WorldWideScience

Sample records for extent practical open

  1. Practical constraints on estimation of source extent with MEG beamformers

    OpenAIRE

    Hillebrand, Arjan; Barnes, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to determine practical constraints on the estimation of the spatial extent of neuronal activation using MEG beamformers. Correct estimation of spatial extent is a pre-requisite for accurate models of electrical activity, allows one to estimate current density, and enables non-invasive monitoring of functional recovery following stroke. The output of an MEG beamformer is maximum when the correct source model is used, so that the spatial extent of a source can in principal be determine...

  2. Practical constraints on estimation of source extent with MEG beamformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillebrand, Arjan; Barnes, Gareth R

    2011-02-14

    We aimed to determine practical constraints on the estimation of the spatial extent of neuronal activation using MEG beamformers. Correct estimation of spatial extent is a pre-requisite for accurate models of electrical activity, allows one to estimate current density, and enables non-invasive monitoring of functional recovery following stroke. The output of an MEG beamformer is maximum when the correct source model is used, so that the spatial extent of a source can in principal be determined through evaluation of different source models with the beamformer. Here, we simulated 275-channel MEG data using sources of varying spatial extents that followed the cortical geometry. These data were subsequently used to estimate the spatial extent of generic disc elements without knowledge of the underlying surface, and we compared these results to estimates based on cortical surface geometry (with and without error in surface location). We found that disc-shaped source models are too simplistic, particularly for areas with high curvature. For areas with low curvature spatial extent was underestimated, although on average there was a linear relationship between the true and estimated extent. In contrast, cortical surface models gave accurate predictions of spatial extent. However, adding small errors (>2 mm) to the estimated location of the cortical surface abolished this relationship between true and estimated extent, implying that accurate co-registration is needed with such models. Our results show that models exploiting surface information are necessary in order to model spatial extent and in turn current density, but in order to render such models applicable in practical situations, the accuracy of the cortical surface model itself needs to improve.

  3. The Extent of Educational Technology's Influence on Contemporary Educational Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bradford-Watts

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how advances in educational technologies have influenced contemporary educational practices.It discusses the nature of educational technology, the limitations imposed by the digital divide and other factors of uptake, and the factors leading to successful implementation of educational technologies.The extent of influence is then discussed,together with the probable implications for educational sites for the future.

  4. Open Educational Resources and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackall, Leigh

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at what constitutes an open educational resource and considers the issues and benefits to an educational institution that is moving to participate in open educational resource development and to adopt more open educational practices. It describes the initial steps in these directions being made by the Educational Development…

  5. Diffusion of open innovation practices in Danish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2012-01-01

    in new bottles. This paper investigates the extent and diffusion of open innovation practices in small and medium-sized Danish manufacturing firms, while hinting at some relations with innovative performance. Both quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data are used for analysing the extent...

  6. Open Educational Practices in Higher Education: Institutional Adoption and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Open educational resources and open education practices have the potential to lower costs and increase participation in higher education. One hundred and ten individuals from higher education institutions around the world participated in a survey aimed at identifying the extent to which higher education institutions are currently implementing open…

  7. Diffusion of open innovation practices in Danish SMEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted

    2012-01-01

    in new bottles. This paper investigates the extent and diffusion of open innovation practices in small and medium-sized Danish manufacturing firms, while hinting at some relations with innovative performance. Both quantitative survey data and qualitative interview data are used for analysing the extent...... of open innovation in Danish SME’s. The paper finds that many firms are rather narrow in their adoption of open innovation whether defi ned as relationships or as open innovation practices. However, the paper also finds that there is a complementarity effect rather than a crowding out effect of utilising...... both inter-organizational relationships and open innovation practices. The paper discusses these stimulating findings in the conclusion....

  8. Open Educational Practices for Curriculum Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armellini, Alejandro; Nie, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Open educational resources (OER) and open educational practices (OEP) are relatively new areas in educational research. How OER and OEP can help practitioners enhance curricula is one of a number of under-researched topics. This article aims to enable practitioners to identify and implement appropriate open practices to enhance higher education…

  9. 45 CFR 2505.3 - To what extent are meetings of the Board open to the public?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false To what extent are meetings of the Board open to... To what extent are meetings of the Board open to the public? The Board shall conduct meetings, as defined in § 2505.2, in accordance with this part. Except as provided in § 2505.4, the Board's...

  10. Practical open source software for libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Engard, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Open source refers to an application whose source code is made available for use or modification as users see fit. This means libraries gain more flexibility and freedom than with software purchased with license restrictions. Both the open source community and the library world live by the same rules and principles. Practical Open Source Software for Libraries explains the facts and dispels myths about open source. Chapters introduce librarians to open source and what it means for libraries. The reader is provided with links to a toolbox full of freely available open source products to use in

  11. Total Quality Management in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Extent of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Wamukuru, David Kuria; Odebero, Stephen Onyango

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the extent to which secondary schools practiced aspects of total quality management (TQM). Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. A sample of 300 teachers in a residential session during a school holiday provided their perceptions on the practice of TQM in their schools. Data…

  12. Total Quality Management in Secondary Schools in Kenya: Extent of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngware, Moses Waithanji; Wamukuru, David Kuria; Odebero, Stephen Onyango

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the extent to which secondary schools practiced aspects of total quality management (TQM). Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional research design was used in this study. A sample of 300 teachers in a residential session during a school holiday provided their perceptions on the practice of TQM in their schools. Data…

  13. Open Research Data: From Vision to Practice

    CERN Document Server

    Pampel, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    “To make progress in science, we need to be open and share.” This quote from Neelie Kroes (2012), vice president of the European Commission describes the growing public demand for an Open Science. Part of Open Science is, next to Open Access to peer-reviewed publications, the Open Access to research data, the basis of scholarly knowledge. The opportunities and challenges of Data Sharing are discussed widely in the scholarly sector. The cultures of Data Sharing differ within the scholarly disciplines. Well advanced are for example disciplines like biomedicine and earth sciences. Today, more and more funding agencies require a proper Research Data Management and the possibility of data re-use. Many researchers often see the potential of Data Sharing, but they act cautiously. This situation shows a clear ambivalence between the demand for Data Sharing and the current practice of Data Sharing. Starting from a baseline study on current discussions, practices and developments the article describe the challenges...

  14. Extending the Territory: From Open Educational Resources to Open Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Ulf-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the findings of the recent OPAL report "Beyond OER: Shifting Focus from Resources to Practices". In doing so, it defines current understanding of open educational resources and open educational practices, and highlights the shift from open content to open practice. The article includes a framework for supporting…

  15. Open innovation practices and implementation barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    A key organizational barrier related to the implementation of open innovation strategies refers to the unwillingness of employees to undertake extra-organizational knowledge transactions. Negative attitudes against the utilization of external knowledge (i.e. the Not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome......), as well as against the external commercialization of knowledge assets, for example, via licensing (i.e. the Not-sold-here (NSH) syndrome), may create resistance to these activities and, consequently, a misalignment between the intentions of top management and the attitudes of involved employees (Katz...... in the manufacturing industries (NACE codes 10-37) with 5-499 employees. Our findings help explain the extent to which companies are able to benefit from inflows and outflows of knowledge....

  16. To what extent do nurses use research in clinical practice? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Rourke Hannah M

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past forty years, many gains have been made in our understanding of the concept of research utilization. While numerous studies exist on professional nurses' use of research in practice, no attempt has been made to systematically evaluate and synthesize this body of literature with respect to the extent to which nurses use research in their clinical practice. The objective of this study was to systematically identify and analyze the available evidence related to the extent to which nurses use research findings in practice. Methods This study was a systematic review of published and grey literature. The search strategy included 13 online bibliographic databases: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, HAPI, Web of Science, SCOPUS, OCLC Papers First, OCLC WorldCat, ABI Inform, Sociological Abstracts, and Dissertation Abstracts. The inclusion criteria consisted of primary research reports that assess professional nurses' use of research in practice, written in the English or Scandinavian languages. Extent of research use was determined by assigning research use scores reported in each article to one of four quartiles: low, moderate-low, moderate-high, or high. Results Following removal of duplicate citations, a total of 12,418 titles were identified through database searches, of which 133 articles were retrieved. Of the articles retrieved, 55 satisfied the inclusion criteria. The 55 final reports included cross-sectional/survey (n = 51 and quasi-experimental (n = 4 designs. A sensitivity analysis, comparing findings from all reports with those rated moderate (moderate-weak and moderate-strong and strong quality, did not show significant differences. In a majority of the articles identified (n = 38, 69%, nurses reported moderate-high research use. Conclusions According to this review, nurses' reported use of research is moderate-high and has remained

  17. The extent of mixing in stellar interiors: the open clusters Collinder 261 and Melotte 66

    CERN Document Server

    Drazdauskas, Arnas; Randich, Sofia; Bragaglia, Angela; Mikolaitis, Šarūnas; Janulis, Rimvydas

    2016-01-01

    Context: Determining carbon and nitrogen abundances in red giants provides useful diagnostics to test mixing processes in stellar atmospheres. Aims: Our main aim is to determine carbon-to-nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios for evolved giants in the open clusters Collinder 261 and Melotte 66 and to compare the results with predictions of theoretical models. Methods: High-resolution spectra were analysed using a differential model atmosphere method. Abundances of carbon were derived using the C_2 Swan (0,1) band head at 5635.5 A. The wavelength interval 7940-8130 A, which contains CN features, was analysed to determine nitrogen abundances and carbon isotope ratios. The oxygen abundances were determined from the [O_I] line at 6300 A. Results: The mean values of the elemental abundances in Collinder 261, as determined from seven stars, are: [C/Fe]=-0.23 +- 0.02 (s.d.), [N/Fe]=0.18 +- 0.09, [O/Fe]=-0.03 +- 0.07. The mean 12^C/13^C ratio is 11 +- 2, considering four red clump stars and 18 for one star above the clu...

  18. A Case Study of Scholars’ Open and Sharing Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Veletsianos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the open scholarship movement has successfully captured the attention and interest of higher education stakeholders, researchers currently lack an understanding of the degree to which open scholarship is enacted in institutions that lack institutional support for openness. I help fill this gap in the literature by presenting a descriptive case study that illustrates the variety of open and sharing practices enacted by faculty members at a North American university. Open and sharing practices enacted at this institution revolve around publishing manuscripts in open ways, participating on social media, creating and using open educational resources, and engaging with open teaching. This examination finds that certain open practices are favored over others. Results also show that even though faculty members often share scholarly materials online for free, they frequently do so without associated open licenses (i.e. without engaging in open practices. These findings suggest that individual motivators may significantly affect the practice of openness, but that environmental factors (e.g., institutional contexts and technological elements (e.g., YouTube’s default settings may also shape open practices in unanticipated ways.

  19. Open Innovation Practices and their Effect on Innovation Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebersberger, Bernd; Bloch, Carter Walter; Herstad, Sverre

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops an indicator framework for examining open innovation practices and their impact on performance. The analysis, which is based on Community Innovation Survey (CIS) data for Austria, Belgium, Denmark and Norway, yields a number of interesting results. First, we find that open...... innovation practices have a strong impact on innovation performance. Second, results suggest that that broad-based approaches yield the strongest impacts, and that the collective of open innovation strategies appear more important than individual practices. Third, intramural investments are still important...... for innovative performance, stressing that open innovation is not a substitute for internal knowledge building....

  20. Open innovation practices and implementation barriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza Lara de Araújo; Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    of the value of outside competencies and know-how, supporting only internal development and application of ideas and technologies. We test two hypotheses concerning the consequences of the NIH- and NSH-syndromes with cross-sectional survey data from 355 Danish firms. The population consists of firms...... in the manufacturing industries (NACE codes 10-37) with 5-499 employees. Our findings help explain the extent to which companies are able to benefit from inflows and outflows of knowledge....

  1. Open source software migration: Best practices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molefe, Onkgopotse M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Open source software (OSS) has gained prominence worldwide, largely due to cost savings and security considerations. This has caused a change in the IT sector and has led to the migration of desktops from proprietary to OSS. The problem...

  2. A practical introduction to computer vision with OpenCV

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson-Howe, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Explains the theory behind basic computer vision and provides a bridge from the theory to practical implementation using the industry standard OpenCV libraries Computer Vision is a rapidly expanding area and it is becoming progressively easier for developers to make use of this field due to the ready availability of high quality libraries (such as OpenCV 2).  This text is intended to facilitate the practical use of computer vision with the goal being to bridge the gap between the theory and the practical implementation of computer vision. The book will explain how to use the relevant OpenCV

  3. Wayfinding Services for Open Educational Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kalz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available To choose suitable resources for personalcompetence development in the vast amount of openeducational resources is a challenging task for a learner.Starting with a needs analysis of lifelong learners andlearning designers we introduce two wayfinding servicesthat are currently researched and developed in theframework of the Integrated Project TENCompetence.Then we discuss the role of these services to supportlearners in finding and selecting open educational resourcesand finally we give an outlook on future research.

  4. The Extent of and Reasons for Non Re-Enrollment: A Case of Korea National Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoseon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite continuous efforts to increase retention, dropout rates are high in distance universities. The objectives of this study were: 1 to investigate the extent and causes of non re-enrollment at a mega university, Korea National Open University; and 2 to suggest actions to improve the retention of students, in general, and those with higher risks of dropout in particular. A survey designed to establish the student demographics and the students’ main reasons for non re-enrollment was carried out during spring, 2009 with 1,353 respondents. The results indicate that a lack of feedback from the instructors, heavy workload, and difficulties in studying at a distance were the main reasons for non re-enrollment. The learners’ perceptions of the value of the degrees and their ages, gender, and educational backgrounds were also found to be significant factors in decisions not to re-enroll. The suggested solutions for reducing non re-enrollment include: a decrease in the number of required credit hours’ study per semester; the provision of stronger social support; the introduction of a more flexible enrollment system; and better use of the available technology and infrastructure to help both students and instructors build stronger learning communities.

  5. The extent to which Latina/o preservice teachers demonstrate culturally responsive teaching practices during science and mathematics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Cecilia M.

    2011-12-01

    Complex social, racial, economic, and political issues involved in the practice of teaching today require beginning teachers to be informed, skilled, and culturally responsive when entering the classroom. Teacher educators must educate future teachers in ways that will help them teach all children regardless of language, cultural background, or prior knowledge. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which culturally and linguistically diverse (CLD) novice teachers described and demonstrated culturally responsive teaching strategies using their students' cultural and academic profiles to inform practice in science and mathematics instruction. This qualitative exploratory case study considered the culturally responsive teaching practices of 12, non-traditional, Latina/o students as they progressed through a distance-based collaborative teacher education program. Qualitative techniques used throughout this exploratory case study investigated cultural responsiveness of these student teachers as they demonstrated their abilities to: a) integrate content and facilitate knowledge construction; b) illustrate social justice and prejudice reduction; and c) develop students academically. In conclusion, student teachers participating in this study demonstrated their ability to integrate content by: (1) including content from other cultures, (2) building positive teacher-student relationships, and (3) holding high expectations for all students. They also demonstrated their ability to facilitate knowledge construction by building on what students knew. Since there is not sufficient data to support the student teachers' abilities to assist students in learning to be critical, independent thinkers who are open to other ways of knowing, no conclusions regarding this subcategory could be drawn. Student teachers in this study illustrated prejudice reduction by: (1) using native language support to assist students in learning and understanding science and math content

  6. Positioning and Navigation: Services for Open Educational Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2007-01-01

    Presentation given at the Special Session on Open Educational Resources and Practices at the 10th International Conference on Interactive Computer Aided Learning, Villach (Austria), 26 - 28 September 2007

  7. Indigenous healing practice: ayahuasca. Opening a discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prue, Robert; Voss, Richard W

    2014-01-01

    This essay frames an invitation to pastoral counselors and pastoral theologians to examine connections and perhaps interactions between themselves and traditional shamanic healers who use ayahuasca in their healing ceremonies. Indigenous people in South America have used ayahuasca for centuries, and the ritual has become common among the mestizo populations in urban areas of the Amazon, particularly as a curing ritual for drug addiction (Dobkin de Rios, 1970; Moir, 1998). Like peyote in the United States (Calabrese, 1997) ayahuasca use amongst the indigenous people of the Amazon is a form of cultural psychiatry. A review of the literature reveals very little commentary or discussion of shamanic practice in Pastoral Counseling (Pastoral Theology). The scant literature identifies an antithetical relationship at best. The current authors wonder about the possibility of to including shamanic practices in the context of pastoral counseling? This essay seeks to provide some basic information about the ritual use of ayahuasca and to offer a rationale for pastoral counselors to engage in a dialogue about its utility.

  8. How Do Scientists Define Openness? Exploring the Relationship Between Open Science Policies and Research Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Nadine; Leonelli, Sabina; Weckowska, Dagmara; Castle, David; Dupré, John

    2016-06-01

    This article documents how biomedical researchers in the United Kingdom understand and enact the idea of "openness." This is of particular interest to researchers and science policy worldwide in view of the recent adoption of pioneering policies on Open Science and Open Access by the U.K. government-policies whose impact on and implications for research practice are in need of urgent evaluation, so as to decide on their eventual implementation elsewhere. This study is based on 22 in-depth interviews with U.K. researchers in systems biology, synthetic biology, and bioinformatics, which were conducted between September 2013 and February 2014. Through an analysis of the interview transcripts, we identify seven core themes that characterize researchers' understanding of openness in science and nine factors that shape the practice of openness in research. Our findings highlight the implications that Open Science policies can have for research processes and outcomes and provide recommendations for enhancing their content, effectiveness, and implementation.

  9. Practical work at the Open University of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meester, M.A.M.; Kirschner, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Achieving practical objectives in an open distance educational system is a real challenge. Its philosophy requires self-instructional materials that students can study at their own time, place, and pace. Practical work, in particular laboratory work, can test the limits of this philosophy. A new way

  10. Open source identity management patterns and practices using OpenAM 10.x

    CERN Document Server

    Kenning, Waylon

    2013-01-01

    This is a Packt Mini in a tutorial format that provides multiple examples on Identity Management using OpenAM 10.x.Open Source Identity Management Patterns and Practices Using OpenAM 10.x is great for developers and architects who are new to Identity Management, and who want a brief overview of what's possible and how to quickly implement a prototype. It's assumed that you've had experience with web applications and some knowledge of Apache and Tomcat.

  11. Conservation development practices, extent, and land-use effects in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milder, Jeffrey C; Clark, Story

    2011-08-01

    Conservation development projects combine real-estate development with conservation of land and other natural resources. Thousands of such projects have been conducted in the United States and other countries through the involvement of private developers, landowners, land trusts, and government agencies. Previous research has demonstrated the potential value of conservation development for conserving species, ecological functions, and other resource values on private lands, especially when traditional sources of conservation funding are not available. Nevertheless, the aggregate extent and effects of conservation development were previously unknown. To address this gap, we estimated the extent and trends of conservation development in the United States and characterized its key attributes to understand its aggregate contribution to land-conservation and growth-management objectives. We interviewed representatives from land trusts, planning agencies, and development companies, searched the Internet for conservation development projects and programs, and compiled existing databases of conservation development projects. We collected data on 3884 projects encompassing 1.38 million ha. About 43% of the projects targeted the conservation of specific plant or animal species or ecological communities of conservation concern; 84% targeted the protection of native ecosystems representative of the project area; and 42% provided buffers to existing protected areas. The percentage of protected land in conservation development projects ranged from 99%, and the effects of these projects on natural resources differed widely. We estimate that conservation development projects have protected roughly 4 million ha of land in the United States and account for about 25% of private-land conservation activity nationwide.

  12. Extent of implementation of evidence-based fall prevention practices for older patients in home health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortinsky, Richard H; Baker, Dorothy; Gottschalk, Margaret; King, Mary; Trella, Patricia; Tinetti, Mary E

    2008-04-01

    This study determined the extent to which fall risk assessment and management practices for older patients were implemented in Medicare-certified home health agencies (HHAs) in a defined geographic area in southern New England that had participated in evidence-based fall prevention training between October 2001 and September 2004. The standardized in-service training sessions taught home health nurses and rehabilitation therapists how to conduct assessments for five evidence-based risk factors for falls in older adults--mobility impairments, balance disturbances, multiple medications, postural hypotension, and home environmental hazards--using techniques shown to be efficacious in clinical trials. Twenty-six HHAs participated in these in-service training sessions; 19 of these participated in a survey of nurses and rehabilitation therapists between October 2004 and September 2005. Self-reported assessment and management practices implemented with older patients during home healthcare visits were measured in this survey, and HHA-level measures for each fall risk factor were constructed based on proportions of clinicians reporting assessment and management practices that were recommended in the fall prevention training sessions. For all fall risk factors except postural hypotension, 80% or more of clinicians in all HHAs reported implementing recommended fall risk management practices. Greater variation was found regarding fall risk assessment practices, with fewer than 70% of clinicians in one or more HHAs reporting recommended assessment practices for all risk factors. Results suggest that evidence-based training for home healthcare clinicians can stimulate fall risk assessment and management practices during home health visits. HHA-level comparisons hold the potential to illustrate the extent of diffusion of evidence-based fall prevention practices within and between agencies.

  13. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabe...

  14. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Catherine Pellegrino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons.Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  15. Management practices impact vine carbohydrate status to a greater extent than vine productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Anne; Clingeleffer, Peter; Cooley, Nicola; Walker, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Light pruning and deficit irrigation regimes are practices which are widely used in high yielding commercial vineyards in the warm climate regions of Australia. Little information is available on their impacts on carbohydrate dynamics in vegetative organs within and between seasons, and on the resulting plant capacity to maintain productivity and ripen fruits. This study was conducted to address this gap in knowledge over five vintages on Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Franc, Shiraz, and Cabernet Sauvignon in the Sunraysia region of Victoria, Australia. Lighter pruning did not change the total carbohydrates concentration and composition in wood and roots within seasons in Cabernet Franc and Shiraz. However, the total carbohydrate pool (starch and soluble sugars) at the end of dormancy increased under lighter pruning, due to higher vine size, associated with retention and growth of old-wood (trunk and cordons). Water deficit negatively impacted trunk and leaf starch concentrations, over the day and within seasons in Cabernet Sauvignon. Soluble sugars concentrations in these tissues tended to be higher under limited water supply, possibly due to higher sugar mobilization as photosynthesis decreased. Trunk carbohydrate concentrations markedly varied within and between seasons, highlighting the importance of interactive factors such as crop load and climate on carbon status. The period between fruit-set and véraison was shown to be critical for its impact on the balance between carbon accretion and depletion, especially under water deficit. The lower leaf and trunk starch concentration under water deficit resulted in a decrease of yield components at harvest, while similar yields were reached for all pruning systems. The sugar allocated to berries at harvest remained remarkably stable for all practices and seasons, irrespective of vine yield and carbohydrate status in vegetative organs in Shiraz and Cabernet Sauvignon.

  16. Open Science: Dimensions to a new scientific practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Carla Silva de Oliveira

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The practices of e-science and the use and reuse of scientific data have constituted a new scientific work that leads to the reflection on new regulatory, legal, institutional and technological frameworks for open science. Objective: This study shows the following research question: which dimensions provide sustainability for the formulation of a policy geared to open science and its practices in the Brazilian context? The aim of this study is to discuss the dimensions that support transversely the formulation of a policy for open science and its scientific practices. Methodology:Theoretically, the study is guided by the fourth scientific paradigm grounded in the e-Science. The methodology is supported by Bufrem’s studies (2013, which propose an alternative and multidimensional model for analysis and discussion of scientific research. Technically, the literature review and documentary survey were the methods used on the Data Lifecycle scientific model, laws and international agreements.For this study purpose, five dimensions were proposed, namely: epistemological, political, ethical-legal-cultural, morphological, and technological. Results: This studyunderstands that these dimensions substantiate an information policy or the development of minimum guidelines for the open science agenda in Brazil. Conclusions: The dimensions put away the reductionist perspective on survey data and they conducted the study for the multi-dimensional and multi-relational vision of open science.

  17. Open access and knowledge sharing: reflections on the Pathfinder projects and Open Access Good Practice initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah DeGroff

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article provides a selection of reflections from a number of higher education institutions and their staff about participation in the UK-wide Pathfinder project scheme. These nine projects (comprising 30 institutions form the core of the Jisc-funded Open Access Good Practice initiative. They have produced a wide range of outputs which endorse and encourage best practice when implementing open access across institutions. Each project has a blog where progress and outputs can be tracked. Details are listed at the end of this article.

  18. Politics, Practices, and Possibilities of Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Liam

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I reflect on the politics, practices and possibilities of the open educational resources (OER). OER raise important implications for current and potential students, for postsecondary education institutions, and for those currently teaching in higher education. The key questions raised by OER centre on the role of teaching in…

  19. The Open Method of Coordination, a Cross-Border Mechanism for Social Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana-Camelia Dogaru

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the debate on the future of the European Union a new topic has started. This topic is represented by Europeanization process and its profound impact upon the public policy of the member states. In order to understand it, since 1990s, the EU has included “new modes of governance” in its arsenal of policy-making instruments, among others the open method of coordination. The open method of coordination is one of the instruments that attract a particular attention of scholars, being described as “primus inter pares”. The open method of coordination is a cross-border mechanism that aims to create a coherent social practice between the European Union member states. In this paper the author addresses the following query: in what extent uses Romania this mechanism for increasing coherence between its social practice and European ones? For answering have been drawn the subsequent objectives: (1 describing the instrument and the operational process of the open method of coordination, stressing the comparative perspective between community method and open method of coordination; (2 researching on historical development and main features of this tool; (3 exploring Romania‟s efforts for using the open method of coordination in social policies. From a methodological standpoint, the paper relies on comprehensive and systematic search of the literature and document analysis (among others Annual Reports, authorities‟ data, resume, obtained by using free accession to information and strategic documents.

  20. Physiotherapy after stroke: to what extent is task-oriented practice a part of conventional treatment after hospital discharge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askim, Torunn; Indredavik, Bent; Engen, Astrid; Roos, Kerstin; Aas, Tone; Mørkved, Siv

    2013-07-01

    Research has shown that motor training after stroke should be task-oriented. It is still unknown whether the task-oriented approach is implemented into clinical practice. The purpose of the present study was to survey to which extent task-specific training was a part of conventional physiotherapy practice given to stroke patients after discharge from hospital. This cross-sectional survey was a sub-study of a randomized controlled trial. Physiotherapists treating patients included in the trial were asked to register their choice of treatment according to 11 predefined activity categories during the second week after discharge from hospital. Nineteen physiotherapists treating 46 patients suffering from mild-to-moderate stroke were included. The activities chosen in most patients were sit-to-stand (60.9%), balance in standing position (65.2%), walking on even ground (78.3%), and stair climbing (56.5%). Only two patients (4.3%) practiced transfers or balance related to activities of daily living (ADL), such as washing, dressing, and toileting. This study shows that conventional physiotherapy practice for a selected group of Norwegian stroke patients was mainly based on a task-oriented approach, although with very little emphasis on training in relation to ADL. Future research is needed to ensure that evidence-based treatment is given to all stroke patients.

  1. Ten years of open practice: a reflection on the impact of OpenLearn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrina Law

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Open University (OU makes a proportion of all its taught modules available to the public via OpenLearn each year. This process involves the modification, of module excerpts, showcasing subject matter and teaching approach. This activity serves both the University's social and business missions through the delivery of free courses to the public, but increasingly its students are using it to inform module choice, to augment their studies and to boost confidence. In a year that celebrates 10 years of OpenLearn, this paper reports on the growth and impact of the platform as a vast open, learning resource and how a new study underlines how this is also serving the OU’s own students in terms of supporting motivation for learning and impact on achievements. The paper also discusses how the OU is mainstreaming open practice via module production in releasing content on OpenLearn from its paid-for modules in order to improve student module choice and preparedness and in doing so, is providing a richer learning experience for informal learners.

  2. Open source drug discovery in practice: a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Årdal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Open source drug discovery offers potential for developing new and inexpensive drugs to combat diseases that disproportionally affect the poor. The concept borrows two principle aspects from open source computing (i.e., collaboration and open access and applies them to pharmaceutical innovation. By opening a project to external contributors, its research capacity may increase significantly. To date there are only a handful of open source R&D projects focusing on neglected diseases. We wanted to learn from these first movers, their successes and failures, in order to generate a better understanding of how a much-discussed theoretical concept works in practice and may be implemented. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A descriptive case study was performed, evaluating two specific R&D projects focused on neglected diseases. CSIR Team India Consortium's Open Source Drug Discovery project (CSIR OSDD and The Synaptic Leap's Schistosomiasis project (TSLS. Data were gathered from four sources: interviews of participating members (n = 14, a survey of potential members (n = 61, an analysis of the websites and a literature review. Both cases have made significant achievements; however, they have done so in very different ways. CSIR OSDD encourages international collaboration, but its process facilitates contributions from mostly Indian researchers and students. Its processes are formal with each task being reviewed by a mentor (almost always offline before a result is made public. TSLS, on the other hand, has attracted contributors internationally, albeit significantly fewer than CSIR OSDD. Both have obtained funding used to pay for access to facilities, physical resources and, at times, labor costs. TSLS releases its results into the public domain, whereas CSIR OSDD asserts ownership over its results. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Technically TSLS is an open source project, whereas CSIR OSDD is a crowdsourced project. However, both have enabled high

  3. Open source drug discovery in practice: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Årdal, Christine; Røttingen, John-Arne

    2012-01-01

    Open source drug discovery offers potential for developing new and inexpensive drugs to combat diseases that disproportionally affect the poor. The concept borrows two principle aspects from open source computing (i.e., collaboration and open access) and applies them to pharmaceutical innovation. By opening a project to external contributors, its research capacity may increase significantly. To date there are only a handful of open source R&D projects focusing on neglected diseases. We wanted to learn from these first movers, their successes and failures, in order to generate a better understanding of how a much-discussed theoretical concept works in practice and may be implemented. A descriptive case study was performed, evaluating two specific R&D projects focused on neglected diseases. CSIR Team India Consortium's Open Source Drug Discovery project (CSIR OSDD) and The Synaptic Leap's Schistosomiasis project (TSLS). Data were gathered from four sources: interviews of participating members (n = 14), a survey of potential members (n = 61), an analysis of the websites and a literature review. Both cases have made significant achievements; however, they have done so in very different ways. CSIR OSDD encourages international collaboration, but its process facilitates contributions from mostly Indian researchers and students. Its processes are formal with each task being reviewed by a mentor (almost always offline) before a result is made public. TSLS, on the other hand, has attracted contributors internationally, albeit significantly fewer than CSIR OSDD. Both have obtained funding used to pay for access to facilities, physical resources and, at times, labor costs. TSLS releases its results into the public domain, whereas CSIR OSDD asserts ownership over its results. Technically TSLS is an open source project, whereas CSIR OSDD is a crowdsourced project. However, both have enabled high quality research at low cost. The critical success factors appear to be clearly

  4. Pilot Study of Reimbursement Practices in Private Healthcare Centers in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia: To What Extent Do They Meet International Best Practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bah, Sulaiman; Almutawa, Hanadi Hassan Ali; Alassaf, Nouf Fahad M; Al Hareky, Mai Saad; Hashishi, Aqilah Salman M; Alkhater, Zainab Jassem Hassan; Ajaimi, Jenan Ali M

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examines reimbursement practices in private healthcare centers in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the private healthcare sector in Saudi Arabia follows international best practices in reimbursement, as identified in a literature review. The study examined reimbursement practices in a sample of six private healthcare facilities through the use of similar questionnaire guidelines with each facility. Similarities among the facilities' practices included the use of contracts with insurance companies and the availability of a chargemaster. Differences included the types of reimbursement software used. Bundled payment systems were identified in four facilities but were not examined in all of the facilities studied. International best practices that were not present in any of the facilities in the study included electronic transfer protocols to link healthcare facilities, insurance companies, and banks; the use of reimbursement key performance indicators; the use of diagnosis-related groups; and the integration of disease coding into the reimbursement process. Major findings of this pilot study are that diverse types of reimbursement systems are in use in Saudi healthcare facilities and that these systems are preliminary and are largely unregulated. The authors suggest that regulation and standardization would therefore be easier at this stage than at later stages of the development of private healthcare systems in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Cleaning practices and cleaning products in nurseries and schools: to what extent can they impact indoor air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Boumier, J; Wyart, G; Ramalho, O; Mandin, C

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of a nationwide survey on indoor air quality conducted from September 2009 to June 2011 in 310 nurseries, kindergartens, and elementary schools in all regions of France, cleaning practices and products were described through an extensive questionnaire completed on-site by expert building inspectors. The questionnaire included the cleaning frequencies and periods, cleaning techniques, whether windows were open during cleaning, and the commercial names of the products used. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that cleaning was generally performed daily for furniture and floors. It was performed mostly in the evening with wet mopping and with one or more windows open. Five hundred eighty-four different cleaning products were listed, among which 218 safety data sheets (SDSs) were available and analyzed. One hundred fifty-two chemical substances were identified in the SDSs. The typical substances in cleaning products included alcohols, chlorides, terpenes, aldehydes, and ethers; more than half of them are irritants. Two endocrine disruptors, 2-phenylphenol and Galaxolide, were identified in two cleaning products used every day to clean the floors, in seven kindergartens and in a nursery respectively. Eleven reactive substances containing C=C double bonds, mostly terpenes, were identified in a wide variety of cleaning products.

  6. Who support open access publishing? Gender, discipline, seniority and other factors associated with academics' OA practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yimei

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the findings from a survey study of UK academics and their publishing behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate academics' attitudes towards and practice of open access (OA) publishing. The results are based on a survey study of academics at 12 Russell Group universities, and reflect responses from over 1800 researchers. This study found that whilst most academics support the principle of making knowledge freely available to everyone, the use of OA publishing among UK academics was still limited despite relevant established OA policies. The results suggest that there were differences in the extent of OA practice between different universities, academic disciplines, age and seniorities. Academics' use in OA publishing was also related to their awareness of OA policy and OA repositories, their attitudes towards the importance of OA publishing and their belief in OA citation advantage. The implications of these findings are relevant to the development of strategies for the implementation of OA policies.

  7. Fine-tuning the extent and dynamics of binding cleft opening as a potential general regulatory mechanism in parvulin-type peptidyl prolyl isomerases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajlik, András; Kovács, Bertalan; Permi, Perttu; Gáspári, Zoltán

    2017-03-01

    Parvulins or rotamases form a distinct group within peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerases. Their exact mode of action as well as the role of conserved residues in the family are still not unambiguously resolved. Using backbone S2 order parameters and NOEs as restraints, we have generated dynamic structural ensembles of three distinct parvulins, SaPrsA, TbPin1 and CsPinA. The resulting ensembles are in good agreement with the experimental data but reveal important differences between the three enzymes. The largest difference can be attributed to the extent of the opening of the substrate binding cleft, along which motional mode the three molecules occupy distinct regions. Comparison with a wide range of other available parvulin structures highlights structural divergence along the bottom of the binding cleft acting as a hinge during the opening-closing motion. In the prototype WW-domain containing parvulin, Pin1, this region is also important in forming contacts with the WW domain known to modulate enzymatic activity of the catalytic domain. We hypothesize that modulation of the extent and dynamics of the identified ‘breathing motion’ might be one of the factors responsible for functional differences in the distinct parvulin subfamilies.

  8. The Extent of Practice of Distinguished Students at the Secondary Level of Exams Management Skills and Its Relationship to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaban, Zakariyya Shaban

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at identifying the extent of distinguished students' practice of the skills of exams management and their relationships of the variables of (sex and type of school) at the secondary stage. The descriptive approach was followed to investigate practice the level of the skills of exams management of the population of the study and its…

  9. Open Mind, Open Heart: An Anthropological Study of the Therapeutics of Meditation Practice in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Neely; Lewis, Sara; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2015-09-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork and interviews collected with meditation teachers and students in the United States, this article will argue that active training in meditation-based practices occasions the opportunity for people with traumatic stress to develop a stronger mind-body connection through heightened somatic awareness and a focus on the present moment that they find to be therapeutic. Three important themes related to healing through meditation for trauma emerged from the data and centered around the ways our interlocutors attempted to realign their sense of self, mind and body, after a traumatic experience. The themes helped explain why US women perceive meditation as therapeutic for trauma, namely that the practice of meditation enables one to focus on the lived present rather than traumatic memories, to accept pain and "open" one's heart, and to make use of silence instead of speech as a healing modality. As meditation practices increasingly enter global popular culture, promoted for postulated health benefits, the driving question of this research--how meditation may perpetuate human resilience for women who have experienced trauma based on their own perspectives of meditation practices--is a critical addition to the literature.

  10. Open Educational Practices and Attitudes to Openness across India: Reporting the Findings of the Open Education Research Hub Pan-India Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perryman, Leigh-Anne; Seal, Tim

    2016-01-01

    In recent years India has shown a growing appetite for open educational resources (OER) and open educational practices (OEP). Despite this, there is a paucity of research on OER use and impact, the extensiveness of OEP, and attitudes towards openness in India. This paper reports on research intended to help fill that knowledge gap by conducting a…

  11. Education Scholars' Perceptions and Practices toward Open Access Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingford, Lori Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Although open access publishing has been available since 1998, we know little regarding scholars' perceptions and practices toward publishing in open access outlets, especially in the social science community. Open access publishing has been slow to penetrate the field of education, yet the potential impact of open access could make this…

  12. Education Scholars' Perceptions and Practices toward Open Access Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingford, Lori Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Although open access publishing has been available since 1998, we know little regarding scholars' perceptions and practices toward publishing in open access outlets, especially in the social science community. Open access publishing has been slow to penetrate the field of education, yet the potential impact of open access could make this…

  13. Tapering practices of Croatian open-class powerlifting champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo; Mikulic, Pavle

    2016-10-27

    The aim of this study was to explore tapering practices among 10 Croatian open-class powerlifting champions (mean ± SD: age 29.2 ± 3.2 years; Wilks coefficient 355.1 ± 54.8). The athletes were interviewed about their tapering practices using a semi-structured interview, after which the audio content was transcribed. The athletes reported decreasing training volume during the taper by 50.5 ± 11.7% using a step type or an exponential type of taper with a fast decay. Training intensity was maintained or increased during the taper, and it reached its highest values 8 ± 3 days before the competition. Training frequency was reduced or maintained during the taper. The final week included a reduction in training frequency by 47.9 ± 17.5% with the last training session performed 3 ± 1 days before the competition. The participants typically stated that the main reasons for conducting the taper were maintaining strength and reducing the amount of fatigue. They also stated that (a) the taper was structured identically for the squat, bench press, and the deadlift; (b) the training during the taper was highly specific, the assistance exercises were removed, and the same equipment was used as during competition; (c) the source of information for tapering was their coach, and training fluctuated based on the coach's feedback; and (d) nutrition, foam rolling, static stretching, and massage were all given extra attention during the taper. These results may aid athletes and coaches in strength sports in terms of the optimization of tapering variables.

  14. Current Developments and Best Practice in Open and Distance Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Rocha Trinidade

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the many documents regularly emitted by those dedicated to this activity, it is comparatively easy to describe factual developments in the field of open and distance education in different places in the world. However, it is much more difficult to produce judgements of value about their quality. Quality is a subjective rather than an absolute concept and may be examined from different analytical perspectives: consumers' satisfaction level, intrinsic value of scientific and technical content of learning materials, soundness of learning strategies, efficiency of organisation and procedures, adequate use of advanced technologies, reliability of student support mechanisms, etc.These parameters should be put into the context of specific objectives, nature of target populations and availability of different kinds of resources. In a specific geographic, social, economic and cultural situation a given set of solutions might be judged as adequate and deserving the qualification of "good practice," while in a different context it could be considered of rather poor quality.The selection of examples in this article is the sole responsibility of the authors: neither should the chosen cases be considered as clearly better than any other one, nor missing cases be interpreted as lack of appreciation or a negative judgement.Finally, the authors are aware of the risks of interpreting trends and trying to extrapolate them into the near future: readers should use their own judgement in accepting (or forcefully rejecting these projections.

  15. The Extent of Practicing the Skills of Team Work Leadership among Heads of Departments in Directorate of Education in Methnb, Saudi Arabia: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alotaibi, Norah Muhayya; Tayeb, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Sound leadership has an important role in achieving the success of any institution; so the leader must possess some work team leadership skills such as decision-taking, communication, motivation, conflict management and meeting management. The current study is an attempt to identify the extent of practicing team work leadership skills among the…

  16. Yoga meets positive psychology: examining the integration of hedonic (gratitude) and eudaimonic (meaning) wellbeing in relation to the extent of yoga practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivtzan, Itai; Papantoniou, Angeliki

    2014-04-01

    The present study aims to explore the existence of a relationship between the extent of yoga practice and two dimensions of psychological wellbeing: meaning in life and gratitude. Both of the variables are positive psychology constructs; there is theoretical affinity and empirical evidence that they are related to overall psychological wellbeing. One hundred and twenty four participants aged 18 years and above, with yoga experience ranging from none to over six years, responded to a number of scales. The extent of yoga practice was measured by the number of years during which individuals practiced yoga at least two times a week. Participants responded to the following scales: MLQ (Meaning in Life Questionnaire) and GQ-6 (Gratitude Questionnaire). This study hypothesised that the number of years practicing yoga would be positively correlated to the score obtained on the aforementioned scales. Positive correlations were identified between the extent of yoga practice and meaning in life and gratitude. Important implications regarding the contribution of yoga to both hedonic and Eudaimonic happiness are discussed.

  17. The nature and extent of the use of physical restraint and seclusion in psychiatric practice: Report of a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khastgir, Udayan; Kala, Anirudh; Goswami, Utpal; Kumar, Satindra; Behera, Debakanta

    2003-01-01

    Restraint and seclusion has been used to manage patients despite all controversies. Our study analyzed the opinions of different psychiatrists on the use of this method in their clinical practice. Most of them (80%) practice restraints as a treatment modality and believe that they are integral to the management of psychiatric patients. None is using seclusion. PMID:21206846

  18. Open Science in Practice: Researcher Perspectives and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Whyte

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on an exploratory study consisting of brief case studies in selected disciplines, examining what motivates researchers to work (or want to work in an open manner with regard to their data, results and protocols, and whether advantages are delivered by working in this way. We review the policy background to open science, and literature on the benefits attributed to open data, considering how these relate to curation and to questions of who participates in science. The case studies investigate the perceived benefits to researchers, research institutions and funding bodies of utilising open scientific methods, the disincentives and barriers, and the degree to which there is evidence to support these perceptions. Six case study groups were selected in astronomy, bioinformatics, chemistry, epidemiology, language technology and neuroimaging. The studies identify relevant examples and issues through qualitative analysis of interview transcripts. We provide a typology of degrees of open working across the research lifecycle, and conclude that better support for open working, through guidelines to assist research groups in identifying the value and costs of working more openly, and further research to assess the risks, incentives and shifts in responsibility entailed by opening up the research process are needed.

  19. Open-ended questions in sensory testing practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Why use open-ended questions? This chapter provides an up-to-date overview on the use of open-ended questions in novel rapid sensory methodologies and the potential applications in which they could provide unique benefits. Next, the step-by-step process is described (from task performance to analysi

  20. Open-ended questions in sensory testing practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Why use open-ended questions? This chapter provides an up-to-date overview on the use of open-ended questions in novel rapid sensory methodologies and the potential applications in which they could provide unique benefits. Next, the step-by-step process is described (from task performance to

  1. Open-ended questions in sensory testing practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.

    2015-01-01

    Why use open-ended questions? This chapter provides an up-to-date overview on the use of open-ended questions in novel rapid sensory methodologies and the potential applications in which they could provide unique benefits. Next, the step-by-step process is described (from task performance to analysi

  2. Using Open Educational Practices to Support Institutional Strategic Excellence in Teaching, Learning & Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Thomas; Davis, Alan; Ferreras, Salvador; Porter, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the integration of Open Educational Practices (OEP) into an institutional strategy to develop distinctive excellence in teaching, learning and scholarship. The institution in the case study is a public polytechnic university serving a metropolitan area in Canada. If emerging Open Educational Practices are to flourish at our…

  3. An Investigation into Social Learning Activities by Practitioners in Open Educational Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreurs, Bieke; Van den Beemt, Antoine; Prinsen, Fleur; Witthaus, Gabi; Conole, Gráinne; De Laat, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    By investigating how educational practitioners participate in activities around open educational practices (OEP), this paper aims at contributing to an understanding of open practices and how these practitioners learn to use OEP. Our research is guided by the following hypothesis: Different social configurations support a variety of social…

  4. Developing an open data lifecycle model based on literature and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, A.F.E. van; Broek, T.A. van den; Bastiaans, M.; Plas, A. van der

    2013-01-01

    Government organizations around the world have developed open data strategies to increase transparency and enable re-use of their data. Semi-public organizations follow, aiming to use open data also for commercial purposes. However, in practice, many organizations find the process of opening up thei

  5. The structural adoption of open data in governmental organisations : technology and organisation in practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, M.W. (Martijn); Mulder, A.W. (Bert); Spée, B. (Bart); Visser, E. (Ed); Gribnau, A. (Antoine)

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the growth of open government, open data and the means for transparency and accountability but aims to reflect on the bottlenecks and actual practicality of opening data to the public domain by two governmental bodies. The Municiaplity of The Hague and The Province of South-Ho

  6. To what extent do primary care practice nurses act as case managers life style counselling regarding weight management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillen, van S.; Hiddink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background - In this review study, we are the first to explore whether the practice nurse (PN) can act as case manager lifestyle counselling regarding weight management in primary care. Methods - Multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO) were searched to identify relevant literature after 19

  7. To what extent do primary care practice nurses act as case managers life style counselling regarding weight management?

    OpenAIRE

    Dillen, van, J.; Hiddink, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background - In this review study, we are the first to explore whether the practice nurse (PN) can act as case manager lifestyle counselling regarding weight management in primary care. Methods - Multiple electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO) were searched to identify relevant literature after 1995. Forty-five studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. In addition, all studies were judged on ten quality criteria by two independent reviewers. Results - Especially in the last three years, man...

  8. Opening the Mind? Geographies of Knowledge and Curricular Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Hanne; Millar, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Inspired by Bourdieu's ("Homo Academicus, Polity," Cambridge, 1988; "The Logic of Practice, Polity," Cambridge, 1990) ideas of knowledge reproduction, the article presents an empirical mapping of knowledge geographies, as manifest in the curricular practices found within a single international MA programme in Denmark. Following…

  9. Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…

  10. Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mune, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…

  11. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  12. A High-Leverage Language Teaching Practice: Leading an Open-Ended Group Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Erin

    2015-01-01

    In response to calls for more practice-based teacher education, this study investigated the way in which two high-performing novice world language teachers, one in Spanish and one in Latin, implemented a high-leverage teaching practice, leading an open-ended group discussion. Observational data revealed a number of constituent micro-practices. The…

  13. Restorative practices and hate crime: Opening up the debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrielides Theo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent academic and policy interest worldwide, the concepts of restorative justice and hate crime are relatively new, and the full extent of their implications unknown. This paper aims to encourage further dialogue that will allow a more in-depth understanding of both notions. A review of international case studies was attempted by looking at examples where restorative approaches were successfully applied to address hate incidents. Further research and evaluation is warranted in this grey area before further policies and legislation are reviewed.

  14. Development of open access in China: strategies, practices, challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Xiaolin Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available China's rapid growth in scientific R&D in recent years provides solid evidence for the country's innovation-driven development strategy, but also puts increasing demand on open access (OA to publicly funded research results. This article looks at ways in which the Chinese government, funders, research and library communities are all rising to this challenge, and at future challenges still to be met. As a major scientific publishing country with its estimated 5,000 STM journals, China's place in the international OA publishing scene is considered in detail, with the author concluding that he believes open access to publicly funded research in China will soon become the accepted norm, as all levels of scientific policymakers fulfil their political, professional and international responsibilities, to the benefit of Chinese research and society.

  15. User Expectations for Media Sharing Practices in Open Display Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Rui; Cardoso, Jorge C S; Hong, Jason

    2015-07-06

    Open Display Networks have the potential to allow many content creators to publish their media to an open-ended set of screen displays. However, this raises the issue of how to match that content to the right displays. In this study, we aim to understand how the perceived utility of particular media sharing scenarios is affected by three independent variables, more specifically: (a) the locativeness of the content being shared; (b) how personal that content is and (c) the scope in which it is being shared. To assess these effects, we composed a set of 24 media sharing scenarios embedded with different treatments of our three independent variables. We then asked 100 participants to express their perception of the relevance of those scenarios. The results suggest a clear preference for scenarios where content is both local and directly related to the person that is publishing it. This is in stark contrast to the types of content that are commonly found in public displays, and confirms the opportunity that open displays networks may represent a new media for self-expression. This novel understanding may inform the design of new publication paradigms that will enable people to share media across the display networks.

  16. Badges to Acknowledge Open Practices: A Simple, Low-Cost, Effective Method for Increasing Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Mallory C; Lazarević, Ljiljana B; Baranski, Erica; Hardwicke, Tom E; Piechowski, Sarah; Falkenberg, Lina-Sophia; Kennett, Curtis; Slowik, Agnieszka; Sonnleitner, Carina; Hess-Holden, Chelsey; Errington, Timothy M; Fiedler, Susann; Nosek, Brian A

    2016-05-01

    Beginning January 2014, Psychological Science gave authors the opportunity to signal open data and materials if they qualified for badges that accompanied published articles. Before badges, less than 3% of Psychological Science articles reported open data. After badges, 23% reported open data, with an accelerating trend; 39% reported open data in the first half of 2015, an increase of more than an order of magnitude from baseline. There was no change over time in the low rates of data sharing among comparison journals. Moreover, reporting openness does not guarantee openness. When badges were earned, reportedly available data were more likely to be actually available, correct, usable, and complete than when badges were not earned. Open materials also increased to a weaker degree, and there was more variability among comparison journals. Badges are simple, effective signals to promote open practices and improve preservation of data and materials by using independent repositories.

  17. Practical application of open source frameworks to achieve anti-virus avoidance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Swart, I

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available anti-virus avoidance techniques such as binary editing, packing and encryption. Open source packages such as UPX compress the data in the selected virus executable to such an extent that it will most likely completely circumvent the anti...

  18. Open Standards in Practice: An OGC China Forum Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Peng; Zhang, Mingda; Taylor, Trevor; Xie, Jibo; Zhang, Hongping; Tong, Xiaochong; Yu, Jinsongdi; Huang, Juntao

    2016-11-01

    Open standards like OGC standards can be used to improve interoperability and support machine-to-machine interaction over the Web. In the Big Data era, standard-based data and processing services from various vendors could be combined to automate the extraction of information and knowledge from heterogeneous and large volumes of geospatial data. This paper introduces an ongoing OGC China forum initiative, which will demonstrate how OGC standards can benefit the interaction among multiple organizations in China. The ability to share data and processing functions across organizations using standard services could change traditional manual interactions in their business processes, and provide on-demand decision support results by on-line service integration. In the initiative, six organizations are involved in two “MashUp” scenarios on disaster management. One “MashUp” is to derive flood maps in the Poyang Lake, Jiangxi. And the other one is to generate turbidity maps on demand in the East Lake, Wuhan, China. The two scenarios engage different organizations from the Chinese community by integrating sensor observations, data, and processing services from them, and improve the automation of data analysis process using open standards.

  19. Study on the Open Innovation Practices in Romanian Smes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieta Olaru

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights some of the results of the study carried out by the authors within the research project “Integrated system for innovation management in SMEs”, code PN-II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-1319, under way at the Business Administration Research Centre of the Bucharest University of Economic Studies. The objective aimed at was to show the progress made by Romanian SMEs in adopting the open innovation principles. In order to reach this objective, the authors analysed the available statistical data for the period 2002-2012 concerning the trend of the SMEs’ weight in the total innovation businesses compared to the weight of the large companies, the trend of the number of innovation projects started but unfinished or abandoned, and the trend of the ratio between the weight of the expenses on internal innovation activities and the expenses on external innovation activities for these businesses. The performed study highlighted the fact that within the analysed period, the weight of innovative SMEs in the total SMEs doubled. Within the same period of time the number of Romanian SMEs that initiated research-development-innovation projects unfinished and/or abandoned went up significantly, which proves that the initiatives of these businesses in developing ever more complex and riskier research projects multiplied. Under these circumstances, the authors’ opinion is that focus is needed on external innovation sources that are typical to open innovation, with an important role in enhancing the performance of the innovation process. designed & hosted

  20. Open Access to General Practice Was Associated with Burnout among General Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedsted, Peter; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Walk-in open access in general practice may influence the general practitioner's (GP's) work, but very little research has been done on the consequences. In this study from Danish general practice, we compare the prevalence of burnout between GPs with a walk-in open access and those without. In a questionnaire study (2004), we approached all 458 active GPs in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and 376 (82.8%) GPs returned the questionnaire. Walk-in open access was defined as at least 30 minutes every weekday where patients could attend practice without an appointment. Burnout was measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Analyses using logistic regression were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, job satisfaction, minutes per consultation, practice organisation, working hours, number of listed patients per GP, number of contacts per GP, continuing medical education- (CME-) activities, and clusters of GPs. In all, 8% of GPs had open access and the prevalence of burnout was 24%. GPs with walk-in open access were more likely to suffer from burnout. Having open access was associated with a 3-fold increased likelihood of burnout (OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1-8.8, P = 0.035)). Although the design cannot establish causality, it is recommended to closely monitor possible negative consequences of open access in general practice.

  1. Principles of computer graphics theory and practice using OpenGL and Maya

    CERN Document Server

    Govil-Pai, Shalini

    2004-01-01

    Principles of Computer Graphics: Theory and Practice Using OpenGL and Maya' helps readers understand the principles of interactive computer graphics. Hands-on examples developed in OpenGL illustrate key concepts, and readers develop a professional animation, following traditional processes used in production houses.

  2. Open-access ultrasound referrals from general practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hughes, P

    2015-03-01

    Direct access referral for radiological investigations from General Practice (GP) provides an indispensable diagnostic tool and avoids the inherently long waiting time that referral through a hospital based specialty would entail. Improving access to hospital based radiology services is one of Health Information and Quality Authority\\'s key recommendations in its report on patient referrals from general practice. This study aimed to review all GP referrals for ultrasound investigations to a tertiary referral teaching hospital over a seven month period with respect to their demographics, waiting times and diagnostic outcomes. 1,090 ultrasounds originating in general practice were carried out during the study period. Positive findings were recorded in 332 (30.46%) examinations. The median waiting time from receipt of referral to the diagnostic investigation was 56 days (range 16 - 91 years). 71 (6.5%) patients had follow-up imaging investigations while recommendation for hospital based specialty referral was made in 35 cases (3.2%). Significant findings included abdominal aortic aneurysms, metastatic disease and lymphoma. Direct access to ultrasound for general practitioners allows the referring physician to make an informed decision with regard to the need for specialist referral. We believe these findings help support the case for national direct access to diagnostic ultrasound for general practitioners.

  3. Practical Arduino Cool Projects for Open Source Hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Oxer, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Create your own Arduino-based designs, gain in-depth knowledge of the architecture of Arduino, and learn the user-friendly Arduino language all in the context of practical projects that you can build yourself at home. Get hands-on experience using a variety of projects and recipes for everything from home automation to test equipment. Arduino has taken off as an incredibly popular building block among ubicomp (ubiquitous computing) enthusiasts, robotics hobbyists, and DIY home automation developers. Authors Jonathan Oxer and Hugh Blemings provide detailed instructions for building a wide range

  4. Are pediatric Open Access journals promoting good publication practice? An analysis of author instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff Robert F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies analyzed whether conventional journals in general medicine or specialties such as pediatrics endorse recommendations aiming to improve publication practice. Despite evidence showing benefits of these recommendations, the proportion of endorsing journals has been moderate to low and varied considerably for different recommendations. About half of pediatric journals indexed in the Journal Citation Report referred to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE but only about a quarter recommended registration of trials. We aimed to investigate to what extent pediatric open-access (OA journals endorse these recommendations. We hypothesized that a high proportion of these journals have adopted recommendations on good publication practice since OA electronic publishing has been associated with a number of editorial innovations aiming at improved access and transparency. Methods We identified 41 journals publishing original research in the subject category "Health Sciences, Medicine (General, Pediatrics" of the Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org. From the journals' online author instructions we extracted information regarding endorsement of four domains of editorial policy: the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts, trial registration, disclosure of conflicts of interest and five major reporting guidelines such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials statement. Two investigators collected data independently. Results The Uniform Requirements were mentioned by 27 (66% pediatric OA journals. Thirteen (32% required or recommended trial registration prior to publication of a trial report. Conflict of interest policies were stated by 25 journals (61%. Advice about reporting guidelines was less frequent: CONSORT was referred to by 12 journals (29% followed by other reporting guidelines (MOOSE, PRISMA or STARD (8 journals, 20

  5. Are pediatric Open Access journals promoting good publication practice? An analysis of author instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerpohl, Joerg J; Wolff, Robert F; Antes, Gerd; von Elm, Erik

    2011-04-09

    Several studies analyzed whether conventional journals in general medicine or specialties such as pediatrics endorse recommendations aiming to improve publication practice. Despite evidence showing benefits of these recommendations, the proportion of endorsing journals has been moderate to low and varied considerably for different recommendations. About half of pediatric journals indexed in the Journal Citation Report referred to the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) but only about a quarter recommended registration of trials. We aimed to investigate to what extent pediatric open-access (OA) journals endorse these recommendations. We hypothesized that a high proportion of these journals have adopted recommendations on good publication practice since OA electronic publishing has been associated with a number of editorial innovations aiming at improved access and transparency. We identified 41 journals publishing original research in the subject category "Health Sciences, Medicine (General), Pediatrics" of the Directory of Open Access Journals http://www.doaj.org. From the journals' online author instructions we extracted information regarding endorsement of four domains of editorial policy: the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts, trial registration, disclosure of conflicts of interest and five major reporting guidelines such as the CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) statement. Two investigators collected data independently. The Uniform Requirements were mentioned by 27 (66%) pediatric OA journals. Thirteen (32%) required or recommended trial registration prior to publication of a trial report. Conflict of interest policies were stated by 25 journals (61%). Advice about reporting guidelines was less frequent: CONSORT was referred to by 12 journals (29%) followed by other reporting guidelines (MOOSE, PRISMA or STARD) (8 journals, 20%) and STROBE (3 journals, 7%). The EQUATOR

  6. Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Solid Waste Open Burning in Terengganu, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariani Ariffin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With more than 40 percent of the world’s rubbish is burned, open burning is a significant source of atmospheric pollution globally and remains one of the main environmental issues and health concerns for many developing nations. Despite having stringent criminal penalties for illegal open burning, Malaysia encounters increasing trend in open burning incidents. A better understanding of the knowledge, attitudinal, and perception towards open burning would inform more effective intervention efforts towards changing this trend. A questionnaire survey to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of public was conducted in Kuala Terengganu. A total of 384 respondents from various demographic backgrounds participated in the survey. Descriptive analysis was used to analyse the respondents’ socio-demographic profiles. Pearson correlation was used to uncover the relationship between knowledge, attitude and practice among the respondents. Results showed that the respondents had good knowledge on open burning and showed positive attitude towards protecting the environment from the problem. However, they displayed lack of practice to tackle the problem in real life. The study also found a weak relationship between knowledge with attitude and practice on open burning. Policy-makers should, therefore, devise intervention programmes that can encourage higher practice rather than merely focusing on raising awareness.

  7. High School Teachers' Openness to Adopting New Practices: The Role of Personal Resources and Organizational Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stacy R; Pas, Elise T; Loh, Deanna; Debnam, Katrina J; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2017-03-01

    Although evidence-based practices for students' social, emotional, and behavioral health are readily available, their adoption and quality implementation in schools are of increasing concern. Teachers are vital to implementation; yet, there is limited research on teachers' openness to adopting new practices, which may be essential to successful program adoption and implementation. The current study explored how perceptions of principal support, teacher affiliation, teacher efficacy, and burnout relate to teachers' openness to new practices. Data came from 2,133 teachers across 51 high schools. Structural equation modeling assessed how organizational climate (i.e., principal support and teacher affiliation) related to teachers' openness directly and indirectly via teacher resources (i.e., efficacy and burnout). Teachers with more favorable perceptions of both principal support and teacher affiliation reported greater efficacy, and, in turn, more openness; however, burnout was not significantly associated with openness. Post hoc analyses indicated that among teachers with high levels of burnout, only principal support related to greater efficacy, and in turn, higher openness. Implications for promoting teachers' openness to new program adoption are discussed.

  8. Using Open Educational Practices to Support Institutional Strategic Excellence in Teaching, Learning & Scholarship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Carey

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the integration of Open Educational Practices (OEP into an institutional strategy to develop distinctive excellence in teaching, learning and scholarship. The institution in the case study is a public polytechnic university serving a metropolitan area in Canada. If emerging Open Educational Practices are to flourish at our university, support for OEP must integrate with and contribute to our broader efforts to clarify and enhance our strategic position. We have identified three focal points where our institution can focus attention in order to ensure that our use of emerging Open Educational Practices will best align with, contribute to, and benefit from our institutional strategy for distinctive excellence in teaching and learning: - Opening up the pedagogy underlying exemplary OER, to enable a deeper faculty engagement in integrating and mobilizing diverse sources of knowledge in teaching;- Opening up that process by which individual faculty improve teaching and learning, as a model for our students’ own engagements with knowledge;- Opening up our collective faculty work in innovation networks, as a model for students and as a signature institutional strength and outcome. We summarize the rationale and planned next steps for each of these focal points, which are intended to cumulatively build on each other as a value chain to support the development of distinctive graduate capabilities as signature outcomes of our teaching and learning. http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.7.2.201

  9. Open Access to General Practice Was Associated with Burnout among General Practitioners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Sokolowski, Ineta; Olesen, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Walk-in open access in general practice may influence the general practitioner's (GP's) work, but very little research has been done on the consequences. In this study from Danish general practice, we compare the prevalence of burnout between GPs with a walk-in open access and those without....... In a questionnaire study (2004), we approached all 458 active GPs in the county of Aarhus, Denmark, and 376 (82.8%) GPs returned the questionnaire. Walk-in open access was defined as at least 30 minutes every weekday where patients could attend practice without an appointment. Burnout was measured by the Maslach...... of GPs. In all, 8% of GPs had open access and the prevalence of burnout was 24%. GPs with walk-in open access were more likely to suffer from burnout. Having open access was associated with a 3-fold increased likelihood of burnout (OR = 3.1 (95% CI: 1.1-8.8, P = 0.035)). Although the design cannot...

  10. XML and OpenDocument Format standards and their use in practice

    OpenAIRE

    Pluhař, Marek

    2016-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with XML and OpenDocument Format. The entire work is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part is divided into two separate sections. The first is devoted to the description of the XML format. The second is related to the OpenDocument Format. The work clearly explains the issues of studied topics. The practical part is also divided into two sections. The first one is devoted to the use of XML and the second to creation of ODF macro. In th...

  11. An Investigation into Social Learning Activities by Practitioners in Open Educational Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Van den Beemt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By investigating how educational practitioners participate in activities around open educational practices (OEP, this paper aims at contributing to an understanding of open practices and how these practitioners learn to use OEP. Our research is guided by the following hypothesis: Different social configurations support a variety of social learning activities. The social configuration of OEPs is investigated by an operationalization into the dimensions (1 practice, (2 domain, (3 collective identity, and (4 organization. The results show how practitioners of six different OEPs learn, while acting and collaborating through a combination of offline and online networks. The findings of our study lead to practical implications on how to support participation in OEP, and thereby stimulate learning in (online networks of OEP.

  12. Detection of heart disease by open access echocardiography: a retrospective analysis of general practice referrals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John; Kabir, Saleha; Cajeat, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Heart disease is difficult to detect clinically and it has been suggested that echocardiography should be available to all patients with possible cardiac symptoms or signs. To analyse the results of 2 years of open access echocardiography for the frequency of structural heart disease according to request. Retrospective database analysis in a teaching hospital open access echocardiography service. Reports of all open access transthoracic echocardiograms between January 2011 and December 2012 were categorised as normal, having minor abnormalities, or significant abnormalities according to the indication. There were 2343 open access echocardiograms performed and there were significant abnormalities in 29%, predominantly valve disease (n = 304, 13%), LV systolic dysfunction (n = 179, 8%), aortic dilatation (n = 80, 3%), or pulmonary hypertension (n = 91, 4%). If echocardiography had been targeted at a high-risk group, 267 with valve disease would have been detected (compared to 127 with murmur alone) and 139 with LV systolic dysfunction (compared to 91 with suspected heart failure alone). Most GP practices requested fewer than 10 studies, but 6 practices requested over 70 studies. Open access echocardiograms are often abnormal but structural disease may not be suspected from the clinical request. Uptake by individual practices is patchy. A targeted expansion of echocardiography in patients with a high likelihood of disease is therefore likely to increase the detection of clinically important pathology.

  13. Bringing Open Educational Practice to a Research-Intensive University: Prospects and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masterman, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a small-scale study that explored the relationship between the pedagogical practices characterised as "open" and the existing model of undergraduate teaching and learning at a large research-intensive university (RIU). The aim was to determine the factors that might enable (conversely impede) the greater uptake of…

  14. Best Management Practice, Fact Sheet 2. Sheet Flow to Open Space

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This publication explains what sheet flow to open space is, where and how it is used, their limitations, routine and nonroutine maintenance, expected costs, and a glossary of terms. This fact sheet is one of a 15-part series on urban stormwater management practices.

  15. OPEN GOVERNMENT FROM A MULTILEVEL PERSPECTIVE: REFLECTIONS BETWEEN THEORETICAL REASON AND PRACTICAL INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Valenzuela Mendoza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American countries which have joined the Open Government Partnership (OGP, have designed and implemented various mechanisms on the path towards open government. The analysis conducted in this paper suggests the importance of a multilevel approach to the operationalization of the open government, where the multilevel outlines the enormous challenge of linking government actions with those of civil society organizations in a common agenda which the OGP calls Action Plan. The theoretical approaches that address open government distinguish two visions, technology and politics, with focus on providing a more collaborative direction to public action. Both intertwine to give meaning and direction to practical innovation, specifically in three levels of analysis: institutional (macro, organizational (meso and public policy (micro.

  16. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomba, Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, Rob H G; McCracken, David I

    2015-03-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inherent potential to help characterize and direct financial support to European landscapes where high nature and/or conservation value is dependent on the continuation of specific low-intensity farming systems. Assessing the extent of HNV farmland by necessity relies on the availability of both ecological and farming systems' data, and difficulties associated with making such assessments have been widely described across Europe. A spatially explicit framework of data collection, building out from local administrative units, has recently been suggested as a means of addressing such difficulties. This manuscript tests the relevance of the proposed approach, describes the spatially explicit framework in a case study area in northern Portugal, and discusses the potential of the approach to help better inform the implementation of conservation and rural development policies. Synthesis and applications: The potential of a novel approach (combining land use/cover, farming and environmental data) to provide more accurate and efficient mapping and monitoring of HNV farmlands is tested at the local level in northern Portugal. The approach is considered to constitute a step forward toward a more precise targeting of landscapes for agri-environment schemes, as it allowed a more accurate discrimination of areas within the case study landscape that have a higher value for nature conservation.

  17. Practical Examples and Benefits of Implementing Open Geospatial Consortium Data Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, E.

    2005-12-01

    "Open Systems" have become a re-occuring mantra expressed by all vendors in the GIS industry. One vendor's definition of Open defines system integration at an application tier while another at the data tier. As the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) data definitions (WFS and WMS) become more accepted in the market place we are seeing a more data centric approach to integrating Geospatial information. This benefits all in the GIS industry by: Reducing the cost of ownership for software Minimizing data maintenance requirements Eliminating the need to copy and translate data from one system to another Allowing end users to choose the best tool for the job We will review some practical examples of OGC compliant implementations for enterprise GIS data sharing.

  18. 7R Data Value Framework for Open Data in Practice: Fusepool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kaschesky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on existing literature, this article makes a case for open (government data as supporting political efficiency, socio-economic innovation and administrative efficiency, but also finds a lack of measurable impact. It attributes the lack of impact to shortcomings regarding data access (must be efficient and data usefulness (must be effective. To address these shortcomings, seven key activities that add value to data are identified and are combined into the 7R Data Value Framework, which is an applied methodology for linked data to systematically address both technical and social shortcomings. The 7R Data Value Framework is then applied to the international Fusepool project that develops a set of integrated software components to ease the publishing of open data based on linked data and associated best practices. Real-life applications for the Dutch Parliament and the Libraries of Free University of Berlin are presented, followed by a concluding discussion.

  19. The Global Forum for Home Hemodialysis: a new open-source practical manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Mark R; Chan, Christopher T

    2015-04-01

    Encouraging clinical outcomes from observational and randomized controlled data in the forms of frequent hemodialysis (HD) has renewed interest in home HD. However, given its benefits, home HD is relatively underutilized throughout the world. The Global Forum for Home Hemodialysis, an independent panel comprised of internationally recognized nephrologists, home HD nurses, administrators, patient advocates, and a long-time home HD patient, has convened with the intention of creating an open-source, comprehensive, practical manual that provides useful information to clinicians who are interested in implementing home HD. © 2015 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  20. Opening Doors or Slamming Them Shut? Online Learning Practices and Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Burgstahler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online learning has the potential to open doors to education for everyone who has access to the technology required to participate. Or does it? When it comes to social inclusion in online learning, who are the “haves” and who are the “have-nots?” Some online learning practices erect barriers to individuals with disabilities—uncaptioned videos are not accessible to students who are deaf, content presented only within graphic images is not accessible to individuals who are blind, unorganized content cluttered on a page creates barriers to some students with learning disabilities and attention deficits, web pages that require the use of a mouse are inaccessible to those who cannot operate a mouse. This article explores the question, “What online learning practices make social inclusion possible for individuals with disabilities?” The author answers this question with lessons learned from her own teaching experiences as well as those presented in research and practice literature. She also shares overall characteristics of distance learning programs that promote the social inclusion of students with disabilities in their courses. The author points out how making courses welcoming to, accessible to, and usable by individuals with disabilities may promote the social inclusion of other students as well. She recommends further dissemination and future research regarding inclusive practices in online learning.

  1. Opening Doors or Slamming Them Shut? Online Learning Practices and Students with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Burgstahler

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Online learning has the potential to open doors to education for everyone who has access to the technology required to participate. Or does it? When it comes to social inclusion in online learning, who are the “haves” and who are the “have-nots?” Some online learning practices erect barriers to individuals with disabilities—uncaptioned videos are not accessible to students who are deaf, content presented only within graphic images is not accessible to individuals who are blind, unorganized content cluttered on a page creates barriers to some students with learning disabilities and attention deficits, web pages that require the use of a mouse are inaccessible to those who cannot operate a mouse. This article explores the question, “What online learning practices make social inclusion possible for individuals with disabilities?” The author answers this question with lessons learned from her own teaching experiences as well as those presented in research and practice literature. She also shares overall characteristics of distance learning programs that promote the social inclusion of students with disabilities in their courses. The author points out how making courses welcoming to, accessible to, and usable by individuals with disabilities may promote the social inclusion of other students as well. She recommends further dissemination and future research regarding inclusive practices in online learning.

  2. OPenGL实用编程技巧两则%Two practical skills for OpenGL programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关沫; 黄有群

    2000-01-01

    The article briefly introduces the functions of OpenGL, then emphasizes on how to improve the traditional habit of OpenGL programming under the environment of Visual C + +. We encapsulate functions and codes of OpenGL and establish the reusable graphic class using the thinking of Object-Oriented, therefore, the share of these parts of codes is realized and the maintainability of program is improved. We also introduces the way how to produce the discretionary shape and living raster image using the texture mapping and blending adjustment technique of OpenGL in the virtual scene.%对OpenGL及其基本功能做了简要介绍.着重讨论了在Visual C++环境下,如何运用面向对象的思想,对传统的OpenGL编程习惯进行改进,将OpenGL函数和代码进行封装、重载,创建了可重用的OpenGL的图形类,实现了对这部分代码的共享,大大减少了程序的冗余代码,增加了程序的可维护性.还介绍了如何利用OpenGL中的纹理映射和融合调整技术,在某一场景中生成具有真实感的任意形状的光栅图像,所生成的图像运行效果良好.

  3. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  4. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holvoet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7% versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%. The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  5. Theory and practice of auditor procedures for opening balances during initial audit engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Bondar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased international capital flows requires the adaptation of the corporative relationships mechanisms in domestic entities to the international financial disclosure practices for increase of their investment attractiveness. The professional audit development, increases transparency and fair disclosure of complete and accurate information about the company helps make it. The study proved the importance of predecessor auditor’s working papers for detection of misstatements in opening balances and assessment of the client’s accounting and internal control systems. Consequently a program of opening balances inspecting and other working papers forms have been elaborate for the audit process documentary providing. This provides optimization of the audit resources for obtaining audit evidence and monitoring the quality control in completed audit engagement. Review of the working papers of the predecessor auditor should be used for understanding the managerial staff attitude to making adjustments in terms of financial reporting on the results of its audits. It helps to avoid threats to the auditor independence, reduce the risk of not detecting material misstatement and allow the auditor to determine its confidence in opening balances.

  6. Toward a methodology for studying the application of open source innovation practices in non-software domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanev, Stoyan

    2007-05-01

    This article represents an initial step in the development of a research methodology that will be applied later to study open source innovation practices in company projects where the released technology or asset is other than software code. A brief review of four possible analytical approaches is presented based on the research literature on open innovation, horizontal user innovation networks, business ecosystems and value creation and appropriation. The OpenAccess project of the Silicon Integration Initiative (Si2) is considered as a potential case study of non-software open source project.

  7. Reconciling nature conservation and traditional farming practices: a spatially explicit framework to assess the extent of High Nature Value farmlands in the European countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo Rodrigues Lomba, de Angela; Alves, Paulo; Jongman, R.H.G.; McCracken, D.

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture constitutes a dominant land cover worldwide, and rural landscapes
    under extensive farming practices acknowledged due to high biodiversity
    levels. The High Nature Value farmland (HNVf) concept has been
    highlighted in the EU environmental and rural policies due to their inheren

  8. Hurricane Matthew overwash extents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Kara; Long, Joseph W.; Birchler, Justin; Range, Ginger

    2017-01-01

    The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards project exists to understand and predict storm impacts to our nation's coastlines. This data defines the alongshore extent of overwash deposits attributed to coastal processes during Hurricane Matthew.

  9. Range_Extent_15

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS layer "Range_extent_15" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis) in mainland...

  10. Advances in medical education and practice: role of massive open online courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldberg LR

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lynette R Goldberg,1 Leonard A Crocombe2 1Wicking Dementia Research and Education Centre, Faculty of Health, 2Centre for Rural Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Abstract: Massive open online courses (MOOCs are increasingly available in the area of health and medicine. These MOOCs are offered through various commercial and noncommercial online platforms. When offered through reputable institutions, they can provide valuable access to reliable information without the constraints of time, geographical location, or level of education. Most current courses appear introductory in nature. In its drive for quality health care, the National Academy of Medicine has prioritized a focus on known chronic care conditions. Many of these conditions are shared internationally. Among its initiatives, the academy encourages consumer and professional groups, patients, clinicians, health care organizations, and universities to work together to identify evidence-based care processes consistent with best practices, organize major prevention programs to target key associated health risk behaviors, and develop systems to measure and evaluate improvements in the provision of patient- and family-centered health care. Carefully designed and collaboratively developed MOOCs would appear a valuable resource to contribute to these initiatives. Such MOOCs can, 1 increase the health literacy of the public with regard to the prevention and treatment of known chronic care conditions, 2 provide ready access to continuing professional, and interprofessional, education, and 3 explore innovative teaching models for student learning focused on patient- and family-centered care. MOOCs would also appear helpful to facilitate effective communication among international communities of patients and clinicians, including student clinicians, with shared interests. Further, the accumulation of MOOC data through large-scale measurement and

  11. Survey of Intraocular Antibiotics Prophylaxis Practice after Open Globe Injury in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingsheng Lou

    Full Text Available To elucidate the Chinese practice of intraocular antibiotics administration for prophylaxis after open globe injury.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was performed online by scanning a Quickmark (QR code with smartphones at the 20th Chinese National Conference of Ocular Trauma in November 2014.A total of 153 (30.6% of all participators at the conference responded. Of the respondents, 20.9% were routinely administered with prophylactic intraocular injection of antibiotics at the conclusion of the primary eye repair, and 56.9% were used only in cases with high risk of endophthalmitis development. The intraocular route of delivery was mainly included with intracameral injection (47.9% and intravitreal injection (42.0%. Cephalosporins (53.8% and vancomycin (42.0% were the main choices of antibiotic agents, followed by fluoroquinolones (24.3%, and aminoglycosides (13.4%. Only 21.9% preferred a combination of two or more two drugs routinely. In addition, significantly more respondents from the referral eye hospital (92.7% replied using intraocular antibiotics injection for prophylaxis compared to those respondents from the primary hospital (69.4% (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test.Intraocular antibiotics injection for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis is widely used in China. However, the choice of antibiotic agents and the intraocular route of delivery vary. A well-designed clinical trial is needed to establish a standardized protocol of intraocular antibiotics administration for post-traumatic endophthalmitis prophylaxis.

  12. Can Mimetics, a Theatre-Based Practice, Open Possibilities for Young People with Learning Disabilities? A Capability Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowsdale, Jo; Hayhow, Richard

    2013-01-01

    While the significance of the social model of disability for articulating inclusive approaches in education is recognised, the application of capability theory to education is less well developed. This article by Jo Trowsdale of the University of Warwick and Richard Hayhow of Open Theatre considers how a particular theatre-based practice, here…

  13. A New Way of Measuring Openness: The Open Governance Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz Laffan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Open source software is now "business as usual" in the mobile industry. While much attention is given to the importance of open source licenses, we argue in this article that the governance model can be as necessary to a project’s success and that projects vary widely in the governance models – whether open or closed – that they employ. Open source governance models describe the control points that are used to influence open source projects with regard to access to the source code, how the source code is developed, how derivatives are created, and the community structure of the project. Governance determines who has control over the project beyond what is deemed legally necessary via the open source licenses for that project. The purpose of our research is to define and measure the governance of open source projects, in other words, the extent to which decision-making in an open source project is "open" or "closed". We analyzed eight open source projects using 13 specific governance criteria across four areas of governance: access, development, derivatives and community. Our findings suggest that the most open platforms will be most successful in the long term, however we acknowledge exceptions to this rule. We also identify best practices that are common across these open source projects with regard to source code access, development of source code, management of derivatives, and community structure. These best practices increase the likelihood of developer use of and involvement in open source projects.

  14. Advances in medical education and practice: role of massive open online courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lynette R; Crocombe, Leonard A

    2017-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are increasingly available in the area of health and medicine. These MOOCs are offered through various commercial and noncommercial online platforms. When offered through reputable institutions, they can provide valuable access to reliable information without the constraints of time, geographical location, or level of education. Most current courses appear introductory in nature. In its drive for quality health care, the National Academy of Medicine has prioritized a focus on known chronic care conditions. Many of these conditions are shared internationally. Among its initiatives, the academy encourages consumer and professional groups, patients, clinicians, health care organizations, and universities to work together to identify evidence-based care processes consistent with best practices, organize major prevention programs to target key associated health risk behaviors, and develop systems to measure and evaluate improvements in the provision of patient- and family-centered health care. Carefully designed and collaboratively developed MOOCs would appear a valuable resource to contribute to these initiatives. Such MOOCs can, 1) increase the health literacy of the public with regard to the prevention and treatment of known chronic care conditions, 2) provide ready access to continuing professional, and interprofessional, education, and 3) explore innovative teaching models for student learning focused on patient- and family-centered care. MOOCs would also appear helpful to facilitate effective communication among international communities of patients and clinicians, including student clinicians, with shared interests. Further, the accumulation of MOOC data through large-scale measurement and analysis, obtained nationally and internationally, has the potential to assist in greater understanding of the risk for diseases and their prevention, with this translating into medical education, and authentic, patient- and family

  15. Opening the Black Box of Field Experiences: How Cooperating Teachers' Beliefs and Practices Shape Student Teachers' Beliefs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozelle, Jeffrey J.; Wilson, Suzanne M.

    2012-01-01

    This study employed ethnographic methods to describe and explain changes to beginning science teachers' (n = 6) practices and beliefs during a year long internship. Teaching practices were strongly influenced by the cooperating teachers. Initially, all six interns attempted to re-enact lessons they witnessed their cooperating teachers teach,…

  16. Open Scholarship Practices Reshaping South Africa’s Scholarly Publishing Roadmap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reggie Raju

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South African higher education institutions are the largest producers of research output on the African continent. Given this status, South African researchers have a moral obligation to share their research output with the rest of the continent via a medium that minimizes challenges of access; open scholarship is that medium. The majority of South African higher education libraries provide an open access publishing service. However, in most of these cases this service is via engagement with the green open access route, that is, institutional repositories (IR. Some of the libraries have piloted and adopted gold open access services such as publishing of “diamond” gold open access journals and supporting article processing charges. The experiment with publishing open monographs is a new venture. This venture must be viewed against the backdrop of the need for open educational resources (OERs. OER is an area that is very much in a fledgling stage and is gaining traction, albeit, at a slow pace. The growth of IRs, the growth in support for gold open access including the library acting as a publisher, the experimentation with open monographs, and OERs are all shaping South Africa’s scholarly publishing roadmap.

  17. EUA's Open Access Checklist for Universities: A Practical Guide on Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Rita; Lourenço, Joana; Smith, John H.; Borrell-Damian, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Open Access (OA) to research publications has received increased attention from the academic community, scientific publishers, research funding agencies and governments. This movement has been growing exponentially in recent years, both in terms of the increasing number of Open Access journals and the proliferation of policies on this topic. The…

  18. EUA's Open Access Checklist for Universities: A Practical Guide on Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Rita; Lourenço, Joana; Smith, John H.; Borrell-Damian, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    Open Access (OA) to research publications has received increased attention from the academic community, scientific publishers, research funding agencies and governments. This movement has been growing exponentially in recent years, both in terms of the increasing number of Open Access journals and the proliferation of policies on this topic. The…

  19. Educational area for learning of optics and technologies: union of open laboratories of ideas, methods and practices (OLIMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivashchenko, Maksim; Bodrov, Kirill; Tolstoba, Nadezhda

    2016-09-01

    The paper deals with the concept of creating the union of Open Laboratories of Ideas, Methods and Practices (OLIMP). It describes the structure designed to simplify the relationship, such as business incubators, start-up accelerators, small innovative enterprises, fabrication laboratories and student centers. We consider their advantages and disadvantages for the specific audience of students and enthusiasts who do not have funding for their own projects. The experience of interaction between the Open Laboratories of Ideas, Methods and Practices and the Student Research Laboratory for Optical Engineering shows the relative impact of structures on each other and the value of using such interaction in the learning process. The paper also addresses issues such as: the motivation of students, enthusiasm for the direction the lab participants identify and maintain the initiatives, profiling in the design, scientific, commercial, social sphere.

  20. A Contribution to the Hellenic Open University: Evaluation of the pedagogical practices and the use of ICT on distance education

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This study examines a) the methods used to structure the pedagogy necessary to underpin distance education delivery used by the Hellenic Open University (HOU); b) the adoption of pedagogical and epistemological conceptual systems HOU uses for the development of its pedagogical practices; and c) the role of information and communication technology (ICT), and the degree of ICTs incorporation into distance education delivery at HOU. This study shows that: a) in terms of providing rigorous course...

  1. Study and practice in the construction of open physical experiments teaching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan

    2017-09-01

    Based on open physical experiments teaching system put forward by Ministry of Education, HHU(Hohai University) has carried out the construction of open experimental manage system, which includes course selecting system, teaching system, manage system and information desk. The innovation is in order to mobilize the students’ learning autonomy, cultivate the students’ creative ability and improve teaching quality. Besides, it achieves direct management from school to college to the laboratory and traced manage to the working device regardless of distance and time.

  2. Opening Our Eyes, Changing Our Practices: Learning through the Transnational Lifeworlds of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michelle G.; Oesterreich, Heather A.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the inclusion of a culturally relevant curricular practice of social identity papers within teacher education in the USA that incorporates the transnational lifeworlds of teachers. Using tenets of feminist interdisciplinary frameworks, we highlight how this curricular practice allows teachers and teacher candidates in urban…

  3. Practical Experiences of Building an IPFIX Based Open Source Botnet Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Graham

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The academic study of flow-based malware detection has primarily focused on NetFlow v5 and v9. In 2013 IPFIX was ratified as the flow export standard. As part of a larger project to develop protection methods for Cloud Service Providers from botnet threats, this paper considers the challenges involved in designing an open source IPFIX based botnet detection function. This paper describes how these challenges were overcome and presents an open source system built upon Xen hypervisor and Open vSwitch that is able to display botnet traffic within Cloud Service Provider-style virtualised environments. The system utilises Euler property graphs to display suspect “botnests”. The conceptual framework presented provides a vendor-neutral, real-time detection mechanism for monitoring botnet communication traffic within cloud architectures and the Internet of Things.

  4. Open-space preservation in the Netherlands: Planning, practice and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, E.; Dekkers, J.; Dijk, van T.

    2008-01-01

    Open-space preservation is a planner's issue that is constantly debated, in particular on the success of the implemented instruments. Assessments of policy effectiveness face many methodological problems that are briefly discussed here. We choose to analyse the contribution of Dutch policies to

  5. Open-space preservation in the Netherlands : Planning, practice and prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, Eric; Dekkers, Jasper; van Dijk, Terry

    Open-space preservation is a planner's issue that is constantly debated, in particular on the success of the implemented instruments. Assessments of policy effectiveness face many methodological problems that are briefly discussed here. We choose to analyse the contribution of Dutch policies to

  6. Language Policy in Puerto Rico's Higher Education: Opening the Door for Translanguaging Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kevin S.; Mazak, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between meso university language policies in Puerto Rico and their micro instantiations in an undergraduate psychology classroom. We describe a typology of language policies used by 38 universities and campuses in Puerto Rico where their openness allows for flexible implementation of everyday micro policy.…

  7. Learning and Best Practices for Learning in Open-Source Software Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Holt, Lila

    2013-01-01

    This research is about participants who use open-source software (OSS) discussion forums for learning. Learning in online communities of education as well as non-education-related online communities has been studied under the lens of social learning theory and situated learning for a long time. In this research, we draw parallels among these two…

  8. Learning and Best Practices for Learning in Open-Source Software Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vandana; Holt, Lila

    2013-01-01

    This research is about participants who use open-source software (OSS) discussion forums for learning. Learning in online communities of education as well as non-education-related online communities has been studied under the lens of social learning theory and situated learning for a long time. In this research, we draw parallels among these two…

  9. Current Evaluation of Upper Oesophageal Sphincter Opening in Dysphagia Practice: An International SLT Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; McMahon, Barry P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The assessment of adequate upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) opening during swallowing is an integral component of dysphagia evaluation. Aims: To ascertain speech and language therapists' (SLTs) satisfaction with current methods for assessing UOS function in people with dysphagia and to identify challenges encountered by SLTs with UOS…

  10. "OpenLAB": A 2-Hour PCR-Based Practical for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakaze, Caroline; Eschbach, Judith; Fouquerel, Elise; Gasser, Isabelle; Kieffer, Emmanuelle; Krieger, Sophie; Milosevic, Sara; Saandi, Thoueiba; Florentz, Catherine; Marechal-Drouard, Laurence; Labouesse, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Strasbourg University PhD school in Life and Health Sciences launched an initiative called "OpenLAB." This project was developed in an effort to help high school teenagers understand theoretical and abstract concepts in genetics. A second objective of this program is to help students in defining their future orientation and to…

  11. Meeting the Challenges of Higher Education in India through Open Educational Resources: Policies, Practices, and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakran, Archana; Sharma, Ramesh C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the education sector in India has undergone a substantial transformation. Recent advances in technology have provided access to high quality educational resources and information on the Internet. This article examines the role of open educational resources (OER) in addressing the challenges of higher education in India,…

  12. Language Policy in Puerto Rico's Higher Education: Opening the Door for Translanguaging Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kevin S.; Mazak, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between meso university language policies in Puerto Rico and their micro instantiations in an undergraduate psychology classroom. We describe a typology of language policies used by 38 universities and campuses in Puerto Rico where their openness allows for flexible implementation of everyday micro policy.…

  13. "OpenLAB": A 2-Hour PCR-Based Practical for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouakaze, Caroline; Eschbach, Judith; Fouquerel, Elise; Gasser, Isabelle; Kieffer, Emmanuelle; Krieger, Sophie; Milosevic, Sara; Saandi, Thoueiba; Florentz, Catherine; Marechal-Drouard, Laurence; Labouesse, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The Strasbourg University PhD school in Life and Health Sciences launched an initiative called "OpenLAB." This project was developed in an effort to help high school teenagers understand theoretical and abstract concepts in genetics. A second objective of this program is to help students in defining their future orientation and to attract them to…

  14. Critical Spaces for Critical Times: Global Conversations in Literacy Research as an Open Professional Development and Practices Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Albers

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects an OER (Open Educational Resources critical literacy project, Global Conversations in Literacy Research (GCLR, (www.globalconversationsinliteracy.wordpress.com, now in its fourth year. GCLR annually hosts seven web seminars presented by internationally recognized literacy and education scholars. We outline key dimensions of GCLR not only as an OER but as an open educational practice (OEP (Andrade et al., 2011 that through its design, not only provides open access to scholarship, but also understands the critical nexus among resources, practices and theory. Informed by data from a longitudinal study, this paper situates these dimensions within professional development literature, and outlines GCLR as a critical space designed for critical times, and the importance of intentionality when accessing OER. Like scholars before us, we argue that that availability is not the only consideration when using OER (Andrade et al., 2011; OER must be considered in relation to pedagogical considerations and how OER are used as a critical component to online professional development.

  15. Open soundcard as a platform for practical, laboratory study of digital audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how lacking suitable platforms for laboratory exercises becomes a learning problem, limiting the practical experience students gain. In engineering education, laboratory demonstration difficulty of issues like real-time streaming in digital signal and audio processing is...

  16. Open soundcard as a platform for practical, laboratory study of digital audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how lacking suitable platforms for laboratory exercises becomes a learning problem, limiting the practical experience students gain. In engineering education, laboratory demonstration difficulty of issues like real-time streaming in digital signal and audio processing...

  17. Minimally Invasive Versus Open Pancreaticoduodenectomy for Cancer: Practice Patterns and Short-term Outcomes Among 7061 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed Abdelgadir; Choudhury, Kingshuk; Dinan, Michaela A; Reed, Shelby D; Scheri, Randall P; Blazer, Dan G; Roman, Sanziana A; Sosa, Julie A

    2015-08-01

    To describe national practice patterns regarding utilization of minimally invasive pancreaticoduodenectomy (MIPD) and compare short-term outcomes with those following open pancreaticoduodenectomy for cancer. There is increasing interest in use of MIPD; however, published data are limited to single institutional experiences. Adult patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy were identified from the National Cancer Database, 2010-2011. Descriptive statistics and multivariable modeling were employed to characterize use of MIPD (laparoscopic or robotic) and compare short-term outcomes to those following open pancreaticoduodenectomy. A total of 7061 patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy: 983 had MIPD and 6078 had open procedures. The use of MIPD increased by 45% (179 cases) from 2010 to 2011. The majority of hospitals (92%) performing MIPD were low volume (≤ 10 cases/2 years). Factors independently associated with undergoing MIPD included fewer comorbidities, treatment at an academic institution, and a neuroendocrine tumor diagnosis (all P rate was 5.1% for MIPD versus 3.1% after open surgery. For patients with adenocarcinoma, there were no differences between MIPD and open pancreaticoduodenectomy after multivariable adjustment in number of lymph nodes removed, rate of positive surgical margins, length of stay, or readmissions. However, 30-day mortality was higher for patients undergoing MIPD versus open surgery (odds ratio = 1.87, confidence interval: 1.25-2.80, P = 0.002). While there is increasing interest in employing MIPD for adenocarcinoma, its use is associated with increased 30-day mortality. The majority of hospitals performing MIPD were low volume. These results may suggest that MIPD is a complex procedure for which comprehensive protocols outlining criteria for implementation might be warranted to optimize patient safety.

  18. Mapping a landscape of learning design: Identifying key trends in current practice at the Open University

    OpenAIRE

    Cross, Simon; Conole, Grainne; Clark, Paul; Brasher, Andrew; Weller, Martin

    2008-01-01

    The object of this paper is to present some early analysis of interview and focus group data about how existing teacher educators at The Open University (UK) approach, understand, and deploy learning design and the additional support and tools they would find helpful. This represents a component of a broader institutional project that seeks to develop a learning design tool for the support and promotion of learning design and to better define the current landscape of learning design across th...

  19. Knowledge creation in virtual communities – Exploring practices in open source software hacker communities

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus, Thomas; Sarma, Meera

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an exploratory conceptual and theoretical examination of knowledge creation within virtual communities of hackers. By distinguishing between different types of virtual communities, we argue that hacker communities involved in free and open source activities possess special structural and processual characteristics that are conducive to innovative product development. Drawing on diverse literatures, this paper thus builds an initial understanding of how a hacker community is ...

  20. Open Access Publishing: A Study of Current Practice in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahim, Arpan; Bansal, Hitesh; Goodson, Alexander M C; Payne, Karl F B; Sabharwal, Sanjeeve

    2016-12-01

    Open access (OA) publication has become an increasingly common route for dissemination of scientific research findings. However, it remains a contentious issue with continued debate as to its impact on the peer-review process and a potential change in the quality of subsequent evidence published. There is little research that looks into OA in oral and maxillofacial surgery. We investigated the OA policy in the 30 relevant journals listed in the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Knowledge journal citation report, comparing bibliometric data and quality of evidence produced in journals offering OA and those with subscription-only policies. 3474 articles were graded for evidence level and the results correlated to journal OA status. 76.7 % of journals offered authors OA services. There was no difference between impact factor, self-citation rate, total citations or quality of evidence between OA and subscription journals. These findings should send clear messages to both clinicians and researchers and should re- assure readers that scientific findings that are disseminated in open access form do not differ in quality to those in subscription-only format. It should reinforce that open access formats are a credible way to display research findings in oral and maxillofacial surgery.

  1. Big and Open Linked Data (BOLD) in Research, Policy and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Kuk, G.

    2016-01-01

    The value of data as a new economic asset class is seldom realized on its own. With less reliance on self-administered survey, it offers new insights into behaviors and patterns. Yet it is a huge undertaking of bringing together multiple actors from different disciplines and diverse practices to exa

  2. Opening Options: Making Field Education Work in a Private Practice Clinic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Knaggs, Constance; Hock, Robert; LaCharite, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the use of social work field placements in a private practice setting to prepare MSW students for clinical work. The authors used "autoethnography", which is personal narrative that explores the writer's experience of life, to describe interpersonal and contextual characteristics, as well as procedures implemented to conduct…

  3. Upon opening the black box and finding it full : Exploring the ethics in design practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.G.D.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary design practices, such as participatory design (PD), human-centered design (HCD), and codesign, have inherent ethical qualities, which often remain implicit and unexamined. Three design projects in the high-tech industry were studied using three ethical traditions as lenses. Virtue ethi

  4. A Contribution to the Hellenic Open University: Evaluation of the pedagogical practices and the use of ICT on distance education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Panagiotakopoulos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a the methods used to structure the pedagogy necessary to underpin distance education delivery used by the Hellenic Open University (HOU; b the adoption of pedagogical and epistemological conceptual systems HOU uses for the development of its pedagogical practices; and c the role of information and communication technology (ICT, and the degree of ICTs incorporation into distance education delivery at HOU. This study shows that: a in terms of providing rigorous course contents, strong framing exists between HOU’s various learning modules; b in terms of pedagogical practices, there is a strong hierarchical relationship and framing between HOU’s academic staff and tutors, while conversely, framing is weaker between its tutors and students; c in terms of ICT usage HOU, in general, uses technology for administration, while conversely, and depending on the program of study, it currently only has limited use for student learning.

  5. Building Chronic Kidney Disease Clinical Practice Guidelines Using the openEHR Guideline Definition Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Heng; Lo, Ying-Chih; Hung, Pei-Yuan; Liou, Der-Ming

    2016-12-07

    As a result of the disease's high prevalence, chronic kidney disease (CKD) has become a global public health problem. A clinical decision support system that integrates with computer-interpretable guidelines (CIGs) should improve clinical outcomes and help to ensure patient safety. The openEHR guideline definition language (GDL) is a formal language used to represent CIGs. This study explores the feasibility of using a GDL approach for CKD; it also attempts to identify any potential gaps between the ideal concept and reality. Using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) anemia guideline as material, we designed a development workflow in order to establish a series of GDL guidelines. Focus group discussions were conducted in order to identify important issues related to GDL implementation. Ten GDL guidelines and 37 archetypes were established using the KDIGO guideline document. For the focus group discussions, 16 clinicians and 22 IT experts were recruited and their perceptions, opinions and attitudes towards the GDL approach were explored. Both groups provided positive feedback regarding the GDL approach, but raised various concerns about GDL implementation. Based on the findings of this study, we identified some potential gaps that might exist during implementation between the GDL concept and reality. Three directions remain to be investigated in the future. Two of them are related to the openEHR GDL approach. Firstly, there is a need for the editing tool to be made more sophisticated. Secondly, there needs to be integration of the present approach into non openEHR-based hospital information systems. The last direction focuses on the applicability of guidelines and involves developing a method to resolve any conflicts that occur with insurance payment regulations.

  6. A Survey of Usability Practices in Free/Libre/Open Source Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Celeste Lyn

    A review of case studies about usability in eight Free/Libre/Open Source Software (FLOSS) projects showed that an important issue regarding a usability initiative in the project was the lack of user research. User research is a key component in the user-centered design (UCD) process and a necessary step for creating usable products. Reasons why FLOSS projects suffered from a lack of user research included poor or unclear project leadership, cultural differences between developer and designers, and a lack of usability engineers. By identifying these critical issues, the FLOSS usability community can begin addressing problems in the efficacy of usability activities and work towards creating more usable FLOSS products.

  7. Low cost, practical, all-digital open-loop fiber-optic gyroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanhong Yang(杨远洪); Weixu Zhang(张惟叙); Jing Ma(马静); Xinjun Chen(陈新军)

    2003-01-01

    A novel all-digital scheme for open-loop fiber-optic gyroscope (FOG), where only two key points of outputwave were digitized directly, has been proposed. A control equation, with which the modulation depthof PZT modulator is stable when setting the modulation depth as 4.35 and a calculation equation, withwhich the Sagnac phase can be worked out, are derived. A modulation depth control and an automaticcorrelation sampling and a gain control technology were induced. A photo-type FOG was made and tested.The good performance was achieved.

  8. Performance Comparison of OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce in Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Ji Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With problem size and complexity increasing, several parallel and distributed programming models and frameworks have been developed to efficiently handle such problems. This paper briefly reviews the parallel computing models and describes three widely recognized parallel programming frameworks: OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce. OpenMP is the de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory systems. MPI is the de facto industry standard for distributed memory systems. MapReduce framework has become the de facto standard for large scale data-intensive applications. Qualitative pros and cons of each framework are known, but quantitative performance indexes help get a good picture of which framework to use for the applications. As benchmark problems to compare those frameworks, two problems are chosen: all-pairs-shortest-path problem and data join problem. This paper presents the parallel programs for the problems implemented on the three frameworks, respectively. It shows the experiment results on a cluster of computers. It also discusses which is the right tool for the jobs by analyzing the characteristics and performance of the paradigms.

  9. An Open-Access Review to Determine Best Evidence-Based Practice for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Ann Walker

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The manifestation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD can have an enormous impact on individuals’ areas of occupation, specifically activities of daily living. Occupational therapy (OT practitioners have the ability to efficiently treat these clients using evidence-based interventions to achieve optimal functioning and quality of life. The purpose of this research study was to identify specific interventions supported by evidence for consumers with COPD using an open-access database for OT. Method: A thematic synthesis of 102 articles available on COPD via the open-access database OTseeker was used in this study. A constant comparison approach revealed seven descriptive themes for intervention including exercise, education, self-management, cognitive-behavioral therapy, complementary and alternative medicine therapy, breathing technique training, and nutrition. Results: For each theme, sub-themes were discussed and components of effective interventions were identified. Aspects of an evidence-based intervention program for individuals with COPD were outlined. Conclusion: Occupational therapists can use this evidence to thoroughly design well-rounded effective evidence-based intervention programs to enable individuals with COPD to live life to its fullest.

  10. Enhancing project-oriented learning by joining communities of practice and opening spaces for relatedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, R.

    2010-03-01

    This article describes an extension to project-oriented learning to increase social construction of knowledge and learning. The focus is on: (a) maximising opportunities for students to share their knowledge with practitioners by joining communities of practice, and (b) increasing their intrinsic motivation by creating conditions for student's relatedness. The case study considers a last year capstone course in Mechanical Engineering. The work addresses innovative practices of active learning and beyond project-oriented learning through: (a) the development of a web-based decision support system, (b) meetings between the communities of students, maintenance engineers and academics, and (c) new off-campus group instances. The author hypothesises that this multi-modal approach increases deep learning and social impact of the educational process. Surveys to the actors support a successful achievement of the educational goals. The methodology can easily be extended to further improve the learning process.

  11. Taft's open door policy to the near east : dollar diplomacy practices in the ottoman empire

    OpenAIRE

    İplikçi, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of thesis. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 98-105) Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of History, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2015. This thesis analyzes the United States' Dollar Diplomacy and its practices towards the Ottoman Empire during William Howard Taft's presidency. The United States was not quite interested in improving its economic and diplomatic relations with the Ottoman Empire, before the reopen of the Ottoman Par...

  12. Hydrologic Geospatial Fabric as Community Cyberinfrastructure: International standardization best practices and the U.S. Open Water Data Initiative implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blodgett, D. L.

    2016-12-01

    Recent prolonged droughts, catastrophic flooding, and the need to protect and restore aquatic ecosystems, has increased the emphasis on information sharing in the water resources science and engineering domains. Internationally the joint World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Hydrology Domain Working Group (HDWG) has been working toward a comprehensive system of standards and best practices for the Hydrology Domain. In the U.S. the multi-agency led and open to all U.S. Advisory Committee on Water Information (ACWI) was tasked to implement an Open Water Data Initiative (OWDI), "that will integrate currently fragmented water information into a connected, national water data framework"[1]. The status of both will be presented with focus on a community hydrologic geospatial fabric. Hydrology observations data standardization was the emphasis of the first 5 years of the HDWG. This work included WaterML 2.0 parts 1 - timeseries and part 2 - ratings and gagings. In 2016, the first of two new hydrographic feature models, GroundwaterML2, was completed and the second, for surface water features, was in active development. The WMO Commission for Hydrology is considering adoption of all these standards and their adoption is central to the U.S. OWDI. OWDI participants have produced a special collection in the Journal of American Water Resources Association and several initiative working groups have concluded their activities. One early deliverable from the OWDI was a new easier to use structure for the NHDPlus dataset. Building on this, a project to create a national Network Linked Data Index (NLDI) is being undertaken as an open-source community endeavor. The NLDI centralizes river network data, network navigation tools, crawlers that index data to the network, and utilities to register or remove data from the network. Research that informed the design of the NLDI will be presented along with recent development and findings of the project

  13. From Competition to Cooperation - Development and Practices of Open Innovation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-ling Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this era of an innovation-driven knowledge economy, innovation is a key factor in the creation of enterprise competitiveness. With the pace of globalization gaining speed and market competition becoming more intense, an increasing number of enterprises have opted to look beyond their own laboratories and search for creativity in the outside world. In other words, the source of momentum for enterprise innovation is no longer limited to a corporation's internal organization but can be derived from the proper use of external knowledge and innovative resources. When combining internal and external creativity to foster the development of new technologies, we can create greater economic value. The rise of this form of open innovation thinking is driving the development of the innovation systems in specific countries or regions.

  14. Open source and healthcare in Europe - time to put leading edge ideas into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Peter J; Wright, Graham; Karopka, Thomas; Betts, Helen; Orel, Andrej

    2009-01-01

    Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS) is a process of software development, a method of licensing and a philosophy. Although FLOSS plays a significant role in several market areas, the impact in the health care arena is still limited. FLOSS is promoted as one of the most effective means for overcoming fragmentation in the health care sector and providing a basis for more efficient, timely and cost effective health care provision. The 2008 European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) Special Topic Conference (STC) explored a range of current and future issues related to FLOSS in healthcare (FLOSS-HC). In particular, there was a focus on health records, ubiquitous computing, knowledge sharing, and current and future applications. Discussions resulted in a list of main barriers and challenges for use of FLOSS-HC. Based on the outputs of this event, the 2004 Open Steps events and subsequent workshops at OSEHC2009 and Med-e-Tel 2009, a four-step strategy has been proposed for FLOSS-HC: 1) a FLOSS-HC inventory; 2) a FLOSS-HC collaboration platform, use case database and knowledge base; 3) a worldwide FLOSS-HC network; and 4) FLOSS-HC dissemination activities. The workshop will further refine this strategy and elaborate avenues for FLOSS-HC from scientific, business and end-user perspectives. To gain acceptance by different stakeholders in the health care industry, different activities have to be conducted in collaboration. The workshop will focus on the scientific challenges in developing methodologies and criteria to support FLOSS-HC in becoming a viable alternative to commercial and proprietary software development and deployment.

  15. BUILDING A GLOBAL FUTURE THROUGH RESEARCH AND INNOVATIVE PRACTICES IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Tariq MAHMOOD

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study aims to investigate awareness of research students about the concept of plagiarism and to suggest possible ways to avoid it; a descriptive survey study was conducted. The objectives of the study were to examine the researcher’s knowledge about concept of plagiarism, knowledge about specific terminologies, types of plagiarism, and consequences of plagiarism and to suggest possible ways to avoid it. Study was delimited to the research students of Faculty of Education at PhD, M.Phil. and MA level in Allma Iqbal Open University. A sample of hundred students was selected through snowball sampling technique, five point Likert scale questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. Major finding were that most of the students had misconception of plagiarism, most of them were unaware about the specific terminologies and types of plagiarism. Majority of the students were unaware about the consequences of plagiarism. On the basis of findings it was concluded that they were not properly taught about the concept of plagiarism during their course work in research and it had implications on the quality of research. The major recommendations were to add sufficient material about plagiarism in research courses and students may be informed about the HEC polices about plagiarism.

  16. Open source intelligence (OSINT) in the practice of the U.S. intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    КОЖУШКО, Ольга Олегівна; Інститут міжнародних відносин Національного авіаційного університету

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with intelligence activity in the context of intelligence gathering methods. As an example of such activity is presented with open source intelligence (OSINT), its regulation and organization as a component of information activity of the U.S. intelligence services. В статье рассматривается разведывательная деятельность в контексте методов сбора разведывательных данных. Примером такой деятельности представлено разведку на основе анализа открытых источников информации (OSIN...

  17. Guide for Recommended Practices to Perform Crack Tip Opening Displacement Tests in High Strength Low Alloy Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián A. Ávila

    Full Text Available Abstract: Fracture mechanics approach is important for all mechanical and civil projects that might involve cracks in metallic materials, and especially for those using welding as a structural joining process. This methodology can enhance not only the design but also the service life of the structures being constructed. This paper includes detailed consideration of several practical issues related to the experimental procedures to assess the fracture toughness in high strength low alloy steels (HSLA using the crack tip opening displacement (CTOD parameter, specifically pipeline steels for oil and gas transportation. These considerations are important for engineers who are new in the field, or for those looking for guidelines performing different procedures during the experimentation, which usually are difficult to understand from the conventional standards. We discuss on topics including geometry selection, number of replicate tests, fatigue precracking, test procedure selection and realization, reports of results and other aspects.

  18. International dissemination of evidence-based practice, open access and the IACAPAP textbook of child and adolescent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M; Omigbodun, Olayinka Olusola

    2015-01-01

    Dramatic changes have occurred in both publishing and teaching in the last 20 years stemming from the digital and Internet revolutions. Such changes are likely to grow exponentially in the near future aided by the trend to open access publishing. This revolution has challenged traditional publishing and teaching methods that-largely but not exclusively due to cost-are particularly relevant to professionals in low and middle income countries. The digital medium and the Internet offer boundless opportunities for teaching and training to people in disadvantaged regions. This article describes the development of the IACAPAP eTextbook of child and adolescent mental health, its use, accessibility, and potential impact on the international dissemination of evidence-based practice.

  19. Graph 500 on OpenSHMEM: Using a Practical Survey of Past Work to Motivate Novel Algorithmic Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman, Max [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Pritchard Jr., Howard Porter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Budimlic, Zoran [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Sarkar, Vivek [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-12-22

    Graph500 [14] is an effort to offer a standardized benchmark across large-scale distributed platforms which captures the behavior of common communicationbound graph algorithms. Graph500 differs from other large-scale benchmarking efforts (such as HPL [6] or HPGMG [7]) primarily in the irregularity of its computation and data access patterns. The core computational kernel of Graph500 is a breadth-first search (BFS) implemented on an undirected graph. The output of Graph500 is a spanning tree of the input graph, usually represented by a predecessor mapping for every node in the graph. The Graph500 benchmark defines several pre-defined input sizes for implementers to test against. This report summarizes investigation into implementing the Graph500 benchmark on OpenSHMEM, and focuses on first building a strong and practical understanding of the strengths and limitations of past work before proposing and developing novel extensions.

  20. Practices for improving the serviceability of linings installations in open systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spieres, G.V. [KTA - Tator Inc., Pittsburgh, PE (United States); Tombaugh, R.S. [PPL Susquehanna, LLC, PE (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Accelerated corrosion within nuclear plant raw water systems often necessitates in-place lining of corroded piping later in a plant's life to check corrosion. Linings are usually installed in-place, though some raw water piping and components can be lined in the site maintenance facility or even in an offsite shop. Coatings and linings have often been applied to tube sheets and channels in conjunction with re-tubing to prevent galvanic attack. Lining application practices necessary for reliability commensurate with the high quality expected in nuclear programs is often found wanting. Key process controls critical to the success of lining installations are often misunderstood or inadequately addressed. This paper reviews the critical process attributes essential to optimizing service life. These include: 1) Training workers in techniques required for a successful application; 2) Establishing and maintaining ambient controls; 3) Techniques for protecting against water intrusion; 4) Eliminating MIC and surface contaminants (e.g., chlorides); 5) Selecting the proper abrasive and blast system and containment and removal of blast debris; 6) Equipment for accelerated curing; and 7) Engineering tools essential to addressing the above key process variables. SWS linings represent the largest category of safety-related coatings outside containment. Revision 1 of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Regulatory Guide 1.54, which addresses safety-related coatings, was issued in July 2000. The original version only addressed containment coatings. Revision 1 references ASTM D5411-2000, which formalizes for the first time the existence of safety-related coatings both inside and outside containment. Rev. 1 of RG 1.54, on a going forward basis, links Appendix B QA/QC protocols heretofore established for containment coatings to safety-related coatings and linings outside containment. (authors)

  1. To what extent are microplastics from the open ocean weathered?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Halle, Alexandra; Ladirat, Lucie; Martignac, Marion; Mingotaud, Anne Françoise; Boyron, Olivier; Perez, Emile

    2017-08-01

    It is necessary to better characterize plastic marine debris in order to understand its fate in the environment and interaction with organisms, the most common type of debris being made of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). In this work, plastic debris was collected in the North Atlantic sub-tropical gyre during the Expedition 7th Continent sea campaign and consisted mainly in PE. While the mechanisms of PE photodegradation and biodegradation in controlled laboratory conditions are well known, plastic weathering in the environment is not well understood. This is a difficult task to examine because debris comes from a variety of manufactured objects, the original compositions and properties of which vary considerably. A statistical approach was therefore used to compare four sample sets: reference PE, manufactured objects, mesoplastics (5-20 mm) and microplastics (0.3-5 mm). Infrared spectroscopy showed that the surface of all debris presented a higher oxidation state than the reference samples. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis revealed that the microplastics were more crystalline contrarily to the mesoplastics which were similar to references samples. Size exclusion chromatography showed that the molar mass decreased from the references to meso- and microplastics, revealing a clear degradation of the polymer chains. It was thus concluded that the morphology of marine microplastic was much altered and that an unambiguous shortening of the polymer chains took place even for this supposedly robust and inert polymer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Defining an open access resource strategy for research libraries:Part Ⅲ—The strategies and practices of National Science Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin; ZHANG; Xiwen; LIU; Lin; LI; Yan; ZENG; Li-Ping; KU

    2012-01-01

    Purpose:This paper describes the strategies and practices of National Science Library(NSL),Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS)in promoting open access(OA)and developing OA resources.Design/methodology/approach:Multi-facet frameworks are devised to guide the development of OA strategies and practices.Key OA initiatives are briefly described along the main aspects of the strategies as they contribute to implementation of the OA strategies.Findings:NSL defined its role as the Chief OA Officer for CAS and a key OA promoter for China.Accordingly,NSL has engaged in multiple fronts of promoting OA,including development of OA strategies for CAS,establishment of itself as an OA knowledge&promotion center,development of the CAS IR system,and support for OA publishing by CAS authors.Research limitations:OA is still evolving,so are the strategies and practices as many actions are experimental and explorative in nature.Open books,open data,and open educational resources are yet to be covered.Comparative studies are needed,so is the evidence-based impact analysis.Practical implications:Institutions can adopt,adapt,or compare with examples and lessons learned are described here.Originality/value:The multi-faceted frameworks,working principles,and lessons learned are based on NSL’s practices which can be valuable to the overall OA development.

  3. Open access and its practical impact on the work of academic librarians collection development, public services, and the library and information science literature

    CERN Document Server

    Bowering Mullen, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This book is aimed at the practicing academic librarian, especially those working on the 'front lines' of reference, instruction, collection development, and other capacities that involve dealing directly with library patrons in a time of changing scholarly communication paradigms. The book looks at open access from the perspective of a practicing academic librarian and challenges fellow librarians to continue the dialogue about how the movement might be affecting day-to-day library work and the future of academic libraries. * Written by a practicing academic librarian with many years experience in reference, as well as in collection development and faculty liaison roles* Written with the "front-line" academic librarian in mind from a practical point of view* Contains numerous references to refer the reader to many open access resources; includes extensive footnotes for further reading

  4. Dimensions of Openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Thestrup, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    as a matter of engaging educational activities in sociocultural practices of a surrounding society. Openness is not only a matter of opening up the existing, but of developing new educational practices that interact with society. The paper outlines three pedagogical dimensions of openness: transparency...... practices. Openness as joint engagement in the world aims at establishing interdependent collaborative relationships between educational institutions and external practices. To achieve these dimensions of openness, educational activities need to change and move beyond the course as the main format...... for openness. With examples from a university case, the paper discusses how alternative pedagogical formats and educational technologies can support the three dimensions of openness....

  5. Tagging in Volunteered Geographic Information: An Analysis of Tagging Practices for Cities and Urban Regions in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Davidovic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI projects, the tagging or annotation of objects is usually performed in a flexible and non-constrained manner. Contributors to a VGI project are normally free to choose whatever tags they feel are appropriate to annotate or describe a particular geographic object or place. In OpenStreetMap (OSM, the Map Features part of the OSM Wiki serves as the de-facto rulebook or ontology for the annotation of features in OSM. Within Map Features, suggestions and guidance on what combinations of tags to use for certain geographic objects are outlined. In this paper, we consider these suggestions and recommendations and analyse the OSM database for 40 cities around the world to ascertain if contributors to OSM in these urban areas are using this guidance in their tagging practices. Overall, we find that compliance with the suggestions and guidance in Map Features is generally average or poor. This leads us to conclude that contributors in these areas do not always tag features with the same level of annotation. Our paper also confirms anecdotal evidence that OSM Map Features is less influential in how OSM contributors tag objects.

  6. Practice Scheme of a Traffic Monitor Architecture Based on OpenFlow%基于OpenFlow的流量监控架构实践方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘静; 郭景元; 赖英旭

    2016-01-01

    To address potential security issues in OpenFlow-based software defined network, which threat OpenFlow network infrastructures when they are under certain attacks and significantly affect network performance when abnormal traffic exists, this paper investigated security issues in the OpenFlow network and then proposed a traffic monitor architecture. Combining sFlow sampling technology with Floodlight controller, method which mitigated network attacks by changing the controller’ s operational mode and performing rate-limiting in the upper layer application was proposed. Based on the test results, it is proven that the proposed solution reduces controller load dramatically under certain attacks, as it filters 99. 88% Packet In packets originated from attacks, thus effectively reduces effects of abnormal traffic on hosts and network itself. The proposed solution provides real-time attack detection and mitigates attack effects on overall network performance.%为了解决基于OpenFlow的软件定义网络( software defined network, SDN)架构存在的潜在安全性问题,缓解特定的网络攻击对OpenFlow网络基础设施的威胁,保障OpenFlow网络在存在异常流量状态下的网络性能,在分析OpenFlow协议的安全缺陷的基础上,提出了一种流量监控方案.该方案使用 sFlow 流量采样技术,结合FloodLight开源控制器,通过上层应用更改控制器操作模式并对交换机执行端口限速.实验结果证明:提出的方案在网络受到特定攻击时可以降低控制器负载,过滤攻击产生的Packet In包达99.88%,有效地减小了异常流量对网络中主机及网络本身的影响;能及时监测网络攻击造成的网络异常,并缓解网络攻击对网络整体性能的影响.

  7. What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

  8. What Bacteria Are Living in My Food?: An Open-Ended Practical Series Involving Identification of Unknown Foodborne Bacteria Using Molecular Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Prascilla; Turner, Mark S.

    2011-01-01

    This open-ended practical series titled "Molecular Identification of Unknown Food Bacteria" which extended over a 6-week period was designed with the aims of giving students an opportunity to gain an understanding of naturally occurring food bacteria and skills in contemporary molecular methods using real food samples. The students first isolated…

  9. Opening the black-box of person-centred care: An arts-informed narrative inquiry into mental health education and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwind, Jasna K; Lindsay, Gail M; Coffey, Sue; Morrison, Debbie; Mildon, Barb

    2014-08-01

    Nursing education has a history of encouraging students to know their patients and to negotiate the in-between of art/science, person/profession, and intuition/evidence. Nurse-teachers know that students may abandon some values and practices when they encounter practice environments that are complex and have competing agendas. We are concerned that nursing knowledge is black-boxed, invisible and taken-for-granted, in healthcare settings. Our research explores how nursing students and nurses are constructing and enacting person-centred care in mental health education and practice. We want to understand the nursing standpoint on this significant ontological issue and to make nursing knowledge construction and utilization visible; illuminating how person-centred theory emerges from practice. The process involved four 3-hour group meetings and an individual follow-up telephone conversation. Students and nurses met at a tertiary-care mental health organization. Fourteen nurses (Registered Nurses and Registered Practical Nurses) and nursing students (Bachelor of Science in Nursing and Practical Nursing) participated in our inquiry. We used arts-informed narrative inquiry to explore experience through the arts such as metaphor, collage, poems, letters, and group conversations. The black-box is opened as the inquiry reveals how nursing knowledge is constructed, assumptions are challenged and new practices emerge. Our research is significant for education and for practice and is transferable to other populations and settings. Nurses are affirmed in person-centred values and practices that include partnership with those in their care, role modeling for colleagues and mentoring students and new nurses. Students participate in transferring their learning from school to practice, in the company of experienced colleagues; together they open the black-box to show how nurses conceptualize and enact person-centred care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Practice of a Quality Assurance System in Open and Distance Learning: A case study at Universitas Terbuka Indonesia (The Indonesia Open University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Belawati

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Quality assurance for distance higher education is one of the main concerns among institutions and stakeholders today. This paper examines the experiences of Universitas Terbuka (UT, which has initiated and implemented an innovative strategy of quality assurance (QA for continuous improvement. The credo of the UT quality assurance system is "We write what we do. We do what we write. We check. We improve continuously!" Implementing a quality management system at the UT, a mega-university with a student body of more than a quarter of a million and which involved a network of participating institutions and regional centres, was a formidable task to accomplish. To achieve its lofty goal, UT adopted and contextualised the draft of the Asian Association of Open Universities (AAOU QA Framework to launch its own quality assurance program. This has taken a great deal of commitment and participation of all staff involved. QA at the UT required systematic and step-by-step processes, including development of the QA framework and job manuals, raising awareness and commitment amongst all staff involved, internal assessment, and integration of QA programs into the university's annual action plans, external assessment and benchmarking. This paper concludes that quality assurance must be developed as institutional policy and strategy for continuous improvement.

  11. Exploration and practice of establishing teaching laboratory opening fund%教学实验室开放基金设立的探索与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓鸿; 王杰; 张金凤; 冯璐

    2011-01-01

    阐述了高校教学实验室开放基金设立的背景、基金的组织运行和取得的成果.实践证明,设立教学实验室开放基金对于创新型人才培养、提高实验室资源利用、促进实验室的发展意义深远.%The purpose of the establishing teaching laboratory opening fund is that the laboratory course could play more important role of training innovative talent, the teachers are motivated on opening teaching laboratory , and the students are motivated to research science in laboratory. The purpose also includes that the laboratories are opened regularly, the laboratory resource utilization is increased, and the development of laboratory could be smooth. Form the reality of work , the article expounds the background, running, meaning and achievement of the teaching laboratory opening fund. The practice has proved the far-reaching significance on training innovative talents and the laboratory development through the teaching laboratory opening fund.

  12. Research on Open Practice Teaching of Human Resource Management%《人力资源管理》开放式实践教学探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦慧民; 潘清泉

    2011-01-01

    《人力资源管理》是一门应用性很强的课程,需要培训大学生具有较强的实践能力和操作能力。文章提出了“开放式”实践模式,从其特征、相关理论基础、实施和保障措施等方面对《人力资源管理》的实践教学进行了探讨。%Human resource management is a subject with outstanding characteristic of application. The subject should focus on the capability cultivation in practice and operation. The present paper proposed an open practice model, and discussed the practice teaching of human resource management from several aspects, including traits, relational theory, implement as well as safeguard measures.

  13. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  14. Sea Ice Concentration and Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2014-01-01

    Among the most seasonal and most dynamic parameters on the surface of the Earth is sea ice which at any one time covers about 3-6% of the planet. In the Northern Hemisphere, sea ice grows in extent from about 6 x 10(exp 6) sq km to 16 x 10(exp 6) sq km, while in the Southern Hemisphere, it grows from about 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km to about 19 x 10(exp 6) sq km (Comiso, 2010; Gloersen et al., 1992). Sea ice is up to about 2-3 m thick in the Northern Hemisphere and about 1 m thick in the Southern Hemisphere (Wadhams, 2002), and compared to the average ocean depth of about 3 km, it is a relatively thin, fragile sheet that can break due to waves and winds or melt due to upwelling of warm water. Being constantly advected by winds, waves, and currents, sea ice is very dynamic and usually follows the directions of the many gyres in the polar regions. Despite its vast expanse, the sea ice cover was previously left largely unstudied and it was only in recent years that we have understood its true impact and significance as related to the Earths climate, the oceans, and marine life.

  15. Theory and practice as cultural forms and the research design on The open school program in the Danish school reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Emmerik Damgaard; Haastrup, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    of teaching, supervising, mentoring and studying. We hereby took on the challenge of suggesting a ‘theory and practice didactics’ by turning to creativity research and social learning theory in order to transgress the observed routinized theory and practice relations embedded in the topos practices (Haastrup....... Eikeland, O. (2008). The Ways of Aristotle: Aristotelian Phrónêsis, Aristotelian Philosophy of Dialogue, and Action Research. Bern, Peter Lang. Højrup, T. (2003). State, Culture and Life-Modes. The Foundations of Life-Mode Analysis. Hants, Ashgate Publishing Limited Haastrup, L & Knudsen, L. E. D. (2014...

  16. Correspondence Courses: A Guide for Authors of Course Units. A Report of Some Experiences and Practices at the Open University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachsenmeier, Peter

    A guide for authors of correspondence course units is presented to aid staff and consultants who will develop a correspondence cum residential course in curriculum development at the Kenya Institute of Education. The guide is based on observations at the Open University at Milton Keynes. The following areas are considered: the contribution of…

  17. Design, implementation and practice of JBEI-ICE: an open source biological part registry platform and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Timothy S; Dmytriv, Zinovii; Plahar, Hector; Chen, Joanna; Hillson, Nathan J; Keasling, Jay D

    2012-10-01

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute Inventory of Composable Elements (JBEI-ICEs) is an open source registry platform for managing information about biological parts. It is capable of recording information about 'legacy' parts, such as plasmids, microbial host strains and Arabidopsis seeds, as well as DNA parts in various assembly standards. ICE is built on the idea of a web of registries and thus provides strong support for distributed interconnected use. The information deposited in an ICE installation instance is accessible both via a web browser and through the web application programming interfaces, which allows automated access to parts via third-party programs. JBEI-ICE includes several useful web browser-based graphical applications for sequence annotation, manipulation and analysis that are also open source. As with open source software, users are encouraged to install, use and customize JBEI-ICE and its components for their particular purposes. As a web application programming interface, ICE provides well-developed parts storage functionality for other synthetic biology software projects. A public instance is available at public-registry.jbei.org, where users can try out features, upload parts or simply use it for their projects. The ICE software suite is available via Google Code, a hosting site for community-driven open source projects.

  18. 开放式创新理念与经典实践研究%Study on Conception of Open Innovation and Its Classic Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云峰; 陈武

    2012-01-01

    随着技术发展的突飞猛进和知识经济时代的不断深入发展,传统的封闭式创新模式已经不能适应企业创新发展需要,开放式创新开始受到企业的高度重视。分析了开放式创新的兴起动因,研究了传统封闭式创新模式和开放式创新模式的基本理念,阐释了开放式创新的内涵,介绍了英特尔、宝洁、飞利浦和思科公司的开放式创新的典型实践,提出了开放式创新实践的基本经验以及对我国央企的启示。%With the rapid advancement of technology and further development of the knowledge economy, traditional model of closed innovation can no longer meet the need of enterprises for innovation and development, hence enterprises begin to attach great importance to the open innovation model. This paper analyzes the causes for the rise of open innovation, elaborates on the basic theory of both the traditional closed innovation and the open innovation models, and then explains the connotation of open innovation. By introducing the typical practices of open innovation in Intel, Procter & Gamble, Philips and Cisco Systems lnc, a summary is presented of the basic experience of open innovation and its revelations for Chinese central state-owned enterprises.

  19. 职业院校构建开放的实践教学体系%Building the Open Practice Education System in Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈阵

    2013-01-01

      职业教育是科技转化为生产力的桥梁和纽带。基于对学生职业技能应用能力的培养,职业院校应当实施产学研相结合,其重点体现在构建开放的实践教学体系,进行内培外联,开放办学。%Vocational education is a bridge and a link to change the science and technology into the productive forces. Based on the students' vocational skills training and application ability, the colleges should carry out to compound producing, teaching and scientific researching, which mainly reflects on building the open practice teaching system, and conducting not only cultivating inside the colleges and contacting with the outside world, but also openly running the colleges.

  20. Exploring the downside of open knowledge resources: The case of indigenous knowledge systems and practices in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Flor, Alexander Gonzalez

    2013-01-01

    The paper is based on the challenges encountered by the researcher while conducting a study titled “Design, Development and Testing of an Indigenous Knowledge Management System Using Mobile Device Video Capture and Web 2.0 Protocols.” During the conduct of the study the researcher observed a marked reluctance from organized indigenous people’s groups to participate in the initiative. It soon became apparent that interfacing indigenous knowledge with open access concepts held complicated issue...

  1. Design, implementation and practice of JBEI-ICE: an open source biological part registry platform and tools

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Timothy S.; Dmytriv, Zinovii; Plahar, Hector; Chen, Joanna (Kuei-Yen); Nathan J Hillson; Jay D Keasling

    2012-01-01

    The Joint BioEnergy Institute Inventory of Composable Elements (JBEI-ICEs) is an open source registry platform for managing information about biological parts. It is capable of recording information about ‘legacy’ parts, such as plasmids, microbial host strains and Arabidopsis seeds, as well as DNA parts in various assembly standards. ICE is built on the idea of a web of registries and thus provides strong support for distributed interconnected use. The information deposited in an ICE install...

  2. Preservative-free bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillunat LE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lutz E Pillunat,1 Peter Eschstruth,2 Stefan Häsemeyer,3 Ulrich Thelen,4 Christian Foja,5 Richard Leaback,6 Stefan Pfennigsdorf7 1Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden, 2Ophthalmology Practice, Kiel, 3Eye Center Kraichgau, Wiesloch, 4Department of Ophthalmology, University of Münster, Münster, 5Ophthalmology Practice, Leipzig, Germany; 6Allergan Holdings Ltd., Marlow, UK; 7Ophthalmology Practice, Polch, Germany Background: Intraocular pressure (IOP-lowering medications for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension commonly contain preservatives that can cause ocular surface damage in many patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of, and compliance to, preservative-free (PF bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (IOP ≥18 mmHg in a clinical practice setting. Methods: This open-label study observed patients who were switched to PF bimatoprost 0.03% for medical reasons. IOP was measured at baseline and ~12 weeks later at the final visit, and the change in IOP was calculated. Tolerability and continuation of therapy were assessed at two follow-up visits. Results: A total of 1,830 patients were included in the study, and complete IOP data were available for 1,543 patients. Mean IOP was reduced by 23% from 21.64 mmHg to 16.59 mmHg (P<0.0001. In subgroup analyses, the mean IOP was significantly reduced compared with baseline, regardless of prior therapy, including those previously treated with PF monotherapy. A total of 85.7% of physicians reported the IOP-lowering efficacy of PF bimatoprost 0.03% to be as expected or better than expected. Adverse events (AEs were experienced by 5.7% of patients, and there were no serious AEs reported. The most common AEs were eye irritation (1.7% and hyperemia (1.4%. Physician-reported treatment compliance was reported as better than (48.7% or equal to (43.6% prior treatment in

  3. Does opening a milk bank in a neonatal unit change infant feeding practices? A before and after study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Cooke Elisa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Donor human milk banks are much more than simple centers for collection, storage, processing, and distribution of donor human milk, as they cover other aspects and represent a real opportunity to promote and support breastfeeding. The aim of our study is to assess the impact that opening a human milk bank has had on the proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge and other aspects related to feeding children with birth weight Methods The study included babies of Results Children born in 2008 commenced feeding 16 hours earlier than those born in 2006 (p = 0.00. The proportion of infants receiving exclusive breast milk at discharge was 54% in 2006 and 56% in 2008 (p = 0.87. The number of days they received their mother's own milk during the first 28 days of life was 24.2 days in 2006, compared to 23.7 days in 2008 (p = 0.70. In 2006, 60% of infants received infant formula at least once in the first 28 days of life, compared to 37% in 2008 (p = 0.01. Conclusions The opening of a donor human milk bank in a neonatal unit did not reduce the proportion of infants exclusively fed with breast milk at discharge, but did reduce the proportion of infants that received infant formula during the first four weeks of life. Also, having donor human milk available enables commencement of enteral feeding earlier.

  4. A reliable, low-cost picture archiving and communications system for small and medium veterinary practices built using open-source technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotti, Bryan; Valazza, Alberto

    2014-10-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) are the most needed system in a modern hospital. As an integral part of the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) standard, they are charged with the responsibility for secure storage and accessibility of the diagnostic imaging data. These machines need to offer high performance, stability, and security while proving reliable and ergonomic in the day-to-day and long-term storage and retrieval of the data they safeguard. This paper reports the experience of the authors in developing and installing a compact and low-cost solution based on open-source technologies in the Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the University of Torino, Italy, during the course of the summer of 2012. The PACS server was built on low-cost x86-based hardware and uses an open source operating system derived from Oracle OpenSolaris (Oracle Corporation, Redwood City, CA, USA) to host the DCM4CHEE PACS DICOM server (DCM4CHEE, http://www.dcm4che.org ). This solution features very high data security and an ergonomic interface to provide easy access to a large amount of imaging data. The system has been in active use for almost 2 years now and has proven to be a scalable, cost-effective solution for practices ranging from small to very large, where the use of different hardware combinations allows scaling to the different deployments, while the use of paravirtualization allows increased security and easy migrations and upgrades.

  5. Exploring the downside of open knowledge resources: The case of indigenous knowledge systems and practices in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gonzalez Flor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on the challenges encountered by the researcher while conducting a study titled “Design, Development and Testing of an Indigenous Knowledge Management System Using Mobile Device Video Capture and Web 2.0 Protocols.” During the conduct of the study the researcher observed a marked reluctance from organized indigenous people’s groups to participate in the initiative. It soon became apparent that interfacing indigenous knowledge with open access concepts held complicated issues. The inhibiting factors enumerated and discussed in the paper deal with: honoring indigenous belief systems; respecting the privacy of indigenous peoples; dealing with indigenous knowledge system (IKS protocols; the significance of context in IKS; mainstream prejudice and value judgments among non-indigenous people users; and themisrepresentation of indigenous knowledge.

  6. Practical Platform for Open and Closed Loop Speed Control of an Inverter Driven Asynchronous Machine Used for Teaching Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Claudiu Rus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a laboratory setup based on a SIMOVERT MASTER- DRIVES MC Inverter from SIEMENS used for open and closed loop speed control of an induction machine. The platform allows four quadrant operation of the machine using both the classical V/Hz scalar principle and field oriented vector control principle. The rectifier unit consists of a classical three phase diode bridge and two high voltage capacitors in order to obtain a voltage source behavior of the converter. In order to obtain the four quadrant operation of the drive, several methods are investigated out of which one is proposed and implemented. The theoretical aspects of V/Hz scalar principle and field oriented vector control principle are better explained using the proposed experimental platform.

  7. Open-ended education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Paaskesen, Rikke Berggreen

    2016-01-01

    THE ARTICLE DESCRIBES OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THE COMING TOGETHER OF OPEN-ENDED TECHNOLOGY, OPEN-ENDED PROJECTS, AND OPEN-ENDED INSTITUTIONS IN WAYS THAT FOSTER AND PROMOTE FUTURE EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP IN SOCIETY. THROUGH THE CASE OF THE CODING PIRATES FUTURE ISLAND......, THE ARTICLE DEMONSTRATES HOW OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION CAN BE PRACTICED TO FOSTER AND PROMOTE TECHNOLOGICAL IMAGINATION, ENTERPRISING, AND PARTICIPATION. THIS PRACTICE IS THEN DEVELOPED INTO A THEORETICAL MODEL FOR THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION AS A WAY OF AND FRAMEWORK FOR PRACTICING FUTURE EDUCATION FOR 21......ST CENTURY LEARNING WITH NEW TECHNOLOGIES. THE ARTICLE PRESENTS AN ANSWER TO THE CALL FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THOROUGHLY COLLABORATIVE, COMMUNICATIVE, CREATIVE, AND CRITICALLY REFLECTIVE THROUGH THE CASE AND THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION. IT OUTLINES THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS CALL...

  8. Open-ended education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Rikke Toft; Paaskesen, Rikke Berggreen

    2016-01-01

    THE ARTICLE DESCRIBES OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THE COMING TOGETHER OF OPEN-ENDED TECHNOLOGY, OPEN-ENDED PROJECTS, AND OPEN-ENDED INSTITUTIONS IN WAYS THAT FOSTER AND PROMOTE FUTURE EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP IN SOCIETY. THROUGH THE CASE OF THE CODING PIRATES FUTURE ISLAND......, THE ARTICLE DEMONSTRATES HOW OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION CAN BE PRACTICED TO FOSTER AND PROMOTE TECHNOLOGICAL IMAGINATION, ENTERPRISING, AND PARTICIPATION. THIS PRACTICE IS THEN DEVELOPED INTO A THEORETICAL MODEL FOR THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION AS A WAY OF AND FRAMEWORK FOR PRACTICING FUTURE EDUCATION FOR 21......ST CENTURY LEARNING WITH NEW TECHNOLOGIES. THE ARTICLE PRESENTS AN ANSWER TO THE CALL FOR 21ST CENTURY LEARNING AS THOROUGHLY COLLABORATIVE, COMMUNICATIVE, CREATIVE, AND CRITICALLY REFLECTIVE THROUGH THE CASE AND THE CONCEPT OF OPEN-ENDED EDUCATION. IT OUTLINES THE IMPLICATIONS OF THIS CALL...

  9. Clinical Neuropathology practice guide 5-2015: MGMT methylation pyrosequencing in glioblastoma: unresolved issues and open questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienkowski, Michal; Berghoff, Anna S; Marosi, Christine; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Heinzl, Harald; Hainfellner, Johannes A; Preusser, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation status has prognostic and, in the subpopulation of elderly patients, predictive value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Therefore, knowledge of the MGMT promoter methylation status is important for clinical decision-making. So far, MGMT testing has been limited by the lack of a robust test with sufficiently high analytical performance. Recently, one of several available pyrosequencing protocols has been shown to be an accurate and robust method for MGMT testing in an intra- and interlaboratory ring trial. However, some uncertainties remain with regard to methodological issues, cut-off definitions, and optimal use in the clinical setting. In this article, we highlight and discuss several of these open questions. The main unresolved issues are the definition of the most relevant CpG sites to analyze for clinical purposes and the determination of a cut-off value for dichotomization of quantitative MGMT pyrosequencing results into "MGMT methylated" and "MGMT unmethylated" patient subgroups as a basis for further treatment decisions.

  10. 内镜下切除与传统开腹根治术治疗早期胃癌的预后情况及创伤程度评估%Assessment of prognosis and trauma extent in endoscopic resection and traditional open rad-ical resection treatment of early gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 张莉娜

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study prognosis and trauma extent in endoscopic resection and traditional open radical resec-tion treatment of early gastric cancer.Methods:Patients with early gastric cancer who received surgical resection in our hospital from January 2014 to December 201 5 were selected and randomly divided into endoscopy group and laparotomy group who re-ceived endoscopic resection and traditional open radical resection respectively.Levels of perioperative serum tumor markers, trauma-related neuroendocrine indicators as well as co-stimulatory molecules CD25,CD28 and ICOS were detected.Results:One month,three months and one year after operation,serum gastrin-1 7 (G-1 7),thymidine kinase (TK)-1,carcino-embryon-ic antigen (CEA),carbohydrate antigen (CA)1 99,CA125 and CA724 levels of both groups were significantly lower than those before operation (P 0.05);serum adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH),cortisol (Cor)and β-endorphin (β-EP) levels of endoscopy group 1 d after operation were not significantly different from those before operation (P >0.05),and serum ACTH,Cor andβ-EP levels of laparotomy group 1 d after operation were significantly higher than those before operation (P 0.05),and CD25 + ,CD28 + and ICOS proportion in peripheral blood of lapa-rotomy group were significantly lower than those before operation (P 0.05).Conclusions:Endoscopic resection treatment of early gastric cancer has equivalent prognosis to traditional open radical resection and causes less trauma.%目的::研究内镜下切除与传统开腹根治术治疗早期胃癌的预后情况及创伤程度.方法:选择2014年1月~2015年12月在我院接受手术切除治疗的早期胃癌患者,随机分为内镜组和开腹组,分别接受内镜下切除与传统开腹根治术治疗,检测两组围手术期血清肿瘤标志物含量、创伤相关神经内分泌指标以及外周血中共刺激分子 CD25、CD28、ICOS 的表达量.结果:术后1个月、3个月、1

  11. 国外开放资源建设案例研究%Best Practice Study on Open Access Resources Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪飞; 黄金霞

    2014-01-01

    Open access resources development is one of the most important components in the col ection development of libraries, which is also the future trends. 4 Open access resources development cases from European Commission and NIH were analyzed as samples according to their resources mechanisms, services designs and policy systems. Especial y, at the basis of the demonstration experience of these outstanding practices, we should continue to expand resources scopes, pay at ention to al iance and cooperation, and develop knowledge tools and products.%开放资源建设是资源建设的重要内容之一,也是未来的发展方向。文章阐述了开放资源建设的内涵,以欧盟委员会和NIH作为样本机构,选取4个有影响力的开放资源建设案例进行研究,对样本案例从资源机制、服务机制、政策机制3个方面进行了考察。最后对样本案例的经验进行了总结,提出扩大资源类型、进行联盟建设、开发知识服务及产品的建议。

  12. Preservative-free bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillunat, Lutz E; Eschstruth, Peter; Häsemeyer, Stefan; Thelen, Ulrich; Foja, Christian; Leaback, Richard; Pfennigsdorf, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background Intraocular pressure (IOP)-lowering medications for primary open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension commonly contain preservatives that can cause ocular surface damage in many patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of, and compliance to, preservative-free (PF) bimatoprost 0.03% in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension (IOP ≥18 mmHg) in a clinical practice setting. Methods This open-label study observed patients who were switched to PF bimatoprost 0.03% for medical reasons. IOP was measured at baseline and ~12 weeks later at the final visit, and the change in IOP was calculated. Tolerability and continuation of therapy were assessed at two follow-up visits. Results A total of 1,830 patients were included in the study, and complete IOP data were available for 1,543 patients. Mean IOP was reduced by 23% from 21.64 mmHg to 16.59 mmHg (P<0.0001). In subgroup analyses, the mean IOP was significantly reduced compared with baseline, regardless of prior therapy, including those previously treated with PF monotherapy. A total of 85.7% of physicians reported the IOP-lowering efficacy of PF bimatoprost 0.03% to be as expected or better than expected. Adverse events (AEs) were experienced by 5.7% of patients, and there were no serious AEs reported. The most common AEs were eye irritation (1.7%) and hyperemia (1.4%). Physician-reported treatment compliance was reported as better than (48.7%) or equal to (43.6%) prior treatment in most patients. Most patients (82%) were expected to continue PF bimatoprost 0.03% after the end of the study. Conclusion This observational study showed that, in clinical practice, switching to PF bimatoprost 0.03% was associated with a significant IOP reduction from baseline. There was a low AE rate. PF bimatoprost 0.03% may, therefore, be an effective treatment option for patients who are intolerant of preservatives or have an inadequate response to prior IOP

  13. 开放大学与终身学习--实践与思考%Open Universities and Lifelong Learning-Practice and Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李亚婉

    2014-01-01

    世界开放大学的办学理念以服务大众终身学习需求为基础,其教育目标是使学习者无论何时何地都能够获取知识、发展技能、提升能力。在经济体制发生深刻变革、教育技术不断更新的时代,终身学习正在逐步从理想变为现实。我们在探讨终身学习战略发展的同时,通过研究世界一些典型开放大学多年的教育实践活动,重申开放大学的历史使命,并坚持认为开放大学应继续在促进终身学习过程中发挥重要作用。无论在管理体制、运行机制上,还是在教学内容和教学方法上,开放大学都始终在探索服务大众终身学习的方式和渠道。然而,终身学习作为民族振兴的基本国策,还需在实践探索中不断完善其体系构建。开放大学在促进终身学习体系构建的实践探索中,还需不断了解和分析各类学习群体对终身学习的需求,在资源获取、技术应用和制度建立等方面还需进一步为学习者提供优质的服务,要在与普通高校、企业、行业等机构的合作中,逐步建立起终身学习的立交桥,实现学分转换、资格认证、学历教育与非学历教育的互通。开放大学要在参与构建终身学习体系的实践探索过程中形成更加成熟的思考,并付诸行动。%The educational philosophy of the open universities all over the world is based on serving the public demand for lifelong learning to enable people to acquire knowledge, develop skills, and improve competency at any time in any places. In the era of profound changes for the economic system and constant upgrade of educational technology, life-long learning is gradually from a concept into reality. This paper explores the way to develop lifelong learning strategy by making a study of some educational practices from several typical open universities in the world and reaffirm the historical mission for the open universities. The

  14. Behavioral Attitudes and Preferences in Cooking Practices with Traditional Open-Fire Stoves in Peru, Nepal, and Kenya: Implications for Improved Cookstove Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn L. Rhodes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Global efforts are underway to develop and promote improved cookstoves which may reduce the negative health and environmental effects of burning solid fuels on health and the environment. Behavioral studies have considered cookstove user practices, needs and preferences in the design and implementation of cookstove projects; however, these studies have not examined the implications of the traditional stove use and design across multiple resource-poor settings in the implementation and promotion of improved cookstove projects that utilize a single, standardized stove design. We conducted in-depth interviews and direct observations of meal preparation and traditional, open-fire stove use of 137 women aged 20–49 years in Kenya, Peru and Nepal prior in the four-month period preceding installation of an improved cookstove as part of a field intervention trial. Despite general similarities in cooking practices across sites, we identified locally distinct practices and norms regarding traditional stove use and desired stove improvements. Traditional stoves are designed to accommodate specific cooking styles, types of fuel, and available resources for maintenance and renovation. The tailored stoves allow users to cook and repair their stoves easily. Women in each setting expressed their desire for a new stove, but they articulated distinct specific alterations that would meet their needs and preferences. Improved cookstove designs need to consider the diversity of values and needs held by potential users, presenting a significant challenge in identifying a “one size fits all” improved cookstove design. Our data show that a single stove design for use with locally available biomass fuels will not meet the cooking demands and resources available across the three sites. Moreover, locally produced or adapted improved cookstoves may be needed to meet the cooking needs of diverse populations while addressing health and environmental concerns of

  15. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.; Farahi; Saeed; Reza; Khodashenas; B.; Ghahraman; K.; Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplain processes in general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers. Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools. In this paper flood inundation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and observed flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  16. Flood inundation extent in storage cell mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.Farahi; Saeed Reza Khodashenas; B.Ghahraman; K.Esmaeeli

    2009-01-01

    An understanding of floodplaln processes In general and floodplains flooding in particular are vital issues for river engineers and managers.Insufficient observations of flood inundation extent and the infrequent nature of flood inundation necessitate some sort of predictive tools.In this paper flood in-undation extent has been simulated by HEC-RAS software in two storage cell and normal modes and capabilities and limitations of the two models have been determined by comparing simulated and ob-served flood inundation extent which occurred in the study area on Feb 4th, 2004.

  17. Range Extent for southern sea otters 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The GIS shapefile "Range extent of southern sea otters 2016" is a simple polyline representing the geographic distribution of the southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris...

  18. OpenGL development cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Movania, Muhammad Mobeen

    2013-01-01

    The book is written in a Cookbook format with practical recipes aimed at helping you exploit OpenGL to its full potential.This book is targeted towards intermediate OpenGL programmers. However, those who are new to OpenGL and know an alternate API like DirectX might also find these recipes useful to create OpenGL animations.

  19. Defining a method of evaluating die life performance by using finite element models (FEM) and a practical open die hot forging method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marashi, J.; Foster, J.; Zante, R.

    2016-10-01

    Die wear, which is defined as a surface damage or removal of material from one or both of two solid surfaces in a sliding, rolling or impact motion relative to one another, is considered the main cause of tool failure. Wear is responsible for 70% of tool failure and a potential source of high costs; as much as 30% per forging unit in the forging industries [1]. This paper presents a unique wear prediction and measurement method for open die forging using a modified Archard equation, 3D FE simulation (to represent the actual forging process precisely) and an industrial scale forging trial. The proposed tool and experimental design is aimed at facilitating a cost effective method of tool wear analysis and to establish a repeatable method of measurement. It creates a platform to test different type of lubricants and coatings on industrial scale environment. The forging trial was carried out using 2100T Schuler Screw press. A full factorial experiment design was used on 3D simulation to identify the process setting for creating a measurable amount of tool wear. Wear prediction of 28.5 µm based on the simulation correlated with both Infinite Focus Optical Microscope and Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) measurement results of the practical trial. Thermal camera reading showed temperature raise on the area with maximum wear, which suggests that increase in contact time, causes thermal softening on tool steel. The measurement showed that abrasive wear and adhesive wear are dominant failure modes on the tool under these process conditions.

  20. An Open-Label, Multicenter Observational Study for Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease Treated with Memantine in the Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Stamouli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In this post-marketing observational study, the safety and effectiveness of memantine were evaluated in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Methods: In a 6-month, observational, open-label study at 202 specialist sites in Greece, the effectiveness of memantine was evaluated using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL scale at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Discontinuation rates and adverse drug reactions (ADRs were also recorded to evaluate the safety profile of memantine. Results: 2,570 patients participated in the study. Three and 6 months after baseline, MMSE and IADL scores were significantly improved compared to baseline. At the end of the study, 67% of the patients had improved their MMSE score; 7.1% of the patients reported ≧1 ADRs, and treatment was discontinued due to ADR in 0.7%. Conclusion: Memantine was well tolerated and had a positive effect on the patient’s cognitive and functional ability in real-life clinical practice, in agreement with randomized, controlled trials.

  1. The Knowledge, Awareness, and Practices of Portuguese General Practitioners Regarding Multimorbidity and its Management: Qualitative Perspectives from Open-Ended Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Prazeres

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multimorbidity’s high prevalence and negative impact has made it a subject of worldwide interest. The main aim of this study was to access the Portuguese knowledge, awareness, and practices of general practitioners (GPs regarding multimorbidity and its management, in order to aid in the development of interventions for improving outcomes in multimorbid patients in primary care. A web-based qualitative descriptive study was carried out in the first trimester of 2016 with primary care physicians working in two districts of the Centre region of Portugal. Open-ended questions were analysed via inductive thematic content analysis. GPs pointed out several difficulties and challenges while managing multimorbidity. Extrinsic factors were associated with the healthcare system logistics’ management (consultation time, organization of care teams, clinical information and society (media pressure, social/family support. Intrinsic factors related to the GP, patient, and physician-patient relationship were also stated. The most significant conclusion to emerge from this study is that although GPs perceived difficulties and challenges towards multimorbidity, they also have the tools to deal with them: the fundamental characteristics of family medicine. Also, the complex care required by multimorbid patients needs adequate consultation time, multidisciplinary teamwork, and more education/training.

  2. Practice and thinking of open experimental teaching in human anatomy%人体解剖学开放性实验教学的实践与思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雄林; 杨耀防; 江会勇; 车向新; 傅文学

    2013-01-01

    Experimental teaching is an important part of human anatomy teaching,while traditional teaching methods have many disadvantages.Basic Medical College of Jiujiang University takes the student as the main body,teacher-led open teaching in the process of human anatomy experiment teaching,makes students become the main body of teaching,stimulates students' subjective initiative,and focuses on students' innovative ability training.Teacher can update the teaching idea at the same time and improve the teaching level and the ability to control the classroom.The practice has achieved good results.%实验教学是人体解剖学教学的一个重要组成部分,传统的教学方式存在较多弊端.在人体解剖学实验教学过程中,九江学院基础医学院采取“学生为主体、教师为主导”的开放性教学,让学生成为教学中的主体,激发学生的主观能动性,注重学生创新能力的培养;同时,教师更新教学观念,提高教学水平,取得了较好的教学效果.

  3. Pro OpenSSH

    CERN Document Server

    Stahnke, Michael

    2006-01-01

    SSH, acronym for Secure Socket Shell, is for users and administrators wishing to establish secure communication between disparate networks. 'Pro OpenSSH', authored by two Fortune 100 system administrators, provides readers with a highly practical reference for configuring and deploying OpenSSH in their own environment.

  4. 16 CFR 254.3 - Misrepresentation of extent or nature of accreditation or approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misrepresentation of extent or nature of accreditation or approval. 254.3 Section 254.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION GUIDES AND TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR PRIVATE VOCATIONAL AND DISTANCE EDUCATION SCHOOLS § 254.3 Misrepresentation of...

  5. Extent of linkage disequilibrium in chicken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, J.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Veenendaal, T.; Ovcharenko, I.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Gordon, L.; Stubbs, L.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Rodoinov, A.; Gaginskaya, E.

    2007-01-01

    Many of the economically important traits in chicken are multifactorial and governed by multiple genes located at different quantitative trait loci (QTLs). The optimal marker density to identify these QTLs in linkage and association studies is largely determined by the extent of linkage

  6. Spatial Extent of Random Laser Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molen, van der Karen L.; Tjerkstra, R. Willem; Mosk, Allard P.; Lagendijk, Ad

    2007-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the distribution of the spatial extent of modes and the crossover from essentially single-mode to distinctly multimode behavior inside a porous gallium phosphide random laser. This system serves as a paragon for random lasers due to its exemplary high index contrast. I

  7. Updated Vertical Extent of Collision Damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagg, R.; Bartzis, P.; Papanikolaou, P.

    2002-01-01

    The probabilistic distribution of the vertical extent of collision damage is an important and somewhat controversial component of the proposed IMO harmonized damage stability regulations for cargo and passenger ships. The only pre-existing vertical distribution, currently used in the international...

  8. Prediction of weld penetration extent in GTAW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ming; Zhai Lei

    2008-01-01

    The governing equations of surface-deformation in fully-penetrated GTA W weld pool are derived. The solution scheme of the Lagrange multiplier, which makes the top sutface-deformation equation be coupled with that for the bottomsurface of a single weld pool, is given out. Through numerical analysis of weld pool surface-deformation in GTA W,it is found that there is clear correlation between the penetration extent and the Lagrange multiplier, in addition to the relationship between the penetration extent and the maximum depression and hump as well as the depressed volume of the top surface of weld pool. It lays good foundation for top-side sensing based weld penetration control.

  9. The extent of forest in dryland biomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Francois Bastin; Nora Berrahmouni; Alan Grainger; Danae Maniatis; Danilo Mollicone; Rebecca Moore; Chiara Patriarca; Nicolas Picard; Ben Sparrow; Elena Maria Abraham; Kamel Aloui; Ayhan Atesoglu; Fabio Attore; Caglar Bassullu; Adia Bey; Monica Garzuglia; Luis G. GarcÌa-Montero; Nikee Groot; Greg Guerin; Lars Laestadius; Andrew J. Lowe; Bako Mamane; Giulio Marchi; Paul Patterson; Marcelo Rezende; Stefano Ricci; Ignacio Salcedo; Alfonso Sanchez-Paus Diaz; Fred Stolle; Venera Surappaeva; Rene Castro

    2017-01-01

    Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth’s land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high...

  10. Analysis of higher vocational nursing students participating in opening professional social practice%高职护生参与开放式专业性社会实践的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玲

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析高职护生参与开放式专业性社会实践活动的意义,探索社会实践与专业学习、临床实习结合的有效途径.方法 对30名护生在暑期参与开放式专业性社会实践活动后完成的反思日记进行内容分析,提炼护生的关注点,并进行护生实践综合效果自我评估的问卷调查.结果 护生在开放式专业性社会实践中最关注的是护理操作和软技能,通过实践活动促进了护生职业学习,增进了职业责任感,提高了职业能力.结论 护生实习前参加开放式专业性社会实践活动有助于通过感知临床护理工作,重新认识专业学习,及早适应并融人临床实习工作.%Objective To analyze the significance of higher vocational nursing students participating in opening professional social practice,and to explore the effective way of combining social practice with professional learning and clinical practice.Methods After completing the opening professional social practice in summer,the reflection diaries of 30 nursing students were analyzed and the concerns were refined.Questionnaire survey about self assessment of comprehensive effect of the practice of nursing students were conducted.Results Nursing operation and soft skills were mostly concerned by nursing students' in opening professional social practice.Vocational learning,occupation of responsibility,and the occupation ability were improved by practical activities.Conclusions Nursing students who participate in opening professional social practice before clinical work,can re-understand the professional learning,adapt and integrate themselves into clinical practice through the perception of clinical nursing work.

  11. Perindopril for control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors: an open-label, observational, multicentre, general practice-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Richard Ian; Anand, Sanjiv; Roy, Pierre; De Souza, Selwyn

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension, one of the major treatable cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, usually occurs in association with other major risk factors. As well as providing rapid blood pressure (BP) goal attainment, antihypertensive therapy should also provide reductions in CV events and mortality in a wide range of patients. For this, higher dosages and combinations of antihypertensive agents are often required. ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line agents for control of hypertension in patients with additional CV risk factors. The PEACH (Perindopril's Effect At Controlling Hypertension) study was a community-based study performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of high-dose perindopril in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension and additional risk factors for CV disease. This was an open-label, multicentre observational study conducted in Canadian general practice clinics. The study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of perindopril given once daily for 10 weeks uptitrated to the maximal recommended dose of perindopril as required for BP control in newly diagnosed or previously treated patients with uncontrolled mild to moderate hypertension and >or=1 additional risk factor. Patients not achieving target BP after 2 weeks of therapy were uptitrated from perindopril 4 mg to perindopril 8 mg once daily. Efficacy endpoints included reduction in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and BP control. Tolerability assessments included adverse effects and physicians' assessment of tolerability. The number of missed doses was also recorded. Overall, 2220 patients with hypertension and >or=1 other risk factor were prescribed perindopril at 291 centres; 51.9% were male, 78.3% Caucasian, 12.8% Asian, 36.2%>or=65 years of age and 34.5% had uncontrolled BP despite previous antihypertensive treatment. Compared with previously treated patients, treatment-naive patients had fewer risk factors, and a higher proportion were Asian (prisk factors. Perindopril produced

  12. A CART extention using Quadratic Decision Borders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartelius, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    In this article we put forward an extention to the hierarchical CART classification method which uses quadratic decision borders. The original CART applies univariate splits on individual variables as well as splits on combinations of variables to recursively partition the feature......-space into subsets which are successively more class-homogeneous. Guided by the fact that class-distributions in feature-space are very often hyper-elliptical shaped, we give an extension to the original CART which also uses quadratic shaped decision borders which can be modelled by a mean-vector and a dispersion...

  13. Research Misconduct—Definitions, Manifestations and Extent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the international scientific community has been rocked by a number of serious cases of research misconduct. In one of these, Woo Suk Hwang, a Korean stem cell researcher published two articles on research with ground-breaking results in Science in 2004 and 2005. Both articles were later revealed to be fakes. This paper provides an overview of what research misconduct is generally understood to be, its manifestations and the extent to which they are thought to exist.

  14. How open science helps researchers succeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKiernan, Erin C; Bourne, Philip E; Brown, C Titus; Buck, Stuart; Kenall, Amye; Lin, Jennifer; McDougall, Damon; Nosek, Brian A; Ram, Karthik; Soderberg, Courtney K; Spies, Jeffrey R; Thaney, Kaitlin; Updegrove, Andrew; Woo, Kara H; Yarkoni, Tal

    2016-07-07

    Open access, open data, open source and other open scholarship practices are growing in popularity and necessity. However, widespread adoption of these practices has not yet been achieved. One reason is that researchers are uncertain about how sharing their work will affect their careers. We review literature demonstrating that open research is associated with increases in citations, media attention, potential collaborators, job opportunities and funding opportunities. These findings are evidence that open research practices bring significant benefits to researchers relative to more traditional closed practices.

  15. Sarcoidosis extent relates to molecular variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monast, C S; Li, K; Judson, M A; Baughman, R P; Wadman, E; Watt, R; Silkoff, P E; Barnathan, E S; Brodmerkel, C

    2017-06-01

    The molecular basis of sarcoidosis phenotype heterogeneity and its relationship to effective treatment of sarcoidosis have not been elucidated. Peripheral samples from sarcoidosis subjects who participated in a Phase II study of golimumab [anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α] and ustekinumab [anti-interleukin (IL)-12p40] were used to measure the whole blood transcriptome and levels of serum proteins. Differential gene and protein expression analyses were used to explore the molecular differences between sarcoidosis phenotypes as defined by extent of organ involvement. The same data were also used in conjunction with an enrichment algorithm to identify gene expression changes associated with treatment with study drugs compared to placebo. Our analyses revealed marked heterogeneity among the three sarcoidosis phenotypes included in the study cohort, including striking differences in enrichment of the interferon pathway. Conversely, enrichments of multiple pathways, including T cell receptor signalling, were similar among phenotypes. We also identify differences between treatment with golimumab and ustekinumab that may explain the differences in trends for clinical efficacy observed in the trial. We find that molecular heterogeneity is associated with sarcoidosis in a manner that may be related to the extent of organ involvement. These findings may help to explain the difficulty in identifying clinically efficacious sarcoidosis treatments and suggest hypotheses for improved therapeutic strategies. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Extent and determinants of patients' unvoiced needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Lee Lan; Sondi, Sararaks; Azman, Abu Bakar; Goh, Pik Pin; Maimunah, A Hamid; Ibrahim, Mohd Yusof; Hassan, Muhammad Radzi Abu; Letchuman, Ramanathan

    2011-09-01

    Patients with issues or health problems usually plan to discuss their concerns with their health care providers. If these concerns were not presented or voiced during the health care provider-patient encounter, the patients are considered to have unvoiced needs. This article examines the extent and possible determinants of patients' unvoiced needs in an outpatient setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 5 Ministry of Health Malaysia primary health facilities throughout the country. Of 1829 who participated, 5 did not respond to the question on planned issues. Of the 1824 respondents, 57.9% (95% confidence interval = 47.1-68.7) claimed to have issues/problems they planned to share, of whom 15.1% to 26.7% had unvoiced needs. Extent of unvoiced needs differed by employment status, perceived category of health care provider, and study center. Perceived category of health care provider, method of questionnaire administration, and study center were the only significant determinants of unvoiced needs. Unvoiced needs do exist in Malaysia and there is a need for health care providers to be aware and take steps to counter this.

  17. Open access

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkenburg, P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Open access week Van 19 tot en met 25 oktober 2015 vond wereldwijd de Open Access Week plaats. Tijdens deze week werden er over de hele wereld evenementen georganiseerd waar open access een rol speelt. Ook in Nederland zijn er diverse symposia, workshops en debatten georganiseerd zoals het debat in

  18. Open for Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Nazanin; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how an open approach to new venture creation - purposefully managing knowledge flows across the venture's organizational boundary - can be beneficial for start-up entrepreneurs. Our inductive case study, of both failure and success, identifies the key attributes of this open...... for entrepreneurship and innovation research and practice, providing some attention points for researchers, entrepreneurs, investors and policy makers interested in developing successful new ventures....

  19. The nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on skills migration in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Rasool

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South Africa is currently experiencing a serious shortage of skilled workers. It has a negative effect on South Africa’s economic prospects and on global participation in South Africa (SA. This skills shortage severely affects socioeconomic growth and development in SA. Research purpose: This study focuses on the causes and effects of the skills shortages in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The researchers undertook this study to highlight the role that skilled foreign workers can play in supplementing the shortage of skilled workers in South Africa. The shortage is partly because of the failure of the national education and training system to supply the economy with much-needed skills.Research design, approach and method: The researchers undertook a literature study to identify the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages in South Africa. They consulted a wide range of primary and secondary resources in order to acquire an in-depth understanding of the problem. The article explains the research approach and method comprehensively. It also outlines the research method the researchers used.Main findings: This study shows that several factors cause serious skills shortages in SA.Practical/managerial implications: The researchers mention only two significant implications. Firstly, this article provides a logical description of the nature, extent and effect of skills shortages on the economy. Secondly, it indicates clearly the implications of skills shortages for immigration policy.Contribution/value-add: This study confirms the findings of similar studies the Centre for Development and Enterprise (CDE conducted. Opening the doors to highly skilled immigrants can broaden the skills pool.

  20. Now Open for Business

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson de Silva, Sara; Kokko, Ari; Norberg, Hanna

    disputed, from proponents’ claim that supporting the growth and development of (formal) business is at the heart of what aid should do to antagonists’ view that aid could and should be used better than to increase profits for business. The present report is not about private sector development in partner...... countries per se. It studies the extent to which actors in the business sector can act as partners in development cooperation to help fulfil the objectives of aid. In the report, Sara Johansson de Silva, Ari Kokko, and Hanna Norberg map out the extent of, and analyse the potential development gains from...... business practices, increasing the sustainability of firms....

  1. The Geographic Extent of Global Supply Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machikita, Tomohiro; Ueki, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    We study the extent to which inter-firm relationships are locally concentrated and what determines firm differences in geographic proximity to domestic or foreign suppliers and customers. From micro-data on selfreported customer and supplier data of firms in Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand......, and Vietnam, we measure the distances between firm pairs, that is, the distance to the main supplier and the distance to the main customer for the surveyed firms. The distances to suppliers and customers are shorter for indigenous firms in these Southeast Asian countries; but the arm’s length differs across...... countries. The distance between firm pairs differs widely across firms within narrowly defined industries and countries. We find that both firm-level transaction costs and capabilities affect the distances between customers and suppliers. The distance to suppliers is longer for firms that have accepted...

  2. The extent of forest in dryland biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Jean-François; Berrahmouni, Nora; Grainger, Alan; Maniatis, Danae; Mollicone, Danilo; Moore, Rebecca; Patriarca, Chiara; Picard, Nicolas; Sparrow, Ben; Abraham, Elena Maria; Aloui, Kamel; Atesoglu, Ayhan; Attore, Fabio; Bassüllü, Çağlar; Bey, Adia; Garzuglia, Monica; García-Montero, Luis G; Groot, Nikée; Guerin, Greg; Laestadius, Lars; Lowe, Andrew J; Mamane, Bako; Marchi, Giulio; Patterson, Paul; Rezende, Marcelo; Ricci, Stefano; Salcedo, Ignacio; Diaz, Alfonso Sanchez-Paus; Stolle, Fred; Surappaeva, Venera; Castro, Rene

    2017-05-12

    Dryland biomes cover two-fifths of Earth's land surface, but their forest area is poorly known. Here, we report an estimate of global forest extent in dryland biomes, based on analyzing more than 210,000 0.5-hectare sample plots through a photo-interpretation approach using large databases of satellite imagery at (i) very high spatial resolution and (ii) very high temporal resolution, which are available through the Google Earth platform. We show that in 2015, 1327 million hectares of drylands had more than 10% tree-cover, and 1079 million hectares comprised forest. Our estimate is 40 to 47% higher than previous estimates, corresponding to 467 million hectares of forest that have never been reported before. This increases current estimates of global forest cover by at least 9%. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. Quantifying the Cognitive Extent of Science

    CERN Document Server

    Milojević, Staša

    2015-01-01

    While the modern science is characterized by an exponential growth in scientific literature, the increase in publication volume clearly does not reflect the expansion of the cognitive boundaries of science. Nevertheless, most of the metrics for assessing the vitality of science or for making funding and policy decisions are based on productivity. Similarly, the increasing level of knowledge production by large science teams, whose results often enjoy greater visibility, does not necessarily mean that "big science" leads to cognitive expansion. Here we present a novel, big-data method to quantify the extents of cognitive domains of different bodies of scientific literature independently from publication volume, and apply it to 20 million articles published over 60-130 years in physics, astronomy, and biomedicine. The method is based on the lexical diversity of titles of fixed quotas of research articles. Owing to large size of quotas, the method overcomes the inherent stochasticity of article titles to achieve...

  4. OpenNI cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Falahati, Soroush

    2013-01-01

    This is a Cookbook with plenty of practical recipes enriched with explained code and relevant screenshots to ease your learning curve. If you are a beginner or a professional in NIUI and want to write serious applications or games, then this book is for you. Even OpenNI 1 and OpenNI 1.x programmers who want to move to new versions of OpenNI can use this book as a starting point. This book uses C++ as the primary language but there are some examples in C# and Java too, so you need to have about a basic working knowledge of C or C++ for most cases.

  5. Extent of East-African Nurse Leaders’ Participation in Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shariff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bodies, ministries of health, and universities in East Africa. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. The results reported here were gathered as part of the first round of the study and that examined the extent of nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. Seventy-eight (78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study, and the response rate was 47%. Data collection was done with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of SPSS and descriptive statistics were examined. The findings indicated that nurse leaders participate in health policy development though participation is limited and not consistent across all the stages of health policy development. The recommendations from the findings are that health policy development process needs to be pluralistic and inclusive of all nurse leaders practicing in positions related to policy development and the process must be open to their ideas and suggestions.

  6. Financial Instruments. Nature and Extent of Risks

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Disclosure is an effective mechanism to expose financial risk management practices to market discipline. Disclosure should be sufficiently comprehensive to meet the needs of users within the constraints of what can reasonably be required. Improved transparency through better disclosure may reduce the chances of a systemic financial crisis or the effects of contagion because creditors and other market participants will be better able to distinguish between the financial circumstances that face...

  7. Staff Development Practices of Open and Distance Learning Institutions in Ghana: The Case of the Distance Education Programme of University of Education, Winneba, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Mensah, Francis; Anyan, Jerry Addison; Denkyi, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Staff development plays a crucial role in Open and Distance learning programmes because most of the staff working on these programmes are products of the conventional face to face system. Lack of proper training of staff in ODL can lead to high dropout rate among distance learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate staff development…

  8. Modeled Combined Extent of All Columbia River Basalt Units (CRB_extent4xconnections)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile was created as a boundary for the Columbia River Basalt extent and a buffered version was used to clip the geomodel unit grids. As part of a U.S....

  9. Open hardware for open science

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the open source software movement, the Open Hardware Repository was created to enable hardware developers to share the results of their R&D activities. The recently published CERN Open Hardware Licence offers the legal framework to support this knowledge and technology exchange.   Two years ago, a group of electronics designers led by Javier Serrano, a CERN engineer, working in experimental physics laboratories created the Open Hardware Repository (OHR). This project was initiated in order to facilitate the exchange of hardware designs across the community in line with the ideals of “open science”. The main objectives include avoiding duplication of effort by sharing results across different teams that might be working on the same need. “For hardware developers, the advantages of open hardware are numerous. For example, it is a great learning tool for technologies some developers would not otherwise master, and it avoids unnecessary work if someone ha...

  10. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  11. Open Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder…

  12. 人体解剖标本陈列室开放的实践与探索%Exploration and Practice to open Human Anatomy Specimen Showroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    The opening of the body specimen showroom is the need of experimental teaching reform and development is also the need to play the social function fully. In order to make full use of the resources,improve the quality of anatomy experiment teaching; educate high quality sports talent, propaganda popular science knowledge. This paper discussed the construction situation of the human body specimen showroom,open form and specific problems in the process of open and the solving measures.%人体解剖标本陈列室开放是实验教学改革和发展的需要,也是发挥社会功能的需要。为使资源得到充分利用,提高解剖学实验教学质量,培养高素质体育人才,宣传科普知识,就人体标本陈列室的建设情况、开放形式及在开放过程中存在的具体问题和解决措施进行了探讨。

  13. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    ’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  14. Reframing Open Big Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marton, Attila; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the techniques and technologies of collecting, sharing and analysing data are challenging the field of information systems (IS) research let alone the boundaries of organizations and the established practices of decision-making. Coined ‘open data’ and ‘big data......’, these developments introduce an unprecedented level of societal and organizational engagement with the potential of computational data to generate new insights and information. Based on the commonalities shared by open data and big data, we develop a research framework that we refer to as open big data (OBD......) by employing the dimensions of ‘order’ and ‘relationality’. We argue that these dimensions offer a viable approach for IS research on open and big data because they address one of the core value propositions of IS; i.e. how to support organizing with computational data. We contrast these dimensions with two...

  15. Open Source and Open Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koper, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Publication reference: Koper, R. (2008). Open Source and Open Standards. In J. M. Spector, M. Merrill, J. van Merriënboer & M. P. Driscol (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology (3rd ed., pp. 355-368). New York: Routledge.

  16. A prospective, observational, open-label, multicentre study to investigate the daily treatment practice of ranibizumab in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asten, F. van; Evers-Birkenkamp, K.U.; Lith-Verhoeven, J.J. van; Jong-Hesse, Y. de; Hoppenreijs, V.P.T.; Hommersom, R.F.; Scholten, A.M.; Hoyng, C.B.; Klaver, J.H.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The HELIOS (Health Economics with Lucentis in Observational Settings) study was designed on request of the Dutch Health Authority for an observational study to assess the effectiveness and safety of ranibizumab for neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) in daily practice. ME

  17. Open space or natural place? : The politics, perceptions and practices of place-making inthe co-management of an urban nature reserve, Macassar Dunes, Cape Town.

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, Marnie

    2010-01-01

    This study uses sense of place and adaptive co-management theories to present acomparative analysis of co-management arrangements at Macassar Dunes Nature Reserve, CapeTown, and to broadly investigate the role of ‘place’ in ‘co-management’. Methods involved in-depthinterviews with members of the main co-management body, the Macassar Dunes Co-managementAuthority, to determine their perceptions of ‘bridges’ and ‘barriers’ to co-management, and ‘placemeanings’. Open-coding of these perceptions w...

  18. Construction of open practice teaching system for New Energy Science and Engineering specilty%构建新能源科学与工程专业开放性实践教学体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳霞; 张红光; 刘中良; 王焱; 姚宝峰

    2014-01-01

    The New Energy Science and Engineering specialty of Beijing University of Technology focuses on cultivating students’ scientific practical ability and innovative creative spirit .Through opening the laboratory to undergraduate students ,supporting independent practice extracurricular activities ,combining the science &technology contest ,the open practice teaching system which is an integration of curricular and extracurricular education ,theoretical and practical teaching ,research and teaching ,is constructed to equip students with a solid foundation of knowledge ,strong engineering capabilities and deep subsequent learning potential .%北京工业大学新能源科学与工程专业着力培养本科生的科学实践能力和创新创造精神。通过向本科生开放实验室,提供与课程配套的课外自主实践活动,结合“星火基金项目”和“北京工业大学大学生节能减排社会实践与科技竞赛”等活动,构建集课内教学与课外自主学习为一体、理论教学与实践教学为一体、科研与教学为一体的实践教学体系,使学生具备扎实的基础知识、较强的工程应用能力和深厚的后续学习潜力。

  19. Open Praxis vol. 8 issue 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (ed., Various authors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This last Open Praxis issue in 2016 is an open issue that includes four research papers, two innovative practice papers and two book reviews. It also includes the list of reviewers that have collaborated in volume 8.

  20. Open Education. Introduction to selected papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Gil-Jaurena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Open Praxis compiles selected papers presented at the Open Education Consortium Global Conference, held in Cape Town (South Africa on March 8-10, 2017. Additionaly, the Innovative Practice section includes three papers.

  1. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  2. Open IS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Germonprez, Matt; Crowston, Kevin; Avital, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The collective intelligence and collective action of “open” communities have produced a variety of complex knowledge goods and radical social change. The Information Systems (IS) community has invested significant effort into researching open communities and the ecosystems in which they operate...... therefore seeks to stimulate a thoughtful and dynamic discussion around the proposition that becoming a more open community will enhance the IS discipline’s scholarly inquiry and global impact....

  3. 护理实训实验室实行开放管理对实习上岗前护理专业学生自主学习准备度的影响%Effect on opening management of nursing practical training laboratory for autonomous learning readiness of nursing students before practical working

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彩娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect on opening management of nursing practical training laboratory for autonomous learning readiness of nursing students before practical working. Methods 65 nursing students in class 1 of grade 2011 were randomly selected as the object of study.The skills training of the nursing students before practical working were implemented under opening management of nursing practical training laboratory. And the effect of opening management of nursing practical training laboratory were evaluated. The autonomous learning readiness of nursing students before and after opening management of nursing practical training laboratory were as the evaluation criteria. The measurement data were used statistical processing. Results The comparison on before and after opening management of nursing practical training laboratory showed that every indicator score and total score of autonomous learning readiness scale in nursing trainees had both very significant difference(P < 0.05),the autonomous learning readiness of nursing students improved significantly after the implementation of opening management. Conclusion The clinical nursing practice is an important stage of the entire nursing education, the opening management of nursing practical training laboratory can effectively promote the improvement of autonomous learning readiness of nursing students and the successful completion of their studies.%目的:探讨护理实训室开放管理对实习上岗前护生自主学习准备度的影响。方法随机抽取2011级护理专科1班学生65人作为研究对象,在护理实训室实施开放管理的情况下,对护生实习上岗前进行技能培训。并对护理实训室开放管理的效果进行评价。以实训室开放管理前后2次护理专业学生自主学习准备度的测评情况为评价标准;测评数据进行统计学处理。结果护理实训室实施开放管理前后比较,护理实习生自主学习准备度量表各

  4. Research on Practice Teaching System in Open Education:A Case of the Exploration on the Practice Teaching with Remote Experiment as the Main Body%开放教育实践教学体系研究*--以远程实验为主体的实践教学应用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐幼菊; 卢方; 厉毅

    2014-01-01

    实践教学是开放教育教学过程中培养应用型、技能型人才的重要教学环节,也是薄弱环节。由于学习者在职学习时空分离、工学矛盾等特点,传统教学环境下的实践教学模式无法适应开放教育需求,因此,重构实践教学体系是开放教育教学改革的当务之急。随着远程实验开发技术的发展,远程实验在开放教育实践教学中的作用已日趋重要。构建能满足学习者多样化需求的“以远程开放实验平台为主体,以校内实体实验室为基础,以校外实践基地为补充”的立体化、多层次的开放式实践教学体系,不失为解决开放教育实践教学诸多问题的一个有效途径,也为构建以远程实验为主体的实践教学体系提供了具体的实施路径。%The practice teaching is an important teaching stage to bring up applied and skillful personnel in open education, while it is a weak stage now. Due to such problems as the separation of learning time and learning space and the contradiction be-tween learning and work, the practice teaching model in the traditional teaching environment cannot meet the needs of open educa-tion. Therefore, it is urgent to reconstruct the practice teaching system in the reform of open education. With the development of re-mote experiment technique, the remote experiment can be widely applied in the practice teaching of open education. Constructing a three-dimensional, multi-levels and open practice teaching system with the characteristics of taking distant open experiment platform as main body, holding the real laboratory inside the university as foundation, regarding the practical bases outside the university as addition, which can meet various needs of adult learners, is an effective way to solve the probems when doing practice teaching in open education. Many years of exploration and research on the reform of remote experiment teaching have provided some concrete practice

  5. 基于教师工作室构建立体开放的实践教学体系*%Building a Three-dimensional Open Practical Teaching System based on Teachers’ Studios

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛东育; 蒋新革

    2013-01-01

      依托涉外旅游(英语)专业实训室、校企合作创新管理体制,建设开放的教师工作室,校企互动形成长效运行机制,构建立体化的实践教学培养模式,形成实践教学评价体系,将学生的实践能力培养贯穿于整个教学过程,实现理论教学和实践教学一体化。%Abstract Relying on foreign tourist (English) professional training room, and the management system of school-enterprise cooperation and innovation, open teachers’ studios are built. Thus a long-lasting operation mechanism is formed under school-enterprise interaction, a three-dimensional practical teaching training model is built, and a system of the practical teaching evaluation is built as well. Practice ability of students will be focused throughout the entire process of teaching, and finally the Integration of theory and practice teaching will be realized.

  6. Why routine intensive care unit admission after elective open infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm repair is no longer an evidence based practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, David

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Elective open infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA) repair is major surgery performed on high-risk patients. Routine ICU admission postoperatively is the current accepted standard of care. Few of these patients actually require a level of care that cannot be provided just as effectively in a surgical high dependency unit (HDU). Our aim was to determine, \\'can high risk patients that will require ICU admission postoperatively be reliably identified preoperatively?\\'. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all elective open infrarenal AAA repairs in our institution over a 3-year period was performed. The Estimation of Physiological Ability and Surgical Stress (E-PASS) model was used as our risk stratification tool for predicting post-operative morbidity. Renal function was also considered as a predictor of outcome, independent of the E-PASS. RESULTS: 80% (n = 16) were admitted to ICU. Only 30% (n = 6) of the total study population necessitated intensive care. There were 9 complications in 7 patients in our study. The E-PASS comprehensive risk score (CRS)\\/Surgical stress score (SSS) were found to be significantly associated with the presence of a complication (p = 0.009)\\/(p = 0.032) respectively. Serum creatinine (p = 0.013) was similarly significantly associated with the presence of a complication. CONCLUSIONS: The E-PASS model possessing increasing external validity is an effective risk stratification tool in safely deciding the appropriate level of post-operative care for elective infrarenal AAA repairs.

  7. Transmission from theory to practice: Experiences using open-source code development and a virtual short course to increase the adoption of new theoretical approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Even amongst the academic community, new theoretical tools can remain underutilized due to the investment of time and resources required to understand and implement them. This surely limits the frequency that new theory is rigorously tested against data by scientists outside the group that developed it, and limits the impact that new tools could have on the advancement of science. Reducing the barriers to adoption through online education and open-source code can bridge the gap between theory and data, forging new collaborations, and advancing science. A pilot venture aimed at increasing the adoption of a new theory of time-variable transit time distributions was begun in July 2015 as a collaboration between Johns Hopkins University and The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science (CUAHSI). There were four main components to the venture: a public online seminar covering the theory, an open source code repository, a virtual short course designed to help participants apply the theory to their data, and an online forum to maintain discussion and build a community of users. 18 participants were selected for the non-public components based on their responses in an application, and were asked to fill out a course evaluation at the end of the short course, and again several months later. These evaluations, along with participation in the forum and on-going contact with the organizer suggest strengths and weaknesses in this combination of components to assist participants in adopting new tools.

  8. Global OpenSearch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, D. J.; Mitchell, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, NASA EOSDIS demonstrated a case-study of an OpenSearch framework for Earth science data discovery. That framework leverages the IDN and CWIC OpenSearch API implementations to provide seamless discovery of data through the 'two-step' discovery process as outlined by the Federation for Earth Sciences (ESIP) OpenSearch Best Practices. But how would an Earth Scientist leverage this framework and what are the benefits? Using a client that understands the OpenSearch specification and, for further clarity, the various best practices and extensions, a scientist can discovery a plethora of data not normally accessible either by traditional methods (NASA Earth Data Search, Reverb, etc) or direct methods (going to the source of the data) We will demonstrate, via the CWICSmart web client, how an earth scientist can access regional data on a regional phenomena in a uniform and aggregated manner. We will demonstrate how an earth scientist can 'globalize' their discovery. You want to find local data on 'sea surface temperature of the Indian Ocean'? We can help you with that. 'European meteorological data'? Yes. 'Brazilian rainforest satellite imagery'? That too. CWIC allows you to get earth science data in a uniform fashion from a large number of disparate, world-wide agencies. This is what we mean by Global OpenSearch.

  9. Improving Design with Open Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, John K.; Gasparin, Marta; Varnes, Claus

    2013-01-01

    of the best practices for open innovation. However, projects were not equally successful. The outcome seems to be highly influenced by the type of collaborative arrangements used and their application. In particular, the analysis indicates that organizational factors seem to be indicative but not sufficient...... in open innovation need both a broad knowledge of the various potential elements of an open innovation effort and a flexible attitude toward their application. INSET: Summary of Projects....

  10. Measuring marine oil spill extent by Markov Random Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moctezuma, Miguel; Parmiggiani, Flavio; Lopez Lopez, Ludwin

    2014-10-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill of the Gulf of Mexico in the spring of 2010 was the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of the petroleum industry. An immediate request, after the accident, was to detect the oil slick and to measure its extent: SAR images were the obvious tool to be employed for the task. This paper presents a processing scheme based on Markov Random Fields (MRF) theory. MRF theory describes the global information by probability terms involving local neighborhood representations of the SAR backscatter data. The random degradation introduced by speckle noise is dealt with a pre-processing stage which applies a nonlinear diffusion filter. Spatial context attributes are structured by the Bayes equation derived from a Maximum-A-Posteriori (MAP) estimation. The probability terms define an objective function of a MRF model whose goal is to detect contours and fine structures. The markovian segmentation problem is solved with a numerical optimization method. The scheme was applied to an Envisat/ASAR image over the Gulf of Mexico of May 9, 2010, when the oil spill was already fully developed. The final result was obtained with 51 recursion cycles, where, at each step, the segmentation consists of a 3-class label field (open sea and two oil slick thicknesses). Both the MRF model and the parameters of the stochastic optimization procedure will be provided, together with the area measurement of the two kinds of oil slick.

  11. Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent - Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Multisensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent Northern Hemisphere (MASIE-NH) products provide measurements of daily sea ice extent and sea ice edge boundary for the...

  12. 开放型实践教学模式在皮肤病学教学中的应用探讨%The Application of Open Practice Teaching Mode in Dermatology Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏; 吴开举

    2015-01-01

    Objective In order to explore the application of open practical teaching mode in dermatology teaching. Methods 90 clinical medicine students in our school were randomly selected, and divided into control group and study group, the students in control group received the traditional teaching model, and observation group adopted an open practice teaching mode. Assessed the results of students' theoretical knowledge and practical classes, compared the scores in students and analyzed the effect of teaching mode. Results The excellent rate of the theoretical performance was 97.8%, and excellent rate of experimental results was in 100.0% in observation group, which were significantly higher than control group (P<0.05). Conclusion Open practice teaching model can effectively improve students' acceptance in dermatology teaching.%目的:探讨开放型实践教学模式在皮肤病学教学中的应用效果。方法随机选取我校2013年级三年制大专临床医学专业的学生90名,将其分为对照组和观察组学生各45名,对照组学生采取传统教学模式,观察组采取开放型实践教学模式。授课完成后对全部学生进行理论知识和实践课考核,比较学生成绩并分析教学模式应用效果。结果观察组学生在理论成绩中的优良率为97.8%,实验成绩中优良率为100.0%,均显著高于对照组学生,组间比较差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论在皮肤病学教学中,采用开放型实践教学模式能够有效改善学生接受程度。

  13. New Media and Leadership: Social Media and Open Organizational Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Pauș

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify and analyze the extent to which new media have penetrated the Romanian organizations’ internal communication and have influenced the leadership. We intend also to consider how social media becomes a tool for organizational communication and contributes to the creation of a new kind of leadership associated with open communication. We start from the premise that new media and social media can contribute to the leader’s mission to create around him a vision and makes others to share this vision. In terms of open communication, the external image of organization reflects, in part, leadership practices within the organization. It is about the exercise of the shared collective leadership (Don Tapscott, 1996 that should strengthen the organization position.

  14. Open access

    CERN Document Server

    Suber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The Internet lets us share perfect copies of our work with a worldwide audience at virtually no cost. We take advantage of this revolutionary opportunity when we make our work "open access": digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Open access is made possible by the Internet and copyright-holder consent, and many authors, musicians, filmmakers, and other creators who depend on royalties are understandably unwilling to give their consent. But for 350 years, scholars have written peer-reviewed journal articles for impact, not for money, and are free to consent to open access without losing revenue. In this concise introduction, Peter Suber tells us what open access is and isn't, how it benefits authors and readers of research, how we pay for it, how it avoids copyright problems, how it has moved from the periphery to the mainstream, and what its future may hold. Distilling a decade of Suber's influential writing and thinking about open access, this is the indispe...

  15. To What Extent Can Motor Imagery Replace Motor Execution While Learning a Fine Motor Skill?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Szarkiewicz, Sylwia; Prekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and

  16. Open Brief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Leach

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To commence the thirtieth annual conference of the Society of Architectural Historians, Australia and New Zealand (SAHANZ, held on Australia’s Gold Coast in July 2013, ten delegates were invited with very little warning to take five minutes and one image to offer a provocation on the open matters of architectural history in the present moment. The term “open” was taken as the conference theme—a device used by SAHANZ meetings not so much to define the scope of papers presented as to declare the conference flavour year by year. It was not, therefore, an open conference (anything goes so much as a conference on open issues (where, indeed, to go.  The ten interlocutors were invited after the conference to document their interventions and they are presented here as a record of the preoccupations of a specific moment and institutional geography with all the idiosyncrasies and commonalities it might reveal to a broader audience.

  17. A STUDY ON THE REFORM OF"APPLICATION—OPENNESS"GRADUATION THESIS BOTH IN THEORY AND PRACTICE%"应用型-开放式"毕业论文改革的理论与实践探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江海; 左劲中

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the graduation thesis adapts to the diverse types of undergraduate education in teaching mode, function and quality. Application-oriented undergraduate thesis should focus on the application-oriented study like industries associated with graduates and working practice and train students' practicing abilities specifically, including collecting data, survey re-search, comprehensive analysis and writing expression in various forms. The "application-openness" reform practice of the graduation thesis should combine industry-university-research and deepen the teaching reform, including selection of the ap-plied subjects, construction of double guidance teams, forms of open graduation thesis, quality standards and quality monitoring patterns and so on.%当前,毕业论文教学模式、功能、质量不适应本科教育多样化类型.应用型本科院校毕业论文应当注重对与毕业生相联系的行业、岗位实践问题进行应用型研究,有针对性地系统训练学生对实践性问题的收集资料、调查研究、综合分析、书面表达等能力,其形式可以多种多样."应用型-开放式"毕业论文改革实践在于结合产学研,加强对应用型选题、构建双师指导队伍、开放性毕业论文形式、质量标准与质量监控模式等方面进行教学改革.

  18. Open innovation and universities. Insights from an interregional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Dory

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an empirical study carried out within the “Open Research Platform” (ORP subproject of “European Collaborative and Open regional Innovation Strategies” (EURIS. In the frame of this subproject a survey was carried out to investigate companies’ technology transfer practices with universities in four regions of the European Union, i.e. Navarra (Spain, Lodz region (Poland, Stuttgart region (Germany and Western-Transdanubia (Hungary. The main objectives of the investigation were to explore: i to what extent knowledge transfer activities at higher education institutions and research organizations serve the open innovation model? and ii what the role is of higher education institutions in the technology transfer system of the examined regions? In the first section, the relevance of the survey under the open innovation paradigm is discussed then the main conclusions of the survey are presented. Finally, an open innovation collaboration model is introduced that provides both companies and universities with some suggestions to make their collaboration more effective

  19. A Framework for Open Textbooks Analytics System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Deepak; Totaram, Rajneel; Usagawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    In the last few years, open textbook development has picked up dramatically due both to the expense of commercially published textbooks and the increasing availability of high-quality OER alternatives. While this offers a tremendous benefit in terms of lowering student textbook costs, the question remains, to what extent (if any) do open textbooks…

  20. Changes in coronary bifurcations after stent placement in the main vessel and balloon opening of stent cells:theory and practical verification on a bench-test model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dobrin Vassilev; Robert Gil

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe changes that occur in stent morphology and structure after its implantation in coronary bifurcation.Side branch (SB) compromise after stenting of main vessel in coronary bifurcation is a major intraprocedural problem and for the long term,as a place of restenosis.Methods We created an elastic wall model (parent vessel diameter 3.5mm,daughter branches 3.5mm and 2.75mm)with 30,45 and 60 degree distal angulation between branches.After stent implantation,struts to the side branch were opened with 2.0mm and consequently 3.0mm diameter balloons.Subsequent balloon redilatations and kissing balloon inflations (KBI) were performed.All stages of the procedure were photographed with magnification up to 100 times.Results We found that the leading mechanism for side branch compromise was carina displacement,and discovered theoretical description for expected ostial stenosis severity.Based on our model we found that displacement of bifurcation flow divider cause SB stenosis with almost perfect coincidence with our theoretical predictions.Opening of stent cells through the proximal and distal stent struts always increased interslrut distance,but never achieved good apposition to the wall.Balloon diameter increase didn't give proportional enlargement in stent cell diameters.KBI leads to some small better stent positioning,correcting main vessel strut dislodgment from wall,but never gave full strut-wall contact.Distance between struts and wall was minimal only when the stent cell perfectly faced ostium of SB.This was also our observation that the shape of ostium of SB becomed eUiptically-bean shaped after stent implantation and generally kept that shape during consequent stages of experiment.Measured diameter and area stenosis were perfectly fitted and theoretically predicted from our concept Conclusion We have described stent-wall deformations in stent-balloon technique for treatment of coronary bifurcation demonstrating carina displacement as possibly main

  1. Open Education and the Open Science Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Openness as a complex code word for a variety of digital trends and movements has emerged as an alternative mode of "social production" based on the growing and overlapping complexities of open source, open access, open archiving, open publishing, and open science. This paper argues that the openness movement with its reinforcing structure of…

  2. Do "illegal" im/migrants have a right to health? Engaging ethical theory as social practice at a Tel Aviv open clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willen, Sarah S

    2011-09-01

    As the notion of a "right to health" gains influence, it is increasingly deployed in ways that are diverse, contextually variable, and at times logically inconsistent. Drawing on extended fieldwork at an Israeli human rights organization that advocates for "illegal" migrants and other vulnerable groups, this article contends that medical anthropologists cannot simply rally behind this right. Instead, we must take it as an object of ethnographic analysis and explore bow it is invoked, debated, and resisted in specific contexts. Critical ethnographies of right to health discourse and practice can enlighten us, and help us enlighten scholars in other fields, to the complexity, messiness, and "mushiness" (Sen 2009) of this right, especially in the context of advocacy on unauthorized im/migrants' behalf. It can also deepen understanding of the complicated and sometimes tense relationships among human rights, humanitarianism, and other contemporary idioms of social justice mobilization, especially in the health domain.

  3. The Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saitya Brata Das

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Open darkness and light, remembrance and oblivion, coming into existence and disappearing in death play their originary co-belonging, or co-figuration. Existence belongs to this opening and is exposed to its coming to presence: it is on the basis of this originary opening, this originary historical which is revealed to this mortal being called ‘man,’ on the basis of this revelation, man founds something like politics and history. There thus comes into existence out of this freedom, out of this “play space”2, this field called ‘polis’3 where there takes place war and festival, where historical revolutions tear apart history, brings ruptures and discontinuities in the very mode of his existence, where man seeks the foundation of his own foundation (which is his metaphysical task , where occurs the dialectics of negativity between man and man, where man puts at stake his own death, his own dissolution, and by the power of his own dissolution stands in relation to the total world that he seeks to dominate. This means that man’s attempts to metaphysically found his own political and historical existence must presuppose a far more originary non-foundation, the differentiating revealing of the open, the ungrounded spacing play, or playing space of natality and mortality.

  4. Open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Joel; Bogers, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    by small, new, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as the linkage of individual actions and motivations to open innovation. Other opportunities include better measuring the costs, benefits, antecedents, mediators and moderators of the effects of OI on performance, and understanding why and how OI...

  5. Distracted walking: Examining the extent to pedestrian safety problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Mwakalonge

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pedestrians, much like drivers, have always been engaged in multi-tasking like using hand-held devices, listening to music, snacking, or reading while walking. The effects are similar to those experienced by distracted drivers. However, distracted walking has not received similar policies and effective interventions as distracted driving to improve pedestrian safety. This study reviewed the state-of-practice on policies, campaigns, available data, identified research needs, and opportunities pertaining to distracted walking. A comprehensive review of literature revealed that some of the agencies/organizations disseminate useful information about certain distracting activities that pedestrians should avoid while walking to improve their safety. Various walking safety rules/tips have been given, such as not wearing headphones or talking on a cell phone while crossing a street, keeping the volume down, hanging up the phone while walking, being aware of traffic, and avoiding distractions like walking with texting. The majority of the past observational-based and experimental-based studies reviewed in this study on distracted walking is in agreement that there is a positive correlation between distraction and unsafe walking behavior. However, limitations of the existing crash data suggest that distracted walking may not be a severe threat to the public health. Current pedestrian crash data provide insufficient information for researchers to examine the extent to which distracted walking causes and/or contributes to actual pedestrian safety problems.

  6. Quantifying the impact and extent of undocumented biomedical synonymy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Blair

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Synonymous relationships among biomedical terms are extensively annotated within specialized terminologies, implying that synonymy is important for practical computational applications within this field. It remains unclear, however, whether text mining actually benefits from documented synonymy and whether existing biomedical thesauri provide adequate coverage of these linguistic relationships. In this study, we examine the impact and extent of undocumented synonymy within a very large compendium of biomedical thesauri. First, we demonstrate that missing synonymy has a significant negative impact on named entity normalization, an important problem within the field of biomedical text mining. To estimate the amount synonymy currently missing from thesauri, we develop a probabilistic model for the construction of synonym terminologies that is capable of handling a wide range of potential biases, and we evaluate its performance using the broader domain of near-synonymy among general English words. Our model predicts that over 90% of these relationships are currently undocumented, a result that we support experimentally through "crowd-sourcing." Finally, we apply our model to biomedical terminologies and predict that they are missing the vast majority (>90% of the synonymous relationships they intend to document. Overall, our results expose the dramatic incompleteness of current biomedical thesauri and suggest the need for "next-generation," high-coverage lexical terminologies.

  7. The Practice of the Teaching Reform of Computer Basic Course in Open University%浅谈开放大学计算机基础课程的教学改革实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘明俊

    2014-01-01

    《计算机应用基础》是开放大学开放教育高校网络教育全国统一考试的课程之一,重在对学生办公应用、网络应用、多媒体技术等方面基础知识和操作技能的检测,为学生以后利用计算机技术自主学习奠定基础。分析开放教育学生特点、课程特点、教学目标和教学现状,采用导讲练测一体化教学法,引导学生树立开放教育学习理念,科学设计教学任务,把书本理论变为实际应用,注重调动学生的学习主动性,提高学生的计算机操作技能和解决实际问题的综合能力及创新能力。%"Computer application foundation"is one of the Open University open education college network education national examination course, detection of students office applications, network applications, multimedia technology and other aspects of the basic knowledge and skills for students focusing on, using computer technology to lay the foundation of autonomous learning. Analysis of the features of open education students, curriculum, teaching target and the current situation of teaching, the guided practice test integration teaching method, guides the student to set up the open concept learning task, scientific design of teaching books, put theory into practice, pay attention to mobilize students' learning initiative, improve computer operation skills of the students and the comprehensive ability to solve the actual problem and innovation ability.

  8. Beyond Open Access: (re)use, impact and the ethos of openness in digital editing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sichani, Anna-Maria

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, concepts such as Open Access, Open Data, Open Source and other open scholarship practices have exerted an increasingly prevalent influence on the digital information environment in which scholarly content is created and disseminated. Originating from academics and libraries calling

  9. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  10. Open Source, Open Access, Open Review, Open Data. Initiativen zu mehr Offenheit in der digitalen Welt

    OpenAIRE

    Herb, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses the principles of openess, open access and open availability of information based on the examples of open access to scientific information, open government data, open geographical data and open source software.

  11. Power and politics in research design and practice: Opening up space for social equity in interdisciplinary, multi-jurisdictional and community-based research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valoree Gagnon

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Working collaboratively with communities is commonly considered a cornerstone of good practice in research involving social-ecological concerns. Increasingly, funding agencies also recognise that such collaborations are most productive when community partners have some influence on the design and implementation of the projects that benefit from their participation. However, researchers engaged with this work often struggle to actively engage community members in this way and, in particular, Indigenous peoples. In this article, we argue that useful strategies for facilitating such engagement are to leave space in the research plan for questions of interest to community partners and to encourage equitable interactions between all participants through the use of forums in which power dynamics are intentionally flattened. We demonstrate the use of this technique in an interdisciplinary, multi-jurisdictional research study involving the fate and transport of toxic compounds that lead to fish consumption advisories throughout the world. In this project, the use of participatory forums resulted in community partners in Michigan’s Keweenaw Bay area of Lake Superior shaping a key aspect of the research by raising the simple but significant question: ‘When can we eat the fish?’. Their interest in this question also helped to ensure that they would remain meaningful partners throughout the duration of the project. The conclusion emphasises that further integration of Indigenous and community-based research methods has the potential to significantly enhance the process and value of university-community research engagement in the future.

  12. OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tullney, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Präsentationsfolien zum Vortrag „OpenAPC. Open-Access-Publikationskosten als Open Data“ in der Session „Ausgestaltung eines wissenschaftsadäquaten APC-Marktes: Grundsätze, Finanzierungsansätze und Management“ der Open-Access-Tage 2015 in Zürich (https://www.open-access.net/community/open-access-tage/open-access-tage-2015-zuerich/programm/#c1974)

  13. 开源仓储软件在清华大学图书馆的研究应用与思考%Study,Practice and Prospect for Open Source Repository Software's Application in Tsinghua University Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾婷; 董丽; 邹荣; 姜爱蓉

    2012-01-01

    Tsinghua University Library pays lots of attention to the introduction of new technology and idea in the Digital Library System development.We have carried out some in-depth study on the mainstream open-source repository software in recent years,and conducted a series of application development and practice too.This paper will discuss the latest development and our local application practice of two widely used open source repository software-DSpace and Fedora.First,an overview of the latest developments in the two software and their features are introduced.Then,a series of extended application and development about the long-term preservation and institutional repository are presented.At last,we give some thoughts and suggestions about the future construction of local repositories.%清华大学图书馆在数字图书馆系统建设中注重引进新技术和思想,近年来,对国际上主流的开源仓储软件开展了较深入的研究,在本馆进行了一系列应用开发和实践。本文将对应用较多的两个开源仓储软件:DSpace和Fedora的发展和应用实践展开介绍。首先概要介绍两个开源软件的最新发展和特点,再分别介绍本馆在长期保存,机构知识库建设中所作的系列扩展应用和开发,并提出未来构建本地仓储的一些思考和建议。

  14. Diversification and Openness: Architectural Graduation Project of Huaqiao University of Urban Diversification Thematic Teaching& Practice in Macau%多元与开放——澳门城市活化专题教学实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴少峰; 费迎庆; 陈志宏

    2013-01-01

    Under the context of the new era, diversification and openness have become the development trend of China architectural education. This paper focuses on the graduation design project "Urban Diversification Thematic Teaching & Practice in Macau" , which has been implemented in recent years, makes detailed introduction to a series of measures from topic selection to diversification achievement assessment, as well as exploration and thinking of architectural education mode for architectural majors in Huapiao University. It further states the educational philosophy of Huaqiao University, with the reliance on local resources, based on regional architectural culture and ecology, and characterized by diversification and openness.%新时代背景下,多元与开放已成为中国建筑教育发展的趋势.以近年实施的毕业设计澳门城市活化专题教学实践为例,详细介绍了从课题选择到多元成果评价机制的系列举措,揭示出华侨大学建筑学专业在教育模式上的探索和思考,突显其依托侨校资源,以地域建筑文化与生态为基础,多元开放的特色办学理念.

  15. Design and Practice of Open Experimental Management and Evaluation System in Colleges%高校开放实验管理与评价体系的设计与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈乐天; 柳彩志

    2016-01-01

    By studying this project, you can explore a set of compre-hensive, multi-level open experimental teaching evaluation system, on the one hand,one can make an open experimental teaching system better as well as more scientiifc and effective, on the other hand can raise the level of experimental teaching and teachers’ guidance capabilities, while being able to play a positive role in pushing forward the reform of the system of higher education teaching experiment. Therefore, research in this project has a high theoretical value and practical value.%通过本项目的研究,探索出一套全方位、多层次的开放实验教学的管理过程和评价方案,一方面可以使开放实验教学体系更加完善、更加科学有效;另一方面能够提高教师实验教学的水平和指导能力,同时能为高教系统实验教学改革起到积极的推进作用。

  16. The Spaces of Open-Source Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Plesner, Ursula

    constructed by the Alternative as techniques for practicing open-source politics, and observe that physical and digital spaces create a vacillation between openness and closure. This vacillation produces a dialectic relationship between practices of imagination and affirmation. Curiously, it seems...

  17. Practical Experience and Enlightenment of Foreign Science and Technology Museum Open Free%国外科技馆免费开放的实践探索及启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    危怀安; 程杨; 吴秋凤

    2013-01-01

    By examining the official site of the world-renewned science and technology museum,such as the national air and space museum,London science museum,the Questacon and the Ontario science center,by searching and mining spo-radic information and fragmented information,collating and extracting these famous science and technology museum free-open policies and practice initiatives,the study found that limited free with the difference in charges is a combination of the basic open-door policy practiced by science and technology museum,adequate and relatively stable funding is the prereq-uisite of running science and technology museum,innovative conventional project and expand extension services business is the fundamental guarantee of the open-free policy of science and technology museum,establishing a high moral volunteer team is the strong support of the operation of the science and technology museum. The study puts some enlightenment in or-der to provide some useful references for the sustainable development of China’ s science and technology museum.%通过考察美国国家航空和航天博物馆、伦敦科学博物馆、澳大利亚国家科学技术中心、加拿大安大略科学中心等世界著名科技馆的官方网站,搜索和挖掘其中的零星信息和零碎资料,整理并提炼出这些著名科技馆的免费开放政策及实践举措。研究发现,有限免费与差异收费相结合是这些科技馆实行的基本开放政策,充足且相对稳定的经费是确保科技馆开放运行的前提条件,创新常规项目、拓展延伸服务业务是科技馆免费开放的根本保证,建立一支高品德的志愿者队伍是科技馆正常运营的有力支撑。据此提出若干启示,为我国科技馆可持续发展提供有益借鉴。

  18. 16 CFR 1031.6 - Extent and form of Commission involvement in the development of voluntary standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent and form of Commission involvement in the development of voluntary standards. 1031.6 Section 1031.6 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION PARTICIPATION AND COMMISSION EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT IN...

  19. Open Access Scholarly Publications as OER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, common practices, challenges, and some personal anecdotes from a journal editor on the production, use, and re-use of peer-reviewed scholarly articles as open educational resources (OER). The scholarly and professional discourse related to open educational resources has largely focused on open learning objects,…

  20. Open Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanderhoff, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Museums around the world hold enormous troves of public domain artworks. In digitized form, they can be powerful tools for research and learning, as well as building blocks, in the hands of students, teachers, scholars, developers, and creative people. By opening up their digitized assets for reuse......, museums have a unique opportunity to broaden the scope of their public mission to serve and educate the public on 21st century media terms. What could be controversial about that? Art museums have a long legacy of restricting access to high quality images of artworks in order to protect them from improper...

  1. Open University

    CERN Document Server

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  2. Autocatalysis in isothermal, open systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, P.; Scott, S. K.

    1983-12-01

    In open systems, the prototype autocatalytic reaction A+2X → 3X, X → inert may display complex dependences of the stationary-state extents of conversion on flow-rate or residence time even under isothermal, well-stirred conditions. Sustained oscillations corresponding to stable limit cycles are also found. In this note we answer three questions posed by Escher and Ross in a recent paper and draw analogies between their work and earlier studies of our own. (AIP)

  3. The Impact of Openness on Bridging Educational Digital Divides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andy

    2009-01-01

    Openness has been a feature of higher education for many decades, particularly through the establishment of open universities, although there remain debates about what openness means in practice. Digital technologies, some based on open principles, and digital content, aided by open licences, have both contributed recently to an extension of what…

  4. 32 CFR 728.12 - Extent of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extent of care. 728.12 Section 728.12 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE FOR... § 728.12 Extent of care. Members who are away from their duty stations or are on duty where there is...

  5. 5 CFR 1.2 - Extent of the competitive service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of the competitive service. 1.2 Section 1.2 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.2 Extent of the competitive service. The competitive service shall include: (a) All...

  6. 5 CFR 1.4 - Extent of the excepted service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of the excepted service. 1.4 Section 1.4 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE RULES COVERAGE AND DEFINITIONS (RULE I) § 1.4 Extent of the excepted service. (a) The excepted service shall include all civilian...

  7. 14 CFR 252.8 - Extent of smoking restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extent of smoking restrictions. 252.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS SMOKING ABOARD AIRCRAFT § 252.8 Extent of smoking restrictions. The restrictions on smoking described in §§ 252.3 through 252.7 shall apply to all locations within the aircraft....

  8. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of relief. 24.158... Extent of relief. (a) General. The surety on any bond required by this part who has filed a notice for relief from liability as provided in § 24.157 will be relieved from liability under bond as set forth in...

  9. Exploration on opening psychological laboratory for cultivating talents w ith practical skills%应用型人才培养目标下的心理学实验室开放探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶艳晖

    2014-01-01

    The psychological laboratory of Jiaying University has carried out a series of exploration and practice for serving the goal of cultivating talents with practical skills .The laboratory has been hierarchically opened under an innovative experimental mode for students to choose different experiment options based on their own grades ,requirements and ability level ,with the aim of developing their spirit of innovation ,ability to practice as well as applied skills .At the same time ,a sound operational mechanism involving establishing management system ,organizing and implementing relative activities as well as training teachers for the lab is built ,with a further plan being made .%介绍了嘉应学院心理学实验室在培养应用型人才目标下进行的一系列探索与实践。该实验室创新了心理学开放实验模式,对心理学实验室实行分层次开放,使学生可以根据自己年级、需求和能力的不同选择不同层次的开放实验,以培养学生的创新能力、实践能力及应用技能。心理学实验室从管理制度、开放的组织与实施、实验教师队伍建设等方面建立了实验室开放运行机制,并对进一步开放实验室提出了设想。

  10. Numerical Simulation of Extent of Carbon Dioxide Plume Injected in the Gyeongsang Basin, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihm, J.; Park, S.; Kim, J.

    2012-12-01

    carbon dioxide plume extent increases as the porosity decreases, or the intrinsic permeability increases, and these trends do not change with time. The carbon dioxide plume extent also increases as the salt concentration in groundwater increases, or the volume fraction of chlorite decreases, and these trends emerge clearly after about 100 years and are then intensified with time. It is expected that the numerical simulation results can be utilized as reasonable and practical reference data when estimation of storage capacity of carbon dioxide and risk analysis of geologic storage of carbon dioxide in the Gyeongsang Basin are required. This work was supported by the Energy Efficiency and Resources Program funded by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Republic of Korea.

  11. OOI's Cyberinfrastructure: An Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graybeal, J.; Ampe, T.; Arrott, M.; Chave, A. D.; Cressey, R.; Jul, S.; McPhail, T.; Meisinger, M.; Orcutt, J. A.; Peach, C. L.; Schofield, O.; Stocks, K.; Thomas, J.; Vernon, F.

    2012-12-01

    The Ocean Observatories Initiative is a long-term, NSF-funded program to provide 25-30 years of sustained ocean measurements to study climate variability, ocean circulation and ecosystem dynamics, air-sea exchange, seafloor processes, and plate-scale geodynamics. The OOI will enable powerful new scientific approaches for exploring the complexities of Earth-ocean-atmosphere interactions, thereby accelerating progress toward the goal of understanding, predicting, and managing our ocean environment. The OOI can foster new discoveries that, in turn, move research in unforeseen directions. The OOI Cyberinfrastructure will connect and coordinate the operations of OOI marine components and data processes, to meet the objectives of the oceanographic research and education communities. The CI will let all users easily interact with deployed resources, access collected data, and apply those data to their specific research and educational needs. The CI is a free and open product that adopts innovative and flexible strategies to bring the oceans to users, any time, any place, on any suitable device. The OOI CI is dedicated to "using the latest computing technologies to solve the interoperability problem among vast amounts of heterogeneous geospatial data from various sources." OOI CI's charge is to be transformative, and its technologies and goals are just that (see URL). The Cyberinfrastructure integrates state-of-the-art and best-practice approaches to provide fully interoperable access to the widest possible collection of geospatial data. From the system-of-systems model of the planned observatories and the ingestion of data, models, and services; to the configurable, automated workflows producing real-time products, data curation and quality management strategies are supported to the fullest possible extent. How do we build a system to efficiently support 750 core instruments across numerous platform types, add as-yet unknown instruments during the operations phase, and

  12. Measurement of batter movements in brown coal open cuts - results of a research project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nehring, H.

    1984-05-01

    In the course of a research project sponsored by the State of North Rhine-Westphalia the mine surveying methods used when measuring deformation on open cut batters were further developed, by taking into account the special conditions prevailing in open cuts, to such an extent that the essential monitoring of soil movements can be carried out reliably and promptly. As an integral part of an optimised, accurate geodetic measurement of points, the direct measurement of longitude across the open cut was introduced as a rapid measuring method. The aerophotogrammetric measurement of points is practically as accurate as terrestrial surveying. The author describes the prototype of an automatically operated instrument system for the monitoring of points. In conclusion he also stresses that the first promising advance has already been made as regards the sufficiently accurate monitoring of rock movements in boreholes.

  13. Open strategy: Dimensions, dilemmas, dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Hautz, J; D. Seidl; Whittington, R.

    2016-01-01

    Responding to increasing practitioner and academic interest in Open Strategy, this article builds on recent theoretical and empirical studies in order to advance research in the following ways. We begin by developing a definition of Open Strategy that emphasizes variation along the two dimensions of transparency and inclusion, as well as the dilemmas and dynamics inherent in its practices. We identify five dilemmas in particular: those of process, commitment, disclosure, empowerment and escal...

  14. An Analysis of Open Source Security Software Products Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the continued demand for open source security software, a gap in the identification of success factors related to the success of open source security software persists. There are no studies that accurately assess the extent of this persistent gap, particularly with respect to the strength of the relationships of open source software…

  15. An Analysis of Open Source Security Software Products Downloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the continued demand for open source security software, a gap in the identification of success factors related to the success of open source security software persists. There are no studies that accurately assess the extent of this persistent gap, particularly with respect to the strength of the relationships of open source software…

  16. Naval open systems architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, Nick; Womble, Brian; Haskell, Virginia

    2013-05-01

    For the past 8 years, the Navy has been working on transforming the acquisition practices of the Navy and Marine Corps toward Open Systems Architectures to open up our business, gain competitive advantage, improve warfighter performance, speed innovation to the fleet and deliver superior capability to the warfighter within a shrinking budget1. Why should Industry care? They should care because we in Government want the best Industry has to offer. Industry is in the business of pushing technology to greater and greater capabilities through innovation. Examples of innovations are on full display at this conference, such as exploring the impact of difficult environmental conditions on technical performance. Industry is creating the tools which will continue to give the Navy and Marine Corps important tactical advantages over our adversaries.

  17. Advancing a holistic approach to openness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Helle Alsted; Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara de

    -tech and medium high-tech industries and study the moderating role of internal openness on the relationship between external openness and performance. Our results show that the internal spheres of transformative and exploitative learning moderate the effect of external openness on performance and a model...... with the interaction effects of these variables gives significantly better prediction power. This indicates that internal knowledge practices are important for a firm's ability to leverage open innovation strategies....

  18. Working with OpenERP

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, Greg

    2013-01-01

    This book is a practical, hands-on guide that provides the reader with a number of real-world examples and step-by-step instructions.""Working with OpenERP"" is written to make it easy for even a non-technical business person to begin implementing OpenERP in their business. This book uses real-world examples and is perfect for people who have never implemented an ERP system before or used OpenERP, or for those who would like to learn more advanced features, such as creating your own custom modules.

  19. A Study on the Construction of Open and Distance Education Learning Support Service System:Practice and Exploration of Shanghai Open University%远程开放教育学习支持服务体系的构建--上海开放大学的实践与探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史承军; 陈海建

    2013-01-01

    Researchers from China and overseas have contributed a lot of discussion and conducted a great deal of re-searches on the subject of learning support services, so as to better meet the learning needs of open and distance educa-tion which there is no standard to follow so far. With the development of open and distance education in China, the o-riginal learning support services system has exposed its limitations. The article analyses the shortcomings of the teach-ing process of open and distance education,and puts forward a view of designing learning support services system from the perspective of a 5-dimensional framework, which includes teacher resources support services, teaching resources support services, teaching process support services, education facilities support services and education management sup-port services. Combined with practices and explorations of Shanghai Open University,by using of questionnaires,and through the 5-dimensional framework system, in the study of analysis of the operation process of open and distance education,we suggest that the idea of constructing learning support service system should be "centered on the learn-ers",and the purpose is to improve the teaching quality of open and distance education, which describes the effective-ness of operation of learning support services system on innovating teaching models, integrating educational resources and fitting learners' individual needs.%为了更好地满足远程开放教育的学习需要,长期以来国内外研究者就学习支持服务这一主题开展了大量的研讨,但至今尚无标准可依。随着我国远程开放教育的不断发展,原有的学习支持服务体系暴露出一些局限性。本文结合上海开放大学的实践与探索,采用问卷调查等方法,分析了远程开放教育教学过程中存在的问题,提出从教师资源支持服务、教学资源支持服务、教学过程支持服务、教育设施支持服务及教育管理

  20. Does Trust Influence the Extent of Inter-Organizational Barter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudzina, Frantisek

    2014-01-01

    The 1999 World Business Environment Survey investigated, among many other things, the extent of inter-organizational barter in various countries. Reported values differed a lot, e.g. it was less than 1% in Hungary but more than 30% in neighboring Croatia. Since in many such contracts goods and....../or services are not exchanged at the same time, using barter tends to lead to a higher solvency risk than using money. Therefore, it is possible to theoretize that there is relation between the level of trust and the extent of barter use; namely that a higher level of trust leads to a higher extent...

  1. OpenER, a Dutch Initiative in Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuwer, Robert; Mulder, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Over the period 2006-2008, the Dutch Open Universiteit Nederland conducted an experiment in which Open Educational Resources (OER) were offered in an effort to bridge the gap between informal and formal learning and to establish a new style of entry portal to higher education with no barriers at all. OpenER received considerable attention both in…

  2. Vapor Intrusion Facility Boundaries - Approximate Extent of Contamination

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Theses polygons represent the approximate extent of contamination for Vapor Intrusion facilities. Polygons for non-Federal Facility sites were updated in January,...

  3. Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary - Internal Wave Analysis Spatial Extent

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This feature class contains the spatial extent of the internal wave analysis. This area of interest was defined in interests of time. A cusory review of the 66 SAR...

  4. Reconstructed North American Snow Extent, 1900-1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains reconstructed monthly North American snow extent values for November through March, 1900-1993. Investigators used a combination of satellite...

  5. Exploring the extent to which ELT students utilise smartphones for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zehra

    2015-11-09

    Nov 9, 2015 ... aimed to explore the extent to which English Language Teaching (ELT) students ... horizons: it is now possible to learn at home connected to a virtual space, or even walking down the street with a ... Alternate reality learning.

  6. Lumbopelvic parameters and the extent of lumbar fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha Son Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The results imply that the extent of instrumentation, including the involvement of the sacrum, may not alter lumbopelvic parameters. This appears to argue against the idea that longer fusion constructs induce more stress on the pelvis and SI joint.

  7. Rate and extent of ruminal degradation of crude protein from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of degradation of crude protein was higher for maize meal than for whole or flaked maize. Extent of crude protein ... flaked maize diets. Urea was added to increase ..... isolation of proteolytic bacteria from the sheep rumen. J. Gen. Microbiol.

  8. A fair dinkum duty of open disclosure following medical error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Malcolm

    2012-09-01

    Supporting patients and families in circumstances where medical error has caused significant harm is said to be governed by the principles of ordinary treatment: honest, open communication, empathy and respect. By and large, harmed patients look for acknowledgment of the events that occurred including errors, acceptance of responsibility, a sincere apology, and assurance that lessons learned will be put to preventive use. Australia's National Open Disclosure Standard purports to respond to these reasonable expectations, yet it advises health care professionals that while they may express regret for what has occurred, they should take care not to state or agree that they, or other health care professionals, or health care organisations, are liable for the harm caused to the patient. The National Open Disclosure Standard is currently being reviewed, and the Consultation Draft of the Australian Open Disclosure Framework appears to move things closer to its stated finding that ethical practice prioritises organisational and individual learning from error, rather than an organisational risk-management approach. However, it remains the case that the sense of apology in the Consultation Draft is one of stating regret, not of accepting responsibility This dissonance in the Draft Framework wording may represent a continuing disingenuousness on the part of health professionals and their institutions regarding the kind of apologies that patients look for. Following Berlinger, the current author argues that expressions of regret are not apologies, since an apology presupposes the fault that health professionals are advised they avoid admitting. But honest, open communication surely implies both materially relevant disclosure, which would include acknowledgment of fault where that is known, and a genuine apology, as part of the continuing doctor-patient relationship. To the extent that open disclosure policies and practices fudge complete disclosure, admission of fault and

  9. Dynamic preconditioning of the September sea-ice extent minimum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James; Tremblay, Bruno; Newton, Robert; Allard, Richard

    2016-04-01

    There has been an increased interest in seasonal forecasting of the sea-ice extent in recent years, in particular the minimum sea-ice extent. We propose a dynamical mechanism, based on winter preconditioning through first year ice formation, that explains a significant fraction of the variance in the anomaly of the September sea-ice extent from the long-term linear trend. To this end, we use a Lagrangian trajectory model to backtrack the September sea-ice edge to any time during the previous winter and quantify the amount of sea-ice divergence along the Eurasian and Alaskan coastlines as well as the Fram Strait sea-ice export. We find that coastal divergence that occurs later in the winter (March, April and May) is highly correlated with the following September sea-ice extent minimum (r = -0.73). This is because the newly formed first year ice will melt earlier allowing for other feedbacks (e.g. ice albedo feedback) to start amplifying the signal early in the melt season when the solar input is large. We find that the winter mean Fram Strait sea-ice export anomaly is also correlated with the minimum sea-ice extent the following summer. Next we backtrack a synthetic ice edge initialized at the beginning of the melt season (June 1st) in order to develop hindcast models of the September sea-ice extent that do not rely on a-priori knowledge of the minimum sea-ice extent. We find that using a multi-variate regression model of the September sea-ice extent anomaly based on coastal divergence and Fram Strait ice export as predictors reduces the error by 41%. A hindcast model based on the mean DJFMA Arctic Oscillation index alone reduces the error by 24%.

  10. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  11. Extent of Cropland and Related Soil Erosion Risk in Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Karamage

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Land conversion to cropland is one of the major causes of severe soil erosion in Africa. This study assesses the current cropland extent and the related soil erosion risk in Rwanda, a country that experienced the most rapid population growth and cropland expansion in Africa over the last decade. The land cover land use (LCLU map of Rwanda in 2015 was developed using Landsat-8 imagery. Based on the obtained LCLU map and the spatial datasets of precipitation, soil properties and elevation, the soil erosion rate of Rwanda was assessed at 30-m spatial resolution, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE model. According to the results, the mean soil erosion rate was 250 t·ha−1·a−1 over the entire country, with a total soil loss rate of approximately 595 million tons per year. The mean soil erosion rate over cropland, which occupied 56% of the national land area, was estimated at 421 t·ha−1·a−1 and was responsible for about 95% of the national soil loss. About 24% of the croplands in Rwanda had a soil erosion rate larger than 300 t·ha−1·a−1, indicating their unsuitability for cultivation. With a mean soil erosion rate of 1642 t·ha−1·a−1, these unsuitable croplands were responsible for 90% of the national soil loss. Most of the unsuitable croplands are distributed in the Congo Nile Ridge, Volcanic Range mountain areas in the west and the Buberuka highlands in the north, regions characterized by steep slopes (>30% and strong rainfall. Soil conservation practices, such as the terracing cultivation method, are paramount to preserve the soil. According to our assessment, terracing alone could reduce the mean cropland soil erosion rate and the national soil loss by 79% and 75%, respectively. After terracing, only a small proportion of 7.6% of the current croplands would still be exposed to extreme soil erosion with a rate >300 t·ha−1·a−1. These irremediable cropland areas should be returned to mountain forest to

  12. Gallbladder removal - open

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholecystectomy - open; Surgery - gallbladder - open ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic cholecystectomy ). Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  13. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovini, L.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen To quote Mr Jean Terrien: "Physics must be one step ahead of metrology". A long-serving Director of the BIPM, he said these words when visiting the IMGC in 1970 as a member of the scientific board of our Institute. At that time it was still an open question whether the IMGC should start research work on the absolute measurement of silicon lattice spacing. Mr Terrien underlined the revolutionary character of x-ray interferometry and, eventually, he caused the balance needle to lean towards the ... right direction. Mr Terrien correctly foresaw that, like Michelson's interferometer of 1880, x-ray interferometry could have a prominent place in today's science and technology. And while, in the first case, after more than a century we can see instruments based on electromagnetic wave interaction within every one's reach in laboratories and, sometimes, in workshops, in the second case, twenty-five years since the first development of an x-ray interferometer we can witness its role in nanometrology. Today and tomorrow we meet to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal place in the value of the Avogadro constant. We are aware that the quest for this achievement requires the cooperation of scientists with complementary capabilities. I am sure that the present workshop is a very good opportunity to present and discuss results and to improve and extend existing cooperation. The new adjustment of fundamental constants envisaged by the CODATA Task Group is redoubling scientists' efforts to produce competitive values of NA. The results of the measurements of the silicon lattice spacing in terms of an optical wavelength, which were available for the 1986 adjustment, combined with the determination of silicon molar volume, demonstrate how such an NA determination produces a consistent set of other constants and opens the way to a possible redefinition of the kilogram. We shall see in these two days how far we have progressed along this road. For us at the

  14. Sea-ice extent provides a limited metric of model performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Notz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We examine the common practice of using sea-ice extent as the primary metric to evaluate modeled sea-ice coverage. Based on this analysis, we recommend a possible best practice for model evaluation. We find that for Arctic summer sea ice, model biases in sea-ice extent can be qualitatively different compared to biases in the geophysically more meaningful sea-ice area. These differences come about by a different frequency distribution of high-concentration sea-ice: while in summer about half of the CMIP5 models and satellite retrievals based on the Bootstrap and the ASI algorithm show a compact ice cover with large areas of high concentration sea ice, the other half of the CMIP5 models and satellite retrievals based on the NASA Team algorithm show a loose ice cover. The different behaviour of the CMIP5 models can be explained by their different distribution of excess heat between lateral melt and sea-ice thinning. Differences in grid geometry and round-off errors during interpolation only have a minor impact on the different biases in sea-ice extent and sea-ice area. Because of regional cancellation of biases in the integrative measures sea-ice extent and sea-ice area, these measures show little correlation with the more meaningful mean absolute bias in sea-ice concentration. Comparing the uncertainty arising directly from the satellite retrievals with those that arise from internal variability, we find that the latter by far dominates the uncertainty estimate for trends in sea-ice extent and area: much of the differences between modeled and observed trends can simply be explained by internal variability. Only for the absolute value of sea-ice area, differences between observations and models are so large that they cannot be explained by either observational uncertainty nor internal variability.

  15. 普通高校公共体育开设女生瑜伽课程的研究%Research and Practice of Opening the Yoga at University Pulic Sports Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丹华

    2011-01-01

    对普通高校女生在瑜伽训练前后的生理指标和心理状态情况进行对比分析,结果显示:大部分女生表现出对瑜伽的喜爱;瑜伽训练能明显改善大学女生身体形态,提高大学女生的心肺功能、身体柔韧性和控制能力,对其心理状态的影响有积极的促进作用。实验证明在高校公共体育开设女生瑜伽课程具有可行性和实效性。%This paper,through literature,expert interviews and questionnaire methods,studies the undergraduate students who take yoga course in Nantong University by means of literature review,compared and analyzed the students' physiological and psychological changes between before and after taking the course.It shows that a large part of students like yoga and yoga exercise can remarkably improve students' body figure,raise heart and lungs' funcion,and body flexibility;it may also promote and regulate their mental health.The experiment of yoga course proves that it is feasible and practical to open yoga course at university public sports course.

  16. 远程开放教育中英语听力教改模式实践反思%English Listening Reform Pattern Practice Reconsideration in Distance Opening Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of Contemporary Interact and education, English listening model will have been changed. In this paper, we practiced the Blended Learning on English listening in the distance opening education. Giving full play to the campus network and the Internet's advantages, this kind of teaching model made the English listening course more scientific, fun ,and social. It also educates the students' ability of studied independently.%当代互联网的迅速发展及在教学领域的普遍应用正在引起英语听力教学模式的深刻变化。本文以混合式学习理论为指导,探索和实践了混合式教学模式在远程开放教育英语听力教学中的应用,它能充分发挥校园网、互联网的优势,使教学更加科学化、趣味化、社会化,培养了学生自主学习能力,在英语听力教学上取得了良好的效果。

  17. OpenCL programming guide

    CERN Document Server

    Munshi, Aaftab; Mattson, Timothy G; Fung, James; Ginsburg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Using the new OpenCL (Open Computing Language) standard, you can write applications that access all available programming resources: CPUs, GPUs, and other processors such as DSPs and the Cell/B.E. processor. Already implemented by Apple, AMD, Intel, IBM, NVIDIA, and other leaders, OpenCL has outstanding potential for PCs, servers, handheld/embedded devices, high performance computing, and even cloud systems. This is the first comprehensive, authoritative, and practical guide to OpenCL 1.1 specifically for working developers and software architects. Written by five leading OpenCL authorities, OpenCL Programming Guide covers the entire specification. It reviews key use cases, shows how OpenCL can express a wide range of parallel algorithms, and offers complete reference material on both the API and OpenCL C programming language. Through complete case studies and downloadable code examples, the authors show how to write complex parallel programs that decompose workloads across many different devices. They...

  18. OPEN DATA FOR DISCOVERY SCIENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Philip R O; Huang, Kun; Shah, Nigam H; Tenenbaum, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The modern healthcare and life sciences ecosystem is moving towards an increasingly open and data-centric approach to discovery science. This evolving paradigm is predicated on a complex set of information needs related to our collective ability to share, discover, reuse, integrate, and analyze open biological, clinical, and population level data resources of varying composition, granularity, and syntactic or semantic consistency. Such an evolution is further impacted by a concomitant growth in the size of data sets that can and should be employed for both hypothesis discovery and testing. When such open data can be accessed and employed for discovery purposes, a broad spectrum of high impact end-points is made possible. These span the spectrum from identification of de novo biomarker complexes that can inform precision medicine, to the repositioning or repurposing of extant agents for new and cost-effective therapies, to the assessment of population level influences on disease and wellness. Of note, these types of uses of open data can be either primary, wherein open data is the substantive basis for inquiry, or secondary, wherein open data is used to augment or enrich project-specific or proprietary data that is not open in and of itself. This workshop is concerned with the key challenges, opportunities, and methodological best practices whereby open data can be used to drive the advancement of discovery science in all of the aforementioned capacities.

  19. Opening Teaching Landscapes: The Importance of Quality Assurance in the Delivery of Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atenas, Javiera; Havemann, Leo; Priego, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Scholars are increasingly being asked to share teaching materials, publish in open access journals, network in social media, and reuse open educational resources (OER). The theoretical benefits of Open Educational Practices (OEP) have become understood in the academic community but thus far, the use of OER has not been rapidly adopted. We aim to…

  20. Open life science research, open software and the open century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youhua Chen

    2015-01-01

    At the age of knowledge explosion and mass scientific information, I highlighted the importance of conducting open science in life and medical researches through the extensive usage of open software and documents. The proposal of conducting open science is to reduce the limited repeatability of researches in life science. I outlined the essential steps for conducting open life science and the necessary standards for creating, reusing and reproducing open materials. Different Creative Commons licenses were presented and compared of their usage scope and restriction. As a conclusion, I argued that open materials should be widely adopted in doing life and medical researches.

  1. Development and validation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and its validation against present day wetland observations. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimize global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model validation reveals a good agreement between the occurrence of simulated and observed wetlands on the global scale. The best result is achieved for the northern hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellite for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the validation analysis demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the global distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations. Thus, the dynamical wetland extent scheme can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES should be implemented into an earth system model

  2. The open boundary equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Diederen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a new equation describing the hydrodynamics in infinitely long tidal channels (i.e., no reflection under the influence of oceanic forcing. The proposed equation is a simple relationship between partial derivatives of water level and velocity. It is formally derived for a progressive wave in a frictionless, prismatic, tidal channel with a horizontal bed. Assessment of a large number of numerical simulations, where an open boundary condition is posed at a certain distance landward, suggests that it can also be considered accurate in the more natural case of converging estuaries with nonlinear friction and a bed slope. The equation follows from the open boundary condition and is therefore a part of the problem formulation for an infinite tidal channel. This finding provides a practical tool for evaluating tidal wave dynamics, by reconstructing the temporal variation of the velocity based on local observations of the water level, providing a fully local open boundary condition and allowing for local friction calibration.

  3. Opening address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, C.

    1994-01-01

    Ladies and Gentlemen My cordial thanks to you for participating in our workshop and to all those who have sponsored it. When in 1957 I attended the International Congress on Fundamental Constants held in Turin on the occasion of the first centenary of the death of Amedeo Avogadro, I did not expect that about thirty-five years later a small but representative number of distinguished scientists would meet here again, to discuss how to go beyond the sixth decimal figure of the Avogadro constant. At that time, the uncertainty of the value of this constant was linked to the fourth decimal figure, as reported in the book by DuMond and Cohen. The progress made in the meantime is universally acknowledged to be due to the discovery of x-ray interferometry. We are honoured that one of the two founding fathers, Prof. Ulrich Bonse, is here with us, but we regret that the other, Prof. Michael Hart, is not present. After Bonse and Hart's discovery, the x-ray crystal density method triggered, as in a chain reaction, the investigation of two other quantities related to the Avogadro constant—density and molar mass. Scientists became, so to speak, resonant and since then have directed their efforts, just to mention a few examples, to producing near-perfect silicon spheres and determining their density, to calibrating, with increasing accuracy, mass spectrometers, and to studying the degree of homogeneity of silicon specimens. Obviously, I do not need to explain to you why the Avogadro constant is important. I wish, however, to underline that it is not only because of its position among fundamental constants, as we all know very well its direct links with the fine structure constant, the Boltzmann and Faraday constants, the h/e ratio, but also because when a new value of NA is obtained, the whole structure of the fundamental constants is shaken to a lesser or greater extent. Let me also remind you that the second part of the title of this workshop concerns the silicon

  4. Promoting an open research culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nosek, B.A.; Alter, G.; Banks, G.C.; Borsboom, D.; Bowman, S.D.; Breckler, S.J.; Buck, S.; Chambers, C.D.; Chin, G.; Christensen, G.; Contestabile, M.; Dafoe, A.; Eich, E.; Freese, J.; Glennerster, R.; Goroff, D.; Green, D.P.; Hesse, B.; Humphreys, M.; Ishiyama, J.; Karlan, D.; Kraut, A.; Lupia, A.; Mabry, P.; Madon, T.; Malhotra, N.; Mayo-Wilson, E.; McNutt, M.; Miguel, E.; Levy Paluck, E.; Simonsohn, U.; Soderberg, C.; Spellman, B.A.; Turitto, J.; VandenBos, G.; Vazire, S.; Wagenmakers, E.J.; Wilson, R.; Yarkoni, T.

    2015-01-01

    Transparency, openness, and reproducibility are readily recognized as vital features of science (1, 2). When asked, most scientists embrace these features as disciplinary norms and values (3). Therefore, one might expect that these valued features would be routine in daily practice. Yet, a growing b

  5. News Outreach: Polish physics club reaches out with practical demonstrations Networking: Online workspace helps teachers to share ideas Mauritius: Telescope inspires science specification Fusion: EFDA sparks resources Olympiad: British team enjoys success at the International Physics Olympiad 2009 Nanoscience: 'Quietest' building in the world opens in Bristol, UK Conference: University of Leicester hosts the GIREP EPEC 2009 international conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Outreach: Polish physics club reaches out with practical demonstrations Networking: Online workspace helps teachers to share ideas Mauritius: Telescope inspires science specification Fusion: EFDA sparks resources Olympiad: British team enjoys success at the International Physics Olympiad 2009 Nanoscience: 'Quietest' building in the world opens in Bristol, UK Conference: University of Leicester hosts the GIREP EPEC 2009 international conference

  6. Open life science research, open software and the open century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Youhua Chen

    2015-01-01

    At the age of knowledge explosion and mass scientific information, I highlighted the importance of conducting open science in life and medical researches through the extensive usage of open software and documents...

  7. Opening Address

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abalakin, V. K.

    1997-03-01

    Dear Colleagues, It is a great pleasure and honor for me to invite you on the occasion of the IAU Colloquium International Cooperation in Dissemination of the Astronomical Data to the Central (Pulkovo) Astronomical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences. This distinguished gathering of experts in the vast field of modern methods for archiving and managing almost infinite astronomical data files of everlasting value will doubtlessly make a considerable and important contribution to success in the present and future research in astronomy. All of us are witnesses of a great technological, even psychological upturn that occurs in the everyday astronomical practice. The small but the most powerful handy devices known as desktop, laptop, or even palm-top PCs, have rendered a tedious calculating work and stressing search in the card-file or book-form catalogs to a pure pleasure and raised an admiration for those brilliant minds that have invented such a kind of hard- and software. The networks of all kinds and sorts -- Internet, Bitnet, World Wide Web, etc. -- have realized ancient dreams of a Man to fly with thought all over the world communicating with other human beings. But ... don't forget that the most real and valuable communication is the live one, when one can see the face and the eyes of his (or her) partner, listen to his voice as large as life, and the only opportunity for this is to stay together. And this just occurs at the colloquium like ours! So, let me heartily welcome you to the Pulkovo Observatory.

  8. Open Standards, Open Source, and Open Innovation: Harnessing the Benefits of Openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee for Economic Development, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Digitization of information and the Internet have profoundly expanded the capacity for openness. This report details the benefits of openness in three areas--open standards, open-source software, and open innovation--and examines the major issues in the debate over whether openness should be encouraged or not. The report explains each of these…

  9. Open Genetic Code: on open source in the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of open source in the life sciences is increasingly being suggested as an alternative to patenting. This is an alternative, however, that takes its shape at the intersection of the life sciences and informatics. Numerous examples can be identified wherein open source in the life sciences refers to access, sharing and collaboration as informatic practices. This includes open source as an experimental model and as a more sophisticated approach of genetic engineering. The first section discusses the greater flexibly in regard of patenting and the relationship to the introduction of open source in the life sciences. The main argument is that the ownership of knowledge in the life sciences should be reconsidered in the context of the centrality of DNA in informatic formats. This is illustrated by discussing a range of examples of open source models. The second part focuses on open source in synthetic biology as exemplary for the re-materialization of information into food, energy, medicine and so forth. The paper ends by raising the question whether another kind of alternative might be possible: one that looks at open source as a model for an alternative to the commodification of life that is understood as an attempt to comprehensively remove the restrictions from the usage of DNA in any of its formats.

  10. 信息技术与教学过程深度融合的实践探索--深圳广播电视大学教学模式改革%Exploration and Practice on Deep Integration of IT and Teaching Process-Shenzhen Open University Reform and Practice on Teaching Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊锟; 张朝霞

    2013-01-01

    开放大学建设过程中,终身教育理念普及。借助日新月异的信息技术,在充分保证教学质量的基础上,为学习者提供多次选择机会,满足个人多样化的学习和发展需要,是开放教育可持续发展的基础。深圳电大在近几年教学模式改革实践中,依托信息技术,提出面授与网上教学一体化设计模式,加强教学过程各环节的管理与监控,有效地解决了学习者需求多样化的问题。%The concept of lifelong education is becoming increasingly prevalent in the construction process of Open University.With the help of information technology, we can provide multiple choices for learners to meet the needs of diverse individual learning and personal development on the base of high quality teaching. That is the the foundation of sustainable development of open education, in recent years, relying on information technology, Shenzhen Open University has effectively solved the problem of the diverse needs of learners with the integrated design model of face-to-face and online tuition, the management and control of each link of teaching process in the teaching reform practice.

  11. Extent, accuracy, and credibility of breastfeeding information on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Ulfat; Scott, Barbara J

    2005-05-01

    Our objective was to test and describe a model for evaluating Websites related to breastfeeding. Forty Websites most likely to be accessed by the public were evaluated for extent, accuracy, credibility, presentation, ease of use, and adherence to ethical and medical Internet publishing standards. Extent and accuracy of Website content were determined by a checklist of critical information. The majority of Websites reviewed provided accurate information and complied with the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. Approximately half the Websites complied with standards of medical Internet publishing. While much information on breastfeeding on the Internet is accurate, there is wide variability in the extent of information, usability of Websites, and compliance with standards of medical Internet publishing. Results of this study may be helpful to health care professionals as a model for evaluating breastfeeding-related Websites and to highlight considerations when recommending or designing Websites.

  12. New Evaluation on the Preoxidation Extent of Different PAN Precursors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangxi ZHANG; Jie LIU; Jieying LIANG

    2004-01-01

    Structural changes in carbon fibers at each stage of, especially, preoxidation process are well known to play a great role in achieving the ultimate product quality. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), density method and optical microscope were used to characterize the preoxidation extent. A conventional pproach, e.g., density aim, to evaluate the extent of preoxidation is not very exact. A DSC curve of a PAN precursor only can provide general information, major in the temperature regime of preoxidation reaction. However,the evaluation of a preoxidation extent, especially from conventional preoxidation temperature with a great span egime of 200~400℃, is put forward in this paper, in which the evolution of core/shell morphological structure is a kind of straightforward evidence.

  13. The 2014 high record of Antarctic sea ice extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, Francois; Guemas, Virginie; Fuckar, Neven; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    In September 2014, Antarctic sea ice extent exceeded the symbolic level of 20 million km²for the first time since 1978, when reliable satellite measurements became available. After the successive records of 2012 and 2013, sea ice extent in 2014 once again reinforced the positive trend observed since the late 1970s. We conduct here a dedicated study to elucidate the origins of a major, and perhaps the most intriguing, event that happened at our Poles recently. Observations, reanalyses and model results all point towards the important role of winds in modifying near-surface heat advection patterns around Antarctica. The role of pre-conditioning (summer conditions) is found to be of lesser importance. Finally, we find no evidence that anomalous freshwater forcing (from atmospheric or continental origin) could have explained the record extent of 2014.

  14. Development and evaluation of a global dynamical wetlands extent scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Stacke

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present the development of the dynamical wetland extent scheme (DWES and evaluate its skill to represent the global wetland distribution. The DWES is a simple, global scale hydrological scheme that solves the water balance of wetlands and estimates their extent dynamically. The extent depends on the balance of water flows in the wetlands and the slope distribution within the grid cells. In contrast to most models, the DWES is not directly calibrated against wetland extent observations. Instead, wetland affected river discharge data are used to optimise global parameters of the model. The DWES is not a complete hydrological model by itself but implemented into the Max Planck Institute – Hydrology Model (MPI-HM. However, it can be transferred into other models as well.

    For present climate, the model evaluation reveals a good agreement for the spatial distribution of simulated wetlands compared to different observations on the global scale. The best results are achieved for the Northern Hemisphere where not only the wetland distribution pattern but also their extent is simulated reasonably well by the DWES. However, the wetland fraction in the tropical parts of South America and Central Africa is strongly overestimated. The simulated extent dynamics correlate well with monthly inundation variations obtained from satellites for most locations. Also, the simulated river discharge is affected by wetlands resulting in a delay and mitigation of peak flows. Compared to simulations without wetlands, we find locally increased evaporation and decreased river flow into the oceans due to the implemented wetland processes.

    In summary, the evaluation demonstrates the DWES' ability to simulate the distribution of wetlands and their seasonal variations for most regions. Thus, the DWES can provide hydrological boundary conditions for wetland related studies. In future applications, the DWES may be implemented into an Earth

  15. The extent of emphysema in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher Burhan; Stavngaard, Trine; Hestad, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The global initiative for COPD (GOLD) adopted the degree of airway obstruction as a measure of the severity of the disease. The objective of this study was to apply CT to assess the extent of emphysema in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and relate...... this extent to the GOLD stage of airway obstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 209 patients with COPD. COPD was defined as FEV(1)/FVC or=20 pack-years. Patients were assessed by lung function...... increases with increasing severity of COPD and most patients with COPD have emphysema. Tissue destruction by emphysema is therefore an important determinant of disease severity in COPD....

  16. Real-time flood extent maps based on social media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Roskam, Ruud; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2015-04-01

    During a flood event it is often difficult to get accurate information about the flood extent and the people affected. This information is very important for disaster risk reduction management and crisis relief organizations. In the post flood phase, information about the flood extent is needed for damage estimation and calibrating hydrodynamic models. Currently, flood extent maps are derived from a few sources such as satellite images, areal images and post-flooding flood marks. However, getting accurate real-time or maximum flood extent maps remains difficult. With the rise of social media, we now have a new source of information with large numbers of observations. In the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, the intensity of unique flood related tweets during a flood event, peaked at 8 tweets per second during floods in early 2014. A fair amount of these tweets also contains observations of water depth and location. Our hypothesis is that based on the large numbers of tweets it is possible to generate real-time flood extent maps. In this study we use tweets from the city of Jakarta, Indonesia, to generate these flood extent maps. The data-mining procedure looks for tweets with a mention of 'banjir', the Bahasa Indonesia word for flood. It then removes modified and retweeted messages in order to keep unique tweets only. Since tweets are not always sent directly from the location of observation, the geotag in the tweets is unreliable. We therefore extract location information using mentions of names of neighborhoods and points of interest. Finally, where encountered, a mention of a length measure is extracted as water depth. These tweets containing a location reference and a water level are considered to be flood observations. The strength of this method is that it can easily be extended to other regions and languages. Based on the intensity of tweets in Jakarta during a flood event we can provide a rough estimate of the flood extent. To provide more accurate flood extend

  17. Práticas de responsabilidade socioambiental nas empresas de capital aberto de Santa Catarina listadas na BM&FBOVESPA = Social responsibility practices in open capital companies from Santa Catarina listed on BM&FBOVESPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Di Domenico

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem como objetivo identificar as práticas de ações de responsabilidade social corporativa das sociedades anônimas de capital aberto de Santa Catarina listadas na BM&FBovespa. A justificativa da pesquisa está atrelada à influência da evidenciação dessas informações para os investidores, pesquisadores e usuários das informações ambientais. Quanto aos procedimentos metodológicos o estudo caracteriza-se como exploratório quanto aos objetivos, documental em relação aos procedimentos e a abordagem do problema é predominantemente qualitativa. As empresas que fazem parte da amostra são: BRF S.A., BUETTNER S.A., CASAN, KARSTEN S.A e WEG S.A. Foram várias as práticas de responsabilidade social e ambiental evidenciadas, mas se pode identificar que todas têm como objetivo divulgar a empresa, além do objetivo principal da ação realizada. É possível destacar as principais práticas como sendo as ações e cuidados para o consumo consciente da água e energia, usando fontes que não sejam prejudiciais ao meio ambiente. Outra ação em destaque é o cuidado com a destinação dos resíduos sólidos e líquidos, gerados nos processos operacionais das empresas. A preocupação com a poluição da atmosfera também é evidente, por ser um dos principais problemas ambientais na atualidade.This article aims at identifying the practices of corporate social responsibility of corporations with open capital of Santa Catarina listed BM&FBovespa. The justification of this research is related to the influence of the disclosure of information for the investors, researchers and users of environmental information. In the methodological procedures, the study is characterized as exploratory as its goals, documental regarding the procedures and its approach to the problem is predominantly qualitative. The companies included in the sample are: BRF SA, BUETTNER SA, CASAN, KARSTEN SA and WEG SA. There were several social and environmental

  18. An Open Data Platform For Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, G. S.; Hodson, S.

    2016-12-01

    The International Council for Science's Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) is collaborating with the South African Department of Science and Technology and other African regional players to create an African Open Data Platform, to be launched in December 2016. Its purpose is to coordinate and support moves in Africa to develop national science systems capacities (political, institutional, individual) that will enable them to exploit the opportunities of the digital revolution for scientific discovery, in reducing costs and increasing efficiency in business and public administration, and in new and powerful ways of addressing issues such as agricultural productivity, disease tracking and control, the production of bio-fuels, and in addressing many global problems where global solutions will only be achieved if there is global participation. Success in avoiding yet another "knowledge divide" between rich and poor depends fundamentally on the extent to which national systems of scientific priority setting, funding and institutional research management respond in a concerted way to the challenge. Although many countries are now addressing these opportunities, it is essential that developing and least developed countries, which have much to gain from the data revolution but which typically have poorly resourced national research systems, do not fail to respond to this imperative, which is also vital for the attainment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The Platform will be a basis for political commitment and innovative policy developmen, including shared investment in infrastructure. It will harvest and circulate good ideas, spread and support good practice and develop the capacities of individuals and institutions. It will promote key applications of relevance to African economies and societies, but also act as a conduit for links with international open data programmes and standards that will be vital if it is to flourish.

  19. The Open School. An Annotated Bibliography. Current Bibliography No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, Ilze, Comp.

    In 1970, the OISE library published an annotated bibliography entitled, Open Plan (See ED 051 549), that covered the design of open plan schools and the educational practices connected with these facilities. Since then, a clearer distinction has developed between the terms "open plan" and "open education." This revision of the earlier volume…

  20. Opening Reproducible Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nüst, Daniel; Konkol, Markus; Pebesma, Edzer; Kray, Christian; Klötgen, Stephanie; Schutzeichel, Marc; Lorenz, Jörg; Przibytzin, Holger; Kussmann, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    reproduce the original research and hence recreate the original research results (figures, tables), but also facilitates interaction with them as well as their recombination with new data or methods. Building on existing open standards and software, this project develops standards and tools for ERCs, and will demonstrate and evaluate these, focusing on the geosciences domains. The project goes beyond a technical solution for ERCs by evaluating the system from the perspectives of geoscience researchers as participants in a scientific publication process. It will focus on the statistical environment R, but also evaluate larger run time systems captured in virtual environments (Docker containers). ERCs are built upon and integrate well with both established day-to-day workflows of digital research and the scientific publication process. They make research accessible on different levels at any stage to anyone via open web platforms. Other scientists can transfer a compendium of software and tools to their own local environment and collaborate, while others make minimal changes and compare changed results in a web browser. Building on recent advances in mainstream IT, ORR envisions a new architecture for storing, executing and interacting with the original analysis environment alongside the corresponding research data and text. ORR bridges the gap between long-term archives, practical geoscience researchers, as well as publication media. Consequently, the project team seeks input and feedback from researchers working with geospatial data to ensure usable and useful open access publications as well as a publication process that minimizes effort while maximizing usability and re-usability. {References} Pebesma, E., D. Nüst, R. Bivand, 2012. The R software environment in reproducible geoscientific research. Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union 93, vol 16, p. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2012EO160003{163-164}. Opening Reproducible Research project description and website

  1. Open Access for International Criminal Lawyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laer, Coen

    This study investigates to what extent Open Access is useful for international criminal lawyers. Free reuse and distribution may be particularly advantageous for the audience in less resourceful countries. And individual authors need visibility to promote their academic reputation. However, many

  2. Open Access for International Criminal Lawyers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laer, Coen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates to what extent Open Access is useful for international criminal lawyers. Free reuse and distribution may be particularly advantageous for the audience in less resourceful countries. And individual authors need visibility to promote their academic reputation. However, many pub

  3. 15 CFR 930.32 - Consistent to the maximum extent practicable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... context of the discretionary powers residing in such agencies. Accordingly, whenever legally permissible... may deviate from full consistency with an approved management program when such deviation is justified... program. Any deviation shall be the minimum necessary to address the exigent circumstance....

  4. Tocilizumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis and inadequate response to disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors: subanalysis of Spanish results of an open-label study close to clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro-Gracia, José M; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; García-López, Alicia; Guzmán, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco J; Navarro, Francisco J; Bustabad, Sagrario; Armendáriz, Yolanda; Román-Ivorra, José A

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the Spanish experience in an international study which evaluated tocilizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and an inadequate response to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFis) in a clinical practice setting. Subanalysis of 170 patients with RA from Spain who participated in a phase IIIb, open-label, international clinical trial. Patients presented inadequate response to DMARDs or TNFis. They received 8mg/kg of tocilizumab every 4 weeks in combination with a DMARD or as monotherapy during 20 weeks. Safety and efficacy of tocilizumab were analyzed. Special emphasis was placed on differences between failure to a DMARD or to a TNFi and the need to switch to tocilizumab with or without a washout period in patients who had previously received TNFi. The most common adverse events were infections (25%), increased total cholesterol (38%) and transaminases (15%). Five patients discontinued the study due to an adverse event. After six months of tocilizumab treatment, 71/50/30% of patients had ACR 20/50/70 responses, respectively. A higher proportion of TNFi-naive patients presented an ACR20 response: 76% compared to 64% in the TNFi group with previous washout and 66% in the TNFi group without previous washout. Safety results were consistent with previous results in patients with RA and an inadequate response to DMARDs or TNFis. Tocilizumab is more effective in patients who did not respond to conventional DMARDs than in patients who did not respond to TNFis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. 45 CFR 400.202 - Extent of Federal funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extent of Federal funding. 400.202 Section 400.202... CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Federal Funding Federal Funding for Expenditures for Determining Eligibility and Providing Assistance and Services §...

  6. Spatial flood extent modelling. A performance based comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, M.G.F.

    2004-01-01

    The rapid development of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has together with the inherent spatial nature of hydrological modelling led to an equally rapid development in the integration between GIS and hydrological models. The advantages of integration are particularly apparent in flood extent

  7. The Extent and Nature of Bullying in a Christian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Brian C.; Hernandez, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Bullying is a problem that has been studied in schools worldwide, but there is little research on bullying within Christian schools, a dearth which may stem from the assumption that Christian schools teach character traits that are inimical to bullying. Yet understanding the extent and nature of bullying in Christian schools may lead to a better…

  8. 29 CFR 1975.3 - Extent of coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) COVERAGE OF EMPLOYERS UNDER THE WILLIAMS-STEIGER OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT OF 1970 § 1975.3 Extent of coverage. (a) Section 2(b) of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act (Public Law... exercise of its powers to regulate commerce among the several States and with foreign nations and...

  9. 40 CFR 35.3015 - Extent of State responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... required before and after grant award and to perform all construction grant review and management... of waste treatment construction grant projects for small communities. The State, with the approval of... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Construction Grants Program Delegation to States § 35.3015 Extent...

  10. To What Extent Do Gestalt Grouping Principles Influence Tactile Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Since their formulation by the Gestalt movement more than a century ago, the principles of perceptual grouping have primarily been investigated in the visual modality and, to a lesser extent, in the auditory modality. The present review addresses the question of whether the same grouping principles also affect the perception of tactile stimuli.…

  11. Spatial extent in demographic research - approach and problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the starting methodological problems in demographic research is the definition of spatial extent, which mostly doesn’t correspond to spatial extent already defined by different levels of administrative-territorial unitsthat are used for distribution of usable statistical data. That’s why determining the spatial extent of a demographic research is closely tied with administrative-territorial division of the territory that is being researched, wherein the fact that differentiation of demographic phenomena and processes cannot be the only basis of setting the principles of regionalization must be strictly acknowledged. This problem is particularly common in historical demographic analyses of geographically determined wholes, which are in administratively-territorial sense represented by one or more smaller territorial units, with their borders changing through the history, which directly affects comparability of the statistical data, and makes it considerably more difficult to track demographic change through longer time intervals. The result of these efforts is usually a solution based on a compromise which enables us to examine the dynamics of population change with little deviation from already defined borders of regional geographic wholes. For that reason in this paper the problem of defining spatial extent in demographic research is examined trough several different approaches in case of Eastern Serbia, as a geographically determined region, a historic area, a spatially functioning whole and as a statistical unit for demographic research, with no judgment calls in regard to any of the regionalization principles. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 47006

  12. Current extent and stratification of agroforestry in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Herder, Michael; Moreno, Gerardo; Mosquera-Losada, Rosa M.

    2017-01-01

    An accurate and objective estimate on the extent of agroforestry in Europe is critical for the development of supporting policies. For this reason, a more harmonised and uniform Pan-European estimate is needed. The aim of this study was to quantify and map the distribution of agroforestry in the ...

  13. The Extent and Nature of Bullying in a Christian School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeltine, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Bullying is a problem that has been studied in schools worldwide, but there is little research on bullying within Christian schools, a dearth which may stem from the assumption that Christian schools teach character traits that are inimical to bullying. Yet understanding the extent and nature of bullying in Christian schools may lead to a better…

  14. To What Extent Do Gestalt Grouping Principles Influence Tactile Perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Since their formulation by the Gestalt movement more than a century ago, the principles of perceptual grouping have primarily been investigated in the visual modality and, to a lesser extent, in the auditory modality. The present review addresses the question of whether the same grouping principles also affect the perception of tactile stimuli.…

  15. A global dataset of the extent of irrigated land from 1900 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siebert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation intensifies land use by increasing crop yield but also impacts water resources. It affects water and energy balances and consequently the microclimate in irrigated regions. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of irrigated land is important for hydrological and crop modelling, global change research, and assessments of resource use and management. Information on the historical evolution of irrigated lands is limited. The new global Historical Irrigation Dataset (HID provides estimates of the temporal development of the area equipped for irrigation (AEI between 1900 and 2005 at 5 arc-minute resolution. We collected subnational irrigation statistics from various sources and found that the global extent of AEI increased from 63 million ha (Mha in 1900 to 112 Mha in 1950 and 306 Mha in 2005. We developed eight gridded versions of time series of AEI by combining subnational irrigation statistics with different data sets on the historical extent of cropland and pasture. Different rules were applied to maximize consistency of the gridded products to subnational irrigation statistics or to historical cropland and pasture data sets. The HID reflects very well the spatial patterns of irrigated land in the western United States as shown on historical maps. Mean aridity on irrigated land increased and river discharge decreased from 1900–1950 whereas aridity decreased from 1950–2005. The dataset and its documentation are made available in an open data repository at https://mygeohub.org/publications/8 (doi:10.13019/M2MW2G.

  16. Perilous terra incognita--open-access journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2014-04-01

    The author focuses on a new rapidly spreading practice of publication in open-access journals. The pros and cons of open-access journals are discussed. Publishing in these journals may be cost prohibitive for educators and junior faculty members. Some authors may be lured by the ease of publishing in open-access journals (and their, at times, inflated self-description, e.g., "international", "scientific"), and their possibly valuable contributions will escape the attention of Academic Psychiatry readership in the vast sea of open-access journals. The readership may be flooded with a large number of low-quality articles (maybe not even properly peer-reviewed) from open-access journals. It may take some time to sort out what is and what is not relevant and useful. Open-access publishing represents a problematic and controversial practice and may be associated with a conflict of interest for the editors and publishers of these journals.

  17. Teaching citizens: the role of open classroom climate in fostering critical consciousness among youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Erin B; Grayman, Justina Kamiel

    2014-11-01

    Building on previous research on critical consciousness and civic development among youth, the current study examined the extent to which an open climate for discussion-one in which controversial issues are openly discussed with respect for all opinions-relates to youth's critical consciousness and whether this association differs for youth from racial/ethnic majority versus minority backgrounds. Critical consciousness consisted of three components: the ability to critically read social conditions (critical reflection), feelings of efficacy to effect change (sociopolitical efficacy) and actual participation in these efforts (critical action), in both the educational and political/community domains. Open classroom climate was operationalized at the classroom rather than individual student level to more accurately draw links to educational policy and practice. Multilevel analyses of the 1999 IEA Civic Education Study, a nationally-representative sample of 2,774 US ninth-graders (50 % female; 58 % white), revealed that an open classroom climate predicted some, but not all, components of critical consciousness. Specifically, open classroom climate was positively related to sociopolitical efficacy in both the educational and political domains and to critical action in the community domain, but was not related to critical reflection. Few differences in these associations were found for youth from racial/ethnic majority versus minority backgrounds. The exception was sociopolitical efficacy in the educational domain: open classroom climate was particularly predictive of sociopolitical efficacy for minority youth. The findings are discussed in regard to previous research on open classroom climate and youth critical consciousness; and implications for future research and educational practice are drawn.

  18. Open access semantic aware business intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Moral, Óscar; Abelló Gamazo, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The vision of an interconnected and open Web of data is, still, a chimera far from being accomplished. Fortunately, though, one can find several evidences in this direction and despite the technical challenges behind such approach recent advances have shown its feasibility. Semantic-aware formalisms (such as RDF and ontology languages) have been successfully put in practice in approaches such as Linked Data, whereas movements like Open Data have stressed the need of a new open access paradigm...

  19. Open source innovation phenomenon, participant behaviour, impact

    CERN Document Server

    Herstatt, Cornelius

    2015-01-01

    Open Source Innovation (OSI) has gained considerable momentum within the last years. Academic and management practice interest grows as more and more end-users consider and even participate in Open Source product development like Linux, Android, or Wikipedia. Open Source Innovation: Phenomenon, Participant Behaviour, Impact brings together rigorous academic research and business importance in scrutinizing OCI from three perspectives: The Phenomenon, Participants' Behavior, and Business Implications. The first section introduces OCI artefacts, including who is participating and why, and provide

  20. Open Praxis, volume 9 issue 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Gil-Jaurena (ed., various authors

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For a fourth consecutive year Open Praxis has partnered with the Open Education Consortium for the publication of selected papers among those presented in the 2017 Open Education Global Conference (Cape Town, South Africa, 8-10 March, 2017. After the peer-review process 7 papers were accepted for publication. Additionaly, this issue includes 3 innovative practice papers.

  1. OpenSceneGraph 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    This is a cookbook full of recipes with practical examples enriched with code and the required screenshots for easy and quick comprehension. You should be familiar with the basic concepts of the OpenSceneGraph API and should be able to write simple programs. Some OpenGL and math knowledge will help a lot, too.

  2. Inflation on an Open Racetrack

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Heng-Yu; Shiu, Gary

    2009-01-01

    We present a variant of warped D-brane inflation by incorporating multiple sets of holomorphically-embedded D7-branes involved in moduli stabilization with extent into a warped throat. The resultant D3-brane motion depends on the D7-brane configuration and the relative position of the D3-brane in these backgrounds. The non-perturbative moduli stabilization superpotential takes the racetrack form, but the additional D3-brane open string moduli dependence provides more flexibilities in model building. For concreteness, we consider D3-brane motion in the warped deformed conifold with the presence of multiple D7-branes, and derive the scalar potential valid for the entire throat. By explicit tuning of the microphysical parameters, we obtain inflationary trajectories near an inflection point for various D7-brane configurations. Moreover, the open racetrack potential admits approximate Minkowski vacua before uplifting. We demonstrate with a concrete D-brane inflation model where the Hubble scale during inflation ca...

  3. Sandia OpenSHMEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-15

    Sandia OpenSHMEM is an implementation of the OpenSHMEM Standard over the Portals 4 Networking API and the OpenFabrics Interface (OFI). Sandia OpenSHMEM is designed to be a low-overhead implementation of the OpenSHMEM standard which takes advantage of the many features of the Portals 4 specification.

  4. Open access, open education resources and open data in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvo, Ivana Di; Mwoka, Meggie; Kwaga, Teddy; Rukundo, Priscilla Aceng; Ernest, Dennis Ssesanga; Osaheni, Louis Aikoriogie; John, Kasibante; Shafik, Kasirye; de Sousa, Agostinho Moreira

    2015-01-01

    As a follow up to OpenCon 2014, International Federation of Medical Students' Associations (IFMSA) students organized a 3 day workshop Open Access, Open Education Resources and Open Data in Kampala from 15-18 December 2014. One of the aims of the workshop was to engage the Open Access movement in Uganda which encompasses the scientific community, librarians, academia, researchers and students. The IFMSA students held the workshop with the support of: Consortium for Uganda University Libraries (CUUL), The Right to Research Coalition, Electronic Information for Libraries (EIFL), Makerere University, International Health Sciences University (IHSU), Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) and the Centre for Health Human Rights and Development (CEHURD). All these organizations are based or have offices in Kampala. The event culminated in a meeting with the Science and Technology Committee of Parliament of Uganda in order to receive the support of the Ugandan Members of Parliament and to make a concrete change for Open Access in the country.

  5. Instant OpenCV starter

    CERN Document Server

    Dalal, Jayneil

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks.A practical, quick, and hands-on guide for Python developers and hobbyists who want to get started with computer vision with OpenCV.This book is great for developers, hobbyists, and students new to computer vision who are looking to get a good grounding in how to use the OpenCV library. It's assumed that you will have some basic experience in C/C++ programming.

  6. Challenges of open access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas, J.

    1994-09-01

    As utilities provide open access to their transmission grids under new federal regulations, the volume of bulk power transactions is expected to rise sharply - putting a strain on already heavily loaded delivery systems. Can everybody ride a grid that was designed to be operated in a simpler business environment New EPRI software and analysis methods can help utilities cope with the practical problems that open access brings, such as accurately calculating the costs of providing transmission services to third parties and operating power systems closer to their inherent technical limits. A variety of power system analysis programs are already available for planning purposes, and on-line versions for use by operations personnel are beginning to enter utility demonstration. In addition, new resource scheduling and generation control software can help utilities reduce the total cost of electricity production by up to 3%. A decision framework has also been prepared that a utility can use to integrate technical information about its power system with overall corporate strategy.

  7. The spatial extent of the effect of foreclosures on crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Seth B; Stucky, Thomas D; Ottensmann, John R

    2015-01-01

    Although neighborhood stability has long been considered a substantial determinant of crime, foreclosures have not been the subject of concerted research among criminologists until recently. A number of recent studies have examined the linkage between home foreclosures and crime. Though generally finding a significant relationship, studies have used different approaches and units of analysis. This variation led us to examine the spatial extent to which foreclosures affect a relatively small surrounding area. In this paper, we consider the spatial extent of the foreclosure effect on crime by estimating fixed effect negative binomial models using geocoded UCR data for 2003-2008 and foreclosure data to predict crime counts using the number of foreclosures within various small area radii. Results show that, independently and jointly, foreclosures are a predictor of crime up to at least a distance of 2250 feet. Importantly, that effect declines with distance. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of those findings.

  8. Structural group auditing of a UMLS semantic type's extent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Gu, Huanying Helen; Perl, Yehoshua; Geller, James; Halper, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Each UMLS concept is assigned one or more of the semantic types (STs) from the Semantic Network. Due to the size and complexity of the UMLS, errors are unavoidable. We present two auditing methodologies for groups of semantically similar concepts. The straightforward procedure starts with the extent of an ST, which is the group of all concepts assigned this ST. We divide the extent into groups of concepts that have been assigned exactly the same set of STs. An algorithm finds subgroups of suspicious concepts. The human auditor is presented with these subgroups, which purportedly exhibit the same semantics, and thus she will notice different concepts with wrong or missing ST assignments. The dynamic procedure detects concepts which become suspicious in the course of the auditing process. Both procedures are applied to two semantic types. The results are compared with a comprehensive manual audit and show a very high error recall with a much higher precision.

  9. Terror And Territory: The Spatial Extent Of Sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José Mendonça

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The text consists of one review of the book Terror and territory: the spatial extent of sovereignty (2009 English geographer Stuart Elden. The work provides an approach of territory as the spatial extent of political sovereignty, which conceives importance to the notion of terror as a fundamental quality of the territory as a form punitive of control executed within the recognized boundaries, through use the monopoly of legitimate violence that state power has. However, the territorial sovereignty that evokes modern state, Elden argues, has become contingent after the terrorist attacks of September 11 (2001, when the USA unleashed a policy of “war on terror”, unilaterally applying the law of international intervention.

  10. Spatial extent of an outbreak in animal epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, Eric; Majumdar, Satya N; Rosso, Alberto; Zoia, Andrea

    2013-03-12

    Characterizing the spatial extent of epidemics at the outbreak stage is key to controlling the evolution of the disease. At the outbreak, the number of infected individuals is typically small, and therefore, fluctuations around their average are important: then, it is commonly assumed that the susceptible-infected-recovered mechanism can be described by a stochastic birth-death process of Galton-Watson type. The displacements of the infected individuals can be modeled by resorting to brownian motion, which is applicable when long-range movements and complex network interactions can be safely neglected, like in the case of animal epidemics. In this context, the spatial extent of an epidemic can be assessed by computing the convex hull enclosing the infected individuals at a given time. We derive the exact evolution equations for the mean perimeter and the mean area of the convex hull, and we compare them with Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Assessing the potential global extent of SWOT river discharge observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelsky, Tamlin M.; Durand, Michael T.; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Beighley, R. Edward; Paiva, Rodrigo C. D.; Allen, George H.; Miller, Zachary F.

    2014-11-01

    Despite its importance as a major element of the global hydrologic cycle, runoff remains poorly constrained except at the largest spatial scales due to limitations of the global stream gauge network and inadequate data sharing. Efforts using remote sensing to infer runoff from discharge estimates are limited by characteristics of present-day sensors. The proposed Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, a joint project between the United States and France, aims to substantially improve space-based estimates of river discharge. However, the extent of rivers observable by SWOT, likely limited to those wider than 50-100 m, remains unknown. Here, we estimate the extent of SWOT river observability globally using a downstream hydraulic geometry (DHG) approach combining basin areas from the Hydro1k and Hydrosheds elevation products, discharge from the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), and width estimates from a global width-discharge relationship. We do not explicitly consider SWOT-specific errors associated with layover and other phenomena in this analysis, although they have been considered in formulation of the 50-100 m width thresholds. We compare the extent of SWOT-observable rivers with GRDC and USGS gauge datasets, the most complete datasets freely available to the global scientific community. In the continental US, SWOT would match USGS river basin coverage only at large scales (>25,000 km2). Globally, SWOT would substantially improve on GRDC observation extent: SWOT observation of 100 m (50 m) rivers will allow discharge estimation in >60% of 50,000 km2 (10,000 km2) river basins. In contrast, the GRDC observes fewer than 30% (15%) of these basins. SWOT could improve characterization of global runoff processes, especially with a 50 m observability threshold, but in situ gauge data remains essential and must be shared more freely with the international scientific community.

  12. The extent of strangeness equilibration in quark gluon plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dipali Pal; Abhijit Sen; Munshi Golam Mustafa; Dinesh Kumar Srivastava

    2003-05-01

    The evolution and production of strangeness from chemically equilibrating and transversely expanding quark gluon plasma which may be formed in the wake of relativistic heavy-ion collisions is studied with initial conditions obtained from the self screened parton cascade (SSPC) model. The extent of partonic equilibration increases almost linearly with the square of the initial energy density, which can then be scaled with the number of participants.

  13. The Extent of Students’ Initiation of Ideas in The Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Oranu Philomena Chika

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify the extent of students’ initiation of ideas in the classroom using three classroom interaction techniques. All senior secondary schools in Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria constituted the population. One research question guided the study. One hypothesis was tested and analysed using chi square statistics. The population is made up of 10,983 students 496 teachers. The sample is made up of 1098 students and 12 teachers. SS1 and SS11 stude...

  14. Extent of pyrolysis impacts on fast pyrolysis biochar properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Catherine E; Hu, Yan-Yan; Schmidt-Rohr, Klaus; Loynachan, Thomas E; Laird, David A; Brown, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A potential concern about the use of fast pyrolysis rather than slow pyrolysis biochars as soil amendments is that they may contain high levels of bioavailable C due to short particle residence times in the reactors, which could reduce the stability of biochar C and cause nutrient immobilization in soils. To investigate this concern, three corn ( L.) stover fast pyrolysis biochars prepared using different reactor conditions were chemically and physically characterized to determine their extent of pyrolysis. These biochars were also incubated in soil to assess their impact on soil CO emissions, nutrient availability, microorganism population growth, and water retention capacity. Elemental analysis and quantitative solid-state C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed variation in O functional groups (associated primarily with carbohydrates) and aromatic C, which could be used to define extent of pyrolysis. A 24-wk incubation performed using a sandy soil amended with 0.5 wt% of corn stover biochar showed a small but significant decrease in soil CO emissions and a decrease in the bacteria:fungi ratios with extent of pyrolysis. Relative to the control soil, biochar-amended soils had small increases in CO emissions and extractable nutrients, but similar microorganism populations, extractable NO levels, and water retention capacities. Corn stover amendments, by contrast, significantly increased soil CO emissions and microbial populations, and reduced extractable NO. These results indicate that C in fast pyrolysis biochar is stable in soil environments and will not appreciably contribute to nutrient immobilization.

  15. Regional Mapping of Plantation Extent Using Multisensor Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torbick, N.; Ledoux, L.; Hagen, S.; Salas, W.

    2016-12-01

    Industrial forest plantations are expanding rapidly across the tropics and monitoring extent is critical for understanding environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In this study, new, multisensor imagery were evaluated and integrated to extract the strengths of each sensor for mapping plantation extent at regional scales. Three distinctly different landscapes with multiple plantation types were chosen to consider scalability and transferability. These were Tanintharyi, Myanmar, West Kalimantan, Indonesia, and southern Ghana. Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar-2 (PALSAR-2), and Sentinel-1A images were fused within a Classification and Regression Tree (CART) framework using random forest and high-resolution surveys. Multi-criteria evaluations showed both L-and C-band gamma nought γ° backscatter decibel (dB), Landsat reflectance ρλ, and texture indices were useful for distinguishing oil palm and rubber plantations from other land types. The classification approach identified 750,822 ha or 23% of the Taninathryi, Myanmar, and 216,086 ha or 25% of western West Kalimantan as plantation with very high cross validation accuracy. The mapping approach was scalable and transferred well across the different geographies and plantation types. As archives for Sentinel-1, Landsat-8, and PALSAR-2 continue to grow, mapping plantation extent and dynamics at moderate resolution over large regions should be feasible.

  16. Exploring the Origin, Extent, and Future of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertka, Constance M.

    2009-09-01

    1. Astrobiology in societal context Constance Bertka; Part I. Origin of Life: 2. Emergence and the experimental pursuit of the origin of life Robert Hazen; 3. From Aristotle to Darwin, to Freeman Dyson: changing definitions of life viewed in historical context James Strick; 4. Philosophical aspects of the origin-of-life problem: the emergence of life and the nature of science Iris Fry; 5. The origin of terrestrial life: a Christian perspective Ernan McMullin; 6. The alpha and the omega: reflections on the origin and future of life from the perspective of Christian theology and ethics Celia Deane-Drummond; Part II. Extent of Life: 7. A biologist's guide to the Solar System Lynn Rothschild; 8. The quest for habitable worlds and life beyond the Solar System Carl Pilcher; 9. A historical perspective on the extent and search for life Steven J. Dick; 10. The search for extraterrestrial life: epistemology, ethics, and worldviews Mark Lupisella; 11. The implications of discovering extraterrestrial life: different searches, different issues Margaret S. Race; 12. God, evolution, and astrobiology Cynthia S. W. Crysdale; Part III. Future of Life: 13. Planetary ecosynthesis on Mars: restoration ecology and environmental ethics Christopher P. McKay; 14. The trouble with intrinsic value: an ethical primer for astrobiology Kelly C. Smith; 15. God's preferential option for life: a Christian perspective on astrobiology Richard O. Randolph; 16. Comparing stories about the origin, extent, and future of life: an Asian religious perspective Francisca Cho; Index.

  17. Estimating the extent of vaccine-derived poliovirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Wringe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eight outbreaks of paralytic polio attributable to circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV have highlighted the risks associated with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV use in areas of low vaccination coverage and poor hygiene. As the Polio Eradication Initiative enters its final stages, it is important to consider the extent to which these viruses spread under different conditions, so that appropriate strategies can be devised to prevent or respond to future cVDPV outbreaks. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This paper examines epidemiological (temporal, geographic, age, vaccine history, social group, ascertainment, and virological (type, genetic diversity, virulence parameters in order to infer the numbers of individuals likely to have been infected in each of these cVDPV outbreaks, and in association with single acute flaccid paralysis (AFP cases attributable to VDPVs. Although only 114 virologically-confirmed paralytic cases were identified in the eight cVDPV outbreaks, it is likely that a minimum of hundreds of thousands, and more likely several million individuals were infected during these events, and that many thousands more have been infected by VDPV lineages within outbreaks which have escaped detection. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates of the extent of cVDPV circulation suggest widespread transmission in some countries, as might be expected from endemic wild poliovirus transmission in these same settings. These methods for inferring extent of infection will be useful in the context of identifying future surveillance needs, planning for OPV cessation and preparing outbreak response plans.

  18. Probabilistic flood extent estimates from social media flood observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Tom; Eilander, Dirk; van Loenen, Arnejan; Booij, Martijn J.; Wijnberg, Kathelijne M.; Verkade, Jan S.; Wagemaker, Jurjen

    2017-05-01

    The increasing number and severity of floods, driven by phenomena such as urbanization, deforestation, subsidence and climate change, create a growing need for accurate and timely flood maps. In this paper we present and evaluate a method to create deterministic and probabilistic flood maps from Twitter messages that mention locations of flooding. A deterministic flood map created for the December 2015 flood in the city of York (UK) showed good performance (F(2) = 0.69; a statistic ranging from 0 to 1, with 1 expressing a perfect fit with validation data). The probabilistic flood maps we created showed that, in the York case study, the uncertainty in flood extent was mainly induced by errors in the precise locations of flood observations as derived from Twitter data. Errors in the terrain elevation data or in the parameters of the applied algorithm contributed less to flood extent uncertainty. Although these maps tended to overestimate the actual probability of flooding, they gave a reasonable representation of flood extent uncertainty in the area. This study illustrates that inherently uncertain data from social media can be used to derive information about flooding.

  19. Open heart surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart surgery - open ... lung machine is used in most cases during open heart surgery. While the surgeon works on the ... with these procedures, the surgeon may have to open the chest to do the surgery.

  20. Open development networked innovations in international development

    CERN Document Server

    Reilly, Katherine M A

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of open networked models made possible by digital technology has the potential to transform international development. Open network structures allow people to come together to share information, organize, and collaborate. Open development harnesses this power, to create new organizational forms and improve people's lives; it is not only an agenda for research and practice but also a statement about how to approach international development. In this volume, experts explore a variety of applications of openness, addressing challenges as well as opportunities. Open development requires new theoretical tools that focus on real world problems, consider a variety of solutions, and recognize the complexity of local contexts. After exploring the new theoretical terrain, the book describes a range of cases in which open models address such specific development issues as biotechnology research, improving education, and access to scholarly publications. Contributors then examine tensions between open model...

  1. The open library and its enemies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the age of electronics an open society – one in which questions can be asked, where critical thinking is not just permitted but encouraged and where investigation rather than ideology is used to seek out the truth about the world (the open society according to Karl Popper – has also to be an open data society because reusable, structured data has become the main machine for doing the heavy lifting of moving knowledge around, just as books move ideas around. An open library is one that embodies the Open Definition in its working practices, one that is available and accessible, open to all participants, and which offers services that can be freely shared. Such institutions are pillars of any open data society.

  2. Skillful Spring Forecasts of September Arctic Sea Ice Extent Using Passive Microwave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A. A.; Schroder, D.; Stroeve, J. C.; Markus, Thorsten; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Kurtz, Nathan Timothy; Feltham, D. L.; Flocco, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate skillful spring forecasts of detrended September Arctic sea ice extent using passive microwave observations of sea ice concentration (SIC) and melt onset (MO). We compare these to forecasts produced using data from a sophisticated melt pond model, and find similar to higher skill values, where the forecast skill is calculated relative to linear trend persistence. The MO forecasts shows the highest skill in March-May, while the SIC forecasts produce the highest skill in June-August, especially when the forecasts are evaluated over recent years (since 2008). The high MO forecast skill in early spring appears to be driven primarily by the presence and timing of open water anomalies, while the high SIC forecast skill appears to be driven by both open water and surface melt processes. Spatial maps of detrended anomalies highlight the drivers of the different forecasts, and enable us to understand regions of predictive importance. Correctly capturing sea ice state anomalies, along with changes in open water coverage appear to be key processes in skillfully forecasting summer Arctic sea ice.

  3. Apraxia of lid opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jebasingh Y

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Apraxia of lid opening is a condition where patients do not have ptosis but have difficulty in overcoming levator palpebrae inhibition. We report a patient who presented with difficulty in opening eyelids with out diurnal variation, ptosis or blepharospasm. The diagnosis of Apraxia of lid opening is confirmed by electro physiology. The possibility of apraxia of lid opening should be considered in patients who present with difficulty in opening eyes. Various causes of Apraxia of lid opening are discussed.

  4. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  5. The Impact Factor: Implications of Open Access on Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozanick, Sara E.

    2010-01-01

    There has been debate about the extent to which open access affects the quality of scholarly work. At the same time, researchers have begun to look for ways to evaluate the quality of open access publications. Dating back to the growth of citation indexes during the 1960s and 1970s, citation analysis--examining citation statistics--has since been…

  6. DESIGNING AN INTEGRATED OPEN INNOVATION SYSTEM: TOWARDS ORGANIZATIONAL WHOLENESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baka, Vasiliki

    2014-01-01

    that are concurrently acting as corporate websites, internal collaboration spaces, extranets and social media aggregators, actively promotes open innovation in practice. We close with a presentation of six cases that are illustrative of how such a system could be applicable within the open innovation paradigm, namely......, citizen participation, crowdsourcing and open innovation contests, open source innovation, reviews and social media, social enterprises and open teaching....

  7. From Open Access to Open Knowledge Environment:A Study for Digital Collection Development Policy and Practice of University Libraries%从开放获取到开放知识环境——高校图书馆数字馆藏发展政策研究与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓菲; 张婷; 陈蕾

    2015-01-01

    从环境、政策和评价体系等方面分析开放获取的现状和发展趋势,探讨基于数据的科学研究第四范式对数字馆藏发展政策的影响,提出面向开放知识环境的数字馆藏发展核心政策和保障政策.%The article analyses the open access development status based on the facts of open access resources, government open access policies and open access review systems. It discusses that the forth paradigm of science study has influence over the digital collection development policy. It also proposes the core polices and guaranty policies of the digital collection development policy to open knowledge oriented environment.

  8. opportunities and challenges in open distance post- graduate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    The practice of offering postgraduate programs in laboratory-based disciplines within the Open Distance Learning (ODL) context as practiced in UNISA is ..... In institution-initiated alliances too, individual scientists are the key actors while.

  9. Knowledge related activities in open innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedrosa, Alex; Välling, Margus; Boyd, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Theory and practice both have recognised the importance of external knowledge to enhance organisations’ innovation performance. Due to organisations’ growing interest in effectively collaborating with external knowledge sources, research has investigated the importance of firm-external stakeholder...... interaction in open innovation. Despite valuable insights into the importance of the variety of external knowledge sources to enhance (open) innovation, research has overlooked so far that managers’ characteristics and practices are relevant for the absorption of external knowledge in open innovation. Thus...... organisations. Our findings show that the exploration, transformation, and exploitation of external knowledge are associated with a distinct set of managers’ characteristics and practices that capture the dominant pattern of processing external knowledge in open innovation....

  10. FRP strengthening of RC walls with openings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Christian Skodborg; Sas, Gabriel; Täljsten, Björn

    2009-01-01

    Strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) walls with openings using fibre reinforced polymers (FRP) has been experimentally proven to be a viable rehabilitation method. However, very few theoretical investigations are reported. In this paper two methods of analysis are presented. Since openings vary...... in size, the analysis of a strengthened wall can be divided into frame idealization method for large openings, and combined disk and frame analysis for smaller openings. The first method provides an easy to use tool in practical engineering, where the latter describes the principles of a ductile...

  11. Tuning OpenACC loop execution

    KAUST Repository

    Feki, Saber

    2017-01-07

    The purpose of this chapter is to help OpenACC developer who is already familiar with the basic and essential directives to further improve his code performance by adding more descriptive clauses to OpenACC loop constructs. At the end of this chapter the reader will: • Have a better understanding of the purpose of the OpenACC loop construct and its associated clauses illustrated with use cases • Use the acquired knowledge in practice to further improve the performance of OpenACC accelerated codes

  12. Open PHACTS: semantic interoperability for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Antony J; Harland, Lee; Groth, Paul; Pettifer, Stephen; Chichester, Christine; Willighagen, Egon L; Evelo, Chris T; Blomberg, Niklas; Ecker, Gerhard; Goble, Carole; Mons, Barend

    2012-11-01

    Open PHACTS is a public-private partnership between academia, publishers, small and medium sized enterprises and pharmaceutical companies. The goal of the project is to deliver and sustain an 'open pharmacological space' using and enhancing state-of-the-art semantic web standards and technologies. It is focused on practical and robust applications to solve specific questions in drug discovery research. OPS is intended to facilitate improvements in drug discovery in academia and industry and to support open innovation and in-house non-public drug discovery research. This paper lays out the challenges and how the Open PHACTS project is hoping to address these challenges technically and socially.

  13. QQ 平台对开放教育学生思辨能力培养的实证研究%A Study on the Development of Open Education Students’Critical Literacy through the Communities of Practice on QQ Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何培芬; 胡琰

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,a case study is conducted on the development of open education students’critical literacy through the Communities of Practice on QQ platform at a Radio & TV University.Under the theoretical framework of the Communities of Practice,this project explores the ways of integrating QQ platform - an instant messaging system - into Open English 3 Course for open education English teaching,ai-ming at promoting interaction in and off classroom settings,as well as encouraging higher level communication.The results indicate that the teaching mode employed in this study is a sound design.It can inspire students’critical literacy positively provide theoretical and practical ev-idence for the proper engagement of critical literacy practice for open education students’English teaching in other universities.%对某广播电视大学开放教育学生进行了基于 QQ 平台的实践共同体对思辨能力培养的教学研究,以实践共同体理论为基础,探讨了如何结合 QQ 平台改进开放教育英语课堂教学,从而促进课堂英语教学和课外交流,并拓展课内外英语学习的深层内涵。结果显示,本教学模式设计合理,能够对学生的思辨能力的培养产生积极影响,并为其他院校开放教育英语教学中学生思辨能力的培养提供理论和实践的依据。

  14. OpenBook WordPress Plugin: Open Source Access to Bibliographic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Miedema

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OpenBook is a WordPress PHP plugin that implements the Open Library APIs to insert book covers, titles, authors and publishers into web pages. The motive behind the development was to provide an easy alternative to the common practice of linking to Amazon. Open Library was selected as a data source because it is both open source and open data.The plugin is useful for book reviewers, library webmasters, anyone who wants to put book covers and data on their WordPress blog or website. The plugin also allows users to add links to publisher websites, a feature that was considered significant to independent publishers.

  15. Practice changing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on a concrete practice-based study we discuss how such studies can be an important integrated part of critical participatory action research that spur change from inside a professional practice. We also discuss our roles as researchers (and union activists). We see and explore the potential...... in initiating changes within a practice tradition. To make local changes in the practices is to change the world. The majority of practice-based studies are analyzing different kinds of practices, but only few studies have engaged in doing action research in a practice tradition. Our paper explores how practice......-based studies of professions can become of significance means to promote positive changes starting within the practices. In the paper, we will discuss this research strategy and our roles as researchers inspired by Kemmis et al (2014, 2014) and Eikeland & Nicolini (2011). We will draw upon a practice-based case...

  16. The Extent of Students’ Reponses in the Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Oranu Philomena Chika

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to identify the extent of students’ responses in the classroom using three classroom interaction techniques. One research question guided the study. One hypothesis was tested and analysed using chi square statistics. The population is made up of 10,983 students 496 teachers. The sample is made up of 1098 students and 12 teachers. SS1 and SS11 students in three public schools were used for the study. Six classroom were used; three in SS1 and three in SS11 respectively. Six te...

  17. The International Extent and Elasticity of Lifestyle Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia Majbritt

    2008-01-01

    of ways, catering for local broadcasters’ image and target groups, local markets’ competitive conditions, media regulations, and history. This article investigates the international extent of the genre and looks into possible explanations for its Anglophone and Northern European bias. Subsequently...... programming is still produced very differently within this region according to the media systemic conditions of the specific national TV markets and the specific broadcasters and channels in question. As such, the lifestyle genre is indeed tremendously flexible and elastic and can be used in a diverse number...

  18. Spatial Database Management System of China Geological Survey Extent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jianguo; Chen Zhijun; Wang Quanming; Fang Yiping

    2003-01-01

    The spatial database management system of China geological survey extent is a social service system. Its aim is to help the government and the whole social public to expediently use the spatial database, such as querying, indexing, mapping and product outputting. The management system has been developed based on MAPGIS6. x SDK and Visual C++, considering the spatial database contents and structure and the requirements of users. This paper introduces the software structure, the data flow chart and some key techniques of software development.

  19. On the Extent CLT Applied in a College Classroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂红芹

    2010-01-01

    To what content is Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) likely to meet the needs of learners of English in China? It's a question still under debate,under discussion,having generated much interest in this field.By analyzing the development of CLT abroad and home,the comparison of EFL and ESL,the challenges and opportunities we meet in the application of CLT,the extent to which CLT is likely to meet the needs of learners in China is further discussed.

  20. Extent of the Immirzi Ambiguity in Quantum General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mena-Marugán, G A

    2002-01-01

    The Ashtekar-Barbero formulation of general relativity admits a one-parameter family of canonical transformations that preserves the expressions of the Gauss and diffeomorphism constraints. The loop quantization of the connection formalism based on each of these canonical sets leads to different predictions. This phenomenon is called the Immirzi ambiguity. It has been recently argued that this ambiguity could be generalized to the extent of a spatially dependent function, instead of a parameter. This would ruin the predictability of loop quantum gravity. We prove that such expectations are not realized, so that the Immirzi ambiguity introduces exclusively a freedom in the choice of a real number.

  1. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R(2), RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  2. Extent of the Immirzi ambiguity in quantum general relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marugan, Guillermo A Mena [Centro de Fisica Miguel A Catalan, IMAFF, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2002-04-21

    The Ashtekar-Barbero formulation of general relativity admits a one-parameter family of canonical transformations that preserves the expressions of the Gauss and diffeomorphism constraints. The loop quantization of the connection formalism based on each of these canonical sets leads to different predictions. This phenomenon is called the Immirzi ambiguity. It has been recently argued that this ambiguity could be generalized to the extent of a spatially dependent function instead of a parameter. This would ruin the predictability of loop quantum gravity. We prove that such expectations are not realized, so that the Immirzi ambiguity introduces exclusively a freedom in the choice of a real number. (letter to the edit0008.

  3. Detecting the Extent of Eutectoid Transformation in U-10Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaraj, Arun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jana, Saumyadeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McInnis, Colleen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lombardo, Nicholas J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Joshi, Vineet V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sweet, Lucas E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Manandhar, Sandeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lavender, Curt A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-08-31

    During eutectoid transformation of U-10Mo alloy, uniform metastable γ UMo phase is expected to transform to a mixture of α-U and γ’-U2Mo phase. The presence of transformation products in final U-10Mo fuel, especially the α phase is considered detrimental for fuel irradiation performance, so it is critical to accurately evaluate the extent of transformation in the final U-10Mo alloy. This phase transformation can cause a volume change that induces a density change in final alloy. To understand this density and volume change, we developed a theoretical model to calculate the volume expansion and resultant density change of U-10Mo alloy as a function of the extent of eutectoid transformation. Based on the theoretically calculated density change for 0 to 100% transformation, we conclude that an experimental density measurement system will be challenging to employ to reliably detect and quantify the extent of transformation. Subsequently, to assess the ability of various methods to detect the transformation in U-10Mo, we annealed U-10Mo alloy samples at 500°C for various times to achieve in low, medium, and high extent of transformation. After the heat treatment at 500°C, the samples were metallographically polished and subjected to optical microscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Based on our assessment, optical microscopy and image processing can be used to determine the transformed area fraction, which can then be correlated with the α phase volume fraction measured by XRD analysis. XRD analysis of U-10Mo aged at 500°C detected only α phase and no γ’ was detected. To further validate the XRD results, atom probe tomography (APT) was used to understand the composition of transformed regions in U-10Mo alloys aged at 500°C for 10 hours. Based on the APT results, the lamellar transformation product was found to comprise α phase with close to 0 at% Mo and γ phase with 28–32 at% Mo, and the Mo concentration was highest at the

  4. Integrating remotely sensed surface water extent into continental scale hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revilla-Romero, Beatriz; Wanders, Niko; Burek, Peter; Salamon, Peter; de Roo, Ad

    2016-12-01

    In hydrological forecasting, data assimilation techniques are employed to improve estimates of initial conditions to update incorrect model states with observational data. However, the limited availability of continuous and up-to-date ground streamflow data is one of the main constraints for large-scale flood forecasting models. This is the first study that assess the impact of assimilating daily remotely sensed surface water extent at a 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution derived from the Global Flood Detection System (GFDS) into a global rainfall-runoff including large ungauged areas at the continental spatial scale in Africa and South America. Surface water extent is observed using a range of passive microwave remote sensors. The methodology uses the brightness temperature as water bodies have a lower emissivity. In a time series, the satellite signal is expected to vary with changes in water surface, and anomalies can be correlated with flood events. The Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) is a Monte-Carlo implementation of data assimilation and used here by applying random sampling perturbations to the precipitation inputs to account for uncertainty obtaining ensemble streamflow simulations from the LISFLOOD model. Results of the updated streamflow simulation are compared to baseline simulations, without assimilation of the satellite-derived surface water extent. Validation is done in over 100 in situ river gauges using daily streamflow observations in the African and South American continent over a one year period. Some of the more commonly used metrics in hydrology were calculated: KGE', NSE, PBIAS%, R2, RMSE, and VE. Results show that, for example, NSE score improved on 61 out of 101 stations obtaining significant improvements in both the timing and volume of the flow peaks. Whereas the validation at gauges located in lowland jungle obtained poorest performance mainly due to the closed forest influence on the satellite signal retrieval. The conclusion is that

  5. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  6. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources

  7. JISC Open Access Briefing Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, Alma

    2005-01-01

    What Open Access is. What Open Access is not. How is Open Access provided? Open Access archives or repositories. Open Access journals. Why should authors provide Open Access to their work? Further information and resources

  8. OpenGL Insights

    CERN Document Server

    Cozzi, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Get Real-World Insight from Experienced Professionals in the OpenGL Community With OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL, real-time rendering is becoming available everywhere, from AAA games to mobile phones to web pages. Assembling contributions from experienced developers, vendors, researchers, and educators, OpenGL Insights presents real-world techniques for intermediate and advanced OpenGL, OpenGL ES, and WebGL developers. Go Beyond the Basics The book thoroughly covers a range of topics, including OpenGL 4.2 and recent extensions. It explains how to optimize for mobile devices, explores the design

  9. Typical magnitude and spatial extent of crowding in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyberg, Jan; Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced spatial processing of local visual details has been reported in individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC), and crowding is postulated to be a mechanism that may produce this ability. However, evidence for atypical crowding in ASC is mixed, with some studies reporting a complete lack of crowding in autism and others reporting a typical magnitude of crowding between individuals with and without ASC. Here, we aim to disambiguate these conflicting results by testing both the magnitude and the spatial extent of crowding in individuals with ASC (N = 25) and age- and IQ-matched controls (N = 23) during an orientation discrimination task. We find a strong crowding effect in individuals with and without ASC, which falls off as the distance between target and flanker is increased. Both the magnitude and the spatial range of this effect were comparable between individuals with and without ASC. We also find typical (uncrowded) orientation discrimination thresholds in individuals with ASC. These findings suggest that the spatial extent of crowding is unremarkable in ASC, and is therefore unlikely to account for the visual symptoms reported in individuals with the diagnosis.

  10. Corticocortical feedback increases the spatial extent of normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Jonathan J; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Kreiman, Gabriel; Born, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Normalization has been proposed as a canonical computation operating across different brain regions, sensory modalities, and species. It provides a good phenomenological description of non-linear response properties in primary visual cortex (V1), including the contrast response function and surround suppression. Despite its widespread application throughout the visual system, the underlying neural mechanisms remain largely unknown. We recently observed that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression in V1, raising the possibility that feedback acts through normalization. To test this idea, we characterized area summation and contrast response properties in V1 with and without feedback from V2 and V3 in alert macaques and applied a standard normalization model to the data. Area summation properties were well explained by a form of divisive normalization, which computes the ratio between a neuron's driving input and the spatially integrated activity of a "normalization pool." Feedback inactivation reduced surround suppression by shrinking the spatial extent of the normalization pool. This effect was independent of the gain modulation thought to mediate the influence of contrast on area summation, which remained intact during feedback inactivation. Contrast sensitivity within the receptive field center was also unaffected by feedback inactivation, providing further evidence that feedback participates in normalization independent of the circuit mechanisms involved in modulating contrast gain and saturation. These results suggest that corticocortical feedback contributes to surround suppression by increasing the visuotopic extent of normalization and, via this mechanism, feedback can play a critical role in contextual information processing.

  11. Using Dust as Probes to Determine Sheath Extent and Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Douglass, Angela; Qiao, Ke; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2016-01-01

    Two in-situ experimental methods are presented in which dust particles are used to determine the extent of the sheath and gain information about the time-averaged electric force profile within a RF plasma sheath. These methods are advantageous because they are not only simple and quick to carry out, but they also can be performed using standard dusty plasma experimental equipment. In the first method, dust particles are tracked as they fall through the plasma toward the lower electrode. These trajectories are then used to determine the electric force on the particle as a function of height as well as the extent of the sheath. In the second method, dust particle levitation height is measured across a wide range of RF voltages. Similarities were observed between the two experiments, but in order to understand the underlying physics behind these observations, the same conditions were replicated using a self-consistent fluid model. Through comparison of the fluid model and experimental results, it is shown that t...

  12. The Extent of Students’ Reponses in the Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oranu Philomena Chika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to identify the extent of students’ responses in the classroom using three classroom interaction techniques. One research question guided the study. One hypothesis was tested and analysed using chi square statistics. The population is made up of 10,983 students 496 teachers. The sample is made up of 1098 students and 12 teachers. SS1 and SS11 students in three public schools were used for the study. Six classroom were used; three in SS1 and three in SS11 respectively. Six teachers taught SS1 and six teachers taught SS11 using a technique (Flanders, IRE, and Teaching Cycles. Twelve lessons were recorded on a cassette, transcribed, coded and analysed. Flanders category was the observational instrument. Test- retest method was used to establish the reliability of the instrument at 0.87 co-efficient. The result showed students’ responses in the classroom are not contingent on classroom technique used. The extent of students’ responses in the classroom is very minimal therefore teacher should go extra step to encourage voluntary verbal contribution by the students’ in every classroom. This makes the students more critical in weighing life challenges.

  13. IMF BY dependence of the extent of substorm westward electrojet

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Arun; Ajay Dhar; K Emperumal; B M Pathan

    2005-04-01

    In this paper the duskward extension of the westward auroral electrojet is investigated for substorm intervals on the basis of magnetograms recorded at the Indian Antarctic station, Maitri. The database comprises three years from 1998-2000. Based on an initial study of the magnetograms, an arbitrary local time of 2030 MLT is fixed to define the early manifestation of the substorm westward electrojet. Using this criterion 12 substorms are identified and the possible causes examined. Many of these events are observed to be associated with a moderate to intense ring current.The hourly average of the GSM BY-component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) for the hour preceding the substorm onset at Maitri is negative for most of the events. It is suggested that the azimuthal shift of the auroral electrojets in the southern hemisphere resulting from a negative BY-component of the IMF influences the extent of the substorm westward electrojet. This finding implies that the IMF may have a role in controlling the longitudinal extent of substorm occurrence.

  14. Bulk cavitation extent modeling: An energy-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplin, J. James

    Bulk cavitation is a phenomenon that occurs when a negative-pressure or tension wave causes a liquid to rupture, or cavitate, over space. It is a process which causes resident microbubbles to grow to many times their original size, forming a bubble cloud. Such bubble clouds are observed in shallow underwater explosions, where negative-pressure waves are formed after shock waves reflect off the water surface; they are also observed in shock wave lithotripsy, shock wave histotripsy, ultrasonic cleaning, and other applications. Models had been developed for predicting the size and shape of such bulk cavitation regions. This work introduces a model that accounts for energy "lost" to bulk cavitation which in turn influences the extent that is dependent on the rate at which the passing negative-pressure wave dissipates. In-laboratory underwater experiments utilizing a spark source for high-amplitude pressure pulse generation, hydrophones and high-speed videography validate the energy transfer from tension wave to bubble cloud formation. These experiments are supplemented by computational fluid dynamics simulations. A cavitation absorption coefficient is introduced and parameterized for accurate prediction of cloud extent.

  15. EFFECT OF AMOUNT OF CRUDE OIL ON EXTENT OF ITS BIODEGRADATION IN OPEN WATER- AND SANDY BEACH-LABORATORY SIMULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioremediation of marine oil spills, a technology using hydrocarbon-degrading and emulsifying capabilities of microorganisms, has many unexplored limitations, and among them is degree of environmental oil contamination. We examined the biodegradation of varying amounts of artifi...

  16. Open access and open source in chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Matthew H

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific data are being generated and shared at ever-increasing rates. Two new mechanisms for doing this have developed: open access publishing and open source research. We discuss both, with recent examples, highlighting the differences between the two, and the strengths of both.

  17. Een boekje open over Open Source ERP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneller, A.C.W.(L.)

    2009-01-01

    Er zijn vele ERP-systemen die met behulp van open source worden ontwikkeld. Organisaties die open source ERP willen implementeren staan voor twee strategische keuzes: hoe zit het met de continuïteit en wie gaat het systeem onderhouden?

  18. Open Government and (Linked (Open (Government (Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Philipp Geiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the opening and the free usage of stored public sector data, supplied by state. In the age of Open Government and Open Data it’s not enough just to put data online. It should be rather weighed out whether, how and which supplied public sector data can be published. Open Data are defined as stored data which could be made accessible in a public interest without any restrictions for usage and distribution. These Open Data can possibly be statistics, geo data, maps, plans, environmental data and weather data in addition to materials of the parliaments, ministries and authorities. The preparation and the free access to existing data permit varied approaches to the reuse of data, discussed in the article. In addition, impulses can be given for Open Government – the opening of state and administration, to more transparency, participation and collaboration as well as to innovation and business development. The Open Data movement tries to get to the bottom of current publication processes in the public sector which could be formed even more friendly to citizens and enterprises.

  19. Satellite and Surface Perspectives of Snow Extent in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugg, Johnathan W.; Perry, Baker L.; Hall, Dorothy K.

    2012-01-01

    Assessing snow cover patterns in mountain regions remains a challenge for a variety of reasons. Topography (e.g., elevation, exposure, aspect, and slope) strongly influences snowfall accumulation and subsequent ablation processes, leading to pronounced spatial variability of snow cover. In-situ observations are typically limited to open areas at lower elevations (Mountains (SAM). MODIS daily snow cover maps and true color imagery are analyzed after selected snow events (e.g., Gulf/Atlantic Lows, Alberta Clippers, and Northwest Upslope Flow) from 2006 to 2012 to assess the spatial patterns of snowfall across the SAM. For each event, we calculate snow cover area across the SAM using MODIS data and compare with the Interactive Multi-sensor Snow and ice mapping system (IMS) and available in-situ observations. Results indicate that Gulf/Atlantic Lows are typically responsible for greater snow extent across the entire SAM region due to intensified cyclogenesis associated with these events. Northwest Upslope Flow events result in snow cover extent that is limited to higher elevations (>1000 m) across the SAM, but also more pronounced along NW aspects. Despite some limitations related to the presence of ephemeral snow or cloud cover immediately after each event, we conclude that MODIS products are useful for assessing the spatial variability of snow cover in heavily forested mountain regions such as the SAM.

  20. Inflation on an Open Racetrack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Heng-Yu; /Wisconsin U., Madison; Hung, Ling-Yan; /Cambridge U., DAMTP; Shiu, Gary; /Wisconsin U., Madison /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2011-11-14

    We present a variant of warped D-brane inflation by incorporating multiple sets of holomorphically - embedded D7-branes involved in moduli stabilization with extent into a warped throat. The resultant D3-brane motion depends on the D7-brane configuration and the relative position of the D3-brane in these backgrounds. The non-perturbative moduli stabilization superpotential takes the racetrack form, but the additional D3-brane open string moduli dependence provides more flexibilities in model building. For concreteness, we consider D3-brane motion in the warped deformed conifold with the presence of multiple D7-branes, and derive the scalar potential valid for the entire throat. By explicit tuning of the microphysical parameters, we obtain inflationary trajectories near an inflection point for various D7-brane configurations. Moreover, the open racetrack potential admits approximate Minkowski vacua before uplifting. We demonstrate with a concrete D-brane inflation model where the Hubble scale during inflation can exceed the gravitino mass. Finally, the multiple sets of D7-branes present in this open racetrack setup also provides a mechanism to stabilize the D3-brane to metastable vacua in the intermediate region of the warped throat.

  1. Web GIS in practice IV: publishing your health maps and connecting to remote WMS sources using the Open Source UMN MapServer and DM Solutions MapLab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honda Kiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Open Source Web GIS software systems have reached a stage of maturity, sophistication, robustness and stability, and usability and user friendliness rivalling that of commercial, proprietary GIS and Web GIS server products. The Open Source Web GIS community is also actively embracing OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium standards, including WMS (Web Map Service. WMS enables the creation of Web maps that have layers coming from multiple different remote servers/sources. In this article we present one easy to implement Web GIS server solution that is based on the Open Source University of Minnesota (UMN MapServer. By following the accompanying step-by-step tutorial instructions, interested readers running mainstream Microsoft® Windows machines and with no prior technical experience in Web GIS or Internet map servers will be able to publish their own health maps on the Web and add to those maps additional layers retrieved from remote WMS servers. The 'digital Asia' and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami experiences in using free Open Source Web GIS software are also briefly described.

  2. Web GIS in practice IV: publishing your health maps and connecting to remote WMS sources using the Open Source UMN MapServer and DM Solutions MapLab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Maged N Kamel; Honda, Kiyoshi

    2006-01-18

    Open Source Web GIS software systems have reached a stage of maturity, sophistication, robustness and stability, and usability and user friendliness rivalling that of commercial, proprietary GIS and Web GIS server products. The Open Source Web GIS community is also actively embracing OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards, including WMS (Web Map Service). WMS enables the creation of Web maps that have layers coming from multiple different remote servers/sources. In this article we present one easy to implement Web GIS server solution that is based on the Open Source University of Minnesota (UMN) MapServer. By following the accompanying step-by-step tutorial instructions, interested readers running mainstream Microsoft(R) Windows machines and with no prior technical experience in Web GIS or Internet map servers will be able to publish their own health maps on the Web and add to those maps additional layers retrieved from remote WMS servers. The 'digital Asia' and 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami experiences in using free Open Source Web GIS software are also briefly described.

  3. The Regional Extent of Biogenic Aerosols in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, J. D.; Robinson, N. H.; Bower, K. N.; Flynn, M.; Williams, P. I.; Dorsey, J. R.; Good, N.; Irwin, M.; Whitehead, J.; Gabey, A. M.; Muller, J.; Trembath, J.; Chen, Q.; Martin, S. T.; Gallagher, M.; McFiggans, G. B.; Coe, H.

    2008-12-01

    The processes that control the composition of aerosols are currently not well understood, as are their effects on regional climate and meteorology. This is particularly true when considering tropical regions; the enhanced plant activity and extensive forestation are responsible for large amounts of VOCs being released into the atmosphere, which are responsible for forming secondary aerosol matter. However, the aerosols in these regions are currently poorly characterised both in terms of their concentration, physiochemical properties and the spatial extent of their influence. During the summer of 2008, an extensive suite of instrumentation was deployed on a number of platforms as part of the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes (OP3) and the Aerosol Coupling in the Earth System (ACES) projects. The principle surface site was the Bukit Atur Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) site in the Danum Valley Conservation Area. This featured a variety of aerosol instrumentation, designed to characterise the aerosol properties in conjunction with gas phase and meteorological measurements. In addition, many more instruments were also deployed aboard the Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurement (FAAM) BAe-S 146 research aircraft. Some of these instruments (including the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer and Droplet Measurement Technologies Cloud Condensation Nuclei counter) were designed to duplicate the ground based measurements, so that the spatial extent of the aerosols could be assessed in addition to the detailed characterisation work. Typical flights included atmospheric profiles and flights within the boundary layer (BL) over the forest to map out the extent of the aerosols and precursors. The non refractory BL aerosols typically contained a mixture of organic matter and sulphate, the latter possibly of oceanic origin. This is in contrast to the free troposphere where consistently low concentrations were recorded. Of particular interest was studying the

  4. A comparison between remote sensing approaches to water extent monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    elmi, omid; javad tourian, mohammad; sneeuw, nico

    2013-04-01

    Monitoring the variation of water storage in a long period is a primary issue for understanding the impact of climate change and human activities on earth water resources. In order to obtain the change in water volume in a lake and reservoir, in addition to water level, water extent must be repeatedly determined in an appropriate time interval. Optical satellite imagery as a passive system is the main source of determination of coast line change as it is easy to interpret. Optical sensors acquire the reflected energy from the sunlight in various bands from visible to near infrared. Also, panchromatic mode provides more geometric details. Establishing a ratio between visible bands is the most common way of extract coastlines because with this ratio, water and land can be separated directly. Also, since the reflectance value of water is distinctly less than soil in infrared bands, applying a histogram threshold on this band is a effective way of coastline extraction. However, optical imagery is highly vulnerable to occurrence of dense clouds and fog. Moreover, the coastline is hard to detect where it is covered by dense vegetation. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as an active system provides an alternative source for monitoring the spatial change in coastlines. Two methods for monitoring the shoreline with SAR data have been published. First, the backscatter difference is calculated between two images acquired at different times. Second, the change in coastline is detected by computing the coherence of two SAR images acquired at different times. A SAR system can operate in all weather, so clouds and fog don't impact its efficiency. Also, it can penetrate into the plant canopy. However, in comparison with optical imagery, interpretation of SAR image in this case is relatively hard because of limitation in the number of band and polarization modes, also due to effects caused by speckle noises, slant-range imaging and shadows. The primary aim of this study is a

  5. Declining Spring Snow Cover Extent over Northern Hemisphere Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David

    2015-04-01

    Annual snow cover extent (SCE) over Northern Hemisphere (NH) lands averages close to 26 million square kilometers. It ranges from an average of 47 million sq. km. in January to 3 million sq. km. (mostly atop the Greenland Ice Sheet) in August. SCE is calculated at the Rutgers Global Snow Lab from daily SCE maps produced by meteorologists at the National Ice Center, who rely primarily on visible satellite imagery to construct the maps. The Rutgers SCE climate data record (CDR) shows that since the late 1980s annual SCE over NH lands has averaged lower than earlier in the satellite era, which for SCE monitoring began in 1967. This is most evident from late winter through spring, being exceedingly pronounced this past decade at high latitudes in May and June. The most recent five Mays have been amongst the lowest seven in terms of NH SCE on record, with Eurasian (EUR) SCE at a record low in 2013. North American (NA) SCE achieved a record minimum in May 2010, but of late has not been as consistently low as over EUR. The past seven Junes have seen record minimum SCE over the NH, and six of the seven lowest over EUR and NA. The recent early timing of arctic snowmelt appears to be occurring at a pace equivalent to if not exceeding the loss of summer Arctic sea ice extent. In situ station observations suggest that spring snow is presently the least extensive in the past century. Possible reasons behind the early melt appear to be associated with atmospheric circulation patterns and overall warming. This presentation, while focusing on SCE variability utilizing the Rutgers SCE CDR, will also include discussion of a new merged snow extent and melt state CDR that includes data from NH continents, Greenland, and Arctic sea ice. Visible and microwave satellite data are employed in these efforts. The merged product is available in netCDF format from the National Snow and Ice Data Center. This includes 25 km (1999-2010) and 100 km (1967-2010) resolution versions using the Equal

  6. The rate and extent of oral bioavailability versus the rate and extent of oral absorption: clarification and recommendation of terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, W L

    2001-02-01

    In the literature, the meanings of the terms oral absorption and oral bioavailability of drugs vary greatly. Absorption has been considered to take place at the mucosal membrane of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. It has also been defined as the process from the site of drug administration to the site of measurement. In the latter definition, the extent of oral absorption depends on the extent of first-pass elimination in the gut wall and liver even though a drug may be completely absorbed from the GI tract. Moreover, these two terms have also been used interchangeably. Inconsistency in the definition of these two terms has led to varying interpretations of these terms among students, researchers and laymen, and such an inconsistency seems undesirable. Apparently because of these inconsistencies, improper correlations between the Caco-2 permeability or intestinal permeability and the oral bioavailability of drugs subject to extensive first-pass effect may have occurred. It is suggested that absorption be defined as movement of drug across the outer mucosal membranes of the GI tract, while bioavailability be defined as availability of drug to the general circulation or site of pharmacological actions. Since transit times (this may range from about 1 min to several hours) across enterocytes, liver, lungs, and the peripheral venous sampling tissue are virtually unknown for all drugs, this factor alone would favor the use of "oral bioavailability rate" rather than "oral absorption rate" in all routine studies.

  7. To what extent is language teaching methodology informed by theory?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱殿勇; 崔丹

    2005-01-01

    With the globalization of the world, language teaching becomes more important than ever before, and many universities and classroom teachers are active to explore the most efficient and effective methodology to teach languages to achieve a desirable result. When they seek to improve the quality of language teaching, they ofter research teaching methodologies by referring to general theories about language and language learning. Theoretical bases and teachers' hands-out experience have informed methodologies of language teaching, and methods of language teaching have been improved with the developments about linguistics, psychology and education. But there is a question which extent the information that theory has made available can be used to explore language teaching methodology and of the relevance of theory to language teaching methodology.

  8. Quantifying the extent of recrossing flux for quantumsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, Michael S.; Predescu, Cristian; Miller, William H.

    2005-04-19

    We present arguments demonstrating that the Miller, Schwartz, and Tromp (MST) correlation function is the only computationally reasonable choice with regard to minimizing the extent of recrossing flux. However, using accurate numerical results, we point out that the MST flux-flux correlation function almost always exhibits non-vanishing negative parts, even for the simplest physical systems. We argue that, in order to best handle the residual recrossing flux, one must not rely on the ''no recrossing'' assumption in the development of quantum transition state theories. To provide accurate numerical examples, we derive the analytical expressions for the flux-flux correlation and spectral functions for the symmetric Eckart and rectangular potential barriers.

  9. Lymphadenectomy in bladder cancer: What should be the extent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Muruganandham

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extent of Lymh node dissection (LND during radical cystectomy is a subject of increasing importance with several studies suggesting that an extended LND may improve staging accuracy and outcome. Significant numbers of patients have lymph node metastasis above the boundaries of standard LND. Extended LND yields higher number of lymph nodes which may result in better staging. Various retrospective studies have reported better oncological outcomes with extended LND compared to limited LND. No difference in the mortality and the incidence of lymphocele formation has been found between ′standard′ and ′extended′ LND. Till we have a well-designed randomized controlled trial to address these issues for level 1 evidence, it is not justified to deny our patients the advantages of ′extended′ lymphadenectomy based on the current level of evidence.

  10. Arctic Summer Sea-Ice Extent: How Free is Free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, B.; Cullather, R. I.; DeRepentigny, P.; Pfirman, S. L.; Newton, R.

    2015-12-01

    As Northern Hemisphere perennial sea ice cover continues a long-term downward trend, attention has begun to focus on the implications of the changing conditions. A summertime ice-free Arctic Ocean is frequently indicated as a signature milestone for these changes, however "ice-free" has a substantially different meaning among scientists and interested stakeholders. To climate scientists it may mean when there is so little sea ice that it plays a minimal role in the climate system. To those interested in development, it may mean a threshold where icebreaker support is not required. To coastal communities it may mean so little ice that hunting is not possible. To species dependent on sea ice, it may mean the point where they cannot find sufficient habitat to survive from spring until fall. In this contribution we document the projected seasonality of the sea ice retreat and address the following questions. For how long will the Arctic Ocean be ice free on average each year? What is the impact of such changes in the seasonality of the sea ice cover on species that are dependent on sea ice? To this end, we analyze the seasonal cycle in the sea-ice extent simulated by the Community Earth System Model 1 - Large Ensemble (CESM1-LE) output for the 21st century. CESM1-LE simulates a realistic late 20th, early 21st century Arctic climate with a seasonal cycle in sea ice extent and rate of decline in good agreement with observations. Results from this model show that even by the end of the 21st century, the length of the ice-free season is relatively short, with ice-free conditions mainly present for 2-3 months between August and October. The result is a much larger amplitude seasonal cycle when compared with the late 20th century climate.

  11. Estimating Global Cropland Extent with Multi-year MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher O. Justice

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the suitability of 250 m MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data for mapping global cropland extent. A set of 39 multi-year MODIS metrics incorporating four MODIS land bands, NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index and thermal data was employed to depict cropland phenology over the study period. Sub-pixel training datasets were used to generate a set of global classification tree models using a bagging methodology, resulting in a global per-pixel cropland probability layer. This product was subsequently thresholded to create a discrete cropland/non-cropland indicator map using data from the USDA-FAS (Foreign Agricultural Service Production, Supply and Distribution (PSD database describing per-country acreage of production field crops. Five global land cover products, four of which attempted to map croplands in the context of multiclass land cover classifications, were subsequently used to perform regional evaluations of the global MODIS cropland extent map. The global probability layer was further examined with reference to four principle global food crops: corn, soybeans, wheat and rice. Overall results indicate that the MODIS layer best depicts regions of intensive broadleaf crop production (corn and soybean, both in correspondence with existing maps and in associated high probability matching thresholds. Probability thresholds for wheat-growing regions were lower, while areas of rice production had the lowest associated confidence. Regions absent of agricultural intensification, such as Africa, are poorly characterized regardless of crop type. The results reflect the value of MODIS as a generic global cropland indicator for intensive agriculture production regions, but with little sensitivity in areas of low agricultural intensification. Variability in mapping accuracies between areas dominated by different crop types also points to the desirability of a crop-specific approach rather than attempting

  12. Examining the Reuse of Open Textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hilton III

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An important element of open educational resources (OER is the permission to use the materials in new ways, including revising and remixing them. Prior research has shown that the revision and remix rates for OER are relatively low. In this study we examined the extent to which the openly licensed Flat World Knowledge textbooks were being revised and remixed. We found that the levels of revision and remix were similar to those of other OER collections. We discuss the possible significance and implication of these findings.

  13. BOMOD : management and development model for open data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eckartz, S.M.; Folmer, E.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    2014 was a pivotal year in the evolution of open data. For the first time, most governments participated in open data initiatives, making Open Data a world-wide known and accepted concept. In practice, however, both public and private organizations are struggling to recognize and realize the potenti

  14. Building Eclectic Personal Learning Landscapes with Open Source Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2005). Building Eclectic Personal Learning Landscapes with Open Source Tools. In F. de Vries, G. Attwell, R. Elferink & A. Tödt (Eds.), Open Source for Education in Europe. Research & Practice (= Proceedings of the Open Source for Education in Europe Conference) (pp. 163-168). 2005, Heerle

  15. Building Eclectic Personal Learning Landscapes with Open Source Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalz, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Kalz, M. (2005). Building Eclectic Personal Learning Landscapes with Open Source Tools. In F. de Vries, G. Attwell, R. Elferink & A. Tödt (Eds.), Open Source for Education in Europe. Research & Practice (= Proceedings of the Open Source for Education in Europe Conference) (pp. 163-168). 2005,

  16. Extents of the aquifer and confining units of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of North and South Carolina aquifer system (pp1773_extents)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The data set pp1773_extents contains polygon datasets that represent the areal extents of each of the 16 hydrogeologic units of the of the Atlantic Coastal Plain of...

  17. Pressure-driven opening of carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2016-03-01

    The closing and opening of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for their applications in nanoscale chemistry and biology. We report reactive molecular dynamics simulations of CNT opening triggered by internal pressure of encapsulated gas molecules. Confined argon generates 4000 bars of pressure inside capped CNT and lowers the opening temperature by 200 K. Chemical interactions greatly enhance the efficiency of CNT opening: fluorine-filled CNTs open by fluorination of carbon bonds at temperature and pressure that are 700 K and 1000 bar lower than for argon-filled CNTs. Moreover, pressure induced CNT opening by confined gases leaves the CNT cylinders intact and removes only the fullerene caps, while the empty CNT decomposes completely. In practice, the increase in pressure can be achieved by near-infrared light, which penetrates through water and biological tissues and is absorbed by CNTs, resulting in rapid local heating. Spanning over a thousand of bars and Kelvin, the reactive and non-reactive scenarios of CNT opening represent extreme cases and allow for a broad experimental control over properties of the CNT interior and release conditions of the confined species. The detailed insights into the thermodynamic conditions and chemical mechanisms of the pressure-induced CNT opening provide practical guidelines for the development of novel nanoreactors, catalysts, photo-catalysts, imaging labels and drug delivery vehicles.

  18. On the longitudinal extent of magnetopause reconnection pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lockwood

    Full Text Available The open magnetosphere model of cusp ion injection, acceleration and precipitation is used to predict the dispersion characteristics for fully pulsed magnetic reconnection at a low-latitude magnetopause X-line. The resulting steps, as would be seen by a satellite moving meridionally and normal to the ionospheric projection of the X-line, are compared with those seen by satellites moving longitudinally, along the open/closed boundary. It is shown that two observed cases can be explained by similar magnetosheath and reconnection characteristics, and that the major differences between them are well explained by the different satellite paths through the events. Both cases were observed in association with poleward-moving transient events seen by ground-based radar, as also predicted by the theory. The results show that the reconnection is pulsed but strongly imply it cannot also be spatially patchy, in the sense of isolated X-lines which independently are intermittently active. Furthermore they show that the reconnection pulses responsible for the poleward-moving events and the cusp ion steps, must cover at least 3 h of magnetic local time, although propagation of the active reconnection region may mean that it does not extend this far at any one instant of time.

  19. Extent and application of patient diaries in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heindl, Patrik; Bachlechner, Adelbert; Nydahl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . Interviews were analysed by content analysis. Results: Of the 178 ICUs contacted, 13 had implemented ICU diaries. In all ICUs, diaries were sporadically introduced by a few dedicated nurses. Experiences of participating nurses can be summarized in two main themes: (a) the process of innovation and (b......) the process of practice. Sub-themes were: (i) inspiration, creativity and innovation and (ii) purpose, indications, responsibility, authorship, experience, negative reception, and post-ICU practice. Individual nurses at each ICU found ways to organize and format ICU diaries while dealing with ambivalence...... and legal implications. Conclusion: The implementation of a new nursing intervention is an ongoing process. Being innovative and responsible can be challenging, especially in hierarchical team structures. We recommend that nurses work towards national standards for the diary concept in order to enable...

  20. [The extent of the burnout syndrome among pharmacists: partial study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saligerová, Markéta; Kolář, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the possibilities of investigating the susceptibility to burnout syndrome in pharmacists and pharmaceutical assistants working in pharmacies. By using the Maslach Burnout Inventory, between November 2015 and January 2016, 53 healthcare professionals were contacted in 11 pharmacies (Brno, Vyškov). The results of the research show that with an increasing length of practice the average EE factor (emotional exhaustion) increases. The DP (depersonalization) factor does not increase significantly with the increase in the length of practice. Respondents with the longest experience are at high risk of burnout syndrome presented by the factor PA (personal satisfaction from work). It has also been shown that with an increasing age the factor EE slightly increases, the DP factor is in the low range, and the PA factor is significantly reduced in the "oldest" age category, it is high in the band.Key words: stress burnout syndrome pharmacists research.

  1. Practice changing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rikke; Buch, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Based on a concrete practice-based study we discuss how such studies can be an important integrated part of critical participatory action research that spur change from inside a professional practice. We also discuss our roles as researchers (and union activists). We see and explore the potential...... makes work intelligible. This provides possibilities for action and change. We claim that the practice-based studies can become an integrated part of doing critical action research, and we investigate and reflect upon our stewardship of the practices we engaged in....... in initiating changes within a practice tradition. To make local changes in the practices is to change the world. The majority of practice-based studies are analyzing different kinds of practices, but only few studies have engaged in doing action research in a practice tradition. Our paper explores how practice...... study about the practices of a study administration unit in a university college in Denmark. The study includes ten weeks of participation observation study and five qualitative interviews, both in the central part and in three local study administrations. Managerial initiated organizational change...

  2. Predatory Open Access in Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manca, Andrea; Martinez, Gianluca; Cugusi, Lucia; Dragone, Daniele; Mercuro, Giuseppe; Deriu, Franca

    2017-01-20

    Increasingly scholars and researchers are being solicited by predatory open access journals seeking manuscript submissions and abusing the author-pays model by charging authors with publishing fees without any or proper peer review. Such questionable editorial practices are threatening the reputation and credibility of scholarly publishing. To date, no investigation has been conducted on this phenomenon in the field of rehabilitation. This study attempts to identify specific predatory journals operating in this field to quantify the phenomenon and its geographic distribution. Beall's List has been used to this end which, although not perfect, is a comprehensive and up-to-date report of predatory publishers. Of the 1113 publishers on the list, 59 journals were identified, for a total of 5610 published articles. The median number of articles published by each journal was 21, and the median amount of article processing charges was $499. Only 1 out of 59 journals was included in the Directory of Open Access Journals, whereas 7 (12%) were indexed by PubMed. Most of the publishers were based in India (36%) followed by the United States (25%) and Pakistan (5%), and 25% were without a verifiable address. The data indicate that the threat of predatory publishing in rehabilitation is real. Physiatrists, physiotherapists, researchers, and academics operating in this field are advised to use the tools available to recognize predatory practices before considering publishing in open access journals.

  3. The 2015 Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC 2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nomi L Harris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bioinformatics Open Source Conference (BOSC is organized by the Open Bioinformatics Foundation (OBF, a nonprofit group dedicated to promoting the practice and philosophy of open source software development and open science within the biological research community. Since its inception in 2000, BOSC has provided bioinformatics developers with a forum for communicating the results of their latest efforts to the wider research community. BOSC offers a focused environment for developers and users to interact and share ideas about standards; software development practices; practical techniques for solving bioinformatics problems; and approaches that promote open science and sharing of data, results, and software. BOSC is run as a two-day special interest group (SIG before the annual Intelligent Systems in Molecular Biology (ISMB conference. BOSC 2015 took place in Dublin, Ireland, and was attended by over 125 people, about half of whom were first-time attendees. Session topics included "Data Science;" "Standards and Interoperability;" "Open Science and Reproducibility;" "Translational Bioinformatics;" "Visualization;" and "Bioinformatics Open Source Project Updates". In addition to two keynote talks and dozens of shorter talks chosen from submitted abstracts, BOSC 2015 included a panel, titled "Open Source, Open Door: Increasing Diversity in the Bioinformatics Open Source Community," that provided an opportunity for open discussion about ways to increase the diversity of participants in BOSC in particular, and in open source bioinformatics in general. The complete program of BOSC 2015 is available online at http://www.open-bio.org/wiki/BOSC_2015_Schedule.

  4. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  5. Open Payments Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Open Payments (otherwise known as the Sunshine Act) - Open Payments is a Congressionally-mandated transparency program that increases awareness of financial...

  6. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  7. OpenFOAM: Open source CFD in research and industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrvoje Jasak

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The current focus of development in industrial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD is integration of CFD into Computer-Aided product development, geometrical optimisation, robust design and similar. On the other hand, in CFD research aims to extend the boundaries of practical engineering use in “non-traditional” areas. Requirements of computational flexibility and code integration are contradictory: a change of coding paradigm, with object orientation, library components, equation mimicking is proposed as a way forward. This paper describes OpenFOAM, a C++ object oriented library for Computational Continuum Mechanics (CCM developed by the author. Efficient and flexible implementation of complex physical models is achieved by mimicking the form of partial differential equation in software, with code functionality provided in library form. Open Source deployment and development model allows the user to achieve desired versatility in physical modeling without the sacrifice of complex geometry support and execution efficiency.

  8. Open innovation researching a new paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Vanhaverbeke, Wim; West, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Open Innovation describes an emergent model of innovation in which firms draw on research and development that may lie outside their own boundaries. In some cases, such as open source software, this research and development can take place in a non-proprietary manner. Henry Chesbrough and his collaborators investigate this phenomenon, linking the practice of innovation to the established body of innovation research, showing what's new and what's familiar in the process. Offering theoretical explanations for the use (and limits) of open innovation, the book examines the applicability of the concept, implications for the boundaries of firms, the potential of open innovation to prove successful, and implications for intellectual property policies and practices. The book will be key reading for academics, researchers, and graduate students of innovation and technology management.

  9. Sensitivity of detachment extent to magnetic configuration and external parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschultz, Bruce; Parra, Felix I.; Hutchinson, Ian H.

    2016-05-01

    Divertor detachment may be essential to reduce heat loads to magnetic fusion tokamak reactor divertor surfaces. Yet in experiments it is difficult to control the extent of the detached, low pressure, plasma region. At maximum extent the front edge of the detached region reaches the X-point and can lead to degradation of core plasma properties. We define the ‘detachment window’ in a given position control variable C (for example, the upstream plasma density) as the range in C within which the front location can be stably held at any position from the target to the X-point; increased detachment window corresponds to better control. We extend a 1D analytic model [1] to determine the detachment window for the following control variables: the upstream plasma density, the impurity concentration and the power entering the scrape-off layer (SOL). We find that variations in magnetic configuration can have strong effects; increasing the ratio of the total magnetic field at the X-point to that at the target, {{B}×}/{{B}t} , (total flux expansion, as in the super-x divertor configuration) strongly increases the detachment window for all control variables studied, thus strongly improving detachment front control and the capability of the divertor plasma to passively accommodate transients while still staying detached. Increasing flux tube length and thus volume in the divertor, through poloidal flux expansion (as in the snowflake or x-divertor configurations) or length of the divertor, also increases the detachment window, but less than the total flux expansion does. The sensitivity of the detachment front location, z h , to each control variable, C, defined as \\partial {{z}h}/\\partial C , depends on the magnetic configuration. The size of the radiating volume and the total divertor radiation increase \\propto {{≤ft({{B}×}/{{B}t}\\right)}2} and \\propto {{B}×}/{{B}t} , respectively, but not by increasing divertor poloidal flux expansion or field line length. We

  10. Estimating the extent of horizontal gene transfer in metagenomic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andrés

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the extent of horizontal gene transfer (HGT in complete genomes has been widely studied, its influence in the evolution of natural communities of prokaryotes remains unknown. The availability of metagenomic sequences allows us to address the study of global patterns of prokaryotic evolution in samples from natural communities. However, the methods that have been commonly used for the study of HGT are not suitable for metagenomic samples. Therefore it is important to develop new methods or to adapt existing ones to be used with metagenomic sequences. Results We have created two different methods that are suitable for the study of HGT in metagenomic samples. The methods are based on phylogenetic and DNA compositional approaches, and have allowed us to assess the extent of possible HGT events in metagenomes for the first time. The methods are shown to be compatible and quite precise, although they probably underestimate the number of possible events. Our results show that the phylogenetic method detects HGT in between 0.8% and 1.5% of the sequences, while DNA compositional methods identify putative HGT in between 2% and 8% of the sequences. These ranges are very similar to these found in complete genomes by related approaches. Both methods act with a different sensitivity since they probably target HGT events of different ages: the compositional method mostly identifies recent transfers, while the phylogenetic is more suitable for the detections of older events. Nevertheless, the study of the number of HGT events in metagenomic sequences from different communities shows a consistent trend for both methods: the lower amount is found for the sequences of the Sargasso Sea metagenome, while the higher quantity is found in the whale fall metagenome from the bottom of the ocean. The significance of these observations is discussed. Conclusion The computational approaches that are used to find possible HGT events in complete

  11. Open Hardware Business Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Ferreira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the September issue of the Open Source Business Resource, Patrick McNamara, president of the Open Hardware Foundation, gave a comprehensive introduction to the concept of open hardware, including some insights about the potential benefits for both companies and users. In this article, we present the topic from a different perspective, providing a classification of market offers from companies that are making money with open hardware.

  12. Open Source Business Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This analyses the Open source movement. Open source development process and management is seen different from the classical point of view. This focuses on characteristics and software market tendencies for the main Open source initiatives. It also points out the labor market future evolution for the software developers.

  13. OpenFlow cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smiler S, Kingston

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for network protocol developers, SDN controller application developers, and academics who would like to understand and develop their own OpenFlow switch or OpenFlow controller in any programming language. With basic understanding of OpenFlow and its components, you will be able to follow the recipes in this book.

  14. Open Rotor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zante, Dale E.; Rizzi, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    The ERA project executed a comprehensive test program for Open Rotor aerodynamic and acoustic performance. System studies used the data to estimate the fuel burn savings and acoustic margin for an aircraft system with open rotor propulsion. The acoustic measurements were used to produce an auralization that compares the legacy blades to the current generation of open rotor designs.

  15. Openness as infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbanks John

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advent of open access to peer reviewed scholarly literature in the biomedical sciences creates the opening to examine scholarship in general, and chemistry in particular, to see where and how novel forms of network technology can accelerate the scientific method. This paper examines broad trends in information access and openness with an eye towards their applications in chemistry.

  16. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees.

  17. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Elbaz-Alon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure, vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch, and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction. We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication.

  18. Lam6 Regulates the Extent of Contacts between Organelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbaz-Alon, Yael; Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Shinder, Vera; Stiller, Sebastian Berthold; Shimoni, Eyal; Wiedemann, Nils; Geiger, Tamar; Schuldiner, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Summary Communication between organelles is crucial for eukaryotic cells to function as one coherent unit. An important means of communication is through membrane contact sites, where two organelles come into close proximity allowing the transport of lipids and small solutes between them. Contact sites are dynamic in size and can change in response to environmental or cellular stimuli; however, how this is regulated has been unclear. Here, we show that Saccharomyces cerevisiae Lam6 resides in several central contact sites: ERMES (ER/mitochondria encounter structure), vCLAMP (vacuole and mitochondria patch), and NVJ (nuclear vacuolar junction). We show that Lam6 is sufficient for expansion of contact sites under physiological conditions and necessary for coordination of contact site size. Given that Lam6 is part of a large protein family and is conserved in vertebrates, our work opens avenues for investigating the underlying principles of organelle communication. PMID:26119743

  19. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, I; Sikder, B; Sinha, R; Paul, R

    2004-04-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it' s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it' s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  20. Open safety pin in the nasal cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, I; Sikder, B.; R. Sinha; Paul, R

    2004-01-01

    Foreign bodies in the nasal cavity are common-day occurrences in Otolaryngologic practice. But an open safety pin in nose with it’ s sharp end directed towards roof is a rare incidence, and available literature is silent about this presentation; it is probably, the first of it’ s kind being reported. Two cases of safety pins inside the nasal cavity, one open and the other closed, have been presented here with a brief review of literature.

  1. Open Access Publishing: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Frosio, Giancarlo; Derclaye, Estelle

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of the Centre for Copyright and New Business Models in the Creative Economy (CREATe) research scope, this literature review investigates the current trends, advantages, disadvantages, problems and solutions, opportunities and barriers in Open Access Publishing (OAP), and in particular Open Access (OA) academic publishing.  This study is intended to scope and evaluate current theory and practice concerning models for OAP and engage with intellectual, legal and economic ...

  2. The lateral extent of volcanic interactions during unrest and eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Juliet; Robertson, Elspeth; Cashman, Katharine

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions often occur simultaneously or tap multiple magma reservoirs. Such lateral interactions between magmatic systems are attributed to stress changes or hydraulic connections but the precise conditions under which coupled eruptions occur have yet to be quantified. Here we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar satellite data to analyse the surface deformation generated by volcanic unrest in the Kenyan Rift. We identify several magma sources located at depths of 2-5 km importantly, sources that are spaced less than about 10 km apart interact, whereas those spaced more than about 25 km apart do not. However, volcanoes up to 25 km apart have interacted in the geologic past. Thus, volcanic coupling is not simply controlled by the distance between the magma reservoirs. We then consider different tectonic settings globally, including intraplate volcanoes such as Hawaii and Yellowstone, arc volcanism in Alaska and Chile, and other rift settings, such as New Zealand, Iceland and Afar. We find that the most closely spaced magmatic interactions are controlled by the extent of a shallow crystal mush layer, stress changes can couple large eruptions over distances of about 20-40 km, and only large dyke intrusions or subduction earthquakes could generate coupled eruptions over distances of about 50-100 km.

  3. 11-year variability of summer snow cover extent over Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung-Mok; Han, Kyung-Soo; Cho, Jae-Il; Lee, Chang-Suk; Pi, Kyoung-jin; Kim, In-Hwan; Ryu, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Bin

    2013-10-01

    Snow is a component of the cryosphere which has played an important role in Earth energy balance. Northern hemisphere snow cover extent (SCE) has steadily decreased since 1980 and in recently the trend of SCE is sharply decreased. Because Himalaya region's shows most significant changes except for the Arctic, we analyzed this region for SCE. We used Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow product from 2001 to 2011 in august. Analysis was made by considering some conditions (region, elevation, longitude and climate) which can affect the changes in SCE. The entire SCE in Himalaya for 11 years has steadily increased(+55,098 km2). Trends for SCE in western region has increased(+77,781km2), But trend for central and eastern have decreased -3,453 km2, -19,230km2, respectively. According to elevation increases, the ratio of snow in each study area is increased. In 30°N~35°N SCE shows increased trend, 27°N~28°N shows decreased trend. In tundra climate, trends for SCE are similar to regional analysis. whereas the result in tropical climate's trend was increased. these performed result shows different side for change of SCE depending on each condition. The result of this study were similar to the rapid decline of the northern hemisphere SCE area in recent. The result of this study can be used to help management to water budget in Central-Asia country located to Himalayas.

  4. What controls the local time extent of flux transfer events?

    CERN Document Server

    Milan, S E; Carter, J A; Walach, M -T; Hubert, B

    2016-01-01

    Flux transfer events (FTEs) are the manifestation of bursty and/or patchy magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause. We compare two sequences of the ionospheric signatures of flux transfer events observed in global auroral imagery and coherent ionospheric radar measurements. Both sequences were observed during very similar seasonal and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, though with differing solar wind speed. A key observation is that the signatures differed considerably in their local time extent. The two periods are 26 August 1998, when the IMF had components $\\mathit{B}_{\\mathit{z}}$ $\\approx$ -10 nT and $\\mathit{B}_{\\mathit{y}}$ $\\approx$ 9 nT and the solar wind speed was $\\mathit{V}_{\\mathit{x}}$ $\\approx$ 650 km $s^{-1}$, and 31 August 2005, IMF $\\mathit{B}_{\\mathit{z}}$ $\\approx$ -7 nT, $\\mathit{B}_{\\mathit{y}}$ $\\approx$ 17 nT, and $\\mathit{V}_{\\mathit{x}}$ $\\approx$ 380 km $s^{-1}$. In the first case, the reconnection rate was estimated to be near 160 kV, and the FTE signatures extended ...

  5. To what extent do Gestalt grouping principles influence tactile perception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Spence, Charles

    2011-07-01

    Since their formulation by the Gestalt movement more than a century ago, the principles of perceptual grouping have primarily been investigated in the visual modality and, to a lesser extent, in the auditory modality. The present review addresses the question of whether the same grouping principles also affect the perception of tactile stimuli. Although, to date, only a few studies have explicitly investigated the existence of Gestalt grouping principles in the tactile modality, we argue that many more studies have indirectly provided evidence relevant to this topic. Reviewing this body of research, we argue that similar principles to those reported previously in visual and auditory studies also govern the perceptual grouping of tactile stimuli. In particular, we highlight evidence showing that the principles of proximity, similarity, common fate, good continuation, and closure affect tactile perception in both unimodal and crossmodal settings. We also highlight that the grouping of tactile stimuli is often affected by visual and auditory information that happen to be presented simultaneously. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and applied benefits that might pertain to the further study of Gestalt principles operating in both unisensory and multisensory tactile perception.

  6. Duration and extent of the great auroral storm of 1859

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James L.; Boardsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The great geomagnetic storm of August 28 through September 3, 1859 is, arguably, the greatest and most famous space weather event in the last two hundred years. For the first time observations showed that the sun and aurora were connected and that auroras generated strong ionospheric currents. A significant portion of the world’s 200,000 km of telegraph lines were adversely affected, many of which were unusable for 8 h or more which had a real economic impact. In addition to published scientific measurements, newspapers, ship logs, and other records of that era provide an untapped wealth of first hand observations giving time and location along with reports of the auroral forms and colors. At its height, the aurora was described as a blood or deep crimson red that was so bright that one “could read a newspaper by.” At its peak, the Type A red aurora lasted for several hours and was observed to reach extremely low geomagnetic latitudes on August 28–29 (~25°) and on September 2–3 (~18°). Auroral forms of all types and colors were observed below 50° latitude for ~24 h on August 28–29 and ~42 h on September 2–3. From a large database of ground-based observations the extent of the aurora in corrected geomagnetic coordinates is presented over the duration of the storm event. PMID:28066122

  7. Food advertising on Australian television: the extent of children's exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Leonie; Thomas, Margaret; Bauman, Adrian

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the extent and nature of food advertising during Australian children's television (TV) viewing hours and programs, and to determine whether confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements were more likely to be broadcast during children's programs than during adults' programs on Sydney television stations. One week (390 h) of Australian advertising data broadcast during children's TV viewing hours over 15 television stations were analysed to determine the proportion of food advertisements and, in turn, the proportion of those advertisements promoting foods high in fat and/or sugar. One week (346 h) of confectionery and fast food restaurant advertisements broadcast over three Sydney television stations were analysed to determine whether these types of advertisements were more likely to be advertised during children's programs than adults' programs. Half of all food advertisements promoted foods high in fat and/or sugar. 'Confectionery' and 'fast food restaurants' were the most advertised food categories during children's TV viewing hours. Confectionery advertisements were three times as likely, and fast food restaurant advertisements twice as likely, to be broadcast during children's programs than adults' programs. It can be concluded that foods most advertised during children's viewing hours are not those foods that contribute to a healthy diet for children. Confectionery and fast food restaurant advertising appears to target children. Australian children need protection from the targeted promotion of unhealthy foods on television, but currently little exists.

  8. Extent and modes of physics instruction in European dental schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letić, Milorad; Popović, Gorjana

    2013-01-01

    Changes in dental education towards integration of sciences and convergence of curricula have affected instruction in physics. Earlier studies of undergraduate curricula make possible comparisons in physics instruction. For this study, the websites of 245 European dental schools were explored, and information about the curriculum was found on 213 sites. Physics instruction in the form of a separate course was found in 63 percent of these schools, with eighty-two hours and 5.9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) credits on average. Physics integrated with other subjects or into modules was found in 19 percent of these schools. Half of these schools had on average sixty-one hours and 6.9 ECTS credits devoted to physics. Eighteen percent of the schools had no noticeable obligatory physics instruction, but in half of them physics was found to be required or accepted on admission, included in other subjects, or appeared as an elective course. In 122 dental schools, the extent of physics instruction was found to be between forty and 120 contact hours. Physics instruction has been reduced by up to 14 percent in the last fourteen years in the group of eleven countries that were members of the European Union (EU) in 1997, but by approximately 30 percent in last five years in the group of ten Accession Countries to the EU.

  9. Chemophobia in the College Classroom: Extent, Sources, and Student Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Roberta M.

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide an understanding of chemophobia (chemistry anxiety) at the college level by determining (i) the extent of chemophobia in the college classroom; (ii) the factors that contribute to college students' anxiety about learning chemistry and handling chemicals; and (iii) the characteristics of college students who have anxiety about learning chemistry and handling chemicals. A questionnaire containing the Derived Chemistry Anxiety Rating Scale (mean = 81.47, SD = 21.31, a = 0.94), the Revised Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (mean = 56.68, SD = 20.55, a = 0.98), and the Trait-Anxiety Scale (mean = 39, SD = 10, a = 0.90) was administered to 480 college students (435 nonmajors and 45 chemistry majors) taking an introductory chemistry course. Eight interviews were conducted. Quantitative data were analyzed by SPSS (p ?.05). Chemophobia was found to exist at an average level between a little bit and moderate. Highest anxiety was associated with chemistry evaluation; lowest anxiety with learning chemistry. Sources that contributed most to chemistry anxiety were, for learning, chemical equations; for evaluation, taking the final exam; and for handling chemicals, getting chemicals on hands. Women had significantly higher anxiety than men. Students with low chemistry experience had significantly higher anxiety than students with high chemistry experience. There were no significant main effects for type of major or math experience.

  10. The Policies That Affect the Extent of the Subcultures' Alignment in Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suela GERDHE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The culture of the organization can be a strategic tool for the success of organization, because it influences how the organization conduct its business and helps regulate, control and model of the behavior in each subculture of the organization. Often, the subcultures are viewed by management as the representing tolerated deviations that do not disrupt the normative solidarity of the overall corporate culture’s dominant values. However, these deviations may become intolerable when there is significant value misalignment among the various subcultures within the organization. In such conditions, the lack of the subcultures’ alignment in organization is considered critical and important to manage. While diagnosing culture alignment of the “Pro Credit” bank in Albania, the article focuses on problems of alignment and techniques that improve the alignment of subcultures. For this purpose we estimate the extent to which individuals in each gender and generational subcultures agree or disagree with the culture’s dimensions. While, assess of the extent to which organization vision and values are understood and shared by subcultures within the organization, is in core of practical study.

  11. An Exploratory Study of the Nature and Extent of Nonsuicidal Self-Injury among College Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrosini D. Kokaliari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the extent and nature of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI among 165 students attending an all-women’s college. Associations between NSSI behaviors and demographics, borderline personality disorder (BPD, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and attachment styles were investigated. Statistically significant relationships between the severity of NSSI and demographic characteristics and BPD and PTSD were explored using bivariate analysis. Within this population, presence of NSSI behavior was significantly associated with age, years in college, nonheterosexual orientation, BPD, PTSD, and preoccupied attachment styles. There were also marginally significant associations with race and financial status. Severity of NSSI behaviors was significantly associated with age, years in college, BPD pathology, and primary parent’s level of education. A logistic regression analysis was developed that predicted NSSI behavior with 67% accuracy based on these findings. This study has implications for clinical practice.

  12. Accessible integration of agriculture, groundwater, and economic models using the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI: methodology and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bulatewicz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Policy for water resources impacts not only hydrological processes, but the closely intertwined economic and social processes dependent on them. Understanding these process interactions across domains is an important step in establishing effective and sustainable policy. Multidisciplinary integrated models can provide insight to inform this understanding, though the extent of software development necessary is often prohibitive, particularly for small teams of researchers. Thus there is a need for practical methods for building interdisciplinary integrated models that do not incur a substantial development effort. In this work we adopt the strategy of linking individual domain models together to build a multidisciplinary integrated model. The software development effort is minimized through the reuse of existing models and existing model-linking tools without requiring any changes to the model source codes, and linking these components through the use of the Open Modeling Interface (OpenMI. This was found to be an effective approach to building an agricultural-groundwater-economic integrated model for studying the effects of water policy in irrigated agricultural systems. The construction of the integrated model provided a means to evaluate the impacts of two alternative water-use policies aimed at reducing irrigated water use to sustainable levels in the semi-arid grasslands overlying the Ogallala Aquifer of the Central US. The results show how both the economic impact in terms of yield and revenue and the environmental impact in terms of groundwater level vary spatially throughout the study region for each policy. Accessible integration strategies are necessary if the practice of interdisciplinary integrated simulation is to become widely adopted.

  13. OPEN INNOVATION MODELS - A CASE STUDY OF PLAYING POKER WITH CHESS PIECES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goduscheit, René Chester; Jørgensen, Jacob Høj; Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    The qualities of employing open innovation models are widely acknowledgedamong academics and practitioners. Open innovation is perceived as a meansto ensure flexibility and create options for future business. However, theorganisational challenges in employing open innovation models as opposed...... extent the project becomes a branding and marketingexercise for the organisations rather than an actual innovation project....

  14. [Medical journals and open access].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sember, Marijan

    2008-01-01

    The open access (OA) or the idea of a free access to scholarly literature published in electronic form has been already well established in the field of medicine. Medline has already been free for a decade, PubMed Central has been growing steadily. The global crisis of the scientific publishing, becoming increasingly dominated by multinational companies and constant increase of journal prices have moved to action not only individuals and institutions but governments and research charities too. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the main open access initiatives and resources in biomedicine (PubMed, PubMed Central, BioMed Central, PLoS). The OA pros and cons are briefly discussed emphasizing the benefits of OA to medical research and practice.

  15. Implementing OpenShift

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Adam

    2013-01-01

    A standard tutorial-based approach to using OpenShift and deploying custom or pre-built web applications to the OpenShift Online cloud.This book is for software developers and DevOps alike who are interested in learning how to use the OpenShift Platform-as-a-Service for developing and deploying applications, how the environment works on the back end, and how to deploy their very own open source Platform-as-a-Service based on the upstream OpenShift Origin project.

  16. Deploying OpenStack

    CERN Document Server

    Pepple, Ken

    2011-01-01

    OpenStack was created with the audacious goal of being the ubiquitous software choice for building public and private cloud infrastructures. In just over a year, it's become the most talked-about project in open source. This concise book introduces OpenStack's general design and primary software components in detail, and shows you how to start using it to build cloud infrastructures. If you're a developer, technologist, or system administrator familiar with cloud offerings such as Rackspace Cloud or Amazon Web Services, Deploying OpenStack shows you how to obtain and deploy OpenStack softwar

  17. OpenSubspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering and projected clustering are recent research areas for clustering in high dimensional spaces. As the field is rather young, there is a lack of comparative studies on the advantages and disadvantages of the different algorithms. Part of the underlying problem is the lack...... of available open source implementations that could be used by researchers to understand, compare, and extend subspace and projected clustering algorithms. In this paper, we discuss the requirements for open source evaluation software. We propose OpenSubspace, an open source framework that meets...... these requirements. OpenSubspace integrates state-of-the-art performance measures and visualization techniques to foster research in subspace and projected clustering....

  18. Open Government Data - A key Element in the Digital Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Sten; Hvingel, Line Træholt; Schrøder, Lise

    2013-01-01

    During the last decade several initiatives have worked towards open and freely available data. First, the success by the OpenStreetMap and partly the free use of Google Maps have been a revelation for many users, both in the public sector as well as in the private sector. Additionally, several le...... projects, and the current research focuses on the role of open public sector information as a major step towards a digital society by analysing the background, extent and expected impact of the Danish open government data initiative....

  19. Openness, Web 2.0 Technology, and Open Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Open science is a term that is being used in the literature to designate a form of science based on open source models or that utilizes principles of open access, open archiving and open publishing to promote scientific communication. Open science increasingly also refers to open governance and more democratized engagement and control of science…

  20. Open Access: (Social Sciences as Public Good

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Mruck

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The need to provide open access to articles published in peer-reviewed scholarly journals is becoming apparent to researchers as well as the non-scientific public as a result of "Budapest Open Access Initiative," the "Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities" and other initiatives. The core question that concerns open access is the following: since scientific information is usually financed by public funding, and therefore a public good, shouldn't the access be free of cost to all interested parties. Currently the open access movement is encountering the movement against the "Digital Divide," and therefore it is not surprising that the demand for open access has extended to a political level as reflected in the "WSIS Declaration of Principles" and the "WSIS Plan of Action." This article begins by providing a brief summary of the historical background of the open access movement and its major aims (Section 2. It then lists examples that explain possible links between the open access movement and the initiatives against the "Digital Divide" (Section 3. Section 4 considers some important barriers responsible for the fact that open access publishing is still not part of the everyday scientific publishing practices. This has various consequences. Selected consequences concerning the recent debate on redistribution processes between "information poor" and "information rich" are summarized in Section 5. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0402141

  1. TSUNAMI LOADING ON BUILDINGS WITH OPENINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lukkunaprasit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete (RC buildings with openings in the masonry infill panels have shown superior performance to those without openings in the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami. Understanding the effect of openings and the resulting tsunami force is essential for an economical and safe design of vertical evacuation shelters against tsunamis. One-to-one hundred scale building models with square shape in plan were tested in a 40 m long hydraulic flume with 1 m x 1 m cross section. A mild slope of 0.5 degree representing the beach condition at Phuket, Thailand was simulated in the hydraulic laboratory. The model dimensions were 150 mm x 150 mm x 150 mm. Two opening configurations of the front and back walls were investigated, viz., 25% and 50% openings. Pressure sensors were placed on the faces of the model to measure the pressure distribution. A high frequency load cell was mounted at the base of the model to record the tsunami forces. A bi-linear pressure profile is proposed for determining the maximum tsunami force acting on solid square buildings. The influence of openings on the peak pressures on the front face of the model is found to be practically insignificant. For 25% and 50% opening models, the tsunami forces reduce by about 15% and 30% from the model without openings, respectively. The reduction in the tsunami force clearly demonstrates the benefit of openings in reducing the effect of tsunami on such buildings.

  2. Open algebraic surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Miyanishi, Masayoshi

    2000-01-01

    Open algebraic surfaces are a synonym for algebraic surfaces that are not necessarily complete. An open algebraic surface is understood as a Zariski open set of a projective algebraic surface. There is a long history of research on projective algebraic surfaces, and there exists a beautiful Enriques-Kodaira classification of such surfaces. The research accumulated by Ramanujan, Abhyankar, Moh, and Nagata and others has established a classification theory of open algebraic surfaces comparable to the Enriques-Kodaira theory. This research provides powerful methods to study the geometry and topology of open algebraic surfaces. The theory of open algebraic surfaces is applicable not only to algebraic geometry, but also to other fields, such as commutative algebra, invariant theory, and singularities. This book contains a comprehensive account of the theory of open algebraic surfaces, as well as several applications, in particular to the study of affine surfaces. Prerequisite to understanding the text is a basic b...

  3. Open Access @ DTU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrøm, Jeannette

    Open Access is high on the agenda in Denmark and internationally. Denmark has announced a national strategy for Open Access that aims to achieve Open Access to 80% in 2017 and 100% in 2022 to peer review research articles. All public Danish funders as well as H2020 requires that all peer review...... articles that is an outcome of their funding will be Open Access. Uploading your full texts (your final author manuscript after review ) to DTU Orbit is a fundamental part of providing Open Access to your research. We are here to answer all your questions with regards to Open Access and related topics...... such as copyright, DTU Orbit, Open Access journals, APCs, Vouchers etc....

  4. Open innovation and intellectual property rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Nylund, Petra A.; Hitchen, Emma L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the relationship between open innovation and the use of intellectual property rights (IPRs) in small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The authors consider patents, industrial designs (i.e. design patents in the USA), trademarks, and copyrights...... sizes highlights the importance of further investigation into IP strategies and into open innovation in SMEs. Practical implications: Industrial designs are currently the most efficient IPR for SMEs to protect their intellectual property in open innovation collaborations. Depending on the company size...

  5. Mastering openFrameworks creative coding demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Yanc, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This book gives clear and effective instructions, stuffed with practical examples, to build your own fun, stunning and highly-interactive openFrameworks applications. Each chapter is focused differently and has a new theme to it,This book targets visual artists, designers, programmers and those interested in creative coding by getting started with openFrameworks. This book will help you understand the capabilities of openFrameworks to help you create visually stunning and fully interactive applications. You should have a basic knowledge of object oriented programming, such as C++, Java, Python

  6. The extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abanmy, Norah

    2017-09-01

    Online pharmacies sell medicine over the Internet and deliver them by mail. The main objective of this study is to explore the extent of use of online pharmacies in Saudi Arabia which will be useful for the scientific community and regulators. An Arabic survey questionnaire was developed for this study. The questionnaire was distributed via email and social media. Four sections were created to cover the objectives: experience with online shopping in general, demographics, awareness of the existence and customer experiences of buying medicine online, and reasons for buying/not buying medicine online. A total of 633 responses were collected. Around 69% (437) of them were female and the majority (256, 40.4%) was in the age range 26-40. Only 23.1% (146) were aware of the existence of online pharmacies where 2.7% (17) of them had bought a medicine over the Internet and 15 (88.2%) respondents out of the 17 was satisfied with the process. Lack of awareness of the availability of such services was the main reason for not buying medicines online. Many respondents (263, 42.7%) were willing to try an online pharmacy, although majorities (243, 45.9%) were unable to differentiate between legal and illegal online pharmacies. The largest categories of products respondents were willing to buy them online were nonprescription medicines and cosmetics. The popularity of purchasing medicines over the Internet is still low in Saudi Arabia. However, because the majority of respondents are willing to purchase medicines online, efforts should be made by the Saudi FDA to set regulations and monitor this activity.

  7. Migratory decisions in birds: Extent of genetic versus environmental control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogonowski, M.S.; Conway, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    Migration is one of the most spectacular of animal behaviors and is prevalent across a broad array of taxa. In birds, we know much about the physiological basis of how birds migrate, but less about the relative contribution of genetic versus environmental factors in controlling migratory tendency. To evaluate the extent to which migratory decisions are genetically determined, we examined whether individual western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) change their migratory tendency from one year to the next at two sites in southern Arizona. We also evaluated the heritability of migratory decisions by using logistic regression to examine the association between the migratory tendency of burrowing owl parents and their offspring. The probability of migrating decreased with age in both sexes and adult males were less migratory than females. Individual owls sometimes changed their migratory tendency from one year to the next, but changes were one-directional: adults that were residents during winter 2004-2005 remained residents the following winter, but 47% of adults that were migrants in winter 2004-2005 became residents the following winter. We found no evidence for an association between the migratory tendency of hatch-year owls and their male or female parents. Migratory tendency of hatch-year owls did not differ between years, study sites or sexes or vary by hatching date. Experimental provision of supplemental food did not affect these relationships. All of our results suggest that heritability of migratory tendency in burrowing owls is low, and that intraspecific variation in migratory tendency is likely due to: (1) environmental factors, or (2) a combination of environmental factors and non-additive genetic variation. The fact that an individual's migratory tendency can change across years implies that widespread anthropogenic changes (i.e., climate change or changes in land use) could potentially cause widespread changes in the migratory tendency of

  8. Rate and extent of aqueous perchlorate removal by iron surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Angela M; De Leon, Corinne H; Young, Thomas M

    2003-07-15

    The rate and extent of perchlorate reduction on several types of iron metal was studied in batch and column reactors. Mass balances performed on the batch experiments indicate that perchlorate is initially sorbed to the iron surface, followed by a reduction to chloride. Perchlorate removal was proportional to the iron dosage in the batch reactors, with up to 66% removal in 336 h in the highest dosage system (1.25 g mL(-1)). Surface-normalized reaction rates among three commercial sources of iron filings were similar for acid-washed samples. The most significant perchlorate removal occurred in solutions with slightly acidic or near-neutral initial pH values. Surface mediation of the reaction is supported by the absence of reduction in batch experiments with soluble Fe2+ and also by the similarity in specific reaction rate constants (kSA) determined for three different iron types. Elevated soluble chloride concentrations significantly inhibited perchlorate reduction, and lower removal rates were observed for iron samples with higher amounts of background chloride contamination. Perchlorate reduction was not observed on electrolytic sources of iron or on a mixed-phase oxide (Fe3O4), suggesting that the reactive iron phase is neither pure zerovalent iron nor the mixed oxide alone. A mixed valence iron hydr(oxide) coating or a sorbed Fe2+ surface complex represent the most likely sites for the reaction. The observed reaction rates are too slow for immediate use in remediation system design, but the findings may provide a basis for future development of cost-effective abiotic perchlorate removal techniques.

  9. OpenSHS: Open Smart Home Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Alshammari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a new hybrid, open-source, cross-platform 3D smart home simulator, OpenSHS, for dataset generation. OpenSHS offers an opportunity for researchers in the field of the Internet of Things (IoT and machine learning to test and evaluate their models. Following a hybrid approach, OpenSHS combines advantages from both interactive and model-based approaches. This approach reduces the time and efforts required to generate simulated smart home datasets. We have designed a replication algorithm for extending and expanding a dataset. A small sample dataset produced, by OpenSHS, can be extended without affecting the logical order of the events. The replication provides a solution for generating large representative smart home datasets. We have built an extensible library of smart devices that facilitates the simulation of current and future smart home environments. Our tool divides the dataset generation process into three distinct phases: first design: the researcher designs the initial virtual environment by building the home, importing smart devices and creating contexts; second, simulation: the participant simulates his/her context-specific events; and third, aggregation: the researcher applies the replication algorithm to generate the final dataset. We conducted a study to assess the ease of use of our tool on the System Usability Scale (SUS.

  10. Librarian and LIS Faculty Participation in Self-Archiving Practice Needs Improvement. A Review of: Xia, J., Wilhoite, S. K., & Myers, R. L. (2011. A “librarian-LIS faculty” divide in open access practice. Journal of Documentation, 67(5, 791-805. doi:10.1108/00220411111164673

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie M. Hughes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To compare librarian and LISfaculty open access (OA self-archivingbehavior.Design – Logistical Regression Analysis.Setting – Twenty top-ranked library andinformation science journals published in 2006.Subjects – A total of 812 research articles inLIS journals.Methods – For the purpose of data collection,the researchers first compiled a list of libraryand information science journals utilizingJournal Citation Reports (JCR from 2006.Twenty journals were selected by consideringimpact factor and the list compiled waschecked against Ulrich’s Periodicals Directoryfollowing a similar methodology utilized in a2007 article by Anita Coleman. The sampleincluded was representative of both libraryand information science journals, and therewere exclusions of 3 types of journals: freeonline journals where OA participation couldnot be measured; subscription based journalsthat do not supply free articles; and annualreview journals. Here, OA participation or OApractice is considered to be author selfarchivingof articles that are not freelyavailable online. Research articles wereincluded in the sample; however, editorialsand book reviews were excluded. Theresearchers also collected information aboutthe article itself, including the title, name of thejournal and name of the author. Only firstauthor’s status as librarian or LIS faculty wasconsidered in data collection. One difficulty in collecting data about the authors was that their professional status was not always clear. The researchers collected information on whether the author’s status was librarian or faculty; when an author’s status was unclear, researchers searched online to determine it. If the author’s status still could not be determined via online searching, the authors chose to exclude those articles.After the articles were collected, Google Scholar was searched in order to determine OA status. The articles that were deemed OA were opened and if the article was

  11. What intent, whose intent and to what extent?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, David; Minssen, Timo

    2012-01-01

    infringement. Indirect patent infringement claims can also result in substantial damages awards. In a case against Microsoft, for instance, the software firm i4i Ltd managed to obtain a damages award of approximately USD 290 million with respect to an indirect patent infringement. It thus seems that indirect...... patent infringement is a potent tool at the disposal of patentees, which can be used to to stop a problem before it becomes a problem. At the same time, there are many reasons why an indirect infringement claim may fail. A prominent commentator in the field of patent law in Germany submits that indirect...... patent infringement under German law is not easy to understand and its application causes problems in practice. One of the reasons why an indirect patent infringement could fail is because the knowledge requirement in an indirect patent infringement claim is not fulfilled. Why this is so, and also under...

  12. Evaluation of nature and extent of injuries during Dahihandi festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Nemade

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Injuries related to the Hindu festival of Dahihandi where a human pyramid is formed and a pot of money kept at a height is broken, celebrated in the state of Maharashtra, have seen a significant rise in the past few years. The human pyramid formed is multi-layered and carries with it a high risk of injury including mortality. Aims: To evaluate the nature, extent and influencing factors of injuries related to Dahihandi festival. Settings and Design: We present a retrospective analysis of patients who presented in a tertiary care center with injuries during the Dahihandi festival in the year 2010. Materials and Methods: 124 patients′ records were evaluated for timing of injury, height of the Dahihandi pyramid, position of the patient in the multi-layered pyramid, mode of pyramid collapse and mechanism of an injury. A binary regression logistic analysis for risk factors was done at 5% significance level. Statistical Analysis: Univariate and multi-variate binary logistic regression of the risk factors for occurrence of a major or minor injury was done using Minitab™ version 16.0 at 5% significance. Results: Out of 139 patients presented to the center, 15 were not involved directly in the formation of pyramid, rest 124 were included in the analysis. A majority of the patients were above 15 years of age [110 (83.6%]. 46 (37.1% patients suffered major injuries. There were 39 fractures, 3 cases of chest wall trauma with 10 cases of head injuries and 1 death. More than half of the patients [78 (56.1%] were injured after 1800 hours. 73 (58.9% injured participants were part of the pyramid constructed to reach the Dahihandi placed at 30 feet or more above the ground. 72 (51.8% participants were part of the middle layers of the pyramid. Fall of a participant from upstream layers on the body was the main mechanism of injury, and majority [101 (81.5%] of the patients suffered injury during descent phase of the pyramid. Conclusions: There is a

  13. A Fully Automated Classification for Mapping the Annual Cropland Extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldner, F.; Defourny, P.

    2015-12-01

    Mapping the global cropland extent is of paramount importance for food security. Indeed, accurate and reliable information on cropland and the location of major crop types is required to make future policy, investment, and logistical decisions, as well as production monitoring. Timely cropland information directly feed early warning systems such as GIEWS and, FEWS NET. In Africa, and particularly in the arid and semi-arid region, food security is center of debate (at least 10% of the population remains undernourished) and accurate cropland estimation is a challenge. Space borne Earth Observation provides opportunities for global cropland monitoring in a spatially explicit, economic, efficient, and objective fashion. In the both agriculture monitoring and climate modelling, cropland maps serve as mask to isolate agricultural land for (i) time-series analysis for crop condition monitoring and (ii) to investigate how the cropland is respond to climatic evolution. A large diversity of mapping strategies ranging from the local to the global scale and associated with various degrees of accuracy can be found in the literature. At the global scale, despite efforts, cropland is generally one of classes with the poorest accuracy which make difficult the use for agricultural. This research aims at improving the cropland delineation from the local scale to the regional and global scales as well as allowing near real time updates. To that aim, five temporal features were designed to target the key- characteristics of crop spectral-temporal behavior. To ensure a high degree of automation, training data is extracted from available baseline land cover maps. The method delivers cropland maps with a high accuracy over contrasted agro-systems in Ukraine, Argentina, China and Belgium. The accuracy reached are comparable to those obtained with classifiers trained with in-situ data. Besides, it was found that the cropland class is associated with a low uncertainty. The temporal features

  14. The Extent of Denitrification in Long Island Groundwater using MIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, C.; Hanson, G. N.; Kroeger, K. D.

    2009-12-01

    Long Island drinking water is provided by a sole source aquifer with nitrate levels in some North Shore communities approaching or exceeding the drinking water standard of 10 mgL-1. Previous workers, using mass balance approaches, suggested that the primary source of nitrogen is sewage effluent and observed a 50% deficit of nitrate in Long Island’s groundwater system. We analyzed dissolved N2/Ar ratios in groundwater from wells to determine if groundwater denitrification is the cause of the nitrogen deficit at two locations where septic tanks are used for sewage treatment and the effluent leaches to the groundwater; a suburban community on the north shore of Long Island (Northport, NY) and parkland on a barrier island at the south shore of Long Island (Watch Hill, Fire Island National Seashore). In Northport we found 0 to 20 % of the nitrate in groundwater denitrified with excess N-NO3- concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.5 mgL-1. These samples had concentrations high in dissolved oxygen (DO), 6 to 11 mgL-1, and low in dissolved organic carbon (DOC), 0.4 to 2.8 mgL-1. At Watch Hill nitrogen is primarily retained as ammonium or dissolved organic nitrogen. Where nitrate is formed, we found up to 99% denitrification. Excess N-NO3- ranged from 0 to 8 mgL-1 with concentrations low in DO, 0.3 to 3.4 mgL-1, and high in DOC, 5.3 to 18.4 mgL-1. The vadose zone in the Northport area has an average thickness of 10-100 feet whereas at Watch Hill it is 1 - 2 feet thick. We hypothesize that the vadose zone thickness affects the extent of denitrification by controlling the amount of DOC and DO that reaches the groundwater. A thick vadose zone allows for more extensive interaction of infiltrating sewage effluent with atmospheric oxygen in the vadose zone which oxidizes DOC. In Northport groundwater has high DO, low DOC and essentially no denitrification leaving 2 to 11 mgL-1 N-NO3- remaining. At the Watch Hill site a thin vadose zone below the sewage leach field provides

  15. Towards a Linguistic Linked Open Data cloud: The Open Linguistics Working Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Chiarcos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Open Linguistics Working Group (OWLG is an initiative of experts from different fields concerned with linguistic data, including academic linguistics (e.g. typology, corpus linguistics, applied linguistics (e.g. computational linguistics, lexicography and language documentation, and NLP (e.g. from the Semantic Web community. The primary goals of the working group are 1 promotion the idea of open linguistic resources 2 the development of means for their representation, and 3 encouraging the exchange of ideas across different disciplines. To a certain extent, the activities of the Open Linguistics Working Group converge towards the creation of a Linguistic Linked Open Data cloud, which is a topic addressed from different angles by several members of the Working Group. In this article, some of these currently on-going activities are presented and described.

  16. Wartime open globe eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Zuljan, Igor; Lakos, Venera; Miljak, Snjezana; Markovic, Irena; Ivanisevic, Milan

    2010-03-01

    and six eviscerations (8.75%). The most important factors in the prognosis of postoperational visual acuity for wartime open globe eye injuries were: (1) preoperative condition of the eye, (2) localization and extent of the wound, (3) presence, size and nature of foreign bodies, and (4) adequate surgical treatment in specialized institutions.

  17. A study of managerial job system of open water swimming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALIL SAMIRA

    2011-04-01

    technical committee of the open water swimming.Keywords: managerial job system, open water swimming.IntroductionThe modern sport management plays a vital part in directing the sport organizations and institutions inall their scopes and specializations towards progress and development, solving problems, treating the points ofweakness and limitations and increasing the points of efficacy and distinction whether it is in the championshipsector or practice sector because the management is always linked to deciding goal and how to reach them (Aly,2009 , Open water swimming is usually practiced in lakes, seas, rivers, gulfs or oceans that the name of longdistances swimming that exceeds 1500 meters free swimming and it sometimes reaches 40 k.m in theprofessionals swimming. Egypt is the first state that has set up a union organizes long distances swimming in1950 then it was followed by some of the Western and Arab countries. The first international union forswimming was set up in 1952 and its headquarter was decided to be in Cairo due to the results achieved by theEgyptian swimmers in the international long distances swimming (Kott, 1999..The problem of the study and its importance:It is known that policies used in the managerial organizing in any organization contributes to a great extent inshaping the functional climate and as long as the followed policies are more clear, more elastic and based onscientific bases, the more positive, the spread atmosphere in the organization.The sport unions represent the back bone in the managerial and organizational form of the sport movement andthe linking point between the centralism represented in the high formal and national sport authorities and the

  18. 构建开放的人才培养体系培养应用型人才的实践探索%Practice Research on Constructing Opening¯oriented Talent Cultivation SysteM and Cultivating Applied Talents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧研

    2015-01-01

    Currently,with the deepening of our country’s industrialization,informationalization,urbanization,marketization and internationalization,the pressure of population,resources and environment is mounting,urgently in need of millions of specialized tal-ents. Heilongjiang Institute of Technology,as local graduate university,is among the first pilot universities of“Excellence Program”proposed by the Ministry of Education,sticks to the road of opening-oriented school-running,constructs opening-oriented talent cultiva-tion system and opens up a new way for cultivating talents with own characteristics in the field of providing high quality applied talents for the region.%当前,我国工业化、信息化、城镇化、市场化、国际化深入发展,人口、资源、环境压力日益加大,迫切需要培养“数以千万计的专门人才”。黑龙江工程学院作为地方本科院校,是教育部“卓越计划”首批试点院校,学校坚持走开放办学之路,构建了开放的人才培养体系,在为地方培养高素质应用型人才方面,走出了一条有自身特色的人才培养之路。

  19. CSW Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Doug; Mitchell, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    During the development of the CMR (Common Metadata Repository) (CMR) for the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS), CSW (Catalog Service for the Web) a number of best practices came to light. Given that the ESIP (Earth Science Information Partners) Discovery Cluster is committed to interoperability and standards in earth data discovery this seemed like a convenient moment to provide Best Practices to the organization in the same way we did for OpenSearch for this widely-used standard.

  20. Extent of the Disturbed Rock Zone Around a WIPP Disposal Room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, C. G.; Park, B. Y.; Holcomb, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, is operated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the underground disposal facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste. It is located in a bedded salt formation at a depth of about 650 m. Salt at this depth behaves as a viscous material having an initially lithostatic state of stress. Mining of an opening disturbs the static equilibrium to a degree where fracturing of the rock surrounding a room occurs, changing its mechanical and hydrologic properties. This disturbed rock zone (DRZ) is an important geomechanical feature included in the performance assessment process models used to predict future repository conditions as a part of certification by the EPA as meeting regulatory compliance. Based on ongoing scientific investigations and evaluation of published data since the original certification in 1998, our understanding of the DRZ has continued to progress. Three deformation processes are activated as deviatoric stresses are induced upon excavation of a room in a salt formation: (1) elastic response, (2) inelastic viscoplastic flow, and (3) inelastic- damage induced flow. Damage, the least understood of these processes, is manifested by the time- dependent initiation, growth, coalescence, and healing of microfractures with a deviatoric stress state. Since the ability to model the spatial and temporal changes in salt damage is not available at this time, various means to measure it have been attempted. At the WIPP, for this study, we used sonic velocity measurements obtained over a 12 year period as the principal field method to describe the extent of the DRZ. Predictions of the DRZ extent based on these experimental results are substantiated by permeability measurements and microfracture density analysis from other places in the repository. Extensive laboratory salt creep data demonstrate that damage can be assessed in terms of volumetric strain and principal stresses. Stress states