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Sample records for extensor pollicis brevis

  1. Bilateral variations of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis: Surgical significance

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) muscles are known to exhibit numerous variations. Aims: We would like to put across an accidental unusual finding of APL and EPB muscles. Materials and Methods: During routine cadaveric dissection of a 52 year old female cadaver, we found an unusual APL and EPB muscles variations bilaterally. Results: Duplication of APL tendon was noted, one showing normal attachment and the additional one on trapezium. EPB muscle had an ...

  2. Longitudinal split tear of the extensor pollicis brevis tendon: report of 2 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroonen, Leo T; Ferguson, Christopher; Ketschke, Rhett A

    2015-02-01

    Two patients presented with radial-sided wrist pain and longitudinal split tears of the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. Surgical debridement and repair was performed on the first patient with good results. Early diagnosis in the second patient led to successful treatment with immobilization alone. If diagnostic maneuvers for de Quervain tenosynovitis produce pain in a location other than the radial styloid, advanced imaging should be considered to identify other anatomic causes for the pain.

  3. Variations in abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the Quervain syndrome: a surgical and anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulthanan, Teerawat; Chareonwat, Boonsong

    2007-01-01

    Eighty-two wrists of Thai cadavers and the wrists of 66 patients with de Quervain syndrome were studied, and the variation in the number of tendons and the fibro-osseous tunnel in the first extensor compartment were recorded. The abductor pollicis longus had more than one tendon in 73 of the cadavers (89%) and in 32 of the patients (49%) (p Quervain syndrome (p = 0.01). The results indicate that the number of fibro-osseous tunnels and multiple compartments in the first extensor compartment may be associated with a predisposition to de Quervain syndrome.

  4. Anomalous Course of the Extensor Pollicis Longus With Multiple Absences of Thumb Muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Jayoung; Kim, Don-Kyu; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung-Mook

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of a 10-year-old girl with anomalous course of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) muscle, which exists with absence of thenar muscles and muscles in the 1st extensor compartment. Her chief complaint was severe atrophy on the right thenar eminence. On physical examination, there was no obvious functional abnormality on her right thumb. On magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis ...

  5. Anomalous course of the extensor pollicis longus with multiple absences of thumb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jayoung; Kim, Don-Kyu; Kang, Si Hyun; Seo, Kyung-Mook

    2013-02-01

    We report a rare case of a 10-year-old girl with anomalous course of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) muscle, which exists with absence of thenar muscles and muscles in the 1st extensor compartment. Her chief complaint was severe atrophy on the right thenar eminence. On physical examination, there was no obvious functional abnormality on her right thumb. On magnetic resonance imaging, we found that the abductor pollicis brevis, opponens pollicis, abductor pollicis longus, and extensor pollicis brevis muscles were absent. The tendon of the EPL muscle was found, but it had abnormal insertion on the radial side of the proximal phalanx, not on the distal phalanx. This variation was thought to have played a major role in compensating for impaired abduction of the thumb, which is usually accompanied by agenesis of major abductors of the thumb.

  6. Isolated bilateral absence of abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis muscles: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a 21-year-old man with a bilateral absence of abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis muscles, which has not been previously reported. He presented with weakness in both of his hands. On physical examination there was atrophy on the thenar eminences of both of his hands and there was an absence of gross functional impairment in his hand functions. On magnetic resonance imaging, abductor pollicis brevis and opponens pollicis muscles were bilaterally absent. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(1.000: 29-31

  7. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans. PMID:27069895

  8. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rodrigo César; de Oliveira, Kennedy Martinez; Léo, Jorge Alfredo; Elias, Bruno Adriano Borges; Dos Santos, Paulo Ricardo; de Santiago, Hildemberg Agostinho Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans.

  9. Anomalous course of the extensor pollicis longus: clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Guy; Wolovelsky, Alejandro; Rinott, Micha; Rozen, Nimrod

    2011-11-01

    The extensor pollicis longus (EPL) is a consistent structure with rare anomalies, the most common being a group of different tendon duplications passing through the fourth compartment without symptoms. The second form comprises anomalies in the course of the EPL having significant clinical importance due to the predisposition for creating tenosynovitis of the EPL mimicking other types of tendon tenosynovitis. Clinical symptoms of radial dorsal wrist pain mimicking intersection syndrome or de-Quervain disease with the "absent snuff box" sign should raise suspicions for an anomaly in the course of the EPL.

  10. DOUBLE-BELLIED EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS MANUS

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    Lydia S. Quadros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most of the anatomical variations are noted during the cadaveric dissections. A rare variation of the Extensor digitorum brevis manus was observed on the dorsal aspect of the right hand of a 69-year-old male cadaver. This atavistic muscle had two bellies which originated from the dorsal aspect of the lower end of radius and the capsule of the wrist joint respectively. The two bellies fused to form a single tendon which inserted into the ulnar side of the dorsal digital expansion of the middle finger. Posterior interosseous nerve innervated the two bellies. This muscle may be involved in the wrist pain or may be misinterpreted as a ganglion or a nodule upon radiological examination. This muscle may be used for reconstructive purposes.

  11. Extensor digitorum brevis manus: Its clinical significance and morphology

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    Bolla SR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Anomalous muscles are often a matter of concern to clinicians as they mislead the diagnosis. Knowledge of such variant muscles is important clinically to avoid misdiagnosis. In this report we present an anomalous muscle on the dorsum of hand, extensor digitorum brevis manus an uncommon variation present as a swelling on the dorsum. It is originated from the dorsal wrist capsule within the compartment deep to the extensor retinaculum for the extensor digitorum and inserted into the extensor hood of the index finger, this variant muscle often cause dorsal wrist pain and often confused as ganglion, soft tissue tumor, synovial cyst or tenovaginitis. The presence of such variant muscles on dorsum of hand, their clinical significance and literature has been reviewed.

  12. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation

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    Dhananjaya Sabat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP. He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  13. Late extensor pollicis longus rupture following plate fixation in Galeazzi fracture dislocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabat, Dhananjaya; Dabas, Vineet; Dhal, Anil

    2014-07-01

    Late rupture of extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon after Galeazzi fracture dislocation fixation is an unknown entity though it is a well-established complication following distal radius fractures. We report the case of a 55-year old male who presented with late EPL tendon rupture 4 months following internal fixation of Galeazzi fracture dislocation with a Locking Compression Plate (LCP). He was managed with extensor indicis proprius (EIP) transfer to restore thumb extension. At 4 years followup, functional result of the transfer was good. We identify possible pitfalls with this particular patient and discuss how to avoid them in future.

  14. Extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallusis brevis transplantation for treatment of long-standing facial pa-ralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei-qing; FANG Bai-rong; FANG Xue-quan; WANG Chang-jun

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of free transplan-tation of denervated muscles and vessels in the treatment of long-standing facial paralysis.Methods: A total of 26 patients with facial paralysis (10 males and 16 females, aged 16-65 years, mean: 47 years) were enrolled in this study to receive transplantation of denervated extensor digitorum brevis (EDB) and extensor hallusis brevis (EHB). The muscle tendon was slung to the ala nasi, the middle point of the nasolabial sulcus, the angu-lus otis and the chin to correct the nasal and oral deformity. The muscle belly was buried around the nerves that inner-vated the masseter muscle. Microsurgery was applied to anastomosing the tarsus lateral vessels to the superficial temporalis vessels.Results: After operation, all the patients immediately obtained satisfied static appearance. The movement of the paralyzed comer of the mouth could be obtained one month later and the smile of the paralyzed side could be restored after 3 months of training. And 88% patients achieved per-fect results, 8% obtained satisfactory results, and 4% got improvement 6 months after operation according to Stennert's paresis scoring system.Conclusions: Free transplantation of denervated muscles and vessels for the treatment of long-standing fa-cial paralysis, which seldom causes atrophy or liquefaction of the transferred muscles, can maintain muscle viability and induce reliable nerve regeneration. Therefore, it is a safe and efficient treatment method for the patients suffer-ing from facial paralysis.

  15. System identification of evoked mechanomyogram from abductor pollicis brevis muscle in isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Takanori; Sakai, Hiroaki

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to verify the applicability of a sixth-order model to the mechanomyogram (MMG) system of the parallel-fibered muscle, which was identified from the MMG of the pennation muscle. The median nerve was stimulated, and an MMG and torque of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were measured. The MMGs were detected with either a capacitor microphone or an acceleration sensor. The transfer functions between stimulation and the MMG and between stimulation and torque were identified by the singular value decomposition method. The torque and the MMG, which were detected with a capacitor microphone, DMMG, were approximated with a second- and a third-order model, respectively. The natural frequency of the torque, reflecting longitudinal mechanical characteristics, did not show a significant difference from that of the DMMG. The MMG detected with an acceleration sensor was approximated with a fourth-order model. The natural frequencies of the AMMG reflecting the muscle and subcutaneous tissue in the transverse direction were obtained. Both DMMG and AMMG have to be measured to investigate the model of the MMG system for parallel-fibered muscle. The MMG system of parallel-fibered muscle was also modeled with a sixth-order model.

  16. De Quervain disease caused by abductor pollicis longus tenosynovitis: a report of three cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Masahiro; Takahara, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Noriaki; Ito, Kazuo; Watanabe, Tadayoshi; Ogino, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    De Quervain disease is caused by a stenosing tenosynovitis in the first dorsal compartment, and the main aetiology is extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) tenosynovitis. We encountered three cases in which EPB tenosynovitis was absent and abductor pollicis longus (APL) tenosynovitis was confirmed during operation. In the treatment of de Quervain disease, APL tenosynovitis should be paid as much attention as EPB tenosynovitis.

  17. Subcutaneous Rupture of the Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon after Corticosteroid Injections for DeQuervain’s Stenosing Tenovaginitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Boussakri; Amara Bouali

    2014-01-01

    DeQuervain’s stenosing tenovaginitis is a common condition. Nonsurgical treatment by corticosteroid injection has significantly improved the management of this disease. The authors describe a case of subcutaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon at the wrist, three months after two corticosteroid injections for DeQuervain’s stenosing tenovaginitis. The etiological history has not found any trauma history of the wrist. The aim of our work is to draw attention to this rare complic...

  18. Attritional rupture of extensor pollicis longus: a rare complication following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sproule, James A

    2011-01-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation has become established as an acceptable method of treatment for diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones in the paediatric population. It is considered safe, minimally invasive and does not compromise physeal growth. We report a case of delayed rupture of extensor pollicis longus due to attrition over the sharp edges of a protruding nail end after elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial diaphyseal fracture.

  19. A New Rerouting Technique for the Extensor Pollicis Longus in Palliative Treatment for Wrist and Finger Extension Paralysis Resulting From Radial Nerve and C5C6C7 Root Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laravine, Jennifer; Cambon-Binder, Adeline; Belkheyar, Zoubir

    2016-03-01

    Wrist and finger extension paralysis is a consequence of an injury to the radial nerve or the C5C6C7 roots. Despite these 2 different levels of lesions, palliative treatment for this type of paralysis depends on the same tendon transfers. A large majority of the patients are able to compensate for a deficiency of the extension of the wrist and fingers. However, a deficiency in the opening of the first web space, which could be responsible for transfers to the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis brevis, and the extensor pollicis longus (EPL), frequently exists. The aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of a new EPL rerouting technique outside of Lister's tubercle. Another aim was to verify whether this technique allows a better opening of the thumb-index pinch in this type of paralysis. In the first part, we performed an anatomic study comparing the EPL rerouting technique and the frequently used technique for wrist and finger extension paralyses. In the second part, we present 2 clinical cases in which this new technique will be practiced. Preliminary results during this study favor the EPL rerouting technique. This is a simple and reproducible technique that allows for good opening of the first web space in the treatment of wrist and finger extension paralysis.

  20. Technical tip: Side-to-side tendon suture as escape plan during extensor indicis tendon plasty in distal extensor pollicis longus rupture

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    Schleh, Andrea Christina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In case of a short distal recipient stump after extensor pollicis longus (EPL tendon rupture, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius (EIP tendon using a conventional Pulvertaft tendon-weaving technique may be difficult or impossible. The purpose of this paper is to provide a technical tip to manage this rare, but clinically important scenario of a very short distal EPL recipient tendon.Methods: A side-to-side tendon suture (SSTS was used for EIP transfer to restore thumb extension in 3 patients who had sustained a distal rupture of their extensor pollicis longus near the interphalangeal joint. The SSTS was performed with an overlap of 2 cm in 2 patients and in one patient.Results: A stable SSTS was achieved which allowed early active mobilization and resulted in good functional recovery of thumb extension after a mean follow-up of 8 months.Conclusion: Extensor indicis transfer using SSTS is a reliable and technically simple escape plan in a distal rupture of the EPL near the phalangeal joint. It provides very stable tendon-to-tendon attachment with high loading capacity and good gliding qualities.

  1. Extensor pollicis et indicis communis with triple slips in a bilateral case of accessory muscles of the hand.

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    Casanova-Martínez, Daniel; Valdivia-Gandur, Ivan; Golanó, Pau

    2014-09-01

    The presence and disposition of supernumerary tendons in the fourth extensor compartment of the wrist have been described by several authors. The aim of this communication was to describe a finding in a study of an anatomical dissection of an adult cadaver that presents a rare disposition of extensor tendons in the fourth extensor compartment of both wrists. In the right wrist, we found an extensor pollicis et indicis communis with three slips: two toward the index finger and one toward the thumb. We found no similar reports in a review of the literature. Additionally, we found an extensor indicis radialis in the left wrist. In both hands, the course of accessory slips was modified by fiber derived from intertendinous fascia. Although this represents a small percentage of the distribution of tendons of the dorsal hand, knowledge of these anatomical variations and their relationships to intertendinous fascia is critical for clinical decisions because this area is used frequently in treatments related to tendon graft, transfer, and transplantation.

  2. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling.

  3. Extensor Pollicis Longus Injury in Addition to De Quervain’s with Text Messaging on Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Bhaskaranand; Bhat, Anil K; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To do a clinical and ultrasonic evaluation of subjects with thumb pain with text messaging. Background: Thumbs are commonly used for text messaging, which are not as well designed for fine manipulative or dexterous work. Repetitive use as in text messaging can lead to the injury to the tendons of the thumb. Materials and Methods: Ninety eight students with symptoms of Repetitive Strain Type of injuries of the thumb were selected from a survey and evaluated both clinically and by ultrasound analysis of the musculotendinous unit of the thumb to note changes due to excessive use of the mobile phone. Age and sex matched controls were also subjected to ultrasound evaluation. Results: Clinical examination showed positive Finkelstein test in 40% of the cases, significant reduction in the lateral and tip pinch strengths in the cases. Ultrasound detected changes in the first and the third compartments in 19% of the cases. Conclusion: Isolated cases of pain in the thumb have been reported but this study noted changes both clinically and by ultrasound in the tendons of the thumb. These changes should be taken as warning signs of possible subclinical changes taking place in the soft tissues of the thumb in these subjects due to repetitive use of mobile phones and thus, making them prone for developing painful Musculoskeletal Disorders. Application: Repetitive use of mobile phones for text messaging can lead to the damage of Extensor pollicis longus of the thumb in addition to the tendons of the first compartment of the wrist. PMID:25584249

  4. Surgical Release of the First Extensor Compartment for Refractory de Quervain's Tenosynovitis: Surgical Findings and Functional Evaluation Using DASH Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Aminata, Iman Widya; Hong, Han-Pyo; Yoon, Jong-Pil

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have evaluated surgical outcomes in patients with refractory de Quervain's disease using validated outcome measures. We assessed the clinical outcomes of dorsal release of the first extensor compartment for the treatment of de Quervain's disease using the disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) score. Methods From October 2003 to May 2009, we retrospectively evaluated 33 patients (3 men and 30 women) who underwent surgical treatment for de Quervain's disease. All patients had a positive Finkelstein test and localized tenderness over the first dorsal compartment. All operations were performed under local anesthesia. A 2-cm-long transverse skin incision was made over the first extensor compartment and the dorsal retinaculum covering the extensor pollicis brevis was incised longitudinally. Preoperative and postoperative clinical evaluation included the use of DASH score, Finkelstein test, and visual analogue scale (VAS) score. Results In 18 patients (55%), the extensor pollicis brevis tendon compartment was separated from the abductor pollicis longus compartment. Eight patients had intracompartmental ganglia in the extensor pollicis brevis subcompartment. All patients except one had negative sign on Finkelstein test at the last follow-up. The average VAS score decreased from 7.42 preoperatively to 1.33 postoperatively (p Quervain's disease. The release of the first extensor compartment for refractory de Quervain's disease resulted in good clinical outcomes with minimal morbidity. PMID:25436064

  5. STUDY OF COMPLICATIONS OF COLLES FRACTURE TO FIND OUT THE TRUE INCIDENCE OF EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS TENDON RUPTURE AND CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME IN INDIAN POPULATION

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    Kulkarni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Colles‟ fracture is confined to adult and usually is seen in women over the age of fifty who have fallen on the outstretched hand. EPL tendon is the most common extensor tendon to rupture after colles‟ fracture. To our belief the incidenc e of median nerve injury and EPL tendon rupture given in literature are much higher than what we see now a days, so with this aim we carried this study to find out the true incidence of CTS and EPL tendon rupture in Indian population. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study 100 patients with colles‟ fracture for true incidence of Extensor Pollicis Longus (EPL Tendon rupture and Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS in Indian Population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study 100 patients with colles fracture were followed up at regural intervals and were evaluated clinically and radiogrphically to rule out complications like EPL tendon rupture and CTS. OBSERVATION AND RESULTS: In our study, we found 0% incidence of CTS and EPL tendon rupture. CONCLUS ION: Proper division of patients into displaced and un displaced fracture and treatment of displaced fracture being closed reduction and internal fixation with „K‟ wires and then cast application in neutral position i.e. supination without flexion at wrist joint and properly advised physiotheraphy after cast removal at one and half month should be advocated

  6. A variant extensor indicis muscle and the branching pattern of the deep radial nerve could explain hand functionality and clinical symptoms in the living patient.

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    Kumka, Myroslava

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the topographic anatomy of an extensor indicis (EI) muscle with a double tendon and the associated distribution of the deep branch of the radial nerve (DBRN). Both EI tendons were positioned deep to the tendons of the extensor digitorum as they traversed the dorsal osseofibrous tunnel. They then joined the medial slips of the extensor expansion of the second and third digits. In all other dissected forearms, a tendon of the EI muscle joined the medial slip of the extensor expansion to the index finger. The DBRN provided short branches to the superficial extensor muscles, long branches to the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis muscles, and terminated as the posterior interosseous nerve. Descending deep to the extensor pollicis longus muscle, the posterior interosseous nerve sent branches to the extensor pollicis brevis and EI muscles. Understanding of the topographic anatomy of an EI with a double tendon, and the associated distribution of the DBRN, may contribute to accurate diagnosis and treatment of hand lesions.

  7. Repercusión de la variabilidad anatómica del primer compartimento extensor de la mano en la enfermedad de De Quervain The impact of anatomical variability of the first extensor compartment of the hand in the De Quervain's disease

    OpenAIRE

    F.J. López Mendoza; C.X. Barón Ramos; Gargollo Orvañanos

    2011-01-01

    En la enfermedad de De Quervain, la cirugía es la indicación estándar como procedimiento terapéutico y consiste en la liberación de los tendones abductor pollicis longus (APL) y extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) del primer compartimento de la mano. Está documentada la presencia de un septum dentro del compartimento entre los tendones del extensor corto y del abductor largo del pulgar. La importancia que tiene describir y hallar este subcompartimento radica en que la falta de conocimiento del mis...

  8. Estudo anatômico das inserções distais do tendão extensor longo do polegar Anatomical studies of the distal insertion of the extensor pollicis longus

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    Maurício Benedito Ferreira Caetano

    2004-06-01

    . During its passage through metacarpophalangeal joint we recorded its insertion in the joint capsule in 14 observations (23,3%, however the bone insertion there was not observed in this place.. The most common pattern about this (EPL extensor pollicis longus muscle was the presence of a tendon, passing through the osteofibroses dorsal of wrist compartment with a bone insertion at the base of distal pollicis phalanx.

  9. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

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    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  10. Anatomía arterial de los colgajos musculares de extensor carpi radialis longus y extensor carpi radialis brevis para su uso en transferencia muscular funcional libre Arterial anatomy of the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle flaps related to its use in free functioning muscle transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es documentar el aporte arterial y el patrón vascular intramuscular de los músculos Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL y Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB para analizar su utilización como colgajos libres en transferencia muscular funcional para reanimación facial. Realizamos un estudio anatómico en 29 brazos humanos en fresco. Las técnicas de inyección utilizadas fueron la modificada de oxido de plomo y gelatina en 11 cadáveres y la de inyección pulsátil de látex color en 18. Disecamos los músculos ECRL y ECRB y sus pedículos, los fotodocumentamos y radiografiamos valorando los resultados en función del patrón vascular intramuscular, relaciones anatómicas, calibres y longitud de pedículos. Encontramos dos patrones vasculares diferentes en las 29 disecciones siguiendo la clasificación de Mathes y Nahai de la anatomía vascular de los músculos (en función del número de pedículos vasculares y su dominancia: Tipo I( 37,9% ECRL y 20,7% ECRB y Tipo II(62,1% del ECRL y 79,3% del ECRB. El pedículo principal del ECRL (de diámetro medio 1,73 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 32,32 mm es en el 100% de los casos rama de la arteria recurrente radial y el pedículo principal del ECRB (de diámetro medio 1,11 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 27,77 mm es rama de la arteria radial en el 68,9% de los casos y de la arteria recurrente radial en el 31,1% de los casos. Concluimos que El ECRL y ECRB presentan dos tipos de patrones vasculares: tipo I y tipo II, siendo más frecuente en nuestro trabajo el tipo II, que hacen que ambos puedan ser transferidos como colgajos libres por su pedículo principal. Ambos músculos presentan un tamaño, contorno, contenido fascial importante para el anclaje de suturas y una longitud de pedículo y calibre vascular adecuados para su transferencia microvascular libre en reanimación facial. De los dos, el más realizable como colgajo libre es el ECRB ya que la relaci

  11. STUDY OF COMPLICATIONS OF COLLES FRACTURE TO FIND OUT THE TRUE INCIDENCE OF EXTENSOR POLLICIS LONGUS TENDON RUPTURE AND CARPAL TUNNEL SYNDROME IN INDIAN POPULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni; Mangesh Rajput; Kiran Gaonkar; Nitin Patil; Nishant Gaonkar; Ketan Gupta; Nirav Patel; Ayush Lal

    2015-01-01

    Colles‟ fracture is confined to adult and usually is seen in women over the age of fifty who have fallen on the outstretched hand. EPL tendon is the most common extensor tendon to rupture after colles‟ fracture. To our belief the incidenc e of median nerve injury and EPL tendon rupture given in literature are much higher than what we see now a days, so with this aim we carried this study to find out the true incidence of CTS and EPL tendon rupture in Indian population. AI...

  12. Use of the radial groove view intra-operatively to prevent damage to the extensor pollicis longus tendon by protruding screws during volar plating of a distal radial fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S K; Bae, K W; Choy, W S

    2013-10-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy of a newly designed radiological technique (the radial groove view) for the detection of protrusion of screws in the groove for the extensor pollicis longus tendon (EPL) during plating of distal radial fractures. We also aimed to determine the optimum position of the forearm to obtain this view. We initially analysed the anatomy of the EPL groove by performing three-dimensional CT on 51 normal forearms. The mean horizontal angle of the groove was 17.8° (14° to 23°). We found that the ideal position of the fluoroscopic beam to obtain this view was 20° in the horizontal plane and 5° in the sagittal plane. We then intra-operatively assessed the use of the radial groove view for detecting protrusion of screws in the EPL groove in 93 fractures that were treated by volar plating. A total of 13 protruding screws were detected. They were changed to shorter screws and these patients underwent CT scans of the wrist immediately post-operatively. There remained one screw that was protruding. These findings suggest that the use of the radial groove view intra-operatively is a good method of assessing the possible protrusion of screws into the groove of EPL when plating a fracture of the distal radius.

  13. Multiple tendons of abductor pollicis longus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansur DI

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Anatomic variations of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL and its knowledge is important to assess the diseased and traumatized hand and when considering tendons for repair or graft. During routine dissection of a 63-year-old male cadaver, in the Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore, Karnataka, India we came across an unusual APL in the right upper limb. The muscle had altogether 9 tendons and they were inserted to the lateral and anterolateral sides of the base of the 1st metacarpal bone, opponens pollicis (two tendons each, the abductor pollicis brevis, trapezium and thenar fascia (one tendon each. The number of accessory tendons of APL has functional significance in the development of de Quervain’s syndrome.

  14. Analysis of the morphometry and variations in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle: an anatomic guide for muscle flap and tendon transfer surgical dissection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirasanagandla, Srinivasa Rao; Nayak, Satheesha B.; Somayaji, Nagabhooshana S.; Rao, Mohandas K. G.; Bhat, Kumar M. R.

    2013-01-01

    The extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) is a practical option for use as an island flap or free flap when reconstructing soft tissue defects in the ankle as well as in the entire lower limb. It is frequently used to correct crossover toe deformity and other painful toe disorders. We evaluated the morphometry of the EDB in 44 formalin-fixed limbs. Length and width of the muscles were measured. Surface area was calculated as the product of length and width of the muscle. The length of each tendon was also measured from its origin to the point of distal attachment. Presence of any additional tendons was noted. Mean length, width, and surface area of the muscle were 7.39±0.71 cm, 4.1±0.37 cm, and 30.5±4.78 cm2 on the right side and 7.2±0.84 cm, 3.9±0.37 cm, and 28.4±5.35 cm2 on the left side, respectively. Morphometry of the tendons revealed that the tendon of the great toe had the highest mean length (9.5 cm) and the tendon of the fourth toe had the lowest mean length (6.3 cm). Four of the limbs studied (9.09%) had only three tendons. Three of the limbs studied (6.81%) had five tendons, and in one exceptional case (2.27%), six tendons were detected. These observations have significant value and are applicable to plastic and orthopedic surgery. PMID:24179695

  15. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements.

  16. Percutaneous Release of the First Dorsal Extensor Compartment: A Cadaver Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güleç, Ali; Türkmen, Faik; Toker, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the efficiency of the percutaneous 18-G needle technique in releasing the fibro-osseous sheath over the first dorsal extensor compartment of the hand. Methods: Using anatomic landmarks, percutaneous release was performed with an 18-G needle on 48 wrists of 24 cadavers. The specimens were then dissected and examined for the completeness of the first dorsal extensor compartment release and any tendon or neurovascular injuries. The tunnel length, number of abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, presence of an intertendinous septum, and the effects of these parameters on percutaneous release were evaluated. Results: Percutaneous release was performed on all of the wrists, and the evaluation of the adequacy of release revealed 25 complete releases, 21 partial releases, and 2 missed releases. There were 19 cases of tendon complications. No neurovascular injuries were noted. The mean tunnel length was 2.66 ± 30 cm, and the mean number of tendons was 2.75 ± 0.86. A septum was present in 33.3% of cases. Tunnel length and tendon number had no statistically significant effect on release, whereas the presence of a septum was significantly associated with inadequate tunnel release and the development of tendon complications. Conclusions: Percutaneous release of the first dorsal extensor compartment using an 18-G needle was associated with high rates of incomplete release and tendon damage in the presence of an intertendinous septum. Further study is required under ultrasound guidance to determine the usefulness of percutaneous release in the first dorsal extensor compartment. Clinical Relevance: Release with a percutaneous needle tip in De Quervain’s syndrome may provide the advantages of better cosmetic results with less scar formation and an early return to work. PMID:27826460

  17. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parellada, Antoni J. [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Frankford Hospitals - Torresdale Campus, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gopez, Angela G.; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sweet, Stephanie [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Hand Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leinberry, Charles F. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery - Hand Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Reiter, Sean B.; Kohn, Mark [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons

  18. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  19. Surgical anatomy of the first extensor compartment: A systematic review and comparison of normal cadavers vs. De Quervain syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Z-Hye; Stranix, J T; Anzai, Lavinia; Sharma, Sheel

    2017-01-01

    De Quervain syndrome or tenosynovitis is a common wrist pathology caused by stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment. Multiple studies have demonstrated significant anatomic variation within the first extensor compartment. The terms "De Quervain's tenosynovitis" and "first extensor compartment anatomy" were comprehensively searched using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane database. The presence of a septum within the first dorsal compartment, the number of APL (abductor pollicis longus), and EPB (extensor pollicis brevis) tendon slips were identified. A total of 574 articles were identified on initial search, of which 21 met inclusion criteria. There were 1901 normal cadaver specimens and 470 surgically treated De Quervain disease patients, whose data were available. A septum was present in 43.7% of normal cadavers versus 62.2% De Quervain patients with 58.5% (327 of 559) of the septi characterized as incomplete. There was a difference in the number of APL tendons with a single APL tendon slip noted in 18.3% of normal cadavers (200/1096) versus 27.2% of De Quervain patients (87/230). There was a difference in the number of EPB tendons between the normal cadavers and De Quervain's wrists with 2 or more EPB tendinous slips observed in 5.9% of normal cadavers compared with 2.9% of De Quervain patients. Significant anatomic variability exists within the first extensor compartment. Patients with De Quervain disease were more likely to have a septum dividing the compartment and a single slip of APL. These variations are clinically relevant in the pathophysiology and treatment of De Quervain's tenosynovitis. Prognostic studies. Level III. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Repercusión de la variabilidad anatómica del primer compartimento extensor de la mano en la enfermedad de De Quervain The impact of anatomical variability of the first extensor compartment of the hand in the De Quervain's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. López Mendoza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available En la enfermedad de De Quervain, la cirugía es la indicación estándar como procedimiento terapéutico y consiste en la liberación de los tendones abductor pollicis longus (APL y extensor pollicis brevis (EPB del primer compartimento de la mano. Está documentada la presencia de un septum dentro del compartimento entre los tendones del extensor corto y del abductor largo del pulgar. La importancia que tiene describir y hallar este subcompartimento radica en que la falta de conocimiento del mismo provoca el fallo en su liberación completa en los pacientes con enfermedad de De Quervain, por lo que los síntomas pueden persistir en el postoperatorio inmediato y tardío. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la presencia de un subcompartimento en el primer compartimento extensor de la mano en la población mexicana. Realizamos en el Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González de México DF un total de 32 liberaciones del primer compartimento extensor en 30 pacientes, todas secundarias a enfermedad de De Quervain con seguimiento promedio postoperatorio de 7,5 meses. La presencia de este subcompartimento se encontró en 21 pacientes (65,6 % de los casos, conteniendo en el 100 % el tendón EPB. El APL presentó 3 fascículos en el 31,25 % de casos, 2 fascículos en el 53,12 % y 1 fascículo en el 15,6 %. El EPB presentó 2 fascículos en el 6,25 % de los casos y 1 fascículo en el 93,75 % del total. En el seguimiento, ningún paciente presentó recidiva de la enfermedad. Proponemos la falta de identificación de un subcompartimento en el primer compartimento extensor de la mano como la principal causa de recidiva de enfermedad de De Quervain en nuestro medio.Surgical release of the first compartment of the hand containing abductor pollicis longus tendon (APL and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB is the gold standard treatment for De Quervain's disease. It´s well known that a septum commonly exists between these two tendons. The importance of this

  1. Cortical excitability differences between flexor pollicis longus and APB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jong Seok; Menon, Parvathi; Mioshi, Eneida; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2013-04-29

    Although abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and flexor pollicis longus (FPL) share a common peripheral nerve supply, these muscles subserve different functions and may be differently affected in neurodegenerative disease such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As a consequence, differences in cortical excitability may potentially develop in relation to these functional differences. Cortical excitability was assessed using the threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) technique in 15 healthy controls with motor responses recorded over the APB and FPL using surface electrode recordings. Short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) was significantly reduced from the FPL compared to APB (SICIFPL 6.9±1.8%; SICIAPB 10.7±1.4%, P<0.01). In addition, the FPL motor evoked potential amplitude (MEPFPL 14.7±2.3%; MEPAPB 21.7±3.9%; P<0.01) and cortical silent period duration (CSPFPL 174.7±6.7ms; CSPAPB 205.4±3.9ms, P<0.01) were significantly smaller. The findings in the present study indicate that cortical inhibition and corticomotoneuronal output is reduced when recording over the FPL. The differences in cortical excitability may develop as a consequence of varied function and could potentially explain the dissociated muscle atrophy evident in ALS.

  2. Repercusión de la variabilidad anatómica del primer compartimento extensor de la mano en la enfermedad de De Quervain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.J. López Mendoza

    Full Text Available En la enfermedad de De Quervain, la cirugía es la indicación estándar como procedimiento terapéutico y consiste en la liberación de los tendones abductor pollicis longus (APL y extensor pollicis brevis (EPB del primer compartimento de la mano. Está documentada la presencia de un septum dentro del compartimento entre los tendones del extensor corto y del abductor largo del pulgar. La importancia que tiene describir y hallar este subcompartimento radica en que la falta de conocimiento del mismo provoca el fallo en su liberación completa en los pacientes con enfermedad de De Quervain, por lo que los síntomas pueden persistir en el postoperatorio inmediato y tardío. El objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la presencia de un subcompartimento en el primer compartimento extensor de la mano en la población mexicana. Realizamos en el Hospital General Dr. Manuel Gea González de México DF un total de 32 liberaciones del primer compartimento extensor en 30 pacientes, todas secundarias a enfermedad de De Quervain con seguimiento promedio postoperatorio de 7,5 meses. La presencia de este subcompartimento se encontró en 21 pacientes (65,6 % de los casos, conteniendo en el 100 % el tendón EPB. El APL presentó 3 fascículos en el 31,25 % de casos, 2 fascículos en el 53,12 % y 1 fascículo en el 15,6 %. El EPB presentó 2 fascículos en el 6,25 % de los casos y 1 fascículo en el 93,75 % del total. En el seguimiento, ningún paciente presentó recidiva de la enfermedad. Proponemos la falta de identificación de un subcompartimento en el primer compartimento extensor de la mano como la principal causa de recidiva de enfermedad de De Quervain en nuestro medio.

  3. Palmaris brevis spasm syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    SERRATRICE, G.; Azulay, J.P.; Serratrice, J; Pouget, J

    1995-01-01

    Palmaris brevis spasm syndrome is a rare and benign condition of localised muscular hyperactivity. In five men, the hypothenar eminence underwent spontaneous, irregular, tonic contractions of the palmaris brevis muscle. An EMG showed spontaneous high frequency discharges of normal motor units, without evidence of neuropathy or of nerve compression. This syndrome resembles other restricted muscle hyperactivity syndromes although there are some differences. Curiously, the palmaris brevis muscle...

  4. Extensor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Extensor Tendon Injuries Email to a friend * required fields From * ... to straighten one or more joints. Common Extensor Tendon Injuries Mallet Finger refers to a drooping end- ...

  5. Tension setting for extensor indicis proprius to extensor pollicis longus transfer using the wide-awake approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Sahin

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Tendon transfers using the wide-awake approach provides the benefit of improved tendon tension setting with active movement and minimal risks of complication. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(2.000: 39-43

  6. Variant extensor muscles on the dorsum of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh K

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of accessory muscle bellies and tendons in the hand is of great interest to the hand surgeons. Awareness of the variations of the muscles will serve as useful guide for both in studies of human anatomy and in clinical practice today; this knowledge can be borne in mind while performing hand surgeries, tendon rerouting or transplants. These extra muscles often present as a ganglion, soft tissue tumor or mass in the hand, which could be quite misleading to the surgeon. With the purpose of preparation of the teaching and museum specimens, in two of the cadavers of elderly Jamaican African male and female, we observed accessory muscles on the dorsum of the hand. One was inserted to the index finger (extensor digitorum brevis manus and the other was arising deep to the extensor digitorum and inserted to the middle finger (extensor medii proprius.

  7. Extensor tendon rupture and three-dimensional computed tomography imaging of the rheumatoid wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Asami; Ishikawa, Hajime; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi [Niigata Rheumatic Center, Department of Rheumatology, Shibata, Niigata (Japan)

    2010-04-15

    Extensor tendon rupture on the dorsum of the wrist is commonly seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The diagnosis of tendon rupture is usually straightforward, but it is sometimes difficult in the hand with complex deformity. The purposes of this study were to investigate the reliability of three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) imaging of extensor tendons in the rheumatoid wrist and in the normal wrist and to clarify the validity of its clinical application to the diagnosis of tendon rupture in the rheumatoid wrist. Preoperative 3DCT images of 48 wrists of 45 patients with RA and 3DCT images of 38 wrists of 38 healthy volunteers were reviewed retrospectively by six orthopaedic surgeons who were unaware of all other study data. Extensor tendon rupture was verified by operation on 20 rheumatoid wrists. Regarding interobserver and intra-observer reliabilities of 3DCT imaging of the extensor tendons, agreement with respect to tendon rupture in this study group was high, and Cohen's kappa ({kappa}) coefficient was variable, depending on the individual tendon. Positive predictive value (PPV) of tendon rupture in the extensor digiti minimi (EDM), extensor digitorum communis (EDC) V and IV and extensor pollicis longs (EPL) tendons was more than 60%, but those for the other extensor tendons were less than 50%. Negative predictive value (NPV) was more than 96% in all extensor tendons, in both rheumatoid and normal wrists. Extensor tendons in normal and rheumatoid wrists were well depicted by 3DCT imaging. In the rheumatoid wrists, extensors of the ring and little fingers and the thumb were depicted more accurately than those to the other fingers. 3DCT imaging was clinically applicable to wrists for which it was difficult to diagnose by physical examination a definite cause for the loss of extension of the fingers. (orig.)

  8. Radiologic findings of the flexor pollicis longus hypoplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alicioglu, Banu [Trakya University Medical School, Department of Radiologyy, Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-06-15

    A case of a 10-year-old boy with hypoplasia of the flexor pollicis longus and without other associated anomalies and trauma history is reported. Flexor pollicis longus tendon anomalies are rare; several types of this congenital anomaly have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis should be considered to the conditions of a patient who was unable to flex the interphalangeal joint of the thumb. Hypoplastic thumb or absent interphalangeal joint crease may be a diagnostic feature in such cases. We preoperatively present the radiological findings of this rare congenital anomaly. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features have never been reported in the literature. (orig.)

  9. An anomalous accessory extensor proprius indicis muscle: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurklu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations related to tendon insertion and musculotendinous junction of the extensor proprius indicis muscle are commonly encountered. An anomalous extensor indicis proprius muscle (EIP tendon was detected in a fifty-year-old female cadaver during routine dissection of the right upper extremity. The body of tendon was initiated from the posterior ulna as a one muscle body, then continued as two separate muscle bodies and tendons and finally they were separated into two slips after passing the fourth dorsal compartment. As a radial part, it was divided into two slips at the level of the first metacarpophalangeal joint, and conjugated with the extensor pollicis longus (EPL muscle. Then, as an ulnar part, it was terminated at the radial side of the lateral band of the second metacarpophalangeal joint. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations of the tendons may help to prevent confusion and mistakes during tendon repairs, and tendon transfers. [Hand Microsurg 2013; 2(3.000: 122-124

  10. Adductor pollicis muscle: potential anthropometric parameter in hospitalized individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Abranches Rosa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness as a parameter for the assessment of nutritional status in patients admitted to a University Hospital in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State. This is a prospective cross-sectional study with 64 adults and elderly patients. We evaluated the percentage of weight loss based on the usual weight, arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, arm muscle circumference, laboratory parameters and measurement of adductor pollicis muscle thickness. The measurements were performed only once, in the first 72 hours of hospitalization. Data were analyzed using statistical software BioEstat 5.0, with a significance level of 0.05. The average thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle was 17.5 + 5.3 mm. We found a significant negative association of muscle with age. There was a significant association between the measure of muscle and parameters such as body mass index, arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, albumin and nutritional status assessed by physical examination. The adductor pollicis muscle allows easy measurement, direct assessment, fast results, low cost and good correlation with anthropometric parameters. However, further studies should be conducted to validate this new method.

  11. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Soubhagya Ranjan; Krishnamurthy, Ashwin; Prabhu, Latha Venkatraya; Rai, Rajalakshmi; Ranade, Anu Vinod; Madhyastha, Sampath

    2008-02-01

    The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side) male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a) the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b) the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c) measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41%) had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5%) and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%). In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15 cm by 0.35 - 6.4 cm and 2.8 - 20.8 cm by 0.2 0.5 cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  12. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  13. Positioning Techniques to Reduce the Occurrence of DeQuervain's Tendonitis in Nursing Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virzi, Alison

    2010-01-01

    DeQuervain's tendonitis is an inflammation of two tendons: the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus as they cross in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist. Symptoms include pain, swelling along the radial aspect of the wrist, and a decrease in thumb motion. A positive Finkelstein's test at examination is seen. Frequently…

  14. Delineation of extensor tendon of the hand by MRI: usefulness of "soap-bubble" mip processing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Yumiko; Ryoke, Koji; Yamagami, Nobuo; Uchio, Yuji; Tanaka, Shigeko

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the capability of the "Soap-Bubble" maximum intensity projection (MIP) processing technique in visualisation of extensor tendons of the hand, 36 intact subjects and seven patients with surgically confirmed extensor tendon rupture were examined. Three-dimensional T1-weighted turbo spin echo (3DT1TFE) MRI was performed using a sensitivity encoding flex coil, followed by Soap-Bubble MIP processing. For patients with extensor tendon ruptures, MRI findings and intraoperative findings were compared. As results, with only 3DT1TFE sequence, the entire extensor tendons that run along the arch of the hand were not shown on one image, but were visualised with addition of Soap-Bubble MIP. Although delineation of the extensor pollicis longus was poor in 27/43 subjects, it was much improved by the combination of water-suppression technique. MRI findings and intraoperative findings agreed in all patients. Soap-Bubble MIP processing with addition of water-suppression technique is considered useful for visualising the extensor tendons of the hand.

  15. [Demodex folliculorum and demodex brevis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinowska, Zuzanna; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Czepita, Damian; Lanocha, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Demodex are cosmopolitan mites occurring in many species of mammals. Two morphologically distinct Demodex species parasitize on humans: Demodexfolliculorum (Simon, 1842) and Demodex brevis (Akbulatova, 1963). Until recently, these species have been regarded as commensals; now they are considered as parasitic organisms. In people, Demodex spp. can be found mainly in the sebaceous glands of the skin (mainly in the area of the forehead, cheeks, nose, behind ears and neck), in hearing aids, and on the scalp, covered with hair. Infection with demodex happens through direct contact with infected bed linen, towels, creams and other cosmetics. Despite the high prevalence of Demodex spp. in the human population, symptoms of demodecosis are not common, and can be found mainly in people with weakened immune systems due to aging or a number of diseases.

  16. Restoration of pinch in intrinsic muscles of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steve K; Wisser, Jamie R

    2012-02-01

    The primary intrinsic muscles responsible for key and tip pinch are the adductor pollicis, first dorsal interosseous and flexor pollicis brevis muscles. Numerous conditions can lead to their dysfunction. Non-operative treatment consists of exercises of the compensating extensor pollicis longus and flexor pollicis longus muscles and use of adaptive devices, such as larger grips. Operative treatments include tendon transfers and joint fusions. The most common tendon transfer procedures include transfering of the extensor carpi radialis brevis to the adductor pollicis muscle or transfering of the abductor pollicis longus to the first dorsal interosseous muscle. Both require use of extension tendon grafts. In cases of joint instability or arthrosis, arthrodesis of the thumb and index finger MP or IP joints, alone or in combination, may be indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Management of Extensor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, M; Hindocha, S; Jordan, D; Saleh, M; Khan, W

    2012-01-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are very common injuries, which inappropriately treated can cause severe lasting impairment for the patient. Assessment and management of flexor tendon injuries has been widely reviewed, unlike extensor injuries. It is clear from the literature that extensor tendon repair should be undertaken immediately but the exact approach depends on the extensor zone. Zone I injuries otherwise known as mallet injuries are often closed and treated with immobilisaton and conservative management where possible. Zone II injuries are again conservatively managed with splinting. Closed Zone III or ‘boutonniere’ injuries are managed conservatively unless there is evidence of displaced avulsion fractures at the base of the middle phalanx, axial and lateral instability of the PIPJ associated with loss of active or passive extension of the joint or failed non-operative treatment. Open zone III injuries are often treated surgically unless splinting enable the tendons to come together. Zone V injuries, are human bites until proven otherwise requires primary tendon repair after irrigation. Zone VI injuries are close to the thin paratendon and thin subcutaneous tissue which strong core type sutures and then splinting should be placed in extension for 4-6 weeks. Complete lacerations to zone IV and VII involve surgical primary repair followed by 6 weeks of splinting in extension. Zone VIII require multiple figure of eight sutures to repair the muscle bellies and static immobilisation of the wrist in 45 degrees of extension. To date there is little literature documenting the quality of repairing extensor tendon injuries however loss of flexion due to extensor tendon shortening, loss of flexion and extension resulting from adhesions and weakened grip can occur after surgery. This review aims to provide a systematic examination method for assessing extensor injuries, presentation and management of all type of extensor tendon injuries as well as guidance on

  18. The function and the strength of the thumb is not affected when the extensor pollicis longus tendon is left out of the extensor retinaculum

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    Fatih Kabakas

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: It was determined that leaving the EPL tendon out of the retinaculum in cases with increased risk of adhesions and rupture did not cause marked muscle weakness or loss of range of movement. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 56-61

  19. Storage features of Lactobacillus Brevis strain 9

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    Utemurat Sagyndykov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Current article presents the results of the research conducted on storing lactic bacteria. On the basis of results of experiments on liophilization of the culture of lactic bacteria Lactobacillus brevis strain №9, it has been concluded that the optimum way of storing the given culture is the method of liophilic drying with the vacuum soldering.

  20. Extensor tendon repair an overview

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    Mansoor Bin Fayed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of extensor injuries is more than that of flexor tendon injuries. This is to a great extent because of the extensors being superficially placed and covered by skin and subcutaneous tissue over the distal part of the upper extremity. Thus they are more vulnerable to blunt and sharp trauma, the proximal and distal forearm present with laceration and cut with sharp weapon. Extensor tendon injuries are often taken lightly by many, repairs being taken-up at the ER. Repair is done in or if the retrieval of tendon ends is difficult or the wound is complicated with associated injuries such as fractures or in cases of tendon retraction. Delayed primary repair can be undertaken from 7-10 days. Assessment of the injured finger has to be very meticulous. Extension of finger is brought about by the interossei and lumbricals which are the short muscles of the hand. They extend the proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints and flex metacarpophalangeal joint, these intrinsic muscles are innervated by the ulnar and median nerves. The long extensors are innervated by the radial nerve, they primarily extend the metacarpophalangeal joints and also interphalangeal joints. In cases of injury the intrinsic system may compensate for an extensor deficit. Closed injuries of zone I may be managed by splinting of the distal interphalangeal joints and open injuries in the zone I and II can be treated with tenodermodesis. Proximal interphalangeal joints and distal interphalangeal joints are immobilized in zone 3 and 4. Metacarpophalangeal joint is immobilized in full extension and the wrist in 10o extension.

  1. Activation-induced force enhancement in human adductor pollicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2009-10-01

    It has been known for a long time that the steady-state isometric force after muscle stretch is bigger than the corresponding force obtained in a purely isometric contraction for electrically stimulated and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). Recent studies using sub-maximal voluntary contractions showed that force enhancement only occurred in a sub-group of subjects suggesting that force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions has properties different from those of electrically-induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Specifically, force enhancement for sub-maximal voluntary contractions may contain an activation-dependent component that is independent of muscle stretching. To address this hypothesis, we tested for force enhancement using (i) sub-maximal electrically-induced contractions and stretch and (ii) using various activation levels preceding an isometric reference contraction at 30% of MVC (no stretch). All tests were performed on human adductor pollicis muscles. Force enhancement following stretching was found for all subjects (n=10) and all activation levels (10%, 30%, and 60% of MVC) for electrically-induced contractions. In contrast, force enhancement at 30% of MVC, preceded by 6s of 10%, 60%, and 100% of MVC was only found in a sub-set of the subjects and only for the 60% and 100% conditions. This result suggests that there is an activation-dependent force enhancement for some subjects for sub-maximal voluntary contractions. This activation-dependent force enhancement was always smaller than the stretch-induced force enhancement obtained at the corresponding activation levels. Active muscle stretching increased the force enhancement in all subjects, independent whether they showed activation dependence or not. It appears that post-activation potentiation, and the associated phosphorylation of the myosin light chains, might account for the stretch-independent force enhancement observed here.

  2. Bioprospecting of Brevibacillus brevis isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samrot, Antony V; Prasad, Rejin J J; Rio, Antony J; Sneha, Sahaya J

    2015-01-01

    It is obviously essential to find new compounds that possess industrial and medicinal importance and potential to improve the lifestyle of human population. Bioprospecting these compounds from natural resources has additional benefits since they are less toxic as well as biocompatible. In this study, Brevibacillus brevis was isolated from soil and its enzymes production, antibacterial activity and anticancer activity were assessed. The organism was found to be a promising source of amylase enzymes, antibacterial as well as anticancer compounds.

  3. Adductor pollicis muscle and hand grip strength: potential methods of nutritional assessment in outpatients with stroke

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    Débora Rocha Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of different methods used for nutritional assessment of outpatients who had hemiplegic stroke. Methods: A cross-section study with adult and elderly patients of both genders enrolled in a rehabilitation center. The analyzed variables were anthropometric measurements, bioelectrical impedance, hand grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle. The Pearson χ2 test was used to check the association between variables with a significance level of α = 5%. Results: When evaluating the association between indicators of muscle mass, it was observed that the hand grip strength in both genders was positively correlated with arm muscle circumference (p = 0.0196 and lean mass (p = 0.0002. Fat mass measured by the bioelectrical impedance method already showed a significant inverse relationship with the grip (r = -0.3879. The thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle showed significant association with lean mass (p = 0.0052 and hand grip (p = 0.0024. Conclusion: In this study, the hand grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle were well correlated with measurements determined by anthropometry and bioimpedance. The results show the applicability of grip strength and thickness of the adductor pollicis muscle in clinical practice as nutritional assessment methods for this population, especially elderly patients, since they detect functional changes not captured by other parameters in the short term and are important for early identification of risk nutrition.

  4. Stabilization and stability of twitch force during mechanomyography of the adductor pollicis muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Fidler, [No Value; Wierda, JMKH

    1998-01-01

    Objective. In order to study the stabilization time, the increase in twitch force during stabilization and the maintenance of stability during mechanomyography of the adductor pollicis muscle, neuromuscular function was monitored in 20 patients anaesthetized without the use of a neuromuscular blocki

  5. Contractile speed and fatigue of adductor pollicis muscle in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C J; Jongen, P J; van der Woude, L H; de Haan, A

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate differences in contractile speed, force, and fatigability of the adductor pollicis muscle between 12 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 8 sedentary control subjects matched for age and gender. There were no differences between the patients with MS a

  6. Duplication of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfred, T; Adamsen, S

    1986-05-01

    Three cases are presented, in which an anomalous tendon slip between the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon and the extensor apparatus of the fifth finger was found. One of the patients was a violinist, who had serious impairment of the left wrist joint and the small finger due to the anomaly. The symptoms disappeared after excision.

  7. Multiple variations of the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwin, San San; Zaini, Fazlin; Than, Myo

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Multiple tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) in the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist can lead to the development of de Quervain's syndrome, which is caused by stenosing tenosynovitis. A cadaveric study was performed to establish the variations present in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox in a Malaysian population, in the hope that this knowledge would aid clinical investigation and surgical treatment of de Quervain's tenosynovitis. METHODS Routine dissection of ten upper limbs was performed to determine the variations in the tendons of the anatomical snuffbox of the wrist. RESULTS In all the dissected upper limbs, the APL tendon of the first extensor compartment was found to have several (3–14) tendon slips. The insertion of the APL tendon slips in all upper limbs were at the base of the first metacarpal bone, trapezium and fascia of the opponens pollicis muscle; however, in seven specimens, they were also found to be attached to the fleshy belly of the abductor pollicis brevis muscle. In two specimens, double tendons of the extensor pollicis longus located in the third extensor compartment were inserted into the capsule of the proximal interphalangeal joints before being joined to the extensor expansion. In two other specimens, the first extensor compartment had two osseofibrous tunnels divided by a septum that separated the APL tendon from the extensor pollicis brevis tendon. CONCLUSION Multiple variations were found in the anatomical snuffbox region of the dissected upper limbs. Knowledge of these variations would be useful in interventional radiology and orthopaedic surgery. PMID:24452976

  8. NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORD OF Cryptotermes brevis (ISOPTERA, KALOTERMITIDAE IN ARGENTINA

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    Juan Manuel Coronel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The first record of the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853 in the city of Corrientes (Argentina is reported. Several C. brevis  colonies were detected inside a local deposit, from wooden crates used for carrying fresh fruits. The observed damage consisted of small rounded holes, partially hollowed wood pieces and presence of debris. The importance of weather factors and the type of material of vegetable and fruit containers in the colonization and dispersion of C. brevis  in this region of Argentina are discussed. Illustrations of soldiers and reproductive C. brevis , and an updated map of the distribution of this termite in Argentina are given.Nuevo registro de distribución de Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae en Argentina Se presenta el primer registro de Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853 en la ciudad de Corrientes (Argentina. Se detectaron varias colonias de esta termita dentro de un edificio en contenedores de madera empleados para el transporte de fruta fresca. Los daños observados consistieron en orificios redondos, piezas de madera parcialmente excavadas y presencia de debris fecales. Se discute la importancia de factores climatológicos y del tipo de material de contenedores de fruta, en la colonización y dispersión de C. brevis  en esta región de Argentina. Se presentan ilustraciones de soldados y reproductores de C. brevis  y un mapa actualizado de la distribución de esta termita en Argentina

  9. Arginine specific aminopeptidase from Lactobacillus brevis

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    Arya Nandan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The proteolytic system of lactic acid bacteria contribute to the development of flavor during the ripening of cheese through the generation of short peptides and free amino acids, which directly or indirectly act as flavor precursors. Newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB as well as those procured from culture collection centers were screened for the production of various substrate specific aminopeptidases. Among all the strains screened, L. brevis (NRRL B-1836 was found to produce quantifiable amount of intracellular arginine specific aminopeptidase (EC 3.4.11.6. The productivity of arginine aminopeptidase in 5 L fermentor was 36 IU/L/h. The Luedeking and Piret model was tested for intracellular production of aminopeptidase and the data seemed to fit well, as the correlation coefficient was 0.9964 for MRS. The αAP and βAP was 0.4865 and 0.0046, respectively in MRS medium indicating that the yield was predominantly depended on growth. The culture produced lactic acid and also tolerated pH 2.0-3.0 and 0.3-0.5% bile salts, the most important probiotic features.

  10. Acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus in an 8-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheterpal, Arvin; Zoga, Adam; McClure, Kristen

    2014-10-01

    Calcific tendinitis is a common source of musculoskeletal pain in adults; however, it is rarely encountered in children. Calcific tendinitis is the most commonly encountered manifestation of hydroxyapatite deposition disease, in which calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition occurs in tendons. It may cause acute or chronic pain, or may be entirely asymptomatic. We describe a case of acute calcific tendinitis of the flexor pollicis longus tendon in an 8-year-old boy, who initially presented to our department for workup of a mass felt along the volar aspect of the right wrist.

  11. Bilateral anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome variant secondary to extensor hallucis brevis muscle hypertrophy in a ballet dancer: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennant, Joshua N; Rungprai, Chamnanni; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2014-12-01

    We present a case of bilateral anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome secondary EHB hypertrophy in a dancer, with successful treatment with bilateral EHB muscle excisions for decompression. The bilateral presentation of this case with the treatment of EHB muscle excision is the first of its type reported in the literature.

  12. Zooplankton and Karenia brevis in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Kristen M.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Neely, Merry B.; Spence, Danylle N.; Murasko, Susan; Hopkins, Thomas L.; Sutton, Tracey T.; Burghart, Scott E.; Bohrer, Richard N.; Remsen, Andrew W.; Vargo, Gabriel A.; Walsh, John J.

    2008-01-01

    Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis are common in the Gulf of Mexico, yet no in situ studies of zooplankton and K. brevis have been conducted there. Zooplankton abundance and taxonomic composition at non-bloom and K. brevis bloom stations within the Ecology of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) study area were compared. At non-bloom stations, the most abundant species of zooplankton were Parvocalanus crassirostris, Oithona colcarva, and Paracalanus quasimodo at the 5-m isobath and P. quasimodo, O. colcarva, and Oikopleura dioica at the 25-m isobath. There was considerable overlap in dominance of zooplankton species between the 5 and 25-m isobaths, with nine species contributing to 90% of abundance at both isobaths. At stations within K. brevis blooms however, Acartia tonsa, Centropages velificatus, Temora turbinata, Evadne tergestina, O. colcarva, O. dioica, and P. crassirostris were dominant. Variations in abundance between non-bloom and bloom assemblages were evident, including the reduction in abundance of three key species within K. brevis blooms.

  13. An ergonomics study of thumb movements on smartphone touch screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jinghong; Muraki, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between thumb muscle activity and thumb operating tasks on a smartphone touch screen with one-hand posture. Six muscles in the right thumb and forearm were targeted in this study, namely adductor pollicis, flexor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis (APB), abductor pollicis longus, first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and extensor digitorum. The performance measures showed that the thumb developed fatigue rapidly when tapping on smaller buttons (diameter: 9 mm compared with 3 mm), and moved more slowly in flexion-extension than in adduction-abduction orientation. Meanwhile, the electromyography and perceived exertion values of FDI significantly increased in small button and flexion-extension tasks, while those of APB were greater in the adduction-abduction task. This study reveals that muscle effort among thumb muscles on a touch screen smartphone varies according to the task, and suggests that the use of small touch buttons should be minimised for better thumb performance.

  14. The anatomy and fibre type composition of the human adductor pollicis in relation to its contractile properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M; Jones, D A; Chapman, S J; Edwards, R H; Ward, P S; Fodden, D L

    1984-01-01

    We have examined the anatomy and fibre type composition of the human adductor pollicis in muscles taken post mortem. Histochemical staining of muscle fibres showed that type I fibres predominated in all cases with a mean occurrence of 80%. This composition is similar to that of the soleus muscle and unlike that of the quadriceps which has approximately equal proportions of the two fibre types. Comparing the contractile characteristics, however, the adductor pollicis has similar properties to the quadriceps and both are quite distinct from those of the slowly contracting soleus muscle. The lack of correlation between fibre composition, as revealed by histochemical staining, and contractile properties in these muscles must mean that fibres of the same type from different muscles do not necessarily have the same contractile speed. The results also suggest that the type I fibres of the human adductor pollicis are faster than those of both the soleus and quadriceps muscles.

  15. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with la

  16. Incidence and morphology of accessory heads of flexor pollicis longus and flexor digitorum profundus (Gantzer's muscles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    JONES, M.; ABRAHAMS, P. H.; SAÑUDO, J. R.; CAMPILLO, M.

    1997-01-01

    In 1813 Gantzer described 2 accessory muscles in the human forearm which bear his name (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Testut, 1884; Le Double, 1897). The more frequent of the 2 accessory muscles or ‘accessorius ad pollicem’ was found to arise from the coronoid process of the ulna, coursing distally to attach into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (flexor pollicis longus accessory head, FPLah). The less frequently observed or ‘accessorius ad flexorem profundum digitorum’ was again found to arise from the coronoid process and course to join into the flexor digitorum profundus (flexor digitorum profundus accessory head, FDPah). Since their initial description, they have been examined in further detail by a number of authors (Wood, 1868; Macalister, 1875; Le Double, 1897; Dykes & Anson, 1944; Mangini, 1960; Malhotra et al. 1982; Dellon & McKinnon, 1987; Kida, 1988). These studies, most of them focusing on the FPLah, all show different results of prevalence, origin, insertion, relations and nerve supply. We undertook this study with the aim of providing a more accurate account of the detailed morphology of both accessory muscles because of the above-mentioned inconsistent anatomical descriptions and the lack of information as to important aspects such as vascular supply, morphology (shape and length) and the coexistence of both accessory heads. PMID:9419002

  17. FATIGUE ASSOCIATED EMG BEHAVIOR OF THE FIRST DORSAL INTEROSSEOUS AND ADDUCTOR POLLICIS MUSCLES IN DIFFERENT GROUPS OF SUBJECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIJDEWIND, Inge; KERNELL, D

    1994-01-01

    We have studied the fatigue-associated behavior of surface EMG in two histochemically different muscles of the hand: fi rst dorsal interosseous (FDI) and adductor pollicis (AP; relatively more type I fibers in AP than in FDI). During a fatigue test evoked by electrical stimulation of the ulnar nerve

  18. Cofactor engineering of Lactobacillus brevis alcohol dehydrogenase by computational design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machielsen, M.P.; Looger, L.L.; Raedts, J.G.J.; Dijkhuizen, S.; Hummel, W.; Henneman, H.G.; Daussmann, T.; Oost, van der J.

    2009-01-01

    The R-specific alcohol dehydrogenase from Lactobacillus brevis (Lb-ADH) catalyzes the enantioselective reduction of prochiral ketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols. It is stable and has broad substrate specificity. These features make this enzyme an attractive candidate for biotechnologica

  19. Flexor pollicis longus repair in a patient with Linburg-Comstock anomaly: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Unal

    2016-08-01

    Results: At the end of the rehabilitation program, the thumb recovered full range of motion, and physical examination revealed synchronous flexion movement (synkinesis of the thumb and index finger. Conclusion: Flexor pollicis longus tendon lacerations are common in the clinical practice of hand surgeons. Making a separate proximal wrist incision is a very useful technique to reach a proximal tendon stump. Otherwise, aggressive maneuvers may cause additional damage to the tendons involved and result in unpredicted outcomes. The attempts to retrieve the tendon at the injury site resulted in failure and gave a tethering sensation to the surgeon who recalled the Linburg-Comstock anomaly. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 88-91

  20. Basal joint osteoarthritis of the thumb: comparison of suture button versus abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avant, Kristopher R; Nydick, Jason A; White, Brian D; Vaccaro, Lisa; Hess, Alfred V; Stone, Jeffrey D

    2015-03-01

    Our purpose was to compare the outcomes of patients with severe basilar thumb osteoarthritis treated with trapeziectomy and suspensionplasty using abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon versus a suture button device. A retrospective study was performed for patients undergoing trapeziectomy and suspensionplasty with APL tendon or suture button fixation. Outcome measures included disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH); visual analog score (VAS); grip strength; key pinch; tip pinch; and thumb opposition. Radiographic measurements, surgical times, and complications were recorded. Thirty-three patients in the APL tendon group and 27 patients in the suture button group had a minimum 6-month follow-up. VAS, DASH, and functional measurements improved after surgery for both groups. Mean operative time was 68 min for the APL tendon group and 48 min for the suture button group. Complications were similar between groups. The use of suture button fixation when compared to APL tendon suspensionplasty offers similar clinical outcomes. Therapeutic III.

  1. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  2. Extensor-mechanism-reconstruction of the knee joint after traumatic loss of the entire extensor apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, D; Schüttrumpf, J P; Tezval, M; Stürmer, K M; Balcarek, P

    2014-06-01

    Injuries to the extensor apparatus of the knee joint have an incidence of 0.5% to 6%. Although previous studies have described the advantages and disadvantages of operative treatment in cases of patellar tendon rupture, patella fracture or quadriceps tendon lesions, a report on the reconstruction of the extensor apparatus after traumatic loss of the patella, the patellar tendon, the tibial tuberosity and parts of the lateral quadriceps muscle is absent from the literature. We present the case of a young motorcyclist who underwent a reconstruction of the extensor apparatus using autologous tendon grafts. At a 24-month follow-up, the patient has a nearly physiological range of motion of the knee joint and is able to cope well with everyday life.

  3. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Sayed; Cunningham, Ryan; Mohamed, Feroze [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Amin, Mamta; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F. [Temple University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  4. Chromatophore motor fields in the squid, Lolliguncula brevis

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, P. F.; Frank, M M; Pinsker, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    Chromatophore motoneurones in Lolliguncula brevis are known to originate in the suboesophageal lobes of the brain and to project directly to the mantle and fin through bilateral stellate ganglia and fin nerves. The chromatophore motor fields of stellar and fin nerves were investigated by stimulation of the cut end of individual nerves in a semi-intact preparation. This elicited expansion of yellow and brown chromatophores in distinct motor fields. Brown chromatophores extended over the entire...

  5. Extensor mechanism allograft in total knee arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Tozi, Mateus Ramos; Félix, Alessandro Monterroso; Angelini, Fábio Janson; Pécora, José Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the experience with allograft transplantation of the extensor mechanism in total knee arthroplasty and compare results with the international experience. Methods We retrospectively evaluated three cases of extensor mechanism allograft after total knee arthroplasty performed in our hospital with the aid of one of the few tissue banks in Brazil and attempt to establish whether our experiences were similar to others reported in the world literature regarding patient indication, techniques, and outcomes. Results Two cases went well with the adopted procedure, and one case showed bad results and progressed to amputation. As shown in the literature, the adequate tension of the graft, appropriate tibial fixation and especially the adequate patient selection are the better predictors of good outcomes. Previous chronic infection can be an unfavorable predictor. Conclusion This surgical procedure has precise indication, albeit uncommon, either because of the rarity of the problem or because of the low availability of allografts, due to the scarcity of tissue banks in Brazil. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453688

  6. Anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus in Indian population: A cadaveric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Jerina; Mishra, Pravash Ranjan; Tripathy, Sujit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many authors have reported the anatomical variation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) around the wrist and its association with de Quervain tenosynovitis (DQT), first carpo-metacarpal arthritis, and trapezio-metacarpal subluxation. From Indian subcontinent, there is only one original article and a few case reports on the variability of APL tendon insertion. Materials and Methods: Fifty formaldehyde preserved cadaveric wrists were dissected to look for the anatomical variation of APL in the Indian population. Results: The APL was found with single tendon in 2, double in 31, triple in 8, and quadruple in 8 extremities. A maximum of 6 tendon-slips were found in one cadaveric wrist. In all hands, the APL had at least one attachment to first metacarpal bone and in 46 hands (92%), there was second insertion to the trapezium bone. Of all tendon-slips of APL (n = 126), 44% of tendons (68 tendons) were inserted into the base of the first metacarpal bone. This was followed by the insertion into the trapezium in 42% tendons (52 tendons). Conclusion: Bi-tendinous APL is commonly observed on the dorsal compartment of the wrist in Indian population and these tendon-slips are commonly attached to the first metacarpal base and trapezium. This variation must be understood by the Indian Orthopedic surgeons as the response to treatment of DQT and reason for first carpo-metacarpal arthritis can be dependent on this anatomical variation. PMID:26538762

  7. A comparison of adductor pollicis fatigue in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Arthur; Ditor, David S; Hicks, Audrey L

    2003-09-01

    Sex differences in fatigue resistance of the adductor pollicis (AP) muscle were studied in 24 older adults who were divided into three groups: 12 older men (69.8 +/- 4.60 years), 6 older women not on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (70.2 +/- 4.02 years), and 6 older women on HRT (68.7 +/- 6.47 years). Fatigue in the AP muscle was induced using an intermittent (5 s contraction, 5 s rest) submaximal voluntary contraction (50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) protocol, which was continued until exhaustion (i.e., when subjects could either no longer maintain a 5-s contraction at 50% MVC or when the MVC was deemed to be lower than the target force). There was no effect of HRT on MVC or time to fatigue (TTF); therefore, the older women were pooled as one subject group. At baseline, men were stronger than women for MVC (75.9 +/- 18.8 N in men vs. 56.8 +/- 10.0 N in women; P 0.20), nor was there a significant relationship between baseline muscle force and TTF (r = 0.14). There was also no difference in the pattern of fatigue and recovery between the men and women. These results suggest that there is no difference in endurance or fatigue characteristics of the AP muscle in men and women over the age of 65 years, and that baseline muscle force does not predict fatigue resistance in this muscle.

  8. Triple extensor digiti minimi tendon: An anatomic variation

    OpenAIRE

    Elif Sari

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes an unusual variation of the extensor digiti minimi tendon discovered during extensor tendon repair in the emergency room. Knowledge of this variation may be helpful for the tendon transfers and tendon surgery that need tendon graft. [Hand Microsurg 2014; 3(2.000): 56-58

  9. The patellar extensor apparatus of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwek, Jerry R. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Health Center, San Diego, CA (United States); Chung, Christine B. [University of California at San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); VA Healthcare, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    The patellar extensor apparatus is composed of the quadriceps muscles that converge to a central tendon that inserts on and invests the patella. It continues by the patellar tendon to act on the tibial tuberosity and thereby extends the leg at the knee. The structure can be thought of as a chain with pathology able to occur at each level. Pathological processes are generally caused by the great force experienced at each level both chronically and acutely. The forces are, however, greatly modified by the particular geometries present at each level. The various pathological processes and factors that modify them are reviewed at each level, beginning with the quadriceps musculature and ending at the terminal point of action, the tibial tuberosity. (orig.)

  10. Spontaneous Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sarah K; Singleton, James A G

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of isolated compartment syndrome within the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) compartment in the forearm of a 40-year-old diabetic man. Magnetic resonance imaging of his forearm showed isolated changes in the ECU muscle belly; compartment syndrome was confirmed on manometry. In view of the short history of symptoms and his diabetic status, the patient was managed conservatively. Twenty-four hours after onset of the symptoms, the pain and swelling resolved and he was able to be discharged. To date, 3 cases of ECU compartment syndrome secondary to trauma have been reported. This report illustrates a case of confirmed compartment syndrome without antecedent trauma, highly unusual in terms of both its etiology and its anatomical location. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Michael D; Springer, Bryan D

    2015-02-01

    Extensor mechanism disruption is a rare and potentially devastating complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. Disruption can occur at the quadriceps or patellar tendons or, in the setting of a fracture, at the patella. Recognition of the risk factors for disruption and prevention via meticulous surgical technique are critical to avoid this complication. Various management techniques and the challenges associated with treatment have been described. Nonsurgical management consists of the use of walking aids and/or knee braces, which may not be acceptable for the active patient. Surgical options include primary repair and reconstructive techniques using allograft, autograft, synthetic material, and gastrocnemius rotational flaps. However, no single method has reliably demonstrated satisfactory outcomes. Although research on reconstructive procedures with synthetic materials has been promising, further study is need to assess the use of these materials.

  12. FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Gulf of Mexico, recurring algal blooms, caused by Karenia brevis (formerly known as Gymnodinium breve), have significant adverse health and economic impacts. K. brevis is one member of a small group of dinoflagellates, related morphologically and by DNA-based phylogenetic ...

  13. The costs of respiratory illnesses arising from Florida gulf coast Karenia brevis blooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagland, Porter; Jin, Di; Polansky, Lara Y; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Kirkpatrick, Gary; Fleming, Lora E; Reich, Andrew; Watkins, Sharon M; Ullmann, Steven G; Backer, Lorraine C

    2009-08-01

    Algal blooms of Karenia brevis, a harmful marine algae, occur almost annually off the west coast of Florida. At high concentrations, K. brevis blooms can cause harm through the release of potent toxins, known as brevetoxins, to the atmosphere. Epidemiologic studies suggest that aerosolized brevetoxins are linked to respiratory illnesses in humans. We hypothesized a relationship between K. brevis blooms and respiratory illness visits to hospital emergency departments (EDs) while controlling for environmental factors, disease, and tourism. We sought to use this relationship to estimate the costs of illness associated with aerosolized brevetoxins. We developed a statistical exposure-response model to express hypotheses about the relationship between respiratory illnesses and bloom events. We estimated the model with data on ED visits, K. brevis cell densities, and measures of pollen, pollutants, respiratory disease, and intra-annual population changes. We found that lagged K. brevis cell counts, low air temperatures, influenza outbreaks, high pollen counts, and tourist visits helped explain the number of respiratory-specific ED diagnoses. The capitalized estimated marginal costs of illness for ED respiratory illnesses associated with K. brevis blooms in Sarasota County, Florida, alone ranged from $0.5 to $4 million, depending on bloom severity. Blooms of K. brevis lead to significant economic impacts. The costs of illness of ED visits are a conservative estimate of the total economic impacts. It will become increasingly necessary to understand the scale of the economic losses associated with K. brevis blooms to make rational choices about appropriate mitigation.

  14. Results of Abductor Pollicis Longus Suspension Ligamentoplasty for Treatment of Advanced First Carpometacarpal Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Poong-Taek; Deslivia, Maria Florencia; Lee, Suk-Joong; Nam, Sang-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Background Suspension ligamentoplasty using abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon without bone tunneling, was introduced as one of the techniques for treatment of advanced first carpometacarpal (CMC) arthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiologic and clinical results of APL suspension ligamentoplasty. Methods The medical records of 19 patients who underwent APL suspension ligamentoplasty for advanced first CMC arthritis between January 2008 and May 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. The study included 13 female and 6 male patients, whose mean age was 62 years (range, 43 to 82 years). For clinical evaluation, we assessed the grip and pinch power, radial and volar abduction angle, thumb adduction (modified Kapandji index), including visual analogue scale (VAS) and Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) scores. Radiologic evaluation was performed using simple radiographs. Results The mean follow-up was 36 months (range, 19 to 73.7 months). Mean power improved from 18.3 to 27 kg for grip power, from 2.8 to 3.5 kg for tip pinch, and from 4.3 to 5.4 kg for power pinch. All patients showed decreased VAS from 7.2 to 1.7. Radial abduction improved from 71° preoperatively to 82° postoperatively. The modified Kapandji index showed improvement from 6 to 7.3, and mean DASH was improved from 41 to 17.8. The height of the space decreased from 10.8 to 7.1 mm. Only one case had a complication involving temporary sensory loss of the first dorsal web space, which resolved spontaneously. Conclusions The APL suspension ligamentoplasty for treatment of advanced first CMC arthritis yielded satisfactory functional results. PMID:26330961

  15. The dependence of force enhancement on activation in human adductor pollicis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2006-09-01

    It has been well recognized that the steady-state isometric force after active muscle/fiber stretch is greater than the corresponding isometric force for electrically stimulated muscles and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC). However, recent evidence obtained for sub-MVC suggests that force enhancement properties are different from those observed for electrically induced and MVC. Specifically, it appears that force enhancement is activation-dependent and that there is a subject-specific threshold for force enhancement in sub-MVC. To address these suggestions, the relationship between force enhancement and voluntary activation during stretch was investigated in 11 healthy subjects. Human adductor pollicis muscles were studied and force enhancement was measured while muscle activation during the steady-state isometric phase was controlled at a level of 30% of MVC. In order to study the effects of activation on force enhancement, subjects performed stretch contractions at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 100% of maximal voluntary effort while the steady-state isometric force after stretch, obtained at 30% of activation in all cases, was compared to the corresponding values measured in the isometric reference contractions. There was no force enhancement if muscle stretching occurred passively but all subjects showed force enhancement when muscle stretching occurred at maximal voluntary effort. When increasing the level of activation during the stretch phase, force enhancement increased, and the number of subjects who showed force enhancement increased as well. We conclude from these results that force enhancement during voluntary contractions is activation-dependent with a threshold that is subject-specific.

  16. Acupuncture in De Quervain's disease: a treatment proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Bosco Guerreiro; Batigália, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    De Quervain's disease is a painful stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the hand affecting the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis, caused mainly by overuse. Conventional treatments include rest, immobilisation, oral anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroid injection and even surgery, but none of these is established as clearly effective. Acupuncture is rarely mentioned and the points suggested are rather general-regional, tender and ah shi points. Tendinopathy is almost always associated with problems in the relevant muscles and this paper calls attention to the correct identification and needling of the affected muscles, in order to increase the specificity of acupuncture treatment.

  17. DeQuervain tenosynovitis in pregnant and postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schned, E S

    1986-09-01

    DeQuervain tenosynovitis, which involves the abductor pollicis longus and extensor pollicis brevis tendons, is much more common in women than men and is due to repetitive movements of the hand such as grasping and twisting. Housewives and persons involved in manual occupations using the hands and wrists account for most cases in previous series. In this series, six of 24 female patients (25%) were pregnant or postpartum at the time of onset. In five of the six, activities of infant care aggravated symptoms. Both pregnancy, per se, and mechanical factors appear to play a role in causing this condition.

  18. Simplified functional splinting after extensor tenorrhaphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, R R; Bynum, D K

    1997-05-01

    The medical records of 22 patients who had a total of 61 simple or complex lacerations of finger, thumb, and wrist extensor tendons repaired in zones V-VIII (thumb zones TIII-TV) were reviewed. By 7 days after surgery, custom-molded splints were applied to hold the patients' wrists extended (approximately 30 degrees) and the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints flexed slightly (20 degrees-30 degrees), leaving the interphalangeal (IP) joints free. If thumb tenorrhaphies were done, the thumb carpometacarpal and MP joints were included and splinted in neutral (0 degree extension) position. Patients performed active JP joint range of motion (ROM) exercises as instructed. At a mean follow-up period of 4.5 months (range, 1.5-12 months), there were no residual impairments that interfered with patients' activities of daily living or prevented their return to preinjury employment status; 19 of 22 patients (86%) had good or excellent results, based on objective criteria of active motion. There were no tenorrhaphy failures. The results support the concept of functional splinting techniques, which allow early active IP joint ROM while protecting the repaired tendons, thus resulting in less joint stiffness than older methods of static splinting without being as complicated and labor-intensive as dynamic splinting.

  19. High incidence and treatment of flexor carpi radialis tendinitis after trapeziectomy and abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty for basal joint arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, T H; Hales, P F

    2014-10-01

    We reviewed the incidence and treatment of flexor carpi radialis tendinitis in 77 patients (81 thumbs) who had trapeziectomy and abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty for thumb carpometacarpal joint arthritis. Eighteen patients, 20 wrists (25%) had flexor carpi radialis tendinitis. The onset was 2-10 months (mean 4.7) after surgery. Two cases had preceding trauma. Eight cases (40%) responded to splinting and steroid injection. Ten patients, 12 wrists (60%) underwent surgery after failing non-operative treatment. Eleven wrists had frayed or partially torn flexor carpi radialis tendon and one had a complete tendon rupture with pseudotendon formation. Flexor carpi radialis tenotomy and pseudotendon excision were performed. All operated patients obtained good pain relief initially post-operatively. However, the pain recurred in two patients after 8 months. One required a local steroid injection for localized tenderness at the site of the proximal tendon stump. The other patient required a revision operation for scaphotrapezoid impingement. Both obtained complete pain relief. Our study has shown a high incidence of flexor carpi radialis tendinitis following trapeziectomy and abductor pollicis longus suspensionplasty. Patients should be warned about this potential complication. © The Author(s) 2013.

  20. Unusual origin of the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingerter, S; Gupta, S; Le, S; Shamasunder, S; Bernstein, R; Rabitaille, W; Kukuyeva, Y; Downie, S

    2003-11-01

    An unusual origin of the flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle of the right hand was discovered during cadaveric dissection. The muscle originated from the anterior aspect of the transverse fibers of the distal antebrachial fascia and inserted onto the base of the fifth proximal phalanx. When traction was applied to the proximal portion of the muscle, flexion was produced at the fifth metacarpophalangeal joint. Other intrinsic muscles of the hand and the muscles of the flexor forearm compartment had normal morphology. Although muscular anomalies in the hypothenar region have been described, the muscular variant described here was distinct in its origin and size from those previously reported. Knowledge of anomalous muscles in the hand has important clinical significance in routine surgery and in determining associated pathology.

  1. Modified Evans peroneus brevis lateral ankle stabilization for balancing varus ankle contracture during total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S

    2013-01-01

    Lateral ankle instability is frequently encountered when performing total ankle replacement and remains a challenge. In the present techniques report, I have described a modification of the Evans peroneus brevis tendon lateral ankle stabilization harvested through limited incisions using simple topographic anatomic landmarks. The harvested peroneus brevis is then transferred either to the anterior distal tibia concomitantly with total ankle replacement or through the tibia when performed after total ankle replacement and secured with plate and screw fixation. This modified Evans peroneus brevis tendon is useful in providing lateral ankle stability during or after primary and revision total ankle replacement.

  2. Lipid Class, Carotenoid, and Toxin Dynamics of Karenia Brevis (Dinophyceae) During Diel Vertical Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karenia brevis’ (Hansen and Moestrup) internal lipid, carotenoid, and toxin concentrations are influenced by its ability to use ambient light and nutrients for growth and reproduction. This project investigated changes of K. brevis toxicity, lipid class and carotenoid concentrat...

  3. Florida Red Tide: Inhalation Toxicity of Karenia brevis Extract in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, J M; Hahn, F F; Tibbetts, B.M.; Bowen, L.E.; March, T.F.; Langley, R. J.; Murray, T.F.; Bourdelais, A.J.; Naar, J.; Zaias, J.; Baden, D. G.

    2004-01-01

    Brevetoxins are neurotoxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate Karenia brevis. Histopathologic examination of marine mammals dying following repeated exposure of brevetoxins during red tide events suggests that the respiratory tract, nervous, hematopoietic, and immune systems are potential targets for toxicity in repeatedly exposed individuals. The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of repeated inhalation of K. brevis extract on these potential target systems in rats. M...

  4. PCR amplification of microsatellites from single cells of Karenia brevis preserved in Lugol's iodine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrichs, D W; Renshaw, M A; Santamaria, C A; Richardson, B; Gold, J R; Campbell, L

    2008-01-01

    A simple and effective protocol is described for multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of single cells of Karenia brevis. The protocol requires minimum processing, avoids additions that might dilute target DNA template, and can be used on cells preserved in Lugol's iodine preservative. Destaining of Lugol's-preserved cells with sodium thiosulfate allowed successful amplification of single-copy, nuclear-encoded microsatellites in single cells of K. brevis that have been preserved for up to 6 years.

  5. FUNCTIONAL-ANATOMY OF THE SOFT-TISSUES OF THE HAND AND WRIST - INVIVO EXCURSION MEASUREMENT OF THE FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS-TENDON USING MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; KONINGS, JG; WOLF, RFE; MOOYAART, EL

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the flexor pollicis longus-tendon (FPL-tendon) with the thumb in different positions allows the in vivo assessment of its abduction-adduction/flexion excursion. Measurements can also be performed in different positions of the wrist. In our study, the mean

  6. FUNCTIONAL-ANATOMY OF THE SOFT-TISSUES OF THE HAND AND WRIST - INVIVO EXCURSION MEASUREMENT OF THE FLEXOR POLLICIS LONGUS-TENDON USING MRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HAM, SJ; KONINGS, JG; WOLF, RFE; MOOYAART, EL

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the flexor pollicis longus-tendon (FPL-tendon) with the thumb in different positions allows the in vivo assessment of its abduction-adduction/flexion excursion. Measurements can also be performed in different positions of the wrist. In our study, the mean excursio

  7. Increase in twitch force of the adductor pollicis muscle with stabilized preload at constant thumb abduction before and after administration of muscle relaxant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, G; Wierda, JMKH; Fidler, [No Value

    1999-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether the twitch force of the adductor pollicis remains stable when 0.1 Hz single twitch stimulation is started after stabilization of the thumb preload at a constant degree of thumb abduction; also to study any possible increase in twitch force before the onset of and afte

  8. Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawabata Y

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players.

  9. Should we think about wrist extensor after flexor tendon repair?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline M Ferreira

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the activity of wrist extensor muscle, correlating with wrist motion during gripping after flexor tendon repair. Design: Cross-sectional clinical measurement study. Setting: Laboratory for biomechanics and rehabilitation. Subjects: A total of 11 patients submitted to rehabilitation by early passive motion of the fingers with wrist flexion position were evaluated after 8 weeks of fingers flexor tendon repair and 11 healthy volunteers, all ranging from 20 to 37 years of age. Intervention: Volunteers performed an isometric standardized gripping task. Main measures: We used electrogoniometry to analyze wrist range of motion and surface electromyography, considering 100% maximum voluntary contraction to represent the amplitude of electromyographic activity of the extensor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis. Results: Patients with flexor tendon repair showed co-activation deficit between wrist extensor (extensor carpi radialis and flexor finger muscles (flexor digitorum superficialis during gripping in the intermediate phase of rehabilitation, despite some recovering mobility for wrist extension (p ≤ 0.05. A moderate correlation between range of motion and extensor carpi radialis was present only for injured group (r = 0.32. Total active motion score, which represents finger active excursion, was regular or poor in 65% of cases, all with nerve repair associated. Conclusion: Wrist extensors have an important synergist role at handgrip, although some imbalance can be present after flexor tendon repair. These preliminary findings suggest that emphasis could be directed to add synergistic wrist motion in rehabilitation protocols after flexor tendon repair. Future studies with early active rehabilitation are necessary.

  10. Split-hand plus sign in ALS: differential involvement of the flexor pollicis longus and intrinsic hand muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Parvathi; Bae, Jong Seok; Mioshi, Eneida; Kiernan, Matthew C; Vucic, Steve

    2013-05-01

    The flexor pollicis longus (FPL), a key muscle involved in fractionated thumb movements, may be relatively spared in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared to the thenar group of muscles, termed the split-hand plus sign. Consequently, the diagnostic utility of the split-hand plus sign was prospectively assessed in ALS. In total, 103 patients (37 ALS and 66 non-ALS) with neuromuscular symptoms underwent assessment of FPL and APB strength using the Medical Research Council (MRC) score. A median nerve strength index (MSI) was developed to quantify differential involvement by expressing the APB strength score as a fraction of the FPL strength score. The APB muscle strength was significantly reduced compared to FPL strength in ALS patients (p hand plus sign distinguished ALS from non-ALS neuromuscular disorders, thereby suggesting a diagnostic utility of this novel clinical sign in ALS.

  11. Hazards of steroid injection: Suppurative extensor tendon rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woon Colin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Local steroid injections are often administered in the office setting for treatment of trigger finger, carpal tunnel syndrome, de Quervain′s tenosynovitis, and basal joint arthritis. If attention is paid to sterile technique, infectious complications are rare. We present a case of suppurative extensor tenosynovitis arising after local steroid injection for vague symptoms of dorsal hand and wrist pain. The progression of signs and symptoms following injection suggests a natural history involving bacterial superinfection leading to tendon rupture. We discuss the pitfalls of local steroid injection and the appropriate management of infectious extensor tenosynovitis arising in such situations.

  12. Reconstruction of the extensor mechanism after major knee resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Angelini, Andrea; Pala, Elisa; Sakellariou, Vasileios I; Ruggieri, Pietro; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J

    2012-05-01

    In periarticular knee resections, the relative lack of soft tissue coverage and need to reattach the extensor mechanism after en bloc resection of the tibial tuberosity with the tumor specimen complicate reconstructions and decrease postoperative function and stability of the knee joint. Distal femoral reconstructions are less problematic; muscular attachments are relatively few, neurovascular structures are not immediately adjacent to bone, and the knee extensor mechanism is usually not compromised from bone tumors. In the proximal tibia, the close proximity of the neurovascular structures in the popliteal fossa and peroneal nerve at the lateral aspect of the leg make reconstruction more difficult. Poor function is mostly related to unreliable options for knee extensor mechanism reattachment and poor soft tissue coverage. Successful and reliable attachment of the soft tissues has been a significant advance that improved functional outcomes.This article describes techniques for the reconstruction of the extensor mechanism of the knee after proximal tibia resections. Combined reconstruction techniques using direct reattachment of the patellar tendon with synthetic materials to megaprosthetic or allograft reconstructions for immediate stability, augmentation with autologous bone graft or substitutes at the attachment site, and coverage with the medial gastrocnemius muscle flap and supplementary flaps for long-term stability of the reattachment are currently considered the gold standard.

  13. Outcome of early active mobilization after extensor tendon repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Narender

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditionally the repaired extensor tendons have been treated postoperatively in static splints for several weeks, leading to formation of adhesions and prolonged rehabilitation. Early mobilization using dynamic splints is common, but associated with many shortcomings. We attempted to study the results of early active mobilization, using a simple static splint, and easy-to-follow rehabilitation plan. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study 26 cases of cut extensor tendons in Zone V to VIII were treated with primary or delayed primary repair. Following this, early active mobilization was undertaken, using an easy-to-follow rehabilitation plan. The results were assessed according to the criteria of Dargan at six weeks and one year. Results: All the 26 patients were followed up for one year. 20 out of 26 patients were below 30 years of age, involving the dominant hand more commonly (16 patients, 62%. Agriculture instruments were the most common mode of injury (13 patients, 50%. The common site for injury was extensor zone VI (42%, n = 11. Conclusion: Rehabilitation done for repaired extensor tendon injuries by active mobilization plan using a simple static splint has shown good results.

  14. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  15. Reversal of neuromuscular block with sugammadex: a comparison of the corrugator supercilii and adductor pollicis muscles in a randomized dose-response study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, S; Yamamoto, Y; Kitajima, O; Maeda, T; Suzuki, T

    2015-08-01

    Neuromuscular monitoring using the corrugator supercilii muscle is associated with a number of challenges. The aim of this study was to assess reversal of a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade with sugammadex according to monitoring either using the corrugator supercilii muscle or the adductor pollicis muscle. We hypothesized that a larger dose of sugammadex would be required to obtain a train-of-four (TOF) ratio of 1.0 with the corrugator supercilii muscle than with the adductor pollicis muscle. Forty patients aged 20-60 years and 40 patients aged ≥ 70 years were enrolled. After induction of anesthesia, we recorded the corrugator supercilii muscle response to facial nerve stimulation and the adductor pollicis muscle response to ulnar nerve stimulation using acceleromyography. All patients received 1 mg/kg rocuronium. When the first twitch (T1) of TOF recovered to 10% of control values at the corrugator supercilii, rocuronium infusion was commenced to maintain a T1 of 10% of the control at the corrugator supercilii. Immediately after discontinuation of rocuronium infusion, 2 mg/kg or 4 mg/kg of sugammadex was administered. The time for recovery to a TOF ratio of 1.0 and the number of patients not reaching a TOF ratio of 1.0 by 5 min at each dose and muscle was recorded. When neuromuscular block at the corrugator supercilii was maintained at a T1 of 10% of control, that at the adductor pollicis was deep (post-tetanic count ≤ 5). Sugammadex 4 mg/kg completely antagonized neuromuscular block at both muscles within 5 min. The time to a TOF ratio of 1.0 at the adductor pollicis was significantly longer in the group ≥ 70 years than the group 20-60 years (mean (SD): 178 (42.8) s vs. 120 (9.4) s, P sugammadex reversed neuromuscular blockade at the corrugator supercilii but not at the adductor pollicis, with 10 patients in the group 20-60 years and 8 patients in the group ≥ 70 years requiring an additional sugammadex (P

  16. Variant insertion of extensor carpi radialis longus in a South Indian cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetti R

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of muscular variations in the antebrachial region is clinically significant in certain operative procedures like tendon transfer, correction of hand deformities. Extensor carpi radialis accessorius and extensor carpi radialis intermedius were reported variations of extensor region. We present a rare variation of extensor carpi radialis longus, which was inserted into the fibrous flexor sheath of middle, ring, and little fingers on the palmar aspect. The present variation will influence the biomechanics of wrist joint.

  17. Characteristics of surface layer proteins from two new and native strains of Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak Qamsari, Elahe; Kasra Kermanshahi, Rouha; Erfan, Mohammad; Ghadam, Parinaz; Sardari, Soroush; Eslami, Neda

    2017-02-01

    In this work, some important characteristics of surface layer (S-layer) proteins extracted from two new and native Lactobacillus strains, L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7, were investigated. The presence of S-layer on the external surface of L.brevis KM3 was displayed by thin sectioning and negative staining. SDS-PAGE analysis were shown same dominant protein bands approximately around 48kDa for both S-layer proteins. Moreover, the S-layer reappeared when LiCl treated cells were allowed to grow again. Protein secondary structure and thermal behavior were evaluated by using circular dichroism (CD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), respectively. Both S-layer proteins had high content of β-sheet and low amount of α-helix. The thermograms of lyophilized S-layer proteins of L.brevis KM3 and L.brevis KM7 showed one transition peak at 67.9°C and 59.14°C, respectively. To determine monodispersity of extracted S-layer proteins, dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used. The results indicated that the main population of S-layer molecules in two tested lactobacillus strains were composed of monomer with an expected diameter close to 10nm. Furthermore, Zeta potential measurements were showed positive potential for both S-layer proteins, as expected. Our results could be used as the basis for biotechnological applications of these two new S-layer proteins.

  18. Empedobacter brevis Bacteremia in a Patient Infected with HIV: Case Report and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Bokhari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical disease caused by Empedobacter brevis (E. brevis is very rare. We report the first case of E. brevis bacteremia in a patient with HIV and review the current literature. A 69-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and CD4 count of 319 presented with chief complaints of black tarry stools, nausea and vomiting for 2 days. Physical exam was significant for abdominal pain on palpation with no rebound or guarding. His total leukocyte count was 32,000 cells/μL with 82% neutrophils and 9% bands. Emergent colonoscopy and endoscopic esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed esophageal candidiasis, a nonbleeding gastric ulcer, and diverticulosis. Blood cultures drawn on days 1, 2, and 3 of hospitalization grew E. brevis. Patient improved with intravenous antibiotics. This case is unusual, raising the possibility of gastrointestinal colonization as a source of the patient’s bacteremia. In conclusion, E. brevis is an emerging pathogen that can cause serious health care associated infections.

  19. Biological control of fusarial wilt of pigeon pea by Bacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bapat, S; Shah, A K

    2000-02-01

    A virulent strain of pigeon pea wilt pathogen was isolated from wilted pigeon pea plants and was identified as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. udum. Many bacterial cultures showing antagonism to the pathogen were isolated from various ecological niches. When tested under pot and field conditions, development of fusarial wilt symptoms was prevented in pigeon pea seeds treated with one such antagonist, Bacillus brevis. A formulation of B. brevis with vermiculite as a carrier had a shelf life of at least 6 months. Bacillus brevis produced an extracellular antagonistic substance which induced swelling of the pathogen's hyphal tips, and cells were bulbous and swollen with shrunken and granulated cytoplasm. The antagonistic substance also inhibited germination of conidia, and was fungicidal to the vegetative mycelia of the pathogen. Comparison of the properties of our antagonistic substance with that of known antibiotics produced by B. brevis suggests that our antagonistic substance is a novel compound. The observations reported here indicate that this strain of B. brevis may have potential as a biocontrol agent against fusarial wilt in pigeon pea.

  20. Empedobacter brevis Meningitis in a Neonate: A Very Rare Case of Neonatal Meningitis and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Empedobacter brevis is gram-negative bacilli that belongs to Flavobacteriaceae family. It was previously known with name of Flavobacterium breve. The reservoir of these bacteria is soil, plants, water, food, hospital water sources, including incubators, sinks, faucets, tap water, hemodialysis systems, saline solutions, and other pharmaceutical solutions. We report a case of term female newborn, admitted with complaint of respiratory distress developing soon after birth and developed clinical features of sepsis at age of 92 hours of postnatal life. The sepsis screen was positive and blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid showed growth of Empedobacter brevis that was resistant to multiple antibiotics. The neonate was treated with appropriate antibiotics and was discharged successfully. The novelty of the case report is that this is the first case report of neonatal sepsis caused by Empedobacter brevis.

  1. Reproductive Ecology of Prochilodus brevis an Endemic Fish from the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de Lima Gurgel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish.

  2. Reverse Evans peroneus brevis medial ankle stabilization for balancing valgus ankle contracture during total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roukis, Thomas S; Prissel, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Medial ankle instability secondary to deltoid ligament insufficiency is frequently encountered when performing total ankle replacement and remains a challenge. In the present techniques report, we describe a "reverse" Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction for medial ankle stabilization harvested through limited incisions using simple topographic anatomic landmarks. The harvested peroneus brevis tendon is brought through a drill hole in the talus from laterally to medially, aiming for the junction of the talar neck and body plantar to the midline. The tendon is the brought superiorly and obliquely to the anterior medial aspect of the distal tibia where it is secured under a plate and screw construct. This modified Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction is useful in providing medial ankle stability during or after primary and revision total ankle replacement.

  3. Lactic acid production from wheat straw hemicellulose hydrolysate by Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus brevis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Arvid; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil; Schmidt, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Lactic acid production by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus pentosus on a hemicellulose hydrolysate (HH) of wet-oxidized wheat straw was evaluated. The potential of 11-12 g/l fermentable sugars was released from the HH through either enzymatic or acidic pretreatment. Fermentation of added...... xylose in untreated HH after wet-oxidation, showed no inhibition on the lactic acid production by either Lb. pentosus or Lb. brevis. Lb. pentosus produced lactate corresponding to 88% of the theoretical maximum yield regardless of the hydrolysis method, whereas Lb. brevis produced 51% and 61......% of the theoretical maximum yield after enzymatic, or acid treatment of HH, respectively. Individually, neither of the two strains were able to fully utilize the relatively broad spectra of sugars released by the acid and enzyme treatments; however, lactic acid production increased to 95% of the theoretical maximum...

  4. Lactic acid production from corn stover using mixed cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengjie; Li, Yebo; Wan, Caixia

    2011-01-01

    Mixed cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus brevis was studied for improving utilization of both cellulose- and hemicellulose-derived sugars from corn stover for lactic acid production. During simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of NaOH-treated corn stover by the mixed cultures, a lactic acid yield of 0.70 g/g was obtained, which was about 18.6% and 29.6% higher than that by single cultures of L. rhamnosus and L. brevis, respectively. Our results indicated that lactic acid yield from NaOH-pretreated corn stover by mixed cultures of L. rhamnosus and L. brevis was comparable to that from pure sugar mixtures (0.73 g/g of glucose/xylose mixture at 3:1 w/w). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of biosurfactant production by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foukia E. Mouafi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate and validate a statistical model for maximizing biosurfactant productivity by Bacillus brevis using response surface methodology. In this respect, twenty bacterial isolates were screened for biosurfactant production using hemolytic activity, oil spreading technique, and emulsification index (E24. The most potent biosurfactant-producing bacterium (B. brevis was used for construction of the statistical response surface model. The optimum conditions for biosurfactant production by B. brevis were: 33 °C incubation temperature at pH 8 for 10 days incubation period and 8.5 g/L glucose concentration as a sole carbon source. The produced biosurfactant (BS (73% exhibited foaming activity, thermal stability in the range 30–80 °C for 30 min., pH stability, from 4 to 9 and antimicrobial activity against (Escherichia coli. The BS gave a good potential application as an emulsifier.

  6. Empedobacter brevis Meningitis in a Neonate: A Very Rare Case of Neonatal Meningitis and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankur; Soni, Priyanka; Sharma, Pradeep; Gupta, Basudev

    2016-01-01

    Empedobacter brevis is gram-negative bacilli that belongs to Flavobacteriaceae family. It was previously known with name of Flavobacterium breve. The reservoir of these bacteria is soil, plants, water, food, hospital water sources, including incubators, sinks, faucets, tap water, hemodialysis systems, saline solutions, and other pharmaceutical solutions. We report a case of term female newborn, admitted with complaint of respiratory distress developing soon after birth and developed clinical features of sepsis at age of 92 hours of postnatal life. The sepsis screen was positive and blood culture and cerebrospinal fluid showed growth of Empedobacter brevis that was resistant to multiple antibiotics. The neonate was treated with appropriate antibiotics and was discharged successfully. The novelty of the case report is that this is the first case report of neonatal sepsis caused by Empedobacter brevis. PMID:27648334

  7. Localized Acquired Hypertrichosis Associated with the Application of a Splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander K. C. Leung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 16-year-old boy whose left forearm and hand were cut by a piece of glass from a broken window as a result of the fall. He had surgical repair of his left extensor pollicis brevis, abductor pollicis brevis, and dorsal branch of the left radial nerve. Following the surgery, he was put on a splint so as to immobilize the left forearm and wrist. On removal of the splint 4 weeks post surgery, he was noticed to have more hair growth on his left forearm and hand than his right counterparts. The patient was reassessed 2, 4, and 8 months after the removal of the splint. The hypertrichosis got better with time. At the last visit, the hair growth in the left forearm and hand was back to normal. Our patient represents the first reported case of localized acquired hypertrichosis following the application of a splint in the pediatric literature.

  8. Effect of Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287 as a feeding supplement on the performance and immune function of piglets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 8287, a surface (S-layer) strain, possesses a variety of functional properties that make it both a potential probiotic and a good vaccine vector candidate. With this in mind, our aim was to study the survival of L. brevis in the porcine gut and investigate the effect of th...

  9. The prevalence and anatomical characteristics of the accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. The accessory head of the flexor pollicis longus muscle (AHFPL, also known as the Gantzer’s muscle, was first described in 1813. The prevalence rates of an AHFPL significantly vary between studies, and no consensus has been reached on the numerous variations reported in its origin, innervation, and relationships to the Anterior Interosseous Nerve (AIN and the Median Nerve (MN. The aim of our study was to determine the true prevalence of AHFPL and to study its associated anatomical characteristics.Methods. A search of the major electronic databases PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science was performed to identify all articles reporting data on the prevalence of AHPFL in the population. No date or language restriction was set. Additionally, an extensive search of the references of all relevant articles was performed. Data on the prevalence of the AHFPL in upper limbs and its anatomical characteristics and relationships including origin, insertion, innervation, and position was extracted and pooled into a meta-analysis using MetaXL version 2.0.Results. A total of 24 cadaveric studies (n = 2,358 upper limb were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of an AHFPL was 44.2% (95% CI [0.347–0.540]. An AHFPL was found more commonly in men than in women (41.1% vs. 24.1%, and was slightly more prevalent on the right side than on the left side (52.8% vs. 45.2%. The most common origin of the AHFPL was from the medial epicondyle of the humerus with a pooled prevalence of 43.6% (95% CI [0.166–0.521]. In most cases, the AHFPL inserted into the flexor pollicis longus muscle (94.6%, 95% CI [0.731–1.0] and was innervated by the AIN (97.3%, 95% CI [0.924–0.993].Conclusion. The AHFPL should be considered as more a part of normal anatomy than an anatomical variant. The variability in its anatomical characteristics, and its potential to cause compression of the AIN and MN, must be taken into account

  10. Vertical migration of Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico observed from glider measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Barnes, Brian B; Qi, Lin; Lembke, Chad; English, David

    2016-09-01

    The toxic marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis (the species responsible for most of red tides or harmful algal blooms in the Gulf of Mexico), is known to be able to swim vertically to adapt to the light and nutrient environments, nearly all such observations have been made through controlled experiments using cultures. Here, using continuous 3-dimensional measurements by an ocean glider across a K. brevis bloom in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico between 1 and 8 August 2014, we show the vertical migration behavior of K. brevis. Within the bloom where K. brevis concentration is between 100,000 and 1,000,000cellsL(-1), the stratified water shows a two-layer system with the depth of pycnocline ranging between 14-20m and salinity and temperature in the surface layer being 28°C, respectively. The bottom layer shows the salinity of >36 and temperature of <26°C. The low salinity is apparently due to coastal runoff, as the top layer also shows high amount of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Within the top layer, chlorophyll-a fluorescence shows clear diel changes in the vertical structure, an indication of K. brevis vertical migration at a mean speed of 0.5-1mh(-1). The upward migration appears to start at sunrise at a depth of 8-10m, while the downward migration appears to start at sunset (or when surface light approaches 0) at a depth of ∼2m. These vertical migrations are believed to be a result of the need of K. brevis cells for light and nutrients in a stable, stratified, and CDOM-rich environment.

  11. Alternate technique in managing adhesions after zone 3 extensor tendon repair: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangatharam, Sudhagar; LeBlanc, Monique

    2013-03-01

    Extensor tendon injuries are given less importance than the flexor tendon injuries; however, the extensor mechanism is more complicated than flexor tendon system, and regaining satisfactory function is a challenge. It has been reported that loss of digital flexion would affect grasp and power grip imposing greater functional loss than digital extensor lag. Zone 3 extensor tendon management is complex because of excessive scar formation limiting composite digital flexion and extension. The adhesions are more common if the tendon is immobilized for long period. The purpose of this care report is to describe the alternate technique in managing adhesion after prolong immobilization in zone 3 extensor tendon injuries.

  12. Proprioceptive control of extensor activity during fictive scratching and weight support compared to fictive locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, M C; Enriquez-Denton, M; Hultborn, H

    1999-12-15

    At rest, extensor group I afferents produce oligosynaptic inhibition of extensor motoneurons. During locomotor activity, however, such inhibition is replaced by oligosynaptic excitation. Oligosynaptic excitation from extensor group I afferents plays a crucial role in the regulation of extensor activity during walking. In this study we investigate the possibility that this mechanism also regulates extensor muscle activity during other motor tasks. We show that the reflex pathways responsible for extensor group I oligosynaptic excitation during fictive locomotion can be activated during both fictive scratching and fictive weight support (tonic motor activity induced by contralateral scratching). These observations suggest that the excitatory group I oligosynaptic reflex pathways are open for transmission during several forms of motor activities. We also show that extensor group I input during fictive scratching can affect the amplitude and the timing of extensor activity in a pattern similar to that observed during locomotion. Most likely these effects involve the activation of the excitatory group I oligosynaptic reflex pathways. Accordingly, it is suggested that extensor group I oligosynaptic excitation during motor activities other than locomotion is also used to regulate extensor muscle activity. Furthermore, the similarity of effects from extensor group I input on the rhythmicity during scratching and locomotion supports the hypothesis that both rhythms are generated by a common network.

  13. EXERCISE WITH THE BARBELL-EXTENSOR CONCENTRIC DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagiu Bogdan Alexandru

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This preliminary study has shown that exercise performed with concentric barbell-extensor system that forearm flexion-extension defeat both elastic and gravitational resistance (oriented in the same direction can lead to considerable progress of muscular force. Exercise has a complex character because requesting simultaneously both biceps and triceps. Developing passive force can be used to relieve elbow joint pain and for diversification of bodybuilding programs.

  14. [The cutaneous extensor plantar reflex (Babinski, 1896/1898)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Souza, R; de Figueiredo, W M

    1995-06-01

    The extensor plantar reflex was described by Babinski in 1896. Given the obvious relevance of the sign for internal medicine as well as the paucity of translations of the original sources into Portuguese, we thought it timely to recall the ingenious arguments Babinski used to demonstrate his views on the "toe phenomenon", as he would call it. A careful analysis of Babinski's writings suggests, further, that he was driven by keen intuition as well as by medico-legal interests.

  15. Total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Moura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: This was a retrospective case-control study on total ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee, aimed to compare patella fractures with tendinous ruptures. METHODS: The sample included 190 patients and 198 total ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus. All patients were evaluated by the same examiner after a minimum one-year follow-up. RESULTS: Tendinous ruptures occurred most frequently in men, in younger patients, and had better clinical and functional outcomes when compared with patella fractures; however, the former presented higher levels of thigh atrophy. Patella fractures occurred most frequently in women and in older patients and caused most frequently caused residual pain, muscle weakness, and limitations in daily activities. Comminuted fractures were related to high-energy trauma, lower clinical and functional outcomes, and higher levels of residual pain and osteosynthesis failure. Early removal of osteosynthesis material was related to better outcomes. Regarding the tendinous ruptures, over half of the patients presented risk conditions for tendinous degeneration; a longer delay until surgery was related to lower Kujala scores. CONCLUSION: The surgical repair of bilateral ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus resulted in satisfactory clinical and functional outcomes, which were better for tendinous ruptures when compared with patella fractures. However, these lesions are associated with non-negligible levels of residual pain, muscle weakness, atrophy, and other complications.

  16. Reconstruction of the extensor mechanism after proximal tibia endoprosthetic replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickels, J; Wittig, J C; Kollender, Y; Neff, R S; Kellar-Graney, K; Meller, I; Malawer, M M

    2001-10-01

    The proximal tibia is a difficult area in which to perform a wide resection of a bone tumor. This difficulty is due to the intimate relationship of tumor in this location to the nerves and blood vessels of the leg, inadequate soft tissue coverage after endoprosthetic reconstruction, and the need to reconstruct the extensor mechanism. Competence of the extensor mechanism is the major determinant of functional outcome of these patients. Between 1980 and 1997, 55 patients underwent proximal tibia resection with endoprosthetic reconstruction for a variety of malignant and benign-aggressive tumors. Reconstruction of the extensor mechanism included reattachment of the patellar tendon to the prosthesis with a Dacron tape, reinforcement with autologous bone-graft, and attachment of an overlying gastrocnemius flap. All patients were followed for a minimum of 2 years; 6 patients (11%) had a transient peroneal nerve palsy, 4 patients (7.2%) had a fasciocutaneous flap necrosis, and 2 patients (3.6%) had a deep wound infection. Full extension to extension lag of 20 degrees was achieved in 44 patients, and 8 patients required secondary reinforcement of the patellar tendon. Function was estimated to be good to excellent in 48 patients (87%). Reattachment of the patellar tendon to the prosthesis and reinforcement with an autologous bone-graft and a gastrocnemius flap are reliable means to restore extension after proximal tibia endoprosthetic reconstruction.

  17. Extensor hallucis longus tendon injury in taekwondo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Tai; Choi, Yun Sun; Lee, Young Koo; Lee, Jeong Pil; Young, Ki Won; Park, Shin Yi

    2009-08-01

    Extensor hallucis longus (EHL) tendon injuries can occur in taekwondo athletes when performing hyperplantarflexed barefoot kicking exercises. A state of full excursion of the extensor tendon is used to strike opponents in which the metatarsal bone and the proximal phalanx area is in contact with the opponent. The purpose of this study is to examine the incidence of extensor hallucis longus tendon injury in taekwondo athletes. Case-control study. 50 Athletes from the Korean taekwondo national team and a control group of 50 healthy subjects. History of sports participation, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and ultrasound imaging of the EHL. Difference in the AOFAS scores were noted with the control group at 92.95+/-9.18, and the experimental group score at 88.45+/-10.93 (ptaekwondo group displayed changes in 16 tendons (20%). EHL thickness of the experimental group (1.52+/-0.16 mm) was greater and the control group (1.46+/-0.11 mm) (pTaekwondo athletes have a higher incidence of changes on sonographic imaging of the EHL compared to non-taekwando participating healthy subjects.

  18. Cell cycle behavior of laboratory and field populations of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dolah, Frances M.; Leighfield, Tod A.; Kamykowski, Daniel; Kirkpatrick, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    As a component of the ECOHAB Florida Regional Field Program, this study addresses cell cycle behavior and its importance to bloom formation of the Florida red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis. The cell cycle of K. brevis was first studied by flow cytometry in laboratory batch cultures, and a laboratory mesocosm column, followed by field populations over the 5-year course of the ECOHAB program. Under all conditions studied, K. brevis displayed diel phased cell division with S-phase beginning a minimum of 6 h after the onset of light and continuing for 12-14 h. Mitosis occurred during the dark, and was generally completed by the start of the next day. The timing of cell cycle phases relative to the diel cycle did not differ substantially in bloom populations displaying radically different growth rates ( μmin 0.17-0.55) under different day lengths and temperature conditions. The rhythm of cell cycle progression is independent from the rhythm controlling vertical migration, as similar cell cycle distributions are found at all depths of the water column in field samples. The implications of these findings are discussed in light of our current understanding of the dinoflagellate cell cycle and the development of improved models for K. brevis bloom growth.

  19. Genome Sequence of Rapid Beer-Spoiling Isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ewen, Emily; Baecker, Nina; Ziola, Barry

    2015-01-01

    The genome of brewery-isolate Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 was sequenced and assembly produced a chromosome and eight plasmids. This bacterium tolerates dissolved CO2/pressure and can rapidly spoil packaged beer. This genome is useful for analyzing the genetics associated with beer spoilage by lactic acid bacteria.

  20. Cloning and sequencing the degS-degU operon from an alkalophilic Bacillus-brevis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available at the amino acid level to the B. subtilis degS-degU genes showed 74% and 84% similarity, respectively. On a multicopy vector the B. brevis degS-degU genes were found to cause hypersecretion of several extracellular enzymes in a B. subtilis rec (-) strain...

  1. De quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyas, Asif M; Ilyas, Asif; Ast, Michael; Schaffer, Alyssa A; Thoder, Joseph

    2007-12-01

    De quervain disease, or stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, is a common wrist pathology. Pain results from resisted gliding of the abductor pollicis longus and the extensor pollicis brevis tendons in the fibro-osseus canal. de Quervain tenosynovitis of the wrist is more common in women than men. Diagnosis may be made on physical examination. Radiographs are helpful in ruling out offending bony pathology. Nonsurgical management, consisting of corticosteroid injections and supportive thumb spica splinting, is usually successful. In resistant cases, surgical release of the first dorsal compartment is done, taking care to protect the radial sensory nerve and identify all accessory compartments. Repair of the extensor retinaculum by step-cut lengthening or other techniques is rarely required.

  2. What are the stimulation parameters that affect the extent of twitch force potentiation in the adductor pollicis muscle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mettler, Joni A; Griffin, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Muscle force potentiation affects force output during electrical stimulation. Few studies have examined stimulation train parameters that influence potentiation such as pulse number, stimulation frequency, train duration, and force-time integral and peak force produced during the train. Pulse-matched trains (100 pulses) at 7.5, 15, 25, 30, 50, and 100 Hz, and trains of varying pulse number (50, 100, and 200 pulses) at 30 and 50 Hz were delivered to the ulnar nerve of 10 (5 male, 5 female; 23.4 ± 0.9 years), healthy individuals in random order. Single twitches of the adductor pollicis muscle were elicited before and after each train with a rest interval of at least 5 min between each train. No differences in potentiation occurred across the pulse-matched trains at frequencies of 15-50 Hz (38.9 ± 5.4-44.6 ± 5.5%). Twitch force potentiation following the highest (100 Hz) and lowest (7.5 Hz) frequency trains were not significantly different and were lower than the other 100 pulse-matched trains. As pulse number increased, potentiation increased for both the 30 and 50-Hz trains. There was a significant positive correlation between force potentiation and force-time integral produced by the stimulation train, r = 0.70. The results indicate that potentiation magnitude is dependent on the force-time integral produced during the test train and the number of pulses delivered, independent of stimulation frequency.

  3. Anomalous extensor tendons of hand: a case report with clinical importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Paul

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum muscle of the hand originates from the common extensor origin i.e., from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and ends in four tendons, one for each digit except for the thumb. This paper reports a case, in which the tendon of the extensor digitorum ended as four tendons to the index, middle, ring and little fingers, but displayed variations in the number of tendons to each finger. Two tendons of extensor digitorum were observed in the ring and the little finger. Such an arrangement of the tendons of the extensor digitorum may have clinical importance. The presence of multiple tendons may also alter the kinematics around the site of attachment to the phalanx. Knowledge of abnormal and normal anatomy of the extensor tendons, may be helpful while performing graft and tendon transfer operations.

  4. Anomalous extensor tendons of hand: a case report with clinical importance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Paul

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum muscle of the hand originates from the common extensor origin i.e., from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and ends in four tendons, one for each digit except for the thumb. This paper reports a case, in which the tendon of the extensor digitorum ended as four tendons to the index, middle, ring and little fingers, but displayed variations in the number of tendons to each finger. Two tendons of extensor digitorum were observed in the ring and the little finger. Such an arrangement of the tendons of the extensor digitorum may have clinical importance. The presence of multiple tendons may also alter the kinematics around the site of attachment to the phalanx. Knowledge of abnormal and normal anatomy of the extensor tendons, may be helpful while performing graft and tendon transfer operations.

  5. Decline in lumbar extensor muscle strength the older adults: correlation with age, gender and spine morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Devinder Kaur Ajit; Bailey, Martin; Lee, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Background Muscle morphology, age and gender may be determinants of muscle strength in older adults. However, very few research studies have directly examined such correlation in the ageing spine. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between lumbar extensor muscle strength, its muscle fibre angles, thoracolumbar curvature, age and gender in the older and younger adults. Methods Muscle fibre angles of lumbar extensor muscles, thoracolumbar curvature and lumbar extensor muscle st...

  6. Bilateral extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty in two morbidly obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Zachary H; Yi, Paul H; Haughom, Bryan D; Hellman, Michael D; Levine, Brett R

    2015-05-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism as a result of patellar tendon or quadriceps tendon rupture is an uncommon but devastating complication after total knee arthroplasty. Treating a disrupted extensor mechanism can be challenging, particularly in patients who are morbidly obese, due to an increased risk of postoperative complications. Therefore, despite the debilitating nature of extensor mechanism disruption, many community surgeons do not feel comfortable pursuing more complex cases like revision total knee arthroplasty with extensor mechanism allograft on morbidly obese patients, and consequently many of these patients are referred to tertiary-care centers for reconstruction secondary to the complexity of this patient cohort. The authors report 2 cases of bilateral extensor mechanism disruption after total knee arthroplasty in patients who are morbidly obese. One patient experienced trauma leading to her initial rupture; however, her contralateral atraumatic disruption was subsequently diagnosed at a later date. The second patient did not experience trauma leading to either of her extensor mechanism disruptions. Despite substantial medical comorbidities and morbid obesity, revision total knee arthroplasties with extensor mechanism allografts were recommended in both cases in a staged bilateral fashion. The surgical technique is described and the unique challenges afforded by the marked obesity are detailed. The current literature on this subject is reviewed. Despite early complications related to recumbency, this report serves as an example of successful repairs of extensor mechanism disruptions in patients who are morbidly obese, suggesting that extensor mechanism allograft is viable even in patients with high risk of complications.

  7. Hyperparathyroidism-related extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist: a general review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Satoshi; Hidalgo-Diaz, Juan Jose; Prunières, Guillaume; Facca, Sybille; Bodin, Frédéric; Boucher, Stéphanie; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Extensor tenosynovitis often occurs accompanying with rheumatoid arthritis, gout, trauma, mycobacterium and dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, there is no recognition of extensor tenosynovitis accompanying with hyperparathyroidism. The purpose of this general review was to describe the clinical condition and to report the results of surgical intervention in the extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist related to hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is thought to be a rare disease in adult. Although renal symptoms are the commonest symptom, musculoskeletal complaints also occur in hyperparathyroidism. From our general review, hyperparathyroidism deserves consideration in the differential diagnosis of extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist.

  8. Production of gamma-aminobutyric acid by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 using fed-batch fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Guidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, and has several well-known physiological functions. Lactic acid bacteria possess special physiological activities and are generally regarded as safe. Therefore, using lactic acid bacteria as cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid production is a fascinating project and opens up a vast range of prospects for making use of GABA and LAB. We previously screened a high GABA-producer Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 and optimized its fermentation medium composition. The results indicated that the strain showed potential in large-scale fermentation for the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid. To increase the yielding of GABA, further study on the fermentation process is needed before the industrial application in the future. In this article we investigated the impacts of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, pH, temperature and initial glutamate concentration on gamma-aminobutyric acid production by Lactobacillus brevis NCL912 in flask cultures. According to the data obtained in the above, a simple and effective fed-batch fermentation method was developed to highly efficiently convert glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid. Results Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate did not affect the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. Temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration had significant effects on the cell growth and gamma-aminobutyric acid production of Lb. brevis NCL912. The optimal temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were 30-35°C, 5.0 and 250-500 mM. In the following fed-batch fermentations, temperature, pH and initial glutamate concentration were fixed as 32°C, 5.0 and 400 mM. 280.70 g (1.5 mol and 224.56 g (1.2 mol glutamate were supplemented into the bioreactor at 12 h and 24 h, respectively. Under the selected fermentation conditions, gamma-aminobutyric acid was rapidly produced at the first 36 h and almost not

  9. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Cintia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas;

    2013-01-01

    fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199......A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus......) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coil was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis...

  10. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Cibu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night. Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted.

  11. History of the extensor plantar response: Babinski and Chaddock signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2002-12-01

    The testing of reflexes involving the lower extremities is a pivotal part of the modern neurological examination. The normal response to noxious stimulation of the foot is plantar flexion of the toes, causing them to curl downward toward the undersurface of the foot. In 1896, Joseph Babinski described an extensor toe response that he claimed was a consistent finding among patients with pyramidal tract lesions of the cortex, subcortex, brain stem, or spinal cord. He considered it a distinct sign of organic disease and found it to be absent in cases of hysterical weakness. Charles Gilbert Chaddock admired the work of Babinski and described a modification of the Babinski technique, demonstrating that stimulation of the lateral surface of the foot could induce the same type of toe extension in patients with pyramidal tract lesions. The two reflexes are complementary, and each can occur without the other, although both are usually present in cases of pyramidal tract impairment. Although these two reflexes are the most commonly described pathological reflexes indicative of pyramidal tract disruption, the names of other celebrated neurologists are also linked to the study of extensor toe signs, each having identified a variant of the Babinski sign.

  12. Biomechanical Analysis of Force Distribution in Human Finger Extensor Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The complexities of the function and structure of human fingers have long been recognised. The in vivo forces in the human finger tendon network during different activities are critical information for clinical diagnosis, surgical treatment, prosthetic finger design, and biomimetic hand development. In this study, we propose a novel method for in vivo force estimation for the finger tendon network by combining a three-dimensional motion analysis technique and a novel biomechanical tendon network model. The extensor mechanism of a human index finger is represented by an interconnected tendinous network moving around the phalanx’s dorsum. A novel analytical approach based on the “Principle of Minimum Total Potential Energy” is used to calculate the forces and deformations throughout the tendon network of the extensor mechanism when subjected to an external load and with the finger posture defined by measurement data. The predicted deformations and forces in the tendon network are in broad agreement with the results obtained by previous experimental in vitro studies. The proposed methodology provides a promising tool for investigating the biomechanical function of complex interconnected tendon networks in vivo.

  13. Effects of the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on larval development in three species of bivalve mollusc from Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverone, Jay R; Blake, Norman J; Pierce, Richard H; Shumway, Sandra E

    2006-07-01

    The effects of Karenia brevis (Wilson clone) on larval survival and development of the northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria, eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica and bay scallop, Argopecten irradians, were studied in the laboratory. Larvae were exposed to cultures of whole and lysed cells, with mean total brevetoxin concentrations of 53.8 and 68.9 microgL(-1), respectively. Survival of early (3-day-old) larvae was generally over 85% for all shellfish species at K. brevis densities of 100 cells ml(-1) or less, and not significantly different between whole and lysed culture. At 1000 cells ml(-1), survival was significantly less in lysed culture than whole culture for both M. mercenaria and C. virginica. Survival of late (7-day-old) larvae in all three species was not significantly affected by K. brevis densities of 1000 cells ml(-1) or less. At 5000 cells ml(-1), however, survival was reduced to 37%, 26% and 19% for A. irradians, M. mercenaria and C. virginica, respectively. Development of C. virginica and M. mercenaria larvae was protracted at K. brevis densities of 1000 cells ml(-1). These results suggest that blooms of K. brevis, and particularly their associated brevetoxins, may have detrimental consequences for Florida's shellfisheries by disrupting critical larval processes. Special attention should be paid to blooms of K. brevis where these shellfish occur naturally or where aquaculture and restoration activities are either ongoing or planned.

  14. Investigation of the physiology and genetics of Lactobacillus brevis isolated from beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu

    . In conclusion, this PhD project provides new insight into how beer isolated bacteria respond to brewing-associated stresses at the single cell level. Additionally, the micro-colony based method, as well as the increased knowledge on beer-spoilage genes, could be further utilised for detection of beer spoilage......Beer is a very harsh environment for bacterial growth due to various inhibitory factors. Hop compounds are believed to be the key stress factor, with additional stress from alcohol, low pH and lack of nutrients. However, a few specialist microorganisms, in particular Lactobacillus brevis, possess...... to prevent biological contaminations in breweries. The present PhD thesis has explored the physiological response of L. brevis towards oxidizing disinfectants and beerassociated stress (mainly hop stress) at the single cell level, as well as the genetic difference between beer tolerant and sensitive strains...

  15. Investigation of the physiology and genetics of Lactobacillus brevis isolated from beer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu

    to prevent biological contaminations in breweries. The present PhD thesis has explored the physiological response of L. brevis towards oxidizing disinfectants and beerassociated stress (mainly hop stress) at the single cell level, as well as the genetic difference between beer tolerant and sensitive strains....... The first study was devoted to developing a rapid colony-based method for investigating the influence of oxidizing disinfectants on hop tolerant L. brevis strains. The method was based on an automated microscope, combined with the membrane impermanent dye (propidium iodide, PI). It provided comparable......, the addition of PI to the agar showed that PAA does not destroy the cell membrane. Furthermore, the dead cells appeared randomly within a micro-colony during growth. This novel approach allowed the rapid analysis of bacterial viability after a disinfectant treatment, and potentially the method could be applied...

  16. Probing the structure of 16 S ribosomal RNA from Bacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kop, J; Kopylov, A M; Magrum, L; Siegel, R; Gupta, R; Woese, C R; Noller, H F

    1984-12-25

    A majority (approximately 89%) of the nucleotide sequence of Bacillus brevis 16 S rRNA has been determined by a combination of RNA sequencing methods. Several experimental approaches have been used to probe its structure, including (a) partial RNase digestion of 30 S ribosomal subunits, followed by two-dimensional native/denatured gel electrophoresis, in which base-paired fragments were directly identified; (b) identification of positions susceptible to cleavage by RNase A and RNase T1 in 30 S subunits; (c) sites of attack by cobra venom RNase on naked 16 S rRNA; and (d) nucleotides susceptible to attack by bisulfite in 16 S rRNA. These data are discussed with respect to a secondary structure model for B. brevis 16 S rRNA derived by comparative sequence analysis.

  17. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training progra...

  18. Identification of ecotype-specific marker genes for categorization of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Jürgen; Geissler, Andreas J; Preissler, Patrick; Ehrenreich, Armin; Angelov, Angel; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-10-01

    The tolerance to hop compounds, which is mainly associated with inhibition of bacterial growth in beer, is a multi-factorial trait. Any approaches to predict the physiological differences between beer-spoiling and non-spoiling strains on the basis of a single marker gene are limited. We identified ecotype-specific genes related to the ability to grow in Pilsner beer via comparative genome sequencing. The genome sequences of four different strains of Lactobacillus brevis were compared, including newly established genomes of two highly hop tolerant beer isolates, one strain isolated from faeces and one published genome of a silage isolate. Gene fragments exclusively occurring in beer-spoiling strains as well as sequences only occurring in non-spoiling strains were identified. Comparative genomic arrays were established and hybridized with a set of L. brevis strains, which are characterized by their ability to spoil beer. As result, a set of 33 and 4 oligonucleotide probes could be established specifically detecting beer-spoilers and non-spoilers, respectively. The detection of more than one of these marker sequences according to a genetic barcode enables scoring of L. brevis for their beer-spoiling potential and can thus assist in risk evaluation in brewing industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Osmotic stress does not trigger brevetoxin production in the dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunda, William G; Burleson, Cheska; Hardison, D Ransom; Morey, Jeanine S; Wang, Zhihong; Wolny, Jennifer; Corcoran, Alina A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Van Dolah, Frances M

    2013-06-18

    With the global proliferation of toxic harmful algal bloom species, there is a need to identify the environmental and biological factors that regulate toxin production. One such species, Karenia brevis, forms nearly annual blooms that threaten coastal regions throughout the Gulf of Mexico. This dinoflagellate produces brevetoxins, which are potent neurotoxins that cause neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and respiratory illness in humans, as well as massive fish kills. A recent publication reported that a rapid decrease in salinity increased cellular toxin quotas in K. brevis and hypothesized that brevetoxins serve a role in osmoregulation. This finding implied that salinity shifts could significantly alter the toxic effects of blooms. We repeated the original experiments separately in three different laboratories and found no evidence for increased brevetoxin production in response to low-salinity stress in any of the eight K. brevis strains we tested, including three used in the original study. Thus, we find no support for an osmoregulatory function of brevetoxins. The original publication also stated that there was no known cellular function for brevetoxins. However, there is increasing evidence that brevetoxins promote survival of the dinoflagellates by deterring grazing by zooplankton. Whether they have other as-yet-unidentified cellular functions is currently unknown.

  20. Biosorption and biodegradation of pyrene by Brevibacillus brevis and cellular responses to pyrene treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Liping; Chen, Shuona; Peng, Hui; Yin, Hua; Ye, Jinshao; Liu, Zehua; Dang, Zhi; Liu, Zhichen

    2015-05-01

    Biodegradation has been proposed as an effective approach to remove pyrene, however, the information regarding cellular responses to pyrene treatment is limited thus far. In this study, the biodegradation and biosorption of pyrene by Brevibacillus brevis, along with cellular responses caused by pollutant were investigated by means of flow cytometry assay and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results showed that pyrene was initially adsorbed by B. brevis and subsequently transported and intracellularly degraded. During this process, pyrene removal was primarily dependent on biodegradation. Cell invagination and cell surface corrugation occurred due to pyrene exposure. Nevertheless, cell regrowth after 96h treatment was observed, and the proportion of necrotic cell was only 2.8% after pyrene exposure for 120h, confirming that B. brevis could utilize pyrene as a sole carbon source for growth. The removal and biodegradation amount of pyrene (1mg/L) at 168h were 0.75 and 0.69mg/L, respectively, and the biosorption amount by inactivated cells was 0.41mg/L at this time.

  1. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  2. US and MR imaging of the extensor compartment of the ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Joshua M; Rosenberg, Zehava Sadka; Bencardino, Jenny T; Restrepo-Velez, Zoraida; Ciavarra, Gina A; Adler, Ronald Steven

    2013-01-01

    Injuries to the extensor compartment of the ankle are uncommon and often are overlooked or misinterpreted at clinical presentation. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging play a critical role in the diagnosis and evaluation of these injuries. US is a dynamic, quick, cost-effective imaging method for assessing ankle extensor compartment injuries as an alternative or adjunct to MR imaging. MR imaging provides multiplanar cross-sectional delineation of regional anatomic structures and also can be used to assess the predisposing cause, estimate the extent of injury, and aid in preoperative planning for requisite surgical repair. The spectrum of pathologic conditions affecting the ankle extensor compartment ranges from tendinosis secondary to degenerative, inflammatory, or depositional disease to traumatic tendon or retinacular rupture and entrapment neuropathy. Major components of the ankle extensor compartment at risk for injury include the anterior tibial, extensor hallucis longus, and extensor digitorum longus tendons; the extensor retinacular mechanism; and the anterior tarsal tunnel. Familiarity with the normal anatomic appearance and pathologic features of the ankle extensor compartment at US and MR imaging as well as potential imaging pitfalls is critical for accurate injury evaluation.

  3. The Effect of Visual Impairment on the Strength of Children's Hip and Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, L.; Ng, G. Y.

    1997-01-01

    A test of 32 children's hip and knee extensors found that children born blind or with low vision are at risk of developing weak lower-limb extensors, with congenitally blind children at greatest risk. After correcting for lean body weight, the differences between sighted children and those with low vision were insignificant. Results support the…

  4. Knee extensor strength and risk of structural, symptomatic and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: Meta-analysis showed that lower knee extensor strength is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and functional deterioration, but not tibiofemoral JSN. The risk of patellofemoral deterioration in the presence of knee extensor strength deficits is inconclusive. This article is protected...

  5. Extensor Mechanism Disruption after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-01-01

    Extensor mechanism disruption following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but devastating complication. These patients may require revision of the implants, but even then, it may not be possible to restore the normal function of the knee after the disruption. The patterns of extensor mechanism disruption can broadly be classified into three types: suprapatellar (quadriceps tendon rupture), transpatellar (patellar fracture), or infrapatellar (patellar tendon rupture). Infrapatellar tendon ruptures are the worst injuries, as they carry maximum morbidity and are challenging to manage. The disruption of the extensor mechanism may occur either intra-operatively or in the immediate postoperative period due to an injury. The treatment of extensor mechanism complications after TKA may include either nonsurgical management or surgical intervention in the form of primary repair or reconstruction with autogenous, allogeneic, or synthetic substitutes. We have provided an algorithm for the management of extensor mechanism disruption after TKA. PMID:27004156

  6. Contribution of the activated catalase to oxidative stress resistance and γ-aminobutyric acid production in Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Changjiang; Hu, Sheng; Huang, Jun; Luo, Maiqi; Lu, Tao; Mei, Lehe; Yao, Shanjing

    2016-12-05

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are generally sensitive to H2O2, a compound which can paradoxically produce themselves and lead to the growth arrest and cell death. To counteract the potentially toxic effects of this compound, the gene katE encoding a heme-dependent catalase (CAT) belonging to the family of monofunctional CATs was cloned from Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC1306. The enhanced homologous CAT expression was achieved using the NICE system. L. brevis cells with overexpressed CAT showed 685-fold and 823-fold higher survival when exposed to 30mmol/L of H2O2 and long-term aerated stress (after 72h), respectively, than that of the wild type cells. Furtherly, the effects of activated CAT on GABA production in L. brevis were investigated. A GABA production level of 66.4g/L was achieved using two-step biotransformation that successively employed the growing and resting cells derived from engineering L. brevis CAT. These results demonstrated clearly that overexpression of the KatE gene in L. brevis led to a marked increased survival in oxidizing environment, and shed light on a novel feasible approach to enhance the GABA production level by improving the antioxidative properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strain-specific probiotics properties of Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis isolates from Brazilian food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2013-10-01

    A total of 234 LAB isolates from Brazilian food products were initially screened for their ability to survive at pH 2.0. Fifty one of the isolates survived and were selected. They were characterized by phenotypic methods, rep-PCR and identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing as Lactobacillus fermentum (34 isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (10) and Lactobacillus brevis (7). Based on being either highly tolerant to bile, showing an ability for auto-aggregation and/or hydrophobic properties, one L. fermentum (CH58), three L. plantarum (CH3, CH41 and SAU96) and two L. brevis (SAU105 and FFC199) were selected. The highest co-aggregation ability with Escherichia coli was observed to L. plantarum CH41. L. brevis SAU105 and FFC199 and L. fermentum CH58 exhibited antagonistic activity towards the pathogens Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. L. plantarum CH3 and CH41 and L. brevis FFC199 showed adhesion ability to Caco-2 cells (1.6, 1.1 and 0.9%, respectively) similar to the commercial probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (1.5%). They were able to increase the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells over 24 h (p plantarum CH3 and CH41 (cocoa) and L. brevis FFC199 (cauim) exhibited potential probiotics properties.

  8. "Extensor toe sign" by various methods in spastic children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, D; Pradhan, S

    1998-05-01

    Upper motor neuron lesion in adults is usually associated with spasticity and "extensor toe sign" on plantar stimulation (extensor plantar response). There are various methods of eliciting this sign including the classic method by Babinski. Other methods produce this response when the area of reflexogenic zone is increased due to upper motor neuron lesion. There are varying reports of Babinski positivity in spastic cerebral palsy. This study was undertaken to assess the sensitivity of different methods of eliciting "extensor toe sign." An attempt has also been made to correlate the severity of spasticity with the combined "extensor toe sign" positivity by various methods and with the increase in reflexogenic zone. Eighty-one children with spastic cerebral palsy were examined. Twelve had hemiplegia; therefore, a total of 150 limbs were tested. "Extensor toe sign" was elicited by 12 different methods in each patient. The sensitivity of each method was calculated and compared with each other one. The assessment of spasticity was done using the Ashworth Tone Scale. The severity of spasticity was correlated with "extensor toe sign" positivity using various methods. Classic Babinski reflex was positive in 75% of cases, whereas Gonda-Allen sign was positive in 90% of cases followed by Allen-Cleckley (82%), Chaddock (74%), and Cornell (54%). All other signs had sensitivity of less than 30%. There was no increase in sensitivity after combining them. There was significant negative correlation between the spasticity and the combined "extensor toe sign" positivity (by all the methods). This study, therefore, suggests that the majority of patients with spastic cerebral palsy have positive "extensor toe sign." The Gonda-Allen method is more sensitive than the classic Babinski method. A positive "extensor toe sign" is negatively correlated to the degree of spasticity.

  9. Radiometric-microbiologic assay of niacin using Kloeckera brevis: analysis of human blood and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilarte, T.R.; Pravlik, K.

    1983-12-01

    Kloeckera brevis, a yeast, was used as the test organism for the development of a radiometric-microbiologic (RMA) assay for niacin. The assay was determined to be sensitive to the 2 ng niacin per vial level and specific for the biologically active forms of this vitamin. The method was shown to be simple, accurate, and precise in the analysis of niacin in human blood and food. The application of the radiometric technique eliminates some of the problems encountered with conventional turbidimetric-microbiologic assay.

  10. Transcriptomic response of the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, to nitrogen and phosphorus depletion and addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Jillian G

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of coastal nutrient sources in the persistence of Karenia brevis red tides in coastal waters of Florida is a contentious issue that warrants investigation into the regulation of nutrient responses in this dinoflagellate. In other phytoplankton studied, nutrient status is reflected by the expression levels of N- and P-responsive gene transcripts. In dinoflagellates, however, many processes are regulated post-transcriptionally. All nuclear encoded gene transcripts studied to date possess a 5' trans-spliced leader (SL sequence suggestive, based on the trypanosome model, of post-transcriptional regulation. The current study therefore sought to determine if the transcriptome of K. brevis is responsive to nitrogen and phosphorus and is informative of nutrient status. Results Microarray analysis of N-depleted K. brevis cultures revealed an increase in the expression of transcripts involved in N-assimilation (nitrate and ammonium transporters, glutamine synthetases relative to nutrient replete cells. In contrast, a transcriptional signal of P-starvation was not apparent despite evidence of P-starvation based on their rapid growth response to P-addition. To study transcriptome responses to nutrient addition, the limiting nutrient was added to depleted cells and changes in global gene expression were assessed over the first 48 hours following nutrient addition. Both N- and P-addition resulted in significant changes in approximately 4% of genes on the microarray, using a significance cutoff of 1.7-fold and p ≤ 10-4. By far, the earliest responding genes were dominated in both nutrient treatments by pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR proteins, which increased in expression up to 3-fold by 1 h following nutrient addition. PPR proteins are nuclear encoded proteins involved in chloroplast and mitochondria RNA processing. Correspondingly, other functions enriched in response to both nutrients were photosystem and ribosomal genes

  11. Purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by strain of Lactobacillus brevis MTCC 7539.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita

    2009-08-01

    Bacteriocin, an antimicrobial agent having potential for food biopreservation was purified from Lactobacillus brevis (a safe food-grade bacteria isolated from Vari Kandal, a traditional fermented food of Himachal Pradesh by adopting a novel repeated washing method. Its purity was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Native-PAGE. The relative molecular mass of bacteriocin was 93.74 kD, while specific activity and recovery were 35.52 folds and 17.13%, respectively. It showed high thermal stability and was active over wide range of pH and exhibited sensitivity to trypsin.

  12. Pulley Reconstruction As Part of the Surgical Treatment for de Quervain Disease: Surgical Technique with Medium-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wijk, Jacobien; Goubau, Jean F; Mermuys, Koen; van Hoonacker, Petrus; Vanmierlo, Bert; Kerckhove, Diederick; Berghs, Bart

    2015-08-01

    Background Simple decompression of the first extensor compartment is commonly used for treating de Quervain disease, with the possible complication of subluxation of the tendons of the abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB) over the radial styloid. To prevent this painful subluxation of the tendons, several methods of reconstructing the pulley have been proposed. Questions/Purposes The purpose of our study was to evaluate a new technique for reconstructing the first extensor compartment following a release for de Quervain disease. Patients and Methods A retrospective study (mean length 40.4 months) was performed in 45 patients. The outcome assessment involved two different questionnaires and ultrasound evaluation of any tendon subluxation. Results None of the patients required reoperation for tendon instability or incomplete decompression of the first extensor compartment. Two patients experienced clicking around the radial styloid after surgery. This was not related to the amount of volar migration of the tendons. Conclusions We believe the reconstruction proposed here is an effective method of preventing painful subluxation of the APL and EPB following a release of the first extensor compartment.

  13. Hop resistance in the beer spoilage bacterium Lactobacillus brevis is mediated by the ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter HorA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakamoto, K; Margolles, A; van Veen, HW; Konings, WN

    2001-01-01

    Lactobacillus brevis is a major contaminant of spoiled beer. The organism can grow in beer in spite of the presence of antibacterial hop compounds that give the beer a bitter taste. The hop resistance in L. brevis is, at least in part, dependent on the expression of the horA gene. The deduced amino

  14. Anticipatory and Reactive Response to Falls: Muscle Synergy Activation of Forearm Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couzens, Greg; Kerr, Graham

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the surface electromyogram response of six forearm muscles to falls onto the outstretched hand. The extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor carpi ulnaris, abductor pollicis longus, flexor carpi radialis and flexor carpi ulnaris muscles were sampled from eight volunteers who underwent ten self-initiated falls. All muscles initiated prior to impact. Co-contraction is the most obvious surface electromyogram feature. The predominant response is in the radial deviators. The surface electromyogram timing we recorded would appear to be a complex anticipatory response to falling modified by the effect on the forearm muscles following impact. The mitigation of the force of impact is probably more importantly through shoulder abduction and extension and elbow flexion rather than action of the forearm muscles.

  15. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures.......Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month...

  16. RELIABILITY AND AGREEMENT OF ULTRASONOGRAPHIC THICKNESS MEASUREMENTS OF THE COMMON LATERAL EXTENSORS OF THE ELBOW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teggeler, Marlijn; Schmitz, Marc; Fink, Alexandra; Jansen, Jaap A. C. G.; Pisters, Martijn F.

    2015-01-01

    In individuals with lateral elbow tendinopathy, the thickness of the common lateral extensors tendon can be evaluated by musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSU) for diagnostic and evaluative purposes. The reproducibility of these thickness measurements should be established before integrating it into

  17. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    for a meniscal tear and used either a healthy control group or the contralateral leg to compare knee extensor muscle strength were included. Methodological quality was assessed using guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. RESULTS: Eleven studies, including predominately males were included (n......OBJECTIVE: People with meniscal tears are at high risk to develop or progress knee osteoarthritis. Knee extensor weakness is considered a risk factor for osteoarthritis and is often reported in these individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate knee...... extensor strength in people undergoing an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM). METHODS: Six databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, SportDISCUS, EMBASE, PEDro and AMED) were searched up to June 22(nd) , 2014. Studies that measured knee extensor muscle strength in people aged 30 years and older undergoing APM...

  18. Tenossinovite e sinovite do primeiro compartimento extensor do punho: o que o ultrassonografista precisa saber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Arend

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A tenossinovite do primeiro compartimento extensor é uma enfermidade frequente, cercada por mitos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar cientificamente alguns dos aspectos mais pertinentes ao ultrassonografista sobre sua terminologia, fisiopatogenia, diagnóstico e acompanhamento.

  19. Complications of common hand and wrist surgery procedures: flexor and extensor tendon surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lauren H; Abzug, Joshua M; Osterman, A Lee; Stern, Peter J; Chang, James

    2014-01-01

    Orthopaedic and hand surgeons frequently treat disorders of the flexor and extensor tendon systems. Common conditions, such as trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, extensor tendon injury, and zone II flexor tendon injury, can be challenging to treat. Complications that limit normal hand function still occur despite advances in surgical techniques and therapy protocols. It is helpful to be aware of the complications related to the treatment of these hand disorders and understand surgical techniques to minimize their frequency.

  20. An unusual variety of the extensor digiti muscles: report with notes on repetition strain injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt Pires, Maria Alexandre; Casal, Diogo; Mascarenhas de Lemos, Luís; Godinho, Carlos Eduardo; Pais, Diogo; Goyri-O'Neill, João

    2013-01-01

    In over 500 human cadaveric dissections of arms and forearms, performed to the present date, we find frequent anatomical variations, corresponding to classic descriptions. Last year, we found a singular anatomic variation of the extensor muscles of the forearm, which seems previously undescribed. It is our strong belief that gross anatomy studies, and gross dissection should be updated and reintroduced in modern anatomical studies, for teaching, research, or surgical training purposes. We detected a peculiar anatomical variant of the Superficial Extensor Digiti Muscles in the forearm of a human 73 year old male Caucasian cadaver. We clearly identified a thick bundle of muscular fibres, connecting the main muscular shafts of the Extensor Digiti Minimi, and the Extensor Digitorum Communis Muscles, in a perfectly defined muscular expansion, bridging obliquely downwards and outwards, between the two main muscular shafts. In our series, this is the first occurrence of such anatomical disposition. Anatomical variations of the extensor tendons to the fingers are frequently detected in the wrist, hand and fingers compartments. The careful analysis of the variants of muscular shafts in the forearm compartment, as commonly reported in the earliest anatomical descriptions will bring renewed light to the functional assessment of the extensor mechanism of the human fingers. In this sense, we reviewed the oldest anatomical descriptions, from the 16th century to the present date.

  1. Simultaneous Knee Extensor Muscle Action Induces an Increase in Voluntary Force Generation of Plantar Flexor Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takahito; Shioda, Kohei; Kinugasa, Ryuta; Fukashiro, Senshi

    2017-02-01

    Suzuki, T, Shioda, K, Kinugasa, R, and Fukashiro, S. Simultaneous knee extensor muscle action induces an increase in voluntary force generation of plantar flexor muscles. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 365-371, 2017-Maximum activation of the plantar flexor muscles is required for various sporting activities that involve simultaneous plantar flexion and knee extension. During a multi-joint movement, activation of the plantar flexor muscles is affected by the activity of the knee extensor muscles. We hypothesized that coactivation of the plantar flexor muscles and knee extensor muscles would result in a higher plantar flexion torque. To test this hypothesis, 8 male volunteers performed maximum voluntary isometric action of the plantar flexor muscles with and without isometric action of the knee extensor muscles. Surface electromyographic data were collected from 8 muscles of the right lower limb. Voluntary activation of the triceps surae muscles, evaluated using the interpolated twitch technique, significantly increased by 6.4 percentage points with intentional knee extensor action (p = 0.0491). This finding is in line with a significant increase in the average rectified value of the electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis, fibularis longus, and soleus muscles (p = 0.013, 0.010, and 0.045, respectively). The resultant plantar flexion torque also significantly increased by 11.5% of the predetermined maximum (p = 0.031). These results suggest that higher plantar flexor activation coupled with knee extensor activation facilitates force generation during a multi-joint task.

  2. Function and structure of the deep cervical extensor muscles in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacher, Jochen; Falla, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    The deep cervical extensors are anatomically able to control segmental movements of the cervical spine in concert with the deep cervical flexors. Several investigations have confirmed changes in cervical flexor muscle control in patients with neck pain and as a result, effective evidence-based therapeutic exercises have been developed to address such dysfunctions. However, knowledge on how the deep extensor muscles behave in patients with neck pain disorders is scare. Structural changes such as higher concentration of fat within the muscle, variable cross-sectional area and higher proportions of type II fibres have been observed in the deep cervical extensors of patients with neck pain compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that the behaviour of the deep extensors may be altered in patients with neck pain. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent series of studies confirm that patients display reduced activation of the deep cervical extensors as well as less defined activation patterns. This article provides an overview of the various different structural and functional changes in the deep neck extensor muscles documented in patients with neck pain. Relevant recommendations for the management of muscle dysfunction in patients with neck pain are presented.

  3. In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu eZhao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the use of various disinfectants in the brewing industry. In this study, we cultivated bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and then investigated the in situ outgrowth of individual cells into microcolonies on MRS agar after exposure to the oxidizing agent peracetic acid (PAA. An automated microscope stage allowed us to analyse a much larger number of cells over extended periods of incubation. After PAA treatment, the lag time increased markedly, and extensive variation in morphology, µmax as well as stress resistance was observed between and within the tested L. brevis strains. The results suggest that aerobic cultivation increased the oxidative stress tolerance in L. brevis. The results also show that dead cells are randomly distributed in a microcolony and the majority of non-growing individual cells do not stain with a membrane impermanent dye (Propidium iodide, which indicates that PAA may not destroy the plasma membrane. In conclusion, the developed microscopic analysis of individual cells on MRS agar can provides faster results and more details of cell physiology compared to the traditional CFU method.

  4. Resistance of pine, australian red cedar woods and their derivate products to Cryptotermes brevis attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Xisto Ribeiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the resistance of Australian red cedar (Toona ciliata and pine (Pinus sp. woods and particleboards made from these species to dry-wood termite Cryptotermes brevis attack, as much as to quantify the mortality of the insects. 30 termite pseudo-workers were put in each 9,5 cm-diameter Petri dishes containing the samples (1,5 x 1,5 x 0,5 cm and cotton sheets positioned on the perforated covers, daily moisturized with 5 ml of water. The dishes were maintained in BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand at 24±5 ºC and 24 h of escotophase. A control sample without any feed source was included in the bioassay. The deterioration index (ID and mortality of the insects were evaluated after 60 days. Termites from the control sample presented higher termite mortality than the other treatments, which did not differ among each other. Toona ciliata wood was more resistant than Pinus sp. wood to Cryptotermes brevis attack. The average deterioration indexes were 1.74% and 6.62% respectively for those woods. The average deterioration index of the panels made with 100% Toona ciliata (ID=1.58% was similar to the deterioration index of particleboards made with this specie mixed with Pinus sp. (ID=1.87%.

  5. Mycelial carton galleries of Azteca brevis (Formicidae) as a multi-species network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Veronika E.; Voglmayr, Hermann

    2009-01-01

    Apart from growing fungi for nutrition, as seen in the New World Attini, ants cultivate fungi for reinforcement of the walls of their nests or tunnel-shaped runway galleries. These fungi are grown on organic material such as bark, epiphylls or trichomes, and form stable ‘carton structures’. In this study, the carton of the runway galleries built by Azteca brevis (Formicidae, Dolichoderinae) on branches of Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Flacourtiaceae) is investigated. For the first time, molecular tools are used to address the biodiversity and phylogenetic affinities of fungi involved in tropical ant carton architecture, a previously neglected ant–fungus mutualism. The A. brevis carton involves a complex association of several fungi. All the isolated fungi were unequivocally placed within the Chaetothyriales by DNA sequence data. Whereas five types of fungal hyphae were morphologically distinguishable, our DNA data showed that more species are involved, applying a phylogenetic species concept based on DNA phylogenies and hyphal morphology. In contrast to the New World Attini with their many-to-one (different ant species—one fungal cultivar) pattern, and temperate Lasius with a one-to-two (one ant species—two mutualists) or many-to-one (different ant species share the same mutualist) system, the A. brevis–fungi association is a one-to-many multi-species network. Vertical fungus transmission has not yet been found, indicating that the A. brevis–fungi interaction is rather generalized. PMID:19556257

  6. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  7. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. PMID:27065561

  8. High rate of failure of allograft reconstruction of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, S S; Greidanus, N; Paprosky, W G; Berger, R A; Rosenberg, A G

    1999-11-01

    Disruption of the extensor mechanism is an uncommon but devastating complication of total knee arthroplasty. Several techniques for reconstruction of the extensor mechanism after total knee arthroplasty have been reported, but we do not know of any study in which the results of one group's method were corroborated by a second group using the same technique. In the present series, we evaluated the results of reconstruction of the extensor mechanism with use of allograft according to the method described by Emerson et al. Seven reconstructions of the extensor mechanism with use of a bone-tendon-bone allograft were performed with the technique of Emerson et al. in six patients. The patients were evaluated before and after the operation. The knee score according to the system of The Hospital for Special Surgery, evidence of an extensor lag, use of walking aids, and the ambulatory status of each patient were recorded. The patients were also asked about, and the medical records were reviewed for, episodes of falling related to weakness of the quadriceps after the reconstruction. The mean duration of follow-up was thirty-nine months (range, six to 115 months). As these reconstructions often fail early, the minimum duration of follow-up was six months. All seven reconstructions were rated as clinical failures on the basis of a persistent or recurrent extensor lag of more than 30 degrees. All but one patient needed an assistive device full time for walking, and four patients (five knees) had at least one documented episode of falling that was due to giving-way of the affected knee. Four of the reconstructions were revised; one revision was performed with use of another extensor mechanism allograft and three were performed with use of a medial gastrocnemius rotation flap. The other three clinical failures had not been revised at the time of writing. At the time of the most recent follow-up (or at the time of revision of the extensor reconstruction), the mean extensor lag was

  9. Detection, partial purification and characterization of bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus brevis FPTLB3 isolated from freshwater fish: Bacteriocin from Lb. brevis FPTLB3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shiba Prosad; Dora, Krushna Chandra; Chowdhury, Supratim

    2013-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis FPTLB3 was isolated from freshwater fish, capable of producing bacteriocin that had broad spectrum of inhibition (3200 AU/ml) against Escherichia coli MTCC 1563, Enterococcus faecalis MTCC 2729, Lactobacillus casei MTCC 1423, Lactobacillus sakei ATCC 15521 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. The antimicrobial activity of crude supernatant fluid was stable after heating at 121 °C for 60 min and declined thereafter. Stability of antimicrobial activity was observed at pH range of 2.0 to 8.0. Its active principle was proteinaceous in nature since the bacteriocin was inactivated by proteolytic enzymes, but not by other non-proteolytic enzymes. Mitomycin C and UV light did not affect the activity of the bacteriocin, while chloroform extraction completely destroyed their activity. Exposure to surfactant resulted in an increase in titre, except Nonidet P-40, which led to total loss of activity. No bacteriocin adsorption was detected at pH 1 to 2, whereas 100% bacteriocin adsorption was found at pH 6.5. Based on Tricine SDS-PAGE the estimated molecular mass of bacteriocin was 54 kDa. No plasmid was found to present in the isolate.

  10. ECOHAB: Van Dolah_F- Karenia brevis Cell Cycle Analysis for Determination of In Situ Growth Rates (NODC Accession 0000538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The reported growth rates of Karenia brevis vary from 0.2 to 0.5 divisions per day, both in laboratory and field populations observed. This growth rate alone is not...

  11. Evidence of horizontal transfer as origin of strain to strain variation of the tyramine production trait in Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coton, Emmanuel; Coton, Monika

    2009-02-01

    Lactobacillus brevis strains with the ability to decarboxylate tyrosine to tyramine have been described and the involvement of several genes constituting a tyrdc operon at the chromosomal level has been demonstrated in this species. In this study, the existence of Lb. brevis strains unable to form tyramine was observed. In order to evaluate if the tyramine-producing ability was strain-dependent or if it could be correlated to the existence of a new species or subspecies, different isolates were analysed. Analysis by M13-RAPD and sequencing of 16S rDNA, 16S-23S ISR and house-keeping gene recA confirmed that all the isolates belonged to the Lb. brevis species. Analysis of the TyrDC pathway encoding operon region in representative strains indicated the existence of a polymorphism. The genetic differences observed showed that the tyrosine decarboxylating ability is not a Lb. brevis species trait but that it is strain-dependent within this species and suggest that the genes encoding the tyramine-producing pathway constitute a genomic island.

  12. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  13. BIOCHEMISTRY OF DINOFLAGELLATE LIPIDS, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE FATTY ACID AND STEROL COMPOSITION OF A KARENIA BREVIS BLOOM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Jeffrey D., Terence J. Evens and Peter J. Chapman. 2003. Biochemistry of Dinoflagellate Lipids, with Particular Reference to the Fatty Acid and Sterol Composition of a Karenia brevis Bloom. Phycologia. 42(4):324-331. (ERL,GB 1160). The harmful marine dinoflagella...

  14. Degs and degu operon from Bacillus-brevis: a combination that enhances the production of commercially valuable enzymes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Louw, M

    1995-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel method has been developed for increasing the production of commercially valuable enzymes, such as proteases, beta-glucanases, alpha-amylases and levansucrase. It is dependent on two genes cloned from Bacillus brevis, expressed on a multicopy...

  15. Increased toxicity of Karenia brevis during phosphate limited growth: ecological and evolutionary implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnie Ransom Hardison

    Full Text Available Karenia brevis is the dominant toxic red tide algal species in the Gulf of Mexico. It produces potent neurotoxins (brevetoxins [PbTxs], which negatively impact human and animal health, local economies, and ecosystem function. Field measurements have shown that cellular brevetoxin contents vary from 1-68 pg/cell but the source of this variability is uncertain. Increases in cellular toxicity caused by nutrient-limitation and inter-strain differences have been observed in many algal species. This study examined the effect of P-limitation of growth rate on cellular toxin concentrations in five Karenia brevis strains from different geographic locations. Phosphorous was selected because of evidence for regional P-limitation of algal growth in the Gulf of Mexico. Depending on the isolate, P-limited cells had 2.3- to 7.3-fold higher PbTx per cell than P-replete cells. The percent of cellular carbon associated with brevetoxins (%C-PbTx was ~ 0.7 to 2.1% in P-replete cells, but increased to 1.6-5% under P-limitation. Because PbTxs are potent anti-grazing compounds, this increased investment in PbTxs should enhance cellular survival during periods of nutrient-limited growth. The %C-PbTx was inversely related to the specific growth rate in both the nutrient-replete and P-limited cultures of all strains. This inverse relationship is consistent with an evolutionary tradeoff between carbon investment in PbTxs and other grazing defenses, and C investment in growth and reproduction. In aquatic environments where nutrient supply and grazing pressure often vary on different temporal and spatial scales, this tradeoff would be selectively advantageous as it would result in increased net population growth rates. The variation in PbTx/cell values observed in this study can account for the range of values observed in the field, including the highest values, which are not observed under N-limitation. These results suggest P-limitation is an important factor regulating

  16. Morphostructural analysis of the male reproductive system and DNA barcoding in Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Homoptera, Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, D G M; Viscuso, R; D'Urso, V; Gibilras, S; Sardella, A; Marletta, A; Pappalardo, A M

    2015-12-01

    Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 is an allochthonous leafhopper infesting an invasive grass, Pennisetum setaceum, in Sicily and in mainland Europe; therefore, this species could compete with populations of native species, thus contributing to the loss of biodiversity. Considering the ecological implications of B. brevis, investigations on all its biological aspects represent, therefore, a premise for further studies in applied sciences. Based on the lacking ultrastructural data about the reproductive systems of the Auchenorrhyncha, we carried out morphostructural investigations on the male reproductive system of B. brevis. Further, a first report of DNA barcoding analysis (amplification and sequencing of Cytochrome Oxidase I gene) has also been performed to characterize B. brevis compared to other congeneric species. From a morphological point of view, the male reproductive system of B. brevis has an organization comparable to the general anatomical features of most of the Auchenorrhyncha species; however, comparing our data with those concerning the different groups of Cicadomorpha, some considerations are discussed. As for the histological and ultrastructural investigations, our results show a secretory activity of the various examined structures, mainly in the lateral ejaculatory ducts and in the accessory glands. The latter, in particular, show morphostructural differences comparing the distal tract to the proximal one; moreover, the histochemical techniques showed the possible presence of a lipid component in the peculiar cytoplasmic granules found in the gland cells. The significance of these findings in the accessory glands is discussed. Finally, the ultrastructural features found in the seminal vesicles are different from those of the lateral ejaculatory ducts and are indicative of the different roles played by these structures in the organization of the spermatozoa bundles.

  17. Lactic acid production from biomass-derived sugars via co-fermentation of Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus plantarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yixing; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2015-06-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive alternative resource for producing chemicals and fuels. Xylose is the dominating sugar after hydrolysis of hemicellulose in the biomass, but most microorganisms either cannot ferment xylose or have a hierarchical sugar utilization pattern in which glucose is consumed first. To overcome this barrier, Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 367 was selected to produce lactic acid. This strain possesses a relaxed carbon catabolite repression mechanism that can use glucose and xylose simultaneously; however, lactic acid yield was only 0.52 g g(-1) from a mixture of glucose and xylose, and 5.1 g L(-1) of acetic acid and 8.3 g L(-1) of ethanol were also formed during production of lactic acid. The yield was significantly increased and ethanol production was significantly reduced if L. brevis was co-cultivated with Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC 21028. L. plantarum outcompeted L. brevis in glucose consumption, meaning that L. brevis was focused on converting xylose to lactic acid and the by-product, ethanol, was reduced due to less NADH generated in the fermentation system. Sequential co-fermentation of L. brevis and L. plantarum increased lactic acid yield to 0.80 g g(-1) from poplar hydrolyzate and increased yield to 0.78 g lactic acid per g of biomass from alkali-treated corn stover with minimum by-product formation. Efficient utilization of both cellulose and hemicellulose components of the biomass will improve overall lactic acid production and enable an economical process to produce biodegradable plastics.

  18. Characterization and localization of a hybrid non-ribosomal peptide synthetase and polyketide synthase gene from the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Legentil, Susanna; Song, Bongkeun; DeTure, Michael; Baden, Daniel G

    2010-02-01

    The toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis, a causative agent of the red tides in Florida, produces a series of toxic compounds known as brevetoxins and their derivatives. Recently, several putative genes encoding polyketide synthase (PKS) were identified from K. brevis in an effort to elucidate the genetic systems involved in brevetoxin production. In this study, novel PKS sequences were isolated from three clones of K. brevis. Eighteen unique sequences were obtained for the PKS ketosynthase (KS) domain of K. brevis. Phylogenetic comparison with closely related PKS genes revealed that 16 grouped with cyanobacteria sequences, while the remaining two grouped with Apicomplexa and previously reported sequences for K. brevis. A fosmid library was also constructed to further characterize PKS genes detected in K. brevis Wilson clone. Several fosmid clones were positive for the presence of PKS genes, and one was fully sequenced to determine the full structure of the PKS cluster. A hybrid non ribosomal peptide synthetase and PKS (NRPS-PKS) gene cluster of 16,061 bp was isolated. In addition, we assessed whether the isolated gene was being actively expressed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and determined its localization at the cellular level by chloroplast isolation. RT-PCR analyses revealed that this gene was actively expressed in K. brevis cultures. The hybrid NRPS-PKS gene cluster was located in the chloroplast, suggesting that K. brevis acquired the ability to produce some of its secondary metabolites through endosymbiosis with ancestral cyanobacteria. Further work is needed to determine the compound produced by the NRPS-PKS hybrid, to find other PKS gene sequences, and to assess their role in K. brevis toxin biosynthetic pathway.

  19. The significance of a crossed extensor hallucis response in neurologic disorders: a comparison with the Babinski sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindfelt, B; Rosén, I; Hanko, J

    1976-04-01

    The significance of a crossed extensor hallucis response on active flexion of the hip was analysed in various neurological disorders. It is concluded that this sign, not formerly described, is a pathological reflex or synkinesia. In the cooperative patient the crossed extensor response is a more sensitive indicator of a minor disturbance within the cortico-spinal motor pathways than the Babinski sign. With lesions above the foramen magnum a crossed extensor hallucis response is observed more frequently than the Babinski sign.

  20. Enantioselective degradation of the chiral fungicides metalaxyl and furalaxyl by Brevibacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulimma, Lutz; Bullach, Anke; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

    2013-06-01

    For almost four decades, the chiral fungicides metalaxyl and furalaxyl have been in use in plant protection on a global scale. Both substances are distributed as racemic mixtures, yet the desirable interference in nucleic acid synthesis of harmful fungi only occurs by the (-)-R-enantiomer. As enantioselective degradation in Scheyern (Germany) and Yaoundé (Cameroon) soils has been documented, the influence of 50 isolated microorganisms on the R/S ratio was investigated. A high-pressure liquid chromatography method with a chiral column to separate enantiomers of metalaxyl and furalaxyl, and subsequent detection by tandem mass spectrometry, was employed. Only one of these microorganisms, a strain of Brevibacillus brevis, showed an enantioselective degradation pattern in liquid culture; the respective (-)-R-enantiomers were preferably degraded. Moreover, (-)-R-furalaxyl was degraded faster in cultures supplemented simultaneously with both fungicides of the same concentration. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Rheumatoid wrist deformity and risk of extensor tendon rupture evaluated by 3DCT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Hajime; Abe, Asami; Murasawa, Akira; Nakazono, Kiyoshi; Horizono, Hidehiro; Ishii, Katsushi; Seki, Eiko [Niigata Rheumatic Center, Department of Rheumatology, Shibata city, Niigata (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    Extensor tendon rupture on the dorsum of the wrist is commonly seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It causes immediate dysfunction of the hand and surgical reconstruction is usually required. The purpose of this study was to clarify the risk of extensor tendon rupture by quantifying wrist deformity on three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) images. Three-dimensional CT images of 108 wrists in 102 patients with RA and 38 wrists in 38 healthy volunteers were analyzed retrospectively. All of the rheumatoid wrists had caused persistent pain for more than 6 months despite ongoing medical treatment. Extensor tendon rupture was noted in 49 wrists in 47 patients, and no rupture was noted in 59 wrists in 56 patients. The dorsal subluxation ratio (DSR) of the ulnar head and the carpal supination angle (CSA) were measured utilizing a new technique. The average DSR and CSA in the rupture group (n = 49), the non-rupture group (n = 59), and the normal wrist group (n = 38) were 37%, 19%, and 26%, and 15 , 11 , and 6 respectively. The cut-off values for extensor tendon rupture in the wrists of patients with RA were 32% (sensitivity; 70%, specificity; 75%) in the DSR, and 14 (71%, 68%) in the CSA. By utilizing 3DCT imaging of the rheumatoid wrist, these parameters can help improve our ability to predict extensor tendon rupture. (orig.)

  2. Early-onset facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy - significance of pelvic extensors in sagittal spinal imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choon Sung; Kang, Suk Jung; Hwang, Chang Ju; Lee, Sung-Woo; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kim, Yung-Tae; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Mi Young

    2009-11-01

    Although facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is the third most common inherited myopathy, cases of infantile or early-childhood onset have rarely been reported. The purpose of this study was to describe a case of early-onset FSHD with lumbar hyperlordosis, which shows the significance of the dynamic component of sagittal spinal imbalance. An 11-year-old girl presented with progressive gait disturbance and lumbar hyperlordosis. The motor power of her pelvic extensor muscles was grade 3. Pelvic tilt and hip flexion were markedly increased as determined by gait analysis. The most important factor in the development of hyperlordosis is the weakness of the pelvic extensor muscles, and the results of gait analysis exquisitely explain the pathophysiology. The patient stands with her spine hyperextended to maintain upright posture by a compensatory mechanism of relatively strong back extensor muscles. Corrective surgery for lumbar hyperlordosis was not considered because it could have eliminated the compensatory lumbar hyperextension, thus making the spine of the patient stoop forward through her hip joint during walking by the weakness of her pelvic extensor muscles. This FSHD case is an impressive example of a patient showing the concept that weak pelvic extensor muscles cannot keep the spine upright and balanced.

  3. Effect of extensor muscle activation on the response to lumbar posteroanterior forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M; Esler, M A; Mildren, J; Herbert, R

    1993-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of normal subjects to the application of cyclical lumbar posteroanterior forces which simulated a manipulative therapy technique known as mobilization. The specific aim was to determine whether increases in spinal extensor muscle activity could modify the stiffness of lumbar posteroanterior movements. The lumbar posteroanterior stiffness was measured in eleven asymptomatic subjects in the prone position, both in the relaxed condition and during maximal voluntary isometric muscle contractions. The electromyographic activity of lumbar extensor muscles was measured in the relaxed and maximal contraction conditions during the application of mobilization. The posteroanterior stiffness was found to be significantly greater during maximum activation of the extensor muscles. The results indicate that muscle activity can significantly alter lumbar posteroanterior stiffness. Clinicians often apply posteroanterior forces over a spinous process of a vertebra to assess the resistance to movement. Information about the degree and nature of perceived resistance to posteroanterior movement is used to help make a diagnosis and select treatment techniques. This study has shown that increased activity of the spinal extensor muscles can increase the stiffness of lumbar posteroanterior movements, compared with the case where the subject is relaxed. When interpreting the posteroanterior responses of patients, clinicians should be aware that spinal extensor mucle activity can influence resistance to posteroanterior movement.

  4. Isometric torque-angle relationships of the elbow flexors and extensors in the transverse plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinter, Ilona J; Bobbert, Maarten F; van Soest, A J Knoek; Smeets, Jeroen B J

    2010-10-01

    Maximal voluntary isometric torque-angle relationships of elbow extensors and flexors in the transverse plane (humerus elevation angle of 90 degrees ) were measured at two different horizontal adduction angles of the humerus compared to thorax: 20 degrees and 45 degrees . For both elbow flexors and extensors, the torque-angle relationship was insensitive to this 25 degrees horizontal adduction of the humerus. The peak in torque-angle relationship of elbow extensors was found at 55 degrees (0 degrees is full extension). This is closer to full elbow extension than reported by researchers who investigated this relationship in the sagittal plane. Using actual elbow angles during contraction, as we did in this study, instead of angles set by the dynamometer, as others have done, can partly explain this difference. We also measured electromyographic activity of the biceps and triceps muscles with pairs of surface electrodes and found that electromyographic activity level of the agonistic muscles was correlated to measured net torque (elbow flexion torque: Pearson's r=0.21 and extension torque: Pearson's r=0.53). We conclude that the isometric torque-angle relationship of the elbow extensors found in this study provides a good representation of the force-length relationship and the moment arm-angle relationship of the elbow extensors, but angle dependency of neural input gives an overestimation of the steepness. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of Plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 Hop Tolerance and Beer Spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate. PMID:25501474

  6. The management of chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon: minimally invasive peroneus brevis tendon transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, N; Oliva, F; Costa, V; Del Buono, A

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesised that a minimally invasive peroneus brevis tendon transfer would be effective for the management of a chronic rupture of the Achilles tendon. In 17 patients (three women, 14 men) who underwent minimally invasive transfer and tenodesis of the peroneus brevis to the calcaneum, at a mean follow-up of 4.6 years (2 to 7) the modified Achilles tendon total rupture score (ATRS) was recorded and the maximum circumference of the calf of the operated and contralateral limbs was measured. The strength of isometric plantar flexion of the gastrocsoleus complex and of eversion of the ankle were measured bilaterally. Functional outcomes were classified according to the four-point Boyden scale. At the latest review, the mean maximum circumference of the calf of the operated limb was not significantly different from the pre-operative mean value, (41.4 cm, 32 to 50 vs 40.6 cm, 33 to 46; p = 0.45), and not significantly less than that of the contralateral limb (43.1 cm, 35 to 52; p = 0.16). The mean peak torque (244.6 N, 125 to 367) and the strength of eversion of the operated ankle (149.1 N, 65 to 240) were significantly lower (p < 0.01) than those of the contralateral limb (mean peak torque 289, 145 to 419; strength of eversion: 175.2, 71 to 280). The mean ATRS significantly improved from 58 pre-operatively (35 to 68) to 91 (75 to 97; 95% confidence interval 85.3 to 93.2) at the time of final review. Of 13 patients who practised sport at the time of injury, ten still undertook recreational activities. This procedure may be safely performed, is minimally invasive, and allows most patients to return to pre-injury sport and daily activities. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  7. Experience with peroneus brevis muscle flaps for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Bajantri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Peroneus brevis is a muscle in the leg which is expendable without much functional deficit. The objective of this study was to find out its usefulness in coverage of the defects of the lower leg and ankle. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the use of 39 pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps used for coverage of defects of the lower leg and ankle between November 2010 and December 2012 was carried out. The flaps were proximally based for defects of the lower third of the leg in 12 patients and distally based for reconstruction of defects of the ankle in 26 patients, with one patient having flaps on both ankles. Results: Partial flap loss in critical areas was found in four patients requiring further flap cover and in non-critical areas in two patients, which were managed with a skin graft. Three of the four critical losses occurred when we used it for covering defects over the medial malleolus. There was no complete flap loss in any of the patients. Conclusion: This flap has a unique vascular pattern and fails to fit into the classification of the vasculature of muscles by Mathes and Nahai. The unusual feature is an axial vessel system running down the deep aspect of the muscle and linking the perforators from the peroneal artery and anterior tibial artery, which allows it to be raised proximally or distally on a single perforator. The flap is simple to raise and safe for the reconstruction of small-to moderate-sized skin defects of the distal third of the tibia and all parts of the ankle except the medial malleolus, which is too far from the pedicle of the distally based flap. The donor site can be closed primarily to provide a linear scar. The muscle flap thins with time to provide a good result aesthetically at the primary defect.

  8. Role of plasmids in Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 hop tolerance and beer spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Baecker, Nina; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2015-02-01

    Specific isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can grow in the harsh beer environment, thus posing a threat to brew quality and the economic success of breweries worldwide. Plasmid-localized genes, such as horA, horC, and hitA, have been suggested to confer hop tolerance, a trait required for LAB survival in beer. The presence and expression of these genes among LAB, however, do not universally correlate with the ability to grow in beer. Genome sequencing of the virulent beer spoilage organism Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 revealed the presence of eight plasmids, with plasmids 1, 2, and 3 containing horA, horC, and hitA, respectively. To investigate the roles that these and the other five plasmids play in L. brevis BSO 464 growth in beer, plasmid curing with novobiocin was used to derive 10 plasmid variants. Multiplex PCRs were utilized to determine the presence or absence of each plasmid, and how plasmid loss affected hop tolerance and growth in degassed (noncarbonated) beer was assessed. Loss of three of the eight plasmids was found to affect hop tolerance and growth in beer. Loss of plasmid 2 (horC and 28 other genes) had the most dramatic effect, with loss of plasmid 4 (120 genes) and plasmid 8 (47 genes) having significant, but smaller, impacts. These results support the contention that genes on mobile genetic elements are essential for bacterial growth in beer and that beer spoilage ability is not dependent solely on the three previously described hop tolerance genes or on the chromosome of a beer spoilage LAB isolate.

  9. Radiographic analysis of factors predisposing toward tendon tears in the knee extensor mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives:To review radiographs of patients who suffered tendon tears of the knee extensor apparatus and observe alterations that might be factors predisposing toward this type of injury.Methods:We retrospectively analyzed 60 cases of injury to the knee extensor mechanism that were treated surgically at the Miguel Couto Municipal Hospital between March 2004 and March 2011. Four patients were excluded due to poor quality of the examination.Results:Of the 56 patients evaluated, 23 were considered to be normal and 33 presented radiographic alterations. Among these, eight (24.3% presented suprapatellar osteophytes alone; seven (21.2%, infrapatellar calcification; seven (21.2%, suprapatellar calcification; six (18.2%, supra- and infrapatellar osteophytes; and five (15.1%, infrapatellar osteophytes alone.Conclusion:Radiographic alterations were frequently observed in patients with extensor mechanism tears.

  10. Maximum isometric knee flexor and extensor muscle contractions: normal patterns of torque versus time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M P; Baldwin, J M; Gardner, G M; Sepic, S B; Downs, W J

    1977-06-01

    Isometric torque of the knee flexor and extensor muscles were recorded for 5 seconds at three knee joint positions. The subjects included healthy men in age groups from 20 to 35 and 45 to 65 years of age. The amplitudes and duration of peak torque and the time to peak torque were measured for each contraction. Peak torque was usually maintaned less than 0.1 second and never longer than 0.9 second. At each of the three angles, the mean extensor muscle torque was higher than the mean flexor muscle torque in both age groups, and the mean torque for both muscle group was higher among the younger than among the older man. The highest average torque was recorded at the knee angle of 60 degrees for the extensor muscles and 45 degrees for the flexor muscles, but this was not always a stereotyped response either for a given individual or among individuals.

  11. Effects of ganglion blocking agents on nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, M. D.; Bentley, H. C.; Dembinski, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    1. The ganglion blocking agents, chlorisondamine, pentamethonium, mecamylamine, decamethonium and hexamethonium all block nicotine extensor convulsions when administered intraventricularly in mice. Tetraethylammonium was inactive. 2. For the intraventricular route, there is a relationship between ganglionic blocking potency and blocking of nicotine extensor convulsions. Indirect evidence suggests that the site(s) of action of nicotine extensor convulsions and lethality is central in origin and associated with brain areas near the ventricles. 3. When ganglion blocking agents are given orally, subcutaneously or intravenously varying degrees of protection can be observed probably depending on factors such as whether or not the drugs cross the blood-brain barrier, absorption, etc., and the effectiveness in protecting mice from nicotine is not related to ganglionic blocking potency. 4. Atropine and morphine given intraventricularly or subcutaneously did not protect mice from the LD95 of nicotine. Chlorpromazine gave very erratic results and phenobarbitone was effective subcutaneously and to a lesser extent intraventricularly. PMID:4390479

  12. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  13. Knee extensor strength is associated with pressure pain thresholds in adults with fibromyalgia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Michael Hooten

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Individuals with fibromyalgia (FM have lower muscle strength and lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT. The primary aim of this study was to determine the associations between muscle strength and PPT in adults with FM to test the hypothesis that greater measures of muscle strength would be associated with greater values of PPT. Secondary aims included determining the effects of pain severity and the peak uptake of oxygen (VO2 on the associations between muscle strength and PPT. METHODS: Knee extensor and flexor strength (N = 69 was measured in the dominant leg using a dynamometer, and PPT was assessed using an electronic algometer. Pain severity was determined using the Multidimensional Pain Inventory, and peak VO2 uptake was quantified using an electronically braked cycle ergometer. RESULTS: Univariable linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant association between PPT (dependent variable and isometric knee extensor (P<.001, isokinetic (60°/s knee extensor (P = .002, and isokinetic (60°/s knee flexor strength (P = .043. In a multiple variable linear regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, pain severity, body mass index and peak VO2 uptake, a significant association was found between PPT and isometric knee extensor strength (P = .008. In a similar multiple variable analysis, a significant association was found between PPT and isokinetic knee extensor strength (P = .044. CONCLUSION: Greater measures of isometric and isokinetic knee extensor strength were significantly associated with greater values of PPT in both univariable and multiple variable linear regression models. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01253395.

  14. Soreness-related changes in three-dimensional running biomechanics following eccentric knee extensor exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s(-1)±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P biomechanics were unaffected by the presence of DOMS (P > 0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P biomechanics during running.

  15. Physio-therapeutical methods after injuries of the flexor and extensor tendons of a hand

    OpenAIRE

    MUROŇOVÁ, Markéta

    2010-01-01

    This diploma thesis entitled ``Physio-therapeutical methods after injuries of the flexor and extensor tendons of a hand{\\crqq} describes the anatomy of forearm and hand muscles, as well as fascia and tendon loops. The main objective is to summarize a basic knowledge on injuries of the hand{\\crq}s flexor and extensor tendons and physiotherapy of this problem. The work also includes the application of this knowledge into practice by elaboration of case reports of patients with injuries of the h...

  16. A study of transcranial magnetic stimulation in older (>3 years patients of malnutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karak B

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation was performed in 40 subjects. Twenty patients in the age group of 3 to 8 years and having different grades of malnutrition were included in the ′study group′ whereas 20 normal children having no complaints comprised the ′control group′. The coil of the magnetic stimulator was applied tangentially over the vertex to stimulate the cortex. The motor evoked potential (MEP was obtained using root stimulation by applying the coil at the cervical and lumbosacral spines. Recordings were made from the abductor pollicis brevis (APB and extensor digitorum brevis (EDB muscles of both sides. Cortical threshold, latency and amplitude of motor evoked potential and central conduction time were recorded. Malnourished children showed significantly increased cortical threshold, prolonged cortical latency and central conduction time and reduction in amplitude of MEP. Observed delay in central motor conduction in malnourished children suggests asymptomatic involvement of corticospinal pathways.

  17. Long-latency reflexes of elbow and shoulder muscles suggest reciprocal excitation of flexors, reciprocal excitation of extensors, and reciprocal inhibition between flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzer, Isaac; Meriggi, Jenna; Parikh, Nidhi; Saad, Kenneth

    2016-04-01

    Postural corrections of the upper limb are required in tasks ranging from handling an umbrella in the changing wind to securing a wriggling baby. One complication in this process is the mechanical interaction between the different segments of the arm where torque applied at one joint induces motion at multiple joints. Previous studies have shown the long-latency reflexes of shoulder muscles (50-100 ms after a limb perturbation) account for these mechanical interactions by integrating information about motion of both the shoulder and elbow. It is less clear whether long-latency reflexes of elbow muscles exhibit a similar capability and what is the relation between the responses of shoulder and elbow muscles. The present study utilized joint-based loads tailored to the subjects' arm dynamics to induce well-controlled displacements of their shoulder and elbow. Our results demonstrate that the long-latency reflexes of shoulder and elbow muscles integrate motion from both joints: the shoulder and elbow flexors respond to extension at both joints, whereas the shoulder and elbow extensors respond to flexion at both joints. This general pattern accounts for the inherent flexion-extension coupling of the two joints arising from the arm's intersegmental dynamics and is consistent with spindle-based reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow flexors, reciprocal excitation of shoulder and elbow extensors, and across-joint inhibition between the flexors and extensors. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Effect of muscle contraction strength on gating of somatosensory magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Kazuhiro; Onishi, Hideaki; Yamashiro, Koya; Kotan, Shinichi; Kojima, Sho; Miyaguchi, Shota; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Kirimoto, Hikari; Tamaki, Hiroyuki; Shirozu, Hiroshi; Kameyama, Shigeki

    2016-11-01

    Afferent somatosensory information is modulated before the afferent input arrives at the primary somatosensory cortex during voluntary movement. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of muscular contraction strength on somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) during voluntary movement. In addition, we examined the differences in gating between innervated and non-innervated muscle during contraction. We investigated the changes in gating effect by muscular contraction strength and innervated and non-innervated muscles in human using 306-channel magnetoencephalography. SEFs were recorded following the right median nerve stimulation in a resting condition and during isometric muscular contractions from 10 % electromyographic activity (EMG), 20 and 30 % EMG of the right extensor indicis muscle and abductor pollicis brevis muscle. Our results showed that the equivalent current dipole (ECD) strength for P35m decreased with increasing strength of muscular contraction of the right abductor pollicis brevis muscle. However, changes were observed only at 30 % EMG contraction level of the right extensor indicis muscle, which was not innervated by the median nerve. There were no significant changes in the peak latencies and ECD locations of each component in all conditions. The ECD strength did not differ significantly for N20m and P60m regardless of the strength of muscular contraction and innervation. Therefore, we suggest that the gating of SEF waveforms following peripheral nerve stimulation was affected by the strength of muscular contraction and innervation of the contracting muscle.

  19. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  20. Effect of Knee Extensor Strength on Incident Radiographic and Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis in Individuals with Meniscal Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas B; Felson, David T; Segal, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High knee extensor strength may be important to protect against development of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in populations at elevated risk, such as individuals with meniscal pathology. We investigated the extent to which high knee extensor muscle strength was associated with a decreased r...

  1. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Analysis of Peroneal Tendon Pathology Associated With Low-Lying Peroneus Brevis Muscle Belly: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highlander, Peter; Pearson, Kyle T; Burns, Patrick

    2015-10-01

    Low-lying peroneus brevis tendon muscle belly has been speculated to be an associated factor with symptomatic peroneal tendon pathology. Multiple studies have analyzed normal and anomalous anatomy associated with peroneal tendon pathology; however, no study has confirmed the clinical association between peroneal tendon pathology and low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly. To identify the correlation of low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly with peroneal tendon pathology. Case-control study; Level of evidence 3. The level of peroneus brevis muscle belly was compared between patients with symptomatic peroneal tendon pathology (experimental group) and asymptomatic individuals with otherwise normal lateral ankle using magnetic resonance images. Of the 32 consecutive patients with symptomatic peroneal tendon pathology, 28 (87.5%) demonstrated peroneus brevis muscle distal to the fibular groove while 53.8% of control patients demonstrated such findings (P = .022). The most common diagnosis associated with peroneal tendon pathology was ankle instability and osteochondral defect of the talus or tibial plafond. Peroneal tendon pathology in isolation was less common. Peroneal tendon pathology is often associated with lateral ankle instability and osteochondral defects of the ankle joint. Low-lying peroneus brevis muscle belly may be a common anatomic variant, but in the setting of instability it can become a source of pain and pathology secondary to overcrowding. Diagnostic, level III: Case-control study. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. In situ examination of Lactobacillus brevis after exposure to an oxidizing disinfectant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Beer is a hostile environment for most microorganisms, but some lactic acid bacteria can grow in this environment. This is primarily because these organisms have developed the ability to grow in the presence of hops. It has been speculated that hop resistance is inversely correlated to resistance...... resistance was observed between and within the tested Lactobacillus brevis strains. The results suggest that aerobic cultivation increased the oxidative stress tolerance in Lactobacillus brevis. The results also show that dead cells are randomly distributed in a microcolony and the majority of non...... against oxidation, and this would have great impact on the use of various disinfectants in the brewing industry. In this study, we cultivated bacteria under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and then investigated the in situ outgrowth of individual cells into microcolonies on de Man Rogosa Sharpe (MRS...

  4. DITRUPA BREVIS N.SP., A NEW SERPULID FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN NEOGENE WITH COMMENTS ON THE ECOLOGY OF THE GENUS

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    ROSSANA SANFILIPPO

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available The new species Ditrupa brevis (Polychaeta, Serpulidae is described from Middle Pliocene silts of southern Italy. It is also reported from Late Miocene sediments of southern Italy. The associated faunas suggest an infralittoral or upper-circalittoral distribution. A morphometrical and microstructural analysis of tube was carried out. D. brevis closely resembles Ditrupa arietina but several morphometrical differences allow to discriminate the two species. The Ditrupa tubes provide a substrate for a diversified epifauna. Their high density greatly affects species composition and diversity of soft-bottom communities. It is concluded that Ditrupa can live in various positions with respect to the sediment surface, depending on local sedimentation rate and dynamics. 

  5. The variation of the strength of neck extensor muscles and semispinalis capitis muscle size with head and neck position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezasoltani, A; Nasiri, R; Faizei, A M; Zaafari, G; Mirshahvelayati, A S; Bakhshidarabad, L

    2013-04-01

    Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women students voluntarily participated in this study. An ultrasonography apparatus (Hitachi EUB 525) and a system of tension-meter were used to scan the right SECM at the level of third cervical spine and to measure the strength of neck extensor muscles at three head and neck positions. Neck extensor muscles were stronger in neutral than flexion or than extension positions while the size of SECM was larger in extension than neutral or than flexion position. The force generation capacity of the main neck extensor muscle was lower at two head and neck flexion and extension positions than neutral position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy study of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Pentti; Engelhardt, Peter; Hynönen, Ulla; Torkkeli, Mika; Palva, Airi; Serimaa, Ritva

    2010-10-01

    The structure of self-assembly domain containing recombinant truncation mutants of Lactobacillus brevis surface layer protein SlpA in aqueous solution was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The proteins were found out to interact with each other forming stable globular oligomers of about 10 monomers. The maximum diameter of the oligomers varied between 75 Å and 435 Å.

  7. Small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy study of the Lactobacillus brevis S-layer protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeaeskelaeinen, Pentti [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, PO Box 2200, FI-02015 Aalto University School of Science and Technology (Finland); Engelhardt, Peter [Haartman Institute, Department of Pathology, PO Box 21, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Hynoenen, Ulla; Palva, Airi [Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Division of Microbiology, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Torkkeli, Mika; Serimaa, Ritva, E-mail: ritva.serimaa@helsinki.f [Department of Physics, POB 64, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-10-01

    The structure of self-assembly domain containing recombinant truncation mutants of Lactobacillus brevis surface layer protein SlpA in aqueous solution was studied using small-angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The proteins were found out to interact with each other forming stable globular oligomers of about 10 monomers. The maximum diameter of the oligomers varied between 75 A and 435 A.

  8. Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K; Douroudos, Ioannis I; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Flouris, Andreas D; Fouris, Andreas D; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60 h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (Pfootball-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level.

  9. The effects of imagery on fast isometric knee extensor torque development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiter, de C.J.; Hutter, R.I.; Icke, C; Groen, B; Gemmink, A; Smilde, H; Haan, de A.

    2012-01-01

    0.05) to significant increases of knee extensor rectified surface EMG at torque onset (EMG40). In conclusion, only physical training led to a knee angle specific increase of contractile impulse that was significantly different from placebo and controls and that was related to improved onset of neuro

  10. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (Pfootball-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level. PMID:26043222

  11. Surgical and anatomical studies on De Quervain's tenosynovitis syndrome: Variations in the first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Randal Pires J and uacute;nior

    2016-08-01

    Clinical relevance: As septation of the first extensor compartment and multiple APL tendons appears to represent risk factors for the development of DQT, prior knowledge of the frequency of such anomalies may assist surgeons in pre-operative evaluation and perioperative procedures. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 50-55

  12. Metabolic demand and muscle damage induced by eccentric cycling of knee extensor and flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñailillo, Luis; Guzmán, Nicolás; Cangas, José; Reyes, Alvaro; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the metabolic demand and extent of muscle damage of eccentric cycling targeting knee flexor (FLEX) and knee extensor (EXT) muscles. Eight sedentary men (23.3 ± 0.7 y) underwent two eccentric cycling sessions (EXT and FLEX) of 30 min each, at 60% of the maximum power output. Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR) and rated perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during cycling. Countermovement and squat jumps (CMJ and SJ), muscle flexibility, muscle soreness and pain pressure threshold (PPT) of knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured before, immediately after and 1-4 days after cycling. FLEX showed greater VO2 (+23%), HR (+14%) and RPE (+18%) than EXT. CMJ and SJ performance decreased similarly after cycling. Muscle soreness increased more after EXT than FLEX and PPT decreased in knee extensor muscles after EXT and decreased in knee flexor muscles after FLEX. Greater loss of muscle flexibility in knee flexor muscles after FLEX was observed. Eccentric cycling of knee flexor muscles is metabolically more demanding than that of knee extensors, however muscle damage induced is similar. Knee flexors experienced greater loss of muscle flexibility possibly due to increased muscle stiffness following eccentric contractions.

  13. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  14. Injury patterns of finger extensor tendons in population of Ivanovo region

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    V. E. Vashetsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute injury of finger extensor tendons constitute a significant part in overall causes for hospital admission.Purpose of the study: to evaluate injury patterns of finger extensor tendons in population of Ivanovo region.Material and methods. The authors performed the retrospective statistical analysis of 163 medical histories of patients who underwent hospital treatment in the period from January 2011 till December 2014 at department of wrist reconstructive surgery and microsurgery of Ivanovo regional clinical hospital of war veterans. The study was carried out in full compliance with medical ethics. Excel 7.0 was applied for statistical analysis.Results. Injury patterns of patients with finger extensor tendons demonstrated prevalence of males aging from 21 to 40 years old. Most frequent is the left hand trauma at home while handling devices with high-speed rotation mechanism. Most lesions occur in time interval from noon till 6 p.m. Patients with combined injuries prevailed. The authors observed hospital admittance within first 6 hours after trauma.Conclusion. A typical patient with finger extensor tendons trauma is an active age male injured in everyday life and often in a state of alcoholic intoxication.

  15. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow St...... State University, Russia. PMID: 10833635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Udgivelsesdato: 2000...

  16. Speed-related spinal excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Caroline; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    Automatic adjustments of muscle activity throughout the body are required for the maintenance of balance during human walking. One mechanism that is likely to contribute to this control is the heteronymous spinal excitation between human ankle dorsiflexors and knee extensors (CPQ-reflex). Here, we...

  17. Knee extensor muscle weakness is a risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oiestad, B E; Juhl, C B; Eitzen, I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with literature searches in Medline, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, C...

  18. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel, E-mail: huertam@uabc.edu.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico); Hare, Landis [Centre Eau Terre Environnement, 490, rue de la Couronne, Québec, Québec G1K 9A9 (Canada); Galindo-Riaño, M. Dolores [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Biomolecules (INBIO), Faculty of Sciences, CEI-MAR, University of Cadiz, Campus Rio S. Pedro, E-11510, Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo [Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Campus Ensenada, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22800, Baja California (Mexico)

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) > 80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20 ± 0.13 to (0.30 ± 0.56) × 10{sup 3} mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (< 25%) while degrees of sulfidization (DOS) were high (~ 50%) because of the contribution of acid volatile sulfide. DOP values correlated with DTMP values (p ≤ 0.001), indicating that metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and − log(K{sub sp(MeS)}/K{sub sp(pyr)}) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn ≈ Mn < Fe < Cd ≈ Pb < Ni ≈ Co < < Cu. Lastly, a strong correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.87, p < 0.01) was found between average reactive trace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are

  19. Biogenic amine production by the wine Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809 in systems that partially mimic the gastrointestinal tract stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Pasquale

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ingestion of fermented foods containing high levels of biogenic amines (BA can be deleterious to human health. Less obvious is the threat posed by BA producing organisms contained within the food which, in principle, could form BA after ingestion even if the food product itself does not initially contain high BA levels. In this work we have investigated the production of tyramine and putrescine by Lactobacillus brevis IOEB 9809, of wine origin, under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT conditions. Results An in vitro model that simulates the normal physiological conditions in the human digestive tract, as well as Caco-2 epithelial human cell lines, was used to challenge L. brevis IOEB 9809, which produced both tyramine and putrescine under all conditions tested. In the presence of BA precursors and under mild gastric stress, a correlation between enhancement of bacterial survival and a synchronous transcriptional activation of the tyramine and putrescine biosynthetic pathways was detected. High levels of both BA were observed after exposure of the bacterium to Caco-2 cells. Conclusions L. brevis IOEB 9809 can produce tyramine and putrescine under simulated human digestive tract conditions. The results indicate that BA production may be a mechanism that increases bacterial survival under gastric stress.

  20. Casein hydrolysates by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis proteases. Peptide profile discriminates strain-dependent enzyme specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounouala, Fatima Zohra; Roudj, Salima; Karam, Nour-Eddine; Recio, Isidra; Miralles, Beatriz

    2017-10-02

    Casein from ovine and bovine milk were hydrolysed with two extracellular protease preparations from Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis. The hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for peptide identification. A strain-dependent peptide profile could be observed, regardless of the casein origin, and the specificity of these two proteases could be computationally ascribed. The cleavage pattern yielding phenylalanine, leucine, or tyrosine at C-terminal, appeared both at L. lactis and Lb. brevis hydrolysates. However, the cleavage C-terminal to lysine was favored with Lb. brevis protease. The hydrolysates showed ACE-inhibitory activity with IC50 in the 16-70 μg/ml range. Ovine casein hydrolysates yielded greater ACE-inhibitory activity. Previously described antihypertensive and opioid peptides were found in these ovine and bovine casein hydrolysates and prediction of the antihypertensive activity of the sequences based on quantitative structure and activity relationship (QSAR) was performed. This approach might represent a useful classification tool regarding health-related properties prior to further purification.

  1. A numerical analysis of landfall of the 1979 red tide of Karenia brevis along the west coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, John J.; Haddad, Kenneth D.; Dieterle, Dwight A.; Weisberg, Robert H.; Li, Zhenjiang; Yang, Huijun; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Heil, Cynthia A.; Bissett, W. Paul

    2002-01-01

    A simple ecological model, coupled to a primitive equation circulation model, is able to replicate the observed alongshore transport of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf during a fall red tide in 1979. Initial land fall of these populations at the coast in our model matches shoreline data sets as well. The simulated vertical movement of K. brevis, in response to light-cued migration and nocturnal mixing, also mimics these aspects of the next fall red tide in 1980, suggesting that sunrise populations may provide the strongest surface signal, for detection of red tides by remote sensors aboard aircraft and satellites. Once a mature red tide is formed, a light-regulated maximal growth rate of 0.15 day -1, reflecting nutrient-limitation, and no other loss processes may be an adequate description of population dynamics above the 30-40 m isobaths, where blooms of K. brevis originate. Within shallow waters at the 10-m isobath, however, an apparent larger growth rate of 0.80 day -1—as a presumed consequence of frontal aggregations—must be offset by unknown processes of algal mortality. Likely candidates for cumulative, biomass-dependent losses are UV-B irradiation, microbial-induced lysis, and unselective grazing pressure from copepods, protozoans and heterotrophic dinoflagellates.

  2. Contribution of non-extensor muscles of the leg to maximal-effort countermovement jumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshioka Shinsuke

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of non-extensor muscles of the leg (i.e., muscles whose primary function is not leg extension on the kinematics and kinetics of human maximal-effort countermovement jumping. Although it is difficult to address this type of question through experimental procedures, the methodology of computer simulation can be a powerful tool. Methods A skeletal model that has nine rigid body segments and twenty degrees of freedom was developed. Two sets of muscle models were attached to this skeletal model: all (most of major muscles in the leg ("All Muscles" model and major extensor muscles in the leg (i.e., muscles whose primary function is leg extension; "Extensors Only" model. Neural activation input signal was represented by a series of step functions with a step duration of 0.05 s. Simulations were started from an identical upright standing posture. The optimal pattern of the activation input signal was searched through extensive random-search numerical optimization with a goal of maximizing the height reached by the mass centre of the body after jumping up. Results The simulated kinematics was almost two-dimensional, suggesting the validity of two-dimensional analyses when evaluating net mechanical outputs around the joints using inverse dynamics. A greater jumping height was obtained for the "All Muscles" model (0.386 m than for the "Extensors Only" model (0.301 m. For the "All Muscles" model, flexor muscles developed force in the beginning of the countermovement. For the "All Muscles" model, the sum of the work outputs from non-extensor muscles was 47.0 J, which was 13% of the total amount (359.9 J. The quantitative distribution of the work outputs from individual muscles was markedly different between these two models. Conclusion It was suggested that the contribution of non-extensor muscles in maximal-effort countermovement jumping is substantial. The use of a computer

  3. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  4. Angle- and gender-specific quadriceps femoris muscle recruitment and knee extensor torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincivero, Danny M; Salfetnikov, Yuliya; Campy, Robert M; Coelho, Alan J

    2004-11-01

    The objectives were to examine knee angle-, and gender-specific knee extensor torque output and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle recruitment during maximal effort, voluntary contractions. Fourteen young adult men and 15 young adult women performed three isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC), in a random order, with the knee at 0 degrees (terminal extension), 10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, 70 degrees, and 90 degrees flexion. Knee extensor peak torque (PT), and average torque (AT) were expressed in absolute (N m), relative (N m kg(-1)) and allometric-modeled (N m kg(-n)) units. Vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris (RF) muscle EMG signals were full-wave rectified and integrated over the middle 3 s of each contraction, averaged over the three trials at each knee angle, and normalized to the activity recorded at 0 degrees. Muscle recruitment efficiency was calculated as the ratio of the normalized EMG of each muscle to the allometric-modeled average torque (normalized to the values at 0 degrees flexion), and expressed as a percent. Men generated significantly greater knee extensor PT and AT than women in absolute, relative and allometric-modeled units. Absolute and relative PT and AT were significantly highest at 70 degrees, while allometric-modeled values were observed to increase significantly across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees. VM EMG was significantly greater than the VL and RF muscles across all angles, and followed a similar pattern to absolute knee extensor torque. Recruitment efficiency improved across knee joint angles 10-90 degrees and was highest for the VL muscle. VM recruitment efficiency improved more than the VL and RF muscles across 70-90 degrees flexion. The findings demonstrate angle-, and gender-specific responses of knee extensor torque to maximal-effort contractions, while superficial QF muscle recruitment was most efficient at 90 degrees, and less dependent on gender.

  5. Extracting Extensor Digitorum Communis Activation Patterns using High-Density Surface Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaogang eHu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions.The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7×9 surface electromyogram (EMG recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic. Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal-distal direction than in the radial-ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders.

  6. Effects of the optimal flexor/extensor ratio on G-tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung Sub; Choi, Jean; Kim, Jung Woon; Jeon, Sang Yun; Kang, Sunghwun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the flexor/extensor ratio of the knee joints and compare it with the results of Korean Air Force students in G-tolerance test. [Subjects and Methods] The body composition of Korea Air Force students (n=77) was measured by an impedance method. A muscular function test was performed using a Humac Norm (USA) at angular speeds of 60°/sec and 240°/sec and an isokinetic muscular function test was also conducted. [Results] In the failed C and passing groups, muscle mass and fat percentages were significantly higher than those of students in the failed A group. The BMI of the failed C and passing groups were significantly higher than that of the failed A group. The group that passed had a significantly higher value of left knee 60°/sec flexion peak torque than the failed B group. Moreover, the total work of left knee extension of the failed C group and the passing group was significantly higher than that of the failed A group. The C group and the passing group had significantly higher values of the trunk 60°/sec flexor/extensor ratio than the failed A group, and the total work flexor/extensor ratio of the passing group was significantly higher than that of the failed A group. [Conclusions] Based on these results, balance the right and left knee flexor/extensor ratio, and a high flexor/extensor ratio of the trunk are required to endure a high G-tolerance test (+6G/30 sec). Moreover, an improvement in the maximum muscular strength is necessary to endure a situation of rapidly increasing acceleration in the early stage.

  7. 带血管蒂的趾短伸肌肌瓣治疗跗跖骨慢性骨髓炎%Treatment of chronic osteomyelitis of the tarsal metatarsal bones using vascular pedicled flap of extensor digitorum brevis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志功

    2002-01-01

    @@ 慢性骨髓炎的病理比较复杂,可导致炎症持续或反复的发作,是临床治疗的难点.作者采用带血管蒂的趾短伸肌肌瓣治疗跗、跖骨骨髓炎4例,取得了满意效果.

  8. Molecular mechanisms behind the antimicrobial activity of hop iso-α-acids in Lactobacillus brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Hahne, Hannes; Kuster, Bernhard; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    The main bittering component in beer, hop iso-α-acids, have been characterised as weak acids, which act as ionophores impairing microbial cells' function under acidic conditions as present in beer. Besides medium pH, divalent cations play a central role regarding the efficacy of the antimicrobial effect. The iso-α-acids' non-bitter derivatives humulinic acids can be found in isomerised hop extracts and can be generated during hop storage. Therefore, they have been under investigation concerning their influence on beer sensory properties. This study sketches the molecular mechanism behind iso-α-acids' antimicrobial activity in Lactobacillus (L.) brevis regarding their ionophore activity versus the dependence of the inhibitory potential on manganese binding, and suggests humulinic acids as novel tasteless food preservatives. We designed and synthesised chemically modified iso-α-acids to enhance the basic understanding of the molecular mechanism of antimicrobial iso-α-acids. It could be observed that a manganese-binding dependent transmembrane redox reaction (oxidative stress) plays a crucial role in inhibition. Privation of an acidic hydroxyl group neither erased ionophore activity, nor did it entirely abolish antimicrobial activity. Humulinic acids proved to be highly inhibitory, even outperforming iso-α-acids.

  9. Steric vs. electronic effects in the Lactobacillus brevis ADH-catalyzed bioreduction of ketones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cristina; Borzęcka, Wioleta; Sattler, Johann H; Kroutil, Wolfgang; Lavandera, Iván; Gotor, Vicente

    2014-01-28

    Lactobacillus brevis ADH (LBADH) is an alcohol dehydrogenase that is commonly employed to reduce alkyl or aryl ketones usually bearing a methyl, an ethyl or a chloromethyl as a small ketone substituent to the corresponding (R)-alcohols. Herein we have tested a series of 24 acetophenone derivatives differing in their size and electronic properties for their reduction employing LBADH. After plotting the relative activity against the measured substrate volumes we observed that apart from the substrate size other effects must be responsible for the activity obtained. Compared to acetophenone (100% relative activity), other small substrates such as propiophenone, α,α,α-trifluoroacetophenone, α-hydroxyacetophenone, and benzoylacetonitrile had relative activities lower than 30%, while medium-sized ketones such as α-bromo-, α,α-dichloro-, and α,α-dibromoacetophenone presented relative activities between 70% and 550%. Moreover, the comparison between the enzymatic activity and the obtained final conversions using an excess or just 2.5 equiv. of the hydrogen donor 2-propanol, denoted again deviations between them. These data supported that these hydrogen transfer (HT) transformations are mainly thermodynamically controlled. For instance, bulky α-halogenated derivatives could be quantitatively reduced by LBADH even employing 2.5 equiv. of 2-propanol independently of their kinetic values. Finally, we found good correlations between the IR absorption band of the carbonyl groups and the degrees of conversion obtained in these HT processes, making this simple method a convenient tool to predict the success of these transformations.

  10. Enhancing the Activity of Glutamate Decarboxylase from Lactobacillus brevis by Directed Evolution☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Lin; Sheng Hu; Kai Yu; Jun Huang; Shanjing Yao; Yinlin Lei; Guixiang Hu; Lehe Mei

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD, EC4.1.1.15) can catalyze the decarboxylation of L-glutamate to form γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), which is in great demand in some foods and pharmaceuticals. In our previous study, gad, the gene coding glutamate decarboxylase from Lactobacil us brevis CGMCC 1306, was cloned and its soluble expression was realized. In this study, error-prone PCR was conducted to improve its activity, followed by a screening. Mutant Q51H with high activity [55.4 mmol·L−1·min−1·(mg protein)−1, 120%higher than that of the wild type at pH 4.8] was screened out from the mutant library. In order to investigate the potential role of this site in the regulation of enzymatic activity, site-directed saturation mutagenesis at site 51 was carried out, and three specific mutants, N-terminal truncated GAD, Q51P, and Q51L, were identified. The kinetic parameters of the three mutants and Q51H were characterized. The results reveal that aspartic acid at site 88 and N-terminal domain are essential to the activity as well as correct folding of GAD. This study not only improves the activity of GAD, but also sheds new light on the structure–function relationship of GAD.

  11. Lateral line analogue aids vision in successful predator evasion for the brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Carly A; Bartol, Ian K

    2014-07-15

    Cephalopods have visual and mechanoreception systems that may be employed to sense and respond to an approaching predator. While vision presumably plays the dominant role, the importance of the lateral line analogue for predator evasion has not been examined in cephalopods. To test the respective roles of vision and the lateral line analogue, brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, were observed in the presence of summer flounder, Paralichthys dentatus, under light and dark conditions with their lateral line analogue intact and ablated. Hair cell ablation was achieved through a pharmacological technique used for the first time on a cephalopod. The proportion of predator-prey interactions survived was significantly higher in the light non-ablated and light ablated groups compared with the dark ablated group. The mean number of interactions survived varied across treatment groups with the light non-ablated group having significantly more success than the light ablated, dark non-ablated and dark ablated groups. These findings demonstrate that although vision is the primary sense, the lateral line analogue also contributes to predator evasion in squid.

  12. Demodex folliculorum and Demodex brevis as a cause of chronic marginal blepharitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czepita, Damian; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda; Czepita, Maciej; Grobelny, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Intensive long-term studies of Demodex spp. (D.) and its role in chronic blepharits have been carried out in recent years by scientists from the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. It has resulted in numerous publications, spurring a lot of interest worldwide. A few of the papers have been cited in leading American medical journals. In recent years many papers dealing with demodicosis of the eyelids have been published worldwide. Based on the growing interest in the role of Demodex spp. in chronic blepharitis we decided to present and discuss the results of the latest experimental and clinical studies. A review of the literature concerning the role of D. folliculorum and D. brevis in the pathogenesis of chronic blepharitis was done. Demodex spp. are intradermal parasites, which thrive in follicles and sebaceous glands of humans and animals. D. is spread by direct contact and probably by dust containing eggs (figs. 1, 2, 3). Currently, it is thought that pathological changes in the course of demodicosis of the eyelids are consequences of: (1) blockage of follicles and leading out tubules of sebaceous glands by the mites and by reactive hyperkeratinization and epithelial hyperplasia; (2) a mechanical vector role of bacteria; (3) host's inflammatory reaction to the presence of parasite's chitine as a foreign body; and (4) stimulation of the host's humoral responses and cell-mediated immunological reactions under the influence of the mites and their waste products. It has been established that: (1) D. folliculorum and D. brevis are cosmopolitan in terms of their distribution; (2) Infection of Demodex spp. often occurs in the course of chronic blepharitis; (3) With the increase in age, the prevalence rate of eyelid demodicosis rises; (4) Demodicosis of the eyelids may be the effect of the decrease of immunity of some patients. Treatment of demodicosis of the eyelids as a general rule lasts a few months. The use of yellow mercurial ointment, sulphur ointment

  13. Heterogeneity between and within Strains of Lactobacillus brevis Exposed to Beer Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Knøchel, Susanne; Siegumfeldt, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the physiological response of six Lactobacillus brevis strains to hop stress, with and without the addition of Mn2+ or ethanol. Based on the use of different fluorescent probes, cell viability and intracellular pH (pHi) were assessed by fluorescence microscopy combined with flow cytometry, at the single cell level. The combined approach was faster than the traditional colony based method, but also provided additional information about population heterogeneity with regard to membrane damage and cell size reduction, when exposed to hop compounds. Different physiological subpopulations were detected under hop stress in both hop tolerant and sensitive strains. A large proportion of cells were killed in all the tested strains, but a small subpopulation from the hop tolerant strains eventually recovered as revealed by pHi measurements. Furthermore, a short term protection against hop compounds was obtained for both hop tolerant and sensitive strains, by addition of high concentration of Mn2+. Addition of ethanol in combination with hop compounds caused an additional short term increase in damaged subpopulation, but the subsequent growth suggested that the presence of ethanol provides a slight cross resistance toward hop compounds. PMID:28261191

  14. Síncope, Brevis Brevians e acento no Português Brasileiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee, Seung-Hwa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a síncope e o Brevis Brevians e as relações desses fenômenos com o padrão de acento no português brasileiro, na perspectiva da Fonologia Métrica (Hayes, 1995 e da Teoria da Otimalidade (Prince e Smolensky, 1993; McCrthy e Prince, 1993, 1995. O seu objetivo é mostrar que: i a síncope e a redução silábica estão relacionadas diretamente com a formação e a forma do pé; ii no PB, a redução silábica é motivada pela interação de restrições PARSE e WSP para reestruturar o pé troqueu (LH para (LL; iii a síncope ocorre para ajustar o acento marcado (proparoxítono para acento não-marcado (paroxítono

  15. MRI features in de Quervain`s tenosynovitis of the wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glajchen, N. [Mount Sinai Hospital, New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology; Schweitzer, M. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-01-01

    De Quervain`s stenosing tenosynovitis of the first dorsal extensor component is traditionally diagnosed clinically but may be encountered when performing MRI of the wrist. A retrospective review of wrist MR images was performed in cases where the diagnosis of de Quervain`s synovitis was suggested (n=5). Imaging findings were correlated with clinical findings in four cases and with wrist arthroscopy in one case. Increased thickness of the extensor pollicus brevis and abductor pollicis longus tendons was the most reliable finding on MRI, being present in all cases. Peritendinous edema was also a reliable finding. Surrounding subcutaneous edema and increased intratendinous signal were less reliable findings in confirmed cases of de Quervain`s disease. De Quervain`s tenosynovitis may be encountered when performing MRI of the wrist. Increased tendon thickness and peritendinous edema are the most reliable imaging findings. (orig.)

  16. A novel technique for detection of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, in the Gulf of Mexico from remotely sensed ocean color data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannizzaro, Jennifer P.; Carder, Kendall L.; Chen, F. Robert; Heil, Cynthia A.; Vargo, Gabriel A.

    2008-01-01

    Karenia brevis, a toxic dinoflagellate that blooms regularly in the Gulf of Mexico, frequently causes widespread ecological and economic damage and can pose a serious threat to human health. A means for detecting blooms early and monitoring existing blooms that offers high spatial and temporal resolution is desired. Between 1999 and 2001, a large bio-optical data set consisting of spectral measurements of remote-sensing reflectance ( Rrs( λ)), absorption ( a( λ)), and backscattering ( bb( λ)) along with chlorophyll a concentrations and K. brevis cell counts was collected on the central west Florida shelf (WFS) as part of the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms (ECOHAB) and Hyperspectral Coastal Ocean Dynamics Experiment (HyCODE) programs. Reflectance model simulations indicate that absorption due to cellular pigmentation is not responsible for the factor of ˜3-4 decrease observed in Rrs( λ) for waters containing greater than 10 4 cells l -1 of K. brevis. Instead, particulate backscattering is responsible for this decreased reflectivity. Measured particulate backscattering coefficients were significantly lower when K. brevis concentrations exceeded 10 4 cells l -1 compared to values measured in high-chlorophyll (>1.5 mg m -3), diatom-dominated waters containing fewer than 10 4 cells l -1 of K. brevis. A classification technique for detecting high-chlorophyll, low-backscattering K. brevis blooms is developed. In addition, a method for quantifying chlorophyll concentrations in positively flagged pixels using fluorescence line height (FLH) data obtained from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is introduced. Both techniques are successfully applied to Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and MODIS data acquired in late August 2001 and validated using in situ K. brevis cell concentrations.

  17. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P contraction times compared with BEH+/+ mice, but only EDL displayed lower (P muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  18. Seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is an important factor in soccer from the performance and health perspective. There is a lack of knowledge about changes in muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors and their ratios during annual training cycle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of the observed parameters of isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors in soccer players, U19, from the performance and health perspective. METHODS: The strength of the knee flexors and extensors was measured in players U19 category (n = 9; the average age 18.5 ±0.4 years on the isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in angular velocity 60° × s-1. Measurement was performed in concentric/concentric and excentric/excentric mode of muscle action at the beginning of the winter preparatory period, at the end of the preparatory period and at the end of the spring competitive period. Monitored parameters were absolute peak torque (PT, conventional H/Q ratio (H/QCON, functional H/Q ratio (H/QFUN and functional H/Q ratio in range 10-30° of knee flexion (H/QFUN_10-30. RESULTS: Significant change in PT (p < .05 was noted only in cases of the knee extensors of the nondominant leg in the concentric mode. The evaluation of imbalance of the knee flexors and extensors by H/QCON and H/QFUN ratios did not show any significant changes, but there was found a significant decrease of the H/QFUN_10-30 ratio in the dominant leg between measurements at the beginning and at the end of the winter preparatory period. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that throughout the monitored periods of the annual training cycle desirable changes in knee flexors and extensors strength did not occur. The values suggest the disruption of the dynamic stabilization of the knee joint and increase in injury risk. Different dynamics of the three observed ratios confirmed that they provide different information about the physical fitness of

  19. Effects of the red tide dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, on early development of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica and northern quahog Mercenaria mercenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolton, Anne; Vignier, Julien; Soudant, Philippe; Shumway, Sandra E; Bricelj, V Monica; Volety, Aswani K

    2014-10-01

    The brevetoxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis, adversely affects many shellfish species including the commercially and ecologically important bivalve molluscs, the northern quahog (=hard clam) Mercenaria mercenaria and eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, in the Gulf of Mexico, USA. This study assessed the effects of exposure of these bivalves to K. brevis during their early development. In separate experiments, embryos of 2-4 cell stage of M. mercenaria and C. virginica were exposed to both whole and lysed K. brevis cells isolated from Manasota Key, Florida. Low bloom concentrations of 500 to 3000 cells mL(-1) were simulated for 96 h. Shell length, percent abnormality (and normality), and percent mortality of resulting larvae were measured. Percentages were recorded after 6, 24, and 96 h of exposure; larval shell length was measured at 24 and 96 h. For both quahogs and oysters, the effects of exposing embryos to K. brevis on all larval responses were generally dose- and time-dependent. Percent mortalities and abnormalities of both clam and oyster embryos increased significantly after only 6h of exposure to whole cells of K. brevis. For clams, these parameters were significantly higher in whole and lysed treatments (at 3000 cells mL(-1)) than in controls. Percent mortalities of oysters were significantly higher in the whole-cell treatment (3000 cells mL(-1)) than under control conditions. After 24h of exposure, mean larval shell length of both bivalve species was significantly reduced relative to controls. This was evident for clam larvae in both the lysed treatment at 1500 cells mL(-1) and in whole and lysed treatments at 3000 cells mL(-1), and for oyster larvae in the lysed treatment at 3000 cells mL(-1). After 96 h, both species exposed to the lysed cell treatment at 3000 cells mL(-1) had significantly smaller larvae compared to those in the control. Overall, lysed cells of K. brevis had a more pronounced effect on shell length, percent abnormality

  20. Pressure and tendon strain in the sixth extensor compartment of the wrist during simulated provocative maneuvers for diagnosing extensor carpi ulnaris tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kataoka, Toshiyuki; Moritomo, Hisao; Omori, Shinsuke; Iida, Akio; Omokawa, Shohei; Suzuki, Daisuke; Fujimiya, Mineko; Wada, Takuro; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2015-11-01

    Various provocative maneuvers for diagnosing extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendinitis have been reported; however, it remains unclear which maneuver is the most sensitive to detect ECU tendinitis. To clarify this, we investigated and compared the extratendinous pressure and ECU tendon strain in the sixth extensor compartment of the wrist during various provocative maneuvers for diagnosing ECU tendinitis. Nine upper extremities from nine fresh-frozen cadavers were examined. We investigated extratendinous pressure in the ECU fibro-osseous tunnel of the distal ulna and ECU tendon strain during eight forearm positions-neutral rotation, pronation, supination, pronation with wrist flexion, supination with wrist flexion, supination with wrist extension, both hand and forearm supination, and supination with ECU full loading-to simulate provocative maneuvers reported to detect ECU tendinitis. Pressure was significantly higher during both hand and forearm supination (carpal supination test) and during supination with wrist extension (prayer's hand supination test) than during neutral rotation. The pressure during the carpal supination test was 3 times higher than that during the prayer's hand supination test and 27 times higher than that during the neutral position. Strain was significantly higher during the carpal supination test and during supination with ECU full loading (the ECU synergy test) than during other maneuvers. Both pressure and tendon strain increased most notably during the carpal supination test compared to the other maneuvers, which suggests that the carpal supination test is the most sensitive for the detection of ECU tendinitis.

  1. Common Distribution of gad Operon in Lactobacillus brevis and its GadA Contributes to Efficient GABA Synthesis toward Cytosolic Near-Neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Tun, Hein Min; Law, Yee-Song; Khafipour, Ehsan; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2017-01-01

    Many strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria have exhibited strain-specific capacity to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) via their glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) system, which is one of amino acid-dependent acid resistance (AR) systems in bacteria. However, the linkage between bacterial AR and GABA production capacity has not been well established. Meanwhile, limited evidence has been provided to the global diversity of GABA-producing LAB and bifidobacteria, and their mechanisms of efficient GABA synthesis. In this study, genomic survey identified common distribution of gad operon-encoded GAD system in Lactobacillus brevis for its GABA production among varying species of LAB and bifidobacteria. Importantly, among four commonly distributed amino acid-dependent AR systems in Lb. brevis, its GAD system was a major contributor to maintain cytosolic pH homeostasis by consuming protons via GABA synthesis. This highlights that Lb. brevis applies GAD system as the main strategy against extracellular and intracellular acidification demonstrating its high capacity of GABA production. In addition, the abundant GadA retained its activity toward near-neutral pH (pH 5.5–6.5) of cytosolic acidity thus contributing to efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. This is the first global report illustrating species-specific characteristic and mechanism of efficient GABA synthesis in Lb. brevis. PMID:28261168

  2. The Synergic Anti-inflammatory Impact of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 on Intestinal Epithelial Cells in a DSS-induced Colitis Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghoon; Koh, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Young Jun; Oh, Sejong; Kim, Sea Hun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the synergic anti-inflammatory activity of Gleditsia sinensis Lam. (GS) extract and Lactobacillus brevis KY21 both in vitro and in vivo. Western blot analysis and immunostaining showed that AKT phosphorylation that increased by the exposure of LPS were significantly decreased by the presence of either GS extract or L. brevis KY21. In addition, p65 intracellular transport was critically inhibited by GS extract and L. brevis KY21. We further studied these effects using an in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model. Body weight, food intake, and clinical scores were dramatically decreased after treatment with DSS, whereas these effects were palliated by the addition of GS extract and L. brevis KY21. Importantly, transcription of genes encoding pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and the spleen were increased by DSS treatment, whereas they were inhibited by the presence of GS extract and L. brevis KY21.

  3. Enhanced spinal excitation from ankle flexors to knee extensors during walking in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achache, V.; Mazevet, D.; Iglesias, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It is still unclear to what an extent altered reflex activity contributes to gait deficit following stroke. Spinal group I and group II excitations from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors were investigated during post-stroke walking. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied...... to the common peroneal nerve (CPN) in the early stance, and the short-latency biphasic excitation in Quadriceps motoneurones was evaluated from the Vastus Lateralis (VL) rectified and averaged (N=50) EMG activity in 14 stroke patients walking at 0.6-1.6 km/h, and 14 control subjects walking at 3.2-4.8 and at 1......: The spinal, presumed group II, excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors is particularly enhanced during post-stroke walking probably due to plastic adaptations in the descending control. SIGNIFICANCE: This adaptation may help to stabilize the knee in early stance when the patients have recover...

  4. Tendon transfer or tendon graft for ruptured finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, U S; Kim, J H; Seo, W S; Lee, K H

    2010-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical outcome of tendon reconstruction using tendon graft or tendon transfer and the parameters related to clinical outcome in 51 wrists of 46 patients with rheumatoid arthritis with finger extensor tendon ruptures. At a mean follow-up of 5.6 years, the mean metacarpophalangeal (MP) joint extension lag was 8 degrees (range, 0-45) and the mean visual analogue satisfaction scale was 74 (range, 10-100). Clinical outcome did not differ significantly between tendon grafting and tendon transfer. The MP joint extension lag correlated with the patient's satisfaction score, but the pulp-to-palm distance did not correlate with patient satisfaction. We conclude that both tendon grafting and tendon transfer are reliable reconstruction methods for ruptured finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid hands.

  5. Distribution of different fibre types of M. extensor carpi radialis longus of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, A de C; Silva M dal, D; Pai, V D

    1994-12-01

    As revealed by the NADH-diaphorase and myosine ATPase, the M. extensor carpi radialis longus of the rat possesses at least 3 main kinds of fibres, with different distribution on the superficial and deep portions of the muscle. The superficial portion revealed that 67.68% are FG (fast-twitch-glycolytic) fibres, 14.72% are FOG (fast-twitch-oxidative) fibres and 17.60% are SO (slow-twitch-glycolytic) fibres. Already the deep portion revealed that 71.29% are SO (slow-twitch-glycolytic) fibres, 17.46% are FOG (fast-twitch-oxidative-glycolytic) fibres and 11.25% are FG (fast-twitch-glycolytic) fibres. The miosine ATPase reaction was used to demonstrate contracting characteristics. These findings suggest that the movements of fast contraction of the M. extensor carpi radialis longus are predominant.

  6. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Antri, Myriam; Barthe, Jean-Yves;

    2009-01-01

    The present study was designed to compare the firing profiles exhibited by lumbar flexor or extensor motoneurons in response to injection of depolarizing/repolarizing currents. Motoneurons were recorded intracellularly in the in vitro brainstem-spinal cord of newborn rats (P4-P7). They were...... population of flexor motoneurons solely exhibited the type II profile, characterized by a frequency-current (F-I) relationship with a clockwise hysteresis. In contrast, in addition to this type II profile, the other three profiles of repetitive firing (type I, III and IV) were observed in extensor...... motoneurons; a linear F-I relationship (type I profile), a self-sustained discharge pattern together with a linear F-I relationship (type III profile) and a self-sustained firing pattern together with an F-I relationship showing a counter-clockwise hysteresis (type IV profile). Thus, during the early...

  7. Extensor mechanism-sparing paratricipital posterior approach to the distal humerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildhauer, Thomas A; Nork, Sean E; Mills, William J; Henley, M Bradford

    2003-05-01

    Adequate exposure of the articular surface of the distal humerus and elbow joint is required for operative stabilization of bicolumnar distal humerus fractures. The transolecranon approach, which provides complete posterior visualization and access to the distal humerus, is commonly used. Nevertheless, an olecranon osteotomy and other extensor mechanism-disrupting approaches have risks and possible complications. Alternative exposures have been described primarily for total elbow arthroplasty, but these involve extensive and potentially devascularizing dissections. In extra-articular (OTA type A) and simple articular distal humeral fractures with simple or multifragmentary metaphyseal involvement (OTA type C1 and C2), extensile approaches may not be necessary. For these fracture patterns, an alternative exposure is the extensor mechanism-sparing paratricipital posterior approach to the distal humerus through a midline posterior incision. This approach avoids an osteotomy and mobilizes the triceps and anconeus muscle off the posterior humerus and the intermuscular septae and provides adequate exposure for open reduction and internal fixation.

  8. Trace metals partitioning among different sedimentary mineral phases and the deposit-feeding polychaete Armandia brevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-de-Alba, Margarita; Huerta-Diaz, Miguel Angel; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Hare, Landis; Galindo-Riaño, M Dolores; Siqueiros-Valencia, Arturo

    2016-02-01

    Trace metals (Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) were determined in two operationally defined fractions (HCl and pyrite) in sediments from Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors (Mexico). The HCl fraction had significantly higher metal concentrations relative to the pyrite fraction in both harbors, underlining the weak tendency of most trace metals to associate with pyrite. Exceptionally, Cu was highly pyritized, with degrees of trace metal pyritization (DTMP) >80% in both harbors. Dissolved Fe flux measurements combined with solid phase Fe sulfide data indicated that 98 mt of Fe are precipitated as iron sulfides every year in Ensenada Harbor. These Fe sulfides (and associated trace metals) will remain preserved in the sediments, unless they are perturbed by dredging or sediment resuspension. Calculations indicate that dredging activities could export to the open ocean 0.20±0.13 to (0.30±0.56)×10(3) mt of Cd and Cu, respectively, creating a potential threat to marine benthic organisms. Degrees of pyritization (DOP) values in Ensenada and El Sauzal harbors were relatively low (metals are gradually incorporated into pyrite as this mineral is formed. Significant correlations were also found between DTMP values and -log(Ksp(MeS)/Ksp(pyr)) for both harbors, indicating that incorporation of trace metals into the pyrite phase is a function of the solubility product of the corresponding metal sulfide. The order in which elements were pyritized in both harbors was Zn≈Mntrace metal concentrations and metal concentrations measured in Armandia brevis (a deposit-feeding Opheliid polychaete), suggesting that these labile sedimentary metals are preferentially accumulated by the polychaete, making it a useful biomonitor of sedimentary metal exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Allosteric modulation of neurotoxin binding to voltage-sensitive sodium channels by Ptychodiscus brevis toxin 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, R G; Jover, E; Couraud, F; Baden, D G; Catterall, W A

    1987-03-01

    The effects of Ptychodiscus brevis toxin 2 (PbTx-2) on the binding of neurotoxins at four different neurotoxin receptor sites on voltage-sensitive sodium channels in rat brain synaptosomes were examined. Binding of saxitoxin at neurotoxin receptor site 1 and Leiurus quinquestriatus alpha-scorpion toxin (LqTx) at neurotoxin receptor site 3 was unaffected. PbTx-2 enhanced binding of batrachotoxinin A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B) to neurotoxin receptor site 2 and Centruroides suffusus suffusus beta-scorpion toxin (CsTx II) to site 4 on sodium channels. These results support the proposal that PbTx-2 and related toxins act at a new receptor site (site 5) that has not been previously analyzed in binding experiments. Half-maximal effects of PbTx-2 were observed in the range of 20-50 nM PbTx-2. The enhancement of BTX-B binding was reduced by depolarization. Saturating concentrations of PbTx-2 reduced KD values for binding of BTX-B and CsTx-II 2.9-fold and 2.6-fold, respectively. The effects of PbTx-2 and LqTx in enhancing BTX-B binding were synergistic. A model involving both preferential binding of BTX-B, PbTx-2, LqTx, and CsTx II to active states of sodium channels and allosteric interactions among the four receptor sites at which these toxins act accommodates these and previous results.

  10. Contribution of non-extensor muscles of the leg to maximal-effort countermovement jumping

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka Shinsuke; Komura Taku; Nagano Akinori; Fukashiro Senshi

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of non-extensor muscles of the leg (i.e., muscles whose primary function is not leg extension) on the kinematics and kinetics of human maximal-effort countermovement jumping. Although it is difficult to address this type of question through experimental procedures, the methodology of computer simulation can be a powerful tool. Methods A skeletal model that has nine rigid body segments and twenty degrees of freedom was ...

  11. A study of hyperelastic models for predicting the mechanical behavior of extensor apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyasi, Nahid; Taheri, Kimia Karimi; Narooei, Keivan; Taheri, Ali Karimi

    2017-01-16

    In this research, the nonlinear elastic behavior of human extensor apparatus was investigated. To this goal, firstly the best material parameters of hyperelastic strain energy density functions consisting of the Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden, invariants, and general exponential models were derived for the simple tension experimental data. Due to the significance of stress response in other deformation modes of nonlinear models, the calculated parameters were used to study the pure shear and balance biaxial tension behavior of the extensor apparatus. The results indicated that the Mooney-Rivlin model predicts an unstable behavior in the balance biaxial deformation of the extensor apparatus, while the Ogden order 1 represents a stable behavior, although the fitting of experimental data and theoretical model was not satisfactory. However, the Ogden order 6 model was unstable in the simple tension mode and the Ogden order 5 and general exponential models presented accurate and stable results. In order to reduce the material parameters, the invariants model with four material parameters was investigated and this model presented the minimum error and stable behavior in all deformation modes. The ABAQUS Explicit solver was coupled with the VUMAT subroutine code of the invariants model to simulate the mechanical behavior of the central and terminal slips of the extensor apparatus during the passive finger flexion, which is important in the prediction of boutonniere deformity and chronic mallet finger injuries, respectively. Also, to evaluate the adequacy of constitutive models in simulations, the results of the Ogden order 5 were presented. The difference between the predictions was attributed to the better fittings of the invariants model compared with the Ogden model.

  12. Isokinetic Evaluation of Knee Extensor/Flexor Muscle Strength in Behcet’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Durmus

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Behçet’s disease (BD is an idiopathic, multisystemic, progressive disease. The purpose of this study is to compare the knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths of Behcet’s patients with that of healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-five (13 male and 12 female patients with BD and 25 (15 male and 10 female healthy individuals were included in the study. Velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec, and 150°/sec were used for the isokinetic muscle strength testing. Patients with active inflammatory knee arthritis were excluded. Peak torque (Nm and peak torque adjusted to body weight (% were taken into consideration for comparison between study groups. Results: Compared to healthy controls, there was a statistically significant decrease in both the bilateral knee extensor and flexor muscle isokinetic peak torques(Nm as well as the peak torques adjusted to body weight (% at velocities of 90°/sec, 120°/sec and 150°/sec in patients with BD (p < 0.05. However, there was no significant difference in the agonist-antagonist ratio of the isokinetic peak torques of knee muscles between the two groups. Conclusion: In light of these findings, we have concluded that both knee flexor and extensor isokinetic muscle strengths are lower in BD. We therefore recommend careful monitoring of patients with BD in terms of muscle strength.

  13. Effect of low-level laser therapy on muscle adaptation to knee extensor eccentric training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Freire, Bruno Bolla; Franke, Rodrigo de Azevedo; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2015-03-01

    Eccentric training has been popularized for physical conditioning and prevention/rehabilitation of musculoskeletal disorders, especially due to the expressive responses in terms of muscular strength gain. In view of evidence that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is able to increase exercise performance and accelerate post-exercise recovery, the aim of this study was to verify the effect of LLLT on hypertrophy and strengthening of knee extensor muscles submitted to eccentric training. Thirty healthy male subjects were randomized into three groups: Control Group (CG), Training Group (TG) and Training + LLLT Group (TLG). CG received no intervention, while TG and TLG were engaged on an 8-week knee extensor isokinetic eccentric training program. Only subjects from TLG were treated with LLLT (wavelength = 810 nm; power output = 200 mW; total dosage = 240 J) before each training session. Knee extensor muscle thickness and peak torque were assessed through ultrasonography and isokinetic dynamometry, respectively. CG presented no changes in any variable throughout the study, while eccentric training led to significant increases in muscle thickness and peak torque in TG and TLG. Subjects from TLG reached significantly higher percent changes compared to subjects from TG for sum of muscles' thicknesses (15.4 vs. 9.4%), isometric peak torque (20.5 vs. 13.7%), and eccentric peak torque (32.2 vs. 20.0%). LLLT applied before eccentric training sessions seems to improve the hypertrophic response and muscular strength gain in healthy subjects.

  14. Effects of lumbar extensor fatigue and surface inclination on postural control during quiet stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Dingding; Nussbaum, Maury A

    2012-11-01

    A number of work environments require workers to perform tasks on inclined surfaces. Such tasks, along with muscle fatigue, can impair postural control and increase falling risks. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of surface inclination angle, standing direction, and lumbar extensor fatigue on postural control during quiet standing. A group of 16 young, healthy participants were tested while standing on inclined surfaces before and after lumbar extensor fatigue (induced by repetitive isotonic exercise). Three inclination angles (0°, 18° and 26°) and three standing directions (uphill, downhill, and lateral facing) were examined. Postural control was assessed using several measures derived from center-of-pressure time series and subjectively perceived stability. Significant main and interactive effects of inclination angle and standing direction were found for all dependent measures. The adverse effects of standing on inclined surfaces were found to differ between the three standing directions. In general, dose-response relationships with inclination angle were evident, particularly in the lateral-facing direction. Fatigue-related effects differed between conditions, suggesting that the adverse effect of lumbar extensor fatigue on postural control depend on inclination angle and standing direction. These findings may facilitate the development of fall prevention interventions for work involving inclined surfaces.

  15. The Femoral Neck Mechanoresponse to Hip Extensors Exercise: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg. The biomechanical stimulus for bone adaptation (BS was calculated using published models of the musculoskeletal system and the average hip extension moment in elderly participants. Volumetric (ΔvBMD and areal (ΔaBMD BMD changes were calculated. The measured and calculated BMD changes consistently showed a positive and negative effect of exercise in the femoral neck (ΔaBMD = +0.7%; ΔvBMD = +0.8% and the trochanter region (ΔaBMD = −4.1%; ΔvBMD = −0.5%, respectively. The 17% of the femoral neck exceeded the 75th percentile of the spatially heterogeneous BS distribution. Hip extensor exercises may be beneficial in the proximal femoral neck but not in the trochanteric region. DXA-based measurements may not capture significant aBMD local changes.

  16. Weakness of the neck extensors, possible causes and relation to adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaolong, Shen; Xuhui, Zhou; Jian, Chen; Ye, Tian; Wen, Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Cervical kyphosis may be congenital, or occur as a result of laminectomy, post-traumatic deformity, infection, neuromuscular disorders such as muscular dystrophies, motor neuron disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, tumor, and inflammation such as ankylosing spondylitis. Furthermore, adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis was defined as cervical kyphotic deformity of adolescent patient without any cause such as those previously described. As no standard values for "cervical kyphosis" could be found in the literature, many reported studies only report a subjective classification, "kyphotic, straight or lordotic". But this method had proven to be unreliable. Grob et al. defined "straight" for the global curvature as +4° to -4°, and lordotic and kyphotic as +4°, respectively. The etiology and pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis remain little understood. Weakness of the neck extensors can result in "dropped head syndrome", a rare disorder characterized by weakness of neck extensor muscles causing an inability to extend the neck and resulting in a chin-on-chest deformity. The purpose of this paper is to propose a possible mechanical cause leading to the kyphotic deformity. We hypothesize that weakness of the neck extensors could be the initiating factor for adolescent idiopathic cervical kyphosis.

  17. The Femoral Neck Mechanoresponse to Hip Extensors Exercise: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Hossein; Pivonka, Peter; Ebeling, Peter R.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg. The biomechanical stimulus for bone adaptation (BS) was calculated using published models of the musculoskeletal system and the average hip extension moment in elderly participants. Volumetric (ΔvBMD) and areal (ΔaBMD) BMD changes were calculated. The measured and calculated BMD changes consistently showed a positive and negative effect of exercise in the femoral neck (ΔaBMD = +0.7%; ΔvBMD = +0.8%) and the trochanter region (ΔaBMD = −4.1%; ΔvBMD = −0.5%), respectively. The 17% of the femoral neck exceeded the 75th percentile of the spatially heterogeneous BS distribution. Hip extensor exercises may be beneficial in the proximal femoral neck but not in the trochanteric region. DXA-based measurements may not capture significant aBMD local changes. PMID:28168080

  18. Eccentric wrist extensor contractions and the force velocity relationship in muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walmsley, R P; Pearson, N; Stymiest, P

    1986-01-01

    The torque produced by the wrist extensors during maximal isometric and isokinetic eccentric contractions has been investigated. The torque produced by eccentric contractions was measured at three different velocities: 0.36, 0.93, and 1.64 cmlsec. The speeds of contraction were generated by a specially designed apparatus, consisting of a gear drive and an electric motor that would maintain its speed irrespective of the load applied. Tenison produced by the wrist extensors was measured using a load cell. The results indicated that eccentric contractions of the wrist extensors exceed those produced by isometric contractions. The force-velocity relationship during eccentric contractions was determined to be different from that during concentric contractions. Force values were found to increase as the velocity of eccentric contraction increased. No signficant effect of wrist joint angle on torque values was found, nor was there an interaction effect of velocity and joint angle. The implications for rehabilitation of these findings are outlined. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(6):288-293.

  19. Early active mobilisation versus immobilisation after extrinsic extensor tendon repair: A prospective randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R K Patil

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Whether to splint the extensor tendon repairs or to mobilise them early is debatable. Recently, mobilisation has shown favourable results in a few studies. This study was aimed to compare the two favoured protocols (immobilisation vs. early active motion in Indian population. Patients and Methods: Between June 2005 and June 2007, patients with extensor tendon injuries in zones V-VIII were randomly distributed in two groups: Group A, early active motion; and group B, immobilisation. Their results at 8 and 12 weeks and 6 months were compared. Results: Patients in early active motion group were found to have better total active motion and early return to work. This difference was statistically significant up to 12 weeks, but not at 6 months. Conclusion: Early active motion following extensor tendon repair hastens patients′ recovery and helps patients to gain complete range of motion at earlier postoperative period. With improved grip strength, the early return to work is facilitated, though these advantages are not sustained statistically significantly over long term.

  20. A comparative study of an intensive malolactic transformation of cider using Lactobacillus brevis and Oenococcus oeni in a membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, I S; Lovitt, R W

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the secondary fermentation of alcoholic green cider by Lactobacillus brevis and Oenococcus oeni in a membrane bioreactor so as to compare the performance of the two organisms to rapidly carry out the malolactic fermentation (MLF), an important step in reducing acidity and enhancing the flavor characteristics of the beverages. First, the growth of both organisms was intensified by using perfusion culture in a membrane bioreactor (MBR). O. oeni and L. brevis were grown up to 12.8 g dry cell weight (DCW) l(-1) and 15.5 g DCW l(-1) in the MBR. Secondly, the resultant cells were then used for the malolactic transformation of green cider in the MBR. The influences of the residence time in the MBR and the ethanol concentration of the green cider on the organic acid transformation were investigated. Both organisms showed a good tolerance against the acidic conditions (pH 3.0-4.0) and ethanol (90 g l(-1)). Good levels of malate removal in the MBR were achieved by both organisms but O. oeni was more tolerant to high ethanol concentrations and was capable of growth and malate removal in 130 g ethanol l(-1) green cider. L. brevis malate removal was significantly inhibited above 110 g ethanol l(-1). The MBR allowed the development of high concentrations of active cells capable of rapid MLF and could be achieved over a prolonged period and over a wide range of conditions thus allowing the control of malate transformation rate. Organism selection for the transformation will be governed by the desired beverage characteristics. There is considerable scope to optimize the process further both with the choice of organisms and the design and operation of the reactor. Rapid beverage maturation on a commercial scale may be possible using MBR and pure cultures of MLF lactic acid bacteria.

  1. Effects of strength training and detraining on knee extensor strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Correa, Cleiton Silva; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Radaelli, Régis; Lanferdini,Fábio Juner; Cunha, Giovani dos Santos; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2012-01-01

    Strength training seems to be an interesting approach to counteract decreases that affect knee extensor strength, muscle mass and muscle quality (force per unit of muscle mass) associated with ageing. However, there is no consensus regarding the changes in muscle mass and their contribution to strength during periods of training and detraining in the elderly. Therefore, this study aimed at verifying the behaviour of knee extensor muscle strength, muscle volume and muscle quality in elderly wo...

  2. Allograft reconstruction of peroneus longus and brevis tendons tears arising from a single muscular belly. Case report and surgical technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Manuel J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-03-01

    Anatomic variants of the peroneal tendons may cause tendon disorders. Moreover, there is a lack of evidence on how to address chronic tendon pathology when a variant of the peroneal tendons is causing the patient's symptoms. We present a patient with an uncommon peroneal muscle presentation: a single muscular belly dividing into both the peroneus longus and brevis tendons. After extensive debridement of tendinopathic tissue, primary repair or tenodesis was not possible; therefore a unique solution for this problem was performed, reconstructing both peroneal tendons using a semitendinosus allograft. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Detection of acid and hop shock induced responses in beer spoiling Lactobacillus brevis by MALDI-TOF MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, Benjamin C; Behr, Jürgen; Vogel, Rudi F

    2015-04-01

    Due to the harsh environment, microorganisms encounter in beer, spoilage bacteria must be able to customise their metabolism and physiology in an order to master various kinds of perturbations. Proteomic approaches have been used to examine differences between various beer spoilage bacteria and between different stress conditions, such as acid and hop (Humulus lupulus) stress. However, these investigations cannot detect changes in low molecular weight (lmw) proteins (beer spoiling L. brevis. It is demonstrated that MALDI-TOF MS is a fast tool to detect and characterise stress situations in beer spoiling bacteria along the lmw sub-proteome.

  4. Longitudinal splitting to the peroneus brevis tendon. Diagnosis and MRI staging; Syndrome fissuraire du tendon court fibulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavernier, T. [Clinique de la Sauvegarde, 69 - Lyon (France); Bonnin, M. [Clinique Charcot, 69 - Sainte-Foy-les-Lyon (France); Bouysset, M. [Centre hospitalier Lyon-Sud, 69 Pierre-Benite (France)

    1997-05-01

    We present a series of 38 cases of longitudinal splitting of the peroneus brevis tendon revealed by MR imaging (12 lesions were confirmed at surgery). MRI enabled classification in four surgical grades.The frequency of such lesions in chronic ankle instability as observed in our series is often reported in the literature. Bilateral cases are common. Asymptomatic cases do occur, especially in grades I and II. MRI has been shown to be a very effective investigation for demonstrating this tendinous lesion: the proton density weighted sequence in the axial plane is the most adequate sequence. (authors). 15 refs.

  5. Morphostructural investigation of the female reproductive system and molecular evidence for Wolbachia in Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, A M; D'Urso, V; Viscuso, R; Ferrito, V; Giunta, M C; Cupani, S; Vitale, D G M

    2016-02-01

    Balclutha brevis Lindberg 1954 (Homoptera, Cicadellidae) is an allochthonous species that is rapidly spreading in Sicily and in mainland Europe due to the wide spread of its host plant and therefore could also compete with populations of native species. Considering these ecological implications, based on the lacking ultrastructural data about the reproductive systems of the Auchenorrhyncha and since previous investigations on the male reproductive system of B. brevis have shown some interesting features, we carried out morphostructural investigations on the female reproductive system of this alien leafhopper. Moreover, given the high interest in literature on Wolbachia entomoparasite and based on our previous studies, we provided a contribution to further investigations in applied sciences. For this aim we performed a molecular analysis on males and females of B. brevis to detect the possible presence of strains of the bacterium known to alter host reproductive biology. The female reproductive system has a morphological organization comparable to the general anatomical features of most of the Auchenorrhyncha species; however, comparing our data with the literature, some considerations are discussed. As for the histological and ultrastructural investigations, our results show a secretory activity of the various examined structures. In the spermatheca of B. brevis, in particular, the secretory activity is more marked in the sac-shaped tract, where histochemical investigations showed a lipid component of the secretion; possible origin of this component is discussed. Moreover, mainly free spermatozoa are found in the sac-shaped tract of the spermatheca and in the common oviduct. As for the latter, an interesting findings is the lack of cuticular intima on the epithelial surface of the common oviduct; furthermore, the observed features and the literature in this regards led us to review the significance of the structure called as spermatheca. The molecular screening

  6. Impact of Lactic Acid and Hydrogen Ion on the Simultaneous Fermentation of Glucose and Xylose by the Carbon Catabolite Derepressed Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyung Hun; Israr, Beenish; Shoemaker, Sharon P; Mills, David A; Kim, Jaehan

    2016-07-28

    Lactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869 exhibited a carbon catabolite de-repressed (CCR) phenotype which has ability to consume fermentable sugar simultaneously with glucose. To evaluate this unusual phenotype under harsh conditions during fermentation, the effect of lactic acid and hydrogen ion concentrations on L. brevis ATCC 14869 were examined. Kinetic equations describing the relationship between specific cell growth rate and lactic acid or hydrogen ion concentration has been reduced. The change of substrate utilization and product formation according to lactic acid and hydrogen ion concentration in the media were quantitatively described. Moreover; utilization of other compounds were also observed along with hydrogen ion and lactic acid concentration simultaneously. It has been found that substrate preference changes significantly regarding to utilization of compounds in media. That could result into formation of two-carbon products. In particular, acetic acid present in the media as sodium acetate were consumed by L. brevis ATCC 14869 under extreme pH of both acid and alkaline conditions.

  7. A Novel Adhesion Index for Verifying the Extent of Adhesion for the Extensor Digitorum Communis in Patients with Metacarpal Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Ting-Yu; Chen, Hsiao-I; Shih, Cho-Chiang; Kuo, Li-Chieh; Hsu, Hsiu-Yun; Huang, Chih-Chung

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine if the relative displacement between the extensor digitorum communis (EDC) tendon and its surrounding tissues can be used as an adhesion index (AI) for assessing adhesion in metacarpal fractures by comparing two clinical measures, namely single-digit-force and extensor lag (i.e., the difference between passive extension and full active extension). The Fisher–Tippett block-matching method and a Kalman-filter algorithm were used to determine the relative displacements in 39 healthy subjects and 8 patients with metacarpal fractures. A goniometer was used to measure the extensor lag, and a force sensor was used to measure the single-digit-force. Measurements were obtained twice for each patient to evaluate the performance of the AI in assessing the progress of rehabilitation. The Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to quantify the various correlations between the AI, extensor lag, and single-digit-force. The results showed strong correlations between the AI and the extensor lag, the AI and the single-digit-force, and the extensor lag and the single-digit-force (r = 0.718, −0.849, and −0.741; P = 0.002, P < 0.001, and P = 0.001, respectively). The AI in the patients gradually decreased after continuous rehabilitation, but remained higher than that of healthy participants. PMID:27492808

  8. Slow temporal filtering may largely explain the transformation of stick insect (Carausius morosus) extensor motor neuron activity into muscle movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Scott L; Guschlbauer, Christoph; von Uckermann, Géraldine; Büschges, Ansgar

    2007-09-01

    Understanding how nervous systems generate behavior requires understanding how muscles transform neural input into movement. The stick insect extensor tibiae muscle is an excellent system in which to study this issue because extensor motor neuron activity is highly variable during single leg walking and extensor muscles driven with this activity produce highly variable movements. We showed earlier that spike number, not frequency, codes for extensor amplitude during contraction rises, which implies the muscle acts as a slow filter on the time scale of burst interspike intervals (5-10 ms). We examine here muscle response to spiking variation over entire bursts, a time scale of hundreds of milliseconds, and directly measure muscle time constants. Muscle time constants differ during contraction and relaxation, and contraction time constants, although variable, are always extremely slow (200-700 ms). Models using these data show that extremely slow temporal filtering alone can explain much of the observed transform properties. This work also revealed an unexpected (to us) ability of slow filtering to transform steadily declining inputs into constant amplitude outputs. Examination of the effects of time constant variability on model output showed that variation within an SD primarily altered output amplitude, but variation across the entire range also altered contraction shape. These substantial changes suggest that understanding the basis of this variation is central to predicting extensor activity and that the animal could theoretically vary muscle time constant to match extensor response to changing behavioral need.

  9. [Extensor mechanism allograft and radiotherapy in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas around the knee: Presentation of two clinical cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illana-Mahiques, M; Baixauli-García, F; Angulo-Sánchez, M A; Amaya-Valero, J V; García-Forcada, I L

    2015-01-01

    Knee involvement of soft tissue sarcomas is rare and very difficult to treat. Reconstruction of the extensor mechanism of the knee is essential to restore the functionality. Functional outcome is compromised by poor soft tissue coverage, adjuvant local radiotherapy, and resection of the extensor apparatus. No results were found in the literature as regards treatment by resection and reconstruction of the extensor mechanism in combination with adjuvant radiotherapy. The effects of radiotherapy are also unknown in the allografts. . Two cases are presented of soft tissue sarcoma around de knee treated by resection, reconstruction of the extensor mechanism with cryopreserved cadaver allograft, and local radiotherapy. After more than 3 years of follow up, both patients are free of disease and have a good joint balance. Resection of the tumor with adequate safety margins and reconstruction using cadaveric allograft preserves the extensor mechanism and function of the limb. The soft tissue coverage is an added problem that can be solved by propeller fasciocutaneous flap coverage. After surgery, the limb must be immobilized with a knee brace locked in extension. Local radiotherapy contributes to local control of the disease. The reconstruction of the extensor mechanism of the knee with allograft is a functional alternative to amputation, and it does not contraindicate adjuvant radiotherapy to improve local control of the disease. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Changes in mechanical load and extensor muscle activity in the cervico-thoracic spine induced by sitting posture modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondston, Stephen J; Sharp, Michael; Symes, Andew; Alhabib, Nawaf; Allison, Garry T

    2011-02-01

    The influence of whole body sitting posture on cervico-thoracic posture, mechanical load and extensor muscle activity was examined in 23 asymptomatic adults. Cervical and upper thoracic extensor muscle activity measured in guided slouched and lumbo-pelvic neutral postures was normalised to that measured in a self-selected habitual posture. Head and neck posture and gravitational load moment measurements were obtained in each posture. Sagittal head translation, upper cervical extension and load moment were significantly greater in the slouched posture (p postures, with cervical extensor activity 40% higher in the slouched posture (p posture than the habitual posture (p = 0.002). The significant changes in extensor muscle activity with postural modification appear to be induced by the associated change in mechanical load moment of the head. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: More neutral sitting postures reduce the demand on the cervical extensor muscles and modify the relative contribution of cervical and thoracic extensors to the control of head and neck posture. Postures that promote these patterns of muscular activity may reduce cervical spine loading and the development of posture-related neck pain.

  11. Recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Draganidis

    Full Text Available We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF and extensor (KE strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match. Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12 h, 36 h and 60 h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon and conventional (KFcon/KEcon ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60 h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (P<0.05 at 12 h (both limbs and 36 h (dominant limb only, b eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee extensors and flexors declined (P<0.05 in both limbs for 36 h at 60°/s and for 60 h at 180°/s with eccentric peak torque of knee flexors demonstrating a greater (P<0.05 reduction than concentric peak torque, c strength deterioration was greater (P<0.05 at 180°/s and in dominant limb, d the functional ratio was more sensitive to match-induced fatigue demonstrating a more prolonged decline. Discriminant and regression analysis revealed that strength deterioration and recovery may be related to the amount of eccentric actions performed during the match and athletes' football-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players

  12. Antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan on representative dental pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Chen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is still a major oral health problem in most industrialized countries. The development of dental caries primarily involves Lactobacilli spp. and Streptococcus mutans. Although antibacterial ingredients are used against oral bacteria to reduce dental caries, some reports that show partial antibacterial ingredients could result in side effects. OBJECTIVES: The main objective is to test the antibacterial effect of water-soluble chitosan while the evaluation of the mouthwash appears as a secondary aim. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The chitosan was obtained from the Application Chemistry Company (Taiwan. The authors investigated the antibacterial effects of water-soluble chitosan against oral bacteria at different temperatures (25-37ºC and pH values (pH 5-8, and evaluated the antibacterial activities of a self-made water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash by in vitro and in vivo experiments, and analyzed the acute toxicity of the mouthwashes. The acute toxicity was analyzed with the pollen tube growth (PTG test. The growth inhibition values against the logarithmic scale of the test concentrations produced a concentrationresponse curve. The IC50 value was calculated by interpolation from the data. RESULTS: The effect of the pH variation (5-8 on the antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan against tested oral bacteria was not significant. The maximal antibacterial activity of water-soluble chitosan occurred at 37ºC. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of water-soluble chitosan on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli brevis were 400 µg/mL and 500 µg/mL, respectively. Only 5 s of contact between water-soluble chitosan and oral bacteria attained at least 99.60% antibacterial activity at a concentration of 500 µg/mL. The water-soluble chitosan-containing mouthwash significantly demonstrated antibacterial activity that was similar to that of commercial mouthwashes (>99.91% in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. In addition

  13. Effects of toxin of red tide, Ptychodiscus brevis, on canine tracheal smooth muscle: a possible new asthma-triggering mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, S; Krzanowski, J J; Anderson, W H; Martin, D F; Polson, J B; Lockey, R F; Bukantz, S C; Szentivanyi, A

    1982-05-01

    The red tide toxin produced by Ptychodiscus brevis becomes airborne by the thrashing action of the surf and wind and induces cough, rhinorrhea, watery eyes, and sneezing in normal humans and wheezing in asthmatic patients. The mechanism of the contractile response induced by P. brevis toxin (PBTX) was investigated with isolated canine tracheal smooth muscle. Tetrodotoxin and atropine blocked the contractile effect of PBTX, and neostigmine potentiated the contraction. Mepyramine, phentolamine, methysergide, and chlorisondamine did not inhibit the effect of PBTX. This is the first description of a naturally occurring airborne substance that causes smooth muscle contraction by stimulating the axon sodium channels, resulting in the release of acetylcholine at postganglionic parasympathetic efferent nerve endings. The in vitro effect of PBTX on canine tracheal smooth muscle indicates that PBTX is capable of causing respiratory irritation and thus may precipitate an asthmatic attack. It is possible, however, that the mechanism is vivo may also include stimulation of a cough receptor reflex and/or stimulation of sodium channels of afferent vagus nerve fibers. In vitro evidence suggests that isoproterenol, atropine, and verapamil may be used to eliminate or prevent the respiratory symptoms that follow exposure to airborne red tide toxin. The use of high-pressure liquid chromatography separated fractions indicates that the neurotoxic component, not the hemolytic component, is responsible for contractions.

  14. Uptake and elimination of brevetoxin in the invasive green mussel, Perna viridis, during natural Karenia brevis blooms in southwest Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Soudant, Philippe; Volety, Aswani K

    2015-04-01

    Perna viridis is a recently introduced species to US coastal waters and have vigorously spread throughout the southeastern seaboard since their invasion. Little information regarding their response to local environmental factors has been reported including responses to the local HAB species, Karenia brevis. This study monitored the tissue toxin concentration of brevetoxins in P. viridis from existing populations throughout two consecutive natural K. brevis blooms. The results showed P. viridis to rapidly accumulate PbTx upon exposure to the bloom, far exceeding the peak tissue concentrations of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, sampled during the same period, 57,653 ± 15,937 and 33,462 ± 10,391 ng g(-1) PbTx-3 equivalent, respectively. Further, P. viridis retained high PbTx concentrations in their tissues post bloom remaining above the regulatory limit for human consumption for 4-5 months, significantly longer than the depuration time of 2-8 weeks for native oyster and clam species. In the second year, the bloom persisted at high cell concentrations resulting in prolonged exposure and higher PbTx tissue concentrations indicating increased bioaccumulation in green mussels. While this species is not currently harvested for human consumption, the threat for post bloom trophic transfer could pose negative impacts on other important fisheries and higher food web implications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anodal transcranial direct current stimulation of the motor cortex induces opposite modulation of reciprocal inhibition in wrist extensor and flexor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra; Klomjai, Wanalee; Bussel, Bernard; Katz, Rose; Roche, Nicolas

    2014-09-15

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is used as a noninvasive tool to modulate brain excitability in humans. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that tDCS applied over the motor cortex also modulates spinal neural network excitability and therefore can be used to explore the corticospinal control acting on spinal neurons. Previously, we showed that reciprocal inhibition directed to wrist flexor motoneurons is enhanced during contralateral anodal tDCS, but it is likely that the corticospinal control acting on spinal networks controlling wrist flexors and extensors is not similar. The primary aim of the study was to explore the effects of anodal tDCS on reciprocal inhibition directed to wrist extensor motoneurons. To further examine the supraspinal control acting on the reciprocal inhibition between wrist flexors and extensors, we also explored the effects of the tDCS applied to the ipsilateral hand motor area. In healthy volunteers, we tested the effects induced by sham and anodal tDCS on reciprocal inhibition pathways innervating wrist muscles. Reciprocal inhibition directed from flexor to extensor muscles and the reverse situation, i.e., reciprocal inhibition, directed from extensors to flexors were studied in parallel with the H reflex technique. Our main finding was that contralateral anodal tDCS induces opposing effects on reciprocal inhibition: it decreases reciprocal inhibition directed from flexors to extensors, but it increases reciprocal inhibition directed from extensors to flexors. The functional result of these opposite effects on reciprocal inhibition seems to favor wrist extension excitability, suggesting an asymmetric descending control onto the interneurons that mediate reciprocal inhibition.

  16. [The Omega "Omega" pulley plasty: a new technique for the surgical management of the De Quervain's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhach, J; Sentucq-Rigal, J; Mouton, P; Boileau, R; Panconi, B; Guimberteau, J-C

    2006-02-01

    The Omega "Omega" pulley plasty: a new technique for the surgical management of the De Quervain's disease. The De Quervain tenosynovitis is an inadequacy into the first extensor compartment between the osteo-fibrous tunnel and the tendons. This mechanical conflict generates a tenosynovitis of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus tendons. This is generally expressed by a tenderness on the radial side of the wrist over the radial styloid process. The medical management consists on corticoids infiltrations of the first extensor compartment, the avoidance of repetitive and stress movements of the first ray with the use of a rest splint. The surgical approach is considered with the recurrence of the painful symptoms. This well-known pathology is reputated to require a simple section of the pulley. Our post-operative complications have been reported in the literature of this classical surgical solution. These complications concern an incomplete release of the extensor pollicis brevis and the abductor pollicis longus tendons particularly when an extensor sub-compartment exists and was overlooked, an irritation of the collateral branches of the sensitive radial nerve or the occurrence of a nevroma after a nerve injury and the most serious complication is a palmar subluxation of the extensor tendons which can occur with the thumb extended and the wrist flexed. In rare cases, this subluxation can be really painful and requires a surgical management with secondary reconstruction of the pulley. This reconstruction necessitates distal pedicle flaps from the dorsal retinaculum or the brachioradialis tendon. To prevent these complications, Codega and Kapandji described techniques of reconstruction of the pulley after its release. More recently, Le Viet reported a procedure using the anterior flap of the pulley; fixed to the dermis it will work as a barrier and maintain the tendons sliding on the radial styloid groove. These techniques require to divide

  17. Proprioceptive control of wrist extensor motor units in humans: dependence on handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimonetti, J M; Morin, D; Schmied, A; Vedel, J P; Pagni, S

    1999-01-01

    The effectiveness of the monosynaptic proprioceptive assistance to the wrist extensor motoneurone activity was investigated during voluntary contraction in relation to the subjects' handedness. The reflex responses of 411 single motor units to homonymous tendon taps were recorded in the wrist extensor carpi radialis muscles in both arms of five right-handed and five left-handed subjects. In the right-handed subjects, the motor unit reflex responses were clearly lateralized in favour of their right arm, whereas no side-related differences were observed in the left-handed subjects, whatever the motor units' mechanical properties and firing rates. When the muscle spindle sensitivity was by-passed by electrically stimulating the primary afferents in both arms of three right-handed and three left-handed subjects, no side-related differences were observed in the Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) amplitude in either of the two lateralization groups. The effectiveness of the primary afferent synapses on to the motoneurones therefore does not seem to depend on the subject's handedness. Without excluding the possibility of structural changes being involved at the periphery, the comparisons carried out on the data obtained using electrical vs mechanical stimulation suggest that the asymmetrical effectiveness of the proprioceptive assistance observed in favour of the right arm in the right-handed subjects might result from either the gamma or beta drive being more efficient. This asymmetry might result from the preferential use of the right hand in skilled movements. In a predominantly right-handed world, however, left-handed people might tend to develop the ability to use their right arm almost as skillfully as their preferred left arm, which could explain the symmetrical effectiveness of the proprioceptive assistance observed here in the left-handers' wrist extensor muscles.

  18. Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping on Knee Extensor Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S.; Yeung, Ella W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Kinesio Tex tape (KT) is used to prevent and treat sports-related injuries and to enhance muscle performance. It has been proposed that the direction of taping may either facilitate or inhibit the muscle by having different effects on cutaneous receptors that modulate excitability of the motor neurons. This study had 2 goals. First, we wished to determine if KT application affects muscle performance and if the method of application facilitates or inhibits muscle performance. This was assessed by measuring isokinetic knee extension peak torque in the knee extensor. Second, we assessed neurological effects of taping on the excitability of the motor neurons by measuring the reflex latency and action potential by electromyography (EMG) in the patellar reflex. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 28 healthy volunteers with no history of knee injuries. Participants received facilitative KT treatment, inhibitory KT treatment, or Hypafix taping of the knee extensor. There were significant differences in the peak torque between 3 treatments (F(2,54) = 4.873, P < 0.01). Post hoc analysis revealed that facilitative KT treatment resulted in higher knee extensor peak torque performance than inhibitory KT treatment (P = 0.036, effect size 0.26). There were, however, no significant differences in the reflex latency (F(2,54) = 2.84, P = 0.067) nor in the EMG values (F(2,54) = 0.18, P = 0.837) in the patellar reflex between the 3 taping applications. The findings suggest that the direction of KT application over the muscle has specific effects on muscle performance. Given the magnitude of effect is small, interpretation of clinical significance should be considered with caution. The underlying mechanism warrants further investigation. PMID:26825916

  19. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO). Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees). Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees) of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees) of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  20. Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation and Resistance Training on Knee Extensor/Flexor Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantović, Milan; Popović, Boris; Madić, Dejan; Obradović, Jelena

    2015-07-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has recently drawn a lot of attention as means for strengthening of voluntary muscle contraction both in sport and rehabilitation. NMES training increases maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force output through neural adaptations. On the other hand, positive effects of resistance training (RT) on muscle strength are well known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of a 5-week program of NMES compared to RT program of same duration. Sample of 15 students' of faculty of sport and physical education (age 22 ± 2) were randomized in two groups: NMES (N = 7) and RT (N = 8). NMES group performed NMES superimposed over voluntary muscle contraction, RT group performed resistance training with submaximal loads. Subjects were evaluated for knee isokinetic dynamometry on both sides (60° and 180° s). After intervention no significant difference between groups were observed in isokinetic dynamometry (p = 0.177). However, applying pair sample t test within each group revealed that peak torque increased in NMES-group (p = 0.002 for right knee extensors muscles, p = 0.003 for left, respectively, at 60° and p = 0.004 for left knee extensors muscles, at angular velocity 180°). In RT group (p = 0.033 for right knee extensors muscles, p = 0.029 for right knee flexor muscles, at angular velocity 60°). Our results indicate that NMES has equal potential if not in some way better than classical RT having in mind that overload on locomotor apparatus during NMES is minimal and force of muscle contraction is equal on both sides, for enhancement of knee muscles concentric peak torque.

  1. Pressure pain mapping of the wrist extensors after repeated eccentric exercise at high intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfa de la Morena, José M; Samani, Afshin; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Hansen, Ernst A; Madeleine, Pascal

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate adaptation mechanisms after 2 test rounds consisting of eccentric exercise using pressure pain imaging of the wrist extensors. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed over 12 points forming a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow in 12 participants. From the PPT assessments, pressure pain maps were computed. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced in an initial test round of high-intensity eccentric exercise. The second test round performed 7 days later aimed at resulting in adaptation. The PPTs were assessed before, immediately after, and 24 hours after the 2 test rounds of eccentric exercise. For the first test round, the mean PPT was significantly lower 24 hours after exercise compared with before exercise (389.5 ± 64.1 vs. 500.5 ± 66.4 kPa, respectively; p = 0.02). For the second test round, the PPT was similar before and 24 hours after (447.7 ± 51.3 vs. 458.0 ± 73.1 kPa, respectively; p = 1.0). This study demonstrated adaptive effects of the wrist extensors monitored by pain imaging technique in healthy untrained humans. A lack of hyperalgesia, i.e., no decrease in PPT underlined adaptation after the second test round of eccentric exercise performed 7 days after the initial test round. The present findings showed for the first time that repeated eccentric exercise performed twice over 2 weeks protects the wrist extensor muscles from developing exacerbated pressure pain sensitivity. Thus, the addition of eccentric components to training regimens should be considered to induce protective adaptation.

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF DIFFERENT QUADRICEPS STRENGTHENING PROTOCOLS IN IMPROVEMENT OF EXTENSOR LAG IN OSTEOARTHRITIC KNEE JOINT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Shukla

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Osteoarthritis of knee is a widespread, slowly developing disease with a high prevalence with age, with greater body weight and in post menopausal women. The main causes of functional dysfunction in osteoarthritic knee are pain and quadriceps muscle weakness. Physical rehabilitation usually includes quadriceps exercises i.e. isometric and isotonic exercises for the maintenance of joint range of motion and muscle strength. Biofeedback is a process that can be combined with it to increase the awareness about the extent of muscle work done by quadriceps muscle. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of different quadriceps strengthening protocols with or without biofeedback in improvement of extensor lag in osteoarthritic knee joint. Materials & Methods: Sixty osteoarthritic knee patients with twenty patients each in three groups were randomly selected from Guru Harkrishan Hospital, Sarai Kale khan and Physical rehabilitation clinics in Delhi. Patients were randomly divided into three groups A, B and C. Research Design was Experimental study. Dependent Variables were Quardiceps Lag and Knee ROM .Independent Variables were Biofeedback and Modified Quadriceps Exercise which were introduced to the subjects. ANOVA test was applied to find out the statistical level of significance. Results: There was a great improvement of extensor lag in group C who had received Modified Quadriceps Sets with Biofeedback when compared with group B and group A. The percentage of reduction in pain was more and ROM was more increased in group C when compared with group B and A. Discussion & Conclusion: Modified quadriceps sets with biofeedback are better than the quadriceps sets and quadriceps sets with biofeedback in improvement of extensor lag in osteoarthric knee patients.

  3. Acute Effects of Kinesio Taping on Knee Extensor Peak Torque and Stretch Reflex in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Simon S; Yeung, Ella W

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio Tex tape (KT) is used to prevent and treat sports-related injuries and to enhance muscle performance. It has been proposed that the direction of taping may either facilitate or inhibit the muscle by having different effects on cutaneous receptors that modulate excitability of the motor neurons. This study had 2 goals. First, we wished to determine if KT application affects muscle performance and if the method of application facilitates or inhibits muscle performance. This was assessed by measuring isokinetic knee extension peak torque in the knee extensor. Second, we assessed neurological effects of taping on the excitability of the motor neurons by measuring the reflex latency and action potential by electromyography (EMG) in the patellar reflex. The study was a single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial with 28 healthy volunteers with no history of knee injuries. Participants received facilitative KT treatment, inhibitory KT treatment, or Hypafix taping of the knee extensor. There were significant differences in the peak torque between 3 treatments (F(2,54) = 4.873, P < 0.01). Post hoc analysis revealed that facilitative KT treatment resulted in higher knee extensor peak torque performance than inhibitory KT treatment (P = 0.036, effect size 0.26). There were, however, no significant differences in the reflex latency (F(2,54) = 2.84, P = 0.067) nor in the EMG values (F(2,54) = 0.18, P = 0.837) in the patellar reflex between the 3 taping applications. The findings suggest that the direction of KT application over the muscle has specific effects on muscle performance. Given the magnitude of effect is small, interpretation of clinical significance should be considered with caution. The underlying mechanism warrants further investigation.

  4. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuki Fukutani

    Full Text Available The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1 concentric contraction without preactivation (CON, (2 concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC, and (3 concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO. Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees. Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  5. Myoelectric Signals from Paretic Wrist Extensor Controlling Electrical Stimulation of the Same Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rune, Thorsen; Fin, Biering-Sørensen; Hansen, Steffen Duus

    1996-01-01

    A device for enhancement of the grip in C5/6 spinal cord lesioned tetraplegics is under development. It uses the myoelectric signal from the paretic wrist extensor for control of electrical stimulation of the same muscle. The tetraplegics shall with the device be able to obtain a passive grip...... between the thumb an the index finger by extension of the wrist. Surface electrodes are used for myoelectric recording and stimulation. Main problems are filtering of the recorded signal and stimulation. Solutions to these problems are addressed and discussed....

  6. Ultrasound of Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Tendon Subluxation in a Tennis Player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Paul J; Romesberg, Amanda; Kamineni, Srinath; Beaman, Francesca D

    2016-06-01

    Wrist pain is common among competitive tennis players. Subluxation of the extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon has gained recognition as a cause of ulnar-side wrist pain in athletes. In tennis, the wrist is forcibly flexed, supinated, and ulnar deviated. These repetitive motions stress the ECU tendon stabilizers allowing tendon subluxation from the ulnar groove, especially in cases of anatomic variations such as a shallow groove. We present the presurgical and postsurgical imaging findings of recurrent ECU tendon subluxation in an elite tennis player.

  7. Modulation of recurrent inhibition from knee extensors to ankle motoneurones during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamy, Jean-Charles; Iglesias, Caroline; Lackmy, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The neural control for muscle coordination during human locomotion involves spinal and supraspinal networks, but little is known about the exact mechanisms implicated. The present study focused on modulation of heteronymous recurrent inhibition from knee extensors to ankle motoneurones at different...... times in the gait cycle, when quadriceps (Quad) muscle activity overlaps that in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol). The effects of femoral nerve stimulation on ankle motoneurones were investigated during treadmill walking and during tonic co-contraction of Quad and TA/Sol while standing. Recurrent...

  8. Differentiation of Lactobacillus brevis strains using Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry with respect to their beer spoilage potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Carola C; Vogel, Rudi F; Behr, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    Lactobacillus (L.) brevis is one of the most frequently encountered bacteria in beer-spoilage incidents. As the species Lactobacillus brevis comprises strains showing varying ability to grow in beer, ranging from growth in low hopped wheat to highly hopped pilsner beer, differentiation and classification of L. brevis with regard to their beer-spoiling ability is of vital interest for the brewing industry. Matrix-Assisted-Laser-Desorption-Ionization-Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been shown as a powerful tool for species and sub-species differentiation of bacterial isolates and is increasingly used for strain-level differentiation. Seventeen L. brevis strains, representative of different spoilage types, were characterized according to their tolerance to iso-alpha-acids and their growth in wheat-, lager- and pilsner beer. MALDI-TOF MS spectra were acquired to perform strain-level identification, cluster analysis and biomarker detection. Strain-level identification was achieved in 90% out of 204 spectra. Misidentification occurred nearly exclusively among strains belonging to the same spoilage type. Though spectra of strongly beer-spoiling strains showed remarkable similarity, no decisive single markers were detected to be present in all strains of one group. However, MALDI-TOF MS spectra can be reliably assigned to the corresponding strain and thus allow to track single strains and connect them to their physiological properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-06

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Bacteriocin Produced by Lactobacillus brevis UN Isolated from Dhulliachar: a Traditional Food Product of North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Neha; Sharma, Nivedita; Ahlawat, O P

    2014-06-01

    A bacteriocin producing strain Lactobacillus brevis UN isolated from Dulliachar-a salted pickle and identified by biochemical and molecular methods. L. brevis UN was found to produce bacteriocin with broad spectrum activity against spoilage causing/food borne pathogens viz. L. monocytogenes, C. perfringens, S. aureus, L. mesenteroides, L. plantarum and B. cereus. Bacteriocin production was optimized through classical one variable at a time method. The isolate showed maximum bacteriocin production at early stationary phase, pH 4.0, temperature 35 °C and with an inoculum size of 1.5 OD @ 10 %. Bacteriocin produced by L. brevis UN was purified to homogeneity by single step gel exclusion chromatography and was most active at pH 6.0 and 7.0, stable up to 100 °C and was proteinaceous in nature. The results of NMR revealed the presence of proline, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, isoleucine and serine in its peptide structure. PCR amplification analysis determined that bacteriocin encoded gene in L. brevis UN was plasmid bound.

  11. Neural network retrievals of Karenia brevis harmful algal blooms in the West Florida Shelf (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samir; El-Habashi, Ahmed

    2016-10-01

    Effective detection and tracking of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms (KB HAB) that frequently plague the coasts and beaches of the West Florida Shelf (WFS) is important because of their negative impacts on ecology. They pose threats to fisheries, human health, and directly affect tourism and local economies. Detection and tracking capabilities are needed for use with the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) satellite, so that HABs monitoring capabilities, which previously relied on imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua, can be extended to VIIRS. Unfortunately, VIIRS, unlike its predecessor MODIS-A, does not have a 678 nm channel to detect chlorophyll fluorescence, which is used in the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH) algorithm, or in the Red Band Difference (RBD) algorithm. Both these techniques have demonstrated that the remote sensing reflectance signal from the MODIS-A fluorescence band (Rrs 678 nm) helps in effectively detecting and tracking KB HABs in the WFS. To overcome the lack of a fluorescence channel on VIIRS, the approach described here, bypasses the need for measurements at 678nm, and permits extension of KB HABs satellite monitoring to VIIRS. The essence of the approach is the application of a standard multiband neural network (NN) inversion algorithm, previously developed and reported by us, that takes VIIRS Rrs measurements at the 486, 551 and 671nm bands as inputs, and produces as output the related Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs), namely: absorption coefficients of phytoplankton (aph443) dissolved organic matter (ag) and non-algal particulates (adm) as well as the particulate backscatter coefficient, (bbp) all at 443nm. We next need to relate aph443 in the VIIRS NN retrieved image to equivalent KB HABs concentrations. To do this, we apply additional constraints, defined by (i) low backscatter manifested as a maximum Rrs551 value and (ii) a minimum [Chla] threshold (and hence an equivalent

  12. Detection and quantification of the toxic microalgae Karenia brevis using lab on a chip mRNA sequence-based amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Christos-Moritz; McQuillan, Jonathan S; Laouenan, Florian; Tsaloglou, Maria-Nefeli; Ruano-Lopez, Jesus M; Mowlem, Matthew C

    2017-08-01

    Now and again, the rapid proliferation of certain species of phytoplankton can give rise to Harmful Algal Blooms, which pose a serious threat to marine life and human health. Current methods of monitoring phytoplankton are limited by poor specificity or by the requirement to return samples to a highly resourced, centralised lab. The Lab Card is a small, microfluidic cassette which, when used in tandem with a portable Lab Card Reader can be used to sensitively and specifically quantify harmful algae in the field, from nucleic acid extracts using RNA amplification; a sensitive and specific method for the enumeration of potentially any species based on their unique genetic signatures. This study reports the culmination of work to develop a Lab Card-based genetic assay to quantify the harmful algae Karenia brevis using mRNA amplification by the Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification (NASBA) method. K. brevis cells were quantified by amplification of the rbcL gene transcript in nucleic acid extracts of K. brevis cell samples. A novel enzyme dehydration and preservation method was combined with a pre-existing reagent Gelification method to prepare fully preserved Lab Cards with a shelf-life of at least six weeks prior to use. Using an internal control (IC), the Lab Card-based rbcL NASBA was demonstrated for the quantification of K. brevis from cell extracts containing between 50 and 5000 cells. This is the first demonstration of quantitation of K. brevis using IC-NASBA on a Lab Card. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Voorn

    Full Text Available To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS and 18 age-matched healthy individuals.Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD, and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean.In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90 and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%. Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%. We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016.In PPS and healthy individuals, the reliability of fatigue resistance, as obtained from electrically evoked contractions is high. The reliability of contractile speed is only moderate, except for RT50 in PPS, demonstrating high reliability.This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course.

  14. Knee extensor fatigue threshold is related to whole-body VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J; Maas, Ellen A; Wesseling, Mariska G H; de Haan, Arnold

    2012-07-01

    Above a given exercise intensity, rapid muscle fatigue will occur. We explored the possibility of assessing torque threshold for peripheral fatigue during single-legged repetitive isometric knee extensor exercise. We hypothesized this fatigue threshold to be related to the general aerobic fitness level and the so-called "critical torque" (CT) established with a recently validated 5-min all-out test. Seventeen healthy men (VO(2max) = 44.7-69.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) performed six submaximal (20%-55% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) 5-min bouts of 60 repetitive contractions (3-s on, 2-s off). Torque was changed between bouts in steps of 5% MVC to estimate the highest intensity (fatigue threshold) at which average changes in rsEMG, EMG median power frequency, and tissue deoxygenation (near-infrared spectroscopy) of the three superficial knee extensor muscles were still test torque representing CT. Fatigue threshold (40.0% ± 8.1% MVC) was related (r(2) = 0.57, P test may be used to evaluate changes in endurance capacity of single muscle groups, without the necessity for all-out testing, which could be problematic with frail subjects.

  15. Reliability of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measurements in persons with late effects of polio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flansbjer, Ulla-Britt; Lexell, Jan

    2010-06-01

    To assess the reliability of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measurements in persons with late effects of polio. A test-retest reliability study. Thirty men and women (mean age 63 (standard deviation 6.4) years) with verified late effects of polio. Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength in both lower limbs were measured twice 7 days apart using a Biodex dynamometer (isokinetic concentric contractions at 60 degrees /sec and isometric contractions with knee flexion angle 90 degrees) and a Leg Extension/Curl Rehab exercise machine with pneumatic resistance (HUR) (isotonic contractions). Reliability was assessed with the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC1,1), the mean difference between the test sessions (d) together with the 95% confidence intervals for d, the standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%), the smallest real difference (SRD and SRD%) and Bland-Altman graphs. Test-retest agreements were high, (ICC1,1 0.93-0.99) and measurement errors generally small. The SEM% was 4-14% and the SRD% 11-39%, with the highest values for the isokinetic measurements. Knee muscle strength can be measured reliably and can be used to detect real changes after an intervention for a group of persons with late effects of polio, whereas the values may be too high for single individuals or to detect smaller short-term changes over time for a group of individuals.

  16. Voluntary activation of human knee extensors measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodall, S; Romer, L M; Ross, E Z

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the applicability and reliability of a transcranial magnetic stimulation twitch interpolation technique for measuring voluntary activation of a lower limb muscle group. Cortical voluntary activation of the knee extensors was determined in nine healthy men on two separate visits by measuring superimposed twitch torques evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during isometric knee extensions of varying intensity. Superimposed twitch amplitude decreased linearly with increasing voluntary torque between 50 and 100% of mean maximal torque, allowing estimation of resting twitch amplitude and subsequent calculation of voluntary activation. There were no systematic differences for maximal voluntary activation within day (mean +/- s.d. 90.9 +/- 6.2 versus 90.7 +/- 5.9%; P = 0.98) or between days (90.8 +/- 6.0 versus 91.2 +/- 5.7%; P = 0.92). Systematic bias and random error components of the 95% limits of agreement were 0.23 and 9.3% within day versus 0.38 and 7.5% between days. Voluntary activation was also determined immediately after a 2 min maximal voluntary isometric contraction; in four of these subjects, voluntary activation was determined 30 min after the sustained contraction. Immediately after the sustained isometric contraction, maximal voluntary activation was reduced from 91.2 +/- 5.7 to 74.2 +/- 12.0% (P knee extensors.

  17. Natural cutaneous stimulation induces late and long-lasting facilitation of extensor motoneurons in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieppati, M; Crenna, P

    1984-02-20

    An investigation was made of the effects of physiological cutaneous stimulation on the excitability of extensor motoneurons in spinal unanesthetized cats. The time course of changes in the monosynaptic reflex (MSR) amplitude of the soleus (Sol) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and lateralis (GL) was studied after conditioning stimulation with air jets (delivered to different regions of the skin of the ipsilateral hind limb), pinpricks, or stretching of the skin of the heel induced by passive rotation of the tibio-tarsal joint. Low-intensity electrical stimulation of the sural or saphenous nerves was also employed in order to condition the MSRs of the triceps surae muscles. Hair bending, skin indentation or stretching, as well as electrical nerve stimulation, can induce a similar biphasic excitability cycle of the extensor MSRs, characterized by an early inhibition followed by a late facilitatory period (LFP). The LFP started approximately 20 ms after the arrival of the cutaneous afferent volley, and lasted about 80 ms. Conditioned MSRs could attain values corresponding to 200% or more of controls. The receptive field of the LFP evoked by the air jet proved to be as large as the whole leg and foot skin surface. No significant differences were found in the extent of the late facilitation in the MSRs of Sol, GM and GL, conditioned by electrical stimulation. The LFP was also present, after conditioning stimulation of the same types as above, in intact (and spinal) chloralose-anesthetized cats.

  18. Physiotherapy after thumb extensor tendon repair in Verdan zone III. Case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczechowicz, Jakub; Pieniążek, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Finger tendon injuries represent very common consequences of hand injuries and, if not properly treated, can lead to substantial hand function impairment and interfere with activities of daily living. This article presents the results of rehabilitation of a female patient after thumb extensor tendon injury in Verdan's zone III. Based on standard diagnostic work-up (assessment of the active range of motion), we calculated the degree of functional hand function impairment according to Swanson's method. The diagnostic procedures also comprised measurements of dynamometric grip strength and precise grasp. The examinations were performed on four occasions, the first one during the first visit, and the last one a month after completion of the rehabilitation treatment in our Centre. Test results were used to design the treatment programme, which included among others the author's modification of Kleinert's dynamic reverse thumb splinting, peg-board exercises, physical therapy, individual therapy and home-based exercises. 1. The modified dynamic splint of our design fulfilled its task as both a preventive and therapeutic measure. 2. The dynamic splinting programme administered enabled early initiation of post-operative rehabilitation, which led to a very high degree of recovery of thumb and hand function. 3. The functional recovery outcomes achieved by our patient indicate the advisability of routine incorporation of full dynamic splinting in post-operative rehabilitation programmes of patients with thumb extensor tendon injuries.

  19. Strength improvement of knee extensor muscles in patients with chronic heart failure by neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quittan, M; Sochor, A; Wiesinger, G F; Kollmitzer, J; Sturm, B; Pacher, R; Mayr, W

    1999-05-01

    Patients with severe chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer from marked weakness of skeletal muscles. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) proved to be an alternative to active strength training. The objective of this study was to test the feasibility and effectiveness of NMES in patients with chronic heart failure. Seven patients (56.0 +/- 5.0 years, CHF for 20 +/- 4 months, left ventricular ejection fraction 20.1 +/- 10.0%) finished an 8 week course of NMES of the knee extensor muscles. The stimulator delivered biphasic, symmetric, constant voltage impulses of 0.7 ms pulse width with a frequency of 50 Hz, 2 s on and 6 s off. No adverse effects occurred. After the stimulation period, the isokinetic peak torque of the knee extensor muscles increased by 13% from 101.0 +/- 8.7 Nm to 113.5 +/- 7.2 Nm (p = 0.004). The maximal isometric strength increased by 20% from 294.3 +/- 19.6 N to 354.14 +/- 15.7 N (p = 0.04). This increased muscle strength could be maintained in a 20 min fatigue test indicating decreased muscle fatigue. These results demonstrate that NMES of skeletal muscles in patients with severe chronic heart failure is a promising method for strength training in this group of patients.

  20. Evaluation of knee extensor mechanism disorders: clinical presentation of 1 12 patients*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antich, T J; Randall, C C; Westbrook, R A; Morrissey, M C; Brewster, C E

    1986-01-01

    Results of physical therapy evaluation of 112 patients with extensor mechanism disorders (chondromalacia patella, infrapatellar tendinitis, and peripatellar pain) are presented. An equal number of male and female patients were evaluated and of the 73 patients with unilateral involvement (65%) there were equal numbers of right and left involved knees. Running was the activity most commonly associated with pain, followed by basketball and tennis. Stairclimbing was painful in 79% of the patients, with ascending being more painful than descending in patients reporting a clear-cut difference. Hamstring and quadriceps tightness was statistically significant relative to the uninvolved limb although clinically, negligible differences were measured. The inferior pole of the patella was the most tender site to palpation, followed by medial peripatellar structures, then lateral sites. Biomechanical malalignment was not detected by the attending therapist in the majority of patients. The authors emphasize careful assessment of flexibility, quadriceps (VMOIVL) imbalance, and biomechanical alignment in performing a thorough evaluation of patients with extensor mechanism disorders. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1986;8(5):248-254.

  1. Observation on the figure of demodex brevis egg%皮脂蠕形螨虫卵形态观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马素琴; 温冬青; 于洁; 陶雅君; 郑福申

    2000-01-01

    @@ 人体蠕形螨分为毛囊蠕形螨(Demodex folliculorum,Df)和皮脂蠕形螨(D. brevis,Db) 两种.近年来我国对蠕形螨的致病、防治及流行病学调查日渐增多,但对皮脂蠕形螨虫卵形态研究的报道甚少.到目前为止,国内教科书及各种参考书中对该卵形态没有详细的描述, 且也未见虫卵图.为此我们自1998年4月至1999年6月对皮脂蠕形螨虫卵的形态进行了观察.现将结果报告如下.

  2. Catastrophic Failure of an Infected Achilles Tendon Rupture Repair Managed with Combined Flexor Hallucis Longus and Peroneus Brevis Tendon Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Devin C; Elliott, Andrew D; Roukis, Thomas S

    2016-01-01

    Deep infection is one of the most devastating complications following repair of an Achilles tendon rupture. Treatment requires not only culture-driven antibiotic therapy, but more importantly, appropriate débridement of some or even all of the Achilles tendon. This may necessitate delayed reconstruction of the Achilles tendon. The authors present a successful case of reconstruction of a chronically infected Achilles tendon in an otherwise healthy 43-year-old man via a multistaged approach using the flexor hallucis longus and peroneus brevis tendons. We also provide a brief review of the literature regarding local tendon transfer used in the reconstruction of Achilles tendon rupture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A dual role of the transcriptional regulator TstR provides insights into cyanide detoxification in Lactobacillus brevis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliai, Fernando A.; Murdoch, Caitlin C.; Brown, Sara M.; Gonzalez, Claudio F.; Lorca, Graciela L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this study we uncover two genes in Lactobacillus brevis ATCC367, tstT and tstR, encoding for a rhodanese and a transcriptional regulator involved in cyanide detoxification. TstT (LVIS_0852) belongs to a new class of thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferases. We found that TstR (LVIS_0853) modulates both the expression and the activity of the downstream-encoded tstT. The TstR binding site was identified at −1 to +33, from tstR transcriptional start site. EMSA revealed that sulfite, a product of the reaction catalyzed by TstT, improved the interaction between TstR:PtstR, while Fe(III) disrupted this interaction. Site-directed mutagenesis in TstR identified M64 as a key residue in sulfite recognition, while residues H136-H139-C167-M171 formed a pocket for ferric iron coordination. In addition to its role as a transcriptional repressor, TstR is also involved in regulating the thiosulfate:cyanide sulfurtransferase activity of TstT. A 3-fold increase in TstT activity was observed in the presence of TstR, which was enhanced by the addition of Fe(III). Overexpression of the tstRT operon was found to increase the cyanide tolerance of L. brevis and Escherichia coli. The protein-protein interaction between TstR and TstT described herein represents a novel mechanism for regulation of enzymatic activity by a transcriptional regulator. PMID:24684290

  4. The effects of knee extensor eccentric training on functional tests in healthy subjects Os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho nos testes funcionais em sujeitos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleodório H. Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that eccentric training increases muscle strength and promotes greater neural activation, and therefore has been used in the recovery of knee extensors. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong correlation between knee extensor torque and functional tests. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between knee extensor peak torque and functional tests of agility (runs and propulsion (hop for distance after short-term isokinetic eccentric training. METHODS: Twenty healthy and active male undergraduate students (age 22.5±2.1 years; height 1.72±0.10 m; weight 67.8±9.5 kg; body mass index: 22.5±2.0 kg/m², with no abnormalities or history of injury of the limbs, performed an isokinetic assessment of the knee extensors and flexors and also functional tests before and after isokinetic training, which consisted of 3 sets of 10 MVECs at 30º/s, with 3 minutes of rest between sets, twice a week for 6 weeks. RESULTS: The eccentric training increased the extensor peak torque (16, 27 and 17%; PCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Sabe-se que o treino excêntrico aumenta a força muscular, promovendo uma maior ativação neural e, portanto, tem sido usado na recuperação do torque extensor. A hipótese deste estudo foi a de que possa existir uma forte correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e os testes funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar o torque extensor do joelho com os testes funcionais de agilidade (corridas e impulsão (saltos em distância após o treino isocinético excêntrico de curta duração. MÉTODOS: Vinte homens universitários, ativos e saudáveis (22,5±2,1 anos; 1,72±0,10 m; 67,8±9,5 kg; IMC 22,5±2,0 kg/m², sem reportar anormalidades ou história de lesão no membro inferior, realizaram avaliação isocinética do torque extensor e flexor do joelho e testes funcionais antes e depois do treino isocinético que consistiu em três séries de 10 CEVM a 30º/s, com 3 minutos de repouso entre as

  5. Abnormal coactivation of knee and ankle extensors is related to changes in heteronymous spinal pathways after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourbonnais Daniel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal coactivation of leg extensors is often observed on the paretic side of stroke patients while they attempt to move. The mechanisms underlying this coactivation are not well understood. This study (1 compares the coactivation of leg extensors during static contractions in stroke and healthy individuals, and (2 assesses whether this coactivation is related to changes in intersegmental pathways between quadriceps and soleus (Sol muscles after stroke. Methods Thirteen stroke patients and ten healthy individuals participated in the study. Levels of coactivation of knee extensors and ankle extensors were measured in sitting position, during two tasks: maximal isometric voluntary contractions in knee extension and in plantarflexion. The early facilitation and later inhibition of soleus voluntary EMG evoked by femoral nerve stimulation were assessed in the paretic leg of stroke participants and in one leg of healthy participants. Results Coactivation levels of ankle extensors (mean ± SEM: 56 ± 7% of Sol EMG max and of knee extensors (52 ± 10% of vastus lateralis (VL EMG max during the knee extension and the ankle extension tasks respectively were significantly higher in the paretic leg of stroke participants than in healthy participants (26 ± 5% of Sol EMG max and 10 ± 3% of VL EMG max, respectively. Early heteronymous facilitation of Sol voluntary EMG in stroke participants (340 ± 62% of Sol unconditioned EMG was significantly higher than in healthy participants (98 ± 34%. The later inhibition observed in all control participants was decreased in the paretic leg. Levels of coactivation of ankle extensors during the knee extension task were significantly correlated with both the increased facilitation (Pearson r = 0.59 and the reduced inhibition (r = 0.56 in the paretic leg. Measures of motor impairment were more consistently correlated with the levels of coactivation of biarticular muscles than those of monoarticular

  6. Strength asymmetry of the knee extensors and physical activity in middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Differences between muscle strength and power of lower limbs is one of the factors associated with falls in the elderly population. Muscle strength asymmetry of lower limbs increases with age. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess differences in the volume and intensity of physical activity (PA in the subgroups of women being at higher and lower risk of falls (with and without strength asymmetry of the knee extensors of dominant and non-dominant lower limb. Methods: Data from 42 women (age 56.3 ± 4.4 years; weight 76.5 ± 16.1 kg; body height 164.3 ± 5.2 cm; body mass index 28.1 ± 5.3 kg . m-2 were used for the purpose of the presented analysis. Furthermore the sample was divided into subgroups with lower and higher strength asymmetry of quadriceps muscle (as a criterion the asymmetry greater than 15% was chosen. Absolute concentric peak torque of the knee extensors was evaluated by an isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in a sitting position at angular velocity of 180° . s-1. PA was monitored using Yamax SW-700 pedometers throughout 7 consecutive days and using the Czech version of standardized International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant differences between groups with lower and higher strength asymmetry were found in the amount of self-reported vigorous PA (p = .04; d = 0.6 only. Differences between the observed groups were not significant in self-reported moderate PA and walking. There were also no significant differences in the daily numbers of steps measured objectively. Conclusions: The results of the study indicate that from the point of view of strength asymmetry of knee extensors as a factor associated with falls in middle-aged women, intensity of PA could be an important characteristic of PA. This suggestion should be taken into account in habitual PA and training programs in middle-aged population.

  7. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of the Common Extensor Tendon of the Elbow in Asymptomatic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger Persson; Fredberg, Ulrich; Ammitzbøl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (US) of the common extensor tendon (CET) of the elbow is often part of the assessment of patients with lateral epicondylitis. This US assessment is currently based on general tendinopathy references and not well-defined US entities. PURPOSE: To describe CET thickness......, color Doppler activity, and bony spurs on US in asymptomatic volunteers and to investigate the influence of sex, age, height, body mass index (BMI), weight, and elbow dominance on the measurements. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS: Tendon thickness, color Doppler...... activity, and bony spurs of the CET were measured sonographically in 264 adults (50% women) aged 20 to 96 years. Two different tendon-thickness measuring techniques were applied, labeled the "plateau measure" and the "1-cm measure." Color Doppler activity was based on a 0 to 4 rating scale (negative...

  8. Gender differences in contractile and passive properties of mdx extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Chady H; Duan, Dongsheng

    2012-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a severe, muscle-wasting disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. The mdx mouse is the first and perhaps the most commonly used animal model for study of DMD. Both male and female mdx mice are used. However, it is not completely clear whether gender influences contraction and the passive mechanical properties of mdx skeletal muscle. We compared isometric tetanic forces and passive forces of the extensor digitorum longus muscle between male and female mdx mice. At age 6 months, female mdx mice showed better-preserved specific tetanic force. Interestingly, at 20 months of age, female mdx muscle appeared stiffer. Our results suggest that gender may profoundly influence physiological measurement outcomes in mdx mice. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Isolated Tuberculous Tenosynovitis of the Anterior Tibial and Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhan Genç

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal system is involved in 1-5% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculous tenosynovitis is a rare form of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the tendon sheath in the hand has been seen in a few cases. Involvement of the tendons of the leg is less common. Diagnosis is not easy as there are no specific clinical symptoms or signs. A 33-year-old male presented with painful swelling in the distal right lower limb that caused restriction of movement. Imaging studies showed inflammation and infection of the extensor digitorium longus and tibialis anterior tendons. Histopathological studies showed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the synovial tissue. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and medical treatment was initiated that proved successful. Patient remained infection-free at 26-month follow-up examination.

  10. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  11. Suspected feigned knee extensor weakness: usefulness of 3D gait analysis. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaler, Joaquim; Müller, Bertram; Maiques, Anna; Pujol, Eduard

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present case report is to show the potential for use of 3D gait analysis as an assessment method of feigned muscle weakness. We describe a patient complaining of right leg pain and weakness. Physical examination showed severe quadriceps muscle weakness in a highly abnormal gait pattern context. Conventional diagnostic workup did not show any relevant findings. Three-dimensional (3D) gait analysis was performed with a 3D motion capture system. Joint angles, internal moments and powers were computed from the motion data. Lower leg muscle surface-electromyography was also performed. During the late stance phase, flexor moment and negative power peaks (indicating eccentric knee extensor activity) were generated in the knee, together with relevant Rectus femoris activity. All findings were highly inconsistent with true quadriceps weakness and gave objective ground to suspect insincerity of patient complaints. 3D gait analysis might be a valuable clinical assessment tool in suspected feigned lower limb muscle weakness.

  12. Electromyographic analysis of the vertebral extensor muscles during the Biering-Sorensen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira de Santana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the electromyographic signal of the multifidus, longissimus thoracis and the lumbar iliocostalis muscles during the Biering-Sorensen test in subjects without lower back pain. Twenty volunteers performed the test on three separate occasions. An analysis of variance detected a difference between the three test times (p = 0.0026. For the frequency domain, it was observed that there were differences between the multifidus and the lumbar erectors muscles; longissimus and iliocostalis muscles. However, in the time domain analysis, no difference was observed. As the values of the slope coefficients of median frequencies were higher for the multifidus muscle, compared to the longissimus and lumbar iliocostalis muscles, this may indicate a higher tendency toward muscle fatigue. Therefore, considering the applied methodology, the study of electromyographic signals in the frequency domain should be considered as an instrument to assess fatigue of the spinal extensor muscles in clinical situations.

  13. Mechanics of cuticular elastic energy storage in leg joints lacking extensor muscles in arachnids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Andrew T; Shultz, Jeffrey W

    2003-02-01

    Certain leg joints in arachnids lack extensor muscles and have elastically deformable transarticular sclerites spanning their arthrodial membranes, an arrangement consistent with a model in which flexor muscles load transarticular sclerites during flexion and energy from elastic recoil is used for extension. This study quantifies the potential contribution of elastic recoil to extension torque at joints of the fourth leg of representative arachnids. Extension torques of isolated joints with and without transarticular sclerites were measured as the joint was rotated through angles and at angular velocities comparable with those used by walking animals. The procedure was repeated with the joint subjected to different internal fluid pressures in order to assess the potential role of hydraulically induced extension. The efficiency of elastic energy storage (resilience) in the absence of internal fluid pressure was 70-90% for joints with well-developed transarticular sclerites, and the magnitude of torque was similar to those produced by different joint extension mechanisms in other arthropods. Increased internal fluid pressure acted synergistically with transarticular sclerites in some joints but had little or no effect in others. Joints that lacked both extensor muscles and transarticular sclerites appeared to be specialized for hydraulic extension, and joints operated by antagonistic muscles lacked apparent specializations for either elastic or hydraulic extension. It is well known that elastic energy storage is a significant contributor to propulsion in running vertebrates and certain arthropods, where elastic elements are loaded as the center of mass falls during one phase of the locomotor cycle. However, transarticular sclerites are apparently loaded by contraction of flexor muscles when the leg is not in contact with the substratum. Hence the mechanism of a transarticular sclerite is more similar to the flight and jumping mechanisms of other arthropods than to

  14. Effects of knee extensor muscle strength on the incidence of osteopenia and osteoporosis after 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasumoto; Takemura, Marie; Harada, Atsushi; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The association of knee extensor muscle strength with bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported in cross-sectional epidemiological studies, but it remains unclear whether or not this is the case with longitudinal change. Thus, we investigated whether or not the knee extension strength can predict the incidence of osteopenia or osteoporosis after 6 years, then compared the difference between sexes. Subjects were 1255 community-dwelling Japanese men and menopaused women, aged 40-81 years. BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry twice at 6-year intervals. Subjects were divided into three groups, normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis, depending on their young adult mean BMD % value. In the cross-sectional analysis the correlations between the knee extension strength and BMD of the two regions were examined, using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Longitudinal analyses were then conducted to determine the odds ratio, controlled for age and BMI, given that those who were normal in the initial stage developed osteopenia or osteoporosis after 6 years, for every 1 SD decrease in knee extension strength, as well as those who first had normal or osteopenia and then developed osteoporosis. Cross-sectional analysis showed a statistically significant relation between knee extensor muscle strength and BMD at both the lumbar spine (p = 0.02) and the femoral neck (p muscle strength on the loss of femoral neck BMD from normal to osteopenia or osteoporosis both in men (OR 1.84, 95 % CI 1.36-2.48, p strength to maintain the bone health of the proximal femur and spine in aging particularly in men.

  15. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sale Craig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  16. Effects of eccentric exercise on optimum length of the knee flexors and extensors during the preseason in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brughelli, Matt; Mendiguchia, Jurdan; Nosaka, Ken; Idoate, Fernando; Arcos, Asier Los; Cronin, John

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effects of eccentric exercise on optimum lengths of the knee flexors and extensors during the preseason in professional soccer. Twenty-eight athletes from a professional Spanish soccer team (Division II) were randomly assigned to an eccentric exercise intervention group (EG) or a control group (CG). Over the four-week period two athletes from the control group suffered RF injuries and two athletes were contracted by other clubs. After these exclusions, both groups (EG, n=13; and CG, n=11) performed regular soccer training during the four-week preseason period. After the four weeks, the optimum lengths of the knee flexors were significantly (Pknee extensors were significantly increased only in the EG by 6.5 degrees . Peak torque levels and ratios of quadriceps to hamstring (Q/H ratios) were not significantly altered throughout the study for either group. Eccentric exercise can increase the optimum lengths of both the knee extensors and knee extensors flexors during the preseason in professional soccer.

  17. What is a clinically meaningful improvement in leg-extensor power for mobility-limited older adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Muscle power is a key predictor of physical function in older adults; however, clinically meaningful improvements in leg-extensor muscle power have yet to be identified. The purpose of this study is to establish the minimal clinically important improvement (MCII) and substantial improvem...

  18. UPDATING OF THE ANATOMY OF THE EXTENSOR MECHANISM OF THE KNEE USING A THREE-DIMENSIONAL VIEWING TECHNIQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astur, Diego Costa; Oliveira, Saulo Gomes; Badra, Ricardo; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Jalikjian, Wahi; Golanó, Pau; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    The knee extensor mechanism is a complex structure formed by the quadriceps muscle and tendon, the patella, the patellar tendon and the ligaments that surround and help stabilize the knee. Through using a three-dimensional viewing technique on images of the knee extensor apparatus, we aimed to didactically show the structures that compose this bone-muscle-ligament complex. Anatomical dissection of the knee with emphasis on the structures of its extensor mechanism was performed, followed by taking photographs using a camera and lenses suitable for simulating human vision, through a technique for constructing three-dimensional images. Then, with the aid of appropriate software, pairs of images of the same structure from different angles simulating human vision were overlain with the addition of polarizing layer, thereby completing the construction of an anaglyphic image. The main structures of the knee extensor mechanism could be observed with a three-dimensional effect. Among the main benefits relating to this technique, we can highlight that in addition to teaching and studying musculoskeletal anatomy, it has potential use in training for surgical procedures and production of images for diagnostic tests.

  19. The application of an external wrist extension force reduces electromyographic activity of wrist extensor muscles during gripping.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elk, N. van; Faes, M.C.; Degens, H.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Lint, J.A. de; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2004-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Experimental repeated-measures study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of different extension forces applied to the palm of the hand on electromyographic (EMG) activity of the wrist extensor muscles during hand gripping. BACKGROUND: Lateral epicondylitis is usually caused by repeti

  20. Sit-to-Stand Movement in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: Relationship with Knee Extensor Torque and Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Pavao, Silvia Leticia; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Salvini, Tania de Fatima; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sit-to-stand (STS) movement, knee extensor torque and social participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven spastic hemiplegic CP patients (8.0 plus or minus 2.2 years), classified by the Gross Motor Function Classification System as I and II, and 18 typical children (8.4 plus or…

  1. Effect of training on contractile and metabolic properties of wrist extensors in spinal cord-injured individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, Andreas; Harridge, Stephen D R; Mizuno, Masao;

    2003-01-01

    induced stimulation of the wrist extensor muscles in spinal cord injury (SCI) increases fatigue resistance independent of training pattern. However, only the Hr protocol increased muscle strength and was shown to improve muscle aerobic metabolism after training. Muscle Nerve 27: 72-80, 2003...

  2. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: jelltt@regis.edu; Sterling, M. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Darnell, R. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Galloway, G. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Jull, G. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 {+-} 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 {+-} 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash.

  3. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data on isome...

  4. Prevalencia de Demodex folliculorum e Demodex brevis em uma amostra da população de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Madeira

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez no Brasil foi realizado um levantamento para se conhecer a distribuição do D. folliculorum e D. brevis no homem. Uma amostra de 100 pessoas atendida em clínica estética foi examinada, procurando-se estudar a associação entre a presença de ácaros e fatores como idade, raça e sexo do hospedeiro. O material colhido da região facial dos indivíduos foi montado em lâminas com o meio de Berlese. Das 100 pessoas examinadas, 72 % foram positivas. Dos casos positivos, 51 % estavam infestados pelo D. folliculorum, 2% pelo D. brevis e 19% apresentaram-se parasitados por ambas as espécies.

  5. Prevalencia de Demodex folliculorum e Demodex brevis em uma amostra da população de Botucatu, São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Madeira

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Pela primeira vez no Brasil foi realizado um levantamento para se conhecer a distribuição do D. folliculorum e D. brevis no homem. Uma amostra de 100 pessoas atendida em clínica estética foi examinada, procurando-se estudar a associação entre a presença de ácaros e fatores como idade, raça e sexo do hospedeiro. O material colhido da região facial dos indivíduos foi montado em lâminas com o meio de Berlese. Das 100 pessoas examinadas, 72 % foram positivas. Dos casos positivos, 51 % estavam infestados pelo D. folliculorum, 2% pelo D. brevis e 19% apresentaram-se parasitados por ambas as espécies.A survey was conduced to determine the prevalence of D. folliculorum and D. brevis for the first time in Brazil. In this study, association between the presence of mites and hostfactors (age, sex and race were anatysed. Samples were obtained from 100 individuals submitted to a facial cleaning in an aesthetic clinic in Botucatu city. All the samples were mounted in Berleses medium and examined by dark-field phase microscopy. From 100 studied individuais, 72 were positive, among the positive cases, 51% showed D. folliculorum, 2% showed D. brevis and 19% both species. The parasite distribution in realtion to sex was not taken in account because the sex ratio tavoured females (90%. According to age, prevalence was high in all age groups. The factors influencing this distribution could be due. 1. the examination of extensive skin areas, 2. the group examined composed of individuals in treatment in an anaesthetic clinic could be more infested than a normal population, 3. the fact that in tropics, the prevalence is often high in all ages.

  6. HPTLC fingerprint profile, in vitro antioxidant and evaluation of antimicrobial compound produced from Brevibacillus brevis-EGS9 against multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, T; Senthil Kumar, P; Gopinath, K P

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, in vitro antimicrobial activity of Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 against multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) and to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant activity and HPTLC finger print profile of Brevibacillus brevis EGS9. Primary screening was done using by cross streak method against multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The bioactive metabolites were extracted from Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 using ethyl acetate extraction. Ethyl acetate extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli (20.2 ± 0.1) mm, Candida albicans (19.2 ± 0.3) mm and Bacillus cereus (18.6 ± 0.2) mm respectively. Forty three UTI bacterial strains were isolated from mid-urine samples of 50 males and 50 females. Escherichia coli were more predominant (48%) followed by Klebsilla pneumonia (29%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17%), Staphylococcus aureus (4%) and Enterobacter faecalis (6%). The ethyl acetate extract was examined to evaluate antibacterial properties against isolated UTIs bacterial pathogens. The results were revealed that the maximum zone was measured in Escherichia coli (18.1 ± 0.4) mm and minimum zone of inhibition was shown against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.6 ± 0.3) mm. Based on the results obtained, the extract of Brevibacillus brevis EGS9 exhibited dose dependent manner of antioxidant activity. The DPPH scavenging activity of lowest concentration at 25 μg/ml and high concentration at 1000 μg/ml was measured at 2.4% and 39.5% respectively. HPTLC finger print profile was showed the active compounds present in crude extract, which may responsible for the antioxidant prospective. These results showed that, the significant antimicrobial properties against pathogen; this work will be helpful to explore the active compound identification in the field of pharmaceutical research and able to produce new drug molecules against pathogens.

  7. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo A. Carvalho; Minnett, Peter J.; Fleming, Lora E; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner

    2010-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlor...

  8. Description of a new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), egg parasitoid of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) living on Pennisetum setaceum, from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Salvatore; Cupani, Sebastiano; D'urso, Vera; Laudonia, Stefania; Sinno, Martina; Viggiani, Gennaro

    2015-11-06

    A new species of Oligosita Walker (Chalcidoidea: Trichogrammatidae), O. balcluthae Viggiani et Laudonia n. sp., is described as a parasitoid of the eggs of Balclutha brevis Lindberg (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) associated with crimson fountain grass, Pennisetum setaceum (Poaceae) in Italy. Morphological features and biology of the new species are discussed and illustrated. The 28S-D2 and ITS2 regions were successfully amplified and sequenced.

  9. A 1-D simulation analysis of the development and maintenance of the 2001 red tide of the ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenes, J. M.; Darrow, B. P.; Walsh, J. J.; Jolliff, J. K.; Chen, F. R.; Weisberg, R. H.; Zheng, L.

    2012-06-01

    A one-dimensional (1-D) ecological model, HABSIM, examined the initiation and maintenance of the 2001 red tide on the West Florida shelf (WFS). Phytoplankton competition among toxic dinoflagellates (Karenia brevis), nitrogen fixing cyanophytes (Trichodesmium erythraeum), large siliceous phytoplankton (diatoms), and small non-siliceous phytoplankton (microflagellates) explored the sequence of events required to support the observed red tide from August to December 2001. The ecological model contained 24 state variables within five submodels: circulation, atmospheric (iron deposition), bio-optics, pelagic (phytoplankton, nutrients, bacteria, zooplankton, and fish), and benthic (nutrient regeneration). The 2001 model results reaffirmed that diazotrophs are the basis for initiation of red tides of K. brevis on the WFS. A combination of selective grazing pressure, iron fertilization, low molar nitrogen to phosphorus ratios, and eventual silica limitation of fast-growing diatoms set the stage for dominance of nitrogen fixers. "New" nitrogen was made available for subsequent blooms of K. brevis through the release of ammonium and urea during nitrogen fixation, as well as during cell lysis, by the Trichodesmium population. Once K. brevis biomass reached ichthyotoxic levels, rapid decay of subsequent fish kills supplied additional organic nutrients for utilization by these opportunistic toxic algae. Both nutrient vectors represented organic non-siliceous sources of nitrogen and phosphorus, further exacerbating silica limitation of the diatom population. The model reproduced this spring transition from a simple estuarine-driven, diatom-based food chain to a complex summer-fall system of Trichodesmium and toxic dinoflagellates. While the model was able to replicate the initiation and maintenance of the 2001 red tide, bloom termination was not captured by this 1-D form on the WFS. Here, horizontal advection and perhaps cell lysis loss terms might play a significant role, to be

  10. Multi-Sensor Approach for the Monitoring of Halitosis Treatment via Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-Containing Lozenges--A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Tecco, Simona; Santonico, Marco; Vernile, Chiara; Ciciarelli, Daniele; Tarantino, Ester; Marzo, Giuseppe; Pennazza, Giorgio

    2015-08-10

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate whether a recently described multi-sensor approach called BIONOTE(®) is accurate enough to verify the efficacy of treatment of patients with halitosis. A treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-containing lozenges, compared with placebo was tested. The BIONOTE(®) was compared with traditional techniques used to detect halitosis: OralChroma™ and two calibrated odor judges enrolled for the organoleptic assessments. Twenty patients (10 treated and 10 placebo), suffering from active phase halitosis were included in the study. Treatment consisted of Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-containing lozenges or placebo, 4 tablets/day for 14 days. t0 was before the beginning of the study; t1 was day 7 and t2 was day 14. The effectiveness of treatment was assessed through: (1) Rosenberg score; (2) Winkel tongue coating index (WTCI) anterior and posterior; (2) OralChroma™; (3) the new developed multi-sensor approach, called BIONOTE(®) (test technique). Only the WTCI anterior revealed statistically significant changes between t0 and t2 data (p = 0.014) in the treated group. Except for the WTCI anterior, all diagnostic methods revealed the lack of effectiveness for halitosis of a 14-days treatment with Lactobacillus brevis (CD2)-containing lozenges. The BIONOTE(®) multisensor system seems accurate in addition to OralChroma™ to assess the initial condition of halitosis and its mitigation during treatment.

  11. Summarizing Statement of Insecticidal Effect on Vegetables and Application Techniques of Pesticide Empedobacter Brevis%短稳杆菌对蔬菜应用技术综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴铭忻; 周晶; 王亚超; 殷逸能; 万鑫

    2011-01-01

    短稳杆菌农药是我国自主创制的一种生物杀虫剂,对小菜蛾、斜纹夜蛾及其他鳞翅目害虫有很好的杀虫效果,对蔬菜本身及害虫天敌无不良影响,对人畜禽安全性好。100亿孢子/mL短稳杆菌悬浮剂用于蔬菜大田害虫防治,应当准确掌握用药对象、用药时期及用药方法。%Pesticide Empedobacter brevis is our own creation of a biological insecticide.It has very good insecticidal effect on diamondback moth,Prodenia litura and other Lepidoptera pests.It has no adversely affection on vegetables and natural enemies of pests,and it's safe for people、livestock and poultry.10 000 000 000 spores / mL Empedobacter brevis Suspending agent is used on Prevention of vegetable pests.We should have accurately master of Control object,time and method of pesticide Empedobacter brevis.

  12. The exaptation of manual dexterity for articulate speech: an electromyogram investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, David R; Isaak, Matthew I; Domingue, James N

    2008-04-01

    Electromyogram recordings revealed a concurrent contraction of the orbicularis oris, the primary articulator for bilabial stops, when participants executed a precision grip contracting the abductor pollicis brevis, a point motor act contracting the extensor indicis proprius or a curl motor act contracting the flexor sublimis digitorum (FDS). In contrast, the concurrent contraction of several facial muscles not directly involved in labial articulation was not observed during these acts. The results converge both with observations of sympathetic hand and mouth activity among nonhuman primates and prelinguistic human infants and with demonstrations of the influence of grasping on labial articulation in adult humans (e.g., Gentilucci et al., J Neurophysiol 86, 1685-1699, 2001). The findings are also consistent with theories suggesting the transition from gestural to verbal, articulate communication systems may be subserved by the properties of the human equivalent of monkey F5 mirror and canonical neurons located in Broca's area.

  13. Short-interval intracortical inhibition is modulated by high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Sakuma, Kenji; Nomura, Takashi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2007-06-01

    Cortical excitability can be modulated by manipulation of afferent input. We investigated the influence of peripheral mixed nerve stimulation on the excitability of the motor cortex. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) in the right abductor pollicis brevis (APB), extensor carpi radialis (ECR) and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscles were evaluated using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation (150 Hz, 30 min) over the right median nerve at the wrist. The MEP amplitude and SICI of the APB muscle decreased transiently 0-10 min after the intervention, whereas the ICF did not change. High-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation reduced the excitability of the motor cortex. The decrement in the SICI, which reflects the function of GABA(A)ergic inhibitory interneurons, might compensate for the reduced motor cortical excitability after high-frequency peripheral mixed nerve stimulation.

  14. Avaliação da altura patelar em atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho Evaluation of the patellar height in athletes with diagnosed with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Garms

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiograficamente a altura patelar de atletas com diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (TCAE. MÉTODOS: Na amostra foram avaliados radiograficamente 65 pacientes (110 joelhos com idade entre 15 e 40 anos e de diferentes modalidades esportivas com e sem diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (jumper's knee. Os atletas foram divididos em dois grupos: aqueles com diagnóstico de TCAE (grupo 1: 38 atletas - 56 joelhos e um grupo que denominamos de controle (grupo 2: 27 atletas - 54 joelhos. RESULTADOS: No grupo 1 tivemos 18 atletas que apresentavam a doença bilateralmente na ocasião dos exames. Para a medida da altura patelar utilizamos os índices radiográficos de Insall e Salvati e Blackburne e Peel. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de patela alta no grupo de atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho foi significante maior do que a observada no grupo controle.OBJECTIVES: To carry out a radiographic evaluation of patellar height in athletes diagnosed with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism; METHODS: Radiographic assessments were carried out on 65 patients (110 knees aged between 15 and 40 years, who practiced different kinds of sports, some with of chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism (jumper's knee and others without. The athletes were divided into two groups: those with diagnosed "jumper's knee" (group 1:38 athletes - 56 knees and a control group (group 2:27 athletes - 54 knees. In group 1, 18 of the athletes presented the condition in both knees on examination. The height of the patella was measured using the Insall-Salvati and Blackburne-Peel x-ray methods. CONCLUSION: The presence of a high patella in the group of athletes with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism was significantly higher than in the control group.

  15. Potential distribution and cost estimation of the damage caused by Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the Azores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerreiro, O; Cardoso, P; Ferreira, J M; Ferreira, M T; Borges, P A V

    2014-08-01

    In the Azores archipelago, a significant proportion of buildings are infested with the urban exotic drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker), causing major economical and patrimonial losses. This work aims to understand the potential spread of this termite species in the Azores and estimate the costs for both treatment and reconstruction of infested buildings in the entire archipelago. A maximum entropy niche modeling process was used to determine the potential occurrence of the species on each island. Different scenarios were built using independent global and regional incidence and environmental data. Both projections reveal the same pattern. Generally, the probability of occurrence is higher near the coast line, where, in Azores, the majority of the towns and villages are located. We also predict that the infestation has potential to spread to yet unaffected towns and islands. It is estimated that the cost of treating all currently infested buildings in the archipelago is Euro 51 million, while reconstruction of the same buildings would rise the costs to Euro 175 million. We predict that the absence of a control strategy will cause a further expansion of the pest to more localities in the Azores. An estimate to future scenarios implies higher costs, with treatment and rebuilding values rising up to eight times the current values.

  16. Recombinant S-layer proteins of Lactobacillus brevis mediating antibody adhesion to calf intestine alleviated neonatal diarrhea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khang, Yong-Ho; Park, Hee-Young; Jeong, Yoo-Seok; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Young-Hwan

    2009-05-01

    A chimeric gene encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and a S-layer protein from Lactobacillus brevis KCTC3102, and/or two copies of the Fc-binding Z-domain, a synthetic analog of the B-domain of protein A, was constructed and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The S-layer fusion proteins produced in a 500-l fermentor were likely to be stable in the range of pH 5 to 8 and 0 degree to 40 degrees . Their adhesive property enabled an easy and rapid immobilization of enzymes or antibodies on solid materials such as plastics, glass, sol-gel films, and intestinal epithelial cells. Owing to their affinity towards intestinal cells and immunoglobulin G, the Slayer fusion proteins enabled the adhesion of antibodies to human epithelial cells. In addition, feeding a mixture of the S-layer fusion proteins and antibodies against neonatal calf diarrhea (coronavirus, rotavirus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium) to Hanwoo calves resulted in 100% prevention of neonatal calf diarrhea syndrome (p<0.01),whereas feeding antibodies only resulted in 56% prevention.

  17. PEMBERIAN PROBIOTIK LACTOBACILLUS BREVIS DAN PREBIOTIK OLIGOSAKARIDA PADA BENIH PATIN SIAM (Pangasionodon hypophthalmus YANG DIINFEKSI Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuke Eliyani

    2013-08-01

    Lactobacillus brevis, prebiotik oligosakarida dan sinbiotiknya terhadap jumlah bakteri Lactobacillus sp. dan total bakteri dalam usus, total eritrosit, total leukosit, diferensial leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, tingkat pertumbuhan, serta FCR benih ikan patin siam yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila. Hasil uji karakteristik menunjukkan bahwa jenis probiotik dan patogen adalah Lactobacillus sp. dan Aeromonas hydrophila. Pada uji in vivo digunakan lima perlakuan yang terdiri atas K(+, K(-, probiotik (pro, prebiotik (pre serta sinbiotik (sin. Bakteri Lactobacillus sp. ditemukan di usus pada perlakuan probiotik dan sinbiotik dengan kisaran jumlah sekitar 101 sampai 106 (CFU/g. Total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik berbeda nyata (P<0,05 dengan kontrol pada beberapa waktu pengamatan. Tingkat sintasan terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan K(+ sebesar 43,33±11,55; sedangkan empat perlakuan lainnya memperoleh nilai 100%. Tingkat pertumbuhan harian berbeda nyata antar perlakuan, nilai terbaik dicapai pada perlakuan pemberian sinbiotik sebesar 3,370±0,14. Nilai FCR perlakuan probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik menunjukkan beda nyata dengan kontrol. Perlakuan sin, pre, pro memberikan nilai yang lebih baik pada total eritrosit, total leukosit, aktivitas fagositik, sintasan, pertumbuhan, dan FCR dibandingkan kontrol.

  18. Microbial production of mannitol by Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 from concentrated extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hailong; Yue, Min; Liu, Gang; Du, Yuguang; Yin, Heng

    2017-08-17

    In the present study, the conversion of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for mannitol production by Lactobacillus brevis 3-A5 was investigated. When the bacterium utilized enzymatic hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke extract as the main substrates in batch fermentation, the significant decrease in mannitol productivity was observed when the initial concentration of reducing sugar increased. Then, a strategy of continuous fed-batch fermentation was adopted for improving mannitol production with enzymatic hydrolysates of Jerusalem artichoke extract as main substrates. Although the concentration of mannitol could reach 199.86 g/L at the end of the fermentation, the productivity for the overall process of the fermentation was only 1.67 g/L/h. In order to improve the mannitol productivity with both higher yield and concentration, the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was studied. In SSF, the mannitol production reached 176.50 g/L in 28 h with a productivity of 6.30 g/L/h and a yield of 0.68 g/g total sugar. Our study provide a cost-effective and eco-friendly method for mannitol production from a cheap biomass. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Brevetoxin in blood, biological fluids, and tissues of sea turtles naturally exposed to Karenia brevis blooms in central west Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauquier, Deborah A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Maucher, Jennifer; Manire, Charles A; Socha, Victoria; Kinsel, Michael J; Stacy, Brian A; Henry, Michael; Gannon, Janet; Ramsdell, John S; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-06-01

    In 2005 and 2006, the central west Florida coast experienced two intense Karenia brevis red tide events lasting from February 2005 through December 2005 and August 2006 through December 2006. Strandings of sea turtles were increased in the study area with 318 turtles (n = 174, 2005; n = 144, 2006) stranding between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2006 compared to the 12-yr average of 43 +/- 23 turtles. Live turtles (n = 61) admitted for rehabilitation showed clinical signs including unresponsiveness, paresis, and circling. Testing of biological fluids and tissues for the presence of brevetoxin activity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay found toxin present in 93% (52 of 56) of live stranded sea turtles, and 98% (42 of 43) of dead stranded sea turtles tested. Serial plasma samples were taken from several live sea turtles during rehabilitation and toxin was cleared from the blood within 5-80 days postadmit depending upon the species tested. Among dead animals the highest brevetoxin levels were found in feces, stomach contents, and liver. The lack of significant pathological findings in the majority of animals necropsied supports toxin-related mortality.

  20. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  1. Investigation of Cervical Fleksor and Extensor Muscle Activation During Isometric Neck Extension Applied by Therraband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önal, Sercan; Can, Filiz; Yakut, Yavuz; Baltacı, Gül

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Therrabands are commonly used for resistive exercises, streching and stabilization exercises and also isometric exercises. However, principles of practice of therrabands are mostly focused on exercise variety. Likewise it is only given point to exercise variety during therrabands’ usage at cervical region. Nevertheless, for effective usage of therrabands and for proper assessment of effectiveness response, it is necessary to know the amount of resistance being given or muscle activation response against the resistance given. The aim of this study was to compare activations of cervical flexor and extensor muscles during isometric extension exercise against the resistance of therraband in healthy individuals. Methods: 14 healthy subjects (8 female,6 male)aged between 19-32 have been included in the study. Subjects with neck problems, systemic diseases, history of trauma or operation were excluded. Neck isometric exercises with therraband was 2 sets with 2 minutes’ intervals and EMG records have been taken during exercises. After preparation of the skin, surface electrodes placed on the motor points of sternocleidomastoideus(SCM) and erector spinae(ES) muscles. After taking the average of 3 measures, the first 10 seconds of muscular activations were recorded. The average of integrated EMG(iEMG) values of each records was used for statistical data. Independent T test and Mann Whitney U test were used for the analysis of findings. Results: There was no significant difference between the right ES and left ES’s mean iEMG during isometric neck extension against therraband (p=0.06). Although there was no difference between right SCM and right ES muscles action potentials(t=-0.895; p=0.379), there was a significant difference between left SCM and left ES muscles’ action potentials (z= -2.435; p=0.01). When all the right and left SCM and ES muscle activations were compared, a significant difference was detected in favour of ES muscles ( t= -2.133; p= 0

  2. Reliability of isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee flexors and extensors in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana N. Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The isokinetic dynamometer has been considered the gold-standard measurement of muscle performance. However, the reliability for the passive mode in children has not been reported to date. OBJECTIVES: The purpose was to evaluate the reliability of the isokinetic dynamometer in passive mode in children. METHOD: Twenty-one healthy children (ten girls, eleven boys, aged 5 to 12 years (age: 8.5±2.2 years, were evaluated using an isokinetic dynamometer. Each participant was tested twice with a one-week interval and performed five consecutive cycles of knee extension and flexion. The test was performed at 60º/s in the concentric passive mode and the children performed maximal contractions. The measured variables were peak torque, average peak torque, total work, and average power, time to peak torque and angle of peak torque for dominant and non-dominant lower limbs. Reliabilities were determined using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC3,1, standard error of measurement (SEM and SEM%, and coefficient of variation (CV. RESULTS: We found good reliability in both lower limbs for peak torque, average peak torque, total work and average power of knee flexors and extensors, with ICC3,1 values greater than 0.80; SEM ranging from 6.7 to 79.2; SEM% ranging from 10.4% to 16.8%; CV lower than 15%. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the bias was low than 10% and limits of agreement (LOAs ranging from 33.9% to 59.2%, and -28.8% and -52.8%, showing that measures tended to disagree. However, time to peak torque (ICC3,1 0.34; SEM%>37.4%; CV>41.7%; bias >24.0%; LOA>101.0% and angle of peak torque (ICC3,19.3; SEM%>27.6%; CV>15.3%; bias>11.0%; LOA>61.0% were not reliable. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that isokinetic evaluation in passive mode for knee extensors and flexors of dominant and non-dominant lower limbs of children without disabilities was reliable for peak torque, average peak torque, work, and power. However, average time to peak

  3. Ultrasound-guided Percutaneous Lavage in the Treatment of Calcific Tendinopathy of Elbow Extensor Tendons: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abate M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the efficacy of the ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment in the management of elbow extensor tendons calcific tendinopathy. The ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment is broadly used with positive results in patients suffering from rotator cuff calcific tendinopathy. However, this interventional method has been reported only in one patient in the medical literature. A 34 years-old female who complained pain, swelling and severe functional limitation of the right elbow was referred to our unit. Elbow radiographs and ultrasound examination showed a soft-fluid calcification above the origin of the extensor tendons. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous treatment was therefore performed. After one year, the patient reported no pain and regained complete range of elbow motion. This method, in well trained hands, is an alternative treatment in the management of the uncommon elbow calcific deposit.

  4. Kinaesthetic ipsilateral and crossed extensor plantar response: A new way to elicit upgoing toe sign (Babinski response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Kuruvilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a phenomenon of "kinaesthetic extensor plantar response" in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, an interesting observation noted in a patient with dorsal myelopathy. A 44-year-old woman presented with one-year history of gradually progressive weakness and stiffness of both lower limbs along with urge incontinence of urine. Examination showed spontaneous elicitation of extensor plantar response while assessing the tone by rolling method as well as on noxious stimulation of the thigh. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the dorsal spine and digital subtraction angiography showed the presence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula causing myelopathy. This case exemplifies the fact that in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, not only the receptive field of Babinski reflex may extend to the leg or thigh, but may also integrate with other modalities of stimulation, such as the rolling movement. The possible underlying pathophysiology of such a phenomenon is discussed.

  5. Kinaesthetic ipsilateral and crossed extensor plantar response: A new way to elicit upgoing toe sign (Babinski response)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Abraham; Wattamwar, Pandurang R

    2011-07-01

    We describe a phenomenon of "kinaesthetic extensor plantar response" in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, an interesting observation noted in a patient with dorsal myelopathy. A 44-year-old woman presented with one-year history of gradually progressive weakness and stiffness of both lower limbs along with urge incontinence of urine. Examination showed spontaneous elicitation of extensor plantar response while assessing the tone by rolling method as well as on noxious stimulation of the thigh. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the dorsal spine and digital subtraction angiography showed the presence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula causing myelopathy. This case exemplifies the fact that in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, not only the receptive field of Babinski reflex may extend to the leg or thigh, but may also integrate with other modalities of stimulation, such as the rolling movement. The possible underlying pathophysiology of such a phenomenon is discussed.

  6. Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Fatigability of the Knee Extensors Post-Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirking, Meghan; Berrios Barillas, Reivian; Nelson, Philip Andrew; Hunter, Sandra Kay; Hyngstrom, Allison

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women) with chronic stroke (≥6 months) and 23 (12 men, 11 women) nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest) at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability) than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min). Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min). Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups. PMID:28085089

  7. DIFFERENCE IN THE MAGNITUDE OF MUSCLE DAMAGE BETWEEN ELBOW FLEXORS AND KNEE EXTENSORS ECCENTRIC EXERCISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Saka

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in the magnitude of muscle damage between maximal eccentric exercises of the elbow flexors (EF and knee extensors (KE. Twelve sedentary male volunteers participated in the study. Range of motion (ROM, isometric peak torque (IPT, delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS, creatine kinase activity (CK, and myoglobin concentration (Mb were evaluated before, immediately after, and on the 1st , 2nd, 3rd , and 7th days following exercise. Total work (TW during exercises was recorded and corrected by muscle volume (TWc. TWc was greater (p < 0.01 for EF [24 (2 joule·cm-3] than for KE [7 (0.4 joule·cm-3]. Increases in CK on the 2nd , 3rd , and 7th days (p < 0.01 and increases in Mb on the 1st , 2nd , 3rd , and 7th days were significantly (p<0.01 larger for EF than for KE. The decline in IPT was greater (p < 0.05- 0.01 for EF at all test occasions compared with KE. The results of this study demonstrate that the magnitude of muscle damage is greater and the recovery is slower following maximal eccentric exercise of the EF than of the KE for sedentary males

  8. Effects of Constant and Doublet Frequency Electrical Stimulation Patterns on Force Production of Knee Extensor Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cometti, Carole; Babault, Nicolas; Deley, Gaëlle

    2016-01-01

    This study compared knee extensors' neuromuscular fatigue in response to two 30-minute stimulation patterns: constant frequency train (CFT) and doublet frequency train (DFT). Fifteen men underwent two separate sessions corresponding to each pattern. Measurements included torque evoked by each contraction and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) measured before and immediately after the stimulation sessions. In addition, activation level and torque evoked during doublets (Pd) and tetanic contractions at 80-Hz (P80) and 20-Hz (P20) were determined in six subjects. Results indicated greater mean torque during the DFT stimulation session as compared with CFT. But, no difference was obtained between the two stimulation patterns for MVC and evoked torque decreases. Measurements conducted in the subgroup depicted a significant reduction of Pd, P20 and P80. Statistical analyses also revealed bigger P20 immediate reductions after CFT than after DFT. We concluded that DFT could be a useful stimulation pattern to produce and maintain greater force with quite similar fatigue than CFT.

  9. Effects of Constant and Doublet Frequency Electrical Stimulation Patterns on Force Production of Knee Extensor Muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cometti

    Full Text Available This study compared knee extensors' neuromuscular fatigue in response to two 30-minute stimulation patterns: constant frequency train (CFT and doublet frequency train (DFT. Fifteen men underwent two separate sessions corresponding to each pattern. Measurements included torque evoked by each contraction and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC measured before and immediately after the stimulation sessions. In addition, activation level and torque evoked during doublets (Pd and tetanic contractions at 80-Hz (P80 and 20-Hz (P20 were determined in six subjects. Results indicated greater mean torque during the DFT stimulation session as compared with CFT. But, no difference was obtained between the two stimulation patterns for MVC and evoked torque decreases. Measurements conducted in the subgroup depicted a significant reduction of Pd, P20 and P80. Statistical analyses also revealed bigger P20 immediate reductions after CFT than after DFT. We concluded that DFT could be a useful stimulation pattern to produce and maintain greater force with quite similar fatigue than CFT.

  10. Relationships between falls, spinal curvature, spinal mobility and back extensor strength in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukawa, Yuji; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Hongo, Michio; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Noguchi, Hideaki; Kamo, Keiji; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Murata, Katsuyuki; Shimada, Yoichi

    2010-01-01

    Spinal mobility and back extensor strength (BES) are important in determining quality of life (QOL) for elderly people. However, the impact of spinal factors on falls remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to clarify spinal factors related to falls in elderly people, including deformity of spinal curvature, spinal mobility and BES. Subjects comprised 92 elderly people divided into 3 groups: subjects without a history of falls or fear of falls (Non-falls group, n = 40); subjects with a history of fear of falls or requiring any support when walking (Fear of falls group, n = 36); and subjects with a history of falls (Falls group, n = 16). Kyphotic angles and mobility of the thoracic and/or lumbar spine, and spinal inclination were measured using a computer-assisted device. Postural imbalance was evaluated using a computerized stabilometer. Isometric BES was also measured. Angle of lumbar kyphosis, spinal inclination, and postural imbalance were significantly higher in the Falls group (p spinal inclination (p = 0.0378), mobility of lumbar spine (0.027), and mobility of spinal inclination (p = 0.0282) were significantly associated with presence/absence of falls in elderly individuals.

  11. Modification of the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure with extensor carpi ulnaris tenodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, A; Kato, H; Iwasaki, N

    2000-11-01

    The Sauvé-Kapandji procedure is a useful treatment option for osteoarthritis of the distal radioulnar joint. Recent reports of a painful unstable proximal ulnar stump prompted us to develop a method of stabilizing the proximal stump of the ulna during the Sauvé-Kapandji procedure by using a half-slip of the extensor carpi ulnaris. Thirteen osteoarthritic wrists (8 primary and 5 traumatic) in 8 men and 5 women with an average age of 50 years were treated by this method. The length of the follow-up periods averaged 36 months. Pain improved in all patients after surgery but pain was elicited over 1 ulnar stump by direct pressure. Both pronation/supination and flexion/extension had statistically significant improvement with the exception of flexion. Grip strength improved in all wrists after surgery. Postoperative x-rays improved alignment in both coronal and lateral planes. Stabilization of the proximal ulnar stump associated with Sauvé-Kapandji procedure is a useful procedure to prevent an unstable ulnar stump in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the distal radioulnar joint.

  12. Knee Extensor Electromyographic Activity-to-Work Ratio is Greater With Isotonic Than Isokinetic Contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Randy J.; Westwood, Kevin C.

    2001-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether isotonic or isokinetic contractions produced greater electromyographic (EMG) activity per unit of work during isotonic and isokinetic knee-extension exercise. DESIGN AND SETTING: Subjects performed three 3-second maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the dominant knee extensors for EMG normalization. Exercise testing performed on the Biodex System 3 Dynamometer involved 10 isokinetic contractions at 180 degrees.s(-1) and 10 isotonic contractions with the resistance set at 50% of the previously recorded maximal voluntary isometric contraction. SUBJECTS: Recreationally active college students (10 men and 11 women). MEASUREMENTS: Surface EMG signals were collected from the vastus medialis and lateralis muscles and then integrated (IEMG) over the concentric phase of each repetition for both exercises. The IEMG was divided by the total work performed during the concentric phase for each exercise (IEMG/W). RESULTS: We analyzed the IEMG/W data using a 1-between (sex), 2-within (exercise and muscle) repeated-measures analysis of variance. There was a significant main effect for exercise, with the isotonic IEMG/W value being significantly greater than the isokinetic IEMG/W value. Additionally, the IEMG/W relationship did not appear to be affected by sex or individual muscle tested. CONCLUSIONS: Per unit of work performed, the isotonic contractions resulted in greater motor unit recruitment or an increased rate of firing, or both. This finding may have implications for the early phase of rehabilitation, when goals include complete motor unit recruitment of injured or atrophied muscles.

  13. The effects of imagery training on fast isometric knee extensor torque development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Cornelis J; Hutter, Vana; Icke, Chris; Groen, Bart; Gemmink, Anne; Smilde, Hiltsje; de Haan, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that imagery training would improve the fast onset of neuromuscular activation and thereby fast knee extensor isometric torque development. Forty young healthy participants, not involved in strength training, were assigned to one of four groups: physical training, imagery training, placebo training or control. The three training groups had three 15 min sessions per week for 4 weeks, with a 90 ° knee angle but were tested also at 120 °. At 90 ° knee angle, maximal torque increased (-8%) similarly in all three training groups. The torque-time integral (contractile impulse) over the first 40 ms after torque onset (TTI40) increased (P training (by -100%), but only at 90 °. This increase was significantly different from the delta values (change pre to post) in the control and placebo groups, whereas delta values in the imagery group were similar to those in the placebo group. The increases in TTI40 following physical training were related (r (2) = 0.81, P training led to a knee angle specific increase of contractile impulse that was significantly different from placebo and controls and that was related to improved onset of neuromuscular activation.

  14. Effect of remote voluntary contractions on knee extensor torque and rate of velocity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Emily A; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Noffal, Guillermo J

    2010-09-01

    Remote voluntary contractions (RVCs) are described as a muscle action of the prime mover while performing a simultaneous muscle action with another part of the body. Previous studies have shown that RVCs may elicit augmented performance of the prime mover. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of RVCs on knee extensor rate of velocity development (RVD) and peak torque. Fourteen men and 16 women who were regularly active and free of any knee pathology for the past year took part in this study. Subjects performed 3 maximal dynamic knee extensions at 3 velocities with and without an RVC condition. The RVC condition consisted of holding hand dynamometers in each hand and maximally gripping while performing a maximal knee extension movement. The NO-RVC condition was the same only without gripping. Men produced greater peak torque and RVD than did women across speeds and conditions. Analysis demonstrated that RVC had no effect on knee extension peak torque, but RVD decreased in the RVC condition (NO-RVC 2,012.07 [46.52] degrees xs-1xs-1; RVC 1,882.61 [51.84] degrees xs-1xs-1). Grip strength of the left hand at 180 degrees xs-1decreased from 42.03 (14.40) to 38.83 (14.65) kg in the RVC condition. In conclusion, RVC should not be used when attempting to maximize RVD, because it may hinder results when performing a single joint movement.

  15. Amylin evokes protein p20 phosphorylation and insulin resistance in rat skeletal muscle extensor digitorum longus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate effect of amylin on the insulin sensitivity of rat skeletal muscle extensor digitorum longus (EDL) using in vitro intact muscle incubation in combination with metabolic radioactive labeling. The molecular basis of the amylin action was further examined using proteomic analysis. In particular, proteins of interest were characterized using an integrated microcharacterization procedure that involved in-gel trypsin digestion, organic solvent extraction, high performance liquid chromatography separation, microsequencing and microsequence analysis. We found that amylin significantly decreased the insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into glycogen (p < 0.01) and produced a protein spot of approximately 20 ku in size. This amylin responsive protein (hereby designated as amylin responsive protein 1, APR1) was identified to be protein p20. Moreover, ARP1 spots on gels were found to consistently produce a corresponding radioactive spot on X-ray films in 32Pi but not in 35S-methionine labeling experiments. In conclusion, our results showed that in vitro amylin concomitantly evoked the production of ARP1 and caused insulin resistance in EDL muscle. It is suggested that protein p20 may be involved in amylin signal transduction and the appearance of ARP1 may be a step in a molecular pathway leading to the development of insulin resistance. ARP1 might therefore be a useful molecular marker for amylin action, insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes.

  16. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression.

  17. Spectral properties of myoelectric signals from different motor units in the leg extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, James M; Rozitis, Antra I

    2004-06-01

    Myoelectric signals measured using intramuscular electromyograms (EMGs) in animals have shown that faster motor units generate higher frequencies in their power spectra. However, evidence to relate myoelectric frequency and motor unit type from the surface electromyograms typically measured from man have remained elusive. The purpose of this study was to determine if spectral properties from surface EMG could be related to the different motor units in the muscles of the leg extensors in man. Reflex experiments (both tendon tap and electrically stimulated) and graded isometric contractions were used to generate muscle contractions with different patterns of motor unit recruitment. EMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis, rectus femoris, medial and lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The EMGs were resolved into their intensities in time-frequency space using wavelet techniques. The intensity spectra were calculated for the reflex responses and for different contractile forces. The spectra were compared using principle component analyses and ANCOVA. Electrical stimulation can result in preferentially faster motor units being recruited, and in this study resulted in higher myoelectric frequencies than for the stretch reflex. During ramped contractions the motor units are recruited in an orderly fashion from slow to fast. As the faster motor units were recruited then higher frequency components appeared within the myoelectric intensity spectra. For all muscles tested there were significant correlations between the stage in contraction and the EMG frequency. Both approaches demonstrated higher frequency components in the myoelectric spectra when the faster motor units could be assumed to be active.

  18. Effects of methylmercury on the motor and sensory innervation of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, R.K.; Riley, D.A.

    1987-06-01

    The histochemical study examined the effects of chronic methylmercury (MeHg) intoxication on the motor and sensory innervation of extensor digitorum longus muscles. Light microscopic examination of silver-stained axons in the intramuscular nerve bundles of MeHg-treated rats showed Wallerian-like degeneration and a reduction in the number of nerve fibers. Disrupted axons were predominantly sensory because 22.2% of spindle afferents (I/sub a/) and 90.0% of Golgi tendon organ (I/sub b/) sensory fibers were completely degenerated whereas less than 1% of motor ending were totally destroyed. Partial disruption occurred in the cholinesterase and motor terminals of 13.7% of endplates. Their results demonstrated greater vulnerability of sensory nerves than of motor nerves to MeHg-induced degeneration. Thus, the abnormal reflexes, ataxia, and muscle weakness following MeHg poisoning appear related to reduction of proprioceptive feedback from muscles and tendons irradiation to the documented lesions in the central nervous system.

  19. Different pattern of aquaporin-4 expression in extensor digitorum longus and soleus during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicchia, Grazia P; Mola, Maria G; Pisoni, Michela; Frigeri, Antonio; Svelto, Maria

    2007-05-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the neuromuscular water channel expressed at the sarcolemma of mammalian fast-twitch fibers that mediates a high water transport rate, which is important during muscle activity. Clinical interest in the neuromuscular expression of AQP4 has increased as it is associated with the protein complex formed by dystrophin, the product of the gene affected in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The expression of AQP4 during development has not been characterized. In this study, we analyzed the expression of AQP4 in extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus, a fast- and slow-twitch muscle, respectively, during the first weeks after birth. The results show that AQP4 expression in both types of skeletal muscle occurs postnatally. The time course of expression of AQP4 in the two types of muscles was also different. Whereas the expression of AQP4 protein levels in the EDL showed a progressive increase during the first month after birth, reaching levels found in adults by day 24, the levels of the protein in the soleus showed a transient peak between day 12 and day 24 and declined thereafter, an effect that may be related to the transient high number of fast motor units innervating the soleus muscle during this time. The results suggest that AQP4 expression in skeletal muscle is under neuronal influence and contribute to the understanding of the molecular events of fiber differentiation during development.

  20. Passive mechanical properties of maturing extensor digitorum longus are not affected by lack of dystrophin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Andrew V; Niday, Ashley K; Voelker, Kevin A; Call, Jarrod A; Evans, Nicholas P; Granata, Kevin P; Grange, Robert W

    2006-09-01

    Mechanical weakness of skeletal muscle is thought to contribute to onset and early progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, but this has not been systematically assessed. The purpose of this study was to determine in mice: (1) whether the passive mechanical properties of maturing dystrophic (mdx) muscles were different from control; and (2) if different, the time during maturation when these properties change. Prior to and following the overt onset of the dystrophic process (14-35 days), control and dystrophic extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were subjected to two passive stretch protocols in vitro (5% strain at instantaneous and 1.5 L(0)/s strain rates). Force profiles were fit to a viscoelastic muscle model to determine stiffness and damping. The mdx and control EDL muscles exhibited similar passive mechanical properties at each age, suggesting a functional threshold for dystrophic muscle below which damage may be minimized. Determining this threshold may have important clinical implications for treatments of muscular dystrophy involving physical activity.

  1. Effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity capacities of the leg extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brennan J; Conchola, Eric C; Palmer, Ty B; Stock, Matt S

    2014-10-01

    Declines in muscle strength and power are commonly reported as a consequence of aging; however, few studies have investigated the influence of aging on maximal and rapid velocity characteristics. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of aging on maximal and rapid velocity characteristics of the leg extensor muscles. Twenty-three young (age=25±3yrs) and twenty-one old (72±4yrs) men performed three leg extension maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) at 240°·s(-1) and at maximum unloaded velocity (Vmax). Vmax was calculated as the highest velocity attained during the unloaded MVC and RVD was the linear slope of the velocity-time curve for the 240deg·s(-1) (RVD240) and maximum unloaded velocity (RVD-Vmax) contractions. The old men exhibited lower (Pmuscle to generate velocity rapidly versus the ability to generate maximal velocity. Such findings highlight the importance of time-dependent velocity measures when assessing the effects of aging on rapid velocity capacities.

  2. Relative shortening velocity in locomotor muscles: turkey ankle extensors operate at low V/V(max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaldón, Annette M; Nelson, Frank E; Roberts, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    The force-velocity properties of skeletal muscle have an important influence on locomotor performance. All skeletal muscles produce less force the faster they shorten and typically develop maximal power at velocities of approximately 30% of maximum shortening velocity (V(max)). We used direct measurements of muscle mechanical function in two ankle extensor muscles of wild turkeys to test the hypothesis that during level running muscles operate at velocities that favor force rather than power. Sonomicrometer measurements of muscle length, tendon strain-gauge measurements of muscle force, and bipolar electromyographs were taken as animals ran over a range of speeds and inclines. These measurements were integrated with previously measured values of muscle V(max) for these muscles to calculate relative shortening velocity (V/V(max)). At all speeds for level running the V/V(max) values of the lateral gastrocnemius and the peroneus longus were low (muscles were capable of producing 90% of peak isometric force but only 35% of peak isotonic power. V/V(max) increased in response to the demand for mechanical power with increases in running incline and decreased to negative values to absorb energy during downhill running. Measurements of integrated electromyograph activity indicated that the volume of muscle required to produce a given force increased from level to uphill running. This observation is consistent with the idea that V/V(max) is an important determinant of locomotor cost because it affects the volume of muscle that must be recruited to support body weight.

  3. Severe COPD Alters Muscle Fiber Conduction Velocity During Knee Extensors Fatiguing Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccia, Gennaro; Coratella, Giuseppe; Dardanello, Davide; Rinaldo, Nicoletta; Lanza, Massimo; Schena, Federico; Rainoldi, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the changes in muscle fiber conduction velocity (CV), as a sign of fatigue during knee extensor contraction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as compared with healthy controls. Eleven male patients (5 with severe and 6 with moderate COPD; age 67 ± 5 years) and 11 age-matched healthy male controls (age 65 ± 4 years) volunteered for the study. CV was obtained by multichannel surface electromyography (EMG) from the vastus lateralis (VL) and medialis (VM) of the quadriceps muscle during isometric, 30-second duration knee extension at 70% of maximal voluntary contraction. The decline in CV in both the VL and VM was steeper in the severe COPD patients than in healthy controls (for VL: severe COPD vs. controls -0.45 ± 0.07%/s; p < 0.001, and for VM: severe COPD vs. controls -0.54 ± 0.09%/s, p < 0.001). No difference in CV decline was found between the moderate COPD patients and the healthy controls. These findings suggest that severe COPD may impair muscle functions, leading to greater muscular fatigue, as expressed by CV changes. The results may be due to a greater involvement of anaerobic metabolism and a shift towards fatigable type II fibers in the muscle composition of the severe COPD patients.

  4. Dorsal metacarpal artery flaps with extensor indices tendons for reconstruction of digital defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Jennifer Lynn; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin

    2012-10-01

    Distally based dorsal metacarpal artery (DMCA) flaps are an established technique for the reconstruction of extensive finger defects. In many cases, such defects also include an injury of the extension tendon over the proximal and distal finger joint, which can lead to a reduced range of motion or finger deformation such as boutonniére deformity. To prevent this, operative techniques are necessary that allow complete defect coverage while simultaneously stabilizing the extension apparatus. In two cases, DMCA flaps were combined with vascularized extensor indices tendons for the reconstruction of extensive dorsal finger skin and soft tissue defects, particularly when tendon and bone are exposed. After three weeks of postoperative immobilization, physiotherapy could be intensified. In a six months' follow-up, the results obtained from the standpoint of both function and appearance were excellent, the flaps remained viable at all times and full-finger length and sensory function were maintained. Regarding operation time, pain and finger appearance, both patients stated satisfaction. The vascularized tendon incorporated in DMCA flaps provides a sufficient method to restore a satisfactory finger function and prevent finger deformity, arthrodesis, or amputation, especially in cases with severe injuries of the extension apparatus.

  5. Changes in the flexion-relaxation response induced by hip extensor and erector spinae muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantin Vincent

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The flexion-relaxation phenomenon (FRP is defined by reduced lumbar erector spinae (ES muscle myoelectric activity during full trunk flexion. The objectives of this study were to quantify the effect of hip and back extensor muscle fatigue on FRP parameters and lumbopelvic kinematics. Methods Twenty-seven healthy adults performed flexion-extension tasks under 4 different experimental conditions: no fatigue/no load, no fatigue/load, fatigue/no load, and fatigue/load. Total flexion angle corresponding to the onset and cessation of myoelectric silence, hip flexion angle, lumbar flexion angle and maximal trunk flexion angle were compared across different experimental conditions by 2 × 2 (Load × Fatigue repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The angle corresponding to the ES onset of myoelectric silence was reduced after the fatigue task, and loading the spine decreased the lumbar contribution to motion compared to the hip during both flexion and extension. A relative increment of lumbar spine motion compared to pelvic motion was also observed in fatigue conditions. Conclusions Previous results suggested that ES muscles, in a state of fatigue, are unable to provide sufficient segmental stabilization. The present findings indicate that, changes in lumbar-stabilizing mechanisms in the presence of muscle fatigue seem to be caused by modulation of lumbopelvic kinematics.

  6. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  7. High-intensity knee extensor training restores skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brønstad, Eivind; Rognmo, Oivind; Tjonna, Arnt Erik; Dedichen, Hans Henrich; Kirkeby-Garstad, Idar; Håberg, Asta K; Bjørk Ingul, Charlotte; Wisløff, Ulrik; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2012-11-01

    Improving reduced skeletal muscle function is important for optimising exercise tolerance and quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. By applying high-intensity training to a small muscle group, we hypothesised a normalisation of muscle function. Seven patients with COPD performed 6 weeks (3 days·week(-1)) of high-intensity interval aerobic knee extensor exercise training. Five age-matched healthy individuals served as a reference group. Muscle oxygen uptake and mitochondrial respiration of the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after the 6-week training programme. Initial peak work and maximal mitochondrial respiration were reduced in COPD patients and improved significantly after the training programme. Peak power and maximal mitochondrial respiration in vastus lateralis muscle increased to the level of the control subjects and were mainly mediated via improved complex I respiration. Furthermore, when normalised to citrate synthase activity, no difference in maximal respiration was found either after the intervention or compared to controls, suggesting normal functioning mitochondrial complexes. The present study shows that high-intensity training of a restricted muscle group is highly effective in restoring skeletal muscle function in COPD patients.

  8. Isometric knee extensor fatigue following a Wingate test: peripheral and central mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-del-Olmo, M; Rodriguez, F A; Marquez, G; Iglesias, X; Marina, M; Benitez, A; Vallejo, L; Acero, R M

    2013-02-01

    Central and peripheral fatigue have been explored during and after running or cycling exercises. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with a short maximal cycling exercise (30 s Wingate test) have not been investigated. In this study, 10 volunteer subjects performed several isometric voluntary contractions using the leg muscle extensors before and after two bouts of cycling at 25% of maximal power output and two bouts of Wingate tests. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical motor nerve stimulation (NM) were applied at rest and during the voluntary contractions. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), twitch amplitude evoked by electrical nerve stimulation, M wave and motor potential evoked by TMS (MEP) were recorded. MVC, VA and twitch amplitude evoked at rest by NM decreased significantly after the first and second Wingate tests, indicating central and peripheral fatigue. MVC and VA, but not the twitch amplitude evoked by NM, recovered before the second Wingate test. These results suggest that the Wingate test results in a decrease in MVC associated with peripheral and central fatigue. While the peripheral fatigue is associated with an intramuscular impairment, the central fatigue seems to be the main reason for the Wingate test-induced impairment of MVC.

  9. Effect of mental fatigue on induced tremor in human knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Francesco; Lowery, Madeleine; Durbaba, Rade; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the effects of mental fatigue on mechanically induced tremor at both a low (3-6Hz) and high (8-12Hz) frequency were investigated. The two distinct tremor frequencies were evoked using two springs of different stiffness, during 20s sustained contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) before and after 100min of a mental fatigue task, in 12 healthy (29±3.7years) participants. Mental fatigue resulted in a 6.9% decrease in MVC and in a 9.4% decrease in the amplitude of the agonist muscle EMG during sustained 30% MVC contractions in the induced high frequency only. Following the mental fatigue task, the coefficient of variation and standard deviation of the force signal decreased at 8-12Hz induced tremor by 31.7% and 35.2% respectively, but not at 3-6Hz induced tremor. Similarly, the maximum value and area underneath the peak in the power spectrum of the force signal decreased by 55.5% and 53.1% respectively in the 8-12Hz range only. In conclusion, mental fatigue decreased mechanically induced 8-12Hz tremor and had no effect on induced 3-6Hz tremor. We suggest that the reduction could be attributed to the decreased activation of the agonist muscles.

  10. Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Fatigability of the Knee Extensors Post-Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kirking

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women with chronic stroke (≥6 months and 23 (12 men, 11 women nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min. Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min. Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups.

  11. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Avulsion fracture of the extensor carpi radialis longus carpal insertion due to a basketball injury: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, N; Zbili, D; Bellity, J; Doursounian, L; Mauprivez, R

    2014-12-01

    Articular fractures of the base of the 2nd metacarpal involving the extensor carpi radialis longus insertion are unusual and poorly understood. There is no consensus as to how these fractures should be treated. We report the case of a 2nd metacarpal base fracture in a professional basketball player that was treated surgically with open reduction and internal fixation using cannulated screws. The management of this case is compared to similar cases in the literature.

  13. Decreased task duration and unchanged trunk muscle activity in low-back pain patients during stair climbing after back extensor muscle fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    2014-01-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a major problem. Spine control and stability mechanisms are important but the knowledge of these parameters in functions is sparse. 7 healthy / 5 recurrent mild-to-moderate LBP patients participated in assessment of abdominal, lumbar and gluteal muscles' surface EMG and video......- and abdominal muscle activity in healthy than in patients in most phases, but during descend transfer patients activity decreased. In LBP patients back extensor fatigue resulted in decreased muscular activity in the trunk muscles during stair stepping compared to healthy. Decreased duration of the motor tasks...... recording during 10 concurrent stair steps pre / post lumbar extensor muscle exhaustion. Duration of gait tasks were shorter in LBP patients generally and longer during load and shorter during transfer in descend stepping after back extensor fatigue. Back extensor fatigue resulted in higher back...

  14. Muscle oxygenation of superficial and deep regions in knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles during repeated isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, K

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in muscle oxygenation of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles during repeated muscle contractions under the same condition. In addition, we compared changes in muscle oxygenation between superficial and deep regions of both muscles. Eleven healthy males participated in this study. During repeated knee extensions and plantar flexions (50 repetitions at 50% of the isometric maximum voluntary contraction for 3 s with 3 s relaxations), blood volume and oxygen saturation (StO₂) of the vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius muscles (superficial and deep region of each muscle) were measured using near infrared spectroscopy. The decrement of StO₂at the end of exercises was greater in plantar flexor muscle than in knee extensor muscle (Pmuscles, the decrement of StO₂at the end of exercises was greater in the deep region than in the superficial one (both Pmuscle and deep regions of each muscle were higher than that of knee extensor muscle and superficial regions of each muscle.

  15. Changes in T2-weighted MRI of supinator muscle, pronator teres muscle, and extensor indicis muscle with manual muscle testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuya; Akiyama, Sumikazu; Takamori, Masayoshi; Otsuka, D. Eng, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] In order to detect muscle activity with manual muscle testing, T2-weighted magnetic resonance (T2w-MR) images were detected by a 0.2 T compact MRI system. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 3 adult males. Transverse T2-weighted multi-slice spin-echo images of the left forearm were measured by a 39 ms echo-time with a 2,000 ms repetition time, a 9.5 mm slice thickness, 1 accumulation and a total image acquisition time of 4 min 16 s. First, T2w-MR images in the resting condition were measured. Then, manipulative isometric contraction exercise (5 sec duration) to the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle or the extensor indicis muscle was performed using Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale of 15–17. The T2w-MR images were measured immediately after the exercise. [Results] T2w-MR image intensities increased significantly in the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle and the extensor indicis muscle after the exercise. However, the image intensities in the rest of the muscle did not change. [Conclusion] Using T2w-MR images, we could detect muscle activity in a deep muscle, the supinator muscle, and a small muscle, the extensor indicis muscle. These results also support the reliability of the manual muscle testing method. PMID:28356621

  16. Comparative assessment of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength measured using a hand-held vs. isokinetic dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muff, Guillaume; Dufour, Stéphane; Meyer, Alain; Severac, François; Favret, Fabrice; Geny, Bernard; Lecocq, Jehan; Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] To compare measurements of knee extensor and flexor muscle strength performed using a hand-held dynamometer and an isokinetic dynamometer in apparently healthy subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty adult volunteers underwent knee muscle strength evaluation using an isokinetic or a hand-held dynamometer. [Results] Strong positive correlations were found between the 2 methods, with correlation coefficients r ranging from 0.72 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.86) to 0.87 (95% CI, 0.75-0.94), depending on the muscle group and the isokinetic evaluation mode. The reproducibility of the hand-held dynamometer findings was good, judged by a coefficient of variation of 3.2-4.2%. However, the correlation between the 2 methods for the assessment of flexor/extensor ratios ranged from -0.04 to 0.46. [Conclusion] Knee extensor and flexor muscle strength recorded with a hand-held dynamometer is reproducible and significantly correlated with the isokinetic values, indicating that this method may in some cases be a useful replacement for isokinetic strength measurement. However, for strength ratio assessment, and when judged against the isokinetic standard, a hand-held dynamometer is not a valid option.

  17. Number of ruptured tendons and surgical delay as prognostic factors for the surgical repair of extensor tendon ruptures in the rheumatoid wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Yu; Ochi, Kensuke; Iwamoto, Takuji; Saito, Asami; Yano, Koichiro; Naito, Yurino; Yoshida, Shinji; Ikari, Katsunori; Momohara, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Extensor tendon ruptures in the rheumatoid wrist are usually restored by extensor tendon reconstruction surgery. However, the factors significantly correlated with the outcomes of extensor tendon reconstruction have not been defined. We examined factors showing a statistically significant correlation with postoperative active motion after tendon reconstruction. Spontaneous extensor tendon ruptures of 66 wrists in patients (mean age, 52.6 yrs) with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evaluated. All patients underwent tendon reconstruction surgery with wrist arthroplasty or arthrodesis. Active ranges of motion of the affected fingers were evaluated at 12 weeks postsurgery. Statistical significance was determined using multiple and single regression analyses. Forty-six (69.6%) wrists had "good" results, while 13 (19.7%) and 7 (10.6%) wrists had "fair" and "poor" results, respectively. In multiple regression analysis, an increased number of ruptured tendons and the age at operation were independent variables significantly correlated with the postoperative active motion of reconstructed tendons (p = 0.009). Single regression analysis also showed a significant association between the number of ruptured tendons and surgical delay (p = 0.02). The number of ruptured extensor tendons was significantly correlated with the results of tendon reconstruction, and the number of ruptured tendons was significantly correlated with preoperative surgical delay. Our results indicate that, in patients presenting with possible finger extensor tendon rupture, rheumatologists should consult with hand surgeons promptly to preserve hand function.

  18. Low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors and flexors protect against muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Min-Ju; Chen, Trevor Chung-Ching; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Wu, Bo-Han; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2015-10-01

    This study investigated the magnitude and duration of the protective effect of low-intensity eccentric contractions (LowEC) against damage induced by maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) of the knee flexors (KF) and extensors (KE). Young men were assigned to 8 experimental groups and 2 control groups (n = 13/group); the experimental groups performed LowEC of KF or KE 2 days (2d), 1 week (1wk), 2 weeks (2wk), or 3 weeks (3wk) before MaxEC, while the control groups performed MaxEC of KF or KE without LowEC. The 2d, 1wk, 2wk, and 3wk groups performed 30 LowEC of KF or 60 LowEC of KE with a load of 10% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction strength on a resistance-training machine, and all groups performed 30 MaxEC of KF or 60 MaxEC of KE on an isokinetic dynamometer. Several muscle damage markers were measured from before to 2 days after exercise (LowEC) or from before to 5 days after exercise (MaxEC). No significant changes in any variables were evident after LowEC. The changes in all variables after MaxEC were smaller (P < 0.05) for the 2d and 1wk groups (e.g., peak creatine kinase activity: 1002 ± 501 IU/L; peak muscle soreness: 13 ± 5 mm) than for the control group (peak creatine kinase activity: 3005 ± 983 IU/L; peak muscle soreness 28 ± 6 mm) for both KE and KF. There were no significant differences between the 2d and 1wk groups or among the 2wk, 3wk, and control groups. These results show that LowEC provided 30%-66% protection against damage induced by MaxEC of KF and KE, and the protective effect lasted 1 week.

  19. Excitability changes of ankle extensor group Ia and Ib fibers during fictive locomotion in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, S H; Rudomin, P

    1988-01-01

    The present study examines the modulation of gastrocnemius-soleus (GS) monosynaptic reflexes as well as the intraspinal threshold changes of GS group I primary afferent terminals ending in the intermediate and motor nuclei during fictive locomotion in high decerebrate cats. The amplitude of the monosynaptic reflexes (MSR's) evoked in the medial gastrocnemius by stimulation of the lateral gastrocnemius nerve was increased during the extensor (E) phase, decreased during the flexion (F) phase of the step cycle and remained transiently increased after spontaneous episodes of fictive stepping. The intraspinal threshold of populations and of single group Ia GS afferent fibers ending in the motor pool, as well as of single Ia and Ib fibers ending in the intermediate nucleus, showed a sustained reduction during the episodes of fictive locomotion with superimposed cyclic changes in phase with the step cycle. During fictive walking and trotting the reduction of the intraspinal threshold of both Ia and Ib fiber terminals was maximal during the middle or late portion of the F-phase. During fictive gallop elicited by stimulation of the superficial peroneus nerve, the decrease in the intraspinal threshold of the Ia afferent fibers occurred however in phase with the activity of the GS motoneurons. During episodes of fictive locomotion slow, sustained negative DC potential shifts lasting tents of seconds, reflecting an increase in the extracellular potassium concentration were recorded at the base of the dorsal horn and in the intermediate nucleus. The present findings support the existence of tonic and phasic depolarization of the intraspinal terminals of GS group Ia and Ib primary afferents during spontaneous fictive locomotion. It is suggested that accumulation of potassium ions in the extracellular space contributes mainly to the sustained depolarization of group I fibers. The phasic depolarization would be mostly due to the activation of specific sets of interneurons and may

  20. Association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris tendon pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Torriani, Martin [General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon pathology. We retrospectively reviewed 71 adult wrist MRI studies with ECU tendon pathology (tenosynovitis, tendinopathy, or tear), and/or ECU subluxation. Subjects did not have a history of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. MRI studies from 46 subjects without ECU tendon pathology or subluxation were used as controls. The following morphological parameters of the distal ulna were measured independently by two readers: ulnar variance relative to radius, ulnar styloid process length, ECU groove depth and length. Subjects and controls were compared using Student's t test. Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was calculated. There was a significant correlation between negative ulnar variance and ECU tendon pathology (reader 1 [R1], P = 0.01; reader 2 [R2], P < 0.0001; R1 and R2 averaged data, P < 0.0001) and ECU tendon subluxation (P = 0.001; P = 0.0001; P < 0.0001). In subjects with ECU tendon subluxation there was also a trend toward a shorter length (P = 0.3; P <0.0001; P = 0.001) and a shallower ECU groove (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.01; R1 and R2 averaged data with Bonferroni correction, P = 0.08). ECU groove depth (P = 0.6; P = 0.8; P = 0.9) and groove length (P = 0.1; P = 0.4; P = 0.7) showed no significant correlation with ECU tendon pathology, and length of the ulnar styloid process showed no significant correlation with ECU tendon pathology (P = 0.2; P = 0.3; P = 0.2) or subluxation (P = 0.4; P = 0.5; P = 0.5). Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was >0.64 for all parameters. Distal ulnar morphology may be associated with ECU tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  1. Effect of tendon tensioning: an in vitro study in porcine extensor tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, David; Calvo, Rafael; Vaisman, Alex; Meleán, Patricio; Figueroa, Francisco

    2010-06-01

    Graft tensioning is a controversial issue in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) that has not achieved consensus between peers. The purpose of this study is to determine if after tensioning tendon length and resistance to maximal load changes. We performed an in vitro study with 50 porcine extensors tendons. The first group (P=25) was tensioned with 80 N (19.97 lb) for 10 min, using an ACL graft preparation board. The second group (C=25) was used as control and was not tensioned. The average initial (groups P and C) and post tensioning tendon length (group C) were measured; the average initial and post tensioning tendon diameter were measured as well. All samples were fixated in a tube-clamp system connected to a tension sensor. The samples were stressed with continuous and progressive tension until ultimate failure at maximum load (UFML) occurs. The initial mean length was: P before tensioning=13.4 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 10.5-16.5); P after tensioning=13.8 mm+/-1.4 mm (range 11.5-16.5); C=13 mm+/-1.35 mm (p=0.005). The mean diameter was: P=5.6 mm (4.5-6); C=5.5 mm (range 4.5-6) (p>0.05). The UFML was: P=189.7 N (114-336); C=229.9 N (143-365) (p=0.029). Tendon tensioning with 80 N for 10 min produced 3% average elongation. These could be beneficial in ACLR since tendon tensioning decreases elongation of the graft after fixation. Regardless, tendon tensioning is not innocuous since it diminishes their resistance when continuously stressed until complete failure occurs.

  2. Muscle fibre types of the lumbrical, interossei, flexor, and extensor muscles moving the index finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fibre types of the muscles moving the index fingers in humans. Fifteen forearms of eight adult cadavers were used. The sampled muscles were the first lumbrical (LM), first volar interosseous (VI), first dorsal interosseus (DI), second flexor digitorum profundus (FDP), second flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and extensor digitorum (ED). Six micrometer thick sections were stained for fast muscle fibres. The procedure was performed by applying mouse monoclonal anti-skeletal myosin antibody (fast) and avidin-biotin peroxidase complex staining. Rectangular areas (0.38 mm × 0.38 mm) were photographed and the boundaries of the muscle areas were marked on the translucent film. The numbers and sizes of the muscle fibres in each part were evaluated by the image analyser program and calculated per unit area (1 mm(2)). The proportion of the fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.012) greater in the intrinsic muscles (55.7 ± 17.1%) than in the extrinsic muscles (45.9 ± 17.1%). Among the six muscles, the VI had a significantly higher portion (59.3%) of fast fibres than the FDS (40.6%) (p = 0.005) or the FDP (45.1%) (p = 0.023). The density of the non-fast fibres was significantly (p = 0.015) greater in the extrinsic muscles (539.2 ± 336.8/mm(2)) than in the intrinsic muscles (383.4 ± 230.4/mm2). Since the non-fast fibres represent less fatigable fibres, it is thought that the extrinsic muscles have higher durability against fatigue, and the intrinsic muscles, including the LM, should move faster than the FDS or FDP because the MP joint should be flexed before the IP joint to grip an object.

  3. Acute and old ruptures of the extensor apparatus of the knee in adults (excluding knee replacement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragaglia, D; Pison, A; Rubens-Duval, B

    2013-02-01

    Rupture of the extensor apparatus of the knee in adults is infrequent and dominated by patellar fracture, which in our experience is six times as frequent as quadriceps or patellar tendon tear. Patellar fracture poses few diagnostic problems and treatment is now well codified. Tension-band osteosynthesis is generally used, involving two longitudinal K-wires and wire in a figure-of-eight pattern looped over the anterior patella; sometimes, for more complex fractures, cerclage wiring is added to the tension band. Non-union is rare and generally well tolerated. Quadriceps tendon tear mainly affects patients over 40 years of age, in a context of systemic disease. Diagnosis is easily suggested by inability to actively extend the knee, but is unfortunately still often overlooked in emergency. In most cases, early surgical management is needed to reinsert the tendon at the proximal pole of the patella by bone suture. For chronic lesions, it is often necessary to lengthen the quadriceps tendon by V-Y plasty or the Codivilla technique. Patellar tendon tear, on the other hand, typically occurs in patients under 40 years of age, often involved in sports. Diagnosis is again clinically straightforward, but again may be missed in emergency, especially in case of incomplete tear. Surgery is mandatory in all cases. The procedure depends on the type of lesion: either end-to-end suture or transosseous reinsertion. In most cases repair is protected by tendon augmentation. Old lesions often require tendon graft or a tendon-bone-tendon-bone graft taken from the opposite side.

  4. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A.; Minnett, Peter J.; Fleming, Lora E.; Banzon, Viva F.; Baringer, Warner

    2010-01-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods – July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×104 cells l−1 defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs. PMID:21037979

  5. Satellite remote sensing of harmful algal blooms: A new multi-algorithm method for detecting the Florida Red Tide (Karenia brevis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Fleming, Lora E; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner

    2010-06-01

    In a continuing effort to develop suitable methods for the surveillance of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) of Karenia brevis using satellite radiometers, a new multi-algorithm method was developed to explore whether improvements in the remote sensing detection of the Florida Red Tide was possible. A Hybrid Scheme was introduced that sequentially applies the optimized versions of two pre-existing satellite-based algorithms: an Empirical Approach (using water-leaving radiance as a function of chlorophyll concentration) and a Bio-optical Technique (using particulate backscatter along with chlorophyll concentration). The long-term evaluation of the new multi-algorithm method was performed using a multi-year MODIS dataset (2002 to 2006; during the boreal Summer-Fall periods - July to December) along the Central West Florida Shelf between 25.75°N and 28.25°N. Algorithm validation was done with in situ measurements of the abundances of K. brevis; cell counts ≥1.5×10(4) cells l(-1) defined a detectable HAB. Encouraging statistical results were derived when either or both algorithms correctly flagged known samples. The majority of the valid match-ups were correctly identified (~80% of both HABs and non-blooming conditions) and few false negatives or false positives were produced (~20% of each). Additionally, most of the HAB-positive identifications in the satellite data were indeed HAB samples (positive predictive value: ~70%) and those classified as HAB-negative were almost all non-bloom cases (negative predictive value: ~86%). These results demonstrate an excellent detection capability, on average ~10% more accurate than the individual algorithms used separately. Thus, the new Hybrid Scheme could become a powerful tool for environmental monitoring of K. brevis blooms, with valuable consequences including leading to the more rapid and efficient use of ships to make in situ measurements of HABs.

  6. Brevicompanine C, cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp), plant growth regulators from Penicillium brevi-compactum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yasuo; Sawada, Aya; Kuramata, Masato; Kusano, Miyako; Fujioka, Shozo; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Shimada, Atsumi

    2005-02-01

    New plant growth regulators, named brevicompanine C (1), cyclo-(D-Ile-L-Trp) (2), and cyclo-(D-Leu-L-Trp) (3), have been isolated from Penicillium brevi-compactum Dierckx, and their structures have been established by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR and chiral TLC analysis. Plant growth activities of 1, 2, and 3 have been examined using lettuce seedling bioassay methods. All compounds accelerated the root growth of the seedlings in proportion to their concentration from 1 to 100 mg/L.

  7. Survival, growth, and behavior of the Loliginid Squids Loligo plei, Loligo pealei, and Lolliguncula brevis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) in closed sea water systems

    OpenAIRE

    Roger T. Hanlon; Hixon, Raymond F.; Hulet, William H.

    1983-01-01

    Over 1200 squids were captured by night lighting, trawling, or seining in the northern Gulf of Mexico for laboratory maintenance. Two types of recirculating sea water systems were designed and evaluated: a 2 m circular tank (1500 liter capacity) and a 10 m long raceway (10,000 liters). Mean laboratory survival was: Loligo plei (12 to 252 mm mantle length, ML) 11 days, maximum 84 days; Loligo pealei (109 to 285 mm ML) 28 days, maximum 71 days; Lolliguncula brevis (27 to 99 mm ML) 19 days, maxi...

  8. Espessura do músculo adutor do polegar: um método rápido e confiável na avaliação nutricional de pacientes cirúrgicos Adductor pollicis muscle thickness: a fast and reliable method for nutritional assessment in surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalia Bragagnolo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar se a medida da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar é confiável para avaliação nutricional de pacientes cirúrgicos e se correlaciona bem com outros parâmetros antropométricos, bioquímicos e clínicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal, com avaliação de 87 pacientes candidatos à procedimento cirúrgico de grande porte no trato gastrointestinal. Eles foram submetidos à avaliação nutricional através da avaliação subjetiva global, antropometria (circunferência do braço, prega cutânea triciptal, e circunferência muscular do braço, albumina sérica, linfocitometria e pela medida da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar em ambas as mãos. RESULTADOS: A média da espessura da mão dominante (direita foi de 12,64 ± 3,19 mm e da mão não dominante 12,23 ± 2,9 mm. Para desnutrição, a sensibilidade da espessura do músculo adutor do polegar direita foi de 72,37% e da esquerda de 77,33% para os pontos de cortes encontrados com a curva Receiver Operating Characteristic (13,4 e 13,1 mm respectivamente. Para ambas as mãos a especificidade foi de 100%. Encontrou-se correlação significativa (pOBJECTIVE: Investigate whether the right adductor pollicis muscle thickness is a reliable method to evaluate the nutritional status of surgical patients and whether it correlates or not correlate to other anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical parameters. METHODS: Cross-sectional study evaluating 87 patients candidates to major operations of the gastrointestinal tract. All were submitted to global subjective evaluation, traditional anthropometry (arm circumpherence ; triceps skin fold; and arm muscle circumpherence, serum albumin, lymphocytes and measurement of in both hands. RESULTS: The mean right adductor pollicis muscle thickness in dominant hand was 12,64 ± 3,19 mm and in non-dominant hand (EMAPND 12,23 ± 2,9 mm. Sensitivity was 72,37% for left adductor pollicis muscle and 77,33% for left adductor pollicis

  9. Estudo epidemiológico das rupturas tendinosas do mecanismo extensor do joelho em um hospital de nível I Epidemiological study on tendon ruptures of the knee extensor mechanism at a level 1 hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O propósito do presente estudo é revisar aspectos epidemiológicos das rupturas tendinosas do aparelho extensor do joelho em hospital de nível I. MÉTODOS: Analisamos, retrospectivamente, 76 lesões do mecanismo extensor do joelho, tratadas cirurgicamente no Hospital Municipal Miguel Couto, no período de março de 2004 a março de 2011. Levamos em consideração idade, sexo, mecanismo de trauma, classificação anatômica da lesão, lado acometido, comorbidades e lesões associadas. RESULTADOS: Dos pacientes estudados, 68 eram do sexo masculino, com idade média de 36 anos. Quanto ao mecanismo de trauma, 62 foram por trauma direto, 21 casos foram do lado direito, oito apresentavam comorbidades e quatro tiveram lesões associadas. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos pacientes foi do sexo masculino, na faixa etária economicamente ativa (jovens, e vítima de trauma direto, sendo as rupturas do ligamento patelar as lesões mais comuns. Lesões associadas são raras, e as comorbidades foram pouco frequentes em nossa casuística.OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to review the epidemiological aspects of tendon ruptures of the knee extensor apparatus at a level 1 hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively ana lyzed 76 lesions of the knee extensor apparatus that were treated surgically at the Miguel Couto Municipal Hospital between March 2004 and March 2011. We took into consideration age, sex, trauma mechanism, anatomical classification of the lesion, affected side, comorbidities and associated lesions. RESULTS: Among the patients studied, 68 were male and the mean age was 36 years. Regarding the trauma mechanism, 62 lesions occurred due to direct trauma; the right side was affected in 21 cases; eight presented comor bidities and four presented associated lesions. CONCLUSION: The majority of the patients were male, at an economically active age (young people, and were victims of direct trauma. Ruptures of the patellar ligament were the

  10. Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 during growth in degassed and gassed beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Friesen, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2016-10-17

    Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and

  11. Strength characterization of knee flexor and extensor muscles in Prader-Willi and obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baccalaro Gabriele

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background despite evidence of an obesity-related disability, there is a lack of objective muscle functional data in overweight subjects. Only few studies provide instrumental strength measurements in non-syndromal obesity, whereas no data about Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS are reported. The aim of our study was to characterize the lower limb muscle function of patients affected by PWS as compared to non-syndromal obesity and normal-weight subjects. Methods We enrolled 20 obese (O females (age: 29.1 ± 6.5 years; BMI: 38.1 ± 3.1, 6 PWS females (age: 27.2 ± 4.9 years; BMI: 45.8 ± 4.4 and 14 healthy normal-weight (H females (age: 30.1 ± 4.7 years; BMI: 21 ± 1.6. Isokinetic strength during knee flexion and extension in both lower limbs at the fixed angular velocities of 60°/s, 180°/s, 240°/s was measured with a Cybex Norm dynamometer. Results the H, O and PWS populations appear to be clearly stratified with regard to muscle strength.: PWS showed the lowest absolute peak torque (PT for knee flexor and extensor muscles as compared to O (-55% and H (-47% (P = 0.00001. O showed significantly higher strength values than H as regard to knee extension only (P = 0.0014. When strength data were normalised by body weight, PWS showed a 50% and a 70% reduction in PT as compared to O and H, respectively. Knee flexors strength values were on average half of those reported for extension in all of the three populations. Conclusion the novel aspect of our study is the determination of objective measures of muscle strength in PWS and the comparison with O and H patients. The objective characterization of muscle function performed in this study provides baseline and outcome measures that may quantify specific strength deficits amendable with tailored rehabilitation programs and monitor effectiveness of treatments.

  12. Isokinetic and isometric muscle function of the knee extensors and flexors during simulated soccer activity: effect of exercise and dehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ajmol; Williams, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of dehydration during soccer-type intermittent exercise on isokinetic and isometric muscle function. Eight soccer players performed two 90-min high-intensity intermittent shuttle-running trials without (NF) or with (FL) fluid ingestion (5 ml · kg(-1) before and 2 ml · kg(-1) every 15 min). Isokinetic and isometric strength and muscular power of knee flexors and knee extensors were measured pre-exercise, at half-time and post-exercise using isokinetic dynamometry. Sprint performance was monitored throughout the simulated-soccer exercise. Isokinetic knee strength was reduced at faster (3.13 rad · s(-1); P = 0.009) but not slower (1.05 rad · s(-1); P = 0.063) contraction speeds with exercise; however, there was no difference between FL and NF. Peak isometric strength of the knee extensors (P = 0.002) but not the knee flexors (P = 0.065) was significantly reduced with exercise with no difference between FL and NF. Average muscular power was reduced over time at both 1.05 rad · s(-1) (P = 0.01) and 3.14 rad · s(-1) (P = 0.033) but was not different between FL and NF. Mean 15-m sprint time increased with duration of exercise (P = 0.005) but was not different between FL and NF. In summary, fluid ingestion during 90 min of soccer-type exercise was unable to offset the reduction in isokinetic and isometric strength and muscular power of the knee extensors and flexors.

  13. Relation between knee extensors' strength, postural stability and variability of centre of pressure displacement during gait in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza C. de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that variability of walking is related to fall risk similarly as postural control and muscle strength. Joint potential of this group of variables for fall risk assessment is promising, however research interested in relations between them is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between knee extensors' strength, centre of pressure (COP velocity during one-leg stance and variability of COP displacement during various phases of gait cycle in middle-age women. Methods: A single group of 40 healthy women (age 56 ± 4.2 years took part in the study. For assessment of knee extensors' strength (peak torque and average work during concentric and eccentric contractions an isokinetic dynamometer was used. Mean velocity of COP during one-leg stance in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions was assessed on a force plate on a rigid surface with eyes open (two 30 s trials. Variability of COP displacement was assessed for loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing gait cycle phases (determined by vertical ground reaction force in AP and ML directions. It was measured by two force plates positioned in the middle of an 8 m walkway (5 trials at a self-selected speed. For statistical analysis of relationships between variables Pearson correlation was applied. Results: Our results showed significant correlations between eccentric peak torque and COP velocity in AP direction during one-leg stance, eccentric and concentric peak torque and COP variability during loading response in both ML and AP directions and during terminal stance in AP direction. Conclusion: Loading response and terminal stance seems to be more related to knee extensors' strength. Variables derived from postural stability assessment during one-leg stance are independent from variables derived from assessment of COP displacement variability during walking.

  14. Inactivation of Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacillus brevis in Low-fat Milk by Pulsed Electric Field Treatment: A Pilot-scale Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Joon; Han, Bok Kung; Choi, Hyuk Joon; Kang, Shin Ho; Baick, Seung Chun; Lee, Dong-Un

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment on microbial inactivation and the physical properties of low-fat milk. Milk inoculated with Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, or Lactobacillus brevis was supplied to a pilot-scale PEF treatment system at a flow rate of 30 L/h. Pulses with an electric field strength of 10 kV/cm and a pulse width of 30 μs were applied to the milk with total pulse energies of 50-250 kJ/L achieved by varying the pulse frequency. The inactivation curves of the test microorganisms were biphasic with an initial lag phase (or shoulder) followed by a phase of rapid inactivation. PEF treatments with a total pulse energy of 200 kJ/L resulted in a 4.5-log reduction in E. coli, a 4.4-log reduction in L. brevis, and a 6.0-log reduction in S. cerevisiae. Total pulse energies of 200 and 250 kJ/L resulted in greater than 5-log reductions in microbial counts in stored PEF-treated milk, and the growth of surviving microorganisms was slow during storage for 15 d at 4℃. PEF treatment did not change milk physical properties such as pH, color, or particle-size distribution (pelectric-field strength of 10 kV/cm can be used to pasteurize low-fat milk.

  15. Survival of the biocontrol agents Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116 on the spikes of barley in the field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin; ZHANG Bing-xin; ZHANG Zhen; SHEN Wei-feng; YANG Ching-hong; YU Jing-quan; ZHAO Yu-hua

    2005-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a devastating disease that results in extensive yield losses to wheat and barley. A green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing plasmid pRP22-GFP was constructed for monitoring the colonization of two biocontrol agents, Brevibacillus brevis ZJY-1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY-116, on the spikes of barley and their effect on suppression of FHB. Survival and colonization of the Brevibacillus brevis ZJY- 1 and Bacillus subtilis ZJY- 116 strains on spikes of barley were observed by tracking the bacterial transformants with GFP expression. Our field study revealed that plasmid pRP22-GFP was stably maintained in the bacterial strains without selective pressure. The retrieved GFP-tagged strains showed that the bacterial population fluctuation accorded with that of the rain events. Furthermore, both biocontrol strains gave significant protection against FHB on spikes of barley in fields. The greater suppression of barley FHB disease was resulted from the treatment of barley spikes with biocontrol agents before inoculation with F. graminearum.

  16. Effect of the gastrointestinal environment on pH homeostasis of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis cells as measured by real-time fluorescence ratio-imaging microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Ryssel, Mia; Nielsen, Dennis S; Siegumfeldt, Henrik; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-04-01

    In the present work, an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was developed to obtain real-time observations of the pH homeostasis of single cells of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. strains as a measure of their physiological state. Changes in the intracellular pH (pHi) were determined using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) for potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3 and Lactobacillus brevis UFLA FFC199. Heterogeneous populations were observed, with pHi values ranging from 6.5 to 7.5, 3.5 to 5.6 and 6.5 to 8.0 or higher during passage of saliva (pH 6.4), gastric (pH 3.5) and intestinal juices (pH 6.4), respectively. When nutrients were added to gastric juice, the isolate L. brevis significantly decreased its pH(i) closer to the extracellular pH (pH(ex)) than in gastric juice without nutrients. This was not the case for L. plantarum. This study is the first to produce an in vitro GIT model enabling real-time monitoring of pH homeostasis of single cells in response to the wide range of pH(ex) of the GIT. Furthermore, it was possible to observe the heterogeneous response of single cells. The technique can be used to determine the survival and physiological conditions of potential probiotics and other microorganisms during passage through the GIT.

  17. Effect of the gastrointestinal environment on pH homeostasis of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis cells as measured by real-time fluorescence ratio-imaging microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramos, Cíntia Lacerda; Thorsen, Line; Ryssel, Mia;

    2014-01-01

    using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) for potential probiotic strains of Lactobacillus plantarum UFLA CH3 and Lactobacillus brevis UFLA FFC199. Heterogeneous populations were observed, with pHi values ranging from 6.5 to 7.5, 3.5 to 5.6 and 6.5 to 8.0 or higher during passage of saliva (p......In the present work, an in vitro model of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) was developed to obtain real-time observations of the pH homeostasis of single cells of probiotic Lactobacillus spp. strains as a measure of their physiological state. Changes in the intracellular pH (pHi) were determined......H 6.4), gastric (pH 3.5) and intestinal juices (pH 6.4), respectively. When nutrients were added to gastric juice, the isolate L. brevis significantly decreased its pHi closer to the extracellular pH (pHex) than in gastric juice without nutrients. This was not the case for L. plantarum. This study...

  18. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.;

    2009-01-01

    The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise followed by 90-s of intense exercise (HI; 65+/-8 W). Temperatures were continuously measured in m. vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) and successive muscle biopsies were obtained from VL. During MOD, muscle...

  19. Limb salvage after infected knee arthroplasty with bone loss and extensor mechanism deficiency using a modular segmental replacement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdari, Surena; Milby, Andrew H; Garino, Jonathan P

    2011-09-01

    Multiple total knee arthroplasty revisions pose significant surgical challenges, such as bone loss and soft tissue compromise. For patients with bone loss and extensor mechanism insufficiency after total knee arthroplasty, arthrodesis is a treatment option for the avoidance of amputation. However, arthrodesis is both difficult to achieve in situations with massive bone loss and potentially undesirable due to the dramatic shortening that follows. Although intramedullary nailing for knee arthrodesis has been widely reported, this technique has traditionally relied on the achievement of bony union. We report a case of a patient with massive segmental bone loss in which a modular intercalary prosthesis was used for arthrodesis to preserve limb length without bony union.

  20. Influence of acetaminophen and ibuprofen on in vivo patellar tendon adaptations to knee extensor resistance exercise in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, C C; Dickinson, J M; LeMoine, J K

    2011-01-01

    training. Thirty-six individuals were randomly assigned to a placebo (67 ± 2 yr old), acetaminophen (64 ± 1 yr old; 4,000 mg/day), or ibuprofen (64 ± 1 yr old; 1,200 mg/day) group in a double-blind manner and completed 12 wk of knee extensor resistance training. Before and after training in vivo patellar...... adults induces modest changes in the mechanical properties of the patellar tendon. Over-the-counter doses of acetaminophen, but not ibuprofen, have a strong influence on tendon mechanical and material property adaptations to resistance training. These findings add to a growing body of evidence...

  1. Anterolateral thigh free flap for simultaneous reconstruction of digital extensor tendon and defect of the dorsal hand: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Man-Yi Cui; Hui Shen

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique in the repair of the hand defect with digital extensor tendon injury.The anterolateral thigh flap with the thick femoral fascia has been used in the reconstruction of the composite defect of the dorsal hand,especially the defect of tendon.This technique requires short period of treatment and hence causes less damage to the donor site but shows a better recovery of the hand function.A favorable curative effect has been obtained in this patient.

  2. 短短芽孢杆菌降解芘的细胞毒性分析%Cytotoxicity Assay of Pyrene Biodegradation byBrevibacillus brevis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖丽萍; 尹华; 刘芷辰; 叶锦韶; 彭辉; 刘则华

    2015-01-01

    近年来国内外对芘微生物降解过程中的菌种选育、降解性能和降解产物分析等相关报道较多,但针对芘降解菌与芘的分子作用机制研究却不多见。为了探明降解菌短短芽孢杆菌(Brevibacillus brevis)与芘的分子作用机制,考察了B. brevis对质量浓度为1.0 mg·L-1的芘的生物降解,分析了在无机盐培养基中B. brevis与芘作用过程中,其细胞凋亡规律及膜电位的变化,以期从细胞毒性的角度揭示PAHs的微生物降解机理。实验结果显示芘的降解率随着处理时间的增加而呈上升趋势, B. brevis对芘的降解率在168 h达到56.5%。在芘的降解过程中,细胞出现显著的凋亡现象,细胞总凋亡率与细胞早期凋亡率均在48 h时达到峰值,之后均随时间的延长而下降,168 h时细胞早期凋亡率与总凋亡率均小于0.5%,菌体依然对芘具有降解能力。随着细胞凋亡的发生,细胞膜电位下降,即细胞膜电位发生去极化现象,说明细胞外的芘与 K+共转运进入细胞内,从而有助于菌体对芘的吸收与降解。%Although there have been many reports on the isolation of pyrene degrading stains, pyrene degradation characteristics and its catabolites, the information regarding molecular mechanism between degrading bacteria and pyrene is limited thus far. To explore the molecular mechanism between degrading bacteriumBrevibacillus brevis and pyrene, the biodegradation of pyrene (1.0 mg·L-1) byB. brevis, as well as the cell apoptosis and changes of membrane potential ofB. brevis under pyrene exposure in mineral salt medium (MSM) was conducted to reveal the mechanism of pyrene biodegradation from the perspective of cytotoxicity. The experimental results showed that pyrene degradation efficiency increased with time. And the biodegradation efficiency of pyrene by B. brevis reached 56.5% after 168 h. In the degradation process, pyrene significantly induced the cell

  3. Ruptura bilateral e simultânea do mecanismo extensor do joelho em um pré-adolescente: relato de caso Simultaneous bilateral tear of the knee extensor mechanism in a pre-adolescent: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pires e Albuquerque

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A ruptura do tendão patelar de um lado e um sleeve fracture contralateral em um pré-adolescente são uma lesão rara. Nós relatamos um caso em um pré-adolescente que caiu enquanto saltava durante uma partida de futebol. Não foram diagnosticados fatores predisponentes. As lesões foram tratadas com os reparos cirúrgicos e suturas transósseas. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi apresentar um caso de ruptura concorrente e espontânea do mecanismo extensor do joelho em um pré-adolescente.Unilateral tearing of a patellar tendon and a contralateral sleeve fracture in a pre-adolescent are rare lesions. We report a case in which a pre-adolescent sustained a fall while jumping during a soccer match. No predisposing risk factors were identified. The injuries were treated with surgical repairs and transosseous suturing. The aim of this study was to present a case of spontaneous concurrent tearing of the extensor mechanism of the knee in a pre-adolescent.

  4. Radial ridge excision for symptomatic volar tendon subluxation following de Quervain's release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Evan D

    2014-09-01

    Traditional surgical release to address de Quervain's stenosing tenosynovitis can lead to the rare complication of volar tendon subluxation. This study presents a surgical procedure, which entails excision of the radial ridge as an alternative treatment to relieve pain associated with symptomatic volar tendon subluxation following de Quervain's release. The procedure was performed on 6 patients complaining of painful volar tendon subluxation of abductor pollicis longus (APL) and extensor pollicis brevis (EPB), following a first dorsal compartment release and postoperative splinting. We opened the same incision sharply, with direct view of the tendons of the first dorsal compartment. The wrist was ranged through extension and flexion, and volar subluxation of the APL and EPB over the prominent radial ridge was confirmed. The bony portion of the radial ridge was excised and filed smooth. The periosteal flap is advanced over the ridge and sutured into place. The APL and EPB tendons were released from dorsal retractors. All patients reported relief upon follow-up. Excision of this ridge removes the obtrusive friction to the APL and EPB tendons, allowing them to glide painlessly over the radial styloid.

  5. De Qeurvian Tenosynovitis: Clinical Outcomes of Surgical Treatment with Longitudinal and Transverse Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arefah Dehghani Tafti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: De Quervain disease is a mechanical tenosynovitis due to inadequacy volume between abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis and their tunnel. Treatment methods include immobilization, steroid injections, and operation. For the first time Fritz De Quervain described surgical treatment of this disease. Since then, various ways of treatment have been reported. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical outcomes of a longitudinal incision with a transverse incision in De Quervain disease.Methods: This was a randomized controlled clinical trial conducted in three hospitals in Iran, Yazd from March 2003 to September 2008. One hundred-twenty patients with De Quervain disease who did not respond to conservative treatment were operated with two different incisions. The patients were followed for three months to compare the surgical outcomes.Results: During a three month follow-up, a significant difference was shown between the two methods (p=0.03. Results of surgical treatment with longitudinal incision were excellent (only 5 hypertrophic scars, but there were 13 postoperative complaints with transverse incision.Conclusion: According to our findings, longitudinal incision in surgical treatment of De Quervain disease is better than transverse incision.

  6. Effect of shoulder angle on the activation pattern of the elbow extensors during a submaximal isometric fatiguing contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Andrew W; Rice, Charles L

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of shoulder angle on the electromyographic (EMG) activation pattern of the elbow extensors during a fatiguing contraction. Ten young men (23.5 ± 1.7) were tested on two occasions with the elbow angle at 90° and the shoulder at either 0° or 90° of flexion. EMG was recorded by fine wire electrodes inserted into the lateral, medial, and long heads of the triceps brachii and the anconeus. An EMG-torque relationship was determined prior to a sustained isometric contraction at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) until target failure. Endurance time was shorter, and postfatigue MVC torque was lower at 90° (40.4 ± 12.7 Nm) versus 0° (47.9 ± 14.7 Nm) of flexion. EMG activity of the long head during the final 10% of the fatiguing contraction was significantly greater at 90° versus 0° with no effect of shoulder angle on any other muscle portions. The findings suggest that measures from one muscle portion of the elbow extensors are not representative of the whole group, and the relative activation of the two-joint long head was changed depending on shoulder angle during a fatigue task.

  7. Comparison of elasticity of human tendon and aponeurosis in knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Keitaro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2005-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the elasticity of tendon and aponeurosis in human knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors in vivo and to examine whether the maximal strain of tendon was correlated to that of aponeurosis. The elongation of tendon and aponeurosis during isometric knee extension (n = 23) and ankle plantar flexion (n = 22), respectively, were determined using a real-time ultrasonic apparatus, while the participants performed ramp isometric contractions up to voluntary maximum. To calculate the strain values from the measured elongation, we measured the respective length of tendon and aponeurosis. For the knee extensors, the maximal strain of aponeurosis (12.1 +/- 2.8 %) was significantly greater than that of the patella tendon (8.3 +/- 2.4 %), p aponeurosis in ankle plantar flexors (2.7 +/- 1.4 %), p plantar flexors there was no significant correlation between maximal strain of tendon and aponeurosis. These results would be important for understanding the different roles of tendon and aponeurosis during human movements and for more accurate muscle modeling.

  8. Effect of acute dietary nitrate intake on maximal knee extensor speed and power in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Andrew R; Leibowitz, Joshua L; Kadkhodayan, Ana; Thomas, Deepak P; Ramamurthy, Sujata; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Waller, Suzanne; Farmer, Marsha; Peterson, Linda R

    2015-08-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated to enhance the maximal shortening velocity and maximal power of rodent muscle. Dietary nitrate (NO3(-)) intake has been demonstrated to increase NO bioavailability in humans. We therefore hypothesized that acute dietary NO3(-) intake (in the form of a concentrated beetroot juice (BRJ) supplement) would improve muscle speed and power in humans. To test this hypothesis, healthy men and women (n = 12; age = 22-50 y) were studied using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested 140 mL of BRJ either containing or devoid of 11.2 mmol of NO3(-). After 2 h, knee extensor contractile function was assessed using a Biodex 4 isokinetic dynamometer. Breath NO levels were also measured periodically using a Niox Mino analyzer as a biomarker of whole-body NO production. No significant changes in breath NO were observed in the placebo trial, whereas breath NO rose by 61% (P power at the highest angular velocity tested (i.e., 6.28 rad/s). Calculated maximal knee extensor power was therefore greater (i.e., 7.90 ± 0.59 vs. 7.44 ± 0.53 W/kg; P power in healthy men and women.

  9. Changes in the activity of trunk and hip extensor muscles during bridge exercises with variations in unilateral knee joint angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juseung; Park, Minchul

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared abdominal and hip extensor muscle activity during a bridge exercise with various knee joint angles. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-two healthy male subjects performed a bridge exercise in which the knee joint angle was altered. While subjects performed the bridge exercise, external oblique, internal oblique, gluteus maximus, and semitendinosus muscle activity was measured using electromyography. [Results] The bilateral external and internal oblique muscle activity was significantly higher at 0° knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The bilateral gluteus maximus muscle activity was significantly different at 0° of knee flexion compared to 120°, 90°, and 60°. The ipsilateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly increased at 90° and 60° of knee flexion compared to 120°, and significantly decreased at 0° knee flexion compared with 120°, 90°, and 60°. The contralateral semitendinosus muscle activity was significantly higher at 60° of knee flexion than at 120°, and significantly higher at 0° of knee flexion than at 120°, 90°, and 60°. [Conclusion] Bridge exercises performed with knee flexion less than 90° may be used to train the ipsilateral semitendinosus. Furthermore, bridge exercise performed with one leg may be used to train abdominal and hip extensor muscles. PMID:27799688

  10. Moments of muscular strength of knee joint extensors and flexors during physiotherapeutic procedures following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamara, Andrzej

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate maximal muscular strength moments of knee joint extensors and flexors in males subjected to physiotherapeutic procedures. 120 males were selected for the study. The first group consisted of 54 patients who underwent a 6 month physiotherapy programme following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The control group comprised 54 males without knee joint injuries. The measurement of muscular strength moments was performed in healthy and affected knee joint flexor and extensor muscles postoperatively, during the 13th and 21st week of physiotherapy. The patients' results were next compared with the results obtained in the control group. During the 13th week of physiotherapy, the values of postoperative maximal strength moments in knee joints were significantly lower compared to the results obtained in non-operated limbs and in the control group. The introduction of individual loads adjusted to the course of ACL graft reconstruction and fixation in the bone tunnel resulted in the improvement of maximal muscle strength values in the patients' knee joints from 13 to 21 weeks postoperatively. During the 21st week of physiotherapy, the values of the muscular strengths in the operated limbs were similar to those obtained in non-operated limbs of the patients and in the control group.

  11. Influence of patellofemoral bracing on pain, knee extensor torque, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Christopher M; Doubleday, Kathryn L; Escudero, Carina

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a patellofemoral brace on pain response, knee extensor torque production, and gait function in females with patellofemoral pain (PFP). Sixteen females between the ages of 14 and 46 with diagnosis of PFP participated. Knee extensor torque was measured by using a LIDO isokinetic dynamometer. Pain levels were documented by using the Visual Analog Pain Scale. Stride characteristics during the conditions of free walk, fast walk, ascend stairs, descend stairs, ascend ramp, and descend ramp were obtained with a stride analyzer unit. EMG activity of the vasti musculature was recorded by using indwelling, bipolar, wire electrodes. Knee joint motion was assessed by using a VICON motion analysis system. All testing was performed with and without the Bauerfeind Genutrain P3 patellofemoral brace. There were no significant differences in torque production, pain levels, and stride characteristics between braced and non-braced trials. In addition, there were no significant differences in mean vasti EMG between braced and non-braced trials. When averaged across all conditions, a small but statistically significant increase in knee flexion was found during the braced trials. Although the current study did not find significant improvements in the clinical measures evaluated, 8 of the 16 subjects did experience a decrease in knee pain. This finding suggests that certain patients with PFP may respond favorably to bracing, and criteria must be established to determine which patients would best benefit from such an intervention.

  12. Work and power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles in patients with osteoarthritis and after total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiani, Denise; Ritzel, Cintia Helena; Bortoluzzi, Silvia Manfrin; Vaz, Marco Aurelio

    2012-01-01

    The inflammatory manifestations of knee osteoarthritis (OA) lead to muscle inhibition and hypotrophy, resulting in a reduction in total muscle work and muscle power. Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is the most adequate surgery for the treatment of advanced OA. However, its effects on muscle functional behavior have not been well understood. To compare the total work and power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles in patients with OA (20) and in patients post-TKA (12) at two angular velocities (60º/sec and 240º/sec). An isokinetic Biodex dynamometer was used to assess muscle power and total work during isokinetic contractions. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare total muscle work and muscle power between the groups (SPSS software, version 13.0; significance level, P 0.05). In addition, no difference was observed in the muscle power of the knee extensors and flexors (P > 0.05). Total work and power were similar in the OA and TKA groups, suggesting that TKA did not improve functional capacity, which was similar in both groups.

  13. “Prolungata convivenza” oltre le nozze e mancata “delibazione” della sentenza ecclesiastica di nullità matrimoniale (brevi note a Cass. civ., sez. I, sent. 20 gennaio 2011, n. 1343

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jlia Pasquali Cerioli

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available SOMMARIO: 1. I fatti e il processo – 2. La sentenza – 3. Una decisa svolta giurisprudenziale – 4. Difficoltà applicative – 5. (segue… incerti futuri scenari - 6. Brevi conclusioni: la rinnovata vitalità del limite di ordine pubblico.

  14. Trajectory of self-reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength in young patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Østengaard, Lasse; Cardy, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the trajectory of patient reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength over time in young individuals undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis METHODS: Six databases were searched up to October 13th, 2016....... PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: People aged 30 years or younger undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear. OUTCOMES: and comparator: (1) Self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery compared to a non-operative control group (2). Knee extensor strength in the leg undergoing surgery...... compared to a healthy control group or the contra-lateral leg. Methodological quality was assessed using the SIGN 50 guidelines. RESULTS: No studies were found on patient reported pain and function. Six studies, including 137 patients were included in the analysis on knee extensor muscle strength. Knee...

  15. Left shoulder pain in a violinist, related to extensor tendon adhesions in a small scar on the back of the wrist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijnse, J N A L; Rietveld, A B M

    2013-04-01

    A female professional orchestra violin player, age 54, with an 8-year history of severe left shoulder problems, presented with reproducible, acute, incapacitating left shoulder pain when playing the lowest violin string. This complaint was found caused by compensatory left arm positions for unnoticed finger extensor excursion limitations in a well-healed scar bed from two dorsal wrist ganglion operations 11 and 13 years before. Immediately after extensor tendon mobilization in the scar bed, the patient could assume a normal playing position, which was pain free, and could return to orchestral duties without further major shoulder complaints (follow-up of 10 years). The case study presents finger extensor excursion limitations at the wrist as an unusual extra-regional risk factor for a shoulder complaint and analyses the biomechanics linking these limitations to the complaint. The case illustrates the importance of long-term post-operative hand surgery rehabilitation in musicians.

  16. Knee extensor and flexor muscle power explains stair ascension time in patients with unilateral late-stage knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, Anu M; Pöyhönen, Tapani; Manninen, Mikko; Heinonen, Ari; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2015-02-01

    To determine the extent of asymmetrical deficits in knee extensor and flexor muscles, and to examine whether asymmetrical muscle deficits are associated with mobility limitations in persons with late-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA). Cross-sectional. Research laboratory. A clinical sample (N=56; age range, 50-75y) of eligible persons with late-stage knee OA awaiting knee replacement. Not applicable. Knee extensor and flexor power and torque assessed isokinetically; thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) assessed by computed tomography; mobility limitation assessed by walking speed and stair ascension time; and pain assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire. The asymmetrical deficits in knee extensor and flexor power and torque were between 18% and 29% (Pmuscle CSA, the asymmetrical deficit was 4% (Ppower deficits and weaker knee extensor and flexor power on the contralateral side were associated with slower stair ascension times. Moreover, weaker knee extensor and flexor power on the ipsilateral side were associated with slower stair ascension times. Greater knee pain in the OA joint was independently associated with slower stair ascending time in both models. The knee extensor and flexor muscle power of both the ipsilateral and contralateral sides and the pain in the OA knee were independently associated with stair ascension times. These results highlight the importance of assessing muscle power on both sides and knee pain in the prevention of mobility limitations in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Anchors and peroneous brevis tendon augmentation and plantaris muscle tendon covering for the reconstruction of achilles tendon rupture caused by corticosteroids injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Ning

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the clinical therapeutic effects of anchors, peroneus brevis tendon augmentation and plantaris muscle tendon covering on the reconstruction of achilles tendon rupture caused by corticosteroids injection. From March 2005 to April 2010, the clinical data of 10 patients with acute achilles tendon rupture repaired with suture anchors, peroneus brevis tendon augmentation and plantaris muscle tendon covering were retrospectively analyzed. The achilles tendon rupture was caused by corticosteroids injection. There were 8 males and 2 females with a mean age of (46.80 +/- 2.83) years old(ranged from 21 to 68 years). Postoperative complications, the range of movement of affected foot, number of consecutive heel raises and single leg jumpings were recorded. Functional recovery of achilles tendon were assessed according to ankle and hindfoot scores of the American Orthopedic Foot Ankle Society (AOFAS). All patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months with an average of 13.5 months. No wound infection, re-rupture and rejection reaction were found. At the last follow-up, there was no significant difference in the range of movement between affected foot (54.5 +/- 6.3) degrees and unaffected foot (56.8 +/- 3.8) degrees (t = 0.989, P = 0.336). The affected foot could raise heel and do single-leg hops for 10 times continuosly. There was significant difference in AOFAS between preoperative score (67.3 +/- 7.6) and postoperative score (95.5 +/- 7.6) (t = 8.297, P = 0.000);and there was no significant difference between affected foot scores (95.5 +/- 7.6)and unaffected foot scores (98.5 +/- 6.3) (t = 0.961, P = 0.349). Function recovery of achilles tendon: 9 cases were good, 1 case was fine. Anchors, peroneus brevis tendon augmentation and plantaris muscle tendon covering for the reconstruction of achilles tendon rupture caused by corticosteroids injection is a reliable and effective method, with advantage of simple operation, dependable fixation and less complications.

  18. Long-term evaluation of three satellite ocean color algorithms for identifying harmful algal blooms (Karenia brevis) along the west coast of Florida: A matchup assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Gustavo A; Minnett, Peter J; Banzon, Viva F; Baringer, Warner; Heil, Cynthia A

    2011-01-17

    We present a simple algorithm to identify Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico along the west coast of Florida in satellite imagery. It is based on an empirical analysis of collocated matchups of satellite and in situ measurements. The results of this Empirical Approach is compared to those of a Bio-optical Technique - taken from the published literature - and the Operational Method currently implemented by the NOAA Harmful Algal Bloom Forecasting System for K. brevis blooms. These three algorithms are evaluated using a multi-year MODIS data set (from July, 2002 to October, 2006) and a long-term in situ database. Matchup pairs, consisting of remotely-sensed ocean color parameters and near-coincident field measurements of K. brevis concentration, are used to assess the accuracy of the algorithms. Fair evaluation of the algorithms was only possible in the central west Florida shelf (i.e. between 25.75°N and 28.25°N) during the boreal Summer and Fall months (i.e. July to December) due to the availability of valid cloud-free matchups. Even though the predictive values of the three algorithms are similar, the statistical measure of success in red tide identification (defined as cell counts in excess of 1.5 × 10(4) cells L(-1)) varied considerably (sensitivity-Empirical: 86%; Bio-optical: 77%; Operational: 26%), as did their effectiveness in identifying non-bloom cases (specificity-Empirical: 53%; Bio-optical: 65%; Operational: 84%). As the Operational Method had an elevated frequency of false-negative cases (i.e. presented low accuracy in detecting known red tides), and because of the considerable overlap between the optical characteristics of the red tide and non-bloom population, only the other two algorithms underwent a procedure for further inspecting possible detection improvements. Both optimized versions of the Empirical and Bio-optical algorithms performed similarly, being equally specific and sensitive (~70% for both) and showing low levels of

  19. Avaliação da altura patelar em atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho

    OpenAIRE

    Emerson Garms; Rogério Teixeira de Carvalho; Leonardo Addeo Ramos; Jorge Sayum Filho; Marcelo Mitsuro Matsuda; Moisés Cohen

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiograficamente a altura patelar de atletas com diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (TCAE). MÉTODOS: Na amostra foram avaliados radiograficamente 65 pacientes (110 joelhos) com idade entre 15 e 40 anos e de diferentes modalidades esportivas com e sem diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (jumper's knee). Os atletas foram divididos em dois grupos: aqueles com diagnóstico de TCAE (grupo 1: 38 atletas - 56 joelhos) e...

  20. Avaliação da altura patelar em atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho

    OpenAIRE

    Garms, Emerson [UNIFESP; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Ramos, Leonardo Addeo; Sayum Filho,Jorge; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Cohen, Moisés

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiograficamente a altura patelar de atletas com diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (TCAE). MÉTODOS: Na amostra foram avaliados radiograficamente 65 pacientes (110 joelhos) com idade entre 15 e 40 anos e de diferentes modalidades esportivas com e sem diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (jumper's knee). Os atletas foram divididos em dois grupos: aqueles com diagnóstico de TCAE (grupo 1: 38 atletas - 56 joelhos) e...

  1. Dispositivo de proteção após reparação das rupturas do mecanismo extensor do joelho Protection device on the repair of ruptures of knee extensor mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Francisco Arguello Frutos

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar os resultados obtidos com a realização da técnica de dispositivo de proteção nos pacientes submetidos à osteossíntese ou sutura de lesões do mecanismo extensor. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 18 prontuários de pacientes que sofreram lesões traumáticas do aparelho extensor interessando a região entre a tuberosidade anterior da tíbia (TAT e o ápice da patela submetido à técnica de dispositivo de proteção. A idade variou de 22 a 69 anos, com média de 44 anos. Houve predomínio do sexo masculino em 67 % dos casos. O local mais acometido em 83 % dos casos foi o 1/3 apical da patela. Foi elaborado um protocolo para coleta dos dados informativos relacionando os pacientes e a sua evolução obtida em seus prontuários. RESULTADOS: Observamos a consolidação da fratura de patela em todos os 17 pacientes, e a cicatrização do ligamento patelar num único caso. A dor esteve presente em quatro pacientes, sendo que não observamos nenhuma outra complicação relacionada com a técnica cirúrgica. CONCLUSÃO: O dispositivo de proteção é eficiente quando aplicado no tratamento operatório das lesões que se localizam entre o ápice da patela e a TAT propiciando movimentação ativa e passiva no pós-operatório imediato.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate results obtained using the protection device technique for osteosintesis or suture of extensor mechanism lesions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors reviewed 18 charts of patients submitted to protection device technique due to traumatic lesion of extensor mechanism that had occurred between the anterior tibial tuberosity and the apical portion of patella. Age ranged from 22 to 69 years, with a mean of 44 years. Male patients prevailed, with 67% of the cases. The most affected spot was, in 83% of the cases, the apical distal third. A protocol was created to collect data, listing the patients and the clinical history from their medical records. RESULTS: The authors observed consolidation

  2. A Harmful Algal Bloom of Karenia brevis in the Northeastern Gulf of Mexico as Revealed by MODIS and VIIRS: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanmin Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS is not equipped with a spectral band to detect solar-stimulated phytoplankton fluorescence. The lack of such a band may affect the ability of VIIRS to detect and quantify harmful algal blooms (HABs in coastal waters rich in colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM because of the overlap of CDOM and chlorophyll absorption within the blue-green spectrum. A recent HAB dominated by the toxin-producing dinoflagellate Karenia brevis in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico, offshore of Florida’s Big Bend region, allowed for comparison of the capacities of VIIRS and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS to detect blooms in CDOM-rich waters. Both VIIRS and MODIS showed general consistency in mapping the CDOM-rich dark water, which measured a maximum area of 8900 km2 by mid-July 2014. However, within the dark water, only MODIS allowed detection of bloom patches—as indicated by high normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH. Field surveys between late July and mid-September confirmed Karenia brevis at bloom abundances up to 20 million cells·L−1 within these patches. The bloom patches were well captured by the MODIS nFLH images, but not by the default chlorophyll a concentration (Chla images from either MODIS or VIIRS. Spectral analysis showed that VIIRS could not discriminate these high-phytoplankton water patches within the dark water due to its lack of fluorescence band. Such a deficiency may be overcome with new algorithms or future satellite missions such as the U.S. NASA’s Pre-Aerosol-Clouds-Ecology mission and the European Space Agency’s Sentinel-3 mission.

  3. A Two-stage pH and Temperature Control with Substrate Feeding Strategy for Production of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid by Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春龙; 黄俊; 胡升; 赵伟睿; 姚善泾; 梅乐和

    2013-01-01

    Methods to optimize the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 were investigated. Results indicated that cell growth was maximal at pH 5.0, while pH 4.5 was pref-erable to GABA formation. The optimal temperature for cell growth (35 °C) was lower than that for GABA forma-tion (40 °C). In a two-stage pH and temperature control fermentation, cultures were maintained at pH 5.0 and 35 °C for 32 h, then adjusted to pH 4.5 and 40 °C, GABA production increased remarkably and reached 474.79 mmol·L-1 at 72 h, while it was 398.63 mmol·L-1 with one stage pH and temperature control process, in which cultivation con-ditions were constantly controlled at pH 5.0 and 35 °C. In order to avoid the inhibition of cell growth at higher L-monosodium glutamate (L-MSG) concentrations, the two-stage control fermentation with substrate feeding strat-egy was applied to GABA production, with 106.87 mmol (20 g) L-MSG supplemented into the shaking-flask at 32 h and 56 h post-inoculation separately. The GABA concentration reached 526.33 mmol·L-1 at 72 h with the fer-mentation volume increased by 38%. These results will provide primary data to realize large-scale production of GABA by L. brevis CGMCC 1306.

  4. Coyote (Canis latrans) and domestic dog (Canis familiaris) mortality and morbidity due to a Karenia brevis red tide in the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Kevin T; Flewelling, Leanne J; Bryan, John; Kramer, Adam; Lindsay, James; Nevada, Cheyenne; Stablein, Wade; Wong, David; Landsberg, Jan H

    2013-10-01

    In October 2009, during a Karenia brevis red tide along the Texas coast, millions of dead fish washed ashore along the 113-km length of Padre Island National Seashore (PAIS). Between November 2009 and January 2010, at least 12 coyotes (Canis latrans) and three domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) died or were euthanized at PAIS or local veterinary clinics because of illness suspected to be related to the red tide. Another red tide event occurred during autumn 2011 and, although fewer dead fish were observed relative to the 2009 event, coyotes again were affected. Staff at PAIS submitted carcasses of four coyotes and one domestic dog from November 2009 to February 2010 and six coyotes from October to November 2011 for necropsy and ancillary testing. High levels of brevetoxins (PbTxs) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in seven of the coyotes and the dog, with concentrations up to 634 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in stomach contents, 545 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in liver, 195 ng PbTx-3 eq/g in kidney, and 106 ng PbTx-3 eq/mL in urine samples. Based on red tide presence, clinical signs, and postmortem findings, brevetoxicosis caused by presumptive ingestion of toxic dead fish was the likely cause of canid deaths at PAIS. These findings represent the first confirmed report of terrestrial mammalian wildlife mortalities related to a K. brevis bloom. The implications for red tide impacts on terrestrial wildlife populations are a potentially significant but relatively undocumented phenomenon.

  5. Evolution and homologies of primate and modern human hand and forearm muscles, with notes on thumb movements and tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Richmond, Brian G; Wood, Bernard

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we explore how the results of a primate-wide higher-level phylogenetic analysis of muscle characters can improve our understanding of the evolution and homologies of the forearm and hand muscles of modern humans. Contrary to what is often suggested in the literature, none of the forearm and hand muscle structures usually present in modern humans are autapomorphic. All are found in one or more extant non-human primate taxa. What is unique is the particular combination of muscles. However, more muscles go to the thumb in modern humans than in almost all other primates, reinforcing the hypothesis that focal thumb movements probably played an important role in human evolution. What makes the modern human thumb myology special within the primate clade is not so much its intrinsic musculature but two extrinsic muscles, extensor pollicis brevis and flexor pollicis longus, that are otherwise only found in hylobatids. It is likely that these two forearm muscles play different functional roles in hylobatids and modern humans. In the former, the thumb is separated from elongated digits by a deep cleft and there is no pulp-to-pulp opposition, whereas modern humans exhibit powerful thumb flexion and greater manipulative abilities, such as those involved in the manufacture and use of tools. The functional and evolutionary significance of a third peculiar structure, the intrinsic hand structure that is often called the 'interosseous volaris primus of Henle' (and which we suggest is referred to as the musculus adductor pollicis accessorius) is still obscure. The presence of distinct contrahentes digitorum and intermetacarpales in adult chimpanzees is likely the result of prolonged or delayed development of the hand musculature of these apes. In relation to these structures, extant chimpanzees are more neotenic than modern humans. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isokinetic assessment of knee flexor/extensor muscular strength in elderly women Avaliação isocinética do torque muscular flexor-extensor do joelho em mulheres com idade entre 75-83 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Amorim Aquino

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess knee flexor-extensor muscular strength in elderly women with no previous history of musculoskeletal disorders on the lower limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer, in order to obtain data that could be used as a comparative parameter in the evaluation of elderly women with knee disorders, thus facilitating a better rehabilitation of these patients. METHODS: Twenty-six volunteers aged 75 to 83 years were studied using a Cybex® 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. The chosen angular velocity was 60 º/s, and concentric exercise was used for either flexion or extension. The studied parameters were: peak torque, angle of peak torque, and flexor-extensor torque rate. RESULTS: There were no differences between dominant (D and nondominant (ND knee peak torque values. This was true for both flexor (D = 42.46 ± 9.09 Nm / ND = 40.65 ± 9.38 Nm and extensor (D = 76.92 ± 13.97 Nm / ND = 77.65 ± 15.21 Nm movements. The descriptive statistical analysis of the values obtained for the flexor-extensor peak torque rate and for the angle of occurrence of peak torque was the same for the dominant and nondominant sides. CONCLUSIONS: The values of peak torque for the contralateral side can be used as a reference during rehabilitation of elderly women with acute disease of the knee, and the angular velocity of 60 º/s is proper and safe for isokinetic assessment of elderly people.OBJETIVO: Avaliar, isocineticamente, o torque dos músculos flexores e extensores dos joelhos de mulheres idosas sem afecções do sistema músculo-esquelético em membros inferiores, obtendo dados que possam servir como parâmetro de comparação na avaliação de mulheres idosas portadoras de afecções nos joelhos, colaborando para uma melhor reabilitação dessas pacientes. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis voluntárias foram avaliadas. O estudo foi realizado através de um dinamômetro isocinético marca CYBEXâ modelo 6000 na velocidade angular de 60º/s. O tipo do

  7. Twitch potentiation induced by stimulated and voluntary isometric contractions at various torque levels in human knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yanai, Toshimasa; Kawakami, Yasuo

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the extent of twitch potentiation (TP) after stimulated or voluntary contractions at identical intensities for the human knee extensor muscles. Isometric knee extensions of 10 s were performed at 20%, 40%, and 60% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque level, through percutaneous electrical stimulation of the quadriceps at 80 Hz or voluntary contraction. Twitch responses were evoked by stimulating the femoral nerve percutaneously with supramaximal intensity. The extent of TP after the stimulated contraction was greater than that after the voluntary contraction at the 20% MVC torque level, whereas a stimulated contraction induced a smaller extent of TP than did a voluntary contraction at contraction intensities higher than 40% MVC. We suggest that this contraction intensity dependence of differences in TP after stimulated and voluntary isometric conditioning contractions is responsible for differences in the recruitment pattern of motor units during the conditioning contractions.

  8. Anatomy of the inferior extensor retinaculum and its role in lateral ankle ligament reconstruction: a pictorial essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau-Pastor, M; Yasui, Y; Calder, J D; Karlsson, J; Kerkhoffs, G M M J; Kennedy, J G

    2016-04-01

    The inferior extensor retinaculum (IER) is an aponeurotic structure, which is in continuation with the anterior part of the sural fascia. The IER has often been used to augment the reconstruction of the lateral ankle ligaments, for instance in the Broström-Gould procedure, with good outcomes reported. However, its anatomy has not been described in detail and only a few studies are available on this structure. The presence of a non-constant oblique supero-lateral band appears to be important. This structure defines whether the augmentation of the lateral ankle ligaments reconstruction is performed using true IER or only the anterior part of the sural fascia. It is concluded that the use of this structure will have an impact on the resulting ankle stability.

  9. Reduced rate of knee extensor torque development in older adults with knee osteoarthritis is associated with intrinsic muscle contractile deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Damien M; Tourville, Timothy W; Slauterbeck, James R; Ades, Philip A; Stevens-Lapsley, Jennifer; Beynnon, Bruce D; Toth, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    We examined the effect of knee osteoarthritis on the rate of torque development (RTD) of the knee extensors in older adults with advanced-stage knee osteoarthritis (OA; n=15) and recreationally-active controls (n=15) of similar age, sex and health status, as well as the relationship between RTD and the size and contractility of single muscle fibers. OA participants had lower RTD when expressed in absolute terms (Nm/ms). There were sex differences in peak RTD (Ptorque (PT). In knee OA volunteers, we found strong correlations between the RTD expressed relative to PT and the velocity of contraction of single myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIA/X muscle fibers (r=0.652 and 0.862; both Pknee osteoarthritis and healthy older adults is related, in part, to the size and function of single muscle fibers.

  10. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  11. A rare case of bicondylar Hoffa fracture associated with ipsilateral tibial spine avulsion and extensor mechanism disruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kamal Bali; Aditya Krishna Mootha; Vibhu Krishnan; Vishal Kumar; Saurabh Rawall

    2011-01-01

    Intra-articular coronal fractures (Hoffas fractures) of distal femur are rare. Although bicondylar involvement in these fractures has been reported in the literature in association with high velocity traumata, the occurrence of these fractures involving extensor mechanism rupture and avulsion of ipsilateral tibial spine is extremely rare. To our acquaintance, such a fracture pattern has not yet been reported in the literature so far. In this article, we report one such case and discuss the importance of early diagnosis and prompt internal fixation in the management of such cases. We believe that these rare combinations of injuries should be treated aggressively by early open reduction and anatomic rigid internal fixation in order toachieve good recovery of function.

  12. High altitude increases alteration in maximal torque but not in rapid torque development in knee extensors after repeated treadmill sprinting

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    Olivier eGIRARD

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 x 5-s all-out sprints (passive recovery = 25 s on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%, at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.6% and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3% normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively. Explosive (∼1 s; fast instruction and maximal (∼5 s; hard instruction voluntary isometric contractions (MVC of the knee extensors, with concurrent electromyographic (EMG activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL and rectus femoris (RF muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS rise from 0 to 30, -50, -100 and -200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P>0.05 in all conditions. A larger (P0.05. Irrespectively of condition (P>0.05, peak RTD (-6±11%; P0.05, whereas it increased (P<0.05 for RF muscle during all epochs post-exercise, independently of the conditions. In summary, alteration in repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia.

  13. High Altitude Increases Alteration in Maximal Torque but Not in Rapid Torque Development in Knee Extensors after Repeated Treadmill Sprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Millet, Grégoire P.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed knee extensor neuromuscular adjustments following repeated treadmill sprints in different normobaric hypoxia conditions, with special reference to rapid muscle torque production capacity. Thirteen team- and racquet-sport athletes undertook 8 × 5-s “all-out” sprints (passive recovery = 25 s) on a non-motorized treadmill in normoxia (NM; FiO2 = 20.9%), at low (LA; FiO2 = 16.8%) and high (HA; FiO2 = 13.3%) normobaric hypoxia (simulated altitudes of ~1800 m and ~3600 m, respectively). Explosive (~1 s; “fast” instruction) and maximal (~5 s; “hard” instruction) voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the knee extensors (KE), with concurrent electromyographic (EMG) activity recordings of the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) muscles, were performed before and 1-min post-exercise. Rate of torque development (RTD) and EMG (i.e., Root Mean Square or RMS) rise from 0 to 30, −50, −100, and −200 ms were recorded, and were also normalized to maximal torque and EMG values, respectively. Distance covered during the first 5-s sprint was similar (P > 0.05) in all conditions. A larger (P sprint decrement score and a shorter (P sprints occurred in HA (−8 ± 4% and 178 ± 11 m) but not in LA (−7 ± 3% and 181 ± 10 m) compared to NM (−5 ± 2% and 183 ± 9 m). Compared to NM (−9 ± 7%), a larger (P 0.05). Irrespectively of condition (P > 0.05), peak RTD (−6 ± 11%; P 0.05), whereas it increased (P repeated-sprint ability and post-exercise MVC decrease were greater at high altitude than in normoxia or at low altitude. However, the post-exercise alterations in RTD were similar between normoxia and low-to-high hypoxia. PMID:27014095

  14. Improved knee extensor strength with resistance training associates with muscle specific miRNAs in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tan; Birbrair, Alexander; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, María L; Marsh, Anthony P; Leng, Iris; Nicklas, Barbara J; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2015-02-01

    Regular exercise, particularly resistance training (RT), is the only therapy known to consistently improve muscle strength and quality (force per unit of mass) in older persons, but there is considerable variability in responsiveness to training. Identifying sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of responsiveness to RT may inform the design of a more efficient exercise regimen to improve muscle strength in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression. We quantified six muscle specific miRNAs (miR-1, -133a, -133b, -206, -208b and -499) in both muscle tissue and blood plasma, and their relationship with knee extensor strength in seven older (age=70.5 ± 2.5 years) adults before and after 5 months of RT. MiRNAs differentially responded to RT; muscle miR-133b decreased, while all plasma miRNAs tended to increase. Percent changes in knee extensor strength with RT showed strong positive correlations with percent changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 and with percent changes in plasma and plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio. Baseline level of plasma or plasma/muscle miR-499 ratio further predicts muscle response to RT, while changes in muscle miR-133a, -133b, and -206 may correlate with muscle TNNT1 gene alternative splicing in response to RT. Our results indicate that RT alters muscle specific miRNAs in muscle and plasma, and that these changes account for some of the variation in strength responses to RT in older adults.

  15. The effects of lumbar extensor strength on disability and mobility in patients with persistent low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmhout, Pieter H; Witjes, Marloes; Nijhuis-VAN DER Sanden, Ria W; Bron, Carel; van Aalst, Michiel; Staal, J Bart

    2017-04-01

    It is assumed that low back pain patients who use pain-avoiding immobilizing strategies may benefit from specific back flexion and extension exercises aimed at reducing sagittal lumbar hypomobility. The aim of this study was to test this potential working mechanism in chronic low back pain patients undergoing lumbar extensor strengthening training. A single-group prospective cohort design was used in this study. Patients with persistent low back complaints for at least 2 years were recruited at a specialized physical therapy clinics center. They participated in a progressive 11-week lumbar extensor strength training program, once a week. At baseline, sagittal lumbar mobility in flexion and extension was measured with a computer-assisted inclinometer. Self-rated pain intensity was measured using a visual analogue scale, back-specific functional status was assessed with the Quebec Back Pain Disability Scale and the Patient Specific Complains questionnaire. Statistically significant improvements were found in pain (28% decrease) and functional disability (23% to 36% decrease). Most progress was seen in the first 5 treatment weeks. Lumbar mobility in flexion showed non-significant increases over time (+12%). Pre-post treatment changes in flexion and extension mobility did not contribute significantly to the models. The retained factors together explained 15% to 48% of the variation in outcome. Specific lumbar strengthening showed clinically relevant improvements in pain and disability in patients with persistent chronic low back pain. These improvements did not necessarily relate to improvements in lumbar mobility. Parameters representing other domains of adaptations to exercise may be needed to evaluate the effects of back pain management.

  16. Atividade Elétrica e força muscular dos extensores cervicais durante o ciclismo

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    Claudia Tarragô Candotti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar o comportamento da atividade neuromuscular e da força muscular resultante dos extensores cervicais durante o ato de pedalar, em diferentes posturas comumente adotadas no ciclismo. METODOLOGIA: Participaram nove ciclistas recreacionais, os quais foram posicionados sobre uma bicicleta acoplada a um ciclosimulador magnético e pedalaram em uma cadência de 80 rpm, durante um minuto em cada uma das seguintes posturas: descanso, intermediária e ataque. Durante o protocolo, foram coletados simultaneamente o sinal eletromiográfico (sinal EMG dos músculos extensores cervicais e variáveis cinemáticas no plano sagital, durante os últimos 15 segundos de cada postura. Para aquisição dos sinais EMG foi utilizado um eletromiógrafo com freqüência de amostragem de 1000 Hz. Para a aquisição dos dados cinemáticos foi utilizada uma câmera filmadora digital com uma freqüência de amostragem de 50 Hz. A partir dos dados cinemáticos e dos parâmetros de massa e centro de massa retirados da literatura foi desenvolvido um modelo biomecânico, a partir da técnica da Dinâmica Inversa, para quantificar as forças musculares resultantes (FM. Os valores de força e atividade neuromuscular foram submetidos ao teste Anova One-Way e o post hoc de Bonferroni para verificar as diferenças da atividade neuromuscular e da FM entre as posturas. RESULTADOS: Os resultados demonstraram que os valores de atividade neuromuscular e FM foram mais elevados (p

  17. Sensitivity of dynamic simulations of gait and dynamometer experiments to hill muscle model parameters of knee flexors and extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, F; Van Campen, A; Jonkers, I; De Schutter, J

    2010-07-20

    We assessed and compared sensitivities of dynamic simulations to musculotendon (MT) parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments. Our aim with this comparison was to investigate whether dynamometer experiments could provide information about MT-parameters that are important to reliably study MT-function during gait. This would mean that dynamometer experiments could be used to estimate these parameters. Muscle contribution to the joint torque (MT-torque) rather than relative MT-force primarily affects the resulting gait pattern and torque measured by the dynamometer. In contrast to recent studies, therefore, we assessed the sensitivity of the MT-torque, rather than the sensitivity of the relative MT-force. Based on sensitivity of the MT-torque to a parameter perturbation, MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors were classified in three categories: low, medium, and high. For gait, classification was based on the average sensitivity during a gait cycle. For isometric and isokinetic dynamometer experiments, classification was based on the highest sensitivity found in the experiments. The calculated muscle contributions to the knee torque during gait and dynamometer experiments had a high sensitivity to only a limited number of MT-parameters of the knee flexors and extensors, suggesting that not all MT-parameters need to be estimated. In general, the highest sensitivity was found for tendon slack length. However, for some muscles the sensitivity to the optimal fibre length or the maximal isometric muscle force was also high or medium. The classification of the individual MT-parameters for gait and dynamometer experiments was largely similar. We therefore conclude that dynamometer experiments provide information about MT-parameters important to reliably study MT-function during gait, so that subject-specific estimates of MT-parameters could be made based on dynamometer experiments.

  18. Can a fatigue test of the isolated lumbar extensor muscles of untrained young men predict strength progression in a resistance exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, P.; Staal, B.; Dijk, J. van; Harts, C.; Bertina, F.; Bie, R. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the predictive value of a fatigue test of the lumbar extensor muscles for training progression in a group of 28 healthy but predominantly sedentary male students, in an 8-week resistance exercise program. METHODS: A three-phased fatigue test

  19. Low-intensity eccentric contractions attenuate muscle damage induced by subsequent maximal eccentric exercise of the knee extensors in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor C; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kou-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated whether low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors would attenuate the magnitude of muscle damage induced by maximal eccentric exercise of the same muscle performed 7 days later using elderly individuals. Healthy older men (66.4 ± 4.6 years) were assigned to control or experimental (Exp) group (n = 13 per group). The control group performed six sets of ten maximal eccentric contractions (MaxECC) of the knee extensors of non-dominant leg. The Exp group performed six sets of ten low-intensity eccentric contractions of the knee extensors on a leg extension machine by lowering a weight of 10 % maximal voluntary isometric knee extension strength (10 %ECC) 7 days prior to MaxECC. Changes in maximal voluntary isokinetic concentric torque (MVC-CON), angle at peak torque, range of motion (ROM), upper thigh circumference, muscle soreness, plasma creatine kinase activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration and B-mode ultrasound echo-intensity before and for 5 days after MaxECC were compared between groups by a mixed factor ANOVA. No significant changes in any variables were observed following 10 %ECC. Following MaxECC, all variables changed significantly, and changes in all variables except for angle at peak torque were significantly different between groups. MVC-CON and ROM decreased smaller and recovered faster (P eccentric contractions was effective for attenuating muscle damage induced by subsequent MaxECC of the knee extensors for elderly individuals.

  20. Parsonage-Turner syndrome and a localised swelling around the extensor tendons of the hand: a clinical sign indicating increased risk of rupture of the tendon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedung, Torbjörn

    2012-10-01

    Two patients presented with intense pain in the shoulder followed by weakness and paralysis of muscles in the shoulder and arm, together with a peculiar swelling on the hand. The swelling seems to predispose to rupture of the extensor tendon. If this tumour is a regular finding in Parsonage-Turner syndrome, it may also help in making a definitive diagnosis.

  1. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  2. Relation of selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremity and extensor strength of the knee joint in children with spastic diplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Takaki, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadamitsu; Nitta, Osamu

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate differences in selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremities by objective assessment and determine the relationship between selective voluntary motor control and knee extensor strength in children with spastic diplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Forty individuals who had spastic cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels ranging from I to III, were assessed using the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity and by testing the maximum knee extensor strength. The unaffected side was defined as the lower limb with the higher score, and the affected side was defined as the lower limb with the lower score. [Results] The Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity score on the affected side had a lower average than that on the unaffected side. The scores showed a significant inverse correlation with the maximum knee extensor strength. [Conclusion] There was bilateral difference in the selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremities in children with spastic diplegia, and the selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremity was related to maximum knee extensor strength.

  3. Myofascial force transmission is increasingly important at lower forces: firing frequency-related length-force characteristics of rat extensor digitorum longus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.J.M; Baan, G.C.; Huijing, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Effects of submaximal stimulation frequencies on myofascial force transmission were investigated for rat anterior crural muscles with all motor units activated. - Methods: Tibialis anterior and extensor hallucis longus (TAEHL) muscles were kept at constant muscle-tendon complex length, but exte

  4. 短乳杆菌JH-1体外降胆固醇机理的初步探讨%Mechanism of Cholesterol-Degrading Activity of Lactobacillus brevis JH-1 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜华; 陆兆新

    2015-01-01

    [目的]为了初步阐明短乳杆菌Lactobacillus brevis JH-1体外降胆固醇机理.[方法]分析乳酸菌降胆固醇作用的3种可能的机理(同化作用、共沉淀作用和掺入细胞膜).[结果] Lactobacillus brevis JH-1体外降胆固醇与同化作用和掺入细胞膜有关.[结论]初步判定短乳杆菌JH-1体处降胆固醇是同化作用和掺入细胞膜共同作用的结果.

  5. Criopreservação do sêmen de Prochilodus brevis: meios de congelação e taxas de descongelação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Teixeira Nunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O Prochilodus brevis é um peixe reofílico, importante componente do ecossistema fluvial e apreciado na culinária nordestina. No entanto, ações antrópicas têm ameaçado sua sobrevivência. Desta forma, surge, nos pesquisadores, o interesse no desenvolvimento de protocolos de conservação do material genético, como a criopreservação seminal. Logo, a determinação do meio de congelação e da taxa de descongelação adequados, são passos fundamentais que possibilitarão a utilização dessa biotecnologia na produção de curimatã comum, reduzindo os riscos à sua sobrevivência. Portanto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes meios de congelação e taxas de descongelação sobre a qualidade do sêmen criopreservado de P. brevis. Para isso, 18 horas antes da coleta de sêmen, os machos receberam dose única de extrato hipofisário de carpa. Cada animal foi sedado com solução à base de eugenol e o sêmen foi coletado. As amostras foram diluídas em quatro meios de congelação (5% Glicose + Metilglicol 10%; 5% Glicose + DMSO 10%; 0,9% NaCl + Metilglicol 10%; 0,9% NaCl + DMSO 10% envasadas em palhetas de 0,25 mL e congeladas em vapor de nitrogênio líquido. O sêmen foi descongelado após sete dias em três taxas de descongelação: 25 °C 30 s-1; 30 °C 16 s-1; 40 °C 12 s-1. Foram feitas as análises de motilidade, vitalidade e morfologia com auxílio de sistema automatizado de análise seminal (CASA. As características do sêmen in natura assemelharam-se, em sua maioria, às encontradas na literatura. Para os parâmetros analisados, o sêmen in natura apresentou qualidade seminal superior a todos os tratamentos com o sêmen criopreservado (p 0,05. Para o sêmen criopreservado, os maiores índices foram alcançados quando se utilizou DMSO e as taxas de descongelação de 30 °C 16 s-1 ou 40 °C 12 s-1. Quanto à análise morfológica, a maior porcentagem de espermatozoides normais foi obtida utilizando as

  6. Potential impacts of blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the growth, survival and juvenile recruitment of the non-native green mussel Perna viridis in southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Katherine; Jean, Fred; Thébault, Julien; Volety, Aswani K

    2016-01-01

    Red tide blooms formed by Karenia brevis are frequent along the Gulf coast of Florida and it is unclear what tolerance the green mussel Perna viridis, a recently introduced species to coastal waters, has toward these events. Established populations of P. viridis were monitored along the coastal waters of Estero Bay, Florida before, during and following two consecutive red tide blooms to assess the potential effects on growth, survival and juvenile recruitment. Upon onset of the bloom, growth rates fell from 6 to 10 mm month(-1) (March 2011-November 2011) to less than 3 mm month(-1). In the succeeding years, K. brevis blooms were present, and average growth of individually tagged mussels remained below 3 mm month(-1). During growth monitoring the use of calcein as an internal marker was tested with positive staining results and no observed effect on growth or survival. In March 2012, following the first red tide bloom, a population-wide mortality event was observed. Following this event, increased mortality rates were observed with peaks during onset of the bloom in the fall of 2012 and 2013. Juvenile recruitment was also limited during years in which blooms persisted into the spring spawning period suggesting gamete and/or larval sensitivity to K. brevis. Although it cannot be conclusively determined that the cause of reduced growth and survival is due to red tide events, the parallels observed suggest that K. brevis is a factor in the observed changes in population structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation for hand function in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gi Jeong; Chun, Min Ho; Park, Ji Young; Kim, Bo Ryun

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the synergic effects of mirror therapy and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for hand function in stroke patients. Sixty patients with hemiparesis after stroke were included (41 males and 19 females, average age 63.3 years). Twenty patients had NMES applied and simultaneously underwent mirror therapy. Twenty patients had NMES applied only, and twenty patients underwent mirror therapy only. Each treatment was done five days per week, 30 minutes per day, for three weeks. NMES was applied on the surface of the extensor digitorum communis and extensor pollicis brevis for open-hand motion. Muscle tone, Fugl-Meyer assessment, and power of wrist and hand were evaluated before and after treatment. There were significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer assessment score in the wrist, hand and coordination, as well as power of wrist and hand in all groups after treatment. The mirror and NMES group showed significant improvements in the Fugl-Meyer scores of hand, wrist, coordination and power of hand extension compared to the other groups. However, the power of hand flexion, wrist flexion, and wrist extension showed no significant differences among the three groups. Muscle tone also showed no significant differences in the three groups. Our results showed that there is a synergic effect of mirror therapy and NMES on hand function. Therefore, a hand rehabilitation strategy combined with NMES and mirror therapy may be more helpful for improving hand function in stroke patients than NMES or mirror therapy only.

  8. PERSISTENT MEDIAN ARTERY ASSOCIATED WITH SUPERFICIA L RADIAL ARTERY AT THE WRIST- A CASE REPORT

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    Jayasabarinathan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vascular variations are usually the result of deve lopmental anomaly during the formation of blood vessels in any respective part of the body. In this case a rare unilateral variation was found on the left upper limb during rou tine dissection in the Department of Anatomy. Brachial artery divided into radial artery and a common trunk. The common trunk in turn divided into ulnar, median and common inteross eous artery. The median artery was palmar type, had two proper palmar digital branches in t he palm. The radial artery had normal course in the forearm till the junction between upper two third and lower one third where it turned dorsally and reached the anatomical snuff bo x and ran superficial to the abductor pollicis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor carpi radialis longus along the cephalic vein medially and superficial branch of radial nerve late rally. The median artery, arose from the common trunk, had pierced the median nerve about 4cm from its origin then ran along the median nerve in the forearm thereby reached the palm where it gave off two common palmar digital branches but did not anastomose with the ul nar artery hence formed incomplete superficial palmar arch. But on the right side no suc h variations found. These vascular variations have been studied in detail and their cl inical implications and embryological significance are emphasized.

  9. Outcomes of digital zone IV and V and thumb zone TI to TIV extensor tendon repairs using a running interlocking horizontal mattress technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altobelli, Grant G; Conneely, Stacy; Haufler, Christina; Walsh, Maura; Ruchelsman, David E

    2013-06-01

    Biomechanical evidence has demonstrated that the running interlocking horizontal mattress (RIHM) repair for extensor tendon lacerations is significantly stronger, with higher ultimate load to failure and less tendon shortening compared with other techniques. We investigated the efficacy and safety of primary extensor tendon repair using the RIHM repair technique in the fingers followed by the immediate controlled active motion protocol, and in the thumb followed by a dynamic extension protocol. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients undergoing extensor tendon repair from August 2009 to April 2012 by single surgeon in an academic hand surgery practice. The inclusion criteria were simple extensor tendon lacerations in digital zones IV and V and thumb zones TI to TIV and primary repair performed using the RIHM technique. We included 8 consecutive patients with 9 tendon lacerations (3 in the thumb). One patient underwent a concomitant dorsal hand rotation flap for soft tissue coverage. We used a 3-0 nonabsorbable braided suture to perform a running simple suture in 1 direction to obtain a tension-free tenorrhaphy, followed by an RIHM corset-type suture using the same continuous strand in the opposite direction. Average time to surgery was 10 days (range, 3-33 d). Mean follow-up was 15 weeks (range, 10-26 wk). We applied the immediate controlled active motion protocol to all injuries except those in the thumb, where we used a dynamic extension protocol instead. Using the criteria of Miller, all 9 tendon repairs achieved excellent or good results. There were no tendon ruptures or extensor lags. No patients required secondary surgery for tenolysis or joint release. No wound complications occurred. The RIHM technique for primary extensor tendon repairs in zone IV and V and T1 to TIV is safe, allows for immediate controlled active motion in the fingers and an immediate dynamic extension protocol in the thumb, and achieves good to excellent functional outcomes

  10. 短稳杆菌对水稻二化螟的药效%Efficacy of Empedobacter brevis in Controlling Rice-stem Borer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟宏伟; 赵云峰; 高小文; 吴铭忻

    2013-01-01

    Rice-stem borer is one of the main pests of rice in Heilongjiang Province, China. Because of using chemical pesticides for a long time, the rice-stem borer had produced resistance to chemical pesticides, which not only caused the control efficacy to decrease significantly, but also impacted the rice quality in Heilongjiang. In order to choose the biological pesticides to replace the chemical pesticides, a test was conducted by using suspending agent of 10 billion spores/mL of Empedobacter brevis for rice-stem borer control, with the wettable powder of 8 000 IU/mg Bt as the control insecticide. The results indicated that using 1 500 mL of the Empedobacter brevis in every hm2 rice fields had the best control efficacy, and was safe to rice, people, livestock, birds and other non-target organisms. So this fungicide had development and application values.%二化螟是黑龙江地区水稻主要害虫之一。由于长期使用化学农药,水稻二化螟对化学农药产生了抗药性,不仅用药效果明显下降,而且对黑龙江大米的品质产生了影响。为了筛选出可以替代化学杀虫剂的生物农药,选用100亿孢子/mL短稳杆菌悬浮剂与8000 IU/mg苏云金杆菌可湿性粉剂进行对照,对二化螟进行了药效试验。试验结果表明:100亿孢子/mL短稳杆菌悬浮剂1500 mL/hm2对二化螟的防治效果最好,且对水稻、对人、畜、禽及其他非靶标生物都安全,极具推广应用价值。

  11. Effect of dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 (SBL88™) on sleep: a non-randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled, and crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakakita, Y; Tsuchimoto, N; Takata, Y; Nakamura, T

    2016-09-01

    We previously reported that dietary heat-killed Lactobacillus brevis SBC8803 affects sleep rhythms in mice. The present study evaluated the effect of consumption of heat-killed SBC8803 on sleep architecture in humans. A non-randomised, placebo-controlled, double blind, and crossover pilot study was conducted using volunteers who scored at a slightly high level (i.e. ≥6) on the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS). Male subjects (n=17; age 41-69 y) consumed placebo or SBC8803 capsules (25 mg/day of heat-killed SBC8803) for 10 days. Electroencephalograms (EEG) were recorded using a mobile, one-channel system, providing objective data on sleep. Subjects' sleep journals and administration of the AIS provided subjective data on sleep. Three subjects were excluded from the statistical analysis. Analysis of the remaining 14 volunteers revealed no significant differences between placebo and SBC8803 consumption in either the AIS or the sleep EEG. The sleep journals revealed an improvement in 'waking' for the SBC8803 consumption periods (P=0.047), and there was a marginally significant effect on 'drowsiness during the following day' (P=0.067). Effects on the EEG delta power value (μV(2)/min) were revealed by a stratified analysis based on age, AIS, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Specifically, effects were found among subjects in their 40s who consumed the SBC8803 capsules (P=0.049) and among subjects with a BDI score less than the all-subjects average (13.3) (P=0.045). A marginally significant effect was found among subjects with an AIS score less than the all-subjects average (11.6) (P=0.065). The delta power value of 5 subjects with both BDI and AIS scores less than the average increased significantly (P=0.017). While the number of subjects was limited, a beneficial effect on sleep due to consumption of heat-killed L. brevis SBC8803 was found in subjects with slightly challenged sleep.

  12. Influence of Lactobacillus brevis 15 and Lactobacillus plantarum 13 on blood glucose and body weight in rats after high-fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlieva, M; Tacheva, T; Mihaylova, S; Tropcheva, R; Trifonova, K; Toleкova, A; Danova, S; Vlaykova, T

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many authors have investigated the possible antidiabetic effect of lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus species constitute a major part of the lactic acid bacteria group and have been found to exhibit beneficial effects on the development of diabetes and its complications. In the current study, we investigated the effects of newly characterised Bulgarian Lactobacillus strains, Lactobacillus brevis 15 and Lactobacillus plantarum 13, on blood glucose levels and body weight of rats fed a fructose-enriched diet. An experiment was conducted over a period of 8 weeks with 24 2-month-old Wistar rats randomly assigned to receive a standard diet (Con, control group), fructose-enriched diet (Fr group), standard diet with probiotics given twice a week (Pro group), and fructose-enriched diet with probiotics given twice a week (Pro+Fr group). At the end of the experimental period, a statistically significant increase in body weight was observed in all experimental groups (P<0.0001). The highest rise was seen in the fructose group (Fr, 169±19 g), followed by the Pro+Fr group (153±15 g), Pro group (149±13 g), and Con group (141±5 g). Moreover, the final blood glucose levels had risen significantly in the groups receiving fructose either without (Fr; P<0.0001) or with lactobacilli (Pro+Fr; P=0.002), while the rise was insignificant in the group of rats given probiotic supplementation only (Pro, P=0.071) and inexistent in the Con group (P=0.999). The highest elevation of blood glucose levels was observed in the Fr group (3.18 mmol/l), followed by the Pro+Fr group (2.00 mmol/l) whereas the Pro group showed the lowest levels (0.60 mmol/l). The results of our study suggest that the newly characterised Bulgarian Lactobacillus strains, L. brevis 15 and L. plantarum 13, could be considered as possible probiotics and might be able to prevent some metabolic disturbances.

  13. Protective effect by maximal isometric contractions against maximal eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage of the knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Lin, Ming-Ju; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Nosaka, Kazunori; Chen, Trevor C

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) performed before maximal eccentric contractions (MaxEC) would attenuate muscle damage of the knee extensors. Untrained men were placed to an experimental group that performed 6 sets of 10 MVIC at 90° knee flexion 2 weeks before 6 sets of 10 MaxEC or a control group that performed MaxEC only (n = 13/group). Changes in muscle damage markers were assessed before to 5 days after each exercise. Small but significant changes in maximal voluntary concentric contraction torque, range of motion (ROM) and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity were evident at immediately to 2 days post-MVIC (p < 0.05), but other variables (e.g. thigh girth, myoglobin concentration, B-mode echo intensity) did not change significantly. Changes in all variables after MaxEC were smaller (p < 0.05) by 45% (soreness)-67% (CK) for the experimental than the control group. These results suggest that MVIC conferred potent protective effect against MaxEC-induced muscle damage.

  14. MR imaging of patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: is the common extensor tendon an isolated lesion?

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    Liang Qi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1 the injury degree of CET; (2 associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at p<0.05. RESULTS: Total 24 elbows in 23 patients were included. Various degrees of injuries were found in total 24 CETs (10 mild, 7 moderate and 7 severe. Associated abnormalities were detected in accompaniments of the elbow joints including ligaments, tendons, saccussynovialis and muscles. A significantly positive correlation (r = 0.877,p<0.01 was found in injuries of CET and lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL. CONCLUSION: Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL.

  15. EFFECTS OF BETWEEN-SET INTERVENTIONS ON NEUROMUSCULAR FUNCTION DURING ISOKINETIC MAXIMAL CONCENTRIC CONTRACTIONS OF THE KNEE EXTENSORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cometti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The presents study investigated the effects of between-set interventions on neuromuscular function of the knee extensors during six sets of 10 isokinetic (120°·s-1 maximal concentric contractions separated by three minutes. Twelve healthy men (age: 23.9 ± 2.4 yrs were tested for four different between-set recovery conditions applied during two minutes: passive recovery, active recovery (cycling, electromyostimulation and stretching, in a randomized, crossover design. Before, during and at the end of the isokinetic session, torque and thigh muscles electromyographic activity were measured during maximal voluntary contractions and electrically-evoked doublets. Activation level was calculated using the twitch interpolation technique. While quadriceps electromyographic activity and activation level were significantly decreased at the end of the isokinetic session (-5.5 ± 14.2 % and -2.7 ± 4.8 %; p < 0.05, significant decreases in maximal voluntary contractions and doublets were observed after the third set (respectively -0.8 ± 12.1% and -5.9 ± 9.9%; p < 0.05. Whatever the recovery modality applied, torque was back to initial values after each recovery period. The present results showed that fatigue appeared progressively during the isokinetic session with peripheral alterations occurring first followed by central ones. Recovery interventions between sets did not modify fatigue time course as compared with passive recovery. It appears that the interval between sets (3 min was long enough to provide recovery regardless of the interventions

  16. Diabetic Muscle Infarction of the Tibialis Anterior and Extensor Hallucis Longus Muscles Mimicking the Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimata, Yoshikuni; Sato, Kotaro; Tokunaga, Karen; Tsukimura, Itsuko; Tada, Hiroshi; Doita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common causes of skeletal muscle infarction is diabetic muscle infarction (DMI), a rare complication associated with poorly controlled diabetes. We report an atypical case of DMI localized in the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscles of an elderly individual. A 64-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with a 6-month history of a palpable mass in his lower left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the mass exhibited heterogeneous signals on T1- and T2-weighted images and slight heterogeneous enhancement within the muscles on fat suppressed T1-weighted images. Because histopathological analysis revealed mostly necrotic muscle tissues but no neoplastic cells, we resected the affected muscles. A typical symptom of DMI is severe abrupt-onset pain in the region of the affected muscles, but the patient did not complain of pain. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment for DMI were delayed, and widespread irreversible muscle necrosis developed. MRI findings of DMI can be similar to that of a malignant soft-tissue tumor. So, it is necessary to consider the malignant soft-tissue tumor as one of the differential diagnoses of DMI.

  17. The determination of isokinetic performance values of knee joint and Hamstring (flexor/Quadriceps (extensor ratios differences in Volleyball players’

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    Özlem Yenigün

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determined the values of isokinetic performance in knee joint and the ratios of hamstring/quadriceps (H/Q between volleyball players and controls. 30 male volleyball players (age: 19,46±2,1 and 30 male controls (age: 19,66±2,0 were participated in this study. This study investigated hamstring and quadriceps muscles strength ratio obtained during concentric muscle contraction. The ratio of H/Q muscle strength which was an indicator of normal balance between the knee flexors and extensor and it is important to estimate of the capacity for stabilization of knee joint and the preventation of disability. Knee flexion and extension measurements were tested on biodex system–3 dynamometer in %60, %180 and %300 deg/sec test protocols. The range of motion of knee Joint was evaluated by biodex system–3 dynamometer. There was no statistical difference in the ROM of the knee joint between volleyball players and controls (p>0,05. The isokinetic values of volleyball players were significantly higher than controls (p<0,05. H/Q values must be determined to prevent disability. For the aim of get ready for the season and supply the continuity of performance level increases, preseason isokinetic testing of athletes may be helpful to test for strength imbalance and to determine the correct exercises which is suitable for remove the H/Q disproportion.

  18. Chemical composition of essential oils of Drimys angustifolia Miers and Drimys brasiliensis Miers and their repellency to drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae

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    Madson Ralide Fonseca Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils extracted from leaves of the Southern Brazilian native species Drimys angustifolia Miers (DA and Drimys brasiliensis Miers (DB by Clevenger distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The oils of DA and DB consisted predominantly of monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids. The largest components of DA oil were bicyclogermacrene (19.6%, sabinene (9.7% and myrcene (5.2%, while DB oil was characterized by cyclocolorenone (18.2%, followed by terpinen-4- ol (8.7% and alpha-gurjunene (6.9%. Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the repellency of the essential oils to the drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae. It was observed that the oil showed repellency at the concentrations 25, 12.5, and 6.25 μg/mL. The oils of both species exhibited a negative repellency index, which represents repellent activity, except for DA oil at the highest concentration, which was attractive. Five deaths (11% of the termite sample were observed at 25 μg/mL DA, in the fourhour repellency test, while four deaths occurred at 12.5 μg/mL (approximately 9%. The essential oil of DB did not cause any termite deaths.

  19. Superior Effects of Eccentric to Concentric Knee Extensor Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Profiles of Elderly Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor Chung-Ching; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that eccentric training of knee extensors is effective for improving blood insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles to a greater extent than concentric training in young women. However, it is not known whether this is also the case for elderly individuals. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that eccentric training of the knee extensors would improve physical function and health parameters (e.g., blood lipid profiles) of older adults better than concentric training. Healthy elderly men (60–76 years) were assigned to either eccentric training or concentric training group (n = 13/group), and performed 30–60 eccentric or concentric contractions of knee extensors once a week. The intensity was progressively increased over 12 weeks from 10 to 100% of maximal concentric strength for eccentric training and from 50 to 100% for concentric training. Outcome measures were taken before and 4 days after the training period. The results showed that no sings of muscle damage were observed after any sessions. Functional physical fitness (e.g., 30-s chair stand) and maximal concentric contraction strength of the knee extensors increased greater (P ≤ 0.05) after eccentric training than concentric training. Homeostasis model assessment, oral glucose tolerance test and whole blood glycosylated hemoglobin showed improvement of insulin sensitivity only after eccentric training (P ≤ 0.05). Greater (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in fasting triacylglycerols, total, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols were evident after eccentric training than concentric training, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols increased only after eccentric training. These results support the hypothesis and suggest that it is better to focus on eccentric contractions in exercise medicine. PMID:28443029

  20. Activation amplitude and temporal synchrony among back extensor and abdominal muscles during a controlled transfer task: comparison of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Butler, Heather L; Kozey, John W

    2012-08-01

    Muscle synergies are important for spinal stability, but few studies examine temporal responses of spinal muscles to dynamic perturbations. This study examined activation amplitudes and temporal synergies among compartments of the back extensor and among abdominal wall muscles in response to dynamic bidirectional moments of force. We further examined whether responses were different between men and women. 19 women and 18 men performed a controlled transfer task. Surface electromyograms from bilateral sites over 6 back extensor compartments and 6 abdominal wall muscle sites were analyzed using principal component analysis. Key features were extracted from the measured electromyographic waveforms capturing amplitude and temporal variations among muscle sites. Three features explained 97% of the variance. Scores for each feature were computed for each measured waveform and analysis of variance found significant (pmuscle main effects and a sex by muscle interaction. For the back extensors, post hoc analysis revealed that upper and more medial sites were recruited to higher amplitudes, medial sites responded to flexion moments, and the more lateral sites responded to lateral flexion moments. Women had more differences among muscle sites than men for the lateral flexion moment feature. For the abdominal wall muscles the oblique muscles responded with synergies related to fiber orientation, with women having higher amplitudes and more responsiveness to the lateral flexion moment than men. Synergies between the abdominal and back extensor sites as the moment demands change are discussed. These findings illustrate differential activation among erector spinae compartments and abdominal wall muscle sites supporting a highly organized pattern of response to bidirectional external moments with asynchronies more apparent in women.

  1. Superior Effects of Eccentric to Concentric Knee Extensor Resistance Training on Physical Fitness, Insulin Sensitivity and Lipid Profiles of Elderly Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor Chung-Ching; Tseng, Wei-Chin; Huang, Guan-Ling; Chen, Hsin-Lian; Tseng, Kuo-Wei; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that eccentric training of knee extensors is effective for improving blood insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles to a greater extent than concentric training in young women. However, it is not known whether this is also the case for elderly individuals. Thus, the present study tested the hypothesis that eccentric training of the knee extensors would improve physical function and health parameters (e.g., blood lipid profiles) of older adults better than concentric training. Healthy elderly men (60-76 years) were assigned to either eccentric training or concentric training group (n = 13/group), and performed 30-60 eccentric or concentric contractions of knee extensors once a week. The intensity was progressively increased over 12 weeks from 10 to 100% of maximal concentric strength for eccentric training and from 50 to 100% for concentric training. Outcome measures were taken before and 4 days after the training period. The results showed that no sings of muscle damage were observed after any sessions. Functional physical fitness (e.g., 30-s chair stand) and maximal concentric contraction strength of the knee extensors increased greater (P ≤ 0.05) after eccentric training than concentric training. Homeostasis model assessment, oral glucose tolerance test and whole blood glycosylated hemoglobin showed improvement of insulin sensitivity only after eccentric training (P ≤ 0.05). Greater (P ≤ 0.05) decreases in fasting triacylglycerols, total, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterols were evident after eccentric training than concentric training, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterols increased only after eccentric training. These results support the hypothesis and suggest that it is better to focus on eccentric contractions in exercise medicine.

  2. Electrical stimulation and blood flow restriction increase wrist extensor cross-sectional area and flow meditated dilatation following spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S; Timmons, Mark K; Dolbow, David R; Bengel, Justin; Fugate-Laus, Kendall C; Michener, Lori A; Gater, David R

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and blood flow restricted (BFR) exercise on wrist extensors cross-sectional area (CSA), torque and hand functions compared NMES only in individuals with incomplete tetraplegia. The acute effect of an acute bout of NMES with BFR on flow mediated dilation (FMD) was compared with BFR only. Nine men completed 6 weeks twice weekly of bilateral NMES training of the wrist extensor muscles. The right forearm received NMES + BFR (30 % above the resting systolic blood pressure), while the left forearm received NMES only. The CSA of the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscles was measured on ultrasound images. Torque was measured isometrically and hand function with grasp and release test. Another eight men with SCI received NMES+BFR to the right forearm, while the left forearm received BFR only. Immediately, the FMD of the brachial artery was measured. Following training, the ECRL CSA was 17 % greater in the NMES+BFR forearm (mean difference = 0.6 cm(2), p = 0.003) compared with the NMES only. The NMES+BFR had a 15 % increase in ECRL CSA (mean increase = 0.58 cm(2), p = 0.048). FMD increased (p = 0.05) in the exercise arm (12 ± 3 %) compared with the control arm (6.5 ± 6 %). NMES training with BFR is a strategy that can increase skeletal muscle size. NMES with and without BFR can improve wrist strength and hand function. The acute effects of NMES+BFR may suggest that an increase in FMD may partially contribute to skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

  3. Inter-machine reliability of the Biodex and Cybex isokinetic dynamometers for knee flexor/extensor isometric, concentric and eccentric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo Ribeiro Alvares, João Breno; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; de Azevedo Franke, Rodrigo; da Silva, Bruna Gonçalves Cordeiro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini

    2015-02-01

    To assess the inter-machine reliability of the Biodex System 3 Pro and Cybex Humac Norm Model 770 dynamometers for knee extensor and knee flexor peak torque measurements in isometric, concentric and eccentric tests. Randomized/crossover. Exercise Research Laboratory, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil). 25 healthy male subjects. Isometric, concentric and eccentric knee extensor and knee flexor peak torques recorded in the same test procedure performed on both isokinetic dynamometers. One-way ANOVA, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM) and coefficient of variation (CV) were used to verify significant differences, relative and absolute reliability between devices. No significant differences were found between tests performed on Biodex and Cybex (p > 0.05). ICC values indicated a high to very high reproducibility for isometric, concentric and eccentric peak torques (0.88-0.92), and moderate to high reliability for agonist-antagonist strength ratios (0.62-0.73). Peak torque did not show great difference between dynamometers for SEM (3.72-11.27 Nm) and CV (5.27-7.77%). Strength ratios presented CV values of 8.57-10.72%. Maximal knee extensor and knee flexor tests performed in isometric (60° of knee flexion), concentric and eccentric modes at 60°/s in Biodex and Cybex dynamometers present similar values. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extensor and flexor digit synovial sheath, sac and synovial capsule in the distal part of the limbs in buffalos and camels and its relation of surgical interference

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    S. AL-sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.

  5. Comparison of contractile responses of single human motor units in the toe extensors during unloaded and loaded isotonic and isometric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Michael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-08-01

    Much of the repertoire of muscle function performed in everyday life involves isotonic dynamic movements, either with or without an additional load, yet most studies of single motor units measure isometric forces. To assess the effects of muscle load on the contractile response, we measured the contractile properties of single motor units supplying the toe extensors, assessed by intraneural microstimulation of single human motor axons, in isotonic, loaded isotonic, and isometric conditions. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the common peroneal nerve, and single motor axons (n = 10) supplying the long toe extensors were electrically stimulated through the microelectrode. Displacement was measured from the distal phalanx of the toe with either an angular displacement transducer for the unloaded (i.e., no additional load) and loaded (addition of a 4-g mass) isotonic conditions or a force transducer for the isometric conditions. Mean twitch profiles were measured at 1 Hz for all conditions: rise time, fall time, and duration were shortest for the unloaded isotonic conditions and longest for the isometric conditions. Peak displacements were lower in the loaded than unloaded isotonic conditions, and the half-maximal response in the loaded condition was achieved at lower frequencies than in the unloaded isotonic condition. We have shown that the contractile responses of single motor units supplying the human toe extensors are influenced by how they are measured: twitches are much slower when measured in loaded than unloaded isotonic conditions and slowest when measured in isometric conditions.

  6. Linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel mechanomyographic recordings reveal heterogeneous activation of wrist extensors in presence of delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst A; Samani, Afshin

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we applied multi-channel mechanomyographic (MMG) recordings in combination with linear and nonlinear analyses to investigate muscular and musculotendinous effects of high intensity eccentric exercise. Twelve accelerometers arranged in a 3 × 4 matrix over the dominant elbow muscles were used to detect MMG activity in 12 healthy participants. Delayed onset muscle soreness was induced by repetitive high intensity eccentric contractions of the wrist extensor muscles. Average rectified values (ARV) as well as percentage of recurrence (%REC) and percentage of determinism (%DET) extracted from recurrence quantification analysis were computed from data obtained during static-dynamic contractions performed before exercise, immediately after exercise, and in presence of muscle soreness. A linear mixed model was used for the statistical analysis. The ARV, %REC, and %DET maps revealed heterogeneous MMG activity over the wrist extensor muscles before, immediately after, and in presence of muscle soreness (P<0.01). The ARVs were higher while the %REC and %DET were lower in presence of muscle soreness compared with before exercise (P<0.05). The study provides new key information on linear and nonlinear analyses of multi-channel MMG recordings of the wrist extensor muscles following eccentric exercise that results in muscle soreness. Recurrence quantification analysis can be suggested as a tool for detection of MMG changes in presence of muscle soreness.

  7. Speed, not magnitude, of knee extensor torque production is associated with self-reported knee function early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chao-Jung; Indelicato, Peter A; Moser, Michael W; Vandenborne, Krista; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2015-11-01

    To examine the magnitude and speed of knee extensor torque production at the initiation of advanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation and the associations with self-reported knee function. Twenty-eight subjects who were 12 weeks post-ACL reconstruction and 28 age- and sex-matched physically active controls participated in this study. Knee extensor torque was assessed bilaterally with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s. The variables of interest were peak torque, average rate of torque development, time to peak torque and quadriceps symmetry index. Knee function was assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF). Peak torque and average rate of torque development were lower on the surgical side compared to the non-surgical side and controls. Quadriceps symmetry index was lower in subjects with ACL reconstruction compared to controls. On the surgical side, average rate of torque development was positively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = 0.379) while time to peak torque was negatively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = -0.407). At the initiation of advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, the surgical side displayed deficits in peak torque and average rate of torque development. A higher rate of torque development and shorter time to peak torque were associated with better self-reported knee function. The results suggest that the rate of torque development should be addressed during advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation and faster knee extensor torque generation may lead to better knee function. III.

  8. Effects of different methods of antagonist muscles pre-activation on knee extensors neuromuscular responses Efeitos da ordem de pré-ativação dos músculos antagonistas nas respostas neuromusculares dos extensores do joelho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo L. Carregaro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pre-activation of antagonistic muscles is used in different modalities of exercise and neuromuscular rehabilitation protocols, but its effectiveness is still controversial. OBJECTIVE: To verify the impact of two different methods of pre-activation of knee antagonist muscles in the neuromuscular performance and electromyographic activity of knee extensors. METHODS: Fifteen healthy men (23.9±4.2 years of age, 1.78±0.08 meters and 81.4±10.7 kg performed, on different days, two protocols of isokinetic muscle contraction with 4 sets of 10 repetitions at 60°.s-1 and 1 minute between sets: (1 Reciprocal Contraction (RC: reciprocal concentric exercise of agonist/antagonist muscles (knee flexion [KF] immediately followed by knee extension [KE] and (2 Superset (SS: alternated concentric exercise of agonist/antagonist muscles (KF set followed by a set of KE. A repeated measures ANOVA with least-significant difference post-hoc test was used to detect differences between protocols. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between protocols (p>0.05 for peak torque (PT and total work (Tw. On the SS protocol there was a significant decrease in Tw on the last two sets (pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas é utilizada em diferentes modalidades de exercício e em diferentes protocolos de reabilitação neuromuscular, porém suas respostas ainda são controversas. OBJETIVO: Verificar o impacto de duas diferentes estratégias de pré-ativação de músculos antagonistas no desempenho neuromuscular e na atividade eletromiográfica dos extensores do joelho. MÉTODOS: Quinze homens sadios (23,9±4,2 anos; 1,78±0,08 m e 81,4±10,7 kg realizaram, em dias distintos, dois protocolos de ações musculares isocinéticas com quatro séries de dez repetições a 60°.s-1 e intervalo de 1 minuto entre séries: 1 contração recíproca (CR: exercício concêntrico recíproco de antagonistas/agonistas (uma repetição de flex

  9. Análise eletromiográfica e força do grupo muscular extensor do punho durante isquemia induzida Electromyographic analysis and strength of the wrist extensor muscle group during induced ischemia

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    CCA Bandeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da isquemia induzida sobre os parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico e a força do grupo muscular extensor do punho (GMEP em mulheres saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Participaram 13 voluntárias, destras, sedentárias, com idade de 23,38±2,32 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC de 20,68±1,87kg/m². Para determinar a força do GMEP, foram realizadas 3 contrações isométricas voluntárias máximas (CIVM, utilizando-se uma célula de carga por 15 segundos, com intervalos de 2 minutos entre cada contração, sendo todo procedimento repetido por 3 dias não consecutivos. A isquemia foi realizada por 5 minutos, utilizando um esfigmomanômetro posicionado no braço dominante e inflado até a ausência do fluxo sanguíneo, confirmada pelo ultrassom Doppler. Para coleta do sinal eletromiográfico do GMEP, utilizou-se o equipamento EMG1000 (Lynx® com eletrodo de superfície diferencial (Lynx®. Foram coletadas 3 CIVM por 15 segundos, com intervalo de 30 segundos entre elas, nas situações de pré-isquemia; isquemia; pós-isquemia imediata (pós-1 e pós-isquemia tardia (pós-2 - após 10 minutos do início da isquemia. Para análise dos parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico, root mean square (RMS, e frequência mediana do espectro de potência do sinal foi utilizado o software MATLAB 6.5.1. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Friedman e ANOVA two-way. RESULTADOS: A isquemia promoveu redução significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of induced ischemia on the parameters of electromyographic signals and the strength of the wrist extensor muscle group (WEMG in healthy women. METHODS: Thirteen right-handed sedentary subjects aged 23.38±2.32 years old, with body mass index (BMI of 20.68±1.87kg/m², took part. To determine WEMG strength, three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC were performed using a load cell for 15 seconds, with 2 minutes intervals between contractions. The entire

  10. A Systematic Review of Tennis Elbow Surgery: Open Versus Arthroscopic Versus Percutaneous Release of the Common Extensor Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Todd P; Issa, Kimona; Gilbert, Benjamin T; Hanly, Brian; Festa, Anthony; McInerney, Vincent K; Scillia, Anthony J

    2017-06-01

    To compare complications, function, pain, and patient satisfaction after conventional open, percutaneous, or arthroscopic release of the extensor origin for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. A thorough review of 4 databases-PubMed, EBSCOhost, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) Plus, and Scopus-was performed to identify all studies that addressed surgical management of lateral epicondylitis. We included (1) studies published between 2000 and 2015 and (2) studies with clearly defined surgical techniques. We excluded (1) non-English-language manuscripts, (2) isolated case reports, (3) studies with fewer than 10 subjects, (4) animal studies, (5) studies with additional adjunctive procedures aside from release of the extensor origin, (6) clinical or systematic review manuscripts, (7) studies with a follow-up period of 6 months or less, and (8) studies in which less than 80% of patients completed follow-up. Each study was analyzed for complication rates, functional outcomes, pain, and patient satisfaction. Thirty reports were identified that included 848 open, 578 arthroscopic, and 178 percutaneous releases. Patients within each release group had a similar age (46 years vs 46 years vs 48 years; P = .9 and P = .4, respectively), whereas there was a longer follow-up time in patients who underwent surgery by an open technique (49.4 months vs 42.6 months vs 23 months, P < .001). There were no differences in complication rates among these techniques (3.8% vs 2.9% vs 3.9%; P = .5 and P = .9, respectively). However, open techniques were correlated with higher surgical-site infection rates than arthroscopic techniques (0.7% vs 0%, P = .04). Mean Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand scores were substantially better with both open and arthroscopic techniques than with percutaneous release (19.9 points vs 21.3 points vs 29 points, P < .001). In addition, there was less pain reported in the arthroscopic and percutaneous release

  11. Two novel MYH7 proline substitutions cause Laing Distal Myopathy-like phenotypes with variable expressivity and neck extensor contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein-Linial, Miora; Buvoli, Massimo; Buvoli, Ada; Sadeh, Menachem; Dabby, Ron; Straussberg, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Dayan, Daniel; Leinwand, Leslie Anne; Birk, Ohad S

    2016-08-12

    Human skeletal muscles express three major myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms: MyHCIIx (MYH1) in fast type 2B muscle fibers, MyHCIIa (MYH2) in fast type 2A fibers and MyHCI/β-cardiac MyHC (MYH7) in slow type I skeletal fibers and cardiac ventricles. In line with its expression pattern, MYH7 mutations have been reported in association with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathies or a combination of both. We analyzed the clinical and molecular phenotype of two unrelated families of Jewish Moroccan ancestry that presented with apparently autosomal dominant inheritance of progressive Laing-like distal myopathy with non-specific myopathic changes, but uncommon marked contractures and wasting of the neck extensors. Clinical phenotyping, whole exome sequencing and restriction analysis, generation of mutants followed by cell culture transfection and imaging. Using whole exome sequencing we identified in both families two novel heterozygous proline substitutions located in exon 31 of MYH7 within its rod domain: c.4309G>C (p.Ala1437Pro) and c.4301G>C (p.Arg1434Pro). Here we show that the phenotype caused by these mutations includes marked cervical muscle contracture, and report that the severity of the phenotype varies significantly, to the extent of non-penetrance in one of the families. Finally, we provide evidence that both proline substitutions impair myosin self-assembly in non-muscle cells transfected with β-myosin constructs carrying the mutations, but do not prevent incorporation of the mutant molecules into the sarcomere. This study expands our clinical and molecular knowledge of MYH7 rod mutations causing skeletal myopathies, and underscores the importance of discussing disease penetrance during genetic counseling.

  12. The histochemical profile of the rat extensor digitorum longus muscle differentiates after birth and dedifferentiates in senescence

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    M Lehnert

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Age dependent motor unit dedifferentiation is a key component of impaired muscle function in advanced age. Here, we tested the hypothesis that rat muscle histochemical profile during the lifespan of an individual has an age-specific pattern since comprehensive longitudinal studies of muscle differentiation after birth and dedifferentiation in advanced age are scarce. Our results show that extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL is comprised only of two fiber types after birth, type slow-oxidative (SO and type SDH-intermediate (SDHINT, the latter being indicative for the presence of polyneuronal innervation. In contrast to the constantly growing crosssectional area of the muscle fibers, a dramatic decrease in SDH-INT proportion occurs between day 14 and 21 after birth resulting in a complete loss of fiber type SDH-INT at the age of 90 days (p<0.05. At the age of 270 days, the fiber type composition of rat EDL dedifferentiates as shown by the reappearance of the SDH-INT type with a further increase at the age of 540 days (p<0.05. These changes in histochemical fiber type spectra are brought about by fiber type conversion within the fast twich fibers. The findings of the present study provide further evidence that fiber type conversion is a basic mechanism leading to motor unit differentiation and dedifferentiation during ontogenesis. Fiber type conversion shows a distinct time specific pattern and is also characteristic for motor unit regeneration after peripheral nerve repair. Factors that influence fiber type conversion and thereby motor unit organization may provide a future therapeutic option to enhance the regenerative capacity of motor units.

  13. Fatigue reduces the complexity of knee extensor torque fluctuations during maximal and submaximal intermittent isometric contractions in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2015-04-15

    Neuromuscular fatigue increases the amplitude of fluctuations in torque output during isometric contractions, but the effect of fatigue on the temporal structure, or complexity, of these fluctuations is not known. We hypothesised that fatigue would result in a loss of temporal complexity and a change in fractal scaling of the torque signal during isometric knee extensor exercise. Eleven healthy participants performed a maximal test (5 min of intermittent maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs), and a submaximal test (contractions at a target of 40% MVC performed until task failure), each with a 60% duty factor (6 s contraction, 4 s rest). Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified by calculating approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent α. Fresh submaximal contractions were more complex than maximal contractions (mean ± SEM, submaximal vs. maximal: ApEn 0.65 ± 0.09 vs. 0.15 ± 0.02; SampEn 0.62 ± 0.09 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02; DFA α 1.35 ± 0.04 vs. 1.55 ± 0.03; all P contractions (ApEn to 0.24 ± 0.05; SampEn to 0.22 ± 0.04; DFA α to 1.55 ± 0.03; all P contractions (ApEn to 0.10 ± 0.02; SampEn to 0.10 ± 0.02; DFA α to 1.63 ± 0.02; all P < 0.01). This loss of complexity and shift towards Brownian-like noise suggests that as well as reducing the capacity to produce torque, fatigue reduces the neuromuscular system's adaptability to external perturbations.

  14. Anatomo-histological analysis of the juncturae and their relations to the extensor tendons to the dorsum of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Yelda; Bilge, Okan; Govsa, Figen; Celik, Servet; Aktug, Huseyin

    2009-02-01

    The juncturae tendinum (JT) may coordinate the extension of hand, force redistribution and the stabilization of the metacarpophalangeal joint. The JT were studied for their gross appearance, shape, thickness, location and histological examination with the dorsum of the hand in 54 cadavers. The JT were identified into three groups according to their anatomo-histological features. The type 1 was observed in 57.4% of the cases in the second IMC and in 16.7% of the cases in the third IMC. The type 2 was detected in 3.7% of the cases in the second IMC and in 59.3% of the cases in the third IMC space. The type of 3Y was accounted for 14.8% JT in the third IMC space and 53.7% JT in the fourth space. The type of 3r was found in 5.55% of the cases in the third IMC and in 37% of the cases in the fourth IMC space. In the histologic examination, the fibers of types 1 and 2 JTs were straight. Type 3 JTs were composed of regularly oriented parallel and crosswise bundles of tendineous tissue. This study is important in terms of giving accurate knowledge on the anatomo-histological analysis of the JTs and their relations to the extensor tendons to the dorsum of the hand. An understanding of the structures of the JTs and the interactions between the tendons of the fingers is of utmost importance in hand assessment, during the reconstructive procedures such as considering the tendons to be transferred.

  15. Knee extensor torque of men with early degrees of osteoarthritis is associated with pain, stiffness and function Homens com graus iniciais de osteoartrite apresentam correlação entre torque extensor do joelho e dor, rigidez e função

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula R. M. S. Serrão

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA is a chronic-degenerative disease. The knee is the most commonly affected joint and the symptoms are generally attributed to quadriceps muscle weakness. However, few studies have evaluated this relationship in a population with early stages of knee OA. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a correlation among the knee extensor torque and the three subscales of the WOMAC questionnaire in men with early stages of knee OA exists. METHOD: Twenty-one men with knee OA grades I or II (according to Kellgren and Lawrence criteria participated in this study. The concentric and eccentric knee extensor torque were assessed using a Biodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer, at a speed of 90º/s. Self-reported symptoms and disability were assessed using the WOMAC questionnaire. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to test the relationship between the dependent variables (three subscales of WOMAC questionnaire and the independent variables (average knee extensor peak torque. RESULTS: We found a strong negative correlation between the concentric extensor torque and pain (r=-0.7, pCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: A osteoartrite (OA é uma doença crônico-degenerativa. O joelho é a articulação mais afetada, e os sintomas geralmente são atribuídos à fraqueza do músculo quadríceps. Entretanto, poucos estudos têm avaliado essa relação em indivíduos com graus iniciais de OA. OBJETIVO: Verificar se existe correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e as seções dor, rigidez e função física do questionário WOMAC de homens com OA de joelho nos graus iniciais. MÉTODO: Participaram deste estudo 21 homens com OA de joelho graus I ou II (segundo critérios de Kelgren e Lawrence. Foi avaliado o torque extensor concêntrico e o excêntrico do joelho por meio do dinamômetro isocinético (Biodex System 3 Pro®, na velocidade de 90º/s. O autorrelato de sintomas e incapacidades foi avaliado por meio do questionário WOMAC. O

  16. RT-qPCR analysis of putative beer-spoilage gene expression during growth of Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 and Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsveinson, Jordyn; Pittet, Vanessa; Ziola, Barry

    2012-10-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contamination of beer presents a continual economic threat to brewers. Interestingly, only certain isolates of LAB can grow in the hostile beer environment (e.g., as studied here, Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) and a non-ropy isolate of Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344(T) (Pc344NR)), indicating that significant genetic specialization is required. The genes hitA, horA, horB, horC, and bsrA, which have been proposed to confer beer-spoiling ability to an organism, are suspected of counteracting the antimicrobial effects of hops. However, these genes are not present in the same combination (if at all) across beer-spoiling organisms. As such, we sought to investigate the extent to which these genes participate during Lb464 and Pc344NR mid-logarithmic growth in beer through reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. We first determined the optimal reference gene set needed for data normalization and, for each bacterium, established that two genes were needed for accurate assessment of gene expression. Following this, we found that horA expression was induced for Pc344NR, but not for Lb464, during growth in beer. Instead, horC expression was dramatically increased in Lb464 when growing in beer, whereas no change was detected for the other putative beer-spoilage-related genes. This indicates that HorC may be one of the principle mediators enabling growth of Lb464 in beer, whereas in Pc344NR, this may be attributable to HorA. These findings not only reveal that Lb464 and Pc344NR are unique in their beer-specific genetic expression profile but also indicate that a range of genetic specialization exists among beer-spoilage bacteria.

  17. Satellite Retrievals of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms in the West Florida Shelf Using Neural Networks and Comparisons with Other Techniques

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    Ahmed El-habashi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the application of a Neural Network (NN previously developed by us, to the detection and tracking, of Karenia brevis Harmful Algal Blooms (KB HABs that plague the coasts of the West Florida Shelf (WFS using Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS satellite observations. Previous approaches for the detection of KB HABs in the WFS primarily used observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer Aqua (MODIS-A satellite. They depended on the remote sensing reflectance signal at the 678 nm chlorophyll fluorescence band (Rrs678 needed for both the normalized fluorescence height (nFLH and Red Band Difference algorithms (RBD currently used. VIIRS which has replaced MODIS-A, unfortunately does not have a 678 nm fluorescence channel so we customized the NN approach to retrieve phytoplankton absorption at 443 nm (aph443 using only Rrs measurements from existing VIIRS channels at 486, 551 and 671 nm. The aph443 values in these retrieved VIIRS images, can in turn be correlated to chlorophyll-a concentrations [Chla] and KB cell counts. To retrieve KB values, the VIIRS NN retrieved aph443 images are filtered by applying limiting constraints, defined by (i low backscatter at Rrs 551 nm and (ii a minimum aph443 value known to be associated with KB HABs in the WFS. The resulting filtered residual images, are then used to delineate and quantify the existing KB HABs. Comparisons with KB HABs satellite retrievals obtained using other techniques, including nFLH, as well as with in situ measurements reported over a four year period, confirm the viability of the NN technique, when combined with the filtering constraints devised, for effective detection of KB HABs.

  18. 环介导恒温扩增技术快速检测短凯伦藻%Rapid Detection of Karenia brevis (Dinophyceae) by Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤英; 石彦红; 马凌波; 徐兆礼

    2012-01-01

    短凯伦藻(Karenia brevis)是一种有毒赤潮微藻,所产生的短藻毒素对海洋生物乃至人类都有毒害作用,为加强对短凯伦藻赤潮的监控,建立了稳定的短凯伦藻环介导恒温扩增(LAMP)鉴定体系,在此基础上进行了特异性和灵敏性验证.特异性实验结果显示只有短凯伦藻或者含短凯伦藻的模板呈现阳性反应,其他微藻为阴性反应,从而验证了该LAMP方法的特异性;同时,对短凯伦藻的基因组DNA进行一系列10倍稀释作为敏感度实验的模板,并与常规PCR做了对比,结果表明:短凯伦藻的LAMP方法最低检测限度为50 pg,敏感度比常规PCR高10倍.LAMP产物鉴定不需要常规的胶电泳过程,直接采用肉眼观察的方法,在含有短凯伦藻的阳性反应管中会出现白色混浊,加入syBRò Green I染料呈现绿色,而未含有短凯伦藻的阴性管为澄清,染色后仍为原来的橙色.因此,该方法操作简便、特异性强、灵敏度高而成本低,在赤潮原因种检测监控方面具有良好的应用前景.%Karenia brevis (Gymnodinium breve) is an unarmored, non-peridinin-containing dinoflagellate. It produces lipophilic brevetoxin that can harm many marine animals, eg. fish, birds and shellfish. As for human, brevetoxin can cause respiratory distress by inhalation and food poisoning by consumption of contaminated shellfish. Previous methods for the detection of A', brevis depend on microscopy analysis, which is time-consuming and requires a considerable amount of expertise and skill. Molecular methods have also been applied to detect K. brevis, e.g. real-time PCR and DNA hybridization assay. However, there are some inevitable disadvantages for the two methods, such as expensive reagents and equipment, or fussy approaches. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a specific nucleic acid amplification method that is easy to perform. The LAMP method can amplify nucleic acids under isothermal conditions at

  19. Evaluation of muscle function of the extensor digitorum longus muscle ex vivo and tibialis anterior muscle in situ in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Chady H; Wasala, Nalinda B; Duan, Dongsheng

    2013-02-09

    absence of dystrophin, the sarcolemma is damaged by the shearing force generated during force transmission. This membrane tearing initiates a chain reaction which leads to muscle cell death and loss of contractile machinery. As a consequence, muscle force is reduced and dead myofibers are replaced by fibrotic tissues (5). This later change increases muscle stiffness (6). Accurate measurement of these changes provides important guide to evaluate disease progression and to determine therapeutic efficacy of novel gene/cell/pharmacological interventions. Here, we present two methods to evaluate both contractile and passive mechanical properties of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle and the contractile properties of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle.

  20. No Critical Peripheral Fatigue Threshold during Intermittent Isometric Time to Task Failure Test with the Knee Extensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froyd, Christian; Beltrami, Fernando G.; Millet, Guillaume Y.; Noakes, Timothy D.

    2016-01-01

    critical peripheral fatigue threshold during intermittent isometric exercise to task failure with the knee extensors. PMID:28066260