meses Comparison between the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization growth curves for six to 12 months old infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Sant'Anna Pires

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o estado nutricional de lactentes de ambos os sexos de acordo com a curva proposta pelo Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-2000 e com a nova curva de crescimento proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS-2006. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal no qual foram acompanhadas crianças de ambos os sexos, nascidas a termo, com idade entre seis meses e um ano, em aleitamento materno predominante ou exclusivo. Os dados foram coletados por um único pesquisador por meio de ficha de atendimento nutricional composta por dados demográficos, antropométricos e sobre a alimentação da criança. Foram realizados testes de Wilcoxon e Friedman para comparar cada medida das curvas e analisar a variância, respectivamente. RESULTADOS: Da amostra final de 55 crianças, 51% (n=28 eram do sexo masculino. Os percentuais de eutrofia dos índices de peso por idade e de estatura adequada para idade de ambos os sexos apresentaram-se acima de 80%. Não houve diferença significante na classificação do estado nutricional, segundo as curvas utilizadas. A porcentagem de concordância das duas curvas em relação ao peso e à estatura foi de 98,2 e 96,4%, respectivamente. CONCLUSÕES: As curvas de crescimento da OMS-2006 e do CDC-2000 foram similares para classificar o estado nutricional de lactentes entre 6-12 meses em aleitamento materno.OBJECTIVE: Compare the nutritional status of male and female infants classified according to the growth curve proposed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC-2000 and the new growth curve proposed by the World Health Organization (WHO-2006. METHODS: This longitudinal study enrolled children of 6-12 months old of both genders. They were born at term and exclusively or predominantly breastfed. A single researcher collected demographic, anthropometric and nutritional data. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare curves and the Friedman test was used to analyze the variance. RESULTS: Among the

  4. Uniformization of elliptic curves

    OpenAIRE

    Ülkem, Özge; Ulkem, Ozge

    2015-01-01

    Every elliptic curve E defined over C is analytically isomorphic to C*=qZ for some q ∊ C*. Similarly, Tate has shown that if E is defined over a p-adic field K, then E is analytically isomorphic to K*=qZ for some q ∊ K . Further the isomorphism E(K) ≅ K*/qZ respects the action of the Galois group GK/K, where K is the algebraic closure of K. I will explain the construction of this isomorphism.

  5. Roc curves for continuous data

    CERN Document Server

    Krzanowski, Wojtek J

    2009-01-01

    Since ROC curves have become ubiquitous in many application areas, the various advances have been scattered across disparate articles and texts. ROC Curves for Continuous Data is the first book solely devoted to the subject, bringing together all the relevant material to provide a clear understanding of how to analyze ROC curves.The fundamental theory of ROC curvesThe book first discusses the relationship between the ROC curve and numerous performance measures and then extends the theory into practice by describing how ROC curves are estimated. Further building on the theory, the authors prese

  6. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  7. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  8. The Geographic Extent of Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We study the extent to which inter-firm relationships are locally concentrated and what determines firm differences in geographic proximity to domestic or foreign suppliers and customers. From micro-data on selfreported customer and supplier data of firms in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, ...

  9. R-curve behaviour of ferroelectric ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, N.Ya.; Kramarov, S.O.

    2004-01-01

    The attempt's made to identify and evaluate the regularities of developing the fractures in the ferroelectric ceramics and also-study the effect of the polishing operation on the strength characteristics of the piezoceramics. The R-curve behaviour in the ferroelectric ceramics is studied on the samples of the barium titanate and lead zirconate-titanate by the four-point bending with controlled surface fractures. It is established that increasing curve of resistance to the fracture growth is observed in the piezoceramics under the conditions of the fracture stable growth. The results obtained on the polished samples prove that the mechanical processing introduces the compression surface stresses into the piezoceramic materials [ru

  10. Can extrauterine growth approximate intrauterine growth? Should it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, Pieter J. J.

    Most studies evaluating the growth of preterm infants use the so-called intrauterine growth curve and reference fetus as standards. These curves might not be the optimal standards, however, for several reasons. The curves were constructed from small numbers of infants with uncertainty about

  11. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  12. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  13. Elliptic curves for applications (Tutorial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, T.; Bernstein, D.J.; Chatterjee, S.

    2011-01-01

    More than 25 years ago, elliptic curves over finite fields were suggested as a group in which the Discrete Logarithm Problem (DLP) can be hard. Since then many researchers have scrutinized the security of the DLP on elliptic curves with the result that for suitably chosen curves only exponential

  14. Titration Curves: Fact and Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses ways in which datalogging equipment can enable titration curves to be measured accurately and how computing power can be used to predict the shape of curves. Highlights include sources of error, use of spreadsheets to generate titration curves, titration of a weak acid with a strong alkali, dibasic acids, weak acid and weak base, and…

  15. NON LINEAR GROWTH CURVES FOR WEIGHT AND HEIGHT IN FOUR GENETIC GROUPS OF HORSES CURVAS DE CRESCIMENTO NÃO-LINEARES PARA PESO E ALTURA EM QUATRO GRUPOS GENÉTICOS DE CAVALOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta Margaret McManus

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Hanoverian, Brazilian Showjumper, English Thoroughbred and Crossbred horses reared by the Brazilian Army were weighed and measured from six months of age to adult. In total 4,860 measurements on 1,445 horses were available. General curves were estimated as a function of time by the Gompertz, Brody, Logistic, Weibull and Richards curves, using PROC NLIN procedures of SAS ®. The Richards Curve did not converge for weight or height of any of the genetic groups or sexes. The logistic curve did not converge for any of the weight traits while the Gompertz also did not converge for height in several groups. R2 varied between 0.55 for weight in females of the crossbred group to 0.92 for males of the same group. For the height traits the highest R2 (0.66 was found for female Hanovarian horses and lowest for males of the same breed (0.12. In general the curves estimated similar values for asymptotic height and weight, except for Logistic curve, which also showed lowest R2 and highest error. Results for the Weibull and Brody curves were similar in all cases so where possible the Brody curve was selected as the best curve as it had less parameters. The Gompertz curve tended to underestimate mature weights and height. Estimates for both weight and height were in general higher in males than for females. In most cases the b parameter was shown to account for < 0.0001% of the variation in the curve shape. The k parameters, which indicate maturity, were of similar magnitude for the Brody, Gompertz and Weibull curves, for both height and weight within breed. This parameter indicated that there is little difference in maturation rates between males and females.

    KEY WORDS: Brody, Gompertz, Logistic, Richards, Weibull.

    Cavalos das raças Hanoveriana (HA, Brasileiro de Hipismo (BH, Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI e mestiços (PSIxBH criados pelo Exército brasileiro foram pesados e medidos de seis meses de idade até adulto. Realizaram-se 4.860 medidas em

  16. A Journey Between Two Curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Cherkis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A typical solution of an integrable system is described in terms of a holomorphic curve and a line bundle over it. The curve provides the action variables while the time evolution is a linear flow on the curve's Jacobian. Even though the system of Nahm equations is closely related to the Hitchin system, the curves appearing in these two cases have very different nature. The former can be described in terms of some classical scattering problem while the latter provides a solution to some Seiberg-Witten gauge theory. This note identifies the setup in which one can formulate the question of relating the two curves.

  17. Is Eurasian October snow cover extent increasing?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R D; Derksen, C

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies present evidence of an increasing trend in Eurasian snow cover extent (SCE) in the October snow onset period based on analysis of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) historical satellite record. These increases are inconsistent with fall season surface temperature warming trends across the region. Using four independent snow cover data sources (surface observations, two reanalyses, satellite passive microwave retrievals) we show that the increasing SCE is attributable to an internal trend in the NOAA CDR dataset to chart relatively more October snow cover extent over the dataset overlap period (1982–2005). Adjusting the series for this shift results in closer agreement with other independent datasets, stronger correlation with continentally-averaged air temperature anomalies, and a decrease in SCE over 1982–2011 consistent with surface air temperature warming trends over the same period. (letter)

  18. The extent of forest in dryland biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Francois Bastin; Nora Berrahmouni; Alan Grainger; Danae Maniatis; Danilo Mollicone; Rebecca Moore; Chiara Patriarca; Nicolas Picard; Ben Sparrow; Elena Maria Abraham; Kamel Aloui; Ayhan Atesoglu; Fabio Attore; Caglar Bassullu; Adia Bey; Monica Garzuglia; Luis G. GarcÌa-Montero; Nikee Groot; Greg Guerin; Lars Laestadius; Andrew J. Lowe; Bako Mamane; Giulio Marchi; Paul Patterson; Marcelo Rezende; Stefano Ricci; Ignacio Salcedo; Alfonso Sanchez-Paus Diaz; Fred Stolle; Venera Surappaeva; Rene Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth’s land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high...

  19. Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.; Kim, J.; Cifelli, R.; Chandra, C. V.

    2016-12-01

    Potential water retention, S, is one of parameters commonly used in hydrologic modeling for soil moisture accounting. Physically, S indicates total amount of water which can be stored in soil and is expressed in units of depth. S can be represented as a change of soil moisture content and in this context is commonly used to estimate direct runoff, especially in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number (CN) method. Generally, the lumped and the distributed hydrologic models can easily use the SCS-CN method to estimate direct runoff. Changes in potential water retention have been used in previous SCS-CN studies; however, these studies have focused on long-term hydrologic simulations where S is allowed to vary at the daily time scale. While useful for hydrologic events that span multiple days, the resolution is too coarse for short-term applications such as flash flood events where S may not recover its full potential. In this study, a new method for estimating a time-variable potential water retention at hourly time-scales is presented. The methodology is applied for the Napa River basin, California. The streamflow gage at St Helena, located in the upper reaches of the basin, is used as the control gage site to evaluate the model performance as it is has minimal influences by reservoirs and diversions. Rainfall events from 2011 to 2012 are used for estimating the event-based SCS CN to transfer to S. As a result, we have derived the potential water retention curve and it is classified into three sections depending on the relative change in S. The first is a negative slope section arising from the difference in the rate of moving water through the soil column, the second is a zero change section representing the initial recovery the potential water retention, and the third is a positive change section representing the full recovery of the potential water retention. Also, we found that the soil water moving has traffic jam within 24 hours after finished first

  20. Development of the curve of Spee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Steven D; Caspersen, Matthew; Hardinger, Rachel R; Franciscus, Robert G; Aquilino, Steven A; Southard, Thomas E

    2008-09-01

    Ferdinand Graf von Spee is credited with characterizing human occlusal curvature viewed in the sagittal plane. This naturally occurring phenomenon has clinical importance in orthodontics and restorative dentistry, yet we have little understanding of when, how, or why it develops. The purpose of this study was to expand our understanding by examining the development of the curve of Spee longitudinally in a sample of untreated subjects with normal occlusion from the deciduous dentition to adulthood. Records of 16 male and 17 female subjects from the Iowa Facial Growth Study were selected and examined. The depth of the curve of Spee was measured on their study models at 7 time points from ages 4 (deciduous dentition) to 26 (adult dentition) years. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare changes in the curve of Spee depth between time points. For each subject, the relative eruption of the mandibular teeth was measured from corresponding cephalometric radiographs, and its contribution to the developing curve of Spee was ascertained. In the deciduous dentition, the curve of Spee is minimal. At mean ages of 4.05 and 5.27 years, the average curve of Spee depths are 0.24 and 0.25 mm, respectively. With change to the transitional dentition, corresponding to the eruption of the mandibular permanent first molars and central incisors (mean age, 6.91 years), the curve of Spee depth increases significantly (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 1.32 mm. The curve of Spee then remains essentially unchanged until eruption of the second molars (mean age, 12.38 years), when the depth increases (P < 0.0001) to a mean maximum depth of 2.17 mm. In the adolescent dentition (mean age, 16.21 years), the depth decreases slightly (P = 0.0009) to a mean maximum depth of 1.98 mm, and, in the adult dentition (mean age 26.98 years), the curve remains unchanged (P = 0.66), with a mean maximum depth of 2.02 mm. No significant differences in curve of Spee development were found between

  1. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    In this thesis we study a formulation of Dirac fermions in curved spacetime that respects general coordinate invariance as well as invariance under local spin base transformations. We emphasize the advantages of the spin base invariant formalism both from a conceptual as well as from a practical viewpoint. This suggests that local spin base invariance should be added to the list of (effective) properties of (quantum) gravity theories. We find support for this viewpoint by the explicit construction of a global realization of the Clifford algebra on a 2-sphere which is impossible in the spin-base non-invariant vielbein formalism. The natural variables for this formulation are spacetime-dependent Dirac matrices subject to the Clifford-algebra constraint. In particular, a coframe, i.e. vielbein field is not required. We disclose the hidden spin base invariance of the vielbein formalism. Explicit formulas for the spin connection as a function of the Dirac matrices are found. This connection consists of a canonical part that is completely fixed in terms of the Dirac matrices and a free part that can be interpreted as spin torsion. The common Lorentz symmetric gauge for the vielbein is constructed for the Dirac matrices, even for metrics which are not linearly connected. Under certain criteria, it constitutes the simplest possible gauge, demonstrating why this gauge is so useful. Using the spin base formulation for building a field theory of quantized gravity and matter fields, we show that it suffices to quantize the metric and the matter fields. This observation is of particular relevance for field theory approaches to quantum gravity, as it can serve for a purely metric-based quantization scheme for gravity even in the presence of fermions. Hence, in the second part of this thesis we critically examine the gauge, and the field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaussian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical

  2. Research Misconduct—Definitions, Manifestations and Extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the international scientific community has been rocked by a number of serious cases of research misconduct. In one of these, Woo Suk Hwang, a Korean stem cell researcher published two articles on research with ground-breaking results in Science in 2004 and 2005. Both articles were later revealed to be fakes. This paper provides an overview of what research misconduct is generally understood to be, its manifestations and the extent to which they are thought to exist.

  3. Models of genus one curves

    OpenAIRE

    Sadek, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis we give insight into the minimisation problem of genus one curves defined by equations other than Weierstrass equations. We are interested in genus one curves given as double covers of P1, plane cubics, or complete intersections of two quadrics in P3. By minimising such a curve we mean making the invariants associated to its defining equations as small as possible using a suitable change of coordinates. We study the non-uniqueness of minimisations of the genus one curves des...

  4. Results of Casting in Severe Curves in Infantile Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasikelis, Peter J; Carpenter, Ashley M

    2018-04-01

    Previous work has demonstrated best results for casting in infantile scoliosis when the curves are small and the child begins casting under 2 years of age. This study examines if casting can delay the need for growth friendly instrumentation in severe curves (50 to 106 degrees) and how the comorbidities of syrinx or genetic syndromes affected outcomes. All children undergoing casting for scoliosis at a single institution over an 8-year period were examined. Inclusion criteria included initial curve at first casting of ≥50 degrees, age ≤3 years at the start of casting, and a minimum follow-up of 3 years. Of 148 children undergoing casting during this period, 44 met our inclusion criteria. All children underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Ten children with a syrinx were identified. Ten children had known genetic syndromes (2 who also had a syrinx). The 26 children without these comorbidities were considered idiopathic. Curve magnitude ranged from 50 to 106 degrees. Nine of the 26 (35%) children in the children with idiopathic curves demonstrated resolution of their curves, while only 3 of the remaining 18 (17%) did. Of the children that did not have resolution of their curves, 14 were maintained over the entire follow-up period to within 15 degrees of their initial curve and 13 were improved 15 degrees or more. Only 5 children had an increase of 15 degrees or more over the follow-up period and 4 of these have undergone growth friendly instrumentation after a mean delay from initial cast of 71 months (range, 18 to 100 mo). This study demonstrates that even in severe curves, casting was effective in delaying instrumentation in all cases, and led to curve resolution of the curves in 12 of 44 children. Level III-case control study.

  5. Dose-dependent effect of 17 beta-estradiol determined by growth curves and flow cytometric DNA analysis of a human breast carcinoma (T61) grown in nude mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brünner, N; Spang-Thomsen, M; Vindeløv, L

    1985-01-01

    fraction of polyploid cells. The results suggest that estradiol induces a dose-dependent cell killing effect in the T61 human breast carcinoma. The correlation between the treatment-induced growth delay and the effect on the cell cycle distribution indicates that the changes in the cell cycle...

  6. Analysis of growth characteristics in short-term divergently selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    weeks of age body weight in divergent lines of Japanese quail. Growth curves for both sexes within each selection group resembled the general sigmoid shape of a typical growth curve. Gompertz model curves and the observed growth curves were ...

  7. ON THE R-CURVE BEHAVIOR OF HUMAN TOOTH ENAMEL

    OpenAIRE

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne

    2009-01-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is function of distance from the Dentin Enamel Junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0...

  8. SPOTTED STAR LIGHT CURVES WITH ENHANCED PRECISION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. E.

    2012-01-01

    The nearly continuous timewise coverage of recent photometric surveys is free of the large gaps that compromise attempts to follow starspot growth and decay as well as motions, thereby giving incentive to improve computational precision for modeled spots. Due to the wide variety of star systems in the surveys, such improvement should apply to light/velocity curve models that accurately include all the main phenomena of close binaries and rotating single stars. The vector fractional area (VFA) algorithm that is introduced here represents surface elements by small sets of position vectors so as to allow accurate computation of circle-triangle overlap by spherical geometry. When computed by VFA, spots introduce essentially no noticeable scatter in light curves at the level of one part in 10,000. VFA has been put into the Wilson-Devinney light/velocity curve program and all logic and mathematics are given so as to facilitate entry into other such programs. Advantages of precise spot computation include improved statistics of spot motions and aging, reduced computation time (intrinsic precision relaxes needs for grid fineness), noise-free illustration of spot effects in figures, and help in guarding against false positives in exoplanet searches, where spots could approximately mimic transiting planets in unusual circumstances. A simple spot growth and decay template quantifies time profiles, and specifics of its utilization in differential corrections solutions are given. Computational strategies are discussed, the overall process is tested in simulations via solutions of synthetic light curve data, and essential simulation results are described. An efficient time smearing facility by Gaussian quadrature can deal with Kepler mission data that are in 30 minute time bins.

  9. Quantum fields in curved space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birrell, N.D.; Davies, P.C.W.

    1982-01-01

    The book presents a comprehensive review of the subject of gravitational effects in quantum field theory. Quantum field theory in Minkowski space, quantum field theory in curved spacetime, flat spacetime examples, curved spacetime examples, stress-tensor renormalization, applications of renormalization techniques, quantum black holes and interacting fields are all discussed in detail. (U.K.)

  10. A Short-Term Advantage for Syngamy in the Origin of Eukaryotic Sex: Effects of Cell Fusion on Cell Cycle Duration and Other Effects Related to the Duration of the Cell Cycle-Relationship between Cell Growth Curve and the Optimal Size of the Species, and Circadian Cell Cycle in Photosynthetic Unicellular Organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo Quintana, J M; Mancebo Quintana, S

    2012-01-01

    The origin of sex is becoming a vexatious issue for Evolutionary Biology. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed, based on the genetic effects of sex, on trophic effects or on the formation of cysts and syncytia. Our approach addresses the change in cell cycle duration which would cause cell fusion. Several results are obtained through graphical and mathematical analysis and computer simulations. (1) In poor environments, cell fusion would be an advantageous strategy, as fusion between cells of different size shortens the cycle of the smaller cell (relative to the asexual cycle), and the majority of mergers would occur between cells of different sizes. (2) The easiest-to-evolve regulation of cell proliferation (sexual/asexual) would be by modifying the checkpoints of the cell cycle. (3) A regulation of this kind would have required the existence of the G2 phase, and sex could thus be the cause of the appearance of this phase. Regarding cell cycle, (4) the exponential curve is the only cell growth curve that has no effect on the optimal cell size in unicellular species; (5) the existence of a plateau with no growth at the end of the cell cycle explains the circadian cell cycle observed in unicellular algae.

  11. A Short-Term Advantage for Syngamy in the Origin of Eukaryotic Sex: Effects of Cell Fusion on Cell Cycle Duration and Other Effects Related to the Duration of the Cell Cycle—Relationship between Cell Growth Curve and the Optimal Size of the Species, and Circadian Cell Cycle in Photosynthetic Unicellular Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo Quintana, J. M.; Mancebo Quintana, S.

    2012-01-01

    The origin of sex is becoming a vexatious issue for Evolutionary Biology. Numerous hypotheses have been proposed, based on the genetic effects of sex, on trophic effects or on the formation of cysts and syncytia. Our approach addresses the change in cell cycle duration which would cause cell fusion. Several results are obtained through graphical and mathematical analysis and computer simulations. (1) In poor environments, cell fusion would be an advantageous strategy, as fusion between cells of different size shortens the cycle of the smaller cell (relative to the asexual cycle), and the majority of mergers would occur between cells of different sizes. (2) The easiest-to-evolve regulation of cell proliferation (sexual/asexual) would be by modifying the checkpoints of the cell cycle. (3) A regulation of this kind would have required the existence of the G2 phase, and sex could thus be the cause of the appearance of this phase. Regarding cell cycle, (4) the exponential curve is the only cell growth curve that has no effect on the optimal cell size in unicellular species; (5) the existence of a plateau with no growth at the end of the cell cycle explains the circadian cell cycle observed in unicellular algae. PMID:22666626

  12. Extended analysis of cooling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurdjevic, M.B.; Kierkus, W.T.; Liliac, R.E.; Sokolowski, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal Analysis (TA) is the measurement of changes in a physical property of a material that is heated through a phase transformation temperature range. The temperature changes in the material are recorded as a function of the heating or cooling time in such a manner that allows for the detection of phase transformations. In order to increase accuracy, characteristic points on the cooling curve have been identified using the first derivative curve plotted versus time. In this paper, an alternative approach to the analysis of the cooling curve has been proposed. The first derivative curve has been plotted versus temperature and all characteristic points have been identified with the same accuracy achieved using the traditional method. The new cooling curve analysis also enables the Dendrite Coherency Point (DCP) to be detected using only one thermocouple. (author)

  13. Some fundamental questions about R-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolednik, O.

    1992-01-01

    With the help of two simple thought experiments it is demonstrated that there exist two physically different types of fracture toughness. The crack-growth toughness, which is identical to the Griffith crack growth resistance, R, is a measure of the non-reversible energy which is needed to produce an increment of new crack area. The size of R is reflected by the slopes of the R-curves commonly used. So an increasing J-Δa-curve does not mean that the crack-growth resistance increases. The fracture initiation toughness, J i , is a normalized total energy (related to the ligament area) which must be put into the specimen up to fracture initiation. Only for ideally brittle materials R and J i have equal sizes. For small-scale yielding a relationship exists between R and J i , ao a one-parameter description of fracture processes is applicable. For large-scale yielding R and J i are not strictly related and both parameters are necessary to describe the fracture process. (orig.) [de

  14. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  15. Real-Time Exponential Curve Fits Using Discrete Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Geoffrey

    2010-01-01

    An improved solution for curve fitting data to an exponential equation (y = Ae(exp Bt) + C) has been developed. This improvement is in four areas -- speed, stability, determinant processing time, and the removal of limits. The solution presented avoids iterative techniques and their stability errors by using three mathematical ideas: discrete calculus, a special relationship (be tween exponential curves and the Mean Value Theorem for Derivatives), and a simple linear curve fit algorithm. This method can also be applied to fitting data to the general power law equation y = Ax(exp B) + C and the general geometric growth equation y = Ak(exp Bt) + C.

  16. Computational aspects of algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Shaska, Tanush

    2005-01-01

    The development of new computational techniques and better computing power has made it possible to attack some classical problems of algebraic geometry. The main goal of this book is to highlight such computational techniques related to algebraic curves. The area of research in algebraic curves is receiving more interest not only from the mathematics community, but also from engineers and computer scientists, because of the importance of algebraic curves in applications including cryptography, coding theory, error-correcting codes, digital imaging, computer vision, and many more.This book cove

  17. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; van Stralen, Marijn; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K W; Vincken, Koen L; Cheng, Jack C Y; Castelein, René M

    2016-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been described before. A unique series of 77 AIS patients with high-resolution CT scans of the spine, acquired for surgical planning purposes, were included and compared to 22 healthy controls. Non-idiopathic curves were excluded. Endplate segmentation and local longitudinal axis in endplate plane enabled semi-automatic geometric analysis of the complete three-dimensional morphology of the spine, taking inter-vertebral rotation, intra-vertebral torsion and coronal and sagittal tilt into account. Intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver reliability were 0.98-1.00. Coronal deviation, axial rotation and the exact length discrepancies in the reconstructed sagittal plane, as defined per vertebra and disc, were analyzed for each primary and compensatory curve as well as for the junctional segments in-between. The anterior-posterior difference of spinal length, based on "true" anterior and posterior points on endplates, was +3.8% for thoracic and +9.4% for (thoraco)lumbar curves, while the junctional segments were almost straight. This differed significantly from control group thoracic kyphosis (-4.1%; P<0.001) and lumbar lordosis (+7.8%; P<0.001). For all primary as well as compensatory curves, we observed linear correlations between the coronal Cobb angle, axial rotation and the anterior-posterior length difference (r≥0.729 for thoracic curves; r≥0.485 for (thoraco)lumbar curves). Excess anterior length of the spine in AIS has been described as a generalized growth disturbance, causing relative anterior spinal overgrowth. This study is the first to demonstrate that this anterior overgrowth is not a generalized phenomenon. It is confined to the primary as well as the

  18. Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of site index curves for Pinus kesiya in the Philippines. RIC Lumbres, YJ Lee, YO Seo, FG Calora JR. Abstract. This study was conducted to develop a height–age growth model and site index curves for site quality evaluation of old secondary-growth stands of Pinus kesiya in the northern Philippines.

  19. 51Cr - erythrocyte survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva Costa, J. de.

    1982-07-01

    Sixteen patients were studied, being fifteen patients in hemolytic state, and a normal individual as a witness. The aim was to obtain better techniques for the analysis of the erythrocytes, survival curves, according to the recommendations of the International Committee of Hematology. It was used the radiochromatic method as a tracer. Previously a revisional study of the International Literature was made in its aspects inherent to the work in execution, rendering possible to establish comparisons and clarify phonomena observed in cur investigation. Several parameters were considered in this study, hindering both the exponential and the linear curves. The analysis of the survival curves of the erythrocytes in the studied group, revealed that the elution factor did not present a homogeneous answer quantitatively to all, though, the result of the analysis of these curves have been established, through listed programs in the electronic calculator. (Author) [pt

  20. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  1. Management of the learning curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter-Christian; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – This paper focuses on the management of the learning curve in overseas capacity expansions. The purpose of this paper is to unravel the direct as well as indirect influences on the learning curve and to advance the understanding of how these affect its management. Design...... the dimensions of the learning process involved in a capacity expansion project and identified the direct and indirect labour influences on the production learning curve. On this basis, the study proposes solutions to managing learning curves in overseas capacity expansions. Furthermore, the paper concludes...... with measures that have the potential to significantly reduce the non-value-added time when establishing new capacities overseas. Originality/value – The paper uses a longitudinal in-depth case study of a Danish wind turbine manufacturer and goes beyond a simplistic treatment of the lead time and learning...

  2. Beef alliances: motivations, extent, and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Ted C; Kovanda, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    With their growth, it is important to consider how alliances will impact the beef industry in the future. Alliances have the potential to make sweeping changes to cattle production, live and feeder cattle marketing, food safety protocols, use of government grades and standards, ownership structure, supply chain management, wholesale and retail product marketing, risk management, and many other industry activities. In an effort to address these issues, this article addresses the following questions: What is an alliance? What has motivated their proliferation? What have we learned from alliances? What aspects of alliances affect their likelihood of success or failure? What is the future of alliances? Are they a fad or a long-term evolving industry structural change?

  3. Flow over riblet curved surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loureiro, J B R; Freire, A P Silva, E-mail: atila@mecanica.ufrj.br [Mechanical Engineering Program, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), C.P. 68503, 21.941-972, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-22

    The present work studies the mechanics of turbulent drag reduction over curved surfaces by riblets. The effects of surface modification on flow separation over steep and smooth curved surfaces are investigated. Four types of two-dimensional surfaces are studied based on the morphometric parameters that describe the body of a blue whale. Local measurements of mean velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained through laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV).

  4. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  5. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  6. Melting curve of materials: theory versus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfe, D; Vocadlo, L; Price, G D; Gillan, M J

    2004-01-01

    A number of melting curves of various materials have recently been measured experimentally and calculated theoretically, but the agreement between different groups is not always good. We discuss here some of the problems which may arise in both experiments and theory. We also report the melting curves of Fe and Al calculated recently using quantum mechanics techniques, based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximations. For Al our results are in very good agreement with both low pressure diamond-anvil-cell experiments (Boehler and Ross 1997 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 153 223, Haenstroem and Lazor 2000 J. Alloys Compounds 305 209) and high pressure shock wave experiments (Shaner et al 1984 High Pressure in Science and Technology ed Homan et al (Amsterdam: North-Holland) p 137). For Fe our results agree with the shock wave experiments of Brown and McQueen (1986 J. Geophys. Res. 91 7485) and Nguyen and Holmes (2000 AIP Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 505 81) and the recent diamond-anvil-cell experiments of Shen et al (1998 Geophys. Res. Lett. 25 373). Our results are at variance with the recent calculations of Laio et al (2000 Science 287 1027) and, to a lesser extent, with the calculations of Belonoshko et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3638). The reasons for these disagreements are discussed

  7. Growth curves of coffee fruits Obatã IAC 1669-20 in different alignments planting /Curvas de crescimento do fruto de cafeeiro cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 em diferentes alinhamentos de plantio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clovis Alberto Volpe

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the coffee fruit is highly dependent on physiological and environmental factors. Environmental factors that most influence the yield of coffee during the critical growth stages are the minimum and maximum temperatures of air, which are affected by solar radiation and depend on the apparent path of the sun. This research work correlated dry mass versus fresh mass, and, fresh and dry mass as function of days after flowering of fruit coffee cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 planted in three different alignments based on the apparent trajectory of the sun, in Jaboticabal, SP. The planting was aligned according to the apparent path of the sun. There were three treatments with four replications, a total of twelve plots, each plot with one hundred plants of coffee, each treatment corresponded to an alignment of planting. The three alignments used showed no differences with respect the average fresh and dry mass. The growth rate of fruit, in fresh weight, was higher in the exponential phase, and in dry mass was higher in the linear stage. The dry weight (DW can be estimated from the fresh weight (FW using the model: . The sigmoidal model that represents the fruit growth in of coffee plants in fresh and/or dry mass in terms of days after flowering (DAF was: .O crescimento do fruto do cafeeiro é altamente dependente de fatores fisiológicos e ambientais. Os fatores ambientais que mais interferem na produtividade do cafeeiro durante os estádios fenológicos críticos são as temperaturas mínimas e máximas do ar, as quais são efeitos da radiação solar e dependente da trajetória aparente do sol. Este trabalho correlacionou massa seca versus massa fresca, e massas fresca e seca em função de dias após o florescimento, de fruto de cafeeiro cv. Obatã IAC 1669-20 plantados em três diferentes alinhamentos baseados na trajetória aparente do Sol, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram três tratamentos, com quatro repetições, num total de doze parcelas, e cada

  8. Curve Boxplot: Generalization of Boxplot for Ensembles of Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzargar, Mahsa; Whitaker, Ross T; Kirby, Robert M

    2014-12-01

    In simulation science, computational scientists often study the behavior of their simulations by repeated solutions with variations in parameters and/or boundary values or initial conditions. Through such simulation ensembles, one can try to understand or quantify the variability or uncertainty in a solution as a function of the various inputs or model assumptions. In response to a growing interest in simulation ensembles, the visualization community has developed a suite of methods for allowing users to observe and understand the properties of these ensembles in an efficient and effective manner. An important aspect of visualizing simulations is the analysis of derived features, often represented as points, surfaces, or curves. In this paper, we present a novel, nonparametric method for summarizing ensembles of 2D and 3D curves. We propose an extension of a method from descriptive statistics, data depth, to curves. We also demonstrate a set of rendering and visualization strategies for showing rank statistics of an ensemble of curves, which is a generalization of traditional whisker plots or boxplots to multidimensional curves. Results are presented for applications in neuroimaging, hurricane forecasting and fluid dynamics.

  9. Considerations for reference pump curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, N.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines problems associated with inservice testing (IST) of pumps to assess their hydraulic performance using reference pump curves to establish acceptance criteria. Safety-related pumps at nuclear power plants are tested under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code), Section 11. The Code requires testing pumps at specific reference points of differential pressure or flow rate that can be readily duplicated during subsequent tests. There are many cases where test conditions cannot be duplicated. For some pumps, such as service water or component cooling pumps, the flow rate at any time depends on plant conditions and the arrangement of multiple independent and constantly changing loads. System conditions cannot be controlled to duplicate a specific reference value. In these cases, utilities frequently request to use pump curves for comparison of test data for acceptance. There is no prescribed method for developing a pump reference curve. The methods vary and may yield substantially different results. Some results are conservative when compared to the Code requirements; some are not. The errors associated with different curve testing techniques should be understood and controlled within reasonable bounds. Manufacturer's pump curves, in general, are not sufficiently accurate to use as reference pump curves for IST. Testing using reference curves generated with polynomial least squares fits over limited ranges of pump operation, cubic spline interpolation, or cubic spline least squares fits can provide a measure of pump hydraulic performance that is at least as accurate as the Code required method. Regardless of the test method, error can be reduced by using more accurate instruments, by correcting for systematic errors, by increasing the number of data points, and by taking repetitive measurements at each data point

  10. Curve Digitizer – A software for multiple curves digitizing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin ŞPERLEA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Curve Digitizer is software that extracts data from an image file representing a graphicand returns them as pairs of numbers which can then be used for further analysis and applications.Numbers can be read on a computer screen stored in files or copied on paper. The final result is adata set that can be used with other tools such as MSEXCEL. Curve Digitizer provides a useful toolfor any researcher or engineer interested in quantifying the data displayed graphically. The image filecan be obtained by scanning a document

  11. Avaliação antropométrica de crianças indígenas menores de 60 meses, a partir do uso comparativo das curvas de crescimento NCHS/1977 e OMS/2005 Anthropometric evaluation of indigenous Brazilian children under 60 months of age using NCHS/1977 and WHO/2005 growth curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesem D. Y. Orellana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever e analisar comparativamente os dados antropométricos de crianças indígenas Suruí, Xavánte e Wari' menores de 60 meses, a partir dos conjuntos de curvas de crescimento NCHS/1977 e WHO/2005. MÉTODOS: A antropometria seguiu técnica padronizada e os dados foram convertidos em escores z utilizando-se os programas Epi-Info (Versão 3.4 e WHO-Anthro (Versão Beta. Os índices estatura/idade (E/I, peso/idade (P/I e peso/estatura (P/E foram os descritores do estado nutricional em todas as crianças menores que 60 meses e também o índice de massa corporal (IMC nas de 24-59 meses. RESULTADOS: As prevalências de E/I 2 escores z para as crianças Suruí foram 3,9 (NCHS/1977 e 3,9% (WHO/2005; Xavánte, nula e 0,8%; Wari', nulas para ambas as curvas. Nas crianças Suruí de 24 a 59 meses o percentual com escore z > 2 para o IMC foi de 5,4% (WHO/2005; Xavánte, 9,5%; Wari', 0%. CONCLUSÕES: Há diferenças importantes nos resultados da avaliação nutricional, a depender do conjunto de curvas utilizadas, ainda que o emprego de ambas revele elevadas prevalências de desnutrição. Sugere-se que, inclusive para fins de comparabilidade, estudos com populações indígenas apresentem seus resultados utilizando os dois conjuntos de curvas de crescimento.OBJECTIVES: To perform a comparative analysis of anthropometric data from Suruí, Xavánte and Wari' indigenous children under 60 months of age using the NCHS/1977 and the WHO/2005 growth curves. METHODS: Anthropometric measurements followed standard procedures and the data obtained were converted into z scores using the Epi-Info (Version 3.4 and WHO-Anthro (Version Beta softwares. The indices height/age (H/A, weight/age (W/A and weight/height (W/H were descriptors of nutritional status for all children under 60 months of age, as well as the body mass index (BMI for children 24-59 months old. RESULTS: The frequencies of Suruí children 2 z scores for W/H were 3.9 (NCHS/1977 and 3

  12. Calibration curves for biological dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Brena V, M. . E-mail cgc@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-01-01

    The generated information by the investigations in different laboratories of the world, included the ININ, in which settles down that certain class of chromosomal leisure it increases in function of the dose and radiation type, has given by result the obtaining of calibrated curves that are applied in the well-known technique as biological dosimetry. In this work is presented a summary of the work made in the laboratory that includes the calibrated curves for gamma radiation of 60 Cobalt and X rays of 250 k Vp, examples of presumed exposure to ionizing radiation, resolved by means of aberration analysis and the corresponding dose estimate through the equations of the respective curves and finally a comparison among the dose calculations in those people affected by the accident of Ciudad Juarez, carried out by the group of Oak Ridge, USA and those obtained in this laboratory. (Author)

  13. Vertex algebras and algebraic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Frenkel, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Vertex algebras are algebraic objects that encapsulate the concept of operator product expansion from two-dimensional conformal field theory. Vertex algebras are fast becoming ubiquitous in many areas of modern mathematics, with applications to representation theory, algebraic geometry, the theory of finite groups, modular functions, topology, integrable systems, and combinatorics. This book is an introduction to the theory of vertex algebras with a particular emphasis on the relationship with the geometry of algebraic curves. The notion of a vertex algebra is introduced in a coordinate-independent way, so that vertex operators become well defined on arbitrary smooth algebraic curves, possibly equipped with additional data, such as a vector bundle. Vertex algebras then appear as the algebraic objects encoding the geometric structure of various moduli spaces associated with algebraic curves. Therefore they may be used to give a geometric interpretation of various questions of representation theory. The book co...

  14. Curve collection, extension of databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: Databases: generally calculated data only. The original measurements: diagrams. Information loss between them Expensive research eg. irradiation, aging, creep etc. Original curves should be stored for reanalysing. The format of the stored curves: a. Data in ASCII files, only numbers b. Other information in strings in a second file Same name, but different extension. Extensions shows the type of the test and the type of the file. EXAMPLES. TEN is tensile information, TED is tensile data, CHN is Charpy informations, CHD is Charpy data. Storing techniques: digitalised measurements, digitalising old curves stored on paper. Use: making catalogues, reanalysing, comparison with new data. Tools: mathematical software packages like quattro, genplot, exel, mathcad, qbasic, pascal, fortran, mathlab, grapher etc. (author)

  15. Rational points on elliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Silverman, Joseph H

    2015-01-01

    The theory of elliptic curves involves a pleasing blend of algebra, geometry, analysis, and number theory. This book stresses this interplay as it develops the basic theory, thereby providing an opportunity for advanced undergraduates to appreciate the unity of modern mathematics. At the same time, every effort has been made to use only methods and results commonly included in the undergraduate curriculum. This accessibility, the informal writing style, and a wealth of exercises make Rational Points on Elliptic Curves an ideal introduction for students at all levels who are interested in learning about Diophantine equations and arithmetic geometry. Most concretely, an elliptic curve is the set of zeroes of a cubic polynomial in two variables. If the polynomial has rational coefficients, then one can ask for a description of those zeroes whose coordinates are either integers or rational numbers. It is this number theoretic question that is the main subject of this book. Topics covered include the geometry and ...

  16. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  17. Migration and the Wage Curve:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke J.

    in a general equilibrium framework. For the empirical analysis we employ the IABS, a two percent sample of the German labor force. We find that the elasticity of the wage curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with a university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers......  Based on a wage curve approach we examine the labor market effects of migration in Germany. The wage curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a change in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously...... with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase in the German labor force through immigration increases the aggregate unemployment rate by less than 0.1 percentage points and reduces average wages by less 0.1 percent. While native workers benefit from...

  18. Laffer Curves and Home Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotamäki Mauri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the earlier related literature, consumption tax rate Laffer curve is found to be strictly increasing (see Trabandt and Uhlig (2011. In this paper, a general equilibrium macro model is augmented by introducing a substitute for private consumption in the form of home production. The introduction of home production brings about an additional margin of adjustment – an increase in consumption tax rate not only decreases labor supply and reduces the consumption tax base but also allows a substitution of market goods with home-produced goods. The main objective of this paper is to show that, after the introduction of home production, the consumption tax Laffer curve exhibits an inverse U-shape. Also the income tax Laffer curves are significantly altered. The result shown in this paper casts doubt on some of the earlier results in the literature.

  19. Complexity of Curved Glass Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosić, T.; Svetel, I.; Cekić, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Despite the increasing number of research on the architectural structures of curvilinear forms and technological and practical improvement of the glass production observed over recent years, there is still a lack of comprehensive codes and standards, recommendations and experience data linked to real-life curved glass structures applications regarding design, manufacture, use, performance and economy. However, more and more complex buildings and structures with the large areas of glass envelope geometrically complex shape are built every year. The aim of the presented research is to collect data on the existing design philosophy on curved glass structure cases. The investigation includes a survey about how architects and engineers deal with different design aspects of curved glass structures with a special focus on the design and construction process, glass types and structural and fixing systems. The current paper gives a brief overview of the survey findings.

  20. Estimation of Curve Tracing Time in Supercapacitor based PV Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu Pal, Sudipta; Das Bhattacharya, Konika; Mukherjee, Dipankar; Paul, Debkalyan

    2017-08-01

    Smooth and noise-free characterisation of photovoltaic (PV) generators have been revisited with renewed interest in view of large size PV arrays making inroads into the urban sector of major developing countries. Such practice has recently been observed to be confronted by the use of a suitable data acquisition system and also the lack of a supporting theoretical analysis to justify the accuracy of curve tracing. However, the use of a selected bank of supercapacitors can mitigate the said problems to a large extent. Assuming a piecewise linear analysis of the V-I characteristics of a PV generator, an accurate analysis of curve plotting time has been possible. The analysis has been extended to consider the effect of equivalent series resistance of the supercapacitor leading to increased accuracy (90-95%) of curve plotting times.

  1. Extent and kinetics of recovery of occult spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, K. Kian; Jiang, G.-L.; Feng Yan; Stephens, L. Clifton; Tucker, Susan L.; Price, Roger E.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain clinically useful quantitative data on the extent and kinetics of recovery of occult radiation injury in primate spinal cord, after a commonly administered elective radiation dose of 44 Gy, given in about 2 Gy per fraction. Methods and Materials: A group of 56 rhesus monkeys was assigned to receive two radiation courses to the cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord, given in 2.2 Gy per fraction. The dose of the initial course was 44 Gy in all monkeys. Reirradiation dose was 57.2 Gy, given after 1-year (n 16) or 2-year (n = 20) intervals, or 66 Gy, given after 2-year (n = 4) or 3-year (n = 14) intervals. Two animals developed intramedullary tumors before reirradiation and, therefore, did not receive a second course. The study endpoint was myeloparesis, manifesting predominantly as lower extremity weakness and decrease in balance, occurring within 2.5 years after reirradiation, complemented by histologic examination of the spinal cord. The data obtained were analyzed along with data from a previous study addressing single-course tolerance, and data from a preliminary study of reirradiation tolerance. Results: Only 4 of 45 monkeys completing the required observation period (2-2.5 years after reirradiation, 3-5.5 years total) developed myeloparesis. The data revealed a substantial recovery of occult injury induced by 44 Gy within the first year, and suggested additional recovery between 1 and 3 years. Fitting the data with a model, assuming that all (single course and reirradiation) dose-response curves were parallel, yielded recovery estimates of 33.6 Gy (76%), 37.6 Gy (85%), and 44.6 Gy (101%) of the initial dose, after 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively, at the 5% incidence (D 5 ) level. The most conservative estimate, using a model in which it was assumed that there was no recovery between 1 and 3 years following initial irradiation and that the combined reirradiation curve was not necessarily parallel to the single-course curve, still showed an

  2. Optimization on Spaces of Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Andersen, Jakob

    in Rd, and methods to solve the initial and boundary value problem for geodesics allowing us to compute the Karcher mean and principal components analysis of data of curves. We apply the methods to study shape variation in synthetic data in the Kimia shape database, in HeLa cell nuclei and cycles...... of cardiac deformations. Finally we investigate a new application of Riemannian shape analysis in shape optimization. We setup a simple elliptic model problem, and describe how to apply shape calculus to obtain directional derivatives in the manifold of planar curves. We present an implementation based...

  3. Tracing a planar algebraic curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Falai; Kozak, J.

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, an algorithm that determines a real algebraic curve is outlined. Its basic step is to divide the plane into subdomains that include only simple branches of the algebraic curve without singular points. Each of the branches is then stably and efficiently traced in the particular subdomain. Except for the tracing, the algorithm requires only a couple of simple operations on polynomials that can be carried out exactly if the coefficients are rational, and the determination of zeros of several polynomials of one variable. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs

  4. The New Keynesian Phillips Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi

    This paper provides a survey on the recent literature on the new Keynesian Phillips curve: the controversies surrounding its microfoundation and estimation, the approaches that have been tried to improve its empirical fit and the challenges it faces adapting to the open-economy framework. The new......, learning or state-dependant pricing. The introduction of openeconomy factors into the new Keynesian Phillips curve complicate matters further as it must capture the nexus between price setting, inflation and the exchange rate. This is nevertheless a crucial feature for any model to be used for inflation...... forecasting in a small open economy like Iceland....

  5. Characteristic of DTA curves for cast ferrous alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The study presents DTA curves for selected grades of cast iron and cast steel. The thermal effects observed on derivative curves, caused by crystallisation of single phases and eutectic were discussed. The thermal effects having their origin in crystallisation of secondary carbides were determined. It has been indicated that the range of temperatures of their crystallisation can be determined from the cooling curve t = f(τ, from the solidification curve dt/dτ = f′(τ, and from the second derivative d2t/dτ2 = f″(τ. The crystallisation rate of single phases or of their mixture is indicated by the duration of thermal effect and by the slope angle of the curve responsible for a specific thermal effect before and after its maximum. A very high sensitivity of the derivative curve to temperature changes in liquid and solid alloy and to the phase (phases growth rate enables control of alloy before pouring of moulds. The control of alloy may consist in identification of phases the presence of which is indispensable in alloy microstructure and in determination of some important properties, e.g. Rp0,2, Rm, A5 and HB. In the latter case, the statistical relationships between the above mentioned characteristic parameters of DTA curves and the selected mechanical properties have been determined. The said relationships form a basis for construction of algorithms used in development of computer programs for control of individual alloys.

  6. Symphysis-fundal height curve in the diagnosis of fetal growth deviations Curva de altura uterina por edad de gestación y diagnóstico de desvíos del crecimiento fetal Curva de altura uterina por idade gestacional e diagnóstico de desvios do crescimento fetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djacyr Magna Cabral Freire

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To validate a new symphysis-fundal curve for screening fetal growth deviations and to compare its performance with the standard curve adopted by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: Observational study including a total of 753 low-risk pregnant women with gestational age above 27 weeks between March to October 2006 in the city of João Pessoa, Northeastern Brazil. Symphisys-fundal was measured using a standard technique recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Estimated fetal weight assessed through ultrasound using the Brazilian fetal weight chart for gestational age was the gold standard. A subsample of 122 women with neonatal weight measurements was taken up to seven days after estimated fetal weight measurements and symphisys-fundal classification was compared with Lubchenco growth reference curve as gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. The McNemar χ2 test was used for comparing sensitivity of both symphisys-fundal curves studied. RESULTS: The sensitivity of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was 51.6% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve was significantly lower (12.5%. In the subsample using neonatal weight as gold standard, the sensitivity of the new reference curve was 85.7% while that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health was 42.9% for detecting small for gestational age. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic performance of the new curve for detecting small for gestational age fetuses was significantly higher than that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health reference curve.OBJETIVO: Validar la curva de referencia de altura uterina por edad de gestación para el rastreo de desvíos del crecimiento fetal y comparar su performance con la curva estándar adoptada por el Ministerio de la Salud de Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional que envolvió 753 gestantes de bajo riesgo de Joao Pessoa, Noreste de Brasil, entre

  7. Signature Curves Statistics of DNA Supercoils

    OpenAIRE

    Shakiban, Cheri; Lloyd, Peter

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we describe the Euclidean signature curves for two dimensional closed curves in the plane and their generalization to closed space curves. The focus will be on discrete numerical methods for approximating such curves. Further we will apply these numerical methods to plot the signature curves related to three-dimensional simulated DNA supercoils. Our primary focus will be on statistical analysis of the data generated for the signature curves of the supercoils. We will try to esta...

  8. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  9. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  10. Electro-Mechanical Resonance Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2018-01-01

    Recently I have been investigating the frequency response of galvanometers. These are direct-current devices used to measure small currents. By using a low-frequency function generator to supply the alternating-current signal and a stopwatch smartphone app to measure the period, I was able to take data to allow a resonance curve to be drawn. This…

  11. Texas curve margin of safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This software can be used to assist with the assessment of margin of safety for a horizontal curve. It is intended for use by engineers and technicians responsible for safety analysis or management of rural highway pavement or traffic control devices...

  12. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  13. Elliptic curves and primality proving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, A. O. L.; Morain, F.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the theory and implementation of the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm. Problema, numeros primos a compositis dignoscendi, hosque in factores suos primos resolvendi, ad gravissima ac utilissima totius arithmeticae pertinere, et geometrarum tum veterum tum recentiorum industriam ac sagacitatem occupavisse, tam notum est, ut de hac re copiose loqui superfluum foret.

  14. A Curve for all Reasons

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    from biology, feel that every pattern in the living world, ranging from the folding of ... curves band c have the same rate of increase but reach different asymptotes. If these .... not at x = 0, but at xo' which is the minimum size at birth that will permit ...

  15. Survival curves for irradiated cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    The subject of the lecture is the probability of survival of biological cells which have been subjected to ionising radiation. The basic mathematical theories of cell survival as a function of radiation dose are developed. A brief comparison with observed survival curves is made. (author)

  16. Mentorship, learning curves, and balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Meryl S; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Quintessenza, James A; Chai, Paul J; Lindberg, Harald L; Dickey, Jamie; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2007-09-01

    Professionals working in the arena of health care face a variety of challenges as their careers evolve and develop. In this review, we analyze the role of mentorship, learning curves, and balance in overcoming challenges that all such professionals are likely to encounter. These challenges can exist both in professional and personal life. As any professional involved in health care matures, complex professional skills must be mastered, and new professional skills must be acquired. These skills are both technical and judgmental. In most circumstances, these skills must be learned. In 2007, despite the continued need for obtaining new knowledge and learning new skills, the professional and public tolerance for a "learning curve" is much less than in previous decades. Mentorship is the key to success in these endeavours. The success of mentorship is two-sided, with responsibilities for both the mentor and the mentee. The benefits of this relationship must be bidirectional. It is the responsibility of both the student and the mentor to assure this bidirectional exchange of benefit. This relationship requires time, patience, dedication, and to some degree selflessness. This mentorship will ultimately be the best tool for mastering complex professional skills and maturing through various learning curves. Professional mentorship also requires that mentors identify and explicitly teach their mentees the relational skills and abilities inherent in learning the management of the triad of self, relationships with others, and professional responsibilities.Up to two decades ago, a learning curve was tolerated, and even expected, while professionals involved in healthcare developed the techniques that allowed for the treatment of previously untreatable diseases. Outcomes have now improved to the point that this type of learning curve is no longer acceptable to the public. Still, professionals must learn to perform and develop independence and confidence. The responsibility to

  17. Black hole entropy, curved space and monsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Stephen D.H.; Reeb, David

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, in particular the gap between the maximum entropy of ordinary matter and that of black holes. Using curved space, we construct configurations with entropy greater than the area A of a black hole of equal mass. These configurations have pathological properties and we refer to them as monsters. When monsters are excluded we recover the entropy bound on ordinary matter S 3/4 . This bound implies that essentially all of the microstates of a semiclassical black hole are associated with the growth of a slightly smaller black hole which absorbs some additional energy. Our results suggest that the area entropy of black holes is the logarithm of the number of distinct ways in which one can form the black hole from ordinary matter and smaller black holes, but only after the exclusion of monster states

  18. The role of experience curves for setting MEPS for appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Minimum efficiency performance standards (MEPS) are an important policy instrument to raise the efficiency of products. In most schemes the concept of life cycle costs (LCC) is used to guide setting the MEPS levels. Although a large body of literature shows that product cost is decreasing with increasing cumulative production, the experience curve, this is currently not used for setting MEPS. This article shows how to integrate the concept of the experience curve into LCC calculations for setting MEPS in the European Union and applies this to household laundry driers, refrigerator-freezers and televisions. The results indicate that for driers and refrigerator-freezers at least twice the energy savings compared to the current approach can be achieved. These products also show that energy label classes can successfully be used for setting MEPS. For televisions an experience curve is provided, showing a learning rate of 29%. However, television prices do not show a relation with energy efficiency but are to a large extent determined by the time the product is placed on the market. This suggests to policy makers that for televisions and other products with a short (re)design and market cycle timing is more important than the MEPS levels itself. - Highlights: • We integrate experience curves into life cycle cost calculations for MEPS. • For driers and refrigerators this results in at least twice the energy savings. • For flat panel televisions an experience curve is provided

  19. Theoretical foundations for environmental Kuznets curve analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, Van

    This thesis provides a dynamic theory for analyzing the paths of aggregate output and pollution in a country over time. An infinite horizon, competitive growth-pollution model is explored in order to determine the role that economic scale, production techniques, and pollution regulations play in explaining the inverted U-shaped relationship between output and some forms of pollution (otherwise known as the Environmental Kuznets Curve, or EKC). Results indicate that the output-pollution relationship may follow a strictly increasing, strictly decreasing (but bounded), inverted U-shaped, or some combination of curves. While the 'scale' effect may cause output and pollution to exhibit a monotonic relationship, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may ultimately cause a de-linking of these two variables. Pollution-minimizing energy regulation policies are also investigated within this framework. It is found that the EKC may be 'flattened' or even eliminated moving from a poorly-regulated economy to one that minimizes pollution. The model is calibrated to the US economy for output (gross national product, GNP) and two pollutants (sulfur dioxide, SO2, and carbon dioxide, CO2) over the period 1900 to 1990. Results indicate that the model replicates the observations quite well. The predominance of 'scale' effects cause aggregate SO2 and CO2 levels to increase with GNP in the early stages of development. Then, in the case of SO 2, 'technique' and 'regulation' effects may be the cause of falling SO2 levels with continued economic growth (establishing the EKC). CO2 continues to monotonically increase as output levels increase over time. The positive relationship may be due to the lack of regulations on this pollutant. If stricter regulation policies were instituted in the two case studies, an improved allocation of resources may result. While GNP may be 2.596 to 20% lower than what has been realized in the US economy (depending on the pollution variable analyzed), individual

  20. Deriving Area-storage Curves of Global Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, M.; Tang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Basic information including capacity, dam height, and largest water area on global reservoirs and dams is well documented in databases such as GRanD (Global Reservoirs and Dams), ICOLD (International Commission on Large Dams). However, though playing a critical role in estimating reservoir storage variations from remote sensing or hydrological models, area-storage (or elevation-storage) curves of reservoirs are not publicly shared. In this paper, we combine Landsat surface water extent, 1 arc-minute global relief model (ETOPO1) and GRanD database to derive area-storage curves of global reservoirs whose area is larger than 1 km2 (6,000 more reservoirs are included). First, the coverage polygon of each reservoir in GRanD is extended to where water was detected by Landsat during 1985-2015. Second, elevation of each pixel in the reservoir is extracted from resampled 30-meter ETOPO1, and then relative depth and frequency of each depth value is calculated. Third, cumulative storage is calculated with increasing water area by every one percent of reservoir coverage area and then the uncalibrated area-storage curve is obtained. Finally, the area-storage curve is linearly calibrated by the ratio of calculated capacity over reported capacity in GRanD. The derived curves are compared with in-situ reservoir data collected in Great Plains Region in US, and the results show that in-situ records are well captured by the derived curves even in relative small reservoirs (several square kilometers). The new derived area-storage curves have the potential to be employed in global monitoring or modelling of reservoirs storage and area variations.

  1. A catalog of special plane curves

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrence, J Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Among the largest, finest collections available-illustrated not only once for each curve, but also for various values of any parameters present. Covers general properties of curves and types of derived curves. Curves illustrated by a CalComp digital incremental plotter. 12 illustrations.

  2. Computation of undulator tuning curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, Roger J.

    1997-01-01

    Computer codes for fast computation of on-axis brilliance tuning curves and flux tuning curves have been developed. They are valid for an ideal device (regular planar device or a helical device) using the Bessel function formalism. The effects of the particle beam emittance and the beam energy spread on the spectrum are taken into account. The applicability of the codes and the importance of magnetic field errors of real insertion devices are addressed. The validity of the codes has been experimentally verified at the APS and observed discrepancies are in agreement with predicted reduction of intensities due to magnetic field errors. The codes are distributed as part of the graphical user interface XOP (X-ray OPtics utilities), which simplifies execution and viewing of the results

  3. Curved canals: Ancestral files revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nidhi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide an insight into different techniques of cleaning and shaping of curved root canals with hand instruments. Although a plethora of root canal instruments like ProFile, ProTaper, LightSpeed ® etc dominate the current scenario, the inexpensive conventional root canal hand files such as K-files and flexible files can be used to get optimum results when handled meticulously. Special emphasis has been put on the modifications in biomechanical canal preparation in a variety of curved canal cases. This article compiles a series of clinical cases of root canals with curvatures in the middle and apical third and with S-shaped curvatures that were successfully completed by employing only conventional root canal hand instruments.

  4. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Invariance for Single Curved Manifold

    KAUST Repository

    Castro, Pedro Machado Manhaes de

    2012-08-01

    Recently, it has been shown that, for Lambert illumination model, solely scenes composed by developable objects with a very particular albedo distribution produce an (2D) image with isolines that are (almost) invariant to light direction change. In this work, we provide and investigate a more general framework, and we show that, in general, the requirement for such in variances is quite strong, and is related to the differential geometry of the objects. More precisely, it is proved that single curved manifolds, i.e., manifolds such that at each point there is at most one principal curvature direction, produce invariant is surfaces for a certain relevant family of energy functions. In the three-dimensional case, the associated energy function corresponds to the classical Lambert illumination model with albedo. This result is also extended for finite-dimensional scenes composed by single curved objects. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Curved Folded Plate Timber Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Buri, Hans Ulrich; Stotz, Ivo; Weinand, Yves

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates the development of a Curved Origami Prototype made with timber panels. In the last fifteen years the timber industry has developed new, large size, timber panels. Composition and dimensions of these panels and the possibility of milling them with Computer Numerical Controlled machines shows great potential for folded plate structures. To generate the form of these structures we were inspired by Origami, the Japanese art of paper folding. Common paper tessellations are c...

  7. Projection-based curve clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin; Fischer, Aurelie

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on unsupervised curve classification in the context of nuclear industry. At the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Cadarache (France), the thermal-hydraulic computer code CATHARE is used to study the reliability of reactor vessels. The code inputs are physical parameters and the outputs are time evolution curves of a few other physical quantities. As the CATHARE code is quite complex and CPU time-consuming, it has to be approximated by a regression model. This regression process involves a clustering step. In the present paper, the CATHARE output curves are clustered using a k-means scheme, with a projection onto a lower dimensional space. We study the properties of the empirically optimal cluster centres found by the clustering method based on projections, compared with the 'true' ones. The choice of the projection basis is discussed, and an algorithm is implemented to select the best projection basis among a library of orthonormal bases. The approach is illustrated on a simulated example and then applied to the industrial problem. (authors)

  8. Elementary particles in curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazanu, I.

    2004-01-01

    The theories in particle physics are developed currently, in Minkowski space-time starting from the Poincare group. A physical theory in flat space can be seen as the limit of a more general physical theory in a curved space. At the present time, a theory of particles in curved space does not exist, and thus the only possibility is to extend the existent theories in these spaces. A formidable obstacle to the extension of physical models is the absence of groups of motion in more general Riemann spaces. A space of constant curvature has a group of motion that, although differs from that of a flat space, has the same number of parameters and could permit some generalisations. In this contribution we try to investigate some physical implications of the presumable existence of elementary particles in curved space. In de Sitter space (dS) the invariant rest mass is a combination of the Poincare rest mass and the generalised angular momentum of a particle and it permits to establish a correlation with the vacuum energy and with the cosmological constant. The consequences are significant because in an experiment the local structure of space-time departs from the Minkowski space and becomes a dS or AdS space-time. Discrete symmetry characteristics of the dS/AdS group suggest some arguments for the possible existence of the 'mirror matter'. (author)

  9. p-Curve and p-Hacking in Observational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Stephan B; Ioannidis, John P A

    2016-01-01

    The p-curve, the distribution of statistically significant p-values of published studies, has been used to make inferences on the proportion of true effects and on the presence of p-hacking in the published literature. We analyze the p-curve for observational research in the presence of p-hacking. We show by means of simulations that even with minimal omitted-variable bias (e.g., unaccounted confounding) p-curves based on true effects and p-curves based on null-effects with p-hacking cannot be reliably distinguished. We also demonstrate this problem using as practical example the evaluation of the effect of malaria prevalence on economic growth between 1960 and 1996. These findings call recent studies into question that use the p-curve to infer that most published research findings are based on true effects in the medical literature and in a wide range of disciplines. p-values in observational research may need to be empirically calibrated to be interpretable with respect to the commonly used significance threshold of 0.05. Violations of randomization in experimental studies may also result in situations where the use of p-curves is similarly unreliable.

  10. An analysis on the environmental Kuznets curve of Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zijian; Peng, Yue; Zhao, Yue

    2017-12-01

    In this paper based on the environmental and economic data of Chengdu from 2005 to 2014, the measurement models were established to analyze 3 kinds of environmental flow indicators and 4 kinds of environmental stock indicators to obtain their EKC evolution trajectories and characters. The results show that the relationship curve between the discharge of SO2 from industry and the GDP per capita is a positive U shape, just as the curve between discharge of COD from industry and the GDP per person. The relationship curve between the dust discharge from industry and the GDP per capita is an inverted N shape. In the central of the urban the relationship curve between the concentration of SO2 in the air and the GDP per person is a positive U shape. The relationship curves between the concentration of NO2 in the air and the GDP per person, between the concentration of the particulate matters and the GDP per person, and between the concentration of the fallen dusts and the GDP per person are fluctuating. So the EKC curves of the 7 kinds of environmental indicators are not accord with inverted U shape feature. In the development of this urban the environmental problems can’t be resolved only by economic growth. The discharge of industrial pollutants should be controlled to improve the atmospheric environmental quality and reduce the environmental risks.

  11. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  12. Bayesian multi-QTL mapping for growth curve parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuven, Henri C M; Janss, Luc L G

    2010-01-01

    % for ASYM and SCAL while the heritability for XMID was approximately 24%. The genome wide scan revealed four QTLs affecting ASYM, one QTL affecting XMID and four QTLs affecting SCAL. The size of the QTL differed. QTL with a larger effect could be more precisely located compared to QTL with small effect....... The locations of the QTLs for separate parameters were very close in some cases and probably caused the genetic correlation observed between ASYM and XMID and SCAL respectively. None of the QTL appeared on chromosome five. Conclusions Repeated observations on individuals were affected by at least nine QTLs....... For most QTL a precise location could be determined. The QTL for the inflection point (XMID) was difficult to pinpoint and might actually exist of two closely linked QTL on chromosome one....

  13. Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis. A Survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinda, Soumyananda

    2004-01-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted-U-shaped relationship between different pollutants and per capita income, i.e., environmental pressure increases up to a certain level as income goes up; after that, it decreases. An EKC actually reveals how a technically specified measurement of environmental quality changes as the fortunes of a country change. A sizeable literature on EKC has grown in recent period. The common point of all the studies is the assertion that the environmental quality deteriorates at the early stages of economic development/growth and subsequently improves at the later stages. In other words, environmental pressure increases faster than income at early stages of development and slows down relative to GDP growth at higher income levels. This paper reviews some theoretical developments and empirical studies dealing with EKC phenomenon. Possible explanations for this EKC are seen in (1) the progress of economic development, from clean agrarian economy to polluting industrial economy to clean service economy; (2) tendency of people with higher income having higher preference for environmental quality, etc. Evidence of the existence of the EKC has been questioned from several corners. Only some air quality indicators, especially local pollutants, show the evidence of an EKC. However, an EKC is empirically observed, till there is no agreement in the literature on the income level at which environmental degradation starts declining. This paper provides an overview of the EKC literature, background history, conceptual insights, policy and the conceptual and methodological critique

  14. Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis. A Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinda, Soumyananda [Economic Research Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203, B.T. Road, Kolkata-108 (India)

    2004-08-01

    The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis postulates an inverted-U-shaped relationship between different pollutants and per capita income, i.e., environmental pressure increases up to a certain level as income goes up; after that, it decreases. An EKC actually reveals how a technically specified measurement of environmental quality changes as the fortunes of a country change. A sizeable literature on EKC has grown in recent period. The common point of all the studies is the assertion that the environmental quality deteriorates at the early stages of economic development/growth and subsequently improves at the later stages. In other words, environmental pressure increases faster than income at early stages of development and slows down relative to GDP growth at higher income levels. This paper reviews some theoretical developments and empirical studies dealing with EKC phenomenon. Possible explanations for this EKC are seen in (1) the progress of economic development, from clean agrarian economy to polluting industrial economy to clean service economy; (2) tendency of people with higher income having higher preference for environmental quality, etc. Evidence of the existence of the EKC has been questioned from several corners. Only some air quality indicators, especially local pollutants, show the evidence of an EKC. However, an EKC is empirically observed, till there is no agreement in the literature on the income level at which environmental degradation starts declining. This paper provides an overview of the EKC literature, background history, conceptual insights, policy and the conceptual and methodological critique.

  15. Analytical expression for initial magnetization curve of Fe-based soft magnetic composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birčáková, Zuzana, E-mail: zuzana.bircakova@upjs.sk [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Kollár, Peter; Füzer, Ján [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pavol Jozef Šafárik University, Park Angelinum 9, 04154 Košice (Slovakia); Bureš, Radovan; Fáberová, Mária [Institute of Materials Research, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Watsonova 47, 04001 Košice (Slovakia)

    2017-02-01

    The analytical expression for the initial magnetization curve for Fe-phenolphormaldehyde resin composite material was derived based on the already proposed ideas of the magnetization vector deviation function and the domain wall annihilation function, characterizing the reversible magnetization processes through the extent of deviation of magnetization vectors from magnetic field direction and the irreversible processes through the effective numbers of movable domain walls, respectively. As for composite materials the specific dependences of these functions were observed, the ideas were extended meeting the composites special features, which are principally the much higher inner demagnetizing fields produced by magnetic poles on ferromagnetic particle surfaces. The proposed analytical expression enables us to find the relative extent of each type of magnetization processes when magnetizing a specimen along the initial curve. - Highlights: • Analytical expression of the initial curve derived for SMC. • Initial curve described by elementary magnetization processes. • Influence of inner demagnetizing fields on magnetization process in SMC.

  16. Growth curve in crossbred Santa Inês x Texel ovines raised in the southwestern region of Bahia state Curva de crescimento em ovinos mestiços Santa Inês x Texel criados no Sudoeste do Estado da Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio César de Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study had the objective to analyze the application of non-linear models to describe the growth of crossbred Santa Inês x Texel sheep and, then define the best adjusted model, to evaluate the influence of environmental factors (sex, birth month and type of parturition over curve parameters. Data based on 24 weights, 15 days each, of 75 animals from birth up to 365 days of age were used. The non-linear models evaluated were: Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Richards, Logistic and Gompertz. The models Von Bertalanffy and Gompertz presented the best adjustment at the initial growth period. However, the Logistic model provided the best adjustment from 120 days of age and the lowest genetic divergence in relation to the observed average weight and, therefore, it was considered the more appropriate growth model within the studied period. An accentuated decrease in the absolute growth rate was observed after weaning and nutritional strategies should be performed to avoid the low weight gain at this stage. Environmental factors had no effects on the Logistic curve parameters, excepting the parturition kind, which influenced the parameter m. The correlation estimated between the parameters A and k was negative (-0.44, indicating that fast-growing young animals are less likely to reach higher weights when adults.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar modelos não lineares para descrever o crescimento em ovinos mestiços ½Santa Inês x ½Texel e, após a definição do modelo de melhor ajuste, avaliar a influência de fatores ambientais (sexo, mês de nascimento e tipo de parto sobre os parâmetros da curva. Foram utilizados dados de 24 pesagens (quinzenais de 75 animais do nascimento aos 365 dias de idade. Os modelos não lineares utilizados foram: Brody, Von Bertalanffy, Richards, Logístico e Gompertz. Os modelos Von Bertalanffy e Gompertz apresentaram o melhor ajuste na fase inicial de crescimento. O modelo Logístico apresentou melhor ajuste a

  17. A note on families of fragility curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, S.; Bier, V.M.; Bley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    In the quantitative assessment of seismic risk, uncertainty in the fragility of a structural component is usually expressed by putting forth a family of fragility curves, with probability serving as the parameter of the family. Commonly, a lognormal shape is used both for the individual curves and for the expression of uncertainty over the family. A so-called composite single curve can also be drawn and used for purposes of approximation. This composite curve is often regarded as equivalent to the mean curve of the family. The equality seems intuitively reasonable, but according to the authors has never been proven. The paper presented proves this equivalence hypothesis mathematically. Moreover, the authors show that this equivalence hypothesis between fragility curves is itself equivalent to an identity property of the standard normal probability curve. Thus, in the course of proving the fragility curve hypothesis, the authors have also proved a rather obscure, but interesting and perhaps previously unrecognized, property of the standard normal curve

  18. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobakhidze, Archil; Manning, Adrian; Tureanu, Anca

    2016-06-01

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  19. Observable Zitterbewegung in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobakhidze, Archil, E-mail: archilk@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Manning, Adrian, E-mail: a.manning@physics.usyd.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Tureanu, Anca, E-mail: anca.tureanu@helsinki.fi [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 64, 00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-06-10

    Zitterbewegung, as it was originally described by Schrödinger, is an unphysical, non-observable effect. We verify whether the effect can be observed in non-inertial reference frames/curved spacetimes, where the ambiguity in defining particle states results in a mixing of positive and negative frequency modes. We explicitly demonstrate that such a mixing is in fact necessary to obtain the correct classical value for a particle's velocity in a uniformly accelerated reference frame, whereas in cosmological spacetime a particle does indeed exhibit Zitterbewegung.

  20. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.

  1. LINS Curve in Romanian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Dobrescu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents theoretical considerations and empirical evidence to test the validity of the Laffer in Narrower Sense (LINS curve as a parabola with a maximum. Attention is focused on the so-called legal-effective tax gap (letg. The econometric application is based on statistical data (1990-2013 for Romania as an emerging European economy. Three cointegrating regressions (fully modified least squares, canonical cointegrating regression and dynamic least squares and three algorithms, which are based on instrumental variables (two-stage least squares, generalized method of moments, and limited information maximum likelihood, are involved.

  2. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  3. Improved capacitive melting curve measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebedash, Alexander; Tuoriniemi, Juha; Pentti, Elias; Salmela, Anssi

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity of the capacitive method for determining the melting pressure of helium can be enhanced by loading the empty side of the capacitor with helium at a pressure nearly equal to that desired to be measured and by using a relatively thin and flexible membrane in between. This way one can achieve a nanobar resolution at the level of 30 bar, which is two orders of magnitude better than that of the best gauges with vacuum reference. This extends the applicability of melting curve thermometry to lower temperatures and would allow detecting tiny anomalies in the melting pressure, which must be associated with any phenomena contributing to the entropy of the liquid or solid phases. We demonstrated this principle in measurements of the crystallization pressure of isotopic helium mixtures at millikelvin temperatures by using partly solid pure 4 He as the reference substance providing the best possible universal reference pressure. The achieved sensitivity was good enough for melting curve thermometry on mixtures down to 100 μK. Similar system can be used on pure isotopes by virtue of a blocked capillary giving a stable reference condition with liquid slightly below the melting pressure in the reference volume. This was tested with pure 4 He at temperatures 0.08-0.3 K. To avoid spurious heating effects, one must carefully choose and arrange any dielectric materials close to the active capacitor. We observed some 100 pW loading at moderate excitation voltages.

  4. Classical optics and curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailyn, M.; Ragusa, S.

    1976-01-01

    In the eikonal approximation of classical optics, the unit polarization 3-vector of light satisfies an equation that depends only on the index, n, of refraction. It is known that if the original 3-space line element is d sigma 2 , then this polarization direction propagates parallely in the fictitious space n 2 d sigma 2 . Since the equation depends only on n, it is possible to invent a fictitious curved 4-space in which the light performs a null geodesic, and the polarization 3-vector behaves as the 'shadow' of a parallely propagated 4-vector. The inverse, namely, the reduction of Maxwell's equation, on a curve 'dielectric free) space, to a classical space with dielectric constant n=(-g 00 ) -1 / 2 is well known, but in the latter the dielectric constant epsilon and permeability μ must also equal (-g 00 ) -1 / 2 . The rotation of polarization as light bends around the sun by utilizing the reduction to the classical space, is calculated. This (non-) rotation may then be interpreted as parallel transport in the 3-space n 2 d sigma 2 [pt

  5. Interpretation of some morphological aspects of survival curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delattre, Pierre.

    1975-01-01

    Proof of necessary relationships between some morphological aspects of survival curves and some characteristics of theoretical models offers obvious interest for the elaboration of these models, regarding their empirical value. The search for such relationships is all the more useful that specialized literature provides with numerous ambiguous or contradictory interpretations regarding such or such aspect of survival curves (shoulders, slope at the origin, asymptotic region, restoration curves, etc...). This is not a surprising situation as, in final outcome, all interpretation results from some theoretical presuppositions. To the extent that such presuppositions are note clearly explicited, there is no reason to presume that all investigators should have exactly the same ones. If this difficult situation is to be remedied, it is therefore indispensable to clearly explicit the underlying theoretical context corresponding to the various types of experiments that are fulfilled. This, of course, has to be done at a relatively general level so that a priori non-justified restrictive hypotheses are not introduced. If such hypotheses sometimes find their place in the elaboration of particular models, they must nevertheless be excluded at the level of a general theory whose essential purpose is to provide a framework for description and thought that is acceptable to all. Specific examples are given regarding the signification of shoulders, slopes at the origin, asymptotes, (either in continuous or fractionated irradiations), signs of concavities, shapes of restoration curves [fr

  6. Atlas of stress-strain curves

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The Atlas of Stress-Strain Curves, Second Edition is substantially bigger in page dimensions, number of pages, and total number of curves than the previous edition. It contains over 1,400 curves, almost three times as many as in the 1987 edition. The curves are normalized in appearance to aid making comparisons among materials. All diagrams include metric (SI) units, and many also include U.S. customary units. All curves are captioned in a consistent format with valuable information including (as available) standard designation, the primary source of the curve, mechanical properties (including hardening exponent and strength coefficient), condition of sample, strain rate, test temperature, and alloy composition. Curve types include monotonic and cyclic stress-strain, isochronous stress-strain, and tangent modulus. Curves are logically arranged and indexed for fast retrieval of information. The book also includes an introduction that provides background information on methods of stress-strain determination, on...

  7. Transition curves for highway geometric design

    CERN Document Server

    Kobryń, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book provides concise descriptions of the various solutions of transition curves, which can be used in geometric design of roads and highways. It presents mathematical methods and curvature functions for defining transition curves. .

  8. Comparison and evaluation of mathematical lactation curve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    A mathematical model of the lactation curve provides summary information about culling and milking strategies ..... Table 2 Statistics of the edited data for first lactation Holstein cows ..... Application of different models to the lactation curves of.

  9. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Sakane, Yusuke; Nomura, Taishin

    2013-01-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  10. Bubble Collision in Curved Spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dong-il; Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; Yeom, Dong-han

    2014-01-01

    We study vacuum bubble collisions in curved spacetime, in which vacuum bubbles were nucleated in the initial metastable vacuum state by quantum tunneling. The bubbles materialize randomly at different times and then start to grow. It is known that the percolation by true vacuum bubbles is not possible due to the exponential expansion of the space among the bubbles. In this paper, we consider two bubbles of the same size with a preferred axis and assume that two bubbles form very near each other to collide. The two bubbles have the same field value. When the bubbles collide, the collided region oscillates back-and-forth and then the collided region eventually decays and disappears. We discuss radiation and gravitational wave resulting from the collision of two bubbles

  11. Bacterial streamers in curved microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusconi, Roberto; Lecuyer, Sigolene; Guglielmini, Laura; Stone, Howard

    2009-11-01

    Biofilms, generally identified as microbial communities embedded in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances, are involved in a wide variety of health-related problems ranging from implant-associated infections to disease transmissions and dental plaque. The usual picture of these bacterial films is that they grow and develop on surfaces. However, suspended biofilm structures, or streamers, have been found in natural environments (e.g., rivers, acid mines, hydrothermal hot springs) and are always suggested to stem from a turbulent flow. We report the formation of bacterial streamers in curved microfluidic channels. By using confocal laser microscopy we are able to directly image and characterize the spatial and temporal evolution of these filamentous structures. Such streamers, which always connect the inner corners of opposite sides of the channel, are always located in the middle plane. Numerical simulations of the flow provide evidences for an underlying hydrodynamic mechanism behind the formation of the streamers.

  12. Gelfond–Bézier curves

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2013-02-01

    We show that the generalized Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces defined by Hirschman and Widder (1949) and extended by Gelfond (1950) can be obtained as pointwise limits of the Chebyshev–Bernstein bases in Müntz spaces with respect to an interval [a,1][a,1] as the positive real number a converges to zero. Such a realization allows for concepts of curve design such as de Casteljau algorithm, blossom, dimension elevation to be transferred from the general theory of Chebyshev blossoms in Müntz spaces to these generalized Bernstein bases that we termed here as Gelfond–Bernstein bases. The advantage of working with Gelfond–Bernstein bases lies in the simplicity of the obtained concepts and algorithms as compared to their Chebyshev–Bernstein bases counterparts.

  13. The Simple Analytics of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

    OpenAIRE

    James Andreoni; Arik Levinson

    1998-01-01

    Evidence suggests that some pollutants follow an inverse-U-shaped pattern relative to countries' incomes. This relationship has been called the out a simple and straight-forward static model of the microfoundations of the pollution-income relationship. We show that the environmental Kuznets curve can be derived directly from the technological link between consumption of a desired good and abatement of its undesirable byproduct. The inverse-U shape does not depend on the dynamics of growth, po...

  14. Sibling curves of quadratic polynomials | Wiggins | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sibling curves were demonstrated in [1, 2] as a novel way to visualize the zeroes of real valued functions. In [3] it was shown that a polynomial of degree n has n sibling curves. This paper focuses on the algebraic and geometric properites of the sibling curves of real and complex quadratic polynomials. Key words: Quadratic ...

  15. GLOBAL AND STRICT CURVE FITTING METHOD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakajima, Y.; Mori, S.

    2004-01-01

    To find a global and smooth curve fitting, cubic B­Spline method and gathering­ line methods are investigated. When segmenting and recognizing a contour curve of character shape, some global method is required. If we want to connect contour curves around a singular point like crossing points,

  16. Trigonometric Characterization of Some Plane Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    (Figure 1). A relation between tan θ and tanψ gives the trigonometric equation of the family of curves. In this article, trigonometric equations of some known plane curves are deduced and it is shown that these equations reveal some geometric characteristics of the families of the curves under consideration. In Section 2,.

  17. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... is bounded above by g + 1, where g is the genus of X [11]. Curves which have exactly the maximum number (i.e., genus +1) of components of the real part are called M-curves. Classifying real algebraic curves up to homeomorphism is straightforward, however, classifying even planar non-singular real ...

  18. Holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds: Kuranishi structure

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Brett

    2013-01-01

    This paper constructs a Kuranishi structure for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in exploded manifolds. To avoid some technicalities of abstract Kuranishi structures, we embed our Kuranishi structure inside a moduli stack of curves. The construction also works for the moduli stack of holomorphic curves in any compact symplectic manifold.

  19. Automated Blazar Light Curves Using Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Spencer James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-27

    This presentation describes a problem and methodology pertaining to automated blazar light curves. Namely, optical variability patterns for blazars require the construction of light curves and in order to generate the light curves, data must be filtered before processing to ensure quality.

  20. Nonparametric estimation of age-specific reference percentile curves with radial smoothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xiaohai; Qu, Yongming; Huang, Yao; Zhang, Xiao; Song, Hanping; Jiang, Honghua

    2012-01-01

    Reference percentile curves represent the covariate-dependent distribution of a quantitative measurement and are often used to summarize and monitor dynamic processes such as human growth. We propose a new nonparametric method based on a radial smoothing (RS) technique to estimate age-specific reference percentile curves assuming the underlying distribution is relatively close to normal. We compared the RS method with both the LMS and the generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) methods using simulated data and found that our method has smaller estimation error than the two existing methods. We also applied the new method to analyze height growth data from children being followed in a clinical observational study of growth hormone treatment, and compared the growth curves between those with growth disorders and the general population. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Method of construction spatial transition curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Didanov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The movement of rail transport (speed rolling stock, traffic safety, etc. is largely dependent on the quality of the track. In this case, a special role is the transition curve, which ensures smooth insertion of the transition from linear to circular section of road. The article deals with modeling of spatial transition curve based on the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion. This is a continuation of research conducted by the authors regarding the spatial modeling of curved contours. Methodology. Construction of the spatial transition curve is numerical methods for solving nonlinear integral equations, where the initial data are taken coordinate the starting and ending points of the curve of the future, and the inclination of the tangent and the deviation of the curve from the tangent plane at these points. System solutions for the numerical method are the partial derivatives of the equations of the unknown parameters of the law of change of torsion and length of the transition curve. Findings. The parametric equations of the spatial transition curve are calculated by finding the unknown coefficients of the parabolic distribution of the curvature and torsion, as well as the spatial length of the transition curve. Originality. A method for constructing the spatial transition curve is devised, and based on this software geometric modeling spatial transition curves of railway track with specified deviations of the curve from the tangent plane. Practical value. The resulting curve can be applied in any sector of the economy, where it is necessary to ensure a smooth transition from linear to circular section of the curved space bypass. An example is the transition curve in the construction of the railway line, road, pipe, profile, flat section of the working blades of the turbine and compressor, the ship, plane, car, etc.

  2. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion to cropland is one of the major causes of severe soil erosion in Africa. This study assesses the current cropland extent and the related soil erosion risk in Rwanda, a country that experienced the most rapid population growth and cropland expansion in Africa over the last decade. The land cover land use (LCLU map of Rwanda in 2015 was developed using Landsat-8 imagery. Based on the obtained LCLU map and the spatial datasets of precipitation, soil properties and elevation, the soil erosion rate of Rwanda was assessed at 30-m spatial resolution, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model. According to the results, the mean soil erosion rate was 250 t·ha−1·a−1 over the entire country, with a total soil loss rate of approximately 595 million tons per year. The mean soil erosion rate over cropland, which occupied 56% of the national land area, was estimated at 421 t·ha−1·a−1 and was responsible for about 95% of the national soil loss. About 24% of the croplands in Rwanda had a soil erosion rate larger than 300 t·ha−1·a−1, indicating their unsuitability for cultivation. With a mean soil erosion rate of 1642 t·ha−1·a−1, these unsuitable croplands were responsible for 90% of the national soil loss. Most of the unsuitable croplands are distributed in the Congo Nile Ridge, Volcanic Range mountain areas in the west and the Buberuka highlands in the north, regions characterized by steep slopes (>30% and strong rainfall. Soil conservation practices, such as the terracing cultivation method, are paramount to preserve the soil. According to our assessment, terracing alone could reduce the mean cropland soil erosion rate and the national soil loss by 79% and 75%, respectively. After terracing, only a small proportion of 7.6% of the current croplands would still be exposed to extreme soil erosion with a rate >300 t·ha−1·a−1. These irremediable cropland areas should be returned to mountain forest to

  3. Power forward curves: a managerial perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagarajan, Shankar

    1999-01-01

    This chapter concentrates on managerial application of power forward curves, and examines the determinants of electricity prices such as transmission constraints, its inability to be stored in a conventional way, its seasonality and weather dependence, the generation stack, and the swing risk. The electricity forward curve, classical arbitrage, constructing a forward curve, volatilities, and electricity forward curve models such as the jump-diffusion model, the mean-reverting heteroscedastic volatility model, and an econometric model of forward prices are examined. A managerial perspective of the applications of the forward curve is presented covering plant valuation, capital budgeting, performance measurement, product pricing and structuring, asset optimisation, valuation of transmission options, and risk management

  4. Retrograde curves of solidus and solubility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'ev, M.V.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation was concerned with the constitutional diagrams of the eutectic type with ''retrograde solidus'' and ''retrograde solubility curve'' which must be considered as diagrams with degenerate monotectic transformation. The solidus and the solubility curves form a retrograde curve with a common retrograde point representing the solubility maximum. The two branches of the Aetrograde curve can be described with the aid of two similar equations. Presented are corresponding equations for the Cd-Zn system and shown is the possibility of predicting the run of the solubility curve

  5. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  6. Exploring the extent to which ELT students utilise smartphones for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zehra

    2015-11-09

    Nov 9, 2015 ... aimed to explore the extent to which English Language Teaching (ELT) students utilise ... Given the fact that almost all students have a personal smartphone, and use it ..... ears as a disadvantage for smartphones (Kétyi,.

  7. Peak oil analyzed with a logistic function and idealized Hubbert curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Brian

    2011-01-01

    A logistic function is used to characterize peak and ultimate production of global crude oil and petroleum-derived liquid fuels. Annual oil production data were incrementally summed to construct a logistic curve in its initial phase. Using a curve-fitting approach, a population-growth logistic function was applied to complete the cumulative production curve. The simulated curve was then deconstructed into a set of annual oil production data producing an 'idealized' Hubbert curve. An idealized Hubbert curve (IHC) is defined as having properties of production data resulting from a constant growth-rate under fixed resource limits. An IHC represents a potential production curve constructed from cumulative production data and provides a new perspective for estimating peak production periods and remaining resources. The IHC model data show that idealized peak oil production occurred in 2009 at 83.2 Mb/d (30.4 Gb/y). IHC simulations of truncated historical oil production data produced similar results and indicate that this methodology can be useful as a prediction tool. - Research Highlights: →Global oil production data were analyzed by a simple curve fitting method. →Best fit-curve results were obtained using two logistic functions on select data. →A broad potential oil production peak is forecast for the years from 2004 to 2014. →Similar results were obtained using historical data from about 10 to 30 years ago. →Two potential oil production decline scenarios were presented and compared.

  8. The writhe of open and closed curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Mitchell A; Prior, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Twist and writhe measure basic geometric properties of a ribbon or tube. While these measures have applications in molecular biology, materials science, fluid mechanics and astrophysics, they are under-utilized because they are often considered difficult to compute. In addition, many applications involve curves with endpoints (open curves); but for these curves the definition of writhe can be ambiguous. This paper provides simple expressions for the writhe of closed curves, and provides a new definition of writhe for open curves. The open curve definition is especially appropriate when the curve is anchored at endpoints on a plane or stretches between two parallel planes. This definition can be especially useful for magnetic flux tubes in the solar atmosphere, and for isotropic rods with ends fixed to a plane

  9. Investigating the energy-environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzzati, T.; Orsini, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche, Facolta di Economia, Universita di Pisa. Via Ridolfi 10, I-56124 PISA (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between absolute energy consumption and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita for 113 countries over the period 1971-2004. Energy has been scarcely explored in the Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) debate and is taken as the indicator of overall environmental pressure. The following aspects of this work are rather innovative. Firstly, in order to closely adhere to the EKC narratives, the indicator of environmental pressure (energy) is taken in absolute terms rather than per capita. Secondly, we look for consistency both between different econometric techniques (parametric and semi-parametric) and across different analytical levels (world, time series/cross-countries, and single countries). Finally, the dataset is large and not limited to developed countries. In our opinion, the estimates cannot support an energy-EKC hypothesis. For the world as a single unit, the relationship is positive monotone, with a lower (though still positive) elasticity after 1989. A glance at single country level does not reveal evidence of EKC. Cross-country analysis is slightly more open to interpretation; in any case, however, it shows that the potential benefits of GDP growth on natural environment, if any, did not show up in the considered time span. (author)

  10. Path integrals on curved manifolds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosche, C.; Steiner, F.

    1987-01-01

    A general framework for treating path integrals on curved manifolds is presented. We also show how to perform general coordinate and space-time transformations in path integrals. The main result is that one has to subtract a quantum correction ΔV ∝ ℎ 2 from the classical Lagrangian L, i.e. the correct effective Lagrangian to be used in the path integral is L eff = L-ΔV. A general prescription for calculating the quantum correction ΔV is given. It is based on a canonical approach using Weyl-ordering and the Hamiltonian path integral defined by the midpoint prescription. The general framework is illustrated by several examples: The d-dimensional rotator, i.e. the motion on the sphere S d-1 , the path integral in d-dimensional polar coordinates, the exact treatment of the hydrogen atom in R 2 and R 3 by performing a Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation, the Langer transformation and the path integral for the Morse potential. (orig.)

  11. Page curves for tripartite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Junha; Lee, Deok Sang; Nho, Dongju; Oh, Jeonghun; Park, Hyosub; Zoe, Heeseung; Yeom, Dong-han

    2017-01-01

    We investigate information flow and Page curves for tripartite systems. We prepare a tripartite system (say, A , B , and C ) of a given number of states and calculate information and entropy contents by assuming random states. Initially, every particle was in A (this means a black hole), and as time goes on, particles move to either B (this means Hawking radiation) or C (this means a broadly defined remnant, including a non-local transport of information, the last burst, an interior large volume, or a bubble universe, etc). If the final number of states of the remnant is smaller than that of Hawking radiation, then information will be stored by both the radiation and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant, while the remnant itself does not contain information. On the other hand, if the final number of states of the remnant is greater than that of Hawking radiation, then the radiation contains negligible information, while the remnant and the mutual information between the radiation and the remnant contain information. Unless the number of states of the remnant is large enough compared to the entropy of the black hole, Hawking radiation must contain information; and we meet the menace of black hole complementarity again. Therefore, this contrasts the tension between various assumptions and candidates of the resolution of the information loss problem. (paper)

  12. Vacuum polarization in curved spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A necessary step in the process of understanding the quantum theory of gravity is the calculation of the stress-energy tensor of quantized fields in curved space-times. The determination of the stress tensor, a formally divergent object, is made possible in this dissertation by utilizing the zeta-function method of regularization and renormalization. By employing this scheme's representation of the renormalized effective action functional, an expression of the stress tensor for a massless, conformally invariant scalar field, first given by DeWitt, is derived. The form of the renormalized stress tensor is first tested in various examples of flat space-times. It is shown to vanish in Minkowski space and to yield the accepted value of the energy density in the Casimir effect. Next, the stress tensor is calculated in two space-times of constant curvature, the Einstein universe and the deSitter universe, and the results are shown to agree with those given by an expression of the stress tensor that is valid in conformally flat space-times. This work culminates in the determination of the stress tensor on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole. This is accomplished by approximating the radial part of the eigen-functions and the metric in the vicinity of the horizon. The stress tensor at this level approximation is found to be pure trace. The approximated forms of the Schwarzschild metric describes a conformally flat space-time that possesses horizons

  13. Nonlinear Growth Models in M"plus" and SAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Kevin J.; Ram, Nilam

    2009-01-01

    Nonlinear growth curves or growth curves that follow a specified nonlinear function in time enable researchers to model complex developmental patterns with parameters that are easily interpretable. In this article we describe how a variety of sigmoid curves can be fit using the M"plus" structural modeling program and the nonlinear…

  14. The Extent of Myocardial Injury During Prolonged Targeted Temperature Management After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grejs, Anders Morten; Gjedsted, Jakob; Thygesen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the extent of myocardial injury by cardiac biomarkers during prolonged targeted temperature management of 24 hours vs 48 hours after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. METHODS: This randomized Scandinavian multicenter study compares the extent of myocardial...... injury estimated by hs-cTnTAUC of prolonged targeted temperature management of 48 hours vs 24 hours, although the CK-MBAUC was significantly higher during 48 hours vs 24 hours. Hence, it seems unlikely that the duration of targeted temperature management has a beneficial effect on the extent...... injury quantified by area under the curve (AUC) of cardiac biomarkers during prolonged targeted temperature management at 33°C ± 1°C of 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Through a period of 2.5 years, 161 comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients were randomized to targeted temperature...

  15. Consistent Valuation across Curves Using Pricing Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Macrina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The general problem of asset pricing when the discount rate differs from the rate at which an asset’s cash flows accrue is considered. A pricing kernel framework is used to model an economy that is segmented into distinct markets, each identified by a yield curve having its own market, credit and liquidity risk characteristics. The proposed framework precludes arbitrage within each market, while the definition of a curve-conversion factor process links all markets in a consistent arbitrage-free manner. A pricing formula is then derived, referred to as the across-curve pricing formula, which enables consistent valuation and hedging of financial instruments across curves (and markets. As a natural application, a consistent multi-curve framework is formulated for emerging and developed inter-bank swap markets, which highlights an important dual feature of the curve-conversion factor process. Given this multi-curve framework, existing multi-curve approaches based on HJM and rational pricing kernel models are recovered, reviewed and generalised and single-curve models extended. In another application, inflation-linked, currency-based and fixed-income hybrid securities are shown to be consistently valued using the across-curve valuation method.

  16. On the R-curve behavior of human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Devendra; Arola, Dwayne D

    2009-08-01

    In this study the crack growth resistance behavior and fracture toughness of human tooth enamel were quantified using incremental crack growth measures and conventional fracture mechanics. Results showed that enamel undergoes an increase in crack growth resistance (i.e. rising R-curve) with crack extension from the outer to the inner enamel, and that the rise in toughness is a function of distance from the dentin enamel junction (DEJ). The outer enamel exhibited the lowest apparent toughness (0.67+/-0.12 MPam(0.5)), and the inner enamel exhibited a rise in the growth toughness from 1.13 MPam(0.5)/mm to 3.93 MPam(0.5)/mm. The maximum crack growth resistance at fracture (i.e. fracture toughness (K(c))) ranged from 1.79 to 2.37 MPam(0.5). Crack growth in the inner enamel was accompanied by a host of mechanisms operating from the micro- to the nano-scale. Decussation in the inner enamel promoted crack deflection and twist, resulting in a reduction of the local stress intensity at the crack tip. In addition, extrinsic mechanisms such as bridging by unbroken ligaments of the tissue and the organic matrix promoted crack closure. Microcracking due to loosening of prisms was also identified as an active source of energy dissipation. In summary, the unique microstructure of enamel in the decussated region promotes crack growth toughness that is approximately three times that of dentin and over ten times that of bone.

  17. Construction of calibration curve for accountancy tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takayuki; Goto, Yoshiki; Nidaira, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    Tanks are equipped in a reprocessing plant for accounting solution of nuclear material. The careful measurement of volume in tanks is very important to implement rigorous accounting of nuclear material. The calibration curve relating the volume and level of solution needs to be constructed, where the level is determined by differential pressure of dip tubes. Several calibration curves are usually employed, but it's not explicitly decided how many segment are used, where to select segment, or what should be the degree of polynomial curve. These parameters, i.e., segment and degree of polynomial curve are mutually interrelated to give the better performance of calibration curve. Here we present the construction technique of giving optimum calibration curves and their characteristics. (author)

  18. Inverse Diffusion Curves Using Shape Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Durand, Fredo; Zheng, Changxi

    2018-07-01

    The inverse diffusion curve problem focuses on automatic creation of diffusion curve images that resemble user provided color fields. This problem is challenging since the 1D curves have a nonlinear and global impact on resulting color fields via a partial differential equation (PDE). We introduce a new approach complementary to previous methods by optimizing curve geometry. In particular, we propose a novel iterative algorithm based on the theory of shape derivatives. The resulting diffusion curves are clean and well-shaped, and the final image closely approximates the input. Our method provides a user-controlled parameter to regularize curve complexity, and generalizes to handle input color fields represented in a variety of formats.

  19. Forestry and streamflow reductions in South Africa: a reference system for assessing extent and distribution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, DF

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available on the forestry rotation lengths (DWAF, 1996) to sets of magisterial districts; ? the area of forestry by tree type and growth potential; and ? rainfall, from which virgin runoff was derived, and monthly runoff for each quaternary catchment from which virgin... in the Western Cape which were planted with P. radiata. The curves shown in Figs. 2a and 2b predict the percentage reduction in the virgin total or low flow (i.e. the runoff under the natural grassland or fynbos vegetation) as a function of stand age...

  20. Empirical Analysis on The Existence of The Phillips Curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaari Mohd Shahidan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Phillips curve shows the trade-off relationship between the inflation and unemployment rates. A rise in inflation due to the high economic growth, more jobs are available and therefore unemployment will fall. However, the existence of the Phillips curve in high-income countries has not been much discussed. Countries with high income should have low unemployment rate, suggesting a high inflation. However, some high-income countries, the United States in 1970s for example, could not avert stagflation whereby high unemployment rate and inflation occurred in the same time. This situation is contrary to the Phillips curve. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the existence of the Phillips curve in high-income countries for the period 1990-2014 using the panel data analysis. The most interesting finding of this study is the existence of a bidirectional relationship between unemployment rate and inflation rate in both long and short runs. Therefore, the governments should choose to stabilize inflation rate or reduce unemployment rate

  1. Identification of Biokinetic Models Using the Concept of Extents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašić, Alma; Srinivasan, Sriniketh; Billeter, Julien; Bonvin, Dominique; Villez, Kris

    2017-07-05

    The development of a wide array of process technologies to enable the shift from conventional biological wastewater treatment processes to resource recovery systems is matched by an increasing demand for predictive capabilities. Mathematical models are excellent tools to meet this demand. However, obtaining reliable and fit-for-purpose models remains a cumbersome task due to the inherent complexity of biological wastewater treatment processes. In this work, we present a first study in the context of environmental biotechnology that adopts and explores the use of extents as a way to simplify and streamline the dynamic process modeling task. In addition, the extent-based modeling strategy is enhanced by optimal accounting for nonlinear algebraic equilibria and nonlinear measurement equations. Finally, a thorough discussion of our results explains the benefits of extent-based modeling and its potential to turn environmental process modeling into a highly automated task.

  2. Extent, accuracy, and credibility of breastfeeding information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Scott, Barbara J

    2005-05-01

    Our objective was to test and describe a model for evaluating Websites related to breastfeeding. Forty Websites most likely to be accessed by the public were evaluated for extent, accuracy, credibility, presentation, ease of use, and adherence to ethical and medical Internet publishing standards. Extent and accuracy of Website content were determined by a checklist of critical information. The majority of Websites reviewed provided accurate information and complied with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Approximately half the Websites complied with standards of medical Internet publishing. While much information on breastfeeding on the Internet is accurate, there is wide variability in the extent of information, usability of Websites, and compliance with standards of medical Internet publishing. Results of this study may be helpful to health care professionals as a model for evaluating breastfeeding-related Websites and to highlight considerations when recommending or designing Websites.

  3. String Sigma Models on Curved Supermanifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Catenacci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We use the techniques of integral forms to analyze the easiest example of two-dimensional sigma models on a supermanifold. We write the action as an integral of a top integral form over a D = 2 supermanifold, and we show how to interpolate between different superspace actions. Then, we consider curved supermanifolds, and we show that the definitions used for flat supermanifolds can also be used for curved supermanifolds. We prove it by first considering the case of a curved rigid supermanifold and then the case of a generic curved supermanifold described by a single superfield E.

  4. Regional Marginal Abatement Cost Curves for NOx

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data underlying the figures included in the manuscript "Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and...

  5. Triplet ultrasound growth parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Neeta L; Ruthazer, Robin; House, Michael; Chelmow, David

    2006-03-01

    To create ultrasound growth curves for normal growth of fetal triplets using statistical methodology that properly accounts for similarities of growth of fetuses within a mother as well as repeated measurements over time for each fetus. In this longitudinal study, all triplet pregnancies managed at a single tertiary center from 1992-2004 were reviewed. Fetuses with major anomalies, prior selective reduction, or fetal demise were excluded. Data from early and late gestation in which there were fewer than 30 fetal measurements available for analysis were excluded. We used multilevel models to account for variation in growth within a single fetus over time, variations in growth between multiple fetuses within a single mother, and variations in fetal growth between mothers. Medians (50th), 10th, and 90th percentiles were estimated by the creation of multiple quadratic growth models from bootstrap samples adapting a previously published method to compute prediction intervals. Estimated fetal weight was derived from Hadlock's formula. One hundred fifty triplet pregnancies were identified. Twenty-seven pregnancies were excluded for the following reasons: missing records (23), fetal demise (3), and fetal anomaly (1). The study group consisted of 123 pregnancies. The gestational age range was restricted to 14-34 weeks. Figures and tables were developed showing medians, 10th and 90th percentiles for estimated fetal weight, femur length, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference, and head circumference. Growth curves for triplet pregnancies were derived. These may be useful for identification of abnormal growth in triplet fetuses. III.

  6. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  7. Chaotic mixing in a planar, curved channel using periodic slip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, P.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel strategy for designing chaotic micromixers using curved channels confined between two flat planes. The location of the separatrix between the Dean vortices, induced by centrifugal forces, is dependent on the location of the maxima of axial velocity. An asymmetry in the axial velocity profile can change the location of the separatrix. This is achieved physically by introducing slip alternatingly at the top and bottom walls. This leads to streamline crossing and Lagrangian chaos. An approximate analytical solution of the velocity field is obtained using perturbation theory. This is used to find the Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles. Poincare sections taken at periodic locations in the axial direction are used to study the extent of chaos. We study two microchannel designs, called circlet and serpentine, in which the Dean vortices in adjacent half cells are co-rotating and counter-rotating, respectively. The extent of mixing, at low Re and low slip length, is shown to be greater in the serpentine case. Wide channels are observed to have much better mixing than tall channels; an important observation not made for separatrix flows till now. Eulerian indicators are used to gauge the extent of mixing, with varying slip length, and it is shown that an optimum slip length exists which maximizes the mixing in a particular geometry. Once the parameter space of relatively high mixing is identified, detailed variance computations are carried out to identify the detailed features

  8. Chaotic mixing in a planar, curved channel using periodic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, P.; Picardo, J. R.; Pushpavanam, S.

    2015-03-01

    We propose a novel strategy for designing chaotic micromixers using curved channels confined between two flat planes. The location of the separatrix between the Dean vortices, induced by centrifugal forces, is dependent on the location of the maxima of axial velocity. An asymmetry in the axial velocity profile can change the location of the separatrix. This is achieved physically by introducing slip alternatingly at the top and bottom walls. This leads to streamline crossing and Lagrangian chaos. An approximate analytical solution of the velocity field is obtained using perturbation theory. This is used to find the Lagrangian trajectories of fluid particles. Poincare sections taken at periodic locations in the axial direction are used to study the extent of chaos. We study two microchannel designs, called circlet and serpentine, in which the Dean vortices in adjacent half cells are co-rotating and counter-rotating, respectively. The extent of mixing, at low Re and low slip length, is shown to be greater in the serpentine case. Wide channels are observed to have much better mixing than tall channels; an important observation not made for separatrix flows till now. Eulerian indicators are used to gauge the extent of mixing, with varying slip length, and it is shown that an optimum slip length exists which maximizes the mixing in a particular geometry. Once the parameter space of relatively high mixing is identified, detailed variance computations are carried out to identify the detailed features.

  9. NEW CONCEPTS AND TEST METHODS OF CURVE PROFILE AREA DENSITY IN SURFACE: ESTIMATION OF AREAL DENSITY ON CURVED SPATIAL SURFACE

    OpenAIRE

    Hong Shen

    2011-01-01

    The concepts of curve profile, curve intercept, curve intercept density, curve profile area density, intersection density in containing intersection (or intersection density relied on intersection reference), curve profile intersection density in surface (or curve intercept intersection density relied on intersection of containing curve), and curve profile area density in surface (AS) were defined. AS expressed the amount of curve profile area of Y phase in the unit containing surface area, S...

  10. Polar representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo Antonio; Mattos, Joao Roberto Loureiro de

    2008-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic parameters: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. Any one of these quantities can be expressed as a function of any two others. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves, also referred to as four-quadrant curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, the four-quadrant configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the polar form appears as the simplest way to represent the homologous curves. In the polar method, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a

  11. LEVEL AND EXTENT OF MERCURY CONTAMINATION IN OREGON LOTIC FISH

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the U.S. EPA's EMAP Oregon Pilot project, we conducted a probability survey of 154 Oregon streams and rivers to assess the spatial extent of mercury (Hg) contamination in fish tissue across the state. Samples consisted of whole fish analyses of both small (< 120 mm) a...

  12. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  13. The Extent of Immature Fish Harvesting by the Commercial Fishery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sustainability of a given fishery is a function of the number of sexually matured fish present in water. If there is intensive immature fishing, the population of fish reaching the stage of recruitment will decrease, which in turn results in lower yield and biomass. The present study was conducted to estimate the extent of ...

  14. Does Trust Influence the Extent of Inter-Organizational Barter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2014-01-01

    The 1999 World Business Environment Survey investigated, among many other things, the extent of inter-organizational barter in various countries. Reported values differed a lot, e.g. it was less than 1% in Hungary but more than 30% in neighboring Croatia. Since in many such contracts goods and...

  15. Veterinary drug prescriptions: to what extent do pet owners comply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separate questionnaires were designed for pet owners (clients) and veterinarians to ascertain the existence and extent of noncompliance in veterinary practice in lbadan and to elucidate the influence of such factors as logistics, education, economy, attitudes and veterinarian/client relationship on non-compliance. Analyses ...

  16. Extent of reaction in open systems with multiple heterogeneous reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedly, John C.

    1991-01-01

    The familiar batch concept of extent of reaction is reexamined for systems of reactions occurring in open systems. Because species concentrations change as a result of transport processes as well as reactions in open systems, the extent of reaction has been less useful in practice in these applications. It is shown that by defining the extent of the equivalent batch reaction and a second contribution to the extent of reaction due to the transport processes, it is possible to treat the description of the dynamics of flow through porous media accompanied by many chemical reactions in a uniform, concise manner. This approach tends to isolate the reaction terms among themselves and away from the model partial differential equations, thereby enabling treatment of large problems involving both equilibrium and kinetically controlled reactions. Implications on the number of coupled partial differential equations necessary to be solved and on numerical algorithms for solving such problems are discussed. Examples provided illustrate the theory applied to solute transport in groundwater flow.

  17. Extent and Distribution of Groundwater Resources in Parts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extent and distribution of groundwater resources in parts of Anambra State, Nigeria has been investigated. The results show that the study area is directly underlain by four different geological formations including, Alluvial Plain Sands, Ogwashi-Asaba Formation, Ameki/Nanka Sands and Imo Shale, with varying water ...

  18. Extent of implementation of collection development policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a survey research on the extent of implementation of collection development policies in academic libraries in Imo state. The population of the study comprises five (5) academic libraries in the area of study. The academic libraries understudy are: Imo State University Owerri (IMSU), Federal University of ...

  19. An investigation into Nigerian teacher's attitude towards and extent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The attitude of Biology teachers towards and their extent of improvisation, were investigated 80 teachers from 50 randomly selected secondary schools in Oyo state of Nigeria participated in the study. Analysis of the twenty item questionnaire administered to the teachers revealed that though many of them exhibited positive ...

  20. Extent of implementation of Collection Development Policies (CDP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the extent of implementation of collection development policies by public University libraries in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed. Population for the study consisted of all the 16 Colle ction Development Librarians in the Area studied. No sample was used because the ...

  1. The extent of groundwater use for domestic and irrigation activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKMENSAH

    2015-06-04

    Jun 4, 2015 ... Albert Kobina Mensah1*, Evans Appiah Kissi2, Kwabena Krah3 and Okoree D. Mireku4. 1Department of Geography, Kenyatta University, Nairobi. 2Department of .... catchment in Kiambu County in Kenya had limited themselves to the assessment of water quality. Little work has been done on the extent to ...

  2. Forest extent and deforestation in tropical Africa since 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Julie C; Jarzyna, Marta A; Staver, A Carla

    2018-01-01

    Accurate estimates of historical forest extent and associated deforestation rates are crucial for quantifying tropical carbon cycles and formulating conservation policy. In Africa, data-driven estimates of historical closed-canopy forest extent and deforestation at the continental scale are lacking, and existing modelled estimates diverge substantially. Here, we synthesize available palaeo-proxies and historical maps to reconstruct forest extent in tropical Africa around 1900, when European colonization accelerated markedly, and compare these historical estimates with modern forest extent to estimate deforestation. We find that forests were less extensive in 1900 than bioclimatic models predict. Resultantly, across tropical Africa, ~ 21.7% of forests have been deforested, yielding substantially slower deforestation than previous estimates (35-55%). However, deforestation was heterogeneous: West and East African forests have undergone almost complete decline (~ 83.3 and 93.0%, respectively), while Central African forests have expanded at the expense of savannahs (~ 1.4% net forest expansion, with ~ 135,270 km 2 of savannahs encroached). These results suggest that climate alone does not determine savannah and forest distributions and that many savannahs hitherto considered to be degraded forests are instead relatively old. These data-driven reconstructions of historical biome distributions will inform tropical carbon cycle estimates, carbon mitigation initiatives and conservation planning in both forest and savannah systems.

  3. The Extent of Reversibility of Polychlorinated Biphenyl Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    The extent of reversibility of PCB bonding to sediments has been characterized in studies on the partitioning behavior of a hexachlorobiphenyl isomer. Linear non-singular isotherms have been observed for the adsorption and desorption of 2.4.5.2?,4?,5? hexachlorobiphenyl (HCBP) to...

  4. The Extent of Educational Technology's Influence on Contemporary Educational Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bradford-Watts

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how advances in educational technologies have influenced contemporary educational practices.It discusses the nature of educational technology, the limitations imposed by the digital divide and other factors of uptake, and the factors leading to successful implementation of educational technologies.The extent of influence is then discussed,together with the probable implications for educational sites for the future.

  5. Determining wetland spatial extent and seasonal variations of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study, done in the Witbank Dam Catchment in Mpumalanga Province of South Africa, explores a remote-sensing technique to delineate wetland extent and assesses the seasonal variations of the inundated area. The objective was to monitor the spatio-temporal changes of wetlands over time through remote sensing ...

  6. 32 CFR 728.12 - Extent of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 728.12 Extent of care. Members who are away from their duty stations or are on duty where there is no... providing authorization for non-Federal care at DHHS expense. (b) Maternity episode for active duty female... facilities (once the mother has been admitted to the USMTF) from funds available for care of active duty...

  7. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of relief. 24.158 Section 24.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT..., until all tax is fully paid. (d) Wine vinegar plant bond. The surety will be relieved of liability for...

  8. Ablation front rayleigh taylor dispersion curve in indirect drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budil, K.S.; Lasinski, B.; Edwards, M.J.; Wan, A.S.; Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Glendinning, S.G.; Suter, L.; Stry, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability, which occurs when a lower-density fluid accelerates a higher-density layer, is common in nature. At an ablation front a sharp reduction in the growth rate of the instability at short wave-lengths can occur, in marked contrast to the classical case where growth rates are highest at the shortest wavelengths. Theoretical and numerical investigations of the ablative RT instability are numerous and differ considerably on the level of stabilization expected. We present here the results of a series of laser experiments designed to probe the roll-over and cutoff region of the ablation-front RT dispersion curve in indirect drive. Aluminum foils with imposed sinusoidal perturbations ranging in wavelength from 10 to 70 pm were ablatively accelerated with a radiation drive generated in a gold cylindrical hohlraum. A strong shock wave compresses the package followed by an ∼2 ns period of roughly constant acceleration and the experiment is diagnosed via face-on radiography. Perturbations with wavelengths (ge) 20 (micro)m experienced substantial growth during the acceleration phase while shorter wavelengths showed a sharp drop off in overall growth. These experimental results compared favorably to calculations with a 2-D radiation-hydrodynamics code, however, the growth is significantly affected by the rippled shock launched by the drive. We performed numerical simulations to elucidate the influence of the rippled shock wave on the eventual growth of the perturbations, allowing comparisons to the analytic model developed by Betti et al. This combination of experiments, simulations and analytic modeling illustrates the qualitative simplicity yet quantitative complexity of the compressible RT instability. We have measured the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) dispersion curve for a radiatively-driven sample in a series of experiments on the Nova laser facility. Planar aluminum foils were ablatively-accelerated and the subsequent perturbation growth was

  9. Análise de agrupamento na seleção de modelos de regressão não-lineares para curvas de crescimento de ovinos cruzados Cluster analysis applied to nonlinear regression models selection to growth curves of crossed lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gomes da Silveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo utilizar a análise de agrupamento para classificar modelos de regressão não-lineares usados para descrever a curva de crescimento de ovinos cruzados, tendo em vista os resultados de diferentes avaliadores de qualidade de ajuste. Para tanto, utilizaram-se dados de peso-idade dos seguintes cruzamentos entre raças de ovinos de corte: Dorper x Morada Nova, Dorper x Rabo Largo e Dorper x Santa Inês. Após a indicação do melhor modelo, objetivou-se ainda aplicar a técnica de identidade de modelos a fim de identificar o cruzamento mais produtivo. Foram ajustados doze modelos não-lineares, cuja qualidade de ajuste foi medida pelo coeficiente de determinação ajustado, critérios de informação de Akaike e Bayesiano, erro quadrático médio de predição e coeficiente de determinação de predição. A análise de agrupamento indicou o modelo Richards como o mais adequado para descrever as curvas de crescimento dos três grupos genéticos considerados, e os testes de identidade de modelos indicaram o cruzamento Dorper x Santa Inês como sendo o mais indicado para a pecuária local.This study had the objectives to use the cluster analysis in order to classify nonlinear regression models used to describe the growth curve in relation to different quality fit evaluators. Were utilized weight-age data from the following crossbred beef lambs Dorper x Morada Nova, Dorper x Rabo Largo e Dorper x Santa Inês. After the choice of the best model, we aimed also to apply the model identity in order to identify the most efficient crossbred group. Eleven nonlinear models were used, whose fit quality was measured by determination coefficient, Akaike information criterion, Bayesian information criterion, mean quadratic error of prediction and predicted determination coefficient. The cluster analysis indicated the Richards as the best model for the three data sets, and the model identity tests revealed that the Dorper x Santa In

  10. Mechanism based evaluation of materials behavior and reference curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Saario, T.; Wallin, K.; Forsten, J.

    1984-01-01

    The safety assessment of nuclear pressure vessels and piping requires a quantitative estimation of defect growth by stable and unstable manner during service. This estimation is essential for determining whether the defect detected during inspection should be repaired or whether the size of the defect even after its expected growth is small enough to leave the integrity of the vessel unaffected. The most important stable defect growth mechanism is that of environmentally assisted cyclic crack growth. Recent results indicate that it is markedly affected by sulfur content and/or manganese sulfide morphology and distribution. This implies that an essential improvement in component safety has been gained by currently applied steelmaking practices, which result in extra low sulfur content, generally below 0.01 wt%, and in round shape and small size of inclusions, through, e.g., calcium treatment, hence considerably reducing the effect of environment on crack growth rate. This further implies that the ASME Section XI reference curves for environmentally accelerated cyclic crack growth are conservative for steels produced by current steelmaking practices. (orig./WL)

  11. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...

  12. Learning curves in energy planning models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L; Kypreos, S [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    This study describes the endogenous representation of investment cost learning curves into the MARKAL energy planning model. A piece-wise representation of the learning curves is implemented using Mixed Integer Programming. The approach is briefly described and some results are presented. (author) 3 figs., 5 refs.

  13. The Koch curve as a smooth manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, Marcelo; Sniatycki, Jedrzej

    2008-01-01

    We show that there exists a homeomorphism between the closed interval [0,1] is contained in R and the Koch curve endowed with the subset topology of R 2 . We use this homeomorphism to endow the Koch curve with the structure of a smooth manifold with boundary

  14. Fermionic fields on ZN-curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bershadsky, M.; Radul, A.

    1988-01-01

    The line bundles of degree g-1 on Z N -curves corresponding to 1/N nonsingular characteristics are considered. The determinants of Dirac operators defined on these line bundles are evaluated in terms of branch points. The generalization of Thomae's formula for Z N -curves is derived. (orig.)

  15. Measuring Model Rocket Engine Thrust Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Kim; Slaton, William V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method and setup to quickly and easily measure a model rocket engine's thrust curve using a computer data logger and force probe. Horst describes using Vernier's LabPro and force probe to measure the rocket engine's thrust curve; however, the method of attaching the rocket to the force probe is not discussed. We show how a…

  16. A minicourse on moduli of curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Looijenga, E.

    2000-01-01

    These are notes that accompany a short course given at the School on Algebraic Geometry 1999 at the ICTP, Trieste. A major goal is to outline various approaches to moduli spaces of curves. In the last part I discuss the algebraic classes that naturally live on these spaces; these can be thought of as the characteristic classes for bundles of curves. (author)

  17. Minimal families of curves on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Lubbes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    A minimal family of curves on an embedded surface is defined as a 1-dimensional family of rational curves of minimal degree, which cover the surface. We classify such minimal families using constructive methods. This allows us to compute the minimal

  18. Symmetry Properties of Potentiometric Titration Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macca, Carlo; Bombi, G. Giorgio

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates how the symmetry properties of titration curves can be efficiently and rigorously treated by means of a simple method, assisted by the use of logarithmic diagrams. Discusses the symmetry properties of several typical titration curves, comparing the graphical approach and an explicit mathematical treatment. (Author/JM)

  19. Deep-learnt classification of light curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahabal, Ashish; Gieseke, Fabian; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy light curves are sparse, gappy, and heteroscedastic. As a result standard time series methods regularly used for financial and similar datasets are of little help and astronomers are usually left to their own instruments and techniques to classify light curves. A common approach is to d...

  20. Hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces ‘hyper-and-elliptic-curve cryptography’, in which a single high-security group supports fast genus-2-hyperelliptic-curve formulas for variable-base-point single-scalar multiplication (for example, Diffie–Hellman shared-secret computation) and at the same time supports fast

  1. Curve Matching with Applications in Medical Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Martin; Bruveris, Martins; Harms, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, Riemannian shape analysis of curves and surfaces has found several applications in medical image analysis. In this paper we present a numerical discretization of second order Sobolev metrics on the space of regular curves in Euclidean space. This class of metrics has several...

  2. A novel method to calculate the extent and amount of drug transported into CSF after intranasal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenqi; Zhang, Qizhi; Jiang, Xinguo

    2005-01-31

    The aim of this paper is to establish a novel method to calculate the extent and amount of drug transported to brain after administration. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was chosen as the target region. The intranasal administration of meptazinol hydrochloride (MEP) was chosen as the model administration and intravenous administration was selected as reference. According to formula transform, the extent was measured by the equation of X(A)CSF, infinity/X0 = Cl(CSF) AUC(0-->infinity)CSF/X0 and the drug amount was calculated by multiplying the dose with the extent. The drug clearance in CSF (Cl(CSF)) was calculated by a method, in which a certain volume of MEP solution was injected directly into rat cistern magna and then clearance was assessed as the reciprocal of the zeroth moment of a CSF level-time curve normalized for dose. In order to testify the accurateness of the method, 14C-sucrose was chosen as reference because of its impermeable characteristic across blood-brain barrier (BBB). It was found out that the MEP concentrations in plasma and CSF after intranasal administration did not show significant difference with those after intravenous administration. However, the extent and amount of MEP transported to CSF was significantly lower compared with those to plasma after these two administrations. In conclusion, the method can be applied to measure the extent and amount of drug transported to CSF, which would be useful to evaluate brain-targeting drug delivery.

  3. Head-circumference distribution in a large primary care network differs from CDC and WHO curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daymont, Carrie; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Feudtner, Chris; Rubin, David

    2010-10-01

    To compare currently available head-circumference growth curves to curves constructed from clinical measurements from patients in a large US primary care network (PCN). We performed a retrospective cohort study of 75 412 patients in an urban-suburban PCN. Patients with a birth weight of curves. The PCN curves were most similar to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) curves and were substantially different from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) curves. The overall proportion of observations above the 95th percentile was 4.9% (PCN), 6.2% (NCHS), 8.6% (CDC), and 14.0% (WHO). The proportion below the 5th percentile was 4.4% (PCN), 5.1% (NCHS), 2.9% (CDC), and 2.3% (WHO). When using the CDC curves, the proportion above the 95th percentile increased from 0.2% for children younger than 2 weeks to 11.8% for children 12 months old. When using the WHO curves, the proportion above the 95th percentile was >5% at all ages, with a maximum of 18.0% for children older than 24 months. The CDC and WHO head-circumference curves describe different distributions than the clinical measurements in our PCN population, especially for children with larger heads. The resulting percentile misclassification may delay diagnosis in children with intracranial pathology in very young infants and spur unnecessary evaluation of healthy children older than 6 months.

  4. The extent of immission damage to coniferous forests in the GDR around the year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, E.

    1991-01-01

    The economic effects of air pollution extend to the economic result of forestry and also directly to the state of forests; the latter damage includes loss of supplies, growth and unsuitability for felling and the adverse effect on forests as a place for rest and recreation. In this publication, results of calculations on the extent of this damage to the coniferous forests of the former DDR (differentiated according to spruce and pine and to the degree of damage) are submitted. The knowledge of the amount of this damage is of economic and forestry policy interest and it is gaining increasing trade importance. (orig.) [de

  5. Remote sensing used for power curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, R; Joergensen, H E; Paulsen, U S; Larsen, T J; Antoniou, I; Thesbjerg, L

    2008-01-01

    Power curve measurement for large wind turbines requires taking into account more parameters than only the wind speed at hub height. Based on results from aerodynamic simulations, an equivalent wind speed taking the wind shear into account was defined and found to reduce the power standard deviation in the power curve significantly. Two LiDARs and a SoDAR are used to measure the wind profile in front of a wind turbine. These profiles are used to calculate the equivalent wind speed. The comparison of the power curves obtained with the three instruments to the traditional power curve, obtained using a cup anemometer measurement, confirms the results obtained from the simulations. Using LiDAR profiles reduces the error in power curve measurement, when these are used as relative instrument together with a cup anemometer. Results from the SoDAR do not show such promising results, probably because of noisy measurements resulting in distorted profiles

  6. [Chinese neonatal birth weight curve for different gestational age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Zhang, Rong; Zhang, Shulian; Shi, Wenjing; Yan, Weili; Wang, Xiaoli; Lyu, Qin; Liu, Ling; Zhou, Qin; Qiu, Quanfang; Li, Xiaoying; He, Haiying; Wang, Jimei; Li, Ruichun; Lu, Jiarong; Yin, Zhaoqing; Su, Ping; Lin, Xinzhu; Guo, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shujun; Xin, Hua; Han, Yanqing; Wang, Hongyun; Chen, Dongmei; Li, Zhankui; Wang, Huiqin; Qiu, Yinping; Liu, Huayan; Yang, Jie; Yang, Xiaoli; Li, Mingxia; Li, Wenjing; Han, Shuping; Cao, Bei; Yi, Bin; Zhang, Yihui; Chen, Chao

    2015-02-01

    Since 1986, the reference of birth weight for gestational age has not been updated. The aim of this study was to set up Chinese neonatal network to investigate the current situation of birth weight in China, especially preterm birth weight, to develop the new reference for birth weight for gestational age and birth weight curve. A nationwide neonatology network was established in China. This survey was carried out in 63 hospitals of 23 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. We continuously collected the information of live births in participating hospitals during the study period of 2011-2014. Data describing birth weight and gestational age were collected prospectively. Newborn's birth weight was measured by electronic scale within 2 hours after birth when baby was undressed. The evaluation of gestational age was based on the combination of mother's last menstrual period, ultrasound in first trimester and gestational age estimation by gestational age scoring system. the growth curve was drawn by using LMSP method, which was conducted in GAMLSS 1.9-4 software package in R software 2.11.1. A total of 159 334 newborn infants were enrolled in this study. There were 84 447 male and 74 907 female. The mean birth weight was (3 232 ± 555) g, the mean birth weight of male newborn was (3 271 ± 576) g, the mean weight of female newborn was (3 188 ± 528) g. The test of the variables' distribution suggested that the distribution of gestational age and birth weight did not fit the normal distribution, the optimal distribution for them was BCT distribution. The Q-Q plot test and worm plot test suggested that this curve fitted the distribution optimally. The male and female neonatal birth weight curve was developed using the same method. Using GAMLSS method to establish nationwide neonatal birth weight curve, and the first time to update the birth weight reference in recent 28 years.

  7. [New population curves in spanish extremely preterm neonates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Muñoz Rodrigo, F; García-Alix Pérez, A; Figueras Aloy, J; Saavedra Santana, P

    2014-08-01

    Most anthropometric reference data for extremely preterm infants used in Spain are outdated and based on non-Spanish populations, or are derived from small hospital-based samples that failed to include neonates of borderline viability. To develop gender-specific, population-based curves for birth weight, length, and head circumference in extremely preterm Caucasian infants, using a large contemporary sample size of Spanish singletons. Anthropometric data from neonates ≤ 28 weeks of gestational age were collected between January 2002 and December 2010 using the Spanish database SEN1500. Gestational age was estimated according to obstetric data (early pregnancy ultrasound). The data were analyzed with the SPSS.20 package, and centile tables were created for males and females using the Cole and Green LMS method. This study presents the first population-based growth curves for extremely preterm infants, including those of borderline viability, in Spain. A sexual dimorphism is evident for all of the studied parameters, starting at early gestation. These new gender-specific and population-based data could be useful for the improvement of growth assessments of extremely preterm infants in our country, for the development of epidemiological studies, for the evaluation of temporal trends, and for clinical or public health interventions seeking to optimize fetal growth. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Parametric representation of centrifugal pump homologous curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, Marcelo A.; Mattos, Joao R.L. de

    2015-01-01

    Essential for any mathematical model designed to simulate flow transient events caused by pump operations is the pump performance data. The performance of a centrifugal pump is characterized by four basic quantities: the rotational speed, the volumetric flow rate, the dynamic head, and the hydraulic torque. The curves showing the relationships between these four variables are called the pump characteristic curves. The characteristic curves are empirically developed by the pump manufacturer and uniquely describe head and torque as functions of volumetric flow rate and rotation speed. Because of comprising a large amount of points, this configuration is not suitable for computational purposes. However, it can be converted to a simpler form by the development of the homologous curves, in which dynamic head and hydraulic torque ratios are expressed as functions of volumetric flow and rotation speed ratios. The numerical use of the complete set of homologous curves requires specification of sixteen partial curves, being eight for the dynamic head and eight for the hydraulic torque. As a consequence, the handling of homologous curves is still somewhat complicated. In solving flow transient problems that require the pump characteristic data for all the operation zones, the parametric form appears as the simplest way to deal with the homologous curves. In this approach, the complete characteristics of a pump can be described by only two closed curves, one for the dynamic head and other for the hydraulic torque, both in function of a single angular coordinate defined adequately in terms of the quotient between volumetric flow ratio and rotation speed ratio. The usefulness and advantages of this alternative method are demonstrated through a practical example in which the homologous curves for a pump of the type used in the main coolant loops of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) are transformed to the parametric form. (author)

  9. Effect of electronic spatial extents (ESE) of ions on overpotential of lithium ion capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Fan; Lee, Chung ho; Koo, Chong Min; Jung, Cheolsoo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Electronic spatial extent (ESE) of ion characterizes its electron density volume. •The ESE of ion proposes to assess overpotential of nanoporous capacitor. •Anion with low ESE shows low overpotential of the capacitor. •The ESE is more realistic to assess overpotential than conductivity or ion size. -- Abstract: The electronic spatial extent (ESE) of ions was defined as a major concept for assessing the cause of overpotential in the charging and discharging processes of a nanoporous activated carbon (AC) electrode. The performance degradation of AC/Li half-cells was caused by the overpotential, which was in discord with the electrolyte conductivity and ion size. Compared to the overpotential with the salt concentration, the AC/Li half-cell with a high concentration had a smaller overpotential, and its discharge patterns were similar to the curves obtained from the half-cells with a smaller ESE of BF 4 − ion. The ESE is a more realistic solution for determining the overpotential of the nanoporous capacitor, such as supercapacitor and Li ion capacitor, because its capacity is dependent on the electron density at the electric double layer of the capacitor electrode

  10. Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afouxenidis, D; Polymeris, G S; Tsirliganis, N C; Kitis, G

    2012-05-01

    This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the GLOw Curve ANalysis INtercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters.

  11. Computerised curve deconvolution of TL/OSL curves using a popular spreadsheet program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afouxenidis, D.; Polymeris, G. S.; Tsirliganis, N. C.; Kitis, G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits the possibility of using commercial software for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence curve deconvolution analysis. The widely used software package Microsoft Excel, with the Solver utility has been used to perform deconvolution analysis to both experimental and reference glow curves resulted from the Glow Curve Analysis Intercomparison project. The simple interface of this programme combined with the powerful Solver utility, allows the analysis of complex stimulated luminescence curves into their components and the evaluation of the associated luminescence parameters. (authors)

  12. Assessing the Global Extent of Rivers Observable by SWOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, T.; Durand, M. T.; Andreadis, K.; Beighley, E.; Allen, G. H.; Miller, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Flow of water through rivers is among the key fluxes in the global hydrologic cycle and its knowledge would advance the understanding of flood hazards, water resources management, ecology, and climate. However, gauges providing publicly accessible measurements of river stage or discharge remain sparse in many regions. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission is a joint project of NASA and the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) that would provide the first high-resolution images of simultaneous terrestrial water surface height, inundation extent, and ocean surface elevation. Among SWOT's primary goals is the direct observation of variations in river water surface elevation and, where possible, estimation of river discharge from SWOT measurements. The mission science requirements specify that rivers wider than 100 m would be observed globally, with a goal of observing rivers wider than 50m. However, the extent of anticipated SWOT river observations remains fundamentally unknown because no high-resolution, global dataset of river widths exists. Here, we estimate the global extent of rivers wider than 50 m-100 m thresholds using established relationships among river width, discharge, and drainage area. We combine a global digital elevation model with in situ river discharge data to estimate the global extent of SWOT-observable rivers, and validate these estimates against satellite-derived measurements of river width in two large river basins (the Yukon and the Ohio). We then compare the extent of SWOT-observed rivers with the current publicly-available, global gauge network included in the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC) database to examine the impact of SWOT on the availability of river observation over continental and global scales. Results suggest that if SWOT observes 100 m wide rivers, river basins with areas greater than 50,000 km2 will commonly be measured. If SWOT could observe 50 m wide rivers, then most 10,000 km2 basins

  13. Mannheim Partner D-Curves in the Euclidean 3-space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kazaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the idea of Mannheim partner curves for curves lying on surfaces. By considering the Darboux frames of surface curves, we define Mannheim partner D-curves and give the characterizations for these curves. We also find the relations between geodesic curvatures, normal curvatures and geodesic torsions of these associated curves. Furthermore, we show that definition and characterizations of Mannheim partner D-curves include those of Mannheim partner curves in some special cases.

  14. Experimental R-curve behavior in partially stabilized zirconia using moiracute e interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.E.; Okada, H.; Atluri, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    Moiracute e interferometry is employed to study toughening in partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ). Energy to fracture as a function of crack growth curves (R-curves) is derived from mode I compliance calculations and from near tip fitting of the moiracute e fringes. The effect of the tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation in the zirconia is found by comparing the bulk compliance R-curves to the locally derived moiracute e R-curve. Localized strain field plots are produced from the moiracute e data for the PSZ zirconia. The observed transformation zone height compares favorably with that predicted by Okada et al. in a companion paper, as does the qualitative nature of the R-curve with predictions by Stump and Budiansky

  15. A versatile curve-fit model for linear to deeply concave rank abundance curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuteboom, J.H.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    A new, flexible curve-fit model for linear to concave rank abundance curves was conceptualized and validated using observational data. The model links the geometric-series model and log-series model and can also fit deeply concave rank abundance curves. The model is based ¿ in an unconventional way

  16. S-curve networks and an approximate method for estimating degree distributions of complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Jin-Li

    2010-01-01

    In the study of complex networks almost all theoretical models have the property of infinite growth, but the size of actual networks is finite. According to statistics from the China Internet IPv4 (Internet Protocol version 4) addresses, this paper proposes a forecasting model by using S curve (Logistic curve). The growing trend of IPv4 addresses in China is forecasted. There are some reference value for optimizing the distribution of IPv4 address resource and the development of IPv6. Based o...

  17. Fixing the Phillips curve: The case of downward nominal wage rigidity in the US

    OpenAIRE

    Reitz, Stefan; Slopek, Ulf D.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas microeconomic studies point to pronounced downward rigidity of nominal wages in the US economy, the standard Phillips curve neglects such a feature. Using a stochastic frontier model we find macroeconomic evidence of a strictly nonnegative error in an otherwise standard Phillips curve in post-war data on the US nonfinancial corporate sector. This error depends on growth in the profit ratio, output, and trend productivity, which should all determine the flexibility of wage adjustments....

  18. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate...... measurement and visual and quantitative assessment of CT, from which the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910) was extracted. RESULTS: Mean RA-910 was 7.4% (n = 5) in patients with GOLD stage I, 17.0% (n = 119) in stage II, 24.2% (n = 79) in stage III and 33.9% (n = 6) in stage IV....... Regression analysis showed a change in RA-910 of 7.8% with increasing severity according to GOLD stage (P emphysema, whereas 25 patients had no emphysema. CONCLUSION: The extent of emphysema...

  19. Extent of hippocampal atrophy predicts degree of deficit in recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patai, Eva Zita; Gadian, David G; Cooper, Janine M; Dzieciol, Anna M; Mishkin, Mortimer; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh

    2015-10-13

    Which specific memory functions are dependent on the hippocampus is still debated. The availability of a large cohort of patients who had sustained relatively selective hippocampal damage early in life enabled us to determine which type of mnemonic deficit showed a correlation with extent of hippocampal injury. We assessed our patient cohort on a test that provides measures of recognition and recall that are equated for difficulty and found that the patients' performance on the recall tests correlated significantly with their hippocampal volumes, whereas their performance on the equally difficult recognition tests did not and, indeed, was largely unaffected regardless of extent of hippocampal atrophy. The results provide new evidence in favor of the view that the hippocampus is essential for recall but not for recognition.

  20. A report on the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    A market survey was carried out to study the extent of radioisotope usage in Malaysia. From the survey, the radioisotopes and their activities/quantities that are used in Industry, Medicine and Research were identified. The radioisotopes that are frequently needed or routinely used were also determined and this formed the basis of the recommendations put forward in this report. It is proposed that PUSPATI adopt the concept of a Distribution Centre in order to provide a service to the Malaysian community. (author)

  1. The extent and impact of outsourcing: evidence from Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Craig P. Aubuchon; Subhayu Bandyopadhyay; Sumon Bhaumik

    2012-01-01

    The authors use data from several sources, including plant-level data from the manufacturing sector in Germany, to expand the literature on outsourcing. They find that, in Germany, the extent of outsourcing among manufacturing industries is higher than among service industries and that the outsourcing intensity of these industries did not change much between 1995 and 2005. They also find a statistically significantly positive impact of industry-level outsourcing intensity on German plant-leve...

  2. Statistics of Radial Ship Extent as Seen by a Seeker

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Auckland in pure and applied mathematics and physics, and a Master of Science in physics from the same university with a thesis in applied accelerator...does not demand contributions from two angle bins to one extent bin, unlike the rectangle; this is a very big advantage of the ellipse model. However...waveform that mimics the full length of a ship. This allows more economical use to be made of available false-target generation resources. I wish to

  3. Investigation of learning and experience curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krawiec, F.; Thornton, J.; Edesess, M.

    1980-04-01

    The applicability of learning and experience curves for predicting future costs of solar technologies is assessed, and the major test case is the production economics of heliostats. Alternative methods for estimating cost reductions in systems manufacture are discussed, and procedures for using learning and experience curves to predict costs are outlined. Because adequate production data often do not exist, production histories of analogous products/processes are analyzed and learning and aggregated cost curves for these surrogates estimated. If the surrogate learning curves apply, they can be used to estimate solar technology costs. The steps involved in generating these cost estimates are given. Second-generation glass-steel and inflated-bubble heliostat design concepts, developed by MDAC and GE, respectively, are described; a costing scenario for 25,000 units/yr is detailed; surrogates for cost analysis are chosen; learning and aggregate cost curves are estimated; and aggregate cost curves for the GE and MDAC designs are estimated. However, an approach that combines a neoclassical production function with a learning-by-doing hypothesis is needed to yield a cost relation compatible with the historical learning curve and the traditional cost function of economic theory.

  4. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki [CRC Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public`s attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public`s attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author).

  5. Regional Mapping of Plantation Extent Using Multisensor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbick, N.; Ledoux, L.; Hagen, S.; Salas, W.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial forest plantations are expanding rapidly across the tropics and monitoring extent is critical for understanding environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In this study, new, multisensor imagery were evaluated and integrated to extract the strengths of each sensor for mapping plantation extent at regional scales. Three distinctly different landscapes with multiple plantation types were chosen to consider scalability and transferability. These were Tanintharyi, Myanmar, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and southern Ghana. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2), and Sentinel-1A images were fused within a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) framework using random forest and high-resolution surveys. Multi-criteria evaluations showed both L-and C-band gamma nought γ° backscatter decibel (dB), Landsat reflectance ρλ, and texture indices were useful for distinguishing oil palm and rubber plantations from other land types. The classification approach identified 750,822 ha or 23% of the Taninathryi, Myanmar, and 216,086 ha or 25% of western West Kalimantan as plantation with very high cross validation accuracy. The mapping approach was scalable and transferred well across the different geographies and plantation types. As archives for Sentinel-1, Landsat-8, and PALSAR-2 continue to grow, mapping plantation extent and dynamics at moderate resolution over large regions should be feasible.

  6. To what extent can the nuclear public relations be effective?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Teruaki

    1996-01-01

    The effect of public relations (PRs) on the public's attitude to nuclear energy was assessed using a model developed under the assumption that the extent of attitude change of the public by the PRs activity is essentially the same as that by the nuclear information released by the newsmedia. The attitude change of the public was quantitatively estimated by setting variables explicitly manifesting the activities such as the circulation of exclusive publicity and the area of advertising messages in the newspaper as parameters. The public's attitude became clear to have a nonlinear dependence on the amount of activity, the extent of its change being varied considerably with demographic classes. Under a given financial condition, the offer of PRs information to the people, as many as possible in a target region, in spite of its little force of appeal, was found to be more effective for the amelioration of public attitude than the repeated offer of the information to a limited member of the public. It also became clear that there exists the most effective media mix for the activity depending on the extent of target region and on the target class of demography, therefore, it is quite significant to determine beforehand the proper conditions for the activity to be executed, such a situation indicating the need for the introduction of nuclear PRs management. (Author)

  7. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  8. Monitoring the Extent of Forests on National to Global Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, J.; Townshend, J.; Hansen, M.; DeFries, R.; DeFries, R.; Sohlberg, R.; Desch, A.; White, B.

    2001-05-01

    Information on forest extent and change is important for many purposes, including understanding the global carbon cycle and managing natural resources. International statistics on forest extent are generated using many different sources often producing inconsistent results spatially and through time. Results will be presented comparing forest extent derived from the recent global Food and Agricultural Organization's (FAO) FRA 2000 report with products derived using wall-to-wall Landsat, AVHRR and MODIS data sets. The remotely sensed data sets provide consistent results in terms of total area despite considerable differences in spatial resolution. Although the location of change can be satisfactorily detected with all three remotely sensed data sets, reliable measurement of change can only be achieved through use of Landsat-resolution data. Contrary to the FRA 2000 results we find evidence of an increase in deforestation rates in the late 1990s in several countries. Also we have found evidence of considerable changes in some countries for which little or no change is reported by FAO. The results indicate the benefits of globally consistent analyses of forest cover based on multiscale remotely sensed data sets rather than a reliance on statistics generated by individual countries with very different definitions of forest and methods used to derive them.

  9. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne; Bach, Karen Skjoelstrup; Tonnesen, Philip; Dirksen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate this extent to the GOLD stage of airway obstruction. We included 209 patients with COPD. COPD was defined as FEV(1)/FVC or=20 pack-years. Patients were assessed by lung function measurement and visual and quantitative assessment of CT, from which the relative area of emphysema below -910 Hounsfield units (RA-910) was extracted. Mean RA-910 was 7.4% (n = 5) in patients with GOLD stage I, 17.0% (n = 119) in stage II, 24.2% (n = 79) in stage III and 33.9% (n = 6) in stage IV. Regression analysis showed a change in RA-910 of 7.8% with increasing severity according to GOLD stage (P < 0.001). Combined visual and quantitative assessment of CT showed that 184 patients had radiological evidence of emphysema, whereas 25 patients had no emphysema. The extent of emphysema increases with increasing severity of COPD and most patients with COPD have emphysema. Tissue destruction by emphysema is therefore an important determinant of disease severity in COPD.

  10. Modelling curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soloninko K.S.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the issue of functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. Settlement of the problem, and its connection with important scientific and practical tasks. According to its nature, the market economy is unstable and is in constant movement. Economy has an effective instrument for explanation of changes in economic environment; this tool is called the modelling of economic processes. The modelling of economic processes depends first and foremost on the building of economic model which is the base for the formalization of economic process, that is, the building of mathematical model. The effective means for formalization of economic process is the creation of the model of hypothetic or imaginary economy. The building of demand model is significant for the market of goods and services. The problem includes the receiving (as the result of modelling definite functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand according to which one can determine their mathematical model. Another problem lies in obtaining majorant properties of curves of joint demand on the market of goods and services. Analysis of the latest researches and publications. Many domestic and foreign scientists dedicated their studies to the researches and building of the models of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand. In spite of considerable work of the scientists, such problems as functional properties of the curves and their practical use in modelling. The purpose of the article is to describe functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand on the market of goods and services on the base of modelling of their building. Scientific novelty and practical value. The theoretical regulations (for functional properties of curves of manufacturing feasibilities and demand received as a result of the present research, that is convexity, give extra practical possibilities in a microeconomic

  11. Reflected Light Curves of Extrasolar Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, D.; Matthews, J.; Kuschnig, R.; Seager, S.

    The planned launches of ultra-precise photometric satellites such as MOST, COROT and MONS should provide the first opportunity to study the reflected light curves from extrasolar planets. To predict the capabilities of these missions, we have constructed a series of models of such light curves, improving upon the Monte Carlo simulations by Seager et al. (2000). These models include more realistic features such limb darkening of the star and broad band photometry. For specific models, the resulting planet light curves exhibit unique behavior with the variation of radius, inclination and presence or absence of clouds.

  12. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  13. Morse theory on timelike and causal curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everson, J.; Talbot, C.J.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the set of timelike curves in a globally hyperbolic space-time manifold can be given the structure of a Hilbert manifold under a suitable definition of 'timelike.' The causal curves are the topological closure of this manifold. The Lorentzian energy (corresponding to Milnor's energy, except that the Lorentzian inner product is used) is shown to be a Morse function for the space of causal curves. A fixed end point index theorem is obtained in which a lower bound for the index of the Hessian of the Lorentzian energy is given in terms of the sum of the orders of the conjugate points between the end points. (author)

  14. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Lemming, Jørgen Kjærgaard

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available...... to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted...

  15. Curves of restricted type in euclidean spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Kılıç Bayram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Submanifolds of restricted type were introduced in [7]. In the present study we consider restricted type of curves in Em. We give some special examples. We also show that spherical curve in S2(r C E3 is of restricted type if and only if either ƒ(s is constant or a linear function of s of the form ƒ(s = ±s + b and every closed W - curve of rank k and of length 2(r in E2k is of restricted type.

  16. Constructing forward price curves in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Lemming, Jacob

    2003-01-01

    We present and analyze a method for constructing approximated high-resolution forward price curves in electricity markets. Because a limited number of forward or futures contracts are traded in the market, only a limited picture of the theoretical continuous forward price curve is available to the analyst. Our method combines the information contained in observed bid and ask prices with information from the forecasts generated by bottom-up models. As an example, we use information concerning the shape of the seasonal variation from a bottom-up model to improve the forward price curve quoted on the Nordic power exchange

  17. Wind Turbine Power Curves Incorporating Turbulence Intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    2014-01-01

    . The model and method are parsimonious in the sense that only a single function (the zero-turbulence power curve) and a single auxiliary parameter (the equivalent turbulence factor) are needed to predict the mean power at any desired turbulence intensity. The method requires only ten minute statistics......The performance of a wind turbine in terms of power production (the power curve) is important to the wind energy industry. The current IEC-61400-12-1 standard for power curve evaluation recognizes only the mean wind speed at hub height and the air density as relevant to the power production...

  18. Dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of the winter Arctic Oscillation on summer sea ice extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. S.; Stewart, A.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic summer sea ice extent exhibits substantial interannual variability, as is highlighted by the remarkable recovery in sea ice extent in 2013 following the record minimum in the summer of 2012. Here, we explore the mechanism via which Arctic Oscillation (AO)-induced ice thickness changes impact summer sea ice, using observations and reanalysis data. A positive AO weakens the basin-scale anticyclonic sea ice drift and decreases the winter ice thickness by 15cm and 10cm in the Eurasian and the Pacific sectors of the Arctic respectively. Three reanalysis datasets show that the (upward) surface heat fluxes are reduced over wide areas of the Arctic, suppressing the ice growth during the positive AO winters. The winter dynamic and thermodynamic thinning preconditions the ice for enhanced radiative forcing via the ice-albedo feedback in late spring-summer, leading to an additional 8-10 cm of thinning over the Pacific sector of the Arctic. Because of these winter AO-induced dynamic and thermodynamics effects, the winter AO explains about 22% (r = -0.48) of the interannual variance of September sea ice extent from year 1980 to 2015.

  19. Technological change in energy systems. Learning curves, logistic curves and input-output coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Haoran; Koehler, Jonathan

    2007-01-01

    Learning curves have recently been widely adopted in climate-economy models to incorporate endogenous change of energy technologies, replacing the conventional assumption of an autonomous energy efficiency improvement. However, there has been little consideration of the credibility of the learning curve. The current trend that many important energy and climate change policy analyses rely on the learning curve means that it is of great importance to critically examine the basis for learning curves. Here, we analyse the use of learning curves in energy technology, usually implemented as a simple power function. We find that the learning curve cannot separate the effects of price and technological change, cannot reflect continuous and qualitative change of both conventional and emerging energy technologies, cannot help to determine the time paths of technological investment, and misses the central role of R and D activity in driving technological change. We argue that a logistic curve of improving performance modified to include R and D activity as a driving variable can better describe the cost reductions in energy technologies. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the top-down Leontief technology can incorporate the bottom-up technologies that improve along either the learning curve or the logistic curve, through changing input-output coefficients. An application to UK wind power illustrates that the logistic curve fits the observed data better and implies greater potential for cost reduction than the learning curve does. (author)

  20. Fracture toughness evaluation of steels through master curve approach using Charpy impact specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.; Sriharsha, H.K.; Shah, Priti Kotak

    2007-01-01

    The master curve approach can be used for the evaluation of fracture toughness of all steels which exhibit a transition between brittle to ductile mode of fracture with increasing temperature, and to monitor the extent of embrittlement caused by metallurgical damage mechanisms. This paper details the procedure followed to evaluate the fracture toughness of a typical ferritic steel used as material for pressure vessels. The potential of master curve approach to overcome the inherent limitations of the estimation of fracture toughness using ASME Code reference toughness is also illustrated. (author)