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Sample records for extensor compartmental vascularized

  1. Customizing Extensor Reconstruction in Vascularized Toe Joint Transfers to Finger Proximal Interphalangeal Joints: A Strategic Approach for Correcting Extensor Lag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Chen, Shih-Heng; Lien, Shwu-Huei; Lin, Chih-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Yu-Te

    2017-04-01

    Vascularized toe proximal interphalangeal joint transfer allows the restoration of damaged joints. However, extensor lag and poor arc of motion have been reported. The authors present their outcomes of treatment according to a novel reconstructive algorithm that addresses extensor lag and allows for consistent results postoperatively. Vascularized toe joint transfers were performed in a consecutive series of 26 digits in 25 patients. The average age was 30.5 years, with 14 right and 12 left hands. Reconstructed digits included eight index, 10 middle, and eight ring fingers. Simultaneous extensor reconstructions were performed and eight were centralization of lateral bands, five were direct extensor digitorum longus-to-extensor digitorum communis repairs, and 13 were central slip reconstructions. The average length of follow-up was 16.7 months. The average extension lag was 17.9 degrees. The arc of motion was 57.7 degrees (81.7 percent functional use of pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion). There was no significant difference in the reconstructed proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion for the handedness (p = 0.23), recipient digits (p = 0.37), or surgical experience in vascularized toe joint transfer (p = 0.25). The outcomes of different techniques of extensor mechanism reconstruction were similar in terms of extensor lag, arc of motion, and reconstructed finger arc of motion compared with the pretransfer toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. With this treatment algorithm, consistent outcomes can be produced with minimal extensor lag and maximum use of potential toe proximal interphalangeal joint arc of motion. Therapeutic, IV.

  2. Work-related pain in extrinsic finger extensor musculature of instrumentalists is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Moreno-Torres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although non-specific pain in the upper limb muscles of workers engaged in mild repetitive tasks is a common occupational health problem, much is unknown about the associated structural and biochemical changes. In this study, we compared the muscle energy metabolism of the extrinsic finger extensor musculature in instrumentalists suffering from work-related pain with that of healthy control instrumentalists using non-invasive phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS. We hypothesize that the affected muscles will show alterations related with an impaired energy metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 19 volunteer instrumentalists (11 subjects with work-related pain affecting the extrinsic finger extensor musculature and 8 healthy controls. We used (31P-MRS to find deviations from the expected metabolic response to exercise in phosphocreatine (PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi, Pi/PCr ratio and intracellular pH kinetics. We observed a reduced finger extensor exercise tolerance in instrumentalists with myalgia, an intracellular pH compartmentation in the form of neutral and acid compartments, as detected by Pi peak splitting in (31P-MRS spectra, predominantly in myalgic muscles, and a strong association of this pattern with the condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Work-related pain in the finger extrinsic extensor muscles is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise, non-invasively detectable by (31P-MRS and consistent with the simultaneous energy production by oxidative metabolism and glycolysis. We speculate that a deficit in energy production by oxidative pathways may exist in the affected muscles. Two possible explanations for this would be the partial and/or local reduction of blood supply and the reduction of the muscle oxidative capacity itself.

  3. Work-Related Pain in Extrinsic Finger Extensor Musculature of Instrumentalists Is Associated with Intracellular pH Compartmentation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Torres, Angel; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume; Pujol, Jesus; Fàbregas, Sílvia; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Although non-specific pain in the upper limb muscles of workers engaged in mild repetitive tasks is a common occupational health problem, much is unknown about the associated structural and biochemical changes. In this study, we compared the muscle energy metabolism of the extrinsic finger extensor musculature in instrumentalists suffering from work-related pain with that of healthy control instrumentalists using non-invasive phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). We hypothesize that the affected muscles will show alterations related with an impaired energy metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 19 volunteer instrumentalists (11 subjects with work-related pain affecting the extrinsic finger extensor musculature and 8 healthy controls). We used 31P-MRS to find deviations from the expected metabolic response to exercise in phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), Pi/PCr ratio and intracellular pH kinetics. We observed a reduced finger extensor exercise tolerance in instrumentalists with myalgia, an intracellular pH compartmentation in the form of neutral and acid compartments, as detected by Pi peak splitting in 31P-MRS spectra, predominantly in myalgic muscles, and a strong association of this pattern with the condition. Conclusions/Significance Work-related pain in the finger extrinsic extensor muscles is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise, non-invasively detectable by 31P-MRS and consistent with the simultaneous energy production by oxidative metabolism and glycolysis. We speculate that a deficit in energy production by oxidative pathways may exist in the affected muscles. Two possible explanations for this would be the partial and/or local reduction of blood supply and the reduction of the muscle oxidative capacity itself. PMID:20161738

  4. Myofascial force transmission causes interaction between adjacent muscles and connective tissue: Effects of blunt dissection and compartmental fasciotomy on length force characteristics of rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Baan, G.C.

    2001-01-01

    Muscles within the anterior tibial compartment (extensor digitorum longus: EDL. tibialis anterior: TA, and extensor hallucis longus muscles: EHL) and within the peroneal compartment were excited simultaneously and maximally. The ankle joint was fixed kept at 90°. For EDL length force characteristics

  5. Compartmentalization today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2006-01-01

    For more than 30 years, the compartmentdization concept has helped tree care practitioners and land managers interpret patterns of decay in living trees. Understanding these patterns can help guide the selection of treatments that meet the needs of people and communities while respecting the underlying tree biology. At its simplest, compartmentalization resists the...

  6. Compartmental distribution of radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.S.; Colombetti, L.G.

    1983-01-01

    This book examines the use of radioisotopes in medical diagnosis. Topics considered include compartmental analysis, data processing in nuclear medicine, historical aspects, basic principles, mathematical methods, the application of computers in obtaining numerical solutions to compartmental models, the SAAM and CONSAM programs, some statistical principles in compartmental analysis, and applications

  7. Compartmental distribution of radiotracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberton, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes applications of compartmental analysis in physiology, pharmacology, and other areas of biology and medicine. Details of computer methods and applications of statistical principles as they apply to compartmental analysis are presented. Of special interest is a step-by-step discussion of Berman's SAAM program in modeling at several different levels of difficulty. Extensive references and sources of additional information in mathematical methods and in applications to specific problems are provided. Contents: Historical Development. Basic Principles, Mathematical Methods. Application of Computers for Obtaining Numerical Solutions to Compartmental Models. Use of Computers in Compartmental Analysis: SAAM and CONSAAM Programs. Some Statistical Principals in Compartmental Analysis. Applications. Index

  8. Extensor Tendon Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Extensor Tendon Injuries Email to a friend * required ...

  9. Compartmental study of biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The compartmental analysis of biological system is dealt with on several chapters devoted successively to: terminology; a mathematical and symbolic account of a system at equilibrium; different compartment systems; analysis of the experimental results. For this it is pointed out that the application of compartmental systems to biological phenomena is not always without danger. Sometimes the compartmental system established in a reference subject fails to conform in the patient. The compartments can divide into two or join together, completely changing the aspect of the system so that parameters calculated with the old model become entirely false. The conclusion is that the setting up of a compartmental system to represent a biological phenomenon is a tricky undertaking and the results must be constantly criticized and questioned [fr

  10. Variations of anatomy on MRI of the first extensor compartment of the wrist and association with DeQuervain tenosynovitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Kheterpal, Arvin B.; Terneria Vicentini, Joao Rafael; Huang, Ambrose J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-08-15

    To study anatomical variations on MRI of the first extensor compartment of the wrist in DeQuervain tenosynovitis (DQT). A retrospective search for DQT patients yielded 47 subjects (51 ± 15 years, 36 female, 11 male). The age-matched control group (normal first extensor compartment) was 49 ± 15 years (29 female, 18 male). Two independent readers reviewed: the number of abductor pollicis longus (APL) tendon slips, tendon sheath septations (compartmentalization), and APL and EPB cross-sectional area (CSA) at the radial styloid. A tendon slip was defined as a discrete structure for ≥5 contiguous slices with its own insertion. The distribution of APL tendon slips was different for the DQT and control groups (Reader 1/Reader 2: P = 0.0001 and 0.001). The most common arrangement for both groups was two APL tendon slips. One tendon slip was less common (P = 0.03 and 0.1) and compartmentalization was more common (P = 0.003; < 0.0001) for the DQT group than the control group. There was no difference in tendon slip insertions on one or multiple bones (P = 0.1; 0.7). APL and EPB compartment CSAs were also higher for the DQT group (combined first extensor compartment area: 21.3 ± 7.6 mm{sup 2}; 21.0 ± 7.1) than the control group (17.2 ± 3.8; 17.1 ± 3.9) (P = 0.002; 0.002). We found a statistically significantly increased proportion of supernumerary tendon slips and compartmentalization of the first extensor compartment in patients with DQT and greater CSA of the first extensor compartment at the radial styloid, consistent with previous anatomical, surgical, and ultrasound studies. (orig.)

  11. Compartmentalizing the embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ile, Kristina E.; Renault, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs) are a class of enzymes that can dephosphorylate a number of lysophopholipids in vitro. Analysis of knockouts of LPP family members has demonstrated striking but diverse developmental roles for these enzymes. LPP3 is required for mouse vascular development while the Drosophila LPPs Wunen (Wun) and Wunen2 (Wun2) are required during embryogenesis for germ cell migration and survival. In a recent publication we examined if these fly LPPs have further developmental roles and found that Wun is required for proper tracheal formation. In particular we highlight a role for Wun in septate junction mediated barrier function in the tracheal system. In this paper we discuss further the possible mechanisms by which LPPs may influence barrier activity. PMID:23221483

  12. Compartmentalization of prostaglandins in the canine kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan-Boyd, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The kidney has been shown to synthesize all of the naturally occurring major prostaglandins which may be restricted to a discrete part of the kidney where their actions are physiologically important, such as the vascular compartment and the tubular compartment. In order to examine this concept of compartmentalization, the authors conducted a series of experiments to determine whether PGl 2 , measured as 6-keto-pGF/sub 1α/, produced in the kidney is restricted to the renal vascular compartment or whether it also has access to the tubular compartment. Experiments were performed in the pentobarbital-anesthetized dog. Increasing pre-glomerular levels of 6-keto-PFG/sub 1α/ caused marked increases in both the urinary excretion and the renal venous outflow to 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/. When 3 H-6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ was co-infused with inulin into the renal artery, 33% of the radioactivity and 23% of the inulin was recovered on first pass. With infusion of 3 H-PGl 2 and inulin, 20% of the radioactivity and 28% of the inulin reached the urine on first pass. Radioactive PGl 2 appeared to be less filterable at the glomeruli than either 3 H-6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ or inulin. In the final set of experiments, in which dogs were prepared for a ureteral stopped-flow study, the PGE 2 /U/P/sub In/ ratio a peak was observed proximal to the Na + plateau but distal to the Na+ nadir. In light of the results from the stopped-flow study and the intrarenal infusion studies, they conclude that PGE 2 synthesized in the kidney enters both the renal and tubular compartments. In contrast, they find that 6-keto-PGF/sub 1α/ of renal origin enters only the renal origin enters only the renal vascular compartment and not the tubular compartment

  13. Compartmental modeling and tracer kinetics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, David H

    1983-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with mathematical aspects of compartmental an­ alysis. In particular, linear models are closely analyzed since they are fully justifiable as an investigative tool in tracer experiments. The objective of the monograph is to bring the reader up to date on some of the current mathematical prob­ lems of interest in compartmental analysis. This is accomplished by reviewing mathematical developments in the literature, especially over the last 10-15 years, and by presenting some new thoughts and directions for future mathematical research. These notes started as a series of lectures that I gave while visiting with the Division of Applied ~1athematics, Brown University, 1979, and have developed in­ to this collection of articles aimed at the reader with a beginning graduate level background in mathematics. The text can be used as a self-paced reading course. With this in mind, exercises have been appropriately placed throughout the notes. As an aid in reading the material, the e~d of a ...

  14. Protocell design through modular compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Booth, Paula J; Seddon, John M; Templer, Richard H; Law, Robert V; Woscholski, Rudiger; Ces, Oscar; Barter, Laura M C

    2013-10-06

    De novo synthetic biological design has the potential to significantly impact upon applications such as energy generation and nanofabrication. Current designs for constructing organisms from component parts are typically limited in scope, as they utilize a cut-and-paste ideology to create simple stepwise engineered protein-signalling pathways. We propose the addition of a new design element that segregates components into lipid-bound 'proto-organelles', which are interfaced with response elements and housed within a synthetic protocell. This design is inspired by living cells, which utilize multiple types of signalling molecules to facilitate communication between isolated compartments. This paper presents our design and validation of the components required for a simple multi-compartment protocell machine, for coupling a light transducer to a gene expression system. This represents a general design concept for the compartmentalization of different types of artificial cellular machinery and the utilization of non-protein signal molecules for signal transduction.

  15. Dynamic extensor brace for lateral epicondylitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faes, M.C.; Akker, B. van den; Lint, J.A. de; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2006-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a common, often disabling ailment. Based on the failure of current therapies, a new dynamic extensor brace has been developed. In this study, the effects of application of this brace for 3 months on the most important and disabling symptoms of patients with

  16. The monitoring of relative changes in compartmental compliances of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Carrera, Emmanuel; Castellani, Gianluca; Zweifel, Christian; Smielewski, Peter; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Marek; Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Lavinio, Andrea; Sutcliffe, Michael P F

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed to develop a computational method for assessing relative changes in compartmental compliances within the brain: the arterial bed and the cerebrospinal space. The method utilizes the relationship between pulsatile components in the arterial blood volume, arterial blood pressure (ABP) and intracranial pressure (ICP). It was verified by using clinical recordings of intracranial pressure plateau waves, when massive vasodilatation accompanying plateau waves produces changes in brain compliances of the arterial bed (C a ) and compliance of the cerebrospinal space (C i ). Ten patients admitted after head injury with a median Glasgow Coma Score of 6 were studied retrospectively. ABP was directly monitored from the radial artery. Changes in the cerebral arterial blood volume were assessed using Transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonography by digital integration of inflow blood velocity. During plateau waves, ICP increased (P = 0.001), CPP decreased (P = 0.001), ABP remained constant (P = 0.532), blood flow velocity decreased (P = 0.001). Calculated compliance of the arterial bed C a increased significantly (P = 0.001); compliance of the CSF space C i decreased (P = 0.001). We concluded that the method allows for continuous monitoring of relative changes in brain compartmental compliances. Plateau waves affect the balance between vascular and CSF compartments, which is reflected by the inverse change of compliance of the cerebral arterial bed and global compliance of the CSF space

  17. A Network Thermodynamic Approach to Compartmental Analysis

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    Mikulecky, D. C.; Huf, E. G.; Thomas, S. R.

    1979-01-01

    We introduce a general network thermodynamic method for compartmental analysis which uses a compartmental model of sodium flows through frog skin as an illustrative example (Huf and Howell, 1974a). We use network thermodynamics (Mikulecky et al., 1977b) to formulate the problem, and a circuit simulation program (ASTEC 2, SPICE2, or PCAP) for computation. In this way, the compartment concentrations and net fluxes between compartments are readily obtained for a set of experimental conditions involving a square-wave pulse of labeled sodium at the outer surface of the skin. Qualitative features of the influx at the outer surface correlate very well with those observed for the short circuit current under another similar set of conditions by Morel and LeBlanc (1975). In related work, the compartmental model is used as a basis for simulation of the short circuit current and sodium flows simultaneously using a two-port network (Mikulecky et al., 1977a, and Mikulecky et al., A network thermodynamic model for short circuit current transients in frog skin. Manuscript in preparation; Gary-Bobo et al., 1978). The network approach lends itself to computation of classic compartmental problems in a simple manner using circuit simulation programs (Chua and Lin, 1975), and it further extends the compartmental models to more complicated situations involving coupled flows and non-linearities such as concentration dependencies, chemical reaction kinetics, etc. PMID:262387

  18. Open extensor tendon injuries: an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patillo, Dominic; Rayan, Ghazi M

    2012-01-01

    To report the epidemiology, mechanism, anatomical location, distribution, and severity of open extensor tendon injuries in the digits, hand, and forearm as well as the frequency of associated injuries to surrounding bone and soft tissue. Retrospective chart review was conducted for patients who had operative repair of open digital extensor tendon injuries in all zones within an 11-year period. Data was grouped according to patient characteristics, zone of injury, mechanism of injury, and presence of associated injury. Statistical analysis was used to determine the presence of relevant associations. Eighty-six patients with 125 severed tendons and 105 injured digits were available for chart reviews. Patients were predominantly males (83%) with a mean age of 34.2 years and the dominant extremity was most often injured (60%). The thumb was the most commonly injured (25.7%), followed by middle finger (24.8), whereas small finger was least affected (10.5%). Sharp laceration was the most common mechanism of injury (60%), and most of these occurred at or proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joints. Most saw injuries occurred distal to the metacarpophalangeal joint. Zone V was the most commonly affected in the fingers (27%) while zone VT was the most commonly affected in the thumb (69%). Associated injuries to bone and soft tissue occurred in 46.7% of all injuries with saw and crush/avulsions being predictive of fractures and damage to the underlying joint capsule. The extensor mechanism is anatomically complex, and open injuries to the dorsum of the hand, wrist, and forearm, especially of crushing nature and those inflicted by saws, must be thoroughly evaluated. Associated injuries should be ruled out in order to customize surgical treatment and optimize outcome.

  19. Strength and power of knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of human neuromuscular function, the function of leg muscles has been most often measured, particularly the function of the knee extensors. Therefore, this review will be focused on knee extensors, methods for assessment of its function, the interdependence of strength and power, relations that describe these two abilities and the influence of various factors on their production (resistance training, stretching, movement tasks, age, etc.. Given that it consists of four separate muscles, the variability of their anatomical characteristics affects their participation in strength and power production, depending on the type of movement and motion that is performed. Since KE is active in a variety of activities it must be able to generate great strength in a large and diverse range of muscle lengths and high shortening velocities, in respect to different patterns of strength production, and thus different generation capacities within the muscle (Blazevich et al., 2006. It has been speculated that KE exerts its Pmax at workloads close to subject's own body weight or lower (Rahmani et al., 2001, which is very close to the maximum dynamic output hypothesis (MDI of Jaric and Markovic (2009. Changes under the influence of resistance training or biological age are variously manifested in muscle's morphological, physiological and neural characteristics, and thus in strength and power. Understanding the issues related to strength and power as abilities of great importance for daily activities, is also important for sports and rehabilitation. Performances improvement in sports in which leg muscles strength and power are crucial, as well as recovery after the injuries, are largely dependent on the research results regarding KE function. Also, the appropriate strength balance between knee flexors and extensors is important for the knee joint stability, so that the presence of imbalance between these two muscle groups might be a risk factor for

  20. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  1. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis of the extensor tendons of the wrist

    OpenAIRE

    Mrabet, Dalila; Ouenniche, Kmar; Mizouni, Habiba; Ounaies, Mouna; Khémiri, Chékib; Sahli, Héla; Sellami, Slaheddine

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterial tuberculous tenosynovitis of the extensor tendon sheath is an extremely rare manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. The diagnosis may be easily delayed because of its non-specific clinical signs. We report a new case of tuberculous tenosynovitis of the extensor without concomitant pulmonary tuberculosis or documented immunodeficiency.

  2. Advanced compositional gradient and compartmentalization analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canas, Jesus A.; Petti, Daniela; Mullins, Oliver [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Acquisition of hydrocarbons samples from the reservoir prior to oil or gas production is essential in order to design production strategies and production facilities. In addition, reservoir compartmentalization and hydrocarbon compositional grading magnify the necessity to map fluid properties vertically and laterally in the reservoir prior to production. Formation testers supply a wealth of information to observe and predict the state of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs, through detailed pressure and fluid analysis measurements. With the correct understanding of the state of fluids in the reservoirs, reserve calculations and adequate development plans can be prepared. Additionally, flow barriers may then be revealed. This paper describes a new Downhole Fluid Analysis technology (DFA) for improved reservoir management. DFA is a unique process that combines new fluid identification sensors, which allow real time monitoring of a wide range of parameters as GOR, fluid density, viscosity, fluorescence and composition (CH{sub 4}, C2- C5, C6 +, CO{sub 2}), free gas and liquid phases detection, saturation pressure, as well WBM and OBM filtrate differentiation and pH. This process is not limited to light fluid evaluation and we extended to heavy oil (HO) reservoirs analysis successfully. The combination of DFA Fluid Profiling with pressure measurements has shown to be very effective for compartmentalization characterization. The ability of thin barriers to hold off large depletion pressures has been established, as the gradual variation of hydrocarbon quality in biodegraded oils. In addition, heavy oils can show large compositional variation due to variations in source rock charging but without fluid mixing. Our findings indicates that steep gradients are common in gas condensates or volatile oils, and that biodegradation is more common in HO than in other hydrocarbons, which generate fluid gradients and heavy ends tars near the OWC, limiting the aquifer activity and

  3. Intermuscular interaction via myofascial force transmission: Effects of tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus length on force transmission from rat extensor digitorum longus muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, Huub; Baan, Guus C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Force transmission in rat anterior crural compartment, containing tibialis anterior (TA), extensor hallucis longus (EHL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, was investigated. These muscles together with the muscles of the peroneal compartment were excited maximally. Force was measured at

  4. [Reconstruction of the extensor pollicis longus tendon by transposition of the extensor indicis tendon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, A; Kalb, K; Van Schoonhoven, J; Landsleitner Dagger, B

    2003-12-01

    Rupture of the extensor pollicis longus-tendon (EPL) is a frequent complication after distal radius fractures. Other traumatic and non-traumatic reasons for this tendon lesion are known, including a theory about a disorder in the blood supply to the tendon itself. We examined 40 patients after reconstruction of the EPL-tendon in a mean follow-up time of 30 months. All patients were clinically examined and a DASH questionnaire was answered by all patients. The method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon was the transposition of the extensor indicis-tendon. After the operations the thumb was put in a splint for four weeks in a "hitch-hiker's-position". 31 ruptures of the tendon (77.5 %) were a result of trauma. In 20 of them (50 %) a distal radius fracture had occurred. Clinical examination included measurements of the movement of the thumb- and index-finger joints, the grip strength and the maximal span of the hand. Significant differences were not found. The isolated extension of the index finger was possible in all patients. But it was reduced in ten cases which represent 25 %. Our results were evaluated by the Geldmacher score to evaluate the reconstruction of the EPL-tendon. 20 % excellent, 65 % good, 12.5 % fair and 2.5 % poor results were reached. The Geldmacher score was used critically. We suggest its modification for the evaluation of thumb abduction. The DASH score reached a functional value of ten points which represents a very good result. In conclusion the extensor indicis-transposition is a safe method to reconstruct the EPL-tendon. Its substantial advantage is taking a healthy muscle as the motor, thereby avoiding the risk of using a degenerated muscle in late tendon reconstruction. A powerful extension of the index finger will be maintained by physical education. Generally, the loss of the extension of the index finger is negligible. It does not disturb the patients. But it has to be discussed with the patient before the operation.

  5. Compartmentation of redox metabolism in malaria parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Kehr

    Full Text Available Malaria, caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium, still represents a major threat to human health and welfare and leads to about one million human deaths annually. Plasmodium is a rapidly multiplying unicellular organism undergoing a complex developmental cycle in man and mosquito - a life style that requires rapid adaptation to various environments. In order to deal with high fluxes of reactive oxygen species and maintain redox regulatory processes and pathogenicity, Plasmodium depends upon an adequate redox balance. By systematically studying the subcellular localization of the major antioxidant and redox regulatory proteins, we obtained the first complete map of redox compartmentation in Plasmodium falciparum. We demonstrate the targeting of two plasmodial peroxiredoxins and a putative glyoxalase system to the apicoplast, a non-photosynthetic plastid. We furthermore obtained a complete picture of the compartmentation of thioredoxin- and glutaredoxin-like proteins. Notably, for the two major antioxidant redox-enzymes--glutathione reductase and thioredoxin reductase--Plasmodium makes use of alternative-translation-initiation (ATI to achieve differential targeting. Dual localization of proteins effected by ATI is likely to occur also in other Apicomplexa and might open new avenues for therapeutic intervention.

  6. Measurement of fatigue in knee flexor and extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Y; Senda, M; Oka, T; Yagata, Y; Takahara, Y; Nagashima, H; Inoue, H

    2000-04-01

    In order to examine fatigue of the knee flexor and extensor muscles and to investigate the characteristics of muscular fatigue in different sports, a Cybex machine was used to measure muscle fatigue and recovery during isokinetic knee flexion and extension. Eighteen baseball players, 12 soccer players and 13 marathon runners were studied. Each subject was tested in the sitting position and made to perform 50 consecutive right knee bends and stretches at maximum strength. This was done 3 times with an interval of 10 min between each series. The peak torque to body weight ratio and the fatigue rate were determined in each case. In all subjects, the peak torque to body weight ratio was higher for extensors than flexors. Over the 3 trials, the fatigue rate of extensors showed little change, while that of flexors had a tendency to increase. In each subject, knee extensors showed a high fatigue rate but a quick recovery, while knee flexors showed a low fatigue rate but a slow recovery. As the marathon runners had the smallest fatigue rates for both flexors and extensors, we concluded that marathon runners had more stamina than baseball players and soccer players.

  7. Passive Noise Filtering by Cellular Compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeger, Thomas; Battich, Nico; Pelkmans, Lucas

    2016-03-10

    Chemical reactions contain an inherent element of randomness, which presents itself as noise that interferes with cellular processes and communication. Here we discuss the ability of the spatial partitioning of molecular systems to filter and, thus, remove noise, while preserving regulated and predictable differences between single living cells. In contrast to active noise filtering by network motifs, cellular compartmentalization is highly effective and easily scales to numerous systems without requiring a substantial usage of cellular energy. We will use passive noise filtering by the eukaryotic cell nucleus as an example of how this increases predictability of transcriptional output, with possible implications for the evolution of complex multicellularity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Variant Branching Pattern of Dorsalis Pedis Artery Accompanied with Anomalous Presence of Extensor Hallucis Brevis Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Aithal Padur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection, we came across multiple variations in the dorsum of the right foot. Dorsalis pedis artery (DPA presented with an unusual branching pattern. The arcuate artery was completely absent, and hence three tarsal branches arose from lateral side of DPA. The first branch continued as first dorsal metatarsal artery, the second branch continued as the second dorsal metatarsal artery, and the third branch continued as third dorsal metatarsal artery which also provided a small twig to the fourth intermetatarsal space as the fourth dorsal metatarsal artery. We also observed the unique presence of extensor hallucis brevis muscle with the origin from the medial part of superior surface of the calcaneus and inserted to proximal phalanx of great toe. Since the DPA was just beneath this muscle, anomalous presence of the muscle may lead to compression of DPA. Awareness regarding such variations is critical for angiographers, vascular surgeons, reconstructive and plastic surgeons.

  9. Elbow flexor and extensor muscle weakness in lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brooke K; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether deficits of elbow flexor and extensor muscle strength exist in lateral epicondylalgia (LE) in comparison with a healthy control population. Cross-sectional study. 150 participants with unilateral LE were compared with 54 healthy control participants. Maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension strength were measured bilaterally using a purpose-built standing frame such that gripping was avoided. The authors found significant side differences in elbow extensor (-6.54 N, 95% CI -11.43 to -1.65, p=0.008, standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.45) and flexor muscle strength (-11.26 N, 95% CI -19.59 to -2.94, p=0.009, SMD -0.46) between LE and control groups. Within the LE group, only elbow extensor muscle strength deficits between sides was significant (affected-unaffected: -2.94 N, 95% CI -5.44 to -0.44). Small significant deficits of elbow extensor and flexor muscle strength exist in the affected arm of unilateral LE in comparison with healthy controls. Notably, comparing elbow strength between the affected and unaffected sides in unilateral epicondylalgia is likely to underestimate these deficits. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000051246.

  10. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. W. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure (3 ACH50) for single-family and multifamily construction (in climate zones 3–8). The Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design certification program and ASHRAE Standard 189 have comparable compartmentalization requirements. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 will soon be responsible for all multifamily ventilation requirements (low rise and high rise); it has an exceptionally stringent compartmentalization requirement. These code and program requirements are driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings.

  11. Compartmentalization of Aquaporins in the Human Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendram V. Rajnarayanan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Improper localization of water channel proteins called aquaporins (AQP induce mucosal injury which is implicated in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. The amino acid sequences of AQP3 and AQP10 are 79% similar and belong to the mammalian aquaglyceroporin subfamily. AQP10 is localized on the apical compartment of the intestinal epithelium called the glycocalyx while AQP3 is selectively targeted to the basolateral membrane. Despite the high sequence similarity and evolutionary relatedness, the molecular mechanism involved in the polarity, selective targeting and function of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestine is largely unknown. Our hypothesis is that the differential polarity and selective targeting of AQP3 and AQP10 in the intestinal epithelial cells is influenced by amino acid signal motifs. We performed sequence and structural alignments to determine differences in signals for localization and posttranslational glycosylation. The basolateral sorting motif “YRLL” is present in AQP3 but absent in AQP10; while Nglycosylation signals are present in AQP10 but absent in AQP3. Furthermore, the C-terminal region of AQP3 is longer compared to AQP10. The sequence and structural differences between AQP3 and AQP10 provide insights into the differential compartmentalization and function of these two aquaporins commonly expressed in human intestines.

  12. Compartmentalization and Transport in Synthetic Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eSchmitt

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nano-scale vesicles have become a popular tool in life sciences. Besides liposomes that are generated from phospholipids of natural origin, polymersomes fabricated of synthetic block copolymers enjoy increasing popularity, as they represent more versatile membrane building blocks that can be selected based on their specific physicochemical properties, like permeability, stability or chemical reactivity.In this review, we focus on the application of simple and nested artificial vesicles in synthetic biology. First, we provide an introduction into the utilization of multi-compartmented vesosomes as compartmentalized nano-scale bioreactors. In the bottom-up development of protocells from vesicular nano-reactors, the specific exchange of pathway intermediates across compartment boundaries represents a bottleneck for future studies. To date, most compartmented bioreactors rely on unspecific exchange of substrates and products. This is either based on changes in permeability of the coblock polymer shell by physicochemical triggers or by the incorporation of unspecific porin proteins into the vesicle membrane. Since the incorporation of membrane transport proteins into simple and nested artificial vesicles offers the potential for specific exchange of substances between subcompartments, it opens new vistas in the design of protocells. Therefore we devote the main part of the review to summarize the technical advances in the use of phospholipids and block copolymers for the reconstitution of membrane proteins.

  13. Anatomía arterial de los colgajos musculares de extensor carpi radialis longus y extensor carpi radialis brevis para su uso en transferencia muscular funcional libre Arterial anatomy of the extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle flaps related to its use in free functioning muscle transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rodríguez Lorenzo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es documentar el aporte arterial y el patrón vascular intramuscular de los músculos Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus (ECRL y Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis (ECRB para analizar su utilización como colgajos libres en transferencia muscular funcional para reanimación facial. Realizamos un estudio anatómico en 29 brazos humanos en fresco. Las técnicas de inyección utilizadas fueron la modificada de oxido de plomo y gelatina en 11 cadáveres y la de inyección pulsátil de látex color en 18. Disecamos los músculos ECRL y ECRB y sus pedículos, los fotodocumentamos y radiografiamos valorando los resultados en función del patrón vascular intramuscular, relaciones anatómicas, calibres y longitud de pedículos. Encontramos dos patrones vasculares diferentes en las 29 disecciones siguiendo la clasificación de Mathes y Nahai de la anatomía vascular de los músculos (en función del número de pedículos vasculares y su dominancia: Tipo I( 37,9% ECRL y 20,7% ECRB y Tipo II(62,1% del ECRL y 79,3% del ECRB. El pedículo principal del ECRL (de diámetro medio 1,73 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 32,32 mm es en el 100% de los casos rama de la arteria recurrente radial y el pedículo principal del ECRB (de diámetro medio 1,11 mm y longitud de pedículo media de 27,77 mm es rama de la arteria radial en el 68,9% de los casos y de la arteria recurrente radial en el 31,1% de los casos. Concluimos que El ECRL y ECRB presentan dos tipos de patrones vasculares: tipo I y tipo II, siendo más frecuente en nuestro trabajo el tipo II, que hacen que ambos puedan ser transferidos como colgajos libres por su pedículo principal. Ambos músculos presentan un tamaño, contorno, contenido fascial importante para el anclaje de suturas y una longitud de pedículo y calibre vascular adecuados para su transferencia microvascular libre en reanimación facial. De los dos, el más realizable como colgajo libre es el ECRB ya que la relaci

  14. Spontaneous atraumatic extensor pollicis longus rupture in the nonrheumatoid population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Erin M; Shridharani, Sachin M; Lifchez, Scott D

    2013-01-01

    Extensor pollicis longus (EPL) tendon rupture is a well-described phenomenon in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Mechanisms of EPL tendon rupture in the nonrheumatoid population have also been described and include traumatic rupture, repetitive motion strain, and steroid injection into the tendon. The operative records for patients undergoing extensor pollicis longus reconstruction by the senior author were reviewed. Patients with a history of trauma to the wrist or inflammatory arthropathy were excluded. We identified 3 patients who presented with spontaneous EPL tendon rupture. These patients reported no risk factors (as listed earlier) or inciting event. All 3 patients had some exposure to local steroids but this exposure was not at the site of subsequent tendon rupture. All patients were operatively repaired and went on to full recovery of EPL function. In patients with sudden loss of extension of the thumb interphalangeal joint, a thorough history of steroid exposure including local steroid exposure remote to the affected EPL tendon may be relevant.

  15. Multiple Tophaceous Gout of Hand with Extensor Tendon Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Tobimatsu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year-old man presented with painless subcutaneous masses bilaterally on his hands and loss of motion or contracture of the fingers. Initially, drug therapy to reduce the serum uric acid was administered and was expected to reduce the tophi. However, during observation at the clinic, spontaneous rupture of an extensor tendon occurred, and surgical repair of the tendon and resection of the masses were performed. Surgical exploration of the right hand showed hypertrophic white-colored crystal deposits that both surrounded and invaded the extensor digitorum communis of the index finger, which was ruptured. Histopathologic examination of the specimen demonstrated findings consistent with gouty tophi. Tophaceous gout can induce a rupture of tendons during clinical observation, and surgical resection of the tophi might be needed to prevent ruptures.

  16. Bilateral movements increase sustained extensor force in the paretic arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Nyeonju; Cauraugh, James H

    2018-04-01

    Muscle weakness in the extensors poststroke is a common motor impairment. Unfortunately, research is unclear on whether bilateral movements increase extensor force production in the paretic arm. This study investigated sustained force production while stroke individuals maximally extended their wrist and fingers on their paretic arm. Specifically, we determined isometric force production in three conditions: (a) unilateral paretic arm, (b) unilateral nonparetic arm, and (c) bilateral (both arms executing the same movement simultaneously). Seventeen chronic stroke patients produced isometric sustained force by executing wrist and fingers extension in unilateral and bilateral contraction conditions. Mean force, force variability (coefficient of variation), and signal-to-noise ratio were calculated for each contraction condition. Analysis of two-way (Arm × Type of Condition: 2 × 2; Paretic or Nonparetic Arm × Unilateral or Bilateral Conditions) within-subjects ANOVAs revealed that the bilateral condition increased sustained force in the paretic arm, but reduced sustained force in the nonparetic arm. Further, although the paretic arm exhibited more force variability and less signal-to-noise ratio than the nonparetic arm during a unilateral condition, there were no differences when participants simultaneously executed isometric contractions with both arms. Our unique findings indicate that bilateral contractions transiently increased extensor force in the paretic arm. Implications for Rehabilitation Bilateral movements increased isometric wrsit extensor force in paretic arms and redcued force in nonparetic arms versus unilateral movements. Both paretic and nonparetic arms produced similar force variability and signal-to-noise ratio during bilateral movements. Increased sustained force in the paretic arm during the bilateral condition indicates that rehabilitation protocols based on bilateral movements may be beneficial for functional recovery.

  17. An anomalous accessory extensor proprius indicis muscle: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kurklu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Variations related to tendon insertion and musculotendinous junction of the extensor proprius indicis muscle are commonly encountered. An anomalous extensor indicis proprius muscle (EIP tendon was detected in a fifty-year-old female cadaver during routine dissection of the right upper extremity. The body of tendon was initiated from the posterior ulna as a one muscle body, then continued as two separate muscle bodies and tendons and finally they were separated into two slips after passing the fourth dorsal compartment. As a radial part, it was divided into two slips at the level of the first metacarpophalangeal joint, and conjugated with the extensor pollicis longus (EPL muscle. Then, as an ulnar part, it was terminated at the radial side of the lateral band of the second metacarpophalangeal joint. Familiarity with the normal anatomy and variations of the tendons may help to prevent confusion and mistakes during tendon repairs, and tendon transfers. [Hand Microsurg 2013; 2(3.000: 122-124

  18. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow – Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C.; Alfredson, H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Methods: Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin & eosin, H&E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). Results: All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. Conclusion: The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. Level of Evidence: IV. PMID:28574416

  19. Richly innervated soft tissues covering the superficial aspect of the extensor origin in patients with chronic painful tennis elbow - Implication for treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spang, C; Alfredson, H

    2017-06-01

    Tennis elbow is difficult to treat. The results of surgical treatments are not convincing. Treatment studies on Achilles and patellar tendinopathy targeting the richly innervated and vascularized soft tissues outside the tendon have shown promising outcomes. The innervation patterns in the fibrous/fatty tissues superficially to the elbow extensor origin have not been clarified. Nine tissue specimens from the fibrous/fatty tissue covering the extensor origin was taken from seven patients (mean age: 45 years) undergoing surgical treatment for chronic painful tennis elbow. The specimens were stained for morphology (haematoxylin and eosin, H and E) and immunohistochemically for general nerve marker protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5) and markers for sympathetic (tyrosine hydroxylase, TH) and sensory nerve fibres (calcitonin gene-related peptide, CGRP). All specimens contained multiple blood vessels and nerve structures indicated by morphology and immunoreactions. There was a frequent occurrence of TH reactions, especially peri-vascularly, but also in nerve fascicles. Immunoreactions for CGRP were seen in nerve fascicles and isolated nerve fibres. The results provide new information on the innervation patterns of the superficial tissues of the extensor origin and their potential as source of tennis elbow pain. IV.

  20. Network thermodynamic approach compartmental analysis. Na+ transients in frog skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulecky, D C; Huf, E G; Thomas, S R

    1979-01-01

    We introduce a general network thermodynamic method for compartmental analysis which uses a compartmental model of sodium flows through frog skin as an illustrative example (Huf and Howell, 1974a). We use network thermodynamics (Mikulecky et al., 1977b) to formulate the problem, and a circuit simulation program (ASTEC 2, SPICE2, or PCAP) for computation. In this way, the compartment concentrations and net fluxes between compartments are readily obtained for a set of experimental conditions involving a square-wave pulse of labeled sodium at the outer surface of the skin. Qualitative features of the influx at the outer surface correlate very well with those observed for the short circuit current under another similar set of conditions by Morel and LeBlanc (1975). In related work, the compartmental model is used as a basis for simulation of the short circuit current and sodium flows simultaneously using a two-port network (Mikulecky et al., 1977a, and Mikulecky et al., A network thermodynamic model for short circuit current transients in frog skin. Manuscript in preparation; Gary-Bobo et al., 1978). The network approach lends itself to computation of classic compartmental problems in a simple manner using circuit simulation programs (Chua and Lin, 1975), and it further extends the compartmental models to more complicated situations involving coupled flows and non-linearities such as concentration dependencies, chemical reaction kinetics, etc.

  1. PGI2 synthesis and excretion in dog kidney: evidence for renal PG compartmentalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.M.; Nasjletti, A.; Heerdt, P.M.; Baer, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    To assess the concept of compartmentalization of renal prostaglandins (PG), we compared entry of PGE2 and the PGI2 metabolite 6-keto-PGF1 alpha into the renal vascular and tubular compartments, in sodium pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. Renal arterial 6-keto-PGF1 alpha infusion increased both renal venous and urinary 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow. In contrast, renal arterial infusion of arachidonic acid (AA) or bradykinin (BK) increased renal venous 6-keto-PGF1 alpha outflow but had no effect on its urinary outflow. Both urinary and renal venous PGE2 outflows increased during AA or BK infusion. Ureteral stopped-flow studies revealed no postglomerular 6-keto-PGF1 alpha entry into tubular fluid. During renal arterial infusion of [3H]PGI2 and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 40% of inulin clearance; 35% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and two other urinary metabolites were found. During renal arterial infusion of [3H]6-keto-PGF1 alpha and inulin, first-pass 3H clearance was 150% of inulin clearance; 75% of urinary 3H was 6-keto-PGF1 alpha, and only one other metabolite was found. We conclude that in the dog PGE2 synthesized in the kidney enters directly into both the renal vascular and tubular compartments, but 6-keto-PGF1 alpha of renal origin enters directly into only the renal vascular compartment

  2. Drivers of compartmentalization in a Mediterranean pollination network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Ana M. Martin; Allesina, Stefano; Rodrigo, Anselm

    2012-01-01

    We study compartmentalization in a Mediterranean pollination network using three different analytical approaches: unipartite modularity (UM), bipartite modularity (BM) and the group model (GM). Our objectives are to compare compartments obtained with these three approaches and to explore the role...... of several species attributes related to pollination syndromes, species phenology, abundance and connectivity in structuring compartmentalization. BM could not identify compartments in our network. By contrast, UM revealed four modules composed of plants and pollinators, and GM four groups of plants and five...... of pollinators. Phenology had a major influence on compartmentalization, and compartments (both UM and GM) had distinct phenophases. Compartments were also strongly characterized by species degree (number of connections) and betweenness centrality. These two attributes were highly related to each other...

  3. Ulnar-sided pain due to extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cift Hakan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We present the case of a patient with extensor carpi ulnaris tendon subluxation who was first treated for distal radioulnar joint sprain. Case presentation A 25-year-old Caucasian man was seen at our policlinic one month after he had fallen on his outstretched hand. A diagnosis of extensor carpi ulnaris subluxation was made clinically but we also had the magnetic resonance imaging scan of the patient’s wrist which displayed an increased signal on T2-weighted images consistent with inflammation around the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. The extensor carpi ulnaris tendon was found to be dislocating during supination and relocating during pronation. The sheath was reconstructed using extensor retinaculum due to attenuation of subsheath. Conclusion There was no recurrent dislocation of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon of the patient at his last follow up 12 months after the operation.

  4. Neck extensor muscle weakness (Dropped head syndrome) following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, S.; Miller, R.C.; Lachance, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Dropped head syndrome is an unusual condition in which the head cannot be held upright in its normal anatomic position secondary to pronounced, isolated, neck extensor muscle weakness. Case report. A case of dropped head syndrome in a female with a history of radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma and a clinical history consistent with multiple sclerosis is presented, and potential etiologies are discussed. Conclusions. Muscular atrophy and lower motor neuron injury secondary to isolated anterior horn cell injury from radiotherapy emerge as the most likely etiology. (author)

  5. Gait analysis of patients with an off-the-shelf total knee replacement versus customized bi-compartmental knee replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Henry; Foster, Jonathan; Franksen, Natasha; Estes, Jill; Rolston, Lindsey

    2018-04-01

    Newer TKR designs have been introduced to the market with the aim of overcoming common sizing problems with older TKR designs. Furthermore, since a sizable percentage of patients with OA present with disease limited to the medial/lateral knee compartment in addition to the patellofemoral joint, for whom, a customized bi-compartmental knee replacement (BKR) is available as a treatment option. To date, there is very little information regarding knee strength and mechanics during gait for patients implanted with these modern TKR and BKR designs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate knee strength and mechanics during walking for patients with either a modern off the shelf TKR or a customized BKR and compare these findings to a cohort of healthy controls. Twelve healthy controls, eight BKR, and nine TKR patients participated in the study. Maximal isometric knee strength was evaluated. 3D kinematic and kinetic analyses were conducted for level walking. The TKR knee exhibited less peak extensor torque when compared to, both the BKR and control limbs (p < 0.05). The TKR knee had less extensor moment at stance than both the BKR and control knees (p < 0.05). Both the BKR and control knees displayed larger internal rotation at stance than that of the TKR knee (p < 0.05). This study suggests that, for patients that exhibit isolated OA of the tibiofemoral joint, using a customized BKR implant is a viable treatment option and may contribute to superior mechanical advantages.

  6. Hyperparathyroidism-related extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist: a general review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihara, Satoshi; Hidalgo-Diaz, Juan Jose; Prunières, Guillaume; Facca, Sybille; Bodin, Frédéric; Boucher, Stéphanie; Liverneaux, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Extensor tenosynovitis often occurs accompanying with rheumatoid arthritis, gout, trauma, mycobacterium and dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, there is no recognition of extensor tenosynovitis accompanying with hyperparathyroidism. The purpose of this general review was to describe the clinical condition and to report the results of surgical intervention in the extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist related to hyperparathyroidism. Hyperparathyroidism is thought to be a rare disease in adult. Although renal symptoms are the commonest symptom, musculoskeletal complaints also occur in hyperparathyroidism. From our general review, hyperparathyroidism deserves consideration in the differential diagnosis of extensor tenosynovitis at the wrist.

  7. Common extensor origin release in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis - role justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundan Cibu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of our study was to analyse the efficacy of operative management in recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis of elbow. Forty patients included in this study were referred by general practitioners with a diagnosis of tennis elbow to the orthopaedic department at a district general hospital over a five year period. All had two or more steroid injections at the tender spot, without permanent relief of pain. All subsequently underwent simple fasciotomy of the extensor origin. Of forty patients thirty five had improvement in pain and function, two had persistent symptoms and three did not perceive any improvement. Twenty five had excellent, ten had well, two had fair and three had poor outcomes (recurrent problem; pain at rest and night. Two patients underwent revision surgery. Majority of the patients had improvement in pain and function following operative treatment. In this study, an extensor fasciotomy was demonstrated to be an effective treatment for refractory chronic lateral epicondylitis; however, further studies are warranted.

  8. Integration through Compartmentalization? Pitfalls of “Poldering” in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the history of the Flood Action Plan 20 (FAP-20), an experiment with polder compartmentalization, seeking to integrate flood management, drainage, and irrigation, and make it more democratic in response to the destructive 1987 and 1988 floods in Bangladesh. As a transferred

  9. Macroanatomy of compartmentalization in fire scars of three western conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Elaine Sutherland; Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Donald. Falk

    2013-01-01

    Fire scars are visible evidence of compartmentalization and closure processes that contribute to tree survival after fire injury. Preliminary observations of dissected fire scars from trees injured within the last decade showed centripetal development of wound-initiated discoloration (WID) through 2-3 decades of former sapwood in Larix occidentalis and Pseudotsuga...

  10. A Calculus for Modelling, Simulating and Analysing Compartmentalized Biological Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Ihekwaba, Adoha

    2007-01-01

    A. Ihekwaba, R. Mardare. A Calculus for Modelling, Simulating and Analysing Compartmentalized Biological Systems. Case study: NFkB system. In Proc. of International Conference of Computational Methods in Sciences and Engineering (ICCMSE), American Institute of Physics, AIP Proceedings, N 2...

  11. Integration through compartmentalization? Pitfalls of 'poldering' in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    The article sketches the history of the Flood Action Plan 20 (FAP-20), an experiment with polder compartmentalization, seeking to integrate flood management, drainage, and irrigation, and make it more democratic in response to the destructive 1987 and 1988 floods in Bangladesh. As a transferred

  12. Kinetic compartmental analysis of carnitine metabolism in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Engel, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    This study was undertaken to quantitate the dynamic parameters of carnitine metabolism in the dog. Six mongrel dogs were given intravenous injections of L-[methyl-3H]carnitine and the specific radioactivity of carnitine was followed in plasma and urine for 19-28 days. The data were analyzed by kinetic compartmental analysis. A three-compartment, open-system model [(a) extracellular fluid, (b) cardiac and skeletal muscle, (c) other tissues, particularly liver and kidney] was adopted and kinetic parameters (carnitine flux, pool sizes, kinetic constants) were derived. In four of six dogs the size of the muscle carnitine pool obtained by kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 5%) with estimates based on measurement of carnitine concentrations in different muscles. In three of six dogs carnitine excretion rates derived from kinetic compartmental analysis agreed (+/- 9%) with experimentally measured values, but in three dogs the rates by kinetic compartmental analysis were significantly higher than the corresponding rates measured directly. Appropriate chromatographic analyses revealed no radioactive metabolites in muscle or urine of any of the dogs. Turnover times for carnitine were (mean +/- SEM): 0.44 +/- 0.05 h for extracellular fluid, 232 +/- 22 h for muscle, and 7.9 +/- 1.1 h for other tissues. The estimated flux of carnitine in muscle was 210 pmol/min/g of tissue. Whole-body turnover time for carnitine was 62.9 +/- 5.6 days (mean +/- SEM). Estimated carnitine biosynthesis ranged from 2.9 to 28 mumol/kg body wt/day. Results of this study indicate that kinetic compartmental analysis may be applicable to study of human carnitine metabolism

  13. Extensor Tendon Instability Due to Sagittal Band Injury in a Martial Arts Athlete: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Andrew; Rayan, Ghazi

    2017-03-01

    A Taekwondo participant sustained a hand injury from punching an opponent that resulted in painful instability of the ring finger extensor digitorum communis tendon due to sagittal band damage. His symptoms resolved after reconstructive surgery on the sagittal band (SB) with stabilization of the extensor tendon over the metacarpophalangeal joint.

  14. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna

    2006-01-01

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  15. Extensor Mechanism Disruption after Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Case Series and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishya, Raju; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-02-04

    Extensor mechanism disruption following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a rare but devastating complication. These patients may require revision of the implants, but even then, it may not be possible to restore the normal function of the knee after the disruption. The patterns of extensor mechanism disruption can broadly be classified into three types: suprapatellar (quadriceps tendon rupture), transpatellar (patellar fracture), or infrapatellar (patellar tendon rupture). Infrapatellar tendon ruptures are the worst injuries, as they carry maximum morbidity and are challenging to manage. The disruption of the extensor mechanism may occur either intra-operatively or in the immediate postoperative period due to an injury. The treatment of extensor mechanism complications after TKA may include either nonsurgical management or surgical intervention in the form of primary repair or reconstruction with autogenous, allogeneic, or synthetic substitutes. We have provided an algorithm for the management of extensor mechanism disruption after TKA.

  16. Investigation Of Wrist Flexor/Extensor Muscle Strength Following Arthroscopic Surgical Treatment Of Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Onur SERBEST

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of elbow joint. Repetitive wrist activities and activities that requires strength are risk factors. Wrist extensor muscle strength are decreased in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods: Eight patients with a diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis enrolled to study. Wrist flexor and extensor muscle strength of patients who were completed one year after surgery were measured by isokinetic dynamometer. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the flexor and extensor muscle strength of the patients (p>0.05. Conclusion: In this study, arthroscopic extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon release in lateral epicondylitis has shown no negative effect on flexor and extensor wrist muscle stregth.

  17. Accuracy of High-Resolution Ultrasonography in the Detection of Extensor Tendon Lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Bobby; Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Sheppard, Joseph E

    2016-02-01

    Lacerations to the extensor mechanism are usually diagnosed clinically. Ultrasound (US) has been a growing diagnostic tool for tendon injuries since the 1990s. To date, there has been no publication establishing the accuracy and reliability of US in the evaluation of extensor mechanism lacerations in the hand. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of US to detect extensor tendon injuries in the hand. Sixteen fingers and 4 thumbs in 4 fresh-frozen and thawed cadaveric hands were used. Sixty-eight 0.5-cm transverse skin lacerations were created. Twenty-seven extensor tendons were sharply transected. The remaining skin lacerations were used as sham dissection controls. One US technologist and one fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist performed real-time dynamic US studies in and out of water bath. A second fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist subsequently reviewed the static US images. Dynamic and static US interpretation accuracy was assessed using dissection as "truth." All 27 extensor tendon lacerations and controls were identified correctly with dynamic imaging as either injury models that had a transected extensor tendon or sham controls with intact extensor tendons (sensitivity = 100%, specificity = 100%, positive predictive value = 1.0; all significantly greater than chance). Static imaging had a sensitivity of 85%, specificity of 89%, and accuracy of 88% (all significantly greater than chance). The results of the dynamic real time versus static US imaging were clearly different but did not reach statistical significance. Diagnostic US is a very accurate noninvasive study that can identify extensor mechanism injuries. Clinically suspected cases of acute extensor tendon injury scanned by high-frequency US can aid and/or confirm the diagnosis, with dynamic imaging providing added value compared to static. Ultrasonography, to aid in the diagnosis of extensor mechanism lacerations, can be successfully used in a reliable and

  18. Spontaneous Extensor Tendon Rupture in the Rheumatoid Wrist: Risk Factors and Preventive Role of Extended Tenosynovectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Jung-Hua; Liu, Wen-Chung; Yang, Kuo-Chung; Hsu, Kuei-Chang; Lin, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Lee-Wei

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous extensor tendon rupture is often seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, but the risk factors are not clearly defined. We therefore collected the data of RA patients with previous extensor tendon rupture and those with tenosynovitis and analyzed the relationship between extended tenosynovectomy and spontaneous extensor tendon rupture. We retrospectively reviewed 17 spontaneous extensor tendon rupture episodes in 15 RA patients and 14 tenosynovitis episodes that required tenosynovectomy in 12 RA patients from 1997 to 2013. Correlations between the incidence of tendon rupture, X-ray findings, and clinical findings in the affected wrists before tendon rupture were analyzed statistically using the test for proportion. The following parameters were significantly correlated with spontaneous extensor tendon rupture: disease duration longer than 8 years, persistent tenosynovitis longer than 1 year duration, and Larsen grade greater than 4 (P = 0.02, 0.03, and 0.01, respectively). Dislocation of the distal end of the ulna, carpal collapse, and the scallop sign on X-ray contributed to a higher spontaneous extensor tendon rupture rate among RA patients (P = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.03, respectively). Extended tenosynovectomy was performed on 14 wrists in 12 RA patients with persistent tenosynovitis longer than 6 months, and Larsen grade did not deteriorate in this group compared with those who did not undergo the surgery. No spontaneous extensor tendon rupture occurred following the surgery. Risk factors of spontaneous extensor tendon rupture included disease duration longer than 8 years, persistent tenosynovitis longer than 1 year, and wrist Larsen grade greater than 4. Dislocation of the distal end of the ulna, carpal collapse, and the scallop sign on X-ray indicated a higher probability of extensor tendon rupture. Rheumatologists should consult with hand surgeons promptly to preserve hand function before tendon rupture. Prophylactic extended tenosynovectomy

  19. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... and insulin signalling transduction remain elusive. We believe that one of the reasons is that the role of intracellular compartmentalization as a regulator of metabolic pathways and signalling transduction has been rather ignored. This paper briefly reviews the literature to discuss the role of intracellular...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...

  20. A Novel Method for Performance Analysis of Compartmentalized Reservoirs

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    Shahamat Mohammad Sadeq

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple analytical model for performance analysis of compartmentalized reservoirs producing under Constant Terminal Rate (CTR and Constant Terminal Pressure (CTP. The model is based on the well-known material balance and boundary dominated flow equations and is written in terms of capacitance and resistance of a production and a support compartment. These capacitance and resistance terms account for a combination of reservoir parameters which enable the developed model to be used for characterizing such systems. In addition to considering the properties contrast between the two reservoir compartments, the model takes into account existence of transmissibility barriers with the use of resistance terms. The model is used to analyze production performance of unconventional reservoirs, where the multistage fracturing of horizontal wells effectively creates a Stimulated Reservoir Volume (SRV with an enhanced permeability surrounded by a non-stimulated region. It can also be used for analysis of compartmentalized conventional reservoirs. The analytical solutions provide type curves through which the controlling reservoirs parameters of a compartmentalized system can be estimated. The contribution of the supporting compartment is modeled based on a boundary dominated flow assumption. The transient behaviour of the support compartment is captured by application of “distance of investigation” concept. The model shows that depletion of the production and support compartments exhibit two unit slopes on a log-log plot of pressure versus time for CTR. For CTP, however, the depletions display two exponential declines. The depletion signatures are separated by transition periods, which depend on the contribution of the support compartment (i.e. transient or boundary dominated flow. The developed equations can be implemented easily in a spreadsheet application, and are corroborated with the use of a numerical simulation. The study

  1. Compartmentation of glycogen metabolism revealed from 13C isotopologue distributions

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    Marin de Mas Igor

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope tracers are used to assess metabolic flux profiles in living cells. The existing methods of measurement average out the isotopic isomer distribution in metabolites throughout the cell, whereas the knowledge of compartmental organization of analyzed pathways is crucial for the evaluation of true fluxes. That is why we accepted a challenge to create a software tool that allows deciphering the compartmentation of metabolites based on the analysis of average isotopic isomer distribution. Results The software Isodyn, which simulates the dynamics of isotopic isomer distribution in central metabolic pathways, was supplemented by algorithms facilitating the transition between various analyzed metabolic schemes, and by the tools for model discrimination. It simulated 13C isotope distributions in glucose, lactate, glutamate and glycogen, measured by mass spectrometry after incubation of hepatocytes in the presence of only labeled glucose or glucose and lactate together (with label either in glucose or lactate. The simulations assumed either a single intracellular hexose phosphate pool, or also channeling of hexose phosphates resulting in a different isotopic composition of glycogen. Model discrimination test was applied to check the consistency of both models with experimental data. Metabolic flux profiles, evaluated with the accepted model that assumes channeling, revealed the range of changes in metabolic fluxes in liver cells. Conclusions The analysis of compartmentation of metabolic networks based on the measured 13C distribution was included in Isodyn as a routine procedure. The advantage of this implementation is that, being a part of evaluation of metabolic fluxes, it does not require additional experiments to study metabolic compartmentation. The analysis of experimental data revealed that the distribution of measured 13C-labeled glucose metabolites is inconsistent with the idea of perfect mixing of hexose

  2. Field Testing of Compartmentalization Methods for Multifamily Construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States); Lstiburek, J. [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The 2012 IECC has an airtightness requirement of 3 air changes per hour at 50 Pascals test pressure for both single-family and multifamily construction in Climate Zones 3-8. Other programs (LEED, ASHRAE 189, ASHRAE 62.2) have similar or tighter compartmentalization requirements, driving the need for easier and more effective methods of compartmentalization in multifamily buildings. Builders and practitioners have found that fire-resistance rated wall assemblies are a major source of difficulty in air sealing/compartmentalization, particularly in townhouse construction. This problem is exacerbated when garages are “tucked in” to the units and living space is located over the garages. In this project, Building Science Corporation examined the taping of exterior sheathing details to improve air sealing results in townhouse and multifamily construction, when coupled with a better understanding of air leakage pathways. Current approaches are cumbersome, expensive, time consuming, and ineffective; these details were proposed as a more effective and efficient method. The effectiveness of these air sealing methods was tested with blower door testing, including “nulled” or “guarded” testing (adjacent units run at equal test pressure to null out inter-unit air leakage, or “pressure neutralization”). Pressure diagnostics were used to evaluate unit-to-unit connections and series leakage pathways (i.e., air leakage from exterior, into the fire-resistance rated wall assembly, and to the interior).

  3. Effect of simultaneous stretching of the wrist and finger extensors for lateral epicondylitis: a gross anatomical study of the tendinous origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis and extensor digitorum communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirato, Rikiya; Wada, Takuro; Aoki, Mitsuhiro; Iba, Kousuke; Kanaya, Kohei; Fujimiya, Mineko; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-11-01

    Pulling the wrist into flexion with the elbow in extension and forearm in pronation has been used as the stretching technique of wrist extensors for lateral epicondylitis. Simultaneous stretching of the fingers in addition to the wrist flexion has also been applied. However, the mechanism of this simultaneous stretching has not been clarified. This study is designed to clarify the mechanism underlying this simultaneous stretching technique based on the anatomical features of the origins of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) and extensor digitorum communis (EDC). Thirty-nine arms from formalin-embalmed Japanese human specimens were dissected. The features of the origins of the ECRB and EDC were macroscopically observed, and the locations of each origin on the lateral epicondyle were measured. The ECRB had a long and wide, purely tendinous origin which originated from the anterior slope of the lateral epicondyle. The tendinous origin of the index finger of the EDC (EDC-IF) arose from the posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin, with a coexisting muscular portion observed at the level of the proximal forearm. The middle finger of the EDC (EDC-MF) had a short tendinous origin with an associated muscular portion and originated proximo-laterally to the origin of the ECRB on the lateral epicondyle. In addition, the muscular origin of the EDC-MF arose on the superficial and posterior aspect of the ECRB tendinous origin. In contrast, the ring and little fingers of the EDC originated from the tendinous septum of the extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris, and had no connection with the ECRB tendinous origin. On the basis of our anatomical findings, simultaneous stretching of the wrist extensors by wrist, index and middle fingers flexion could provide stretching force to both the tendinous origins of the ECRB and EDC through the EDC-IF and EDC-MF.

  4. The influence of fat infiltration of back extensor muscles on osteoporotic vertebral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Kwang-Young; Kim, Dae-Hee; Choi, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Choong-Young; Kim, Jeong-Seok; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective study. To investigate the influence of fat infiltration at low back extensor muscles on osteoporotic vertebral fracture. In persons with stronger back muscles, the risk of osteoporotic vertebral fractures will likely be lower than in those persons with weaker back muscles. However, the degree of influence of fat infiltration of the back extensor muscle on osteoporotic vertebral fracture remains controversial. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients who had undergone lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging and bone mineral density (BMD) were enrolled in this study. The amount of low back extensor muscle was determined using the pseudocoloring technique on an axial view of the L3 level. The patients were divided into two groups: osteoporotic vertebral fracture group (group A) and non-fracture group (group B). The amount of low back extensor muscle is compared with BMD, degenerative change of disc, osteophyte grade of facet joint and promontory angle to reveal the association between these factors. A negative correlation is found between age and the amount of low back extensor muscle (p=0.001). The amount of low back extensor muscle in group A and group B was 60.3%±14.5% and 64.2%±9.3% respectively, thus showing a significantly smaller amount of low back extensor muscle in the osteoporotic vertebral fracture group (p=0.015). Fat infiltration of low back extensor muscle was increased in osteoporotic vertebral fracture patients. Therefore, fat infiltration of low back extensor muscle in an elderly person may be a risk factor of osteoporotic vertebral fracture.

  5. Spontaneous Rupture of the Extensor Pollicis Longus Tendon due to Unusual Etiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The etiology of spontaneous rupture of the extensor pollicis longus tendon includes systemic or local steroid injections, wrist fracture, tenosynovitis, synovitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and repetitive wrist motions. Case Report: We encountered a case of extensor pollicis longus tendon rupture with an unusual etiology, cow milking. In this case, transfer of the extensor indicis proprius tendon was performed successfully. At 1 year after surgery, extension of the thumb was sufficient. Conclusion: It appears that patients with occupations involving repetitive motions are at a high risk of closed tendon ruptures.

  6. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month......Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures...

  7. Knee extensor muscle weakness is a risk factor for development of knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oiestad, B E; Juhl, C B; Eitzen, I

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor muscle weakness and the risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with literature searches in Medline, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE......, CINAHL, and AMED. Eligible studies had to include participants with no radiographic or symptomatic knee osteoarthritis at baseline; have a follow-up time of a minimum of 2 years, and include a measure of knee extensor muscle strength. Hierarchies for extracting data on knee osteoarthritis and knee...... extensor muscle strength were defined prior to data extraction. Meta-analysis was applied on the basis of the odds ratios (ORs) of developing symptomatic knee osteoarthritis or radiographic knee osteoarthritis in subjects with knee extensor muscle weakness. ORs for knee osteoarthritis and 95% confidence...

  8. Tenossinovite e sinovite do primeiro compartimento extensor do punho: o que o ultrassonografista precisa saber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Frederico Arend

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A tenossinovite do primeiro compartimento extensor é uma enfermidade frequente, cercada por mitos. O objetivo deste artigo é revisar cientificamente alguns dos aspectos mais pertinentes ao ultrassonografista sobre sua terminologia, fisiopatogenia, diagnóstico e acompanhamento.

  9. The iDuo Bi-compartmental Knee Replacement: Our Early Experience.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jemmett

    2016-12-01

    Our early results suggest that the iDuo knee is a good option for those with isolated bi-compartmental disease and outcome scores are comparable with those reported for the BKA. This bi-compartmental design may bridge the gap between the uni-compartmental and total knee replacement. The choice between monolithic or modular designs remains in debate. We will continue to use this prosthesis for a carefully selected group of patients.

  10. Functional compartmentalization of the human superficial masseter muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Guzmán-Venegas

    Full Text Available Some muscles have demonstrated a differential recruitment of their motor units in relation to their location and the nature of the motor task performed; this involves functional compartmentalization. There is little evidence that demonstrates the presence of a compartmentalization of the superficial masseter muscle during biting. The aim of this study was to describe the topographic distribution of the activity of the superficial masseter (SM muscle's motor units using high-density surface electromyography (EMGs at different bite force levels. Twenty healthy natural dentate participants (men: 4; women: 16; age 20±2 years; mass: 60±12 kg, height: 163±7 cm were selected from 316 volunteers and included in this study. Using a gnathodynamometer, bites from 20 to 100% maximum voluntary bite force (MVBF were randomly requested. Using a two-dimensional grid (four columns, six electrodes located on the dominant SM, EMGs in the anterior, middle-anterior, middle-posterior and posterior portions were simultaneously recorded. In bite ranges from 20 to 60% MVBF, the EMG activity was higher in the anterior than in the posterior portion (p-value = 0.001.The center of mass of the EMG activity was displaced towards the posterior part when bite force increased (p-value = 0.001. The topographic distribution of EMGs was more homogeneous at high levels of MVBF (p-value = 0.001. The results of this study show that the superficial masseter is organized into three functional compartments: an anterior, a middle and a posterior compartment. However, this compartmentalization is only seen at low levels of bite force (20-60% MVBF.

  11. Identified ankle extensor and flexor motoneurons display different firing profiles in the neonatal rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotel, Florence; Antri, Myriam; Barthe, Jean-Yves

    2009-01-01

    population of flexor motoneurons solely exhibited the type II profile, characterized by a frequency-current (F-I) relationship with a clockwise hysteresis. In contrast, in addition to this type II profile, the other three profiles of repetitive firing (type I, III and IV) were observed in extensor...... postnatal development, a significant part of the population of extensor motoneurons, but not flexors, are able to produce self-sustained discharges known to involve the activation of persistent inward currents....

  12. Analytical properties of a three-compartmental dynamical demographic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnikov, E. B.

    2015-07-01

    The three-compartmental demographic model by Korotaeyv-Malkov-Khaltourina, connecting population size, economic surplus, and education level, is considered from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. It is shown that there exist two integrals of motion, which enables the system to be reduced to one nonlinear ordinary differential equation. The study of its structure provides analytical criteria for the dominance ranges of the dynamics of Malthus and Kremer. Additionally, the particular ranges of parameters enable the derived general ordinary differential equations to be reduced to the models of Gompertz and Thoularis-Wallace.

  13. Compartmental modeling approach to the radiation dosimetry of radiolabeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zanzonico, P.B.; Bigler, R.E.; Primus, F.J.; Alger, E.; DeJager, R.; Stowe, S.; Ford, E.; Brennan, K.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    Essential for the calculation of absorbed doses from systemically administered radiolabled antibody is the determination of the total number of nuclear transformations in specified source regions. Compartmental analysis (using biodistribution data augmented with a priori physiological information), unlike simply integrating empirical time-activity curves, may enable one to calculate the cumulated activity in unsampled as well as sampled source regions. These may include microscopic source regions (e.g. the intracellular space, cell surface, and extracellular space) important for microdosimetry calculations. Of particular importance is the interaction between the anti-tumor antibody and the tumor antigen. 30 references, 9 figures, 2 tables

  14. Rate of Torque Development and Feedforward Control of the Hip and Knee Extensors: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns-Reider, Kristen M; Powers, Christopher M

    2017-10-06

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether women demonstrate decreased rate of torque development (RTD) of the hip and knee extensors and altered onset timing of the vastus lateralis and gluteus maximus during a drop-jump task when compared with men. On average, women demonstrated significantly lower normalized RTD of the hip extensors (women: 11.6 ± 1.3 MVT.s -1 , men: 13.1 ± 0.9 MVT.s -1 ; p ≤ .01); however, there was no significant difference in knee extensor RTD. Women also demonstrated significantly earlier activation of their vastus lateralis (women: 206.0 ± 130.6 ms, men: 80.9 ± 69.6 ms; p ≤ .01) and gluteus maximus (women: 85.7 ± 58.6 ms, men: 54.5 ± 35.4 ms; p = .02). In both men and women, there was a significant negative correlation between the hip extensor RTD and the vastus lateralis electromyographic onset time (men: r = -.386, p = .046; women: r = -.531, p = .008). The study findings suggest that women may utilize a feedforward control strategy in which they activate their knee extensors earlier than men to compensate for deficits in hip extensor RTD. The impaired capacity to rapidly stabilize the hip and knee joints during dynamic maneuvers may contribute to the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury observed in women.

  15. Clinical Significance of Presence of Extensor Indicis Brevis Manus – A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Esakkiammal

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of additional muscles and tendons are commonly encountered in extensor aspect of forearm and hand during surgeries and dissections. There are reports on different kinds of variations like, extra tendons, additional bellies, and abnormal attachments of the muscle. Surgeons should have the knowledge about these variations for muscle or tendon grafting and also to plan surgeries. While dissecting the extensor compartment forearm and dorsum of hand of an elderly female cadaver, an anomalous muscle belly was noticed on dorsum of hand bilaterally alongwith the main tendon of extensor indicis muscle. This additional belly of extensor indicis muscle was called Extensor Indicis Brevis Manus (EIBM. This muscle originated from the dorsal carpal ligament and joined the main tendon of extensor indicis muscle in both the hands. Awareness of existence of this kind of variation is important for clinicians and surgeons for a correct diagnosis and eventual surgery in patients presenting with a cyst on the dorsum of hand, to avoid accidental mishaps.

  16. Nonparetic Knee Extensor Strength Is the Determinant of Exercise Capacity of Community-Dwelling Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. Design. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects’ exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. Results. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak was 1.21±0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Conclusions. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  17. Nonparetic knee extensor strength is the determinant of exercise capacity of community-dwelling stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Te; Huang, Ling-Tzu; Chou, Ya-Hui; Wei, Ta-Sen; Lin, Chung-Che

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship among walking speed, exercise capacity, and leg strength in community dwelling stroke subjects and to evaluate which one was the leading determinant factor of them. This is a descriptive, cross-sectional study. Thirty-five chronic stroke patients who were able to walk independently in their community were enrolled. Walking speed was evaluated by using the 12-meter walking test. A maximal exercise test was used to determine the stroke subjects' exercise capacity. Knee extensor strength, measured as isokinetic torque, was assessed by isokinetic dynamometer. The main walking speed of our subjects was 0.52 m/s. Peak oxygen uptake (VO₂ peak) was 1.21 ± 0.43 L/min. Knee extensor strength, no matter whether paretic or nonparetic side, was significantly correlated to 12-meter walking speed and exercise capacity. Linear regression also showed the strength of the affected knee extensor was the determinant of walking speed and that of the nonparetic knee extensor was the determinant of exercise capacity in community dwelling stroke subjects. Walking speed and peak oxygen uptake were markedly decreased after stroke. Knee extensor strength of nonparetic leg was the most important determinant of exercise capacity of the community-dwelling stroke subjects. Knee extensor strengthening should be emphasized to help stroke patient to achieve optimal community living.

  18. Function and structure of the deep cervical extensor muscles in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomacher, Jochen; Falla, Deborah

    2013-10-01

    The deep cervical extensors are anatomically able to control segmental movements of the cervical spine in concert with the deep cervical flexors. Several investigations have confirmed changes in cervical flexor muscle control in patients with neck pain and as a result, effective evidence-based therapeutic exercises have been developed to address such dysfunctions. However, knowledge on how the deep extensor muscles behave in patients with neck pain disorders is scare. Structural changes such as higher concentration of fat within the muscle, variable cross-sectional area and higher proportions of type II fibres have been observed in the deep cervical extensors of patients with neck pain compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest that the behaviour of the deep extensors may be altered in patients with neck pain. Consistent with this hypothesis, a recent series of studies confirm that patients display reduced activation of the deep cervical extensors as well as less defined activation patterns. This article provides an overview of the various different structural and functional changes in the deep neck extensor muscles documented in patients with neck pain. Relevant recommendations for the management of muscle dysfunction in patients with neck pain are presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic PET scanning and compartmental model analysis to determine cellular level radiotracer distribution in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.T.; Hubner, K.F.; Goodman, M.M.; Stubbs, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to measure tissue radiotracer concentration in vivo. Radiochemical distribution can be determined with compartmental model analysis. A two compartment model describes the kinetics of N-13 ammonia ( 13 NH 3 ) in the myocardium. The model consists of a vascular space, Q 1 and a space for 13 NH 3 bound within the tissue, Q 2 . Differential equations for the model can be written: X(t) = AX(t) + BU( t), Y(t)= CX(t)+ DU(t) (1) where X(t) is a column vector [Q 1 (t); Q 2 (t)], U(t) is the arterial input activity measured from the left ventricular blood pool, and Y(t) is the measured tissue activity using PET. Matrices A, B, C, and D are dependent on physiological parameters describing the kinetics of 13 NH 3 in the myocardium. Estimated parameter matrices in Equation 1 have been validated in dog experiments by measuring myocardial perfusion with dynamic PET scanning and intravenous injection of 13 NH 3 . Tracer concentrations for each compartment can be calculated by direct integration of Equation 1. If the cellular level distribution of each compartment is known, the concentration of tracer within the intracellular and extracellular space can be determined. Applications of this type of modeling include parameter estimation for measurement of physiological processes, organ level dosimetry, and determination of cellular radiotracer distribution

  20. Compartmentation and equilibration of abscisic acid in isolated Xanthium cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, E.A.; Zeevaart, J.A.D.

    1986-01-01

    The compartmentation of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA), applied (+/-)-[ 3 H]ABA, and (+/-)-trans-ABA was measured in isolated mesophyll cells of the Chicago strain of Xanthium strumarium L. The release of ABA to the medium in the presence or absence of DMSO was used to determine the equilibration of ABA in the cells. It was found that a greater percentage of the (+/-)-[ 3 H]ABA and the (+/-)-trans-ABA was released into the medium than of the endogenous ABA, indicating that applied ABA did not equilibrate with the endogenous material. Therefore, in further investigations only the compartmentation of endogenous ABA was studied. Endogenous ABA was released from Xanthium cells according to the pH gradients among the various cellular compartments. Thus, darkness, high external pH, KNO 2 , and drought-stress all increased the efflux of ABA from the cells. Efflux of ABA from the cells in the presence of 0.6 M mannitol occurred within 30 seconds, but only 8% of the endogenous material was released during the 20 minute treatment

  1. Effects of strength training program on hip extensors and knee extensors strength of lower limb in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Thanda; Thein, Soe; Hlaing, Thaingi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether strength training programs for hip extensors and knee extensors improve gross motor function of children with cerebral palsy in Myanmar. [Subjects and Methods] Forty children (25 boys and 15 girls, mean age: 6.07 ± 2.74 years) from National Rehabilitation Hospital, Yangon, Myanmar, who had been diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy, Gross Motor Classification System I and II participated in a 6-week strength training program (45 minutes per day, 3 days per week) on hip and knee extensors. Assessment was made, before and after intervention, of the amount of training weight in pounds, as well as Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM) dimensions D (standing) and E (walking, running, jumping). [Results] All scores had increased significantly after the strength-training program. [Conclusion] A simple method of strength-training program for hip and knee extensors might lead to improved muscle strength and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  2. Anatomical variation of radial wrist extensor muscles: a study in cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The tendons of the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis muscles are quite useful in tendon transfer, such as in correction of finger clawing and restoration of thumb opposition. Knowledge of additional radial wrist extensor muscle bellies with independent tendons is useful in the above-mentioned surgical procedures. METHODS: The skin, subcutaneous tissue, and antebrachial fascia of 48 (24 on the right side and 24 on left side male upper limb forearms were dissected. The following aspects were then analyzed: (a the presence of additional muscle bellies of radial wrist extensors, (b the origin and insertion of the additional muscle, and (c measurements of the muscle bellies and their tendons. RESULTS: Five out of 48 upper limbs (10.41% had additional radial wrist extensors; this occurred in 3 out of 24 left upper limbs (12.5% and 2 out of 24 right upper limbs (8.3%. In one of the right upper limbs, two additional muscles were found. The length and width of each additional muscle belly and its tendon ranged between 2 - 15cm by 0.35 - 6.4cm and 2.8 - 20.8cm by 0.2 0.5cm, respectively. The additional radial wrist extensor tendons in our study basically originated either from the extensor carpi radialis longus or brevis muscles and were inserted at the base of the 2nd or 3rd metacarpal bone. CONCLUSION: The present study will inform surgeons about the different varieties of additional radial wrist extensors and the frequency of their occurrence.

  3. VASCULAR SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... with the literature from South Africa over the last four decades, and reflects the high rate of interpersonal violence in the country.14,15 As expected, cervical ... via the intact circle of Willis in young patients is the most likely explanation for the lack of strokes. Five patients were referred to the Durban vascular ...

  4. Vascular Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Vascular Disorders Email to a friend * required fields ...

  5. The influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination during weightlifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Boyi; Ning, Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Lumbar muscle fatigue is a potential risk factor for the development of low back pain. In this study, we investigated the influence of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue on lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns during weightlifting. Each of the 15 male subjects performed five repetitions of weightlifting tasks both before and after a lumbar extensor muscle fatiguing protocol. Lumbar muscle electromyography was collected to assess fatigue. Trunk kinematics was recorded to calculate lumbar-pelvic continuous relative phase (CRP) and CRP variability. Results showed that fatigue significantly reduced the average lumbar-pelvic CRP value (from 0.33 to 0.29 rad) during weightlifting. The average CRP variability reduced from 0.17 to 0.15 rad, yet this change ws statistically not significant. Further analyses also discovered elevated spinal loading during weightlifting after the development of lumbar extensor muscle fatigue. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar extensor muscle fatigue should be avoided in an occupational environment. Lumbar extensor muscle fatigue generates more in-phase lumbar-pelvic coordination patterns and elevated spinal loading during lifting. Such increase in spinal loading may indicate higher risk of back injury. Our results suggest that frequently experienced lumbar muscle fatigue should be avoided to reduce the risk of LBP.

  6. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  isometric strength of elbow extensors since supine-lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  7. Synapse-specific and compartmentalized expression of presynaptic homeostatic potentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiling; Goel, Pragya; Chen, Catherine; Angajala, Varun; Chen, Xun

    2018-01-01

    Postsynaptic compartments can be specifically modulated during various forms of synaptic plasticity, but it is unclear whether this precision is shared at presynaptic terminals. Presynaptic homeostatic plasticity (PHP) stabilizes neurotransmission at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction, where a retrograde enhancement of presynaptic neurotransmitter release compensates for diminished postsynaptic receptor functionality. To test the specificity of PHP induction and expression, we have developed a genetic manipulation to reduce postsynaptic receptor expression at one of the two muscles innervated by a single motor neuron. We find that PHP can be induced and expressed at a subset of synapses, over both acute and chronic time scales, without influencing transmission at adjacent release sites. Further, homeostatic modulations to CaMKII, vesicle pools, and functional release sites are compartmentalized and do not spread to neighboring pre- or post-synaptic structures. Thus, both PHP induction and expression mechanisms are locally transmitted and restricted to specific synaptic compartments. PMID:29620520

  8. The human NAD metabolome: Functions, metabolism and compartmentalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Andrey; Kulikova, Veronika; Ziegler, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The metabolism of NAD has emerged as a key regulator of cellular and organismal homeostasis. Being a major component of both bioenergetic and signaling pathways, the molecule is ideally suited to regulate metabolism and major cellular events. In humans, NAD is synthesized from vitamin B3 precursors, most prominently from nicotinamide, which is the degradation product of all NAD-dependent signaling reactions. The scope of NAD-mediated regulatory processes is wide including enzyme regulation, control of gene expression and health span, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation and calcium signaling. In these processes, nicotinamide is cleaved from NAD+ and the remaining ADP-ribosyl moiety used to modify proteins (deacetylation by sirtuins or ADP-ribosylation) or to generate calcium-mobilizing agents such as cyclic ADP-ribose. This review will also emphasize the role of the intermediates in the NAD metabolome, their intra- and extra-cellular conversions and potential contributions to subcellular compartmentalization of NAD pools. PMID:25837229

  9. Compartmentalization of NO signaling cascade in skeletal muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchwalow, Igor B.; Minin, Evgeny A.; Samoilova, Vera E.; Boecker, Werner; Wellner, Maren; Schmitz, Wilhelm; Neumann, Joachim; Punkt, Karla

    2005-01-01

    Skeletal muscle functions regulated by NO are now firmly established. However, the literature on the compartmentalization of NO signaling in myocytes is highly controversial. To address this issue, we examined localization of enzymes engaged in L-arginine-NO-cGMP signaling in the rat quadriceps muscle. Employing immunocytochemical labeling complemented with tyramide signal amplification and electron microscopy, we found NO synthase expressed not only in the sarcolemma, but also along contractile fibers, in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The expression pattern of NO synthase in myocytes showed striking parallels with the enzymes engaged in L-arginine-NO-cGMP signaling (arginase, phosphodiesterase, and soluble guanylyl cyclase). Our findings are indicative of an autocrine fashion of NO signaling in skeletal muscles at both cellular and subcellular levels, and challenge the notion that the NO generation is restricted to the sarcolemma

  10. Imaging and compartmental classification of solid pelvic tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugosson, C.; Nyman, R.; Jacobsson, B.; Jorulf, H.; McDonald, P.; Sackey, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-five children aged from 1 day to 16 years (median 5 years) with solid pelvic tumours were investigated with US, CT and MR. All three methods gave similar estimates of tumour size. For defining location of the tumours, the pelvis was divided into three midline compartments (anterior, middle and posterior) and a right and left lateral compartment. CT and MR were accurate and equally reliable in determining the tumour location, US was less accurate. Evaluation of confinement to organ of origin was uncertain, regardless of imaging modality. Tissue characteristics with CT and MR did not contribute to the differentiation of the various tumour types, and contrast medium enhancement did not improve the discrimination. Compartmental localization was equally well assessed by CT and MR and, together with sex, was found to correlate with the tumour type. (orig.). With 7 figs., 5 tabs

  11. Compartmental analysis, imaging techniques and population pharmacokinetic. Experiences at CENTIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández, Ignacio; León, Mariela; Leyva, Rene; Castro, Yusniel; Ayra, Fernando E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In pharmacokinetic evaluation small rodents are used in a large extend. Traditional pharmacokinetic evaluations by the two steps approach can be replaced by the sparse data design which may also represent a complicated situation to evaluate satisfactorily from the statistical point of view. In this presentation different situations of sparse data sampling are analyzed based on practical consideration. Non linear mixed effect model was selected in order to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters in simulated data from real experimental results using blood sampling and imaging procedures. Materials and methods: Different scenarios representing several experimental designs of incomplete individual profiles were evaluated. Data sets were simulated based on real data from previous experiments. In all cases three to five blood samples were considered per time point. A combination of compartmental analysis with tumor uptake obtained by gammagraphy of radiolabeled drugs is also evaluated.All pharmacokinetic profiles were analyzed by means of MONOLIX software version 4.2.3. Results: All sampling schedules yield the same results when computed using the MONOLIX software and the SAEM algorithm. Population and individual pharmacokinetic parameters were accurately estimated with three or five determination per sampling point. According with the used methodology and software tool, it can be an expected result, but demonstrating the method performance in such situations, allow us to select a more flexible design using a very small number of animals in preclinical research. The combination with imaging procedures also allows us to construct a completely structured compartmental analysis. Results of real experiments are presented demonstrating the versatility of used methodology in different evaluations. The same sampling approach can be considered in phase I or II clinical trials. (author)

  12. 21 CFR 888.3535 - Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal... Devices § 888.3535 Knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated uncemented prosthesis. (a) Identification. A knee joint femorotibial (uni-compartmental) metal/polymer porous-coated...

  13. Fracture of the proximal tibia after revision total knee arthroplasty with an extensor mechanism allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gregg R; Levine, Harlan B; Sporer, Scott M; Hartzband, Mark A

    2013-02-01

    Extensor mechanism reconstruction with an extensor mechanism allograft (EMA) remains one of the most reliable methods for treating the extensor mechanism deficient total knee arthroplasty. We report 3 patients who were treated with an EMA who sustained a proximal tibial shaft fracture. In all 3 cases, a short tibial component was present that ended close to the level of the distal extent of the bone block. When performing an EMA, it is important to recognize that the tibial bone block creates a stress riser and revision to a long-stemmed tibial component should be strongly considered to bypass this point to minimize the risk of fracture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Knee extensor muscle strength in middle-aged and older individuals undergoing arthroscopic partial meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Michelle; Juhl, Carsten B; Lund, Hans

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: People with meniscal tears are at high risk to develop or progress knee osteoarthritis. Knee extensor weakness is considered a risk factor for osteoarthritis and is often reported in these individuals. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate knee...... for a meniscal tear and used either a healthy control group or the contralateral leg to compare knee extensor muscle strength were included. Methodological quality was assessed using guidelines from the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. RESULTS: Eleven studies, including predominately males were included (n...... and knee extensor muscle weakness are risk factors for osteoarthritis these results highlight the clinical importance of addressing muscle weakness in these individuals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  15. Knee extensor strength and risk of structural, symptomatic and functional decline in knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS: We systematically identified and methodologically...... appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year follow-up) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic......-analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (WOMAC-Pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10, 1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC-Function: OR 1.38, 95%CI 1.00, 1.89; chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95%CI 1.03, 1.04), but not increased risk...

  16. Validity and test-retest reliability of a novel simple back extensor muscle strength test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Amy T; Weeks, Benjamin Kurt; Horan, Sean A; Little, Andrew; Watson, Steven L; Beck, Belinda Ruth

    2017-01-01

    To develop and determine convergent validity and reliability of a simple and inexpensive clinical test to quantify back extensor muscle strength. Two testing sessions were conducted, 7 days apart. Each session involved three trials of standing maximal isometric back extensor muscle strength using both the novel test and isokinetic dynamometry. Lumbar spine bone mineral density was examined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Validation was examined with Pearson correlations ( r ). Test-retest reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients and limits of agreement. Pearson correlations and intraclass correlation coefficients are presented with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Linear regression was used to examine the ability of peak back extensor muscle strength to predict indices of lumbar spine bone mineral density and strength. A total of 52 healthy adults (26 men, 26 women) aged 46.4 ± 20.4 years were recruited from the community. A strong positive relationship was observed between peak back extensor strength from hand-held and isokinetic dynamometry ( r  = 0.824, p  strength test, short- and long-term reliability was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.983 (95% confidence interval, 0.971-0.990), p  strength measures with the novel back extensor strength protocol were -6.63 to 7.70 kg, with a mean bias of +0.71 kg. Back extensor strength predicted 11% of variance in lumbar spine bone mineral density ( p  strength ( p  strength is quick, relatively inexpensive, and reliable; demonstrates initial convergent validity in a healthy population; and is associated with bone mass at a clinically important site.

  17. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n = 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p ≤ 0.05). The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009) and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p ≤ 0.001), and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001). The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03) and extensors (p = 0.02). This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  18. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Neves Granito

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis.METHODS: Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age; adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88; and elderly women (n= 10; 62.40 ± 2.67. Bone mineral density (BMD, degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p < 0.05.RESULTS: The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009 and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p < 0.001, and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p < 0.001. The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03 and extensors (p = 0.02.CONCLUSION: This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength.

  19. Associations of knee extensor strength and standing balance with physical function in knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pua, Yong-Hao; Liang, Zhiqi; Ong, Peck-Hoon; Bryant, Adam L; Lo, Ngai-Nung; Clark, Ross A

    2011-12-01

    Knee extensor strength is an important correlate of physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis; however, it remains unclear whether standing balance is also a correlate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional associations of knee extensor strength, standing balance, and their interaction with physical function. One hundred four older adults with end-stage knee osteoarthritis awaiting a total knee replacement (mean ± SD age 67 ± 8 years) participated. Isometric knee extensor strength was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Standing balance performance was measured by the center of pressure displacement during quiet standing on a balance board. Physical function was measured by the self-report Short Form 36 (SF-36) questionnaire and by the 10-meter fast-pace gait speed test. After adjustment for demographic and knee pain variables, we detected significant knee strength by standing balance interaction terms for both SF-36 physical function and fast-pace gait speed. Interrogation of the interaction revealed that standing balance in the anteroposterior plane was positively related to physical function among patients with lower knee extensor strength. Conversely, among patients with higher knee extensor strength, the standing balance-physical function associations were, or tended to be, negative. These findings suggest that although standing balance was related to physical function in patients with knee osteoarthritis, this relationship was complex and dependent on knee extensor strength level. These results are of importance in developing intervention strategies and refining theoretical models, but they call for further study. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  20. A new approach to the compartmental analysis in pharmacokinetics: fractional time evolution of diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Jovan K; Atanacković, Milica T; Pilipović, Ana S; Rapaić, Milan R; Pilipović, Stevan; Atanacković, Teodor M

    2010-04-01

    This study presents a new two compartmental model and its application to the evaluation of diclofenac pharmacokinetics in a small number of healthy adults, during a bioequivalence trial. In the model the integer order derivatives are replaced by derivatives of real order often called fractional order derivatives. Physically that means that a history (memory) of a biological process, realized as a transfer from one compartment to another one with the mass balance conservation, is taken into account. This kind of investigations in pharmacokinetics is founded by Dokoumetzidis and Macheras through the one compartmental models while our contribution is the analysis of multi-dimensional compartmental models with the applications of the two compartmental model in evaluation of diclofenac pharmacokinetics. Two experiments were preformed with 12 healthy volunteers with two slow release 100 mg diclofenac tablet formulations. The agreement of the values predicted by the proposed model with the values obtained through experiments is shown to be good. Thus, pharmacokinetics of slow release diclofenac can be described well by a specific two compartmental model with fractional derivatives of the same order. Parameters in the model are determined by the least-squares method and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) numerical procedure is used. The results show that the fractional order two compartmental model for diclofenac is superior in comparison to the classical two compartmental model. Actually this is true in general case since the classical one is a special case of the fractional one.

  1. Enhanced spinal excitation from ankle flexors to knee extensors during walking in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achache, V.; Mazevet, D.; Iglesias, C.

    2010-01-01

    : The spinal, presumed group II, excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors is particularly enhanced during post-stroke walking probably due to plastic adaptations in the descending control. SIGNIFICANCE: This adaptation may help to stabilize the knee in early stance when the patients have recover......OBJECTIVES: It is still unclear to what an extent altered reflex activity contributes to gait deficit following stroke. Spinal group I and group II excitations from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors were investigated during post-stroke walking. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied...... ankle dorsiflexor functions....

  2. Anatomic relationship of the proximal nail matrix to the extensor hallucis longus tendon insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo López, P; Becerro de Bengoa Vallejo, R; López López, D; Prados Frutos, J C; Alfonso Murillo González, J; Losa Iglesias, M E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the relationship of the terminal extensor hallucis longus tendon insertion to the proximal limit of the nail matrix of the great toe. Fifty fresh-frozen human cadaver great toes with no evidence of trauma (average age, 62.5 years; 29 males and 21 females) were used for this study. Under 25X magnification, the proximal limit of the nail matrix and the terminal bony insertion of the extensor hallucis longus tendons were identified. The distance from the terminal tendon insertion to the nail matrix was ascertained using precision calipers, an optical microscope, and autocad(®) software for windows. Twenty-five great toes were placed in a neutral formalin solution and further analysed by histological longitudinal-sections. The specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically to determine the presence of the extensor hallucis longus tendon along the dorsal aspect of the distal phalanx of each great toe. The main result we found in great toes was that the extensor tendon is between the matrix and the phalanx and extends dorsally to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx in all, 100%, specimens. The nail matrix of the great toe is not attached to the periosteum of the dorsal aspect of the base of the distal phalanx as is the case for fingers, because the extensor hallucis tendon is plantar or directly underneath the nail matrix and the tendon is dorsal to the bone. We have found that the extensor tendon is between the matrix and the phalanx and extends dorsally to the distal aspect of the distal phalanx. The nail matrix of the great toe is not attached to the periosteum of the dorsal aspect of the base of distal phalanx as is the case in fingers, because the extensor hallucis tendon is plantar or directly underneath the nail matrix and the tendon is dorsal to the bone. Our anatomic study demonstrates that the proximal limit of the matrix and nail bed of the human great toe are dorsal and

  3. The subcellular compartmentalization of arginine metabolizing enzymes and their role in endothelial dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng eChen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO mediates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and restrains vascular inflammation, smooth muscle proliferation and platelet aggregation. Impaired production of NO is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. In endothelial cells, NO is generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS through the conversion of its substrate, L-arginine to L-citrulline. Reduced access to L-arginine has been proposed as a major mechanism underlying reduced eNOS activity and NO production in cardiovascular disease. The arginases (Arg1 and Arg2 metabolize L-arginine to generate L-ornithine and urea and increased expression of arginase has been proposed as a mechanism of reduced eNOS activity secondary to the depletion of L-arginine. Indeed, supplemental L-arginine and suppression of arginase activity has been shown to improve endothelium-dependent relaxation and ameliorate cardiovascular disease. However, L-arginine concentrations in endothelial cells remain sufficiently high to support NO synthesis suggesting additional mechanisms. The compartmentalization of intracellular L-arginine into poorly interchangeable pools has been proposed to allow for the local depletion of L-arginine. Indeed the subcellular location of L-arginine metabolizing enzymes plays important functional roles. In endothelial cells, eNOS is found in discrete intracellular locations and the capacity to generate NO is heavily influenced by its localtion. Arg1 and Arg2 also reside in different subcellular environments and are thought to differentially influence endothelial function. The plasma membrane solute transporter, CAT-1 and the arginine recycling enzyme, ASL, co-localize with eNOS and facilitate NO release. This review highlights the importance of the subcellular location of eNOS and arginine transporting and metabolizing enzymes to NO release and cardiovascular disease.

  4. Vascular ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, D B; Ricci, M A

    1998-04-01

    Surgeon-interpreted diagnostic ultrasound has become the preferred screening test and often the definitive test for the diagnosis of arterial stenosis, aneurysm, and venous thrombosis. As a modality for surveillance, its noninvasive quality makes it particularly appealing as the test of choice to screen patients for abdominal aortic aneurysms or to perform follow-up examinations on those patients with a carotid endartectomy or in situ bypass grafts. The increasing reliance on intraoperative duplex imaging of vascular procedures demands that the surgeon learn the skills to perform the studies without a technologist or radiologist to interpret the examination.

  5. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo [University of Messina, Department of Radiological Sciences, Messina (Italy); Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna [University of Messina, Department of Neurosciences, Psychiatry and Anaesthesiology, Messina (Italy)

    2006-02-15

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  6. Low-level activity of the trunk extensor muscles causes electromyographic manifestations of fatigue in absence of decreased oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieën, J.H. van; Westebring van der; Putten, E.P.; Kingma, I.; Looze, M.P. de

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether trunk extensor fatigue occurs during low-level activity and whether this is associated with a drop in muscle tissue oxygenation. Electromyography (EMG) feedback was used to impose constant activity in a part of the trunk extensor muscles. We hypothesized

  7. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vietor Donald M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81% recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis and primarily through a path that includes an

  8. Early-onset dropped head syndrome after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: dose constraints for neck extensor muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kashihara, Tairo; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Murakami, Naoya; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a famous but unusual late complication of multimodality treatment for head and neck carcinoma. We reported this early-onset complication and analyzed the dose to the neck extensor muscles. We examined the records of three patients with DHS after radiotherapy. The doses to the neck extensor muscles were compared between three patients with DHS and nine patients without DHS. The mean dose to the neck extensor muscles of the three patients with DHS were 58.5 Gy, 42.3 Gy and 60.9 Gy, while the dose was <50 Gy in all nine patients in the control group. The onset of this syndrome was 5 months, 6 months and 15 months. The early-onset DHS may have something to do with dose to the neck extensor muscles. The proposed dose to the neck extensor muscles might be <46 Gy (or at least <50 Gy)

  9. The variation of the strength of neck extensor muscles and semispinalis capitis muscle size with head and neck position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezasoltani, A; Nasiri, R; Faizei, A M; Zaafari, G; Mirshahvelayati, A S; Bakhshidarabad, L

    2013-04-01

    Semispinalis capitis muscle (SECM) is a massive and long cervico-thoracic muscle which functions as a main head and neck extensor muscle. The aim of this study was to detect the effect of head and neck positions on the strength of neck extensor muscles and size of SECM in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy women students voluntarily participated in this study. An ultrasonography apparatus (Hitachi EUB 525) and a system of tension-meter were used to scan the right SECM at the level of third cervical spine and to measure the strength of neck extensor muscles at three head and neck positions. Neck extensor muscles were stronger in neutral than flexion or than extension positions while the size of SECM was larger in extension than neutral or than flexion position. The force generation capacity of the main neck extensor muscle was lower at two head and neck flexion and extension positions than neutral position. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The predictive value of the extensor grip test for the effectiveness of bracing for tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Peter A. A.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Souer, Sebastiaan; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is a common complaint. Several treatment strategies, such as corticosteroid injections and physical therapy and braces, have been described. Hypothesis: The extensor grip test has predictive value in assessing the effectiveness of bracing in tennis elbow. Study Design:

  11. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (Pfootball-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level. PMID:26043222

  12. Surgical and anatomical studies on De Quervain's tenosynovitis syndrome: Variations in the first extensor compartment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Randal Pires J and uacute;nior

    2016-08-01

    Clinical relevance: As septation of the first extensor compartment and multiple APL tendons appears to represent risk factors for the development of DQT, prior knowledge of the frequency of such anomalies may assist surgeons in pre-operative evaluation and perioperative procedures. [Hand Microsurg 2016; 5(2.000: 50-55

  13. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vardya, Irina; (Vard'ya); Mospanova, Svetlana V.

    2000-01-01

    Dokl Biol Sci. 2000 Mar-Apr;371:112-4. Interval training by normobaric hypoxia accelerates the reinnervation of musculus extensor digitorum longus in mice. Vard'ya IV , Mospanova SV , Portnov VV , Balezina OP , Koshelev VB . Department of Human and Animal Physiology, Faculty of Biology, Moscow St...... State University, Russia. PMID: 10833635 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] Udgivelsesdato: 2000...

  14. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of the Common Extensor Tendon of the Elbow in Asymptomatic Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Thøger P; Fredberg, Ulrich; Ammitzbøl, Christian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography (US) of the common extensor tendon (CET) of the elbow is often part of the assessment of patients with lateral epicondylitis. This US assessment is currently based on general tendinopathy references and not well-defined US entities. PURPOSE: To describe CET thickness...

  15. A Short Submaximal test to determine the fatigue threshold of knee extensors in young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Hamacher, P.; Wolfs, B.G.A.

    Purpose Recently, a fatigue threshold obtained during submaximal repetitive isometric knee extensor contractions was related to VO 2max measured during cycling and to exercise endurance. However, test duration is quite long (20-30 min in young people) to be of practical and possibly clinical use.

  16. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parellada, Antoni J.; Gopez, Angela G.; Morrison, William B.; Sweet, Stephanie; Leinberry, Charles F.; Reiter, Sean B.; Kohn, Mark

    2007-01-01

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons, as well as

  17. Distal intersection tenosynovitis of the wrist: a lesser-known extensor tendinopathy with characteristic MR imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parellada, Antoni J. [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Frankford Hospitals - Torresdale Campus, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gopez, Angela G.; Morrison, William B. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Sweet, Stephanie [Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia Hand Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leinberry, Charles F. [Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery - Hand Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Reiter, Sean B.; Kohn, Mark [DII - Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2007-03-15

    To present the MRI imaging findings of extensor tenosynovitis at the distal intersection or crossover between the second (extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB)) and third (extensor pollicis longus (EPL)) extensor compartment tendons, and the anatomical details that may play a role in the pathogenesis of this condition. The imaging studies and clinical records of five patients (three females and two males, with ages ranging between 22 and 78 years; mean age, 49 years) presenting with pain on the dorsal and radial aspect of the wrist were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus. Three cases were identified serendipitously during routine clinical reading sessions; a follow-up computerized database search for additional cases reported in the prior two years yielded two additional cases. The overall number of cases screened was 1,031. The diagnosis of tendinopathy affecting the second and third compartment extensor tendons was made on the basis of MRI findings and clinical follow-up, or synovectomy. All patients showed signs of tenosynovitis: in four patients both the tendons of the second and third extensor compartments were affected; the fifth patient showed signs of tenosynovitis of the EPL tendon, and tendinosis of the extensor carpi radialis tendons. Three patients showed tenosynovitis proximal and distal to the point of intersection; and in two of them, a discrete point of constriction was appreciated at the crossover site in relation to the extensor retinaculum. Two patients showed tenosynovitis limited to the segment distal to the point of decussation. Tendinosis tended to follow the presence of tenosynovitis. In one of the patients, subtendinous reactive marrow edema in Lister's tubercle was noted. Distal intersection tenosynovitis may be related to the biomechanical pulley effect exerted by Lister's tubercle on the EPL tendon as it leaves the third compartment and crosses over the extensor carpi radialis tendons

  18. Inositol lipid turnover and compartmentation in canine trachealis smooth muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, C.B.; Pring, M.; Coburn, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    We established conditions for the study of metabolism and compartmentation of inositol phospholipids in canine trachealis muscle. Unstimulated muscle was incubated with myo-[3H]inositol for 30 min at 37 degrees C which resulted in labeling of the tissue free myo-inositol pool, whereas only a small amount of radioactivity was incorporated into inositol phospholipids or inositol phosphates. After addition of 5.5 microM carbachol, phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP), and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), specific radioactivities increased exponentially, reaching apparent constant values in 180-240 min. Initial rates of increases in PI, PIP, and PIP2 specific radioactivities were 39, 32, and 66 times that measured in unstimulated muscle. Metabolic flux rates (nmol.100 nmol total lipid Pi-1.min-1) during development of force averaged 0.42 +/- 0.09 and during force maintenance averaged 0.14 +/- 0.01. Fractions of total PI, PIP, and PIP2 pools that were linked to muscarinic cholinergic activation were estimated to be 0.97, 0.85, and 0.65, respectively. Initial rates of increase in specific radioactivities and specific radioactivities during carbachol activation were similar in PI, PIP, and PIP2 fast active compartments, suggesting metabolic flux from PI to PIP to PIP2 was in near chemical equilibrium. Turnover times for PI, PIP, and PIP2 fast active compartments were estimated to be 21, 1.6, and 4.0 min, respectively

  19. The 4D Nucleome: Genome Compartmentalization in an Evolutionary Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, T; Cremer, M; Cremer, C

    2018-04-01

    4D nucleome research aims to understand the impact of nuclear organization in space and time on nuclear functions, such as gene expression patterns, chromatin replication, and the maintenance of genome integrity. In this review we describe evidence that the origin of 4D genome compartmentalization can be traced back to the prokaryotic world. In cell nuclei of animals and plants chromosomes occupy distinct territories, built up from ~1 Mb chromatin domains, which in turn are composed of smaller chromatin subdomains and also form larger chromatin domain clusters. Microscopic evidence for this higher order chromatin landscape was strengthened by chromosome conformation capture studies, in particular Hi-C. This approach demonstrated ~1 Mb sized, topologically associating domains in mammalian cell nuclei separated by boundaries. Mutations, which destroy boundaries, can result in developmental disorders and cancer. Nucleosomes appeared first as tetramers in the Archaea kingdom and later evolved to octamers built up each from two H2A, two H2B, two H3, and two H4 proteins. Notably, nucleosomes were lost during the evolution of the Dinoflagellata phylum. Dinoflagellate chromosomes remain condensed during the entire cell cycle, but their chromosome architecture differs radically from the architecture of other eukaryotes. In summary, the conservation of fundamental features of higher order chromatin arrangements throughout the evolution of metazoan animals suggests the existence of conserved, but still unknown mechanism(s) controlling this architecture. Notwithstanding this conservation, a comparison of metazoans and protists also demonstrates species-specific structural and functional features of nuclear organization.

  20. Pathways and Subcellular Compartmentation of NAD Biosynthesis in Human Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Andrey; Dölle, Christian; Niere, Marc; Ziegler, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    NAD is a vital redox carrier, and its degradation is a key element of important regulatory pathways. NAD-mediated functions are compartmentalized and have to be fueled by specific biosynthetic routes. However, little is known about the different pathways, their subcellular distribution, and regulation in human cells. In particular, the route(s) to generate mitochondrial NAD, the largest subcellular pool, is still unknown. To visualize organellar NAD changes in cells, we targeted poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity into the mitochondrial matrix. This activity synthesized immunodetectable poly(ADP-ribose) depending on mitochondrial NAD availability. Based on this novel detector system, detailed subcellular enzyme localizations, and pharmacological inhibitors, we identified extracellular NAD precursors, their cytosolic conversions, and the pathway of mitochondrial NAD generation. Our results demonstrate that, besides nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, only the corresponding nucleosides readily enter the cells. Nucleotides (e.g. NAD and NMN) undergo extracellular degradation resulting in the formation of permeable precursors. These precursors can all be converted to cytosolic and mitochondrial NAD. For mitochondrial NAD synthesis, precursors are converted to NMN in the cytosol. When taken up into the organelles, NMN (together with ATP) serves as substrate of NMNAT3 to form NAD. NMNAT3 was conclusively localized to the mitochondrial matrix and is the only known enzyme of NAD synthesis residing within these organelles. We thus present a comprehensive dissection of mammalian NAD biosynthesis, the groundwork to understand regulation of NAD-mediated processes, and the organismal homeostasis of this fundamental molecule. PMID:21504897

  1. Nuclear Pore-Like Structures in a Compartmentalized Bacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Sagulenko

    Full Text Available Planctomycetes are distinguished from other Bacteria by compartmentalization of cells via internal membranes, interpretation of which has been subject to recent debate regarding potential relations to Gram-negative cell structure. In our interpretation of the available data, the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus contains a nuclear body compartment, and thus possesses a type of cell organization with parallels to the eukaryote nucleus. Here we show that pore-like structures occur in internal membranes of G.obscuriglobus and that they have elements structurally similar to eukaryote nuclear pores, including a basket, ring-spoke structure, and eight-fold rotational symmetry. Bioinformatic analysis of proteomic data reveals that some of the G. obscuriglobus proteins associated with pore-containing membranes possess structural domains found in eukaryote nuclear pore complexes. Moreover, immunogold labelling demonstrates localization of one such protein, containing a β-propeller domain, specifically to the G. obscuriglobus pore-like structures. Finding bacterial pores within internal cell membranes and with structural similarities to eukaryote nuclear pore complexes raises the dual possibilities of either hitherto undetected homology or stunning evolutionary convergence.

  2. Compartmental transport model of microbicide delivery by an intravaginal ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geonnotti, Anthony R.; Katz, David F.

    2010-01-01

    Topical antimicrobials, or microbicides, are being developed to prevent HIV transmission through local, mucosal delivery of antiviral compounds. While hydrogel vehicles deliver the majority of current microbicide products, intravaginal rings (IVRs) are an alternative microbicide modality in preclinical development. IVRs provide a long-term dosing alternative to hydrogel use, and might provide improved user adherence. IVR efficacy requires sustained delivery of antiviral compounds to the entire vaginal compartment. A two-dimensional, compartmental vaginal drug transport model was created to evaluate the delivery of drugs from an intravaginal ring. The model utilized MRI-derived ring geometry and location, experimentally defined ring fluxes and vaginal fluid velocities, and biophysically relevant transport theory. Model outputs indicated the presence of potentially inhibitory concentrations of antiviral compounds along the entire vaginal canal within 24 hours following IVR insertion. Distributions of inhibitory concentrations of antiviral compounds were substantially influenced by vaginal fluid flow and production, while showing little change due to changes in diffusion coefficients or ring fluxes. Additionally, model results were predictive of in vivo concentrations obtained in clinical trials. Overall, this analysis initiates a mechanistic computational framework, heretofore missing, to understand and evaluate the potential of IVRs for effective delivery of antiviral compounds. PMID:20222027

  3. Adaptive and neuroadaptive control for nonnegative and compartmental dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volyanskyy, Kostyantyn Y.

    Neural networks have been extensively used for adaptive system identification as well as adaptive and neuroadaptive control of highly uncertain systems. The goal of adaptive and neuroadaptive control is to achieve system performance without excessive reliance on system models. To improve robustness and the speed of adaptation of adaptive and neuroadaptive controllers several controller architectures have been proposed in the literature. In this dissertation, we develop a new neuroadaptive control architecture for nonlinear uncertain dynamical systems. The proposed framework involves a novel controller architecture with additional terms in the update laws that are constructed using a moving window of the integrated system uncertainty. These terms can be used to identify the ideal system weights of the neural network as well as effectively suppress system uncertainty. Linear and nonlinear parameterizations of the system uncertainty are considered and state and output feedback neuroadaptive controllers are developed. Furthermore, we extend the developed framework to discrete-time dynamical systems. To illustrate the efficacy of the proposed approach we apply our results to an aircraft model with wing rock dynamics, a spacecraft model with unknown moment of inertia, and an unmanned combat aerial vehicle undergoing actuator failures, and compare our results with standard neuroadaptive control methods. Nonnegative systems are essential in capturing the behavior of a wide range of dynamical systems involving dynamic states whose values are nonnegative. A sub-class of nonnegative dynamical systems are compartmental systems. These systems are derived from mass and energy balance considerations and are comprised of homogeneous interconnected microscopic subsystems or compartments which exchange variable quantities of material via intercompartmental flow laws. In this dissertation, we develop direct adaptive and neuroadaptive control framework for stabilization, disturbance

  4. In or out? On the tightness of glycosomal compartmentalization of metabolites and enzymes in Trypanosoma brucei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanstra, Jurgen R.; Bakker, Barbara M.; Michels, Paul A. M.

    Trypanosomatids sequester large parts of glucose metabolism inside specialised peroxisomes, called glycosomes. Many studies have shown that correct glycosomal compartmentalization of glycolytic enzymes is essential for bloodstream-form Trypanosoma brucel. The recent finding of pore-forming

  5. Compartmental models for assessing the fishery production in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Parulekar, A.H.

    Compartmental models for assessing the fishery production in the Indian Ocean is discussed. The article examines the theoretical basis on which modern fishery sciences is built. The model shows that, large changes in energy flux from one pathway...

  6. A Laminin-2, Dystroglycan, Utrophin Axis is Required for Compartmentalization and Elongation of Myelin Segments

    OpenAIRE

    Court, Felipe A.; Hewitt, Jane E.; Davies, Kay; Patton, Bruce L.; Uncini, Antonino; Wrabetz, Lawrence; Feltri, M. Laura

    2009-01-01

    Animal and plant cells compartmentalize to perform morphogenetic functions. Compartmentalization of myelin-forming Schwann cells may favor elongation of myelin segments to the size required for efficient conduction of nerve impulses. Compartments in myelinated fibers were described by Ramon-y-Cajal and depend on periaxin, mutated in the hereditary neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 4F. Lack of periaxin in mice causes loss of compartments, formation of short myelin segments (internodes) and reduce...

  7. Evaluation of cranial tibial and extensor carpi radialis reflexes before and after anesthetic block in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudury, Eduardo Alberto; de Figueiredo, Marcella Luiz; Fernandes, Thaiza Helena Tavares; Araújo, Bruno Martins; Bonelli, Marília de Albuquerque; Diogo, Camila Cardoso; Silva, Amanda Camilo; Santos, Cássia Regina Oliveira; Rocha, Nadyne Lorrayne Farias Cardoso

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to test the extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats before and after anesthetic block of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus, respectively, to determine whether they depend on a myotatic reflex arc. Methods Fifty-five cats with a normal neurologic examination that were referred for elective gonadectomy were divided into group 1 (29 cats) for testing the extensor carpi radialis reflex, and group 2 (26 cats) for testing the cranial tibial reflex. In group 1, the extensor carpi radialis reflex was tested after anesthetic induction and 15 mins after brachial plexus block with lidocaine. In group 2, the cranial tibial, withdrawal and patellar reflexes were elicited in 52 hindlimbs and retested 15 mins after epidural anesthesia. Results In group 1, before the anesthetic block, 55.17% of the cats had a decreased and 44.83% had a normal extensor carpi radialis reflex. After the block, 68.96% showed a decreased and 27.59% a normal reflex. No cat had an increased or absent reflex before anesthetic block. In group 2, prior to the anesthetic block, 15.38% of the cats had a decreased cranial tibial reflex and 84.62% had a normal response, whereas after the block it was decreased in 26.92% and normal in 73.08% of the cats. None of the cats had an increased or absent reflex. Regarding the presence of both reflexes before and after anesthetic block, there was no significant difference at 1% ( P = 0.013). Conclusions and relevance The extensor carpi radialis and cranial tibial reflexes in cats are not strictly myotatic reflexes, as they are independent of the reflex arc, and may be idiomuscular responses. Therefore, they are not reliable for neurologic examination in this species.

  8. Compartmental analysis to predict biodistribution in radiopharmaceutical design studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marina F.; Pujatti, Priscilla B.; Araujo, Elaine B.; Mesquita, Carlos H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: mflima@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    The use of compartmental analysis allows the mathematical separation of tissues and organs to determinate the concentration of activity in each fraction of interest. Although the radiochemical purity must observe Pharmacopoeia specification (values upper 95%), very lower contains of free radionuclides could contribute significantly as dose in the neighborhood organs and make tumor up take studies not viable in case of radiopharmaceutical on the basis of labeled peptides. Animal studies with a product of Lutetium-177 labeled Bombesin derivative ({sup 177}Lu-BBNP) developed in IPEN-CNEN/SP and free Lutetium-177 developed in CNEA/EZEIZA was used to show how subtract free {sup 177}Lu contribution over {sup 177}Lu-BBNP to estimate the radiopharmaceutical potential as diagnosis or therapy agent. The first approach of the studies included the knowledge of chemical kinetics and mimetism of the Lutetium and the possible targets of the diagnosis/therapy to choose the possible models to apply over the sampling standard methods used in experimental works. A model with only one physical compartment (whole body) and one chemical compartment ({sup 177}Lu-BBNP) generated with the compartmental analysis protocol ANACOMP showed high differences between experimental and theoretical values over 2.5 hours, in spite of the concentration of activity had been in a good statistics rang of measurement. The values used in this work were residence time from three different kinds of study with free {sup 177}Lu: whole body, average excretion and maximum excretion as a chemical compartment. Activity concentration values as time function in measurements of total whole body and activity measurement in samples of blood with projection to total circulating blood volume with {sup 177}Lu-BBNP. Considering the two sources of data in the same modeling a better consistence was obtained. The next step was the statistic treatment of biodistribution and dosimetry in mice (Balb C) considering three chemical

  9. Neuromuscular partitioning in the extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis based on intramuscular nerve distribution patterns: A three-dimensional modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Ravichandiran, Nisanthini; Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; McKee, Nancy H; Richardson, Denyse; Oliver, Michele; Agur, Anne M

    2012-04-01

    Differential activation of specific regions within a skeletal muscle has been linked to the presence of neuromuscular compartments. However, few studies have investigated the extra- or intramuscular innervation throughout the muscle volume of extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of neuromuscular partitions in ECRL and ECRB based on the extra- and intramuscular innervation using three-dimensional modeling. The extra- and intramuscular nerve distribution was digitized and reconstructed in 3D in all the muscle volumes using Autodesk Maya in seven formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens (mean age, 75.7 ± 15.2 years). The intramuscular nerve distribution was modeled in all the muscle volumes. ECRL was found to have two neuromuscular compartments, superficial and deep. One branch from the radial nerve proper was found to innervate ECRL. This branch was divided into anterior and posterior branches to the superficial and deep compartments, respectively. Five innervation patterns were identified in ECRB with partitioning of the muscle belly into two, three, or four compartments, in a proximal to distal direction depending on the number of nerve branches entering the muscle belly. The ECRL and ECRB both demonstrated neuromuscular compartmentalization based on intramuscular innervation. According to the partitioning hypothesis, a muscle may be differentially activated depending on the required function of the muscle, thus allowing multifunctional muscles to contribute to a variety of movements. Therefore, the increased number of neuromuscular partitions in ECRB when compared with ECRL could be due to the need for more differential recruitment in the ECRB depending on force requirements. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Myostatin dysfunction impairs force generation in extensor digitorum longus muscle and increases exercise-induced protein efflux from extensor digitorum longus and soleus muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltusnikas, Juozas; Kilikevicius, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Fokin, Andrej; Bünger, Lutz; Lionikas, Arimantas; Ratkevicius, Aivaras

    2015-08-01

    Myostatin dysfunction promotes muscle hypertrophy, which can complicate assessment of muscle properties. We examined force generating capacity and creatine kinase (CK) efflux from skeletal muscles of young mice before they reach adult body and muscle size. Isolated soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles of Berlin high (BEH) mice with dysfunctional myostatin, i.e., homozygous for inactivating myostatin mutation, and with a wild-type myostatin (BEH+/+) were studied. The muscles of BEH mice showed faster (P myostatin dysfunction leads to impairment in muscle force generating capacity in EDL and increases susceptibility of SOL and EDL to protein loss after exercise.

  11. Compartmentation and complexation of metals in hyperaccumulator plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLeitenmaier

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hyperaccumulators are being intensely investigated. They are not only interesting in scientific context due to their strange behaviour in terms of dealing with high concentrations of metals, but also because of their use in phytoremediation and phytomining, for which understanding the mechanisms of hyperaccumulation is crucial. Hyperaccumulators naturally use metal accumulation as a defence against herbivores and pathogens, and therefore deal with accumulated metals in very specific ways of complexation and compartmentation, different from non-hyperaccumulator plants and also non-hyperaccumulated metals. For example, in contrast to non-hyperaccumulators, in hyperaccumulators even the classical phytochelatin-inducing metal, cadmium, is predominantly not bound by such sulfur ligands, but only by weak oxygen ligands. This applies to all hyperaccumulated metals investigated so far, as well as hyperaccumulation of the metalloid arsenic. Stronger ligands, as they have been shown to complex metals in non-hyperaccumulators, are in hyperaccumulators used for transient binding during transport to the storage sites. This confirmed that enhanced active metal transport, and not metal complexation, is the key mechanism of hyperaccumulation. Hyperaccumulators tolerate the high amount of accumulated heavy metals by sequestering them into vacuoles, usually in large storage cells of the epidermis. This is mediated by strongly elevated expression of specific transport proteins in various tissues from metal uptake in the shoots up to the storage sites in the leaf epidermis. However, this mechanism seems to be very metal specific. Non-hyperaccumulated metals in hyperaccumulators seem to be dealt with like in non-hyperaccumulator plants, i.e. detoxified by binding to strong ligands such as metallothioneins.

  12. Efficient Vaccine Distribution Based on a Hybrid Compartmental Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Yu

    Full Text Available To effectively and efficiently reduce the morbidity and mortality that may be caused by outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, it is very important for public health agencies to make informed decisions for controlling the spread of the disease. Such decisions must incorporate various kinds of intervention strategies, such as vaccinations, school closures and border restrictions. Recently, researchers have paid increased attention to searching for effective vaccine distribution strategies for reducing the effects of pandemic outbreaks when resources are limited. Most of the existing research work has been focused on how to design an effective age-structured epidemic model and to select a suitable vaccine distribution strategy to prevent the propagation of an infectious virus. Models that evaluate age structure effects are common, but models that additionally evaluate geographical effects are less common. In this paper, we propose a new SEIR (susceptible-exposed-infectious šC recovered model, named the hybrid SEIR-V model (HSEIR-V, which considers not only the dynamics of infection prevalence in several age-specific host populations, but also seeks to characterize the dynamics by which a virus spreads in various geographic districts. Several vaccination strategies such as different kinds of vaccine coverage, different vaccine releasing times and different vaccine deployment methods are incorporated into the HSEIR-V compartmental model. We also design four hybrid vaccination distribution strategies (based on population size, contact pattern matrix, infection rate and infectious risk for controlling the spread of viral infections. Based on data from the 2009-2010 H1N1 influenza epidemic, we evaluate the effectiveness of our proposed HSEIR-V model and study the effects of different types of human behaviour in responding to epidemics.

  13. Seasonal variation in isokinetic strength of knee flexors and extensors in soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Muscle strength is an important factor in soccer from the performance and health perspective. There is a lack of knowledge about changes in muscle strength of the knee flexors and extensors and their ratios during annual training cycle. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the seasonal variability of the observed parameters of isokinetic strength of the knee flexors and extensors in soccer players, U19, from the performance and health perspective. METHODS: The strength of the knee flexors and extensors was measured in players U19 category (n = 9; the average age 18.5 ±0.4 years on the isokinetic dynamometer IsoMed 2000 in angular velocity 60° × s-1. Measurement was performed in concentric/concentric and excentric/excentric mode of muscle action at the beginning of the winter preparatory period, at the end of the preparatory period and at the end of the spring competitive period. Monitored parameters were absolute peak torque (PT, conventional H/Q ratio (H/QCON, functional H/Q ratio (H/QFUN and functional H/Q ratio in range 10-30° of knee flexion (H/QFUN_10-30. RESULTS: Significant change in PT (p < .05 was noted only in cases of the knee extensors of the nondominant leg in the concentric mode. The evaluation of imbalance of the knee flexors and extensors by H/QCON and H/QFUN ratios did not show any significant changes, but there was found a significant decrease of the H/QFUN_10-30 ratio in the dominant leg between measurements at the beginning and at the end of the winter preparatory period. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the current study indicate that throughout the monitored periods of the annual training cycle desirable changes in knee flexors and extensors strength did not occur. The values suggest the disruption of the dynamic stabilization of the knee joint and increase in injury risk. Different dynamics of the three observed ratios confirmed that they provide different information about the physical fitness of

  14. Enthesopathy of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Brevis Origin: Effective Communication Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Matthew L; Ring, David C

    2016-06-01

    Enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, generally known as tennis elbow, is a common condition arising in middle-aged persons. The diagnosis is typically clear based on the patient interview and physical examination alone; therefore, imaging and other diagnostic tests are usually unnecessary. The natural history of the disorder is spontaneous resolution, but it can last for >1 year. The patient's attitude and circumstances, including stress, distress, and ineffective coping strategies, determine the intensity of the pain and the magnitude of the disability. Despite the best efforts of medical science, no treatments, invasive or noninvasive, have been proven to alter the natural history of the condition. Given the lack of disease-modifying treatments for enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin, orthopaedic surgeons can benefit from learning effective communication strategies to help convey accurate information that is hopeful and enabling.

  15. Muscle protein degradation and amino acid metabolism during prolonged knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-01-01

    to a substantial increase in net muscle protein degradation, and that a lowering of the starting muscle glycogen content leads to a further increase. The carbon atoms of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), glutamate, aspartate and asparagine, liberated by protein degradation, and the BCAA and glutamate......The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes...... in the concentrations of amino acids that are not metabolized in skeletal muscle. Experiments were performed at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise in six subjects having one leg with a normal glycogen content and the other with a low glycogen content. Exercise was performed for 90 min at a workload of 60...

  16. Isokinetic Evaluation of the Hip Flexor and Extensor Muscles: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapparoli, Fabricio Yuri; Riberto, Marcelo

    2017-11-01

    Isokinetic dynamometry testing is a safe and reliable method accepted as the "gold standard" in the evaluation of muscle strength in the open kinetic chain. Isokinetic hip examinations face problems in the standardization of the position of the equipment axis, in the individual being examined, and in the adjustment of the lever arm and in stabilization strategies for the patients during the tests. Identification of the methodologic procedures with best reproducibility is also needed. To review the literature to evaluate the parameters used for the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles and its reproducibility. This is a systematic literature review of the Cochrane, LILACS, PEDro, PubMed, and SciELO databases. The inclusion criteria were articles on the evaluation of hip flexor and/or extensor muscular strength with an isokinetic dynamometer and articles that analyzed the ICC or Pearson's reproducibility. The information extracted was positioning of the patient; positioning of the dynamometer axis; positioning of the lever arm; angular speed; sample size, pathology; type of contraction; and ICC and Pearson's results. 204 articles were found, from which 14 were selected that evaluated hip flexor and extensor muscles, involving 550 individuals who were submitted to an isokinetic hip evaluation. Five articles obtained the best result in reproducibility and had their methodology analyzed. To obtain better reproducibility of the isokinetic evaluation of the hip flexor and extensor muscles, the following recommendations must be followed: the individual must be positioned in the supine position and the dynamometer axis must be aligned with the greater trochanter of the femur. The positioning of the lever arm must be in the most distal region of the thigh possible. The angular speed used to analyze torque peak and muscle work was 60°/s, and to evaluate the muscle power it was 180°/s, with concentric and eccentric contractions being analyzed.

  17. Sex Comparison of Knee Extensor Size, Strength and Fatigue Adaptation to Sprint Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Liam; Al-Shanti, Nasser; Bradburn, Steven; Baig, Osamah; Slevin, Mark; McPhee, Jamie S

    2018-03-12

    Regular sprint interval training (SIT) improves whole-body aerobic capacity and muscle oxidative potential, but very little is known about knee extensor anabolic or fatigue resistance adaptations, or whether effects are similar for males and females. The purpose of this study was to compare sex-related differences in knee extensor size, torque-velocity relationship and fatigability adaptations to 12 weeks SIT. Sixteen males and fifteen females (mean (SEM) age: 41 (±2.5) yrs) completed measurements of total body composition assessed by DXA, quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSAQ) assessed by MRI, the knee extensor torque-velocity relationship (covering 0 - 240°·sec) and fatigue resistance, which was measured as the decline in torque from the first to the last of 60 repeated concentric knee extensions performed at 180°·sec. SIT consisted of 4 x 20 second sprints on a cycle ergometer set at an initial power output of 175% of power at VO2max, three times per week for 12 weeks. CSAQ increased by 5% (p=0.023) and fatigue resistance improved 4.8% (p=0.048), with no sex differences in these adaptations (sex comparisons: p=0.140 and p=0.282, respectively). Knee extensor isometric and concentric torque was unaffected by SIT in both males and females (p>0.05 for all velocities). 12 weeks SIT, totalling 4 minutes very intense cycling per week, significantly increased fatigue resistance and CSAQ similarly in males and females, but did not significantly increase torque in males or females. These results suggest that SIT is a time-effective training modality for males and females to increase leg muscle size and fatigue resistance.

  18. Volume estimation of extensor muscles of the lower leg based on MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Hans; Christensen, Line; Savnik, Anette; Danneskiold-Samsoee, Bente; Bliddal, Henning; Boesen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging can be used to measure the muscle volume of a given muscle or muscle group. The purpose of this study was to determine both the intra- and inter-observer variation of the manually outlined volume of the extensor muscles (tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus), to estimate the minimum number of slices needed for these calculations and to compare estimates of volume based on an assumed conic shape of the muscles with that of an assumed cylindrical shape, the calculation in both cases based on the Cavalieri principle. Eleven young and healthy subjects (4 women and 7 men, age range 24-40 years) participated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the left leg was obtained on a 1.5-T MR system using a knee coil (receive only). A total of 50 consecutive slices were obtained beginning 10 cm below the caput fibula sin. and proceeding distally with a slice thickness of 1.5 mm without gap. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to calculate the relative reliability (interval from 0 to 1.0). A high reliability for both intra- and inter-reliability was observed (ICC 0.98 and 1.0). The difference was only 0.004% between calculations based on measurement of all 50 slices with respect to 8 slices equally distributed along the muscle group. No difference was found between the two different volumetric assumptions in the Cavalieri principle. The manually outlining of extensor muscles volumes was reliable and only 8 slices of the calf were needed. No difference was seen between the two used mathematical calculations. (orig.)

  19. [Fall risk assessment and knee extensor muscle activity in elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oya, Yukiko; Nakamura, Masumi; Tabata, Emi; Morizono, Ryo; Mori, Sachiko; Kimuro, Yukari; Horikawa, Etsuo

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze relationships between the history of falls, tripping, sway, and knee extensor muscle strengths as a tool for fall risk assessment in elderly people. We examined effective fall prevention measures. We investigated 102 elderly volunteers in the community. The subjects were classified according to history of falls, tripping, sway and 5 performance tests conducted to assess fall risk including Timed up-and-go test (TUG), Functional Reach test (FR), Hand grip and Reaction time (RT). In addition, the time serial data of the knee extensor muscle strength were acquired using a hand-held dynamometer. In comparison to the non-faller group, the faller group showed a significantly higher incident rate of tripping and sway. A frequency analysis using the Maximum Entropy Method revealed that the fallers group showed lower peak frequency (p=0.025). Also, the slope of the logarithmical spectrum was less steep in the fallers group (p=0.035). Also results from analysis of the peak force latency from the beginning of measurement to 50%, 80%, and 100% muscle strength, also showed that the faller group took more time for maximal voluntary contraction. The frequency analysis of the time series date of peak force latency of knee extensor muscle strength revealed that the muscle activity differs in faller compared to non-fallers. This study suggested that knee extensor muscle isometric performance could possibly be used as a new tool for fall risk assessment. We concluded that exercises to raise maximal muscle strength and muscle response speed are useful for the prevention of falls.

  20. Lumbar extensor muscle force control is associated with disability in people with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranata, Adrian; Perraton, Luke; El-Ansary, Doa; Clark, Ross; Fortin, Karine; Dettmann, Tim; Brandham, Robert; Bryant, Adam

    2017-07-01

    The ability to control lumbar extensor force output is necessary for daily activities. However, it is unknown whether this ability is impaired in chronic low back pain patients. Similarly, it is unknown whether lumbar extensor force control is related to the disability levels of chronic low back pain patients. Thirty-three chronic low back pain and 20 healthy people performed lumbar extension force-matching task where they increased and decreased their force output to match a variable target force within 20%-50% maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Force control was quantified as the root-mean-square-error between participants' force output and target force across the entire, during the increasing and decreasing portions of the force curve. Within- and between-group differences in force-matching error and the relationship between back pain group's force-matching results and their Oswestry Disability Index scores were assessed using ANCOVA and linear regression respectively. Back pain group demonstrated more overall force-matching error (mean difference=1.60 [0.78, 2.43], Pback pain group demonstrated more force-matching error while increasing than decreasing force output (mean difference=1.74, Pback pain group (R 2 =0.19, P=0.006). Lumbar extensor muscle force control is compromised in chronic low back pain patients. Force-matching error predicts disability, confirming the validity of our force control protocol for chronic low back pain patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Common Decision of Compartmental Models on the Base of Laplace Transform and Retain Function Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, L.; Tzvetkova, A.; Nikolov, A.

    1997-01-01

    The compartmental models have a variety of applications in the analysis of the transport of radioactive and non-radioactive material in complex systems as atmosphere, hydrosphere, food chains, human body. The analysis of the biokinetic behaviour of the radioactive material into a human body gives a possibility for correct assessment of the dose from internal irradiation. Skrable has given a decision of non-cyclic linear compartmental models in case of a single intake of material in the compartments as an initial condition. The main purpose of our article is to write down a procedure for analysis of a general compartmental model in case of continuous intake of material into the compartments. This procedure is related to retain function concept and had developed on the base of Laplace transform. On the base on the proposed procedure a non-cyclic linear compartmental model decisions are given in case of both a single and a continuous intake. The Laplace images of cyclic and circular linear compartmental model decisions and their originals in some cases are given too. (author)

  2. Are fatigue-related EMG-parameters correlated to trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by the Sörensen test?

    OpenAIRE

    Demoulin Christophe; George, Florian; Matheve, Thomas; Jidovtseff, Boris; Vanderthommen, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Sorensen test has been extensively studied and is a rapid, simple, and reproducible evaluation of the trunk extensor muscles [1]. It is often considered as a fatigue test because fatigue-related electromyographic (EMG) parameters change throughout the test [2]; however, only recently it has been confirmed that this test induces a decrease of trunk extensor force during a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) [3], which best characterises muscle fatigue. The main aim of this stud...

  3. Impact of Fat Infiltration in Cervical Extensor Muscles on Cervical Lordosis and Neck Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Choong-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Lim, Seong-An; Choi, Yong-Soo

    2018-06-01

    Weakness of cervical extensor muscles causes loss of cervical lordosis, which could also cause neck pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles on cervical lordosis and neck pain. Fifty-six patients who suffered from neck pain were included in this study. Fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles was measured at each level of C2-3 and C6-7 using axial magnetic resonance imaging. The visual analogue scale (VAS), 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12), and Neck Disability Index (NDI) were used for clinical assessment. The mean fat infiltration was 206.3 mm 2 (20.3%) at C2-3 and 240.6 mm 2 (19.5%) at C6-7. Fat infiltration in cervical extensor muscles was associated with high VAS scores at both levels ( p = 0.047 at C2-3; p = 0.009 at C6-7). At C2-3, there was a negative correlation between fat infiltration of the cervical extensor muscles and cervical lordosis (r = -0.216; p = 0.020). At C6-7, fat infiltration in the cervical extensor muscles was closely related to NDI ( p = 0.003) and SF-12 ( p > 0.05). However, there was no significant correlation between cervical lordosis and clinical outcomes (VAS, p = 0.112; NDI, p = 0.087; and SF-12, p > 0.05). These results suggest that fat infiltration in the upper cervical extensor muscles has relevance to the loss of cervical lordosis, whereas fat infiltration in the lower cervical extensor muscles is associated with cervical functional disability.

  4. Not all sagittal band tears come with extensor instability. A case report with radiological and operative correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Shuo; Jacob, Jubin; Ghasemiesfe, Ahmadreza; Marrinan, Greg B.; Brooks, Jeffrey J.

    2018-01-01

    The sagittal bands are a component of the extensor hood. They serve an important role in stabilizing the extensor tendon by forming a ''check-rein'' to radial-ulnar translation of the tendon over the metacarpal head, and extending the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint by virtue of attaching the extensor tendon to the palmar plate. Injury to the sagittal band is thought to cause extensor instability and subluxation to the contralateral side by disruption of this ''check-rein'' function, although recent evidence from cadaver studies suggests that ulnar sagittal band tear may be spared of extensor instability. As a case in point, we encountered a patient with surgically proven ulnar sagittal band tear, who did not have any extensor tendon subluxation or any limitation in motion. Intraoperative findings demonstrated a chronic-appearing ulnar sagittal band tear, indicating that chronic injury with fibrosis may stabilize the central band. Therefore, in patients with metacarpophalangeal pain without central tendon subluxation or limitation of motion, it remains important to raise the concern of sagittal band tear for appropriate treatment. We present the clinical course of this case, with radiological and operative findings, followed by a review of the relevant literature. (orig.)

  5. Four cases of variations in the forearm extensor musculature in a study of hundred limbs and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Mohandas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available All surgeons must bear in mind the existence of muscular variations when performing common tendon transfers. Presence of additional bellies and tendons of existing muscles or presence of additional muscles in unusual locations might misguide a surgeon, during surgery and also during diagnosis. In the present paper we are reporting four cases of variations encountered during the study of extensor muscles of the forearm in 100 limbs. In Case 1, additional bellies of extensor carpi radialis longus and extensor carpi radialis brevis and multiple tendons of insertion of abductor pollicis longus were observed in a single limb. In Case 2, an additional belly of the abductor pollicis longus was observed. In Case 3, a short muscle on the dorsum of the hand going to the index finger [extensor indicis brevis (EIB] was found in addition to the normal extensor indicis (EI. It was also observed that some of the most superficial fleshy fibers of EIB were getting inserted into the tendon of EI. In Case 4, a rare incidence of extensor digiti medii proprius was observed. Further, the related literature is reviewed and the clinical and surgical importance of these muscular variations in diagnosis and proper planning of treatment is discussed.

  6. Not all sagittal band tears come with extensor instability. A case report with radiological and operative correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo; Jacob, Jubin; Ghasemiesfe, Ahmadreza; Marrinan, Greg B. [Yale New Haven Health Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT (United States); Brooks, Jeffrey J. [Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Center, New Canaan, CT (United States)

    2018-04-15

    The sagittal bands are a component of the extensor hood. They serve an important role in stabilizing the extensor tendon by forming a ''check-rein'' to radial-ulnar translation of the tendon over the metacarpal head, and extending the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint by virtue of attaching the extensor tendon to the palmar plate. Injury to the sagittal band is thought to cause extensor instability and subluxation to the contralateral side by disruption of this ''check-rein'' function, although recent evidence from cadaver studies suggests that ulnar sagittal band tear may be spared of extensor instability. As a case in point, we encountered a patient with surgically proven ulnar sagittal band tear, who did not have any extensor tendon subluxation or any limitation in motion. Intraoperative findings demonstrated a chronic-appearing ulnar sagittal band tear, indicating that chronic injury with fibrosis may stabilize the central band. Therefore, in patients with metacarpophalangeal pain without central tendon subluxation or limitation of motion, it remains important to raise the concern of sagittal band tear for appropriate treatment. We present the clinical course of this case, with radiological and operative findings, followed by a review of the relevant literature. (orig.)

  7. Clinical, Radiologic, and Legal Significance of "Extensor Response" in Posttraumatic Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsching, Raimund; Woischneck, Dieter; Langejürgen, Alexander; Parreidt, Andreas; Bondar, Imre; Skalej, Martin; Röhl, Friedrich; Voellger, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The timely detection of neurologic deterioration can be critical for the survival of a neurosurgical patient following head injury. Because little reliable evidence is available on the prognostic value of the clinical sign "extensor response" in comatose posttraumatic patients, we investigated the correlation of this clinical sign with outcome and with early radiologic findings from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This retrospective analysis of prospectively obtained data included 157 patients who had remained in a coma for a minimum of 24 hours after traumatic brain injury. All patients received a 1.5-T MRI within 10 days (median: 2 days) of the injury. The correlations between clinical findings 12 and 24 hours after the injury-in particular, extensor response and pupillary function, MRI findings, and outcome after 1 year-were investigated. Statistical analysis included contingency tables, Fisher exact test, odds ratios (ORs) with confidence intervals (CIs), and weighted κ values. There were 48 patients with extensor response within the first 24 hours after the injury. Patients with extensor response (World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies coma grade III) statistically were significantly more likely to harbor MRI lesions in the brainstem when compared with patients in a coma who had no further deficiencies (coma grade I; p = 0.0004 by Fisher exact test, OR 10.8 with 95% CI, 2.7-42.5) and patients with unilateral loss of pupil function (coma grade II; p = 0.0187, OR 2.8 with 95% CI, 1.2-6.5). The correlation of brainstem lesions as found by MRI and outcome according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale after 1 year was also highly significant (p ≤ 0.016). The correlation of extensor response and loss of pupil function with an unfavorable outcome and with brainstem lesions revealed by MRI is highly significant. Their sudden onset may be associated with the sudden onset of brainstem dysfunction and should therefore be regarded as one of the most

  8. Global identifiability of linear compartmental models--a computer algebra algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audoly, S; D'Angiò, L; Saccomani, M P; Cobelli, C

    1998-01-01

    A priori global identifiability deals with the uniqueness of the solution for the unknown parameters of a model and is, thus, a prerequisite for parameter estimation of biological dynamic models. Global identifiability is however difficult to test, since it requires solving a system of algebraic nonlinear equations which increases both in nonlinearity degree and number of terms and unknowns with increasing model order. In this paper, a computer algebra tool, GLOBI (GLOBal Identifiability) is presented, which combines the topological transfer function method with the Buchberger algorithm, to test global identifiability of linear compartmental models. GLOBI allows for the automatic testing of a priori global identifiability of general structure compartmental models from general multi input-multi output experiments. Examples of usage of GLOBI to analyze a priori global identifiability of some complex biological compartmental models are provided.

  9. Bioprinting for vascular and vascularized tissue biofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Pallab; Ayan, Bugra; Ozbolat, Ibrahim T

    2017-03-15

    Bioprinting is a promising technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision. Bioprinting enables the deposition of various biologics including growth factors, cells, genes, neo-tissues and extra-cellular matrix-like hydrogels. Benefits of bioprinting have started to make a mark in the fields of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and pharmaceutics. Specifically, in the field of tissue engineering, the creation of vascularized tissue constructs has remained a principal challenge till date. However, given the myriad advantages over other biofabrication methods, it becomes organic to expect that bioprinting can provide a viable solution for the vascularization problem, and facilitate the clinical translation of tissue engineered constructs. This article provides a comprehensive account of bioprinting of vascular and vascularized tissue constructs. The review is structured as introducing the scope of bioprinting in tissue engineering applications, key vascular anatomical features and then a thorough coverage of 3D bioprinting using extrusion-, droplet- and laser-based bioprinting for fabrication of vascular tissue constructs. The review then provides the reader with the use of bioprinting for obtaining thick vascularized tissues using sacrificial bioink materials. Current challenges are discussed, a comparative evaluation of different bioprinting modalities is presented and future prospects are provided to the reader. Biofabrication of living tissues and organs at the clinically-relevant volumes vitally depends on the integration of vascular network. Despite the great progress in traditional biofabrication approaches, building perfusable hierarchical vascular network is a major challenge. Bioprinting is an emerging technology to fabricate design-specific tissue constructs due to its ability to create complex, heterocellular structures with anatomical precision

  10. Transfer of extensor digiti minimi and extensor carpi ulnaris nerve branches to the intrinsic motor nerve branches: A histological study on cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, H; Haji Vandi, S

    2017-06-01

    In cases of high ulnar and median nerve palsy, result of nerve repair in term of intrinsic muscle recovery is unsatisfactory. Distal nerve transfer can alleviate the regeneration time and improve the results. Transfer of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) nerve branches to the deep branch of ulnar nerve (DBUN)/recurrent branch of median nerve (RMN) at wrist had been used to restore intrinsic hand function but, incomplete recovery occurred. The axon count at the donor nerve has a strong influence on the final results. This cadaveric study aims to analyses the histology of this nerve transfer to evaluate whether these donor nerves are suitable for this transfer or another donor nerve may be considered. Ten cadaveric upper limbs dissected to identify the location of the EDM, ECU, RMN and DBUN. Surface area, fascicle count, and axon number was determined by histological methods. The mean of axon number in the EDM, ECU, RMN and DBUN branches was 5931, 7355, 30960 and 35426, respectively. In this study, the number of axons in the EDM and ECU branches was 37% (13281/35426) of that in the DBUN. Also, the number of axons in the EDM and ECU branches was 42% (13281/30960) of that in the RMN. The axon count data showed an unfavorable match between the EDM, ECU and DBUN/RMN. Therefore, it is suggested that another donor nerve with higher axon number to be considered. Cadaver study (histological study). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The Reliability of Isometer 2 Device in Measuring of Cervical Flexor and Extensor Muscles Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Reza Soltan-Zadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The strength of a group of muscles can be measured by muscle strength test, employing a force measuring instrument. In order to monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic or training programs we need a reliable technique which is also accurate in repeated measurements. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of an isometric neck muscle force measurement device.  Materials & Methods: Thirty seven healthy non athlete subjects (18 males and 19 females, aged 18-25 participated in this analytical study. The maximal isometric contractions of the neck extensor and flexor muscles were measured in different times and different days and by two different testers. A new sensitive “load cell” was applied to our previously designed neck muscle force measurement apparatus. Results: The results of the inter-trail, test retest, and inter rater reliability (0.86 < ICC < 0.98 , 2.2< Sw <5.1 N indicated that the neck muscle force measurements were highly repeatable and less variable between measurements. There were no statistically significant differences in neck muscle force measurements, between times, between days and between retsters. Maximum isometric contractions were significantly higher in males than in the females (p < 0.001. Women’s neck muscle strengths were 30.8% and 46.1% of men in cervical extension and cervical flexion. Conclusion: In this study we used a new model (Isometer 2 of our previous apparatus (Isometer. The isometric strength of neck flexor and extensor muscles which was measured by Isometer 2 appeared to be a reliable and useful method for measuring the force of the neck extensor and flexor muscles.

  12. The effect of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training in the ACL-injured knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C; Milligan, Peter; Clinton, Melissa; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of different loads of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training on anterior knee laxity and function in the ACL-injured (ACLI) knee. Fifty-eight ACLI subjects were randomised to one of three (12-week duration) training groups. The STAND group trained according to a standardised rehabilitation protocol. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH group trained as did the STAND group but with the addition of seated knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Anterior knee laxity and measurements of physical and subjective function were performed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Thirty-six subjects were tested at both baseline and 12 weeks (STAND n = 13, LOW n = 11, HIGH n = 12). The LOW group demonstrated a reduction in 133 N anterior knee laxity between baseline and 12 weeks testing when compared to the HIGH and the STAND groups (p = 0.009). Specifically, the trained-untrained knee laxity decreased an average of approximately 5 mm in the LOW group while remaining the same in the other two groups. Twelve weeks of knee extensor open kinetic chain resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20RM led to a reduction in anterior knee laxity in the ACLI knee. This reduction in laxity does not appear to offer any significant short-term functional advantages when compared to a standard rehabilitation protocol. These results indicate that knee laxity can be decreased with resistance training of the thigh muscles. Randomised controlled trial, Level II.

  13. Sex differences in neuromuscular function after repeated eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrea; Baxter, Jake; Eischer, Claire; Gage, Matt; Hunter, Sandra; Yoon, Tejin

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the mechanisms for force and power reduction during and up to 48 h after maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensor muscles in young men and women. 13 men (22.8 ± 2.6 years) and 13 women (21.6 ± 2.2 years) performed 150 maximal effort eccentric contractions (5 sets of 30) with the knee extensor muscles at 60° s -1 . Maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC) and maximal voluntary concentric contractions (MVCC) were performed before and after the 150 eccentric contractions. The MVCCs involved a set of two isokinetic contractions at 60° s -1 and sets of isotonic contractions performed at seven different resistance loads (1 N m, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60% MVIC). Electrical stimulation was used during the MVICs and at rest to determine changes in voluntary activation and contractile properties. At baseline, men were stronger than women (MVIC: 276 ± 48 vs. 133 ± 37 N m) and more powerful (MVCC: 649 ± 77 vs. 346 ± 78 W). At termination of the eccentric contractions, voluntary activation, resting twitch amplitude, and peak power during concentric contractions at the seven loads and at 60° s -1 decreased (P  0.05) with no sex differences. Central mechanisms were primarily responsible for the depressed maximal force production up to 48 h after repeated eccentric contractions of the knee extensors and these mechanisms were similar in men and women.

  14. Macroanatomy and compartmentalization of recent fire scars in three North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Estelle Arbellay; Donald A. Falk; Elaine Kennedy Sutherland

    2016-01-01

    Fire scars are initiated by cambial necrosis caused by localized lethal heating of the tree stem. Scars develop as part of the linked survival processes of compartmentalization and wound closure. The position of scars within dated tree ring series is the basis for dendrochronological reconstruction of fire history. Macroanatomical features were described for western...

  15. Meningoencephalitis and Compartmentalization of the Cerebral Ventricles Caused by Enterobacter sakazakii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Martin B.; Allen, Stephen D.; Neal, Patricia; Reynolds, Janet

    1981-01-01

    A necrotizing meningoencephalitis complicated by ventricular compartmentalization and abscess formation caused by Enterobacter sakazakii in a previously healthy 5-week-old female is described. A detailed description of the isolate is presented. This communication firmly establishes the pathogenicity of E. sakazakii. PMID:7287892

  16. Sustainability of a Compartmentalized Host-Parasite Replicator System under Periodic Washout-Mixing Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Furubayashi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence and dominance of parasitic replicators are among the major hurdles for the proliferation of primitive replicators. Compartmentalization of replicators is proposed to relieve the parasite dominance; however, it remains unclear under what conditions simple compartmentalization uncoupled with internal reaction secures the long-term survival of a population of primitive replicators against incessant parasite emergence. Here, we investigate the sustainability of a compartmentalized host-parasite replicator (CHPR system undergoing periodic washout-mixing cycles, by constructing a mathematical model and performing extensive simulations. We describe sustainable landscapes of the CHPR system in the parameter space and elucidate the mechanism of phase transitions between sustainable and extinct regions. Our findings revealed that a large population size of compartments, a high mixing intensity, and a modest amount of nutrients are important factors for the robust survival of replicators. We also found two distinctive sustainable phases with different mixing intensities. These results suggest that a population of simple host–parasite replicators assumed before the origin of life can be sustained by a simple compartmentalization with periodic washout-mixing processes.

  17. Analysis of a compartmental model of amyloid beta production, irreversible loss and exchange in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Donald L; Patterson, Bruce W; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, and in particular Aβ42, are found in senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. A compartmental model of Aβ production, exchange and irreversible loss was recently developed to explain the kinetics of isotope-labeling of Aβ peptides collected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following infusion of stable isotope-labeled leucine in humans. The compartmental model allowed calculation of the rates of production, irreversible loss (or turnover) and short-term exchange of Aβ peptides. Exchange of Aβ42 was particularly pronounced in amyloid plaque-bearing participants. In the current work, we describe in much greater detail the characteristics of the compartmental model to two distinct audiences: physician-scientists and biokineticists. For physician-scientists, we describe through examples the types of questions the model can and cannot answer, as well as correct some misunderstandings of previous kinetic analyses applied to this type of isotope labeling data. For biokineticists, we perform a system identifiability analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model to explore the global and local properties of the model. Combined, these analyses motivate simplifications from a more comprehensive physiological model to the final model that was previously presented. The analyses clearly demonstrate that the current dataset and compartmental model allow determination with confidence a single 'turnover' parameter, a single 'exchange' parameter and a single 'delay' parameter. When combined with CSF concentration data for the Aβ peptides, production rates may also be obtained. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A new method to estimate parameters of linear compartmental models using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambhir, Sanjiv S.; Keppenne, Christian L.; Phelps, Michael E.; Banerjee, Pranab K.

    1998-01-01

    At present, the preferred tool for parameter estimation in compartmental analysis is an iterative procedure; weighted nonlinear regression. For a large number of applications, observed data can be fitted to sums of exponentials whose parameters are directly related to the rate constants/coefficients of the compartmental models. Since weighted nonlinear regression often has to be repeated for many different data sets, the process of fitting data from compartmental systems can be very time consuming. Furthermore the minimization routine often converges to a local (as opposed to global) minimum. In this paper, we examine the possibility of using artificial neural networks instead of weighted nonlinear regression in order to estimate model parameters. We train simple feed-forward neural networks to produce as outputs the parameter values of a given model when kinetic data are fed to the networks' input layer. The artificial neural networks produce unbiased estimates and are orders of magnitude faster than regression algorithms. At noise levels typical of many real applications, the neural networks are found to produce lower variance estimates than weighted nonlinear regression in the estimation of parameters from mono- and biexponential models. These results are primarily due to the inability of weighted nonlinear regression to converge. These results establish that artificial neural networks are powerful tools for estimating parameters for simple compartmental models. (author)

  19. Heterogeneity and compartmentalization of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis genotypes in autopsy lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2001-01-01

    . Not all genotypes present in the lungs at autopsy were detected in the diagnostic respiratory samples. Compartmentalization of specific ITS and mtLSU rRNA sequence types was observed in different lung segments. In conclusion, the interpretation of genotype data and in particular ITS sequence types...

  20. The Contradictions and Compartmentalizing the Interactions between Integrated Business Structures: Aspect of Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nifatova Olena M.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at identifying contradictions and developing a compartmentalizing as to the interaction between integrated business structures, taking into consideration the branding approach to management. The main specific features and contradictions that arise in the process of integration in the domestic market of mergers and acquisitions have been allocated. The contradictions identified were systematized and substantiated at three economic levels: macro-, meso-, and microeconomic. A compartmentalizing of the business units interaction in a merge or an acquisition process has been proposed. This compartmentalizing takes account of the branding aspect through the introduction of «brands interaction» – cluster interaction, circular interaction, holding interaction, linear interaction, which enhances the scientific view of exploring the problem of business units interaction in the process of the formations becoming integrated. The development of a compartmentalizing as to the interaction between integrated business structures, taking into consideration the branding approach to management, would provide a more effective use of the fundamental nature of branding as synergistic force in terms of the system of integration of business structures at the current stage of development of the national economy. Further development of branding issues in this sphere will have a significant impact on the functioning of the integrated business structures with the participation of Ukrainian companies.

  1. Statistical properties of compartmental model parameters extracted from dynamic positron emission tomography experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazoyer, B.M.; Huesman, R.H.; Budinger, T.F.; Knittel, B.L.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past years a major focus of research in physiologic studies employing tracers has been the computer implementation of mathematical methods of kinetic modeling for extracting the desired physiological parameters from tomographically derived data. A study is reported of factors that affect the statistical properties of compartmental model parameters extracted from dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) experiments

  2. Compartmental Model For Uptake Of 137cs By Pine In Forest Soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A compartmental model of soil to pine tree transfer of 137Cs following the Chernobyl nuclear accident is presented. The model was validated using data collected in 1996 at five sites in Northern Ukraine. The transfer constants of 137Cs between model compartments are estimated using a semi-empirical method.

  3. A compartmentalized out-of-equilibrium enzymatic reaction network for sustained autonomous movement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijemeisland, M.; Abdelmohsen, L.K.E.A.; Huck, W.T.S.; Wilson, D.A.; van Hest, J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Every living cell is a compartmentalized out-ofequilibrium system exquisitely able to convert chemical energy into function. In order to maintain homeostasis, the flux of metabolites is tightly controlled by regulatory enzymatic networks. A crucial prerequisite for the development of lifelike

  4. SYNCHROTRON X-RAY ABSORPTION-EDGE COMPUTED MICROTOMOGRAPHY IMAGING OF THALLIUM COMPARTMENTALIZATION IN IBERIS INTERMEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thallium (TI) is an extremely toxic metal which, due to its similarities to K, is readily taken up by plants. Thallium is efficiently hyperaccumulated in Iberis intermedia as TI(I). Distribution and compartmentalization of TI in I. intermedia is highes...

  5. Compartmentalization: a conceptual framework for understanding how trees grow and defend themselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex L. Shigo

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe a conceptual framework for understanding how trees grow and how they and other perennial plants defend themselves. The concept of compartmentalization has developed over many years, a synthesis of ideas from a number of investigators. It is derived from detailed studies of the gross morphology and cellular anatomy of the wood...

  6. Linear regressive model structures for estimation and prediction of compartmental diffusive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, D; Keesman, K.J.; Zwart, Heiko J.

    In input-output relations of (compartmental) diffusive systems, physical parameters appear non-linearly, resulting in the use of (constrained) non-linear parameter estimation techniques with its short-comings regarding global optimality and computational effort. Given a LTI system in state space

  7. Linear regressive model structures for estimation and prediction of compartmental diffusive systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, D.; Keesman, K.J.; Zwart, H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In input-output relations of (compartmental) diffusive systems, physical parameters appear non-linearly, resulting in the use of (constrained) non-linear parameter estimation techniques with its short-comings regarding global optimality and computational effort. Given a LTI system in state

  8. A mechanistic compartmental model for total antibody uptake in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurber, Greg M; Dane Wittrup, K

    2012-12-07

    Antibodies are under development to treat a variety of cancers, such as lymphomas, colon, and breast cancer. A major limitation to greater efficacy for this class of drugs is poor distribution in vivo. Localization of antibodies occurs slowly, often in insufficient therapeutic amounts, and distributes heterogeneously throughout the tumor. While the microdistribution around individual vessels is important for many therapies, the total amount of antibody localized in the tumor is paramount for many applications such as imaging, determining the therapeutic index with antibody drug conjugates, and dosing in radioimmunotherapy. With imaging and pretargeted therapeutic strategies, the time course of uptake is critical in determining when to take an image or deliver a secondary reagent. We present here a simple mechanistic model of antibody uptake and retention that captures the major rates that determine the time course of antibody concentration within a tumor including dose, affinity, plasma clearance, target expression, internalization, permeability, and vascularization. Since many of the parameters are known or can be estimated in vitro, this model can approximate the time course of antibody concentration in tumors to aid in experimental design, data interpretation, and strategies to improve localization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Deep and shallow forms of the sulcus for extensor carpi ulnaris.

    OpenAIRE

    Nakashima, T; Hojo, T; Furukawa, H

    1993-01-01

    Anatomical variations in the sulcus for the tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris were studied in 240 upper limbs. The sulcus lies between the head and the styloid process on the dorsal surface of the distal end of the ulna. This groove has deep and shallow forms and, rarely, a flat form. The sulcus was classified into 4 grades according to its depth. Grade I, a deep sulcus, was found in 51.3%. Grades II and III are shallow, but the styloid process in grade II is more prominent than in grade III. ...

  10. Electromyographic activity of the trunk extensor muscles: effect of varying hip position and lumbar posture during Roman chair exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, John M; Verna, Joe L; Manini, Todd M; Mooney, Vert; Graves, James E

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of hip position and lumbar posture on the surface electromyographic activity of the trunk extensors during Roman chair exercise. Descriptive, repeated measures. University-based musculoskeletal research laboratory. Twelve healthy volunteers (7 men, 5 women; age range, 18-35y) without a history of low back pain were recruited from a university setting. Not applicable. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded from the lumbar extensor, gluteal, and hamstring musculature during dynamic Roman chair exercise. For each muscle group, electromyographic activity (mV/rep) was compared among exercises with internal hip rotation and external hip rotation and among exercises by using a typical lumbar posture (nonbiphasic) and a posture that accentuated lumbar lordosis (biphasic). For the lumbar extensors, electromyographic activity during exercise was 18% greater with internal hip rotation than external hip rotation (Phamstrings, there was no difference in electromyographic activity between internal and external hip rotation or between biphasic and nonbiphasic postures (P >.05). The level of recruitment of the lumbar extensors can be modified during Roman chair exercise by altering hip position and lumbar posture. Clinicians can use these data to develop progressive exercise protocols for the lumbar extensors with a variety of resistance levels without the need for complex equipment. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  11. Anomalous bilateral contribution of extensor pollicis longus and muscle fusion of the first compartment of the wrist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo César Rosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the anatomical variations of the muscles of the first dorsal compartments of the wrist is clinically relevant to De Quervain's tenosynovitis and to reconstructive surgeries. In the literature, there are many reports of the presence of multiple insertion tendons in the first dorsal compartment of the wrist, but few reports describe occurrences of fusion and muscle contributions. This case report describes an anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus. This anomalous contribution was found through a slender auxiliary tendon that crossed laterally under the extensor retinaculum, entered the first dorsal compartment of the wrist and merged with the tendon of the extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In the same cadaver in which this contribution was present, there was atypical muscle fusion of the abductor pollicis longus muscle and extensor pollicis brevis muscle. In conclusion, anomalous bilateral contribution of the extensor pollicis longus muscle and atypical muscle fusion, concomitant with a variant insertion pattern, are the highlight of this case report. Furthermore, it is concluded that additional tendons may be effectively used in reconstructive surgeries, but that there is a need for knowledge of the possible numerical and positional variations of these tendons, with a view to making more effective surgical plans.

  12. Reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in individuals with post-polio syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Voorn

    Full Text Available To assess the reliability of contractile properties of the knee extensor muscles in 23 individuals with post-polio syndrome (PPS and 18 age-matched healthy individuals.Contractile properties of the knee extensors were assessed from repeated electrically evoked contractions on 2 separate days, with the use of a fixed dynamometer. Reliability was determined for fatigue resistance, rate of torque development (MRTD, and early and late relaxation time (RT50 and RT25, using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measurement (SEM, expressed as % of the mean.In both groups, reliability for fatigue resistance was good, with high ICCs (>0.90 and small SEM values (PPS: 7.1%, healthy individuals: 7.0%. Reliability for contractile speed indices varied, with the best values found for RT50 (ICCs>0.82, SEM values <2.8%. We found no systematic differences between test and retest occasions, except for RT50 in healthy subjects (p = 0.016.In PPS and healthy individuals, the reliability of fatigue resistance, as obtained from electrically evoked contractions is high. The reliability of contractile speed is only moderate, except for RT50 in PPS, demonstrating high reliability.This was the first study to examine the reliability of electrically evoked contractile properties in individuals with PPS. Our results demonstrate its potential to study mechanisms underlying muscle fatigue in PPS and to evaluate changes in contractile properties over time in response to interventions or from natural course.

  13. Proximal forearm extensor muscle strain is reduced when driving nails using a shock-controlled hammer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Kimberly A; Maza, Maria; Pérez-Vázquez, Carlos E; Yen, Thomas Y; Kijowski, Richard; Liu, Fang; Radwin, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive hammer use has been associated with strain and musculoskeletal injuries. This study investigated if using a shock-control hammer reduces forearm muscle strain by observing adverse physiological responses (i.e. inflammation and localized edema) after use. Three matched framing hammers were studied, including a wood-handle, steel-handle, and shock-control hammer. Fifty volunteers were randomly assigned to use one of these hammers at a fatiguing pace of one strike every second, to seat 20 nails in a wood beam. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to scan the forearm muscles for inflammation before the task, immediately after hammering, and one to two days after. Electromyogram signals were measured to estimate grip exertions and localized muscle fatigue. High-speed video was used to calculate the energy of nail strikes. While estimated grip force was similar across the three hammers, the shock-control hammer had 40% greater kinetic energy upon impact and markedly less proximal extensor muscle edema than the wood-handle and steel-handle hammers, immediately after use (phandle shock can mitigate strain in proximal forearm extensor muscles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures.

  15. The frondiform ligament and pseudotenosynovitis of the extensor digitorum longus tendon: MRI evaluation with cadaveric correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zember, Jonathan; Rosenberg, Zehava; Mba-Jones, Chimere; Bencardino, Jenny; Rossi, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Fluid along the frondiform ligament, the sinus tarsi stem of the inferior extensor retinaculum (IER), can approximate the extensor digitorum longus (EDL), at times simulating tenosynovitis. Our purpose, based on MRI and cadaveric studies, was to further evaluate this scantly described phenomenon, to identify associated findings and to alert the radiologists to the potential pitfall of over diagnosing EDL tenosynovitis. Two musculoskeletal radiologists retrospectively reviewed the radiology reports and MRI studies of 258 ankle MRI exams, performed at our institution, for fluid along the frondiform ligament extending toward the EDL. No patient had EDL pathology clinically. MRI was performed in two cadaveric ankles following injection of the sinus tarsi and EDL tendon sheath, under ultrasound guidance. Altogether, 31 MRIs demonstrated fluid extending from the sinus tarsi along the frondiform ligament toward the EDL. In 30 cases (97 %), the fluid partially surrounded the tendon, without tendon sheath distension. Based on the radiology reports, in 11 of the 31 cases (35 %), the fluid was misinterpreted as abnormal. Most common associated findings included ligamentous injury, posterior tibial tendon (PTT) tear, flat-foot, and osteoarthrosis. In the cadavers, fluid extended along the frondiform ligament toward the EDL after sinus tarsi injection; there was no communication between EDL tendon sheath and the sinus tarsi. Fluid within the sinus tarsi can extend along the frondiform ligament and partially surround the EDL, manifesting as pseudotenosynovitis. This phenomenon, often seen with ligamentous tears or PTT dysfunction, should not be misdiagnosed as true pathology of the EDL. (orig.)

  16. Sex comparisons of non-local muscle fatigue in human elbow flexors and knee extensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W.; Wages, Nathan P.; Carr, Joshua C.

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: To examine non-local muscle fatigue (NLMF) in both contralateral homologous and non-related heterogonous muscles for both sexes. Methods: Ten men and nine women participated in this study. After the familiarization visit, subjects completed four separate randomly sequenced experimental visits, during which the fatiguing interventions (six sets of 30-second maximal isometric contractions) were performed on either their right elbow flexors or knee extensors. Before (Pre-) and after (Post-) the fatiguing interventions, the isometric strength and the corresponding surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude were measured for the non-exercised left elbow flexors or knee extensors. Results: For the non-exercised elbow flexors, the isometric strength decreased for both sexes (sex combined mean±SE: Pre vs. Post=339.67±18.02 N vs. 314.41±16.37 N; pisometric knee extension strength for men (Pre vs. Post =845.02±66.26 N vs. 817.39±67.64 N; p=0.019), but not for women. Conclusions: The presence of NMLF can be affected by factors such as sex and muscle being tested. Women are less likely to demonstrate NLMF in lower body muscle groups. PMID:29504584

  17. The effects of implant composition on extensor tenosynovitis in a canine distal radius fracture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinicropi, Stefano M; Su, Brian W; Raia, Frank J; Parisien, May; Strauch, Robert J; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2005-03-01

    Dorsal plating of distal radius fractures with titanium plates has resulted in clinically observed tenosynovitis and tendon rupture. The goal of this study was to investigate whether titanium-based implants result in more extensor tendon inflammation than matched stainless-steel implants in a canine fracture model. An osteotomy was created in the distal radius of 18 beagles and fixed with 2.7-mm 4-hole plates composed of commercially pure titanium, titanium alloy (Ti-Al6-V4), or 316L stainless steel. Animals were killed at an average of 4 months. Tendon gliding was assessed by applying a force at the extensor musculotendinous junction and noting gliding. Histologic grading (mild, moderate, severe) was based on cellular hypertrophy, hyperplasia, and leukocytic infiltration. Tendons glided freely in 100% stainless-steel specimens, 75% of titanium alloy, and 43% of commercially pure titanium groups. A severe inflammatory reaction was identified in 60% of the titanium alloy (Ti-A16-V4) group, 57% of the pure titanium group, and 0% of the stainless-steel group. Dorsal plating of the canine radius with commercially pure titanium or titanium alloy implants produced a greater inflammatory peritendinous response than matched stainless-steel implants.

  18. [Obtaining a fermented chickpea extract (Cicer arietinum L.) and its use as a milk extensor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales de León, J; Cassís Nosthas, M L; Cecin Salomón, P

    2000-06-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L) is cultivated in the North part of México and it is considered a good source of vegetal protein of low cost (20% average), nevertheless, the 80% used for the exportation and only the 20% less was used for animal feeding. The main objective in this study is to obtain a fermented chickpea extract for using in dairy extensor. Chickpea water absorbtion kinetics were carried out in e temperature conditions:while the conditions were established, chickpea was grounded and fermented in different amounts with its natural flora, L. casei, L. plantarum and a mixture culture of both microorganism in logarithmic phase. The results showed that the presence of microorganism of chickpea natural flora interferes during the fermentation, so before the inoculation it was necessary treat the chickpea extract (CE) terminally in a dilution 1:4 during 20 min at 7.7 kg/cm2 of pressure. The use of a mixture culture of 5% of L. casei and 5% L. plantarum inoculated in MRS broth was used to decrease fermentation time. Its addition in logarithmic phase to the sterile chickpea extract increased the lactic acid production and decreased the pH value in 6 h which was less time that one obtained with each of lactobacillus. The fermented extract obtained finally, presented similar sensory characteristics to the ones of dairy products. Therefore, chickpea is a good alternative as a extensor for this kind of products.

  19. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Ageberg, Eva; Englund, Martin

    2017-10-01

    To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data on isometric knee extensor strength, weight, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, parental education and adult occupation from Swedish registries. We identified participants diagnosed with knee OA or knee injury from 1987 to 2010 through the National Patient Register. We estimated the HR of knee OA using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional regression model. To assess the influence of adult knee injury and occupation, we performed a formal mediation analysis. The mean (SD) knee extensor strength was 234 (47) Nm, the mean (SD) weight was 66 (9.3) kg. During 24 years (median) of follow-up starting at the age of 35 years, 2049 persons were diagnosed with knee OA. The adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident knee OA was 1.12 (1.06 to 1.18) for each SD of knee extensor strength and 1.18 (1.15 to 1.21) per 5 kg of body weight. Fifteen per cent of the increase in OA risk due to higher knee extensor strength could be attributed to knee injury and adult occupation. Higher knee extensor strength in adolescent men was associated with increased risk of knee OA by middle age, challenging the current tenet of low muscle strength being a risk factor for OA. We confirmed higher weight to be a strong risk factor for knee OA. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The effects of knee extensor eccentric training on functional tests in healthy subjects Os efeitos do treino isocinético excêntrico dos extensores do joelho nos testes funcionais em sujeitos saudáveis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heleodório H. Santos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well known that eccentric training increases muscle strength and promotes greater neural activation, and therefore has been used in the recovery of knee extensors. The hypothesis of this study was that there would be a strong correlation between knee extensor torque and functional tests. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between knee extensor peak torque and functional tests of agility (runs and propulsion (hop for distance after short-term isokinetic eccentric training. METHODS: Twenty healthy and active male undergraduate students (age 22.5±2.1 years; height 1.72±0.10 m; weight 67.8±9.5 kg; body mass index: 22.5±2.0 kg/m², with no abnormalities or history of injury of the limbs, performed an isokinetic assessment of the knee extensors and flexors and also functional tests before and after isokinetic training, which consisted of 3 sets of 10 MVECs at 30º/s, with 3 minutes of rest between sets, twice a week for 6 weeks. RESULTS: The eccentric training increased the extensor peak torque (16, 27 and 17%; PCONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Sabe-se que o treino excêntrico aumenta a força muscular, promovendo uma maior ativação neural e, portanto, tem sido usado na recuperação do torque extensor. A hipótese deste estudo foi a de que possa existir uma forte correlação entre o torque extensor do joelho e os testes funcionais. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar o torque extensor do joelho com os testes funcionais de agilidade (corridas e impulsão (saltos em distância após o treino isocinético excêntrico de curta duração. MÉTODOS: Vinte homens universitários, ativos e saudáveis (22,5±2,1 anos; 1,72±0,10 m; 67,8±9,5 kg; IMC 22,5±2,0 kg/m², sem reportar anormalidades ou história de lesão no membro inferior, realizaram avaliação isocinética do torque extensor e flexor do joelho e testes funcionais antes e depois do treino isocinético que consistiu em três séries de 10 CEVM a 30º/s, com 3 minutos de repouso entre as

  1. Knee extensor strength and body weight in adolescent men and the risk of knee osteoarthritis by middle age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Timpka, Simon; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2017-01-01

    be attributed to knee injury and adult occupation. CONCLUSION: Higher knee extensor strength in adolescent men was associated with increased risk of knee OA by middle age, challenging the current tenet of low muscle strength being a risk factor for OA. We confirmed higher weight to be a strong risk factor......OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which knee extensor strength and weight in adolescence are associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA) by middle age. METHODS: We studied a cohort of 40 121 men who at age 18 years in 1969/1970 underwent mandatory conscription in Sweden. We retrieved data...

  2. Effect of Knee Extensor Strength on Incident Radiographic and Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis in Individuals with Meniscal Pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas B; Felson, David T; Segal, Neil A

    2016-01-01

    months. Separate binomial regression analyses with robust standard errors adjusted for age, history of knee surgery, physical activity level and clinic site were conducted for men and women. RESULTS: High knee extensor strength (normalized by allometric scaling) was associated with a reduced risk...... of radiographic knee OA in women (relative risk: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.94) but not in men (0.56; 0.27 to 1.16). High knee extensor strength did not protect against the development of symptomatic knee OA, either in women or in men. CONCLUSION: The results only partly confirm the hypothesis that high knee...

  3. Phylum Verrucomicrobia representatives share a compartmentalized cell plan with members of bacterial phylum Planctomycetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Tony

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Verrucomicrobia is a divergent phylum within domain Bacteria including members of the microbial communities of soil and fresh and marine waters; recently extremely acidophilic members from hot springs have been found to oxidize methane. At least one genus, Prosthecobacter, includes species with genes homologous to those encoding eukaryotic tubulins. A significant superphylum relationship of Verrucomicrobia with members of phylum Planctomycetes possessing a unique compartmentalized cell plan, and members of the phylum Chlamydiae including human pathogens with a complex intracellular life cycle, has been proposed. Based on the postulated superphylum relationship, we hypothesized that members of the two separate phyla Planctomycetes and Verrucomicrobia might share a similar ultrastructure plan differing from classical prokaryote organization. Results The ultrastructure of cells of four members of phylum Verrucomicrobia – Verrucomicrobium spinosum, Prosthecobacter dejongeii, Chthoniobacter flavus, and strain Ellin514 – was examined using electron microscopy incorporating high-pressure freezing and cryosubstitution. These four members of phylum Verrucomicrobia, representing 3 class-level subdivisions within the phylum, were found to possess a compartmentalized cell plan analogous to that found in phylum Planctomycetes. Like all planctomycetes investigated, they possess a major pirellulosome compartment containing a condensed nucleoid and ribosomes surrounded by an intracytoplasmic membrane (ICM, as well as a ribosome-free paryphoplasm compartment between the ICM and cytoplasmic membrane. Conclusion A unique compartmentalized cell plan so far found among Domain Bacteria only within phylum Planctomycetes, and challenging our concept of prokaryote cell plans, has now been found in a second phylum of the Domain Bacteria, in members of phylum Verrucomicrobia. The planctomycete cell plan thus occurs in at least two

  4. Do changes in neuromuscular activation contribute to the knee extensor angle-torque relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Marcel B; Balshaw, Thomas G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2017-08-01

    What is the central question of the study? Do changes in neuromuscular activation contribute to the knee extensor angle-torque relationship? What is the main finding and its importance? Both agonist (quadriceps) and antagonist coactivation (hamstrings) differed with knee joint angle during maximal isometric knee extensions and thus both are likely to contribute to the angle-torque relationship. Specifically, two independent measurement techniques showed quadriceps activation to be lower at more extended positions. These effects might influence the capacity for neural changes in response to training and rehabilitation at different knee joint angles. The influence of joint angle on knee extensor neuromuscular activation is unclear, owing in part to the diversity of surface electromyography (sEMG) and/or interpolated twitch technique (ITT) methods used. The aim of the study was to compare neuromuscular activation, using rigorous contemporary sEMG and ITT procedures, during isometric maximal voluntary contractions (iMVCs) of the quadriceps femoris at different knee joint angles and examine whether activation contributes to the angle-torque relationship. Sixteen healthy active men completed two familiarization sessions and two experimental sessions of isometric knee extension and knee flexion contractions. The experimental sessions included the following at each of four joint angles (25, 50, 80 and 106 deg): iMVCs (with and without superimposed evoked doublets); submaximal contractions with superimposed doublets; and evoked twitch and doublet contractions whilst voluntarily passive, and knee flexion iMVC at the same knee joint positions. The absolute quadriceps femoris EMG was normalized to the peak-to-peak amplitude of an evoked maximal M-wave, and the doublet-voluntary torque relationship was used to calculate activation with the ITT. Agonist activation, assessed with both normalized EMG and the ITT, was reduced at the more extended compared with the more flexed

  5. Effects of a low-intensity strength-training program on knee-extensor strength and functional ability of frail older people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westhoff, M.H.; Stemmerik, L.; Boshuizen, H.C.

    2000-01-01

    This study's purpose was to investigate whether a 10-week low-intensity strength-training program could improve strength of the knee extensors and functional ability. Participants 65 years and older with low knee-extensor muscle strength were randomized into an exercise (n = 11) and a control group

  6. Diversity in the dynamical behaviour of a compartmentalized programmable biochemical oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Maximilian; Kim, Jongmin; Kapsner, Korbinian; Winfree, Erik; Franco, Elisa; Simmel, Friedrich C

    2014-04-01

    In vitro compartmentalization of biochemical reaction networks is a crucial step towards engineering artificial cell-scale devices and systems. At this scale the dynamics of molecular systems becomes stochastic, which introduces several engineering challenges and opportunities. Here we study a programmable transcriptional oscillator system that is compartmentalized into microemulsion droplets with volumes between 33 fl and 16 pl. Simultaneous measurement of large populations of droplets reveals major variations in the amplitude, frequency and damping of the oscillations. Variability increases for smaller droplets and depends on the operating point of the oscillator. Rather than reflecting the stochastic kinetics of the chemical reaction network itself, the variability can be attributed to the statistical variation of reactant concentrations created during their partitioning into droplets. We anticipate that robustness to partitioning variability will be a critical challenge for engineering cell-scale systems, and that highly parallel time-series acquisition from microemulsion droplets will become a key tool for characterization of stochastic circuit function.

  7. A Residual Approach for Balanced Truncation Model Reduction (BTMR of Compartmental Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William La Cruz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a residual approach of the square root balanced truncation algorithm for model order reduction of continuous, linear and time-invariante compartmental systems. Specifically, the new approach uses a residual method to approximate the controllability and observability gramians, whose resolution is an essential step of the square root balanced truncation algorithm, that requires a great computational cost. Numerical experiences are included to highlight the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  8. Individual optimization of therapeutic applications and dosimetry of radiopharmaceuticals with the help of compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto Ciussani

    2007-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. The successful application of radiopharmaceuticals requires a patient-specific optimization of the activity to be administered, in order to deliver the desired therapeutic dose to the target organ while saving the healthy tissues. For a therapy specifically tailored on the characteristics of the patient, the correct knowledge of the morphology of the regions of interest, of the fractional uptake and of the related kinetics is necessary. Compartmental modelling can represent a powerful and simple tool for deriving the information of interest. In this presentation, the potentiality of compartmental analysis will be illustrated and two applications presented. The first study was conducted in patients with the autonomous functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN) syndrome treated with 131 I at the Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico of Milano (Milano, Italy). In these patients, the great challenge is represented by the healthy lobe surrounding the malignant nodule. A model was developed, where nodule and lobe are considered as separate entities in order to provide distinct dose estimates for the two tissues. The model has been also used for the optimization of the sampling schedule and for interpretation of biokinetic discrepancies observed between the diagnostic tests and the therapeutic application. The second study, carried out at Ospedali Riuniti di Bergamo (Bergamo, Italy), dealt with the application of [ 186 Re]-HEDP (hydroxyethyliden-diphosphonate disodium salt) for palliation of pain due to bone metastases of primary carcinomas. On the basis of the biodistribution studies and of chromatographic measurements, a compartmental model was suggested, taking into account the possible dissociation of the compound after injection into the patient. Also in this case, the compartmental model represents a valuable tool for individual optimization of the therapeutic procedure and for a more precise evaluation of the radiation dose the organs.

  9. A compartmentalized solute transport model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers: 1. Theory and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith

    2000-01-01

    This paper, the first of two parts [see Abrams and Loague, this issue], takes the compartmentalized approach for the geochemical evolution of redox zones presented by Abrams et al. [1998] and embeds it within a solute transport framework. In this paper the compartmentalized approach is generalized to facilitate the description of its incorporation into a solute transport simulator. An equivalent formulation is developed which removes any discontinuities that may occur when switching compartments. Rate‐limited redox reactions are modeled with a modified Monod relationship that allows either the organic substrate or the electron acceptor to be the rate‐limiting reactant. Thermodynamic constraints are used to inhibit lower‐energy redox reactions from occurring under infeasible geochemical conditions without imposing equilibrium on the lower‐energy reactions. The procedure used allows any redox reaction to be simulated as being kinetically limited or thermodynamically limited, depending on local geochemical conditions. Empirical reaction inhibition methods are not needed. The sequential iteration approach (SIA), a technique which allows the number of solute transport equations to be reduced, is adopted to solve the coupled geochemical/solute transport problem. When the compartmentalized approach is embedded within the SIA, with the total analytical concentration of each component as the dependent variable in the transport equation, it is possible to reduce the number of transport equations even further than with the unmodified SIA. A one‐dimensional, coupled geochemical/solute transport simulation is presented in which redox zones evolve dynamically in time and space. The compartmentalized solute transport (COMPTRAN) model described in this paper enables the development of redox zones to be simulated under both kinetic and thermodynamic constraints. The modular design of COMPTRAN facilitates the use of many different, preexisting solute transport and

  10. The Propeptide of the Metalloprotease of Listeria monocytogenes Controls Compartmentalization of the Zymogen during Intracellular Infection▿

    OpenAIRE

    O'Neil, Heather S.; Forster, Brian M.; Roberts, Kari L.; Chambers, Andrew J.; Bitar, Alan Pavinski; Marquis, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    Integral to the virulence of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes is its metalloprotease (Mpl). Mpl regulates the activity and compartmentalization of the bacterial broad-range phospholipase C (PC-PLC). Mpl is secreted as a proprotein that undergoes intramolecular autocatalysis to release its catalytic domain. In related proteases, the propeptide serves as a folding catalyst and can act either in cis or in trans. Propeptides can also influence protein compartmentalizati...

  11. Aspects of astrocyte energy metabolism, amino acid neurotransmitter homoeostasis and metabolic compartmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreft, Marko; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle S

    2012-01-01

    Astrocytes are key players in brain function; they are intimately involved in neuronal signalling processes and their metabolism is tightly coupled to that of neurons. In the present review, we will be concerned with a discussion of aspects of astrocyte metabolism, including energy......-generating pathways and amino acid homoeostasis. A discussion of the impact that uptake of neurotransmitter glutamate may have on these pathways is included along with a section on metabolic compartmentation....

  12. Expression of lung vascular and airway ICAM-1 after exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Schimmer, B; Schimmer, R C; Warner, R L

    1997-01-01

    model. This increase was reduced by 81% after treatment of animals with anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antibody and by 37% after treatment with anti-interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody. The same interventions reduced whole-lung ICAM-1 protein by 85% and 25%, respectively. The studies were...... extended to assess the locale in lung of ICAM-I upregulation. Lung vascular ICAM-1 content, which was assessed by vascular fixation of [125I]anti-ICAM-1, rose 4-fold after airway instillation of LPS. This rise was also TNF-alpha-dependent. Under the same experimental conditions, fixation of [125I...... lavage fluids (BALFs) of animals after intratracheal instillation of LPS. Retrieved alveolar macrophages showed a small, significant, and transient increase in surface expression of ICAM-1. These data indicate, at the very least, a dual compartmentalized (vascular and airway) upregulation of ICAM-1 after...

  13. Modulation of recurrent inhibition from knee extensors to ankle motoneurones during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamy, Jean-Charles; Iglesias, Caroline; Lackmy, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    The neural control for muscle coordination during human locomotion involves spinal and supraspinal networks, but little is known about the exact mechanisms implicated. The present study focused on modulation of heteronymous recurrent inhibition from knee extensors to ankle motoneurones at different...... times in the gait cycle, when quadriceps (Quad) muscle activity overlaps that in tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (Sol). The effects of femoral nerve stimulation on ankle motoneurones were investigated during treadmill walking and during tonic co-contraction of Quad and TA/Sol while standing. Recurrent...... inhibition of TA motoneurones depended on the level of background EMG, and was similar during walking and standing for matched background EMG levels. On the other hand, recurrent inhibition in Sol was reduced in early stance, with respect to standing, and enhanced in late stance. Reduced inhibition in Sol...

  14. Surgical Treatment of Traumatic Myositis Ossificans of the Extensor Carpi Radialis Muscle in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Bridget A; Hettlich, Bianca F; Pool, Roy R

    2015-07-01

    To report clinical signs, diagnostic imaging findings, and outcome in a dog with traumatic myositis ossificans of the origin of the extensor carpi radialis muscle. Clinical report. An 8-month-old intact female Irish Setter Dog. After radiographic and computed tomographic evaluation of an osseous proliferation arising from the cranial cortex of the right distal humeral diaphysis, the protruding bone was surgically removed and evaluated by histopathology. Traumatic myositis ossificans was successfully treated with surgical removal of the osseous proliferation resulting in improved postoperative range of motion of the right elbow joint. There was no evidence of lameness or abnormal bone regrowth associated with the surgical site radiographically at follow up. Surgical removal of a traumatic myositis ossificans lesion resulted in full return to function in a young, competitive show dog. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. Isolated Tuberculous Tenosynovitis of the Anterior Tibial and Extensor Digitorum Longus Tendons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhan Genç

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Musculoskeletal system is involved in 1-5% of extrapulmonary cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculous tenosynovitis is a rare form of musculoskeletal tuberculosis. Tuberculosis of the tendon sheath in the hand has been seen in a few cases. Involvement of the tendons of the leg is less common. Diagnosis is not easy as there are no specific clinical symptoms or signs. A 33-year-old male presented with painful swelling in the distal right lower limb that caused restriction of movement. Imaging studies showed inflammation and infection of the extensor digitorium longus and tibialis anterior tendons. Histopathological studies showed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation in the synovial tissue. A diagnosis of tuberculosis was made and medical treatment was initiated that proved successful. Patient remained infection-free at 26-month follow-up examination.

  16. Chronic triceps insufficiency managed with extensor carpi radialis longus and palmaris longus tendon grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dhanpal; Kumar, K Arun; Dinesh, Mc; Raj, Ranju

    2012-03-01

    Chronic triceps insufficiency, causing prolonged disability, occurs due to a missed diagnosis of an acute rupture. We report a 25 year old male with history of a significant fall sustaining multiple injuries. Since then, he had inability in extending his right elbow for which he sought intervention after a year. Diagnosis of triceps rupture was made clinicoradiologically and surgery was planned. Intraoperative findings revealed a deficient triceps with a fleck of avulsed bone from olecranon. Ipsilateral double tendon graft including extensor carpi radialis longus and palmaris longus were anchored to triceps and secured with the olecranon. Six-months follow revealed a complete active extension of elbow and a full function at the donor site.

  17. Association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris tendon pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Torriani, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon pathology. We retrospectively reviewed 71 adult wrist MRI studies with ECU tendon pathology (tenosynovitis, tendinopathy, or tear), and/or ECU subluxation. Subjects did not have a history of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. MRI studies from 46 subjects without ECU tendon pathology or subluxation were used as controls. The following morphological parameters of the distal ulna were measured independently by two readers: ulnar variance relative to radius, ulnar styloid process length, ECU groove depth and length. Subjects and controls were compared using Student's t test. Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was calculated. There was a significant correlation between negative ulnar variance and ECU tendon pathology (reader 1 [R1], P = 0.01; reader 2 [R2], P 0.64 for all parameters. Distal ulnar morphology may be associated with ECU tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  18. Catalase-positive microperoxisomes in rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscle fiber types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Danny A.; Bain, James L. W.; Ellis, Stanley

    1988-01-01

    The size, distribution, and content of catalase-reactive microperoxisomes were investigated cytochemically in three types of muscle fibers from the soleus and the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) of male rats. Muscle fibers were classified on the basis of the mitochondrial content and distribution, the Z-band widths, and the size and shape of myofibrils as the slow-twitch oxidative (SO), the fast-twitch oxidative glycolytic (FOG), and the fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) fibers. It was found that both the EDL and soleus SO fibers possessed the largest microperoxisomes. A comparison of microperoxisome number per muscle fiber area or the microperoxisome area per fiber area revealed following ranking, starting from the largest number and the area-ratio values: soleus SO, EDL SO, EDL FOG, and EDL FG.

  19. Electromyographic analysis of the vertebral extensor muscles during the Biering-Sorensen Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira de Santana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the electromyographic signal of the multifidus, longissimus thoracis and the lumbar iliocostalis muscles during the Biering-Sorensen test in subjects without lower back pain. Twenty volunteers performed the test on three separate occasions. An analysis of variance detected a difference between the three test times (p = 0.0026. For the frequency domain, it was observed that there were differences between the multifidus and the lumbar erectors muscles; longissimus and iliocostalis muscles. However, in the time domain analysis, no difference was observed. As the values of the slope coefficients of median frequencies were higher for the multifidus muscle, compared to the longissimus and lumbar iliocostalis muscles, this may indicate a higher tendency toward muscle fatigue. Therefore, considering the applied methodology, the study of electromyographic signals in the frequency domain should be considered as an instrument to assess fatigue of the spinal extensor muscles in clinical situations.

  20. Repurposing the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome for compartmentalizing multi-enzyme pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeLoache, William [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Russ, Zachary [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Samson, Jennifer [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dueber, John [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-09-25

    The peroxisome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was targeted for repurposing in order to create a synthetic organelle that provides a generalizable compartment for engineered metabolic pathways. Compartmentalization of enzymes into organelles is a promising strategy for limiting metabolic crosstalk, improving pathway efficiency, and ultimately modifying the chemical environment to be distinct from that of the cytoplasm. We focused on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae peroxisome, as this organelle is not required for viability when grown on conventional media. We identified an enhanced peroxisomal targeting signal type 1 (PTS1) for rapidly importing non-native cargo proteins. Additionally, we performed the first systematic in vivo measurements of nonspecific metabolite permeability across the peroxisomal membrane using a polymer exclusion assay and characterized the size dependency of metabolite trafficking. Finally, we applied these new insights to compartmentalize a two-enzyme pathway in the peroxisome and characterize the expression regimes where compartmentalization leads to improved product titer. This work builds a foundation for using the peroxisome as a synthetic organelle, highlighting both promise and future challenges on the way to realizing this goal.

  1. Robust global identifiability theory using potentials--Application to compartmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongvanich, N; Hann, C E; Sirisena, H R

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a global practical identifiability theory for analyzing and identifying linear and nonlinear compartmental models. The compartmental system is prolonged onto the potential jet space to formulate a set of input-output equations that are integrals in terms of the measured data, which allows for robust identification of parameters without requiring any simulation of the model differential equations. Two classes of linear and non-linear compartmental models are considered. The theory is first applied to analyze the linear nitrous oxide (N2O) uptake model. The fitting accuracy of the identified models from differential jet space and potential jet space identifiability theories is compared with a realistic noise level of 3% which is derived from sensor noise data in the literature. The potential jet space approach gave a match that was well within the coefficient of variation. The differential jet space formulation was unstable and not suitable for parameter identification. The proposed theory is then applied to a nonlinear immunological model for mastitis in cows. In addition, the model formulation is extended to include an iterative method which allows initial conditions to be accurately identified. With up to 10% noise, the potential jet space theory predicts the normalized population concentration infected with pathogens, to within 9% of the true curve. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Human Lsg1 defines a family of essential GTPases that correlates with the evolution of compartmentalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheffzek Klaus

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compartmentalization is a key feature of eukaryotic cells, but its evolution remains poorly understood. GTPases are the oldest enzymes that use nucleotides as substrates and they participate in a wide range of cellular processes. Therefore, they are ideal tools for comparative genomic studies aimed at understanding how aspects of biological complexity such as cellular compartmentalization evolved. Results We describe the identification and characterization of a unique family of circularly permuted GTPases represented by the human orthologue of yeast Lsg1p. We placed the members of this family in the phylogenetic context of the YlqF Related GTPase (YRG family, which are present in Eukarya, Bacteria and Archea and include the stem cell regulator Nucleostemin. To extend the computational analysis, we showed that hLsg1 is an essential GTPase predominantly located in the endoplasmic reticulum and, in some cells, in Cajal bodies in the nucleus. Comparison of localization and siRNA datasets suggests that all members of the family are essential GTPases that have increased in number as the compartmentalization of the eukaryotic cell and the ribosome biogenesis pathway have evolved. Conclusion We propose a scenario, consistent with our data, for the evolution of this family: cytoplasmic components were first acquired, followed by nuclear components, and finally the mitochondrial and chloroplast elements were derived from different bacterial species, in parallel with the formation of the nucleolus and the specialization of nuclear components.

  3. Self-concept structure and borderline personality disorder: evidence for negative compartmentalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vater, Aline; Schröder-Abé, Michela; Weißgerber, Susan; Roepke, Stefan; Schütz, Astrid

    2015-03-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is characterized by an unstable and incongruent self-concept. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies investigating self-concept in BPD. In order to bridge this research gap, the purpose of this study was to apply an in-depth analysis of structural aspects of the self-concept in BPD. We examined the degree of compartmentalization, i.e., a tendency to organize knowledge about the self into discrete, extremely valenced (i.e., either positive or negative) categories (Showers, 1992). We hypothesized and found that BPD patients had the most compartmentalized self-concept structure and a higher proportion of negative self-attributes relative to both a non-clinical and a depressed control group. Moreover, BPD patients rated negative self-aspects as more important than positive ones relative to non-clinical controls. We cannot determine whether causal relationships exist between psychological symptoms and self-concept structure. Moreover, further comparisons to patients with other psychiatric disorders are necessary in order to further confirm the clinical specificity of our results. Our findings indicate that a negative compartmentalized self-concept is a specific feature of BPD. Implications for future research, psychological assessment, and psychotherapeutic treatment are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Vascular and Immunobiology of the Circulatory Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Keisuke; Hla, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Vertebrates are endowed with a closed circulatory system, the evolution of which required novel structural and regulatory changes. Furthermore, immune cell trafficking paradigms adapted to the barriers imposed by the closed circulatory system. How did such changes occur mechanistically? We propose that spatial compartmentalization of the lipid mediator sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) may be one such mechanism. In vertebrates, S1P is spatially compartmentalized in the blood and lymphatic circulation, thus comprising a sharp S1P gradient across the endothelial barrier. Circulatory S1P has critical roles in maturation and homeostasis of the vascular system as well as in immune cell trafficking. Physiological functions of S1P are tightly linked to shear stress, the key biophysical stimulus from blood flow. Thus, circulatory S1P confinement could be a primordial strategy of vertebrates in the development of a closed circulatory system. This review discusses the cellular and molecular basis of the S1P gradients and aims to interpret its physiological significance as a key feature of the closed circulatory system. PMID:27813829

  5. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Gretja; Spudich, Serena; Harrington, Patrick; Price, Richard W; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2009-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2) mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2) range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+) T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.

  6. Compartmentalized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originates from long-lived cells in some subjects with HIV-1-associated dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretja Schnell

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 invades the central nervous system (CNS shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1-associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA, targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t(1/2 mean = 2.27 days. However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t(1/2 range = 9.85 days to no initial decay. The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4(+ T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD.

  7. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sayed; Cunningham, Ryan; Mohamed, Feroze; Amin, Mamta; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  8. The extensor carpi ulnaris pseudolesion: evaluation with microCT, histology, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Sayed; Cunningham, Ryan; Mohamed, Feroze [Temple University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Amin, Mamta; Popoff, Steven N.; Barbe, Mary F. [Temple University School of Medicine, Department of Anatomy, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-12-15

    To determine if magic angle plays a role in apparent central increased signal intensity of the distal extensor carpi ulnaris tendon (ECU) on MRI, to see if histologic findings of tendon degeneration are associated with increased T1 or T2 tendon signal on MR imaging, and to determine the prevalence of the ECU ''pseudolesion''. A standard 3 Tesla protocol was utilized to scan ten cadaveric wrists. A 40 mm length of 10 ECU and four extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendons were immersion fixed before microCT scanning. Staining with Alcian blue, Masson's trichrome and Safranin O was performed before light microscopy. Fifty clinical wrist MRIs were also reviewed for the presence of increased T1 and/or T2 signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal was observed in 9 of 10 cadaveric ECU tendons, but not in ECRB tendons. MicroCT and histology showed inter-tendinous matrix between the two distal heads of the ECU. Increased mucoid degeneration correlated with increased MRI signal intensity. The tendon fibers were at a maximum of 8.39 to the longitudinal axis on microCT. Clinical MRIs showed increased T1 signal in 6 %, increased T2 signal in 8 %, increased T1 and T2 signal in 80 %, and 6 % showing no increased signal. Central increased T1 and/or T2 signal in the ECU tendon indicates the presence of normal inter-tendinous ground substance, with increased proteoglycan content (mucoid degeneration) responsible for increased signal intensity. None of the fibers were shown on microCT to approach the magic angle. (orig.)

  9. β-alanine supplementation improves isometric endurance of the knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sale Craig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We examined the effect of four weeks of β-alanine supplementation on isometric endurance of the knee extensors at 45% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC. Methods Thirteen males (age 23 ± 6 y; height 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass 81.0 ± 10.5 kg, matched for pre-supplementation isometric endurance, were allocated to either a placebo (n = 6 or β-alanine (n = 7; 6.4 g·d-1 over 4 weeks supplementation group. Participants completed an isometric knee extension test (IKET to fatigue, at an intensity of 45% MVIC, before and after supplementation. In addition, two habituation tests were completed in the week prior to the pre-supplementation test and a further practice test was completed in the week prior to the post-supplementation test. MVIC force, IKET hold-time, and impulse generated were recorded. Results IKET hold-time increased by 9.7 ± 9.4 s (13.2% and impulse by 3.7 ± 1.3 kN·s-1 (13.9% following β-alanine supplementation. These changes were significantly greater than those in the placebo group (IKET: t(11 = 2.9, p ≤0.05; impulse: t(11 = 3.1, p ≤ 0.05. There were no significant changes in MVIC force in either group. Conclusion Four weeks of β-alanine supplementation at 6.4 g·d-1 improved endurance capacity of the knee extensors at 45% MVIC, which most likely results from improved pH regulation within the muscle cell as a result of elevated muscle carnosine levels.

  10. Surface EMG characteristics of people with multiple sclerosis during static contractions of the knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sasha M; Hughes, Adrienne R; Galloway, Stuart D R; Hunter, Angus M

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to determine whether any alterations existed in surface electromyography (sEMG) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) during isometric contractions of the knee extensors. Fifteen people with MS and 14 matched controls (mean ± SD age and body mass index 53·7 ± 10·5 versus 54·6 ± 9·6 years and 27·7 ± 6·1 versus 26·5 ± 4, respectively) completed 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the knee extensors. sEMG was recorded from the vastus lateralis where muscle fibre conduction velocity (MFCV) and sEMG amplitude (RMS) were assessed. Body composition was determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and physical activity with the use of accelerometry. People with MS showed significantly (P<0·05) faster MFCV during MVC (6·6 ± 2·7 versus 4·7 ± 1·4 m s(-1) ) and all submaximal contractions, while RMS was significantly (P<0·05) less (0·11 ± 0·03 versus 0·24 ± 0·06 mV) in comparison with the controls. MVC along with specific thigh lean mass to torque, rate of force development and mean physical activity were significantly (P<0·01) less in PwMS. People with MS have elevated MFCV alongside reduced RMS during isometric contraction. This elevation in MFCV should be accounted for when interpreting sEMG from people with MS. © 2010 University of Stirling. Clinical physiology and Functional Imaging © 2010 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  11. Comparison of sonography and magnetic resonance imaging for the diagnosis of partial tears of finger extensor tendons in rheumatoid arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swen, W. A.; Jacobs, J. W.; Hubach, P. C.; Klasens, J. H.; Algra, P. R.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Finger extensor tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) may lead to partial and eventually to complete tendon tears. The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of sonography (SG) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to visualize partial tendon tears. Twenty-one RA patients

  12. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: jelltt@regis.edu; Sterling, M. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Darnell, R. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Galloway, G. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Jull, G. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 {+-} 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 {+-} 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash.

  13. Sit-to-Stand Movement in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy: Relationship with Knee Extensor Torque and Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Pavao, Silvia Leticia; Santiago, Paulo Roberto Pereira; Salvini, Tania de Fatima; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between sit-to-stand (STS) movement, knee extensor torque and social participation in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Seven spastic hemiplegic CP patients (8.0 plus or minus 2.2 years), classified by the Gross Motor Function Classification System as I and II, and 18 typical children (8.4 plus or…

  14. Reliability and Validity of a New Method for Isometric Back Extensor Strength Evaluation Using A Hand-Held Dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hee-Won; Baek, Sora; Kim, Hong Young; Park, Jung-Gyoo; Kang, Eun Kyoung

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the reliability and validity of a new method for isometric back extensor strength measurement using a portable dynamometer. A chair equipped with a small portable dynamometer was designed (Power Track II Commander Muscle Tester). A total of 15 men (mean age, 34.8±7.5 years) and 15 women (mean age, 33.1±5.5 years) with no current back problems or previous history of back surgery were recruited. Subjects were asked to push the back of the chair while seated, and their isometric back extensor strength was measured by the portable dynamometer. Test-retest reliability was assessed with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). For the validity assessment, isometric back extensor strength of all subjects was measured by a widely used physical performance evaluation instrument, BTE PrimusRS system. The limit of agreement (LoA) from the Bland-Altman plot was evaluated between two methods. The test-retest reliability was excellent (ICC=0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-0.91). The Bland-Altman plots demonstrated acceptable agreement between the two methods: the lower 95% LoA was -63.1 N and the upper 95% LoA was 61.1 N. This study shows that isometric back extensor strength measurement using a portable dynamometer has good reliability and validity.

  15. CT evaluation of extensor tendon entrapment as a complication of a distal radial fracture in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frawley, Kieran J.; Anton, Christopher G.; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Cornwall, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Extensor indicis proprius (EIP) entrapment is a rare complication of a distal radial fracture. We report an 11-year-old with limited flexion of her index finger 1 year after a distal radial fracture. The utility of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis and preoperative planning of this complication is presented. (orig.)

  16. V1 and v2b interneurons secure the alternating flexor-extensor motor activity mice require for limbed locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingming; Lanuza, Guillermo M; Britz, Olivier; Wang, Zhi; Siembab, Valerie C; Zhang, Ying; Velasquez, Tomoko; Alvarez, Francisco J; Frank, Eric; Goulding, Martyn

    2014-04-02

    Reciprocal activation of flexor and extensor muscles constitutes the fundamental mechanism that tetrapod vertebrates use for locomotion and limb-driven reflex behaviors. This aspect of motor coordination is controlled by inhibitory neurons in the spinal cord; however, the identity of the spinal interneurons that serve this function is not known. Here, we show that the production of an alternating flexor-extensor motor rhythm depends on the composite activities of two classes of ventrally located inhibitory neurons, V1 and V2b interneurons (INs). Abrogating V1 and V2b IN-derived neurotransmission in the isolated spinal cord results in a synchronous pattern of L2 flexor-related and L5 extensor-related locomotor activity. Mice lacking V1 and V2b inhibition are unable to articulate their limb joints and display marked deficits in limb-driven reflex movements. Taken together, these findings identify V1- and V2b-derived neurons as the core interneuronal components of the limb central pattern generator (CPG) that coordinate flexor-extensor motor activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.; Sterling, M.; Noteboom, J.T.; Darnell, R.; Galloway, G.; Jull, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 ± 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 ± 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash

  18. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  19. Vascular grading of angiogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, S; Grabau, D A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    2000-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of angiogenesis by vascular grading of primary breast tumours, and to evaluate the prognostic impact of adding the vascular grade to the Nottingham Prognostic Index (NPI). The investigation included 836 patients. The median follow-up time was 11...... years and 4 months. The microvessels were immunohistochemically stained by antibodies against CD34. Angiogenesis was graded semiquantitatively by subjective scoring into three groups according to the expected number of microvessels in the most vascular tumour area. The vascular grading between observers...... impact for 24% of the patients, who had a shift in prognostic group, as compared to NPI, and implied a better prognostic dissemination. We concluded that the angiogenesis determined by vascular grading has independent prognostic value of clinical relevance for patients with breast cancer....

  20. Avaliação da altura patelar em atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho Evaluation of the patellar height in athletes with diagnosed with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Garms

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar radiograficamente a altura patelar de atletas com diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (TCAE. MÉTODOS: Na amostra foram avaliados radiograficamente 65 pacientes (110 joelhos com idade entre 15 e 40 anos e de diferentes modalidades esportivas com e sem diagnóstico de tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho (jumper's knee. Os atletas foram divididos em dois grupos: aqueles com diagnóstico de TCAE (grupo 1: 38 atletas - 56 joelhos e um grupo que denominamos de controle (grupo 2: 27 atletas - 54 joelhos. RESULTADOS: No grupo 1 tivemos 18 atletas que apresentavam a doença bilateralmente na ocasião dos exames. Para a medida da altura patelar utilizamos os índices radiográficos de Insall e Salvati e Blackburne e Peel. CONCLUSÃO: A presença de patela alta no grupo de atletas com tendinopatia crônica do aparelho extensor do joelho foi significante maior do que a observada no grupo controle.OBJECTIVES: To carry out a radiographic evaluation of patellar height in athletes diagnosed with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism; METHODS: Radiographic assessments were carried out on 65 patients (110 knees aged between 15 and 40 years, who practiced different kinds of sports, some with of chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism (jumper's knee and others without. The athletes were divided into two groups: those with diagnosed "jumper's knee" (group 1:38 athletes - 56 knees and a control group (group 2:27 athletes - 54 knees. In group 1, 18 of the athletes presented the condition in both knees on examination. The height of the patella was measured using the Insall-Salvati and Blackburne-Peel x-ray methods. CONCLUSION: The presence of a high patella in the group of athletes with chronic tendinopathy of the knee extensor mechanism was significantly higher than in the control group.

  1. Vascular Access in Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnamurthy, Ganesh; Keller, Marc S.

    2011-01-01

    Establishment of stable vascular access is one of the essential and most challenging procedures in a pediatric hospital. Many clinical specialties provide vascular service in a pediatric hospital. At the top of the “expert procedural pyramid” is the pediatric interventional radiologist, who is best suited and trained to deliver this service. Growing awareness regarding the safety and high success rate of vascular access using image guidance has led to increased demand from clinicians to provide around-the-clock vascular access service by pediatric interventional radiologists. Hence, the success of a vascular access program, with the pediatric interventional radiologist as the key provider, is challenging, and a coordinated multidisciplinary team effort is essential for success. However, there are few dedicated pediatric interventional radiologists across the globe, and also only a couple of training programs exist for pediatric interventions. This article gives an overview of the technical aspects of pediatric vascular access and provides useful tips for obtaining vascular access in children safely and successfully using image guidance.

  2. Pediatric vascular access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, James S.

    2006-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiologists are ideally suited to provide vascular access services to children because of inherent safety advantages and higher success from using image-guided techniques. The performance of vascular access procedures has become routine at many adult interventional radiology practices, but this service is not as widely developed at pediatric institutions. Although interventional radiologists at some children's hospitals offer full-service vascular access, there is little or none at others. Developing and maintaining a pediatric vascular access service is a challenge. Interventionalists skilled in performing such procedures are limited at pediatric institutions, and institutional support from clerical staff, nursing staff, and technologists might not be sufficiently available to fulfill the needs of such a service. There must also be a strong commitment by all members of the team to support such a demanding service. There is a slippery slope of expected services that becomes steeper and steeper as the vascular access service grows. This review is intended primarily as general education for pediatric radiologists learning vascular access techniques. Additionally, the pediatric or adult interventional radiologist seeking to expand services might find helpful tips. The article also provides education for the diagnostic radiologist who routinely interprets radiographs containing vascular access devices. (orig.)

  3. Strength deficits identified with concentric action of the hip extensors and eccentric action of the hamstrings predispose to hamstring injury in elite sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusaku; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakuraba, Keishoku; Sakuma, Kazuhiko; Suzuki, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    Prospective cohort study. In this prospective cohort study of elite sprinters, muscle strength of the hip extensors, as well as of the knee extensors and flexors, was measured to determine a possible relationship between strength deficits and subsequent hamstring injury within 12 months of testing. The method used for testing muscle strength simulated the specific muscle action during late swing and early contact phases when sprinting. There have been no prospective studies in elite sprinters that examine the concentric and eccentric isokinetic strength of the hip extensors and the quadriceps and hamstring muscles in a manner that reflects their actions in late swing or early contact phases of sprinting. Consequently, the causal relationship between hip and thigh muscle strength and hamstring injury in elite sprinters may not be fully understood. Isokinetic testing was performed on 30 male elite sprinters to assess hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscle strength. The occurrence of hamstring injury among the subjects was determined during the year following the muscle strength measurements. The strength of the hip extensors, quadriceps, and hamstring muscles, as well as the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors- quadriceps ratios were compared. Hamstring injury occurred in 6 subjects during the 1-year period. Isokinetic testing at a speed of 60 degrees /s revealed weakness of the injured limb with eccentric action of the hamstring muscles and during concentric action of the hip extensors. When performing a side-to-side comparison for the injured sprinters, the hamstring injury always occurred on the weaker side. Differences in the hamstrings-quadriceps and hip extensors-quadriceps strength ratios were also evident between uninjured and injured limbs, and this was attributable to deficits in hamstring strength. Hamstring injury in elite sprinters was associated with weakness during eccentric action of the hamstrings and weakness during concentric action of

  4. Vascular malformations in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reith, W.; Shamdeen, M.G.

    2003-01-01

    Vascular malformations are the cause of nearly all non-traumatic intracranial hemorrhage in children beyond the neonatal stage. Therefore, any child presenting with spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage should be evaluated for child abuse and for vascular malformations. Intracerebral malformations of the cerebral vasculature include vein of Galen malformations, arteriovenous malformation (AVM), cavernomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas, venous anomalies (DVA), and capillary teleangiectasies. Although a few familial vascular malformation have been reported, the majority are sporadic. Clinical symptoms, diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of trunk flexors and extensors among healthy women☆☆☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, Renata Neves; Aveiro, Mariana Chaves; Rennó, Ana Claudia Muniz; Oishi, Jorge; Driusso, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of aging on the degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles among women without a densitometric diagnosis of osteoporosis. Methods Thirty women were selected to make up three groups: young women (n = 10; 24.60 ± 2.27 years of age); adults (n = 10; 43.50 ± 2.88); and elderly women (n = 10; 62.40 ± 2.67). Bone mineral density (BMD), degree of thoracic kyphosis and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors were evaluated. Differences between the groups were evaluated using the Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA and Mann–Whitney U tests. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess correlations between the variables. The significance level was taken to be 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Results The elderly group presented a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis (p = 0.009) and lower peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors than the young group. The adult group presented lower peak torque of the trunk than the young group. A negative correlation was observed between age and peak torque of the trunk flexors and extensors (p ≤ 0.001), and a positive correlation between age and the degree of thoracic kyphosis (r = 0.58; p ≤ 0.001). The elderly group presented higher values for the eccentric/concentric ratio of the peak torque for flexors (p = 0.03) and extensors (p = 0.02). Conclusion This study suggests that physiological aging may be associated with a greater degree of thoracic kyphosis and lower muscle strength of the trunk flexors and extensors. Moreover, the elderly women showed a relative capacity for preservation of eccentric strength. PMID:26229814

  6. The Artificial Gravity Bed Rest Pilot Project: Effects on Knee Extensor and Plantar Flexor Muscle Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Haddad, F.; Lee, S.; Baker, M.; Baldwin, K. M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this project was to examine the effects of artificial gravity (2.5 g) on skeletal muscle strength and key anabolic/catabolic markers known to regulate muscle mass. Two groups of subjects were selected for study: 1) a 21 day-bed rest (BR) control (C) group (N=7); and 2) an AG group (N=8), which was exposed to 21 days of bed-rest plus daily 1 hr exposures to AG (2.5 g). This particular experiment was part of an integrated AG Pilot Project sponsored by NASA/Johnson Space Center. The in vivo torque-velocity relationships of the knee extensors and plantar flexors of the ankle were determined pre and post treatment. Also, pre- and post treatment biopsy samples were obtained from both the vastus lateralis and soleus muscles and were used, in part, for a series of analyses on gene expression (mRNA abundance) of key factors implicated in the anabolic versus catabolic state of the muscle. Post/Pre toque-velocity determinations revealed greater decrements in knee extensor performance in the C versus AG group (P less than 0.04). The plantar flexor muscle group of the AG subjects actually demonstrated a net gain in torque-velocity relationship; whereas, in the C group the overall post/pre responses declined (AG vs C; P less than 0.001). Measurements of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (for both muscles) demonstrated a loss of approx. 20% in the C group while no losses were evident in the AG group. RT-PCR analyses of muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated that markers of growth and cytoskeletal integrity (IGF-1, IGF-1 BP4, mechano growth factor, total RNA, and pro-collagen 3a) were higher in the AG group, whereas catabolic markers (myostatin and atrogen) were elevated in the C group. Importantly, these patterns were seen in both muscles. Based on these observations we conclude that paradigms of AG have the potential to maintain the functional, biochemical, and structural homeostasis of skeletal muscle in the face of chronic unloading states. These findings also

  7. In vivo kinematics of a robot-assisted uni- and multi-compartmental knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Toshifumi; Abbasi, Ali Z; Conditt, Michael A; Christopher, Jennifer; Kreuzer, Stefan; Otto, Jason K; Banks, Scott A

    2014-07-01

    There is great interest in providing reliable and durable treatments for one- and two-compartment arthritic degeneration of the cruciate-ligament intact knee. One approach is to resurface only the diseased compartments with discrete unicompartmental components, retaining the undamaged compartment(s). However, placing multiple small implants into the knee presents a greater surgical challenge than total knee arthroplasty, so it is not certain that the natural knee mechanics can be maintained or restored. The goal of this study was to determine whether near-normal knee kinematics can be obtained with a robot-assisted multi-compartmental knee arthroplasty. Thirteen patients with 15 multi-compartmental knee arthroplasties using haptic robotic-assisted bone preparation were involved in this study. Nine subjects received a medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), three subjects received a medial UKA and patellofemoral (PF) arthroplasty, and three subjects received medial and lateral bi-unicondylar arthroplasty. Knee motions were recorded using video-fluoroscopy an average of 13 months (6-29 months) after surgery during stair and kneeling activities. The three-dimensional position and orientation of the implant components were determined using model-image registration techniques. Knee kinematics during maximum flexion kneeling showed femoral external rotation and posterior lateral condylar translation. All knees showed femoral external rotation and posterior condylar translation with flexion during the step activity. Knees with medial UKA and PF arthroplasty showed the most femoral external rotation and posterior translation, and knees with bicondylar UKA showed the least. Knees with accurately placed uni- or bi-compartmental arthroplasty exhibited stable knee kinematics consistent with intact and functioning cruciate ligaments. The patterns of tibiofemoral motion were more similar to natural knees than commonly has been observed in knees with total knee

  8. DISTING: A web application for fast algorithmic computation of alternative indistinguishable linear compartmental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Natalie R; Godfrey, Keith R; Alquaddoomi, Faisal; Nola, David; DiStefano, Joseph J

    2017-05-01

    We describe and illustrate use of DISTING, a novel web application for computing alternative structurally identifiable linear compartmental models that are input-output indistinguishable from a postulated linear compartmental model. Several computer packages are available for analysing the structural identifiability of such models, but DISTING is the first to be made available for assessing indistinguishability. The computational algorithms embedded in DISTING are based on advanced versions of established geometric and algebraic properties of linear compartmental models, embedded in a user-friendly graphic model user interface. Novel computational tools greatly speed up the overall procedure. These include algorithms for Jacobian matrix reduction, submatrix rank reduction, and parallelization of candidate rank computations in symbolic matrix analysis. The application of DISTING to three postulated models with respectively two, three and four compartments is given. The 2-compartment example is used to illustrate the indistinguishability problem; the original (unidentifiable) model is found to have two structurally identifiable models that are indistinguishable from it. The 3-compartment example has three structurally identifiable indistinguishable models. It is found from DISTING that the four-compartment example has five structurally identifiable models indistinguishable from the original postulated model. This example shows that care is needed when dealing with models that have two or more compartments which are neither perturbed nor observed, because the numbering of these compartments may be arbitrary. DISTING is universally and freely available via the Internet. It is easy to use and circumvents tedious and complicated algebraic analysis previously done by hand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of NAD+ metabolism, signaling and compartmentalization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Pyridine nucleotides are essential coenzymes in many cellular redox reactions in all living systems. In addition to functioning as a redox carrier, NAD+ is also a required co-substrate for the conserved sirtuin deacetylases. Sirtuins regulate transcription, genome maintenance and metabolism and function as molecular links between cells and their environment. Maintaining NAD+ homeostasis is essential for proper cellular function and aberrant NAD+ metabolism has been implicated in a number of metabolic- and age-associated diseases. Recently, NAD+ metabolism has been linked to the phosphate-responsive signaling pathway (PHO pathway) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Activation of the PHO pathway is associated with the production and mobilization of the NAD+ metabolite nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is mediated in part by PHO-regulated nucleotidases. Cross-regulation between NAD+ metabolism and the PHO pathway has also been reported; however, detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The PHO pathway also appears to modulate the activities of common downstream effectors of multiple nutrient-sensing pathways (Ras-PKA, TOR, Sch9/AKT). These signaling pathways were suggested to play a role in calorie restriction-mediated beneficial effects, which have also been linked to Sir2 function and NAD+ metabolism. Here, we discuss the interactions of these pathways and their potential roles in regulating NAD+ metabolism. In eukaryotic cells, intracellular compartmentalization facilitates the regulation of enzymatic functions and also concentrates or sequesters specific metabolites. Various NAD+-mediated cellular functions such as mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are compartmentalized. Therefore, we also discuss several key players functioning in mitochondrial, cytosolic and vacuolar compartmentalization of NAD+ intermediates, and their potential roles in NAD+ homeostasis. To date, it remains unclear how NAD+ and NAD+ intermediates shuttle between different

  10. Regulation of NAD+ metabolism, signaling and compartmentalization in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2014-11-01

    Pyridine nucleotides are essential coenzymes in many cellular redox reactions in all living systems. In addition to functioning as a redox carrier, NAD(+) is also a required co-substrate for the conserved sirtuin deacetylases. Sirtuins regulate transcription, genome maintenance and metabolism and function as molecular links between cells and their environment. Maintaining NAD(+) homeostasis is essential for proper cellular function and aberrant NAD(+) metabolism has been implicated in a number of metabolic- and age-associated diseases. Recently, NAD(+) metabolism has been linked to the phosphate-responsive signaling pathway (PHO pathway) in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Activation of the PHO pathway is associated with the production and mobilization of the NAD(+) metabolite nicotinamide riboside (NR), which is mediated in part by PHO-regulated nucleotidases. Cross-regulation between NAD(+) metabolism and the PHO pathway has also been reported; however, detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated. The PHO pathway also appears to modulate the activities of common downstream effectors of multiple nutrient-sensing pathways (Ras-PKA, TOR, Sch9/AKT). These signaling pathways were suggested to play a role in calorie restriction-mediated beneficial effects, which have also been linked to Sir2 function and NAD(+) metabolism. Here, we discuss the interactions of these pathways and their potential roles in regulating NAD(+) metabolism. In eukaryotic cells, intracellular compartmentalization facilitates the regulation of enzymatic functions and also concentrates or sequesters specific metabolites. Various NAD(+)-mediated cellular functions such as mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation are compartmentalized. Therefore, we also discuss several key players functioning in mitochondrial, cytosolic and vacuolar compartmentalization of NAD(+) intermediates, and their potential roles in NAD(+) homeostasis. To date, it remains unclear how NAD(+) and NAD(+) intermediates

  11. Study of compartmentalization in the visna clinical form of small ruminant lentivirus infection in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A central nervous system (CNS disease outbreak caused by small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV has triggered interest in Spain due to the rapid onset of clinical signs and relevant production losses. In a previous study on this outbreak, the role of LTR in tropism was unclear and env encoded sequences, likely involved in tropism, were not investigated. This study aimed to analyze heterogeneity of SRLV Env regions - TM amino terminal and SU V4, C4 and V5 segments - in order to assess virus compartmentalization in CNS. Results Eight Visna (neurologically affected sheep of the outbreak were used. Of the 350 clones obtained after PCR amplification, 142 corresponded to CNS samples (spinal cord and choroid plexus and the remaining to mammary gland, blood cells, bronchoalveolar lavage cells and/or lung. The diversity of the env sequences from CNS was 11.1-16.1% between animals and 0.35-11.6% within each animal, except in one animal presenting two sequence types (30% diversity in the CNS (one grouping with those of the outbreak, indicative of CNS virus sequence heterogeneity. Outbreak sequences were of genotype A, clustering per animal and compartmentalizing in the animal tissues. No CNS specific signature patterns were found. Conclusions Bayesian approach inferences suggested that proviruses from broncoalveolar lavage cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells represented the common ancestors (infecting viruses in the animal and that neuroinvasion in the outbreak involved microevolution after initial infection with an A-type strain. This study demonstrates virus compartmentalization in the CNS and other body tissues in sheep presenting the neurological form of SRLV infection.

  12. Development and testing of a compartmentalized reaction network model for redox zones in contaminated aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams , Robert H.; Loague, Keith; Kent, Douglas B.

    1998-01-01

    The work reported here is the first part of a larger effort focused on efficient numerical simulation of redox zone development in contaminated aquifers. The sequential use of various electron acceptors, which is governed by the energy yield of each reaction, gives rise to redox zones. The large difference in energy yields between the various redox reactions leads to systems of equations that are extremely ill-conditioned. These equations are very difficult to solve, especially in the context of coupled fluid flow, solute transport, and geochemical simulations. We have developed a general, rational method to solve such systems where we focus on the dominant reactions, compartmentalizing them in a manner that is analogous to the redox zones that are often observed in the field. The compartmentalized approach allows us to easily solve a complex geochemical system as a function of time and energy yield, laying the foundation for our ongoing work in which we couple the reaction network, for the development of redox zones, to a model of subsurface fluid flow and solute transport. Our method (1) solves the numerical system without evoking a redox parameter, (2) improves the numerical stability of redox systems by choosing which compartment and thus which reaction network to use based upon the concentration ratios of key constituents, (3) simulates the development of redox zones as a function of time without the use of inhibition factors or switching functions, and (4) can reduce the number of transport equations that need to be solved in space and time. We show through the use of various model performance evaluation statistics that the appropriate compartment choice under different geochemical conditions leads to numerical solutions without significant error. The compartmentalized approach described here facilitates the next phase of this effort where we couple the redox zone reaction network to models of fluid flow and solute transport.

  13. Uterine Vascular Lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Abhishek; Srinivas, Amruthashree; Chandrashekar, Babitha Moogali; Vijayakumar, Avinash

    2013-01-01

    Vascular lesions of the uterus are rare; most reported in the literature are arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Uterine AVMs can be congenital or acquired. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of reports of acquired vascular lesions of the uterus following pregnancy, abortion, cesarean delivery, and curettage. It can be seen from these reports that there is confusion concerning the terminology of uterine vascular lesions. There is also a lack of diagnostic criteria and management guidelines, which has led to an increased number of unnecessary invasive procedures (eg, angiography, uterine artery embolization, hysterectomy for abnormal vaginal bleeding). This article familiarizes readers with various vascular lesions of the uterus and their management. PMID:24340126

  14. Magnetic resonance vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axel, L

    1989-01-01

    The basis principles of MRI are reviewed in order to understand how blood flow effects arise in conventional imaging. Then some of the ways these effects have ben used in MRI techniques specifically designed for vascular imaging, are considered. (author)

  15. Nuclear matrix and structural and functional compartmentalization of the eucaryotic cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razin, S V; Borunova, V V; Iarovaia, O V; Vassetzky, Y S

    2014-07-01

    Becoming popular at the end of the 20th century, the concept of the nuclear matrix implies the existence of a nuclear skeleton that organizes functional elements in the cell nucleus. This review presents a critical analysis of the results obtained in the study of nuclear matrix in the light of current views on the organization of the cell nucleus. Numerous studies of nuclear matrix have failed to provide evidence of the existence of such a structure. Moreover, the existence of a filamentous structure that supports the nuclear compartmentalization appears to be unnecessary, since this function is performed by the folded genome itself.

  16. The kinetics of multi-compartmentalized systems, studied by radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouveia, A.S. de.

    1978-01-01

    The use of compartmental models to investigate kinetic problems is presented. This use is restricted, however, to linear models. As an application of different methods, the kinetic behaviour of haemaccel labelled with iodine 131 is studied, the interval of the physically viable solutions being established. The existence of a class of solutions is explained as a result of lack of knowledge of a complete data set. The possibility of obtaining a single solution is also discussed. The formalism of the program SAAM (Simulation, Analysis and modelling) now judged very important for the study of multi-compartimental analysis is presented. (I.C.R) [pt

  17. Effects of Air Stacking Maneuver on Cough Peak Flow and Chest Wall Compartmental Volumes of Subjects With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Antonio; Resqueti, Vanessa; Dourado-Júnior, Mario; Saturnino, Lailane; Aliverti, Andrea; Fregonezi, Guilherme; de Andrade, Armele Dornelas

    2017-11-01

    To assess the acute effects of air stacking on cough peak flow (CPF) and chest wall compartmental volumes of persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) versus healthy subjects positioned at 45° body inclination. Cross-sectional study with a matched-pair design. University hospital. Persons (N=24) with ALS (n=12) and age-matched healthy subjects (n=12). CPF, chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity, chest wall vital capacity, chest wall tidal volume and operational volumes, breathing pattern, and percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume were measured by optoelectronic plethysmography. Compared with healthy subjects, significantly lower CPF (P=.007), chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity (Pprotocol in the healthy subjects, mainly because of end-inspiratory (P<.001) and abdominal volumes (P=.008). No significant differences were observed in percentage of contribution of the compartments to the inspired volume and end-expiratory volume of both groups. No significant differences were found in chest wall tidal volume, operational volume, and breathing pattern in persons with ALS. Air stacking is effective in increasing CPF, chest wall compartmental inspiratory capacity, and chest wall vital capacity of persons with ALS with no hyperinflation. Differences in compartmental volume contributions are probably because of lung and chest wall physiological changes. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional and morphological adaptations to aging in knee extensor muscles of physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Geremia, Jeam Marcel; Rodrigues, Rodrigo; Borges, Marcelo Krás; Jinha, Azim; Herzog, Walter; Vaz, Marco Aurélio

    2013-10-01

    It is not known if a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is sufficient to combat age-related muscle and strength loss. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate if the maintenance of a physically active lifestyle prevents muscle impairments due to aging. To address this issue, we evaluated 33 healthy men with similar physical activity levels (IPAQ = 2) across a large range of ages. Functional (torque-angle and torque-velocity relations) and morphological (vastus lateralis muscle architecture) properties of the knee extensor muscles were assessed and compared between three age groups: young adults (30 ± 6 y), middle-aged subjects (50 ± 7 y) and elderly subjects (69 ± 5 y). Isometric peak torques were significantly lower (30% to 36%) in elderly group subjects compared with the young adults. Concentric peak torques were significantly lower in the middle aged (18% to 32%) and elderly group (40% to 53%) compared with the young adults. Vastus lateralis thickness and fascicles lengths were significantly smaller in the elderly group subjects (15.8 ± 3.9 mm; 99.1 ± 25.8 mm) compared with the young adults (19.8 ± 3.6 mm; 152.1 ± 42.0 mm). These findings suggest that a physically active lifestyle, without systematic training, is not sufficient to avoid loss of strength and muscle mass with aging.

  19. Speed-related spinal excitation from ankle dorsiflexors to knee extensors during human walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias, Caroline; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    Automatic adjustments of muscle activity throughout the body are required for the maintenance of balance during human walking. One mechanism that is likely to contribute to this control is the heteronymous spinal excitation between human ankle dorsiflexors and knee extensors (CPQ-reflex). Here, we...... investigated the CPQ-reflex at different walking speeds (1-6 km/h) and stride frequencies (0.6-1.3 Hz) in healthy human subjects to provide further evidence of its modulation, and its role in ensuring postural stability during walking. The CPQ-reflex was small or absent at walking speeds below 2-3 km....../h, then increased with walking speeds about 3-4 km/h, and reached a plateau without any further change at walking speeds from 4 to 6 km/h. The reflex showed no modulation when the stride cycle was varied at constant speed (4 km/h; short steps versus long steps). These changes were unlikely to be only caused...

  20. Effects of Constant and Doublet Frequency Electrical Stimulation Patterns on Force Production of Knee Extensor Muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole Cometti

    Full Text Available This study compared knee extensors' neuromuscular fatigue in response to two 30-minute stimulation patterns: constant frequency train (CFT and doublet frequency train (DFT. Fifteen men underwent two separate sessions corresponding to each pattern. Measurements included torque evoked by each contraction and maximal voluntary contractions (MVC measured before and immediately after the stimulation sessions. In addition, activation level and torque evoked during doublets (Pd and tetanic contractions at 80-Hz (P80 and 20-Hz (P20 were determined in six subjects. Results indicated greater mean torque during the DFT stimulation session as compared with CFT. But, no difference was obtained between the two stimulation patterns for MVC and evoked torque decreases. Measurements conducted in the subgroup depicted a significant reduction of Pd, P20 and P80. Statistical analyses also revealed bigger P20 immediate reductions after CFT than after DFT. We concluded that DFT could be a useful stimulation pattern to produce and maintain greater force with quite similar fatigue than CFT.

  1. The predictive value of extensor grip test for the effectiveness of treatment for tennis elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehtab, Mohammad J.; Mirghasemi, A.; Majlesara, A.; Siavashi, B.; Tajik, P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to compare the effectiveness of 5 different modalities and determine the usefulness of recently proposed extensor grip test (EGT) in predicting the response to treatment. In a randomized controlled clinical trial, 92 of 98 tennis elbow patients in Sina Hospital Tehran, Iran between 2006 and 2007 fulfilled the trial entry criteria. Among these patients 56 (60.9%) had positive EGT results, were randomly allocated to 5 treatment groups: brace, physiotherapy, brace plus physiotherapy, injection and injection plus physiotherapy. Patients with a positive EGT result had better response to treatments. Among them, injection plus physiotherapy was the most successful, then brace plus physiotherapy was the worst treatment modality. Response to treatment was comparable in all groups between EGT positive and negative patients except bracing, in which positive EGT was correlated with dramatic response to treatment. In all patients, injection plus physiotherapy and the brace plus physiotherapy is recommended, but in EGT negatives, bracing seems to be of no use. Injection alone is not recommended in either group. (author)

  2. Back extensor muscle endurance test scores in coal miners in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, M.; Latimer, J.; Jamieson, M. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Faculty of Health and Science, School of Physiotherapy

    2003-06-01

    Low back pain is a common complaint among those working in the Australian coal mining industry. One test that may be predictive of first-time episodes of low back pain is the Biering-Sorensen test of back extensor endurance strength. While this test has been evaluated in overseas sedentary populations, normative data and the discriminative ability of the test have not been evaluated with coal miners. Eighty-eight coal miners completed a questionnaire for known risk factors for low back pain, performed the Biering-Sorensen test, and undertook a test of aerobic fitness. Data analysis was performed to describe the groups and to determine whether any significant difference existed between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. Significantly lower than expected holding times were found in this group of coal miners (mean 113 s). This result was significantly lower than demonstrated in previous studies. When holding times for those with a past history of low back pain were compared with times for those with no history of low back pain, the difference was not statistically significant, nor was there a significant difference in fitness between those with a past history of low back pain and those without. It is concluded that coal miners in Australia have lower than normal Biering-Sorensen holding times. This lower back holding time does not differ between coal miners with a past history of low back pain and those without.

  3. Comparison of the electrical activity in upper trapezius and wrist extensor muscles during two typewriting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Comel

    Full Text Available Introduction The proper use of the position of the arm and wrist while typing may reduce muscle overload and prevent musculoskeletal disorders.Objective To evaluate the electromyographic activity of upper trapezius and wrist extensor muscles during two typewriting conditions.Materials and methods : Six healthy females (Xage = 42 years,SD= 10, (Xheight = 1.65m, SD = 0.05 and (Xweight = 71kg, SD = 16 participated in this study. The task was performed with a newly developed arm support and without the support. A perceived exertion scale was used with all subjects. An ANOVA with repeated measures was used to verify differences in perceived exertion and root mean square (RMS.Results There were no statistically significant differences for the RMS between the typewriting tasks. The condition without arm support presented a significantly greater mean velocity and amount of words typed (P= 0.02; P= 0.03 and there was a significant difference in perceived exertion during the condition without arm support (P= 0.03. Electromyographic activity did not present differences.Conclusion The muscle electrical activity was not altered regardless the arm support and occurred the improvement of the perceived exertion after 10 minutes of typing without support. Long-term studies are needed.

  4. Validity of trunk extensor and flexor torque measurements using isokinetic dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Giroux, Caroline; Couturier, Antoine; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity and test-retest reliability of trunk muscle strength testing performed with a latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer. Eccentric, isometric, and concentric peak torque of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles was measured in 15 healthy subjects. Muscle cross sectional area (CSA) and surface electromyographic (EMG) activity were respectively correlated to peak torque and submaximal isometric torque for erector spinae and rectus abdominis muscles. Reliability of peak torque measurements was determined during test and retest sessions. Significant correlations were consistently observed between muscle CSA and peak torque for all contraction types (r=0.74-0.85; Ptorque (r ⩾ 0.99; Ptorque between test and retest ranged from -3.7% to 3.7% with no significant mean directional bias. Overall, our findings establish the validity of torque measurements using the tested trunk module. Also considering the excellent test-retest reliability of peak torque measurements, we conclude that this latest-generation isokinetic dynamometer could be used with confidence to evaluate trunk muscle function for clinical or athletic purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Sex Differences in Neuromuscular Fatigability of the Knee Extensors Post-Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Kirking

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Despite the implications of optimizing strength training post-stroke, little is known about the differences in fatigability between men and women with chronic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the sex differences in knee extensor muscle fatigability and potential mechanisms in individuals with stroke. Methods: Eighteen participants (10 men, eight women with chronic stroke (≥6 months and 23 (12 men, 11 women nonstroke controls participated in the study. Participants performed an intermittent isometric contraction task (6 s contraction, 3 s rest at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC torque until failure to maintain the target torque. Electromyography was used to determine muscle activation and contractile properties were assessed with electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscles. Results: Individuals with stroke had a briefer task duration (greater fatigability than nonstroke individuals (24.1 ± 17 min vs. 34.9 ± 16 min. Men were more fatigable than women for both nonstroke controls and individuals with stroke (17.9 ± 9 min vs. 41.6 ± 15 min. Individuals with stroke had less fatigue-related changes in muscle contractile properties and women with stroke differed in their muscle activation strategy during the fatiguing contractions. Conclusions: Men and women fatigue differently post-stroke and this may be due to the way they neurally activate muscle groups.

  6. Effect of mental fatigue on induced tremor in human knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budini, Francesco; Lowery, Madeleine; Durbaba, Rade; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    In this study, the effects of mental fatigue on mechanically induced tremor at both a low (3-6Hz) and high (8-12Hz) frequency were investigated. The two distinct tremor frequencies were evoked using two springs of different stiffness, during 20s sustained contractions of the knee extensor muscles at 30% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) before and after 100min of a mental fatigue task, in 12 healthy (29±3.7years) participants. Mental fatigue resulted in a 6.9% decrease in MVC and in a 9.4% decrease in the amplitude of the agonist muscle EMG during sustained 30% MVC contractions in the induced high frequency only. Following the mental fatigue task, the coefficient of variation and standard deviation of the force signal decreased at 8-12Hz induced tremor by 31.7% and 35.2% respectively, but not at 3-6Hz induced tremor. Similarly, the maximum value and area underneath the peak in the power spectrum of the force signal decreased by 55.5% and 53.1% respectively in the 8-12Hz range only. In conclusion, mental fatigue decreased mechanically induced 8-12Hz tremor and had no effect on induced 3-6Hz tremor. We suggest that the reduction could be attributed to the decreased activation of the agonist muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gouty involvement of the patella and extensor mechanism of the knee mimicking aggressive neoplasm. A case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Christopher; Wallace, Matthew T; Jelinek, James; Aboulafia, Albert

    2018-06-01

    Gout is a common inflammatory crystal deposition disease that occurs in many joints throughout the body. Active gout is most often associated with painful synovitis causing searing joint pains, but gout can also produce large masses of space-occupying deposits called tophi. Tophi are most frequently seen in juxta-articular locations with or without bony erosion and are often misdiagnosed as degenerative joint disease. Soft tissue deposits and tendon involvement are also known manifestations of gout, but can present with indeterminate and alarming findings on imaging. We present three cases of tophaceous gout mimicking aggressive neoplasms in the extensor mechanism of the knee. All cases presented as extensor tendon masses eroding into the patella, with imaging findings initially concerning for primary musculoskeletal malignancy.

  8. Sonography findings in tears of the extensor pollicis longus tendon and correlation with CT, MRI and surgical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz Santiago, Fernando; Garofano Plazas, Pilar; Fernandez, Juan Miguel Tristan

    2008-01-01

    We present our experience in the diagnosis of extensor pollicis longus tendon tears using different imaging methods. In the past 2 years, 12 patients (7 males, 5 females) with extension deficit of distal phalanx of thumb were diagnosed with extensor pollicis longus tendon (EPL) rupture by means of different imaging methods. The ultrasound pattern consisted of a gap between tendon stumps occupied by a continuous (eight cases) or discontinuous (four cases) attenuated hypoechoic string. In nine cases, the tendon ends were identified as a thickened stump-like structure. In the other three cases, tendon stumps were attenuated and mixed with atrophic muscle or wrist subcutaneous fat. All ultrasound findings were confirmed by CT, MR and/or surgical findings

  9. Kinaesthetic ipsilateral and crossed extensor plantar response: A new way to elicit upgoing toe sign (Babinski response?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Kuruvilla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a phenomenon of "kinaesthetic extensor plantar response" in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, an interesting observation noted in a patient with dorsal myelopathy. A 44-year-old woman presented with one-year history of gradually progressive weakness and stiffness of both lower limbs along with urge incontinence of urine. Examination showed spontaneous elicitation of extensor plantar response while assessing the tone by rolling method as well as on noxious stimulation of the thigh. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the dorsal spine and digital subtraction angiography showed the presence of spinal dural arteriovenous fistula causing myelopathy. This case exemplifies the fact that in advanced pyramidal dysfunction, not only the receptive field of Babinski reflex may extend to the leg or thigh, but may also integrate with other modalities of stimulation, such as the rolling movement. The possible underlying pathophysiology of such a phenomenon is discussed.

  10. Attritional rupture of extensor pollicis longus: a rare complication following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sproule, James A

    2011-01-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation has become established as an acceptable method of treatment for diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones in the paediatric population. It is considered safe, minimally invasive and does not compromise physeal growth. We report a case of delayed rupture of extensor pollicis longus due to attrition over the sharp edges of a protruding nail end after elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial diaphyseal fracture.

  11. Humeral external rotation handling by using the Bobath concept approach affects trunk extensor muscles electromyography in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazziotin Dos Santos, C; Pagnussat, Aline S; Simon, A S; Py, Rodrigo; Pinho, Alexandre Severo do; Wagner, Mário B

    2014-10-20

    This study aimed to investigate the electromyographic activity of cervical and trunk extensors muscles in children with cerebral palsy during two handlings according to the Bobath concept. A crossover trial involving 40 spastic diplegic children was conducted. Electromyography (EMG) was used to measure muscular activity at sitting position (SP), during shoulder internal rotation (IR) and shoulder external rotation (ER) handlings, which were performed using the elbow joint as key point of control. Muscle recordings were performed at the fourth cervical (C4) and at the tenth thoracic (T10) vertebral levels. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) was used to assess whether muscle activity would vary according to different levels of severity. Humeral ER handling induced an increase on EMG signal of trunk extensor muscles at the C4 (P=0.007) and T10 (P<0.001) vertebral levels. No significant effects were observed between SP and humeral IR handling at C4 level; However at T10 region, humeral IR handling induced an increase of EMG signal (P=0.019). Humeral ER resulted in an increase of EMG signal at both levels, suggesting increase of extensor muscle activation. Furthermore, the humeral ER handling caused different responses on EMG signal at T10 vertebra level, according to the GMFCS classification (P=0.017). In summary, an increase of EMG signal was observed during ER handling in both evaluated levels, suggesting an increase of muscle activation. These results indicate that humeral ER handling can be used for diplegic CP children rehabilitation to facilitate cervical and trunk extensor muscles activity in a GMFCS level-dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Validity and reliability of an instrumented leg-extension machine for measuring isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Caroline; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Jacomel, Gabriel Fernandes; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Santos, Daniela Pacheco dos; Scoz, Robson Dias; Roesler, Helio

    2015-05-20

    Isometric muscle strength of knee extensors has been assessed for estimating performance, evaluating progress during physical training, and investigating the relationship between isometric and dynamic/functional performance. To assess the validity and reliability of an adapted leg-extension machine for measuring isometric knee extensor force. Validity (concurrent approach) and reliability (test and test-retest approach) study. University laboratory. 70 healthy men and women aged between 20 and 30 y (39 in the validity study and 31 in the reliability study). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values calculated for the maximum voluntary isometric torque of knee extensors at 30°, 60°, and 90°, measured with the prototype and with an isokinetic dynamometer (ICC2,1, validity study) and measured with the prototype in test and retest sessions, scheduled from 48 h to 72 h apart (ICC1,1, reliability study). In the validity analysis, the prototype showed good agreement for measurements at 30° (ICC2,1 = .75, SEM = 18.2 Nm) and excellent agreement for measurements at 60° (ICC2,1 = .93, SEM = 9.6 Nm) and at 90° (ICC2,1 = .94, SEM = 8.9 Nm). Regarding the reliability analysis, between-days' ICC1,1 were good to excellent, ranging from .88 to .93. Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable difference based on test-retest ranged from 11.7 Nm to 18.1 Nm and 32.5 Nm to 50.1 Nm, respectively, for the 3 analyzed knee angles. The analysis of validity and repeatability of the prototype for measuring isometric muscle strength has shown to be good or excellent, depending on the knee joint angle analyzed. The new instrument, which presents a relative low cost and easiness of transportation when compared with an isokinetic dynamometer, is valid and provides consistent data concerning isometric strength of knee extensors and, for this reason, can be used for practical, clinical, and research purposes.

  13. Poor correlation between handgrip strength and isokinetic performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles in community-dwelling elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicio, Diogo Carvalho; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; Assumpção, Alexandra Miranda; de Jesus-Moraleida, Fabianna Resende; de Queiroz, Barbara Zille; da Silva, Juscelio Pereira; de Brito Rosa, Naysa Maciel; Dias, João Marcos Domingues; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the correlation between handgrip strength and performance of knee flexor and extensor muscles determined using an isokinetic dynamometer in community-dwelling elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Sample selection for the study was made by convenience, and 221 (71.07 ± 4.93 years) community-dwelling elderly women were included. Knee flexor and extensor muscle performance was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer Biodex System 3 Pro. The isokinetic variables chosen for analysis were peak torque, peak torque/bodyweight, total work/bodyweight, total work, average power, and agonist/antagonist ratio at the angular velocities of 60°/s and 180°/s. Assessment of handgrip strength was carried out using the Jamar dynamometer. Spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated to identify intervariable correlations. Only knee flexor peak torque (60°/s) and average power (60°/s), and knee extensor peak torque (180°/s) and total work (180°/s) were significantly (P women. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Posttranslational protein S-palmitoylation and the compartmentalization of signaling molecules in neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEAN I PATTERSON

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein domains play a fundamental role in the spatial and temporal organization of intracellular signaling systems. While protein phosphorylation has long been known to modify the interactions that underlie this organization, the dynamic cycling of lipids should now be included amongst the posttranslational processes determining specificity in signal transduction. The characteristics of this process are reminiscent of the properties of protein and lipid phosphorylation in determining compartmentalization through SH2 or PH domains. Recent studies have confirmed the functional importance of protein S-palmitoylation in the compartmentalization of signaling molecules that support normal physiological function in cell division and apoptosis, and synaptic transmission and neurite outgrowth. In neurons, S-palmitoylation and targeting of proteins to rafts are regulated differentially in development by a number of processes, including some related to synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Alterations in the S-palmitoylation state of proteins substantially affect their cellular function, raising the possibility of new therapeutic targets in cancer and nervous system injury and disease.

  15. Compartmentalized metabolic network reconstruction of microbial communities to determine the effect of agricultural intervention on soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Yela, Astrid Catalina; Gómez-Cano, Fabio; Zambrano, María Mercedes; Husserl, Johana; Danies, Giovanna; Restrepo, Silvia; González-Barrios, Andrés Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Soil microbial communities are responsible for a wide range of ecological processes and have an important economic impact in agriculture. Determining the metabolic processes performed by microbial communities is crucial for understanding and managing ecosystem properties. Metagenomic approaches allow the elucidation of the main metabolic processes that determine the performance of microbial communities under different environmental conditions and perturbations. Here we present the first compartmentalized metabolic reconstruction at a metagenomics scale of a microbial ecosystem. This systematic approach conceives a meta-organism without boundaries between individual organisms and allows the in silico evaluation of the effect of agricultural intervention on soils at a metagenomics level. To characterize the microbial ecosystems, topological properties, taxonomic and metabolic profiles, as well as a Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) were considered. Furthermore, topological and optimization algorithms were implemented to carry out the curation of the models, to ensure the continuity of the fluxes between the metabolic pathways, and to confirm the metabolite exchange between subcellular compartments. The proposed models provide specific information about ecosystems that are generally overlooked in non-compartmentalized or non-curated networks, like the influence of transport reactions in the metabolic processes, especially the important effect on mitochondrial processes, as well as provide more accurate results of the fluxes used to optimize the metabolic processes within the microbial community. PMID:28767679

  16. [Compartmentalization of the cell nucleus and spatial organization of the genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, A A; Razin, S V

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus is one of the most complex cell organelles. Despite the absence of membranes, the nuclear space is divided into numerous compartments where different processes in- volved in the genome activity take place. The most important nuclear compartments include nucleoli, nuclear speckles, PML bodies, Cajal bodies, histone locus bodies, Polycomb bodies, insulator bodies, transcription and replication factories. The structural basis for the nuclear compartmentalization is provided by genomic DNA that occupies most of the nuclear volume. Nuclear compartments, in turn, guide the chromosome folding by providing a platform for the spatial interaction of individual genomic loci. In this review, we discuss fundamental principles of higher order genome organization with a focus on chromosome territories and chromosome domains, as well as consider the structure and function of the key nuclear compartments. We show that the func- tional compartmentalization of the cell nucleus and genome spatial organization are tightly interconnected, and that this form of organization is highly dynamic and is based on stochastic processes.

  17. Intracellular Redox Compartmentation and ROS-Related Communication in Regulation and Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noctor, Graham; Foyer, Christine H

    2016-07-01

    Recent years have witnessed enormous progress in understanding redox signaling related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. The consensus view is that such signaling is intrinsic to many developmental processes and responses to the environment. ROS-related redox signaling is tightly wedded to compartmentation. Because membranes function as barriers, highly redox-active powerhouses such as chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria may elicit specific signaling responses. However, transporter functions allow membranes also to act as bridges between compartments, and so regulated capacity to transmit redox changes across membranes influences the outcome of triggers produced at different locations. As well as ROS and other oxidizing species, antioxidants are key players that determine the extent of ROS accumulation at different sites and that may themselves act as signal transmitters. Like ROS, antioxidants can be transported across membranes. In addition, the intracellular distribution of antioxidative enzymes may be modulated to regulate or facilitate redox signaling appropriate to the conditions. Finally, there is substantial plasticity in organellar shape, with extensions such as stromules, peroxules, and matrixules playing potentially crucial roles in organelle-organelle communication. We provide an overview of the advances in subcellular compartmentation, identifying the gaps in our knowledge and discussing future developments in the area. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  18. Compartmental modeling alternatives for kinetic analysis of pet neurotransmitter receptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeppe, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    With the increased interest in studying neurotransmitter and receptor function in vivo, imaging procedures using positron emission tomography have presented new challenges for kinetic modeling and analysis of data. The in vivo behavior of radiolabeled markers for examining these neurotransmitter systems can be quite complex and, therefore, the implementation of compartmental models for data analysis is similarly complex. Often, the variability in the estimates of model parameters representing neurotransmitter or receptor densities, association and dissociation rates, or rates of incorporation or turnover does not permit reliable interpretation of the data. When less complex analyses are used, these model parameters may be biased and thus also do not yield the information being sought. Examination of trade-offs between uncertainty and bias in the parameters of interest may be used to select a compartmental model configuration with an appropriate level of complexity. Modeling alternatives will be discussed for radioligands with varying kinetic properties, such as those that bind reversibly and rapidly and others that bind nearly irreversibly. Specific problems, such as those occurring when a radioligand is open-quotes flow limitedclose quotes also will be discussed

  19. Estimation of Caesium-137 Intake in Dicentrarchus Labrax by Using Compartmental Model and Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaghi, E.; Movafeghi, A.; Askari, M. A.; Karimi Diba, G.; Mohammadzadeh, N.

    2012-01-01

    Cs-137 is one of the fission products that is usually released in environment after nuclear accidents. This contamination remains in environment for a long time due to long half life of Cs-137 (30 years) and can enter easily into the human food chain. A two-compartmental model was implemented to describe caesium intake and its distribution in Dicentrarchus Labrax, using a proposed differential equation model. The model included two compartments, the first compartment was the blood and the second one was the tissue. The activity of Cs-137 was undertaken in each compartment by means of a numerical method and the activity of Cs-137 was considered as an input of compartmental equations. We obtained the transfer coefficients between fish tissues by comparing the radiation curves with the actual data. In the light of the differences with the transfer coefficients, the calculation by the COMKAT software was found to be about 2%. Then, we provided the activity curves of Cs-137 and their characteristics (feature extractions) by changing the transfer coefficients and they were utilized to train the neural network. The network was trained for six data groups, and the results of the network testing had about 99% correct response, therefore it can be employed to estimate the transfer coefficients in fish tissue, the salinity range, and the activity of Cs-137 in water.

  20. Engineering of DNA polymerase I from Thermus thermophilus using compartmentalized self-replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Seaim Lwin; Fujiwara, Kei; Ueki, Asuka; Doi, Nobuhide

    2018-05-05

    Although compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) and compartmentalized partnered replication (CPR) are powerful tools for directed evolution of proteins and gene circuits, limitations remain in the emulsion PCR process with the wild-type Taq DNA polymerase used so far, including long run times, low amounts of product, and false negative results due to inhibitors. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency mutant of DNA polymerase I from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth pol) suited for CSR and CPR. We modified the wild-type Tth pol by (i) deletion of the N-terminal 5' to 3' exonuclease domain, (ii) fusion with the DNA-binding protein Sso7d, (iii) introduction of four known effective point mutations from other DNA polymerase mutants, and (iv) codon optimization to reduce the GC content. Consequently, we obtained a mutant that provides higher product yields than the conventional Taq pol without decreased fidelity. Next, we performed four rounds of CSR selection with a randomly mutated library of this modified Tth pol and obtained mutants that provide higher product yields in fewer cycles of emulsion PCR than the parent Tth pol as well as the conventional Taq pol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Proline accumulation, ions dynamics and sodium root-shoot partition and compartmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus Emanuel eBojorquez Quintal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite its economic relevance, little is known about salt tolerance mechanisms in pepper plants. To address this question, we compared differences in responses to NaCl in two Capsicum chinense varieties: Rex (tolerant and Chichen-Itza (sensitive. Under salt stress (150 mM NaCl over 7 days roots of Rex variety accumulated 50 times more compatible solutes such as proline compared to Chichen-Itza. Mineral analysis indicated that Na+ is restricted to roots by preventing its transport to leaves. Fluorescence analysis suggested an efficient Na+ compartmentalization in vacuole-like structures and in small intracellular compartments in roots of Rex variety. At the same time, Na+ in Chichen-Itza plants was compartmentalized in the apoplast, suggesting substantial Na+ extrusion. Rex variety was found to retain more K+ in its roots under salt stress according to a mineral analysis and microelectrode ion flux estimation (MIFE. Vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux was higher in Chichen-Itza variety plants, suggesting a higher activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, which fuels the extrusion of Na+, and, possibly, also the re-uptake of K+. Our results suggest a combination of stress tolerance mechanisms, in order to alleviate the salt-induced injury. Furthermore, Na+ extrusion to apoplast does not appear to be an efficient strategy for salt tolerance in pepper plants.

  2. A compartmental model of the cAMP/PKA/MAPK pathway in Bio-PEPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Ciocchetta

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of biochemical systems involve the exchange of information between different compartments, either in the form of transportation or via the intervention of membrane proteins which are able to transmit stimuli between bordering compartments. The correct quantitative handling of compartments is, therefore, extremely important when modelling real biochemical systems. The Bio-PEPA process algebra is equipped with the capability of explicitly defining quantitative information such as compartment volumes and membrane surface areas. Furthermore, the recent development of the Bio-PEPA Eclipse Plug-in allows us to perform a correct stochastic simulation of multi-compartmental models. Here we present a Bio-PEPA compartmental model of the cAMP/PKA/MAPK pathway. We analyse the system using the Bio-PEPA Eclipse Plug-in and we show the correctness of our model by comparison with an existing ODE model. Furthermore, we perform computational experiments in order to investigate certain properties of the pathway. Specifically, we focus on the system response to the inhibition and strengthening of feedback loops and to the variation in the activity of key pathway reactions and we observe how these modifications affect the behaviour of the pathway. These experiments are useful to understand the control and regulatory mechanisms of the system.

  3. Compartmentalized metabolic network reconstruction of microbial communities to determine the effect of agricultural intervention on soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Camila Alvarez-Silva

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities are responsible for a wide range of ecological processes and have an important economic impact in agriculture. Determining the metabolic processes performed by microbial communities is crucial for understanding and managing ecosystem properties. Metagenomic approaches allow the elucidation of the main metabolic processes that determine the performance of microbial communities under different environmental conditions and perturbations. Here we present the first compartmentalized metabolic reconstruction at a metagenomics scale of a microbial ecosystem. This systematic approach conceives a meta-organism without boundaries between individual organisms and allows the in silico evaluation of the effect of agricultural intervention on soils at a metagenomics level. To characterize the microbial ecosystems, topological properties, taxonomic and metabolic profiles, as well as a Flux Balance Analysis (FBA were considered. Furthermore, topological and optimization algorithms were implemented to carry out the curation of the models, to ensure the continuity of the fluxes between the metabolic pathways, and to confirm the metabolite exchange between subcellular compartments. The proposed models provide specific information about ecosystems that are generally overlooked in non-compartmentalized or non-curated networks, like the influence of transport reactions in the metabolic processes, especially the important effect on mitochondrial processes, as well as provide more accurate results of the fluxes used to optimize the metabolic processes within the microbial community.

  4. Compartmentalization of the gut viral reservoir in HIV-1 infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Tannika

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there has been an increasing interest and appreciation for the gut as both a viral reservoir as well as an important host-pathogen interface in human immunodefiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection. The gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT is the largest lymphoid organ infected by HIV-1. In this study we examined if different HIV-1 quasispecies are found in different parts of the gut of HIV-1 infected individuals. Results Gut biopsies (esophagus, stomach, duodenum and colorectum were obtained from eight HIV-1 infected preHAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy patients. HIV-1 Nef and Reverse transcriptase (RT encoding sequences were obtained through nested PCR amplification from DNA isolated from the gut biopsy tissues. The PCR fragments were cloned and sequenced. The resulting sequences were subjected to various phylogenetic analyses. Expression of the nef gene and viral RNA in the different gut tissues was determined using real-time RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the Nef protein-encoding region revealed compartmentalization of viral replication in the gut within patients. Viral diversity in both the Nef and RT encoding region varied in different parts of the gut. Moreover, increased nef gene expression (p Conclusion Our results indicated that different HIV-1 quasispecies populate different parts of the gut, and that viral replication in the gut is compartmentalized. These observations underscore the importance of the gut as a host-pathogen interface in HIV-1 infection.

  5. Estimation of guinea pig tracheobronchial transport rates using a compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez, D.J.; Morrow, P.E.

    1984-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance in the tracheobronchial tree of guinea pigs was examined using monodisperse 7.9 μm MMAD polystyrene particles. Animals were exposed for approximately 1 h by inhalation via an intratracheal tube to aerosols tagged with gold-198 and fluorescent dyes. Following exposure, animals were radioactively monitored and sacrificed at predetermined times. The lungs were removed, freeze-dried, sectioned completely, and examined with a fluorescent microscope. Measurements were made of airway diameters where particles were found. An anatomic model for guinea pig lung morphology was used to assign ranges of airway diameters to five zones, which were incorporated into a compartmental model for lung clearance. Kinetic analysis of particle distributions in the zones led to development of first-order equations describing the compartmental clearance. Rate constants obtained from the kinetic analysis were used to estimate mucociliary transport rates in specific bronchial generations, which ranged from approximately 0.001 mm/min in the distal bronchioles to approximately 8 mm/min in the trachea, and resulted in a calculated 24-h clearance time for tracheobronchial clearance in the guinea pig. No evidence for either bronchial penetration by particles or relatively prolonged bronchial retention of particles was found in this study. 22 references, 3 figures, 3 tables

  6. The interaction between the vastus medialis and vastus intermedius and its influence on the extensor apparatus of the knee joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grob, Karl; Manestar, Mirjana; Filgueira, Luis; Kuster, Markus S; Gilbey, Helen; Ackland, Timothy

    2018-03-01

    Although the vastus medialis (VM) is closely associated with the vastus intermedius (VI), there is a lack of data regarding their functional relationship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anatomical interaction between the VM and VI with regard to their origins, insertions, innervation and function within the extensor apparatus of the knee joint. Eighteen human cadaveric lower limbs were investigated using macro-dissection techniques. Six limbs were cut transversely in the middle third of the thigh. The mode of origin, insertion and nerve supply of the extensor apparatus of the knee joint were studied. The architecture of the VM and VI was examined in detail, as was their anatomical interaction and connective tissue linkage to the adjacent anatomical structures. The VM originated medially from a broad hammock-like structure. The attachment site of the VM always spanned over a long distance between: (1) patella, (2) rectus femoris tendon and (3) aponeurosis of the VI, with the insertion into the VI being the largest. VM units were inserted twice-once on the anterior and once on the posterior side of the VI. The VI consists of a complex multi-layered structure. The layers of the medial VI aponeurosis fused with the aponeuroses of the tensor vastus intermedius and vastus lateralis. Together, they form the two-layered intermediate layer of the quadriceps tendon. The VM and medial parts of the VI were innervated by the same medial division of the femoral nerve. The VM consists of multiple muscle units inserting into the entire VI. Together, they build a potential functional muscular complex. Therefore, the VM acts as an indirect extensor of the knee joint regulating and adjusting the length of the extensor apparatus throughout the entire range of motion. It is of clinical importance that, besides the VM, substantial parts of the VI directly contribute to the medial pull on the patella and help to maintain medial tracking of the patella during knee

  7. Utilization of stable isotopes for the study of in vivo compartmental metabolism of poly-insaturate fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossard, N.; Croset, M.; Lecerf, J.; Lagarde, M.; Pachiaudi, C.; Normand, S.; Riou, J.P.; Chirouze, V.; Tayot, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the compartmental metabolism of the 22:6n-3 fatty acid, and particularly the role of the transport plasmatic forms for the tissue uptake (especially brain), a technique is developed using carbon 13 stable isotope and an isotopic mass spectrometry coupled to gaseous chromatography technique. This method has been validated in rat with docosahexaenoic acid enriched in 13 C and esterified in triglycerides. The compartmental metabolism is monitored by measuring the variation of 22:6n-3 isotopic enrichment in the various lipoprotein lipidic fractions, in blood globules and in the brain. 1 fig., 1 tab., 12 refs

  8. Spectral Clustering Predicts Tumor Tissue Heterogeneity Using Dynamic 18F-FDG PET: A Complement to the Standard Compartmental Modeling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Prateek; Divine, Mathew R; Kohlhofer, Ursula; Quintanilla-Martinez, Leticia; Schölkopf, Bernhard; Pichler, Bernd J; Disselhorst, Jonathan A

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we described and validated an unsupervised segmentation algorithm for the assessment of tumor heterogeneity using dynamic 18 F-FDG PET. The aim of our study was to objectively evaluate the proposed method and make comparisons with compartmental modeling parametric maps and SUV segmentations using simulations of clinically relevant tumor tissue types. Methods: An irreversible 2-tissue-compartmental model was implemented to simulate clinical and preclinical 18 F-FDG PET time-activity curves using population-based arterial input functions (80 clinical and 12 preclinical) and the kinetic parameter values of 3 tumor tissue types. The simulated time-activity curves were corrupted with different levels of noise and used to calculate the tissue-type misclassification errors of spectral clustering (SC), parametric maps, and SUV segmentation. The utility of the inverse noise variance- and Laplacian score-derived frame weighting schemes before SC was also investigated. Finally, the SC scheme with the best results was tested on a dynamic 18 F-FDG measurement of a mouse bearing subcutaneous colon cancer and validated using histology. Results: In the preclinical setup, the inverse noise variance-weighted SC exhibited the lowest misclassification errors (8.09%-28.53%) at all noise levels in contrast to the Laplacian score-weighted SC (16.12%-31.23%), unweighted SC (25.73%-40.03%), parametric maps (28.02%-61.45%), and SUV (45.49%-45.63%) segmentation. The classification efficacy of both weighted SC schemes in the clinical case was comparable to the unweighted SC. When applied to the dynamic 18 F-FDG measurement of colon cancer, the proposed algorithm accurately identified densely vascularized regions from the rest of the tumor. In addition, the segmented regions and clusterwise average time-activity curves showed excellent correlation with the tumor histology. Conclusion: The promising results of SC mark its position as a robust tool for quantification of tumor

  9. Overview of vascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisset, G.S. III

    1998-01-01

    Vascular disease in the pediatric population is a poorly understood process which is often underestimated in its incidence. The common beginnings of such ubiquitous diseases as atherosclerosis manifest themselves at a cellular level shortly after birth. Other common systemic disorders, including congestive heart failure and sepsis, are also intricately associated with dysfunctional vasculature. Progress in the understanding of normal and pathophysiologic processes within the vascular system begins with the 'control center' - the endothelial cell. The purpose of this review is to consolidate a body of knowledge on the processes that occur at the cellular level within the blood vessel wall, and to simplify the understanding of how imbalances in these physiologic parameters result in vascular disease. (orig.)

  10. Utilization of stored elastic energy in leg extensor muscles by men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komi, P V; Bosco, C

    1978-01-01

    An alternating cycle of eccentric-concentric contractions in locomotion represents a sequence when storage and utilization of elastic energy takes place. It is possible that this storage capacity and its utilization depends on the imposed stretch loads in activated muscles, and that sex differences may be present in these phenomena. To investigate these assumed differences, subjects from both sexes and of good physical condition performed vertical jumps on the force-platform from the following experimental conditions: squatting jump (SJ) from a static starting position; counter-movement jump (CMJ) from a free standing position and with a preparatory counter-movement; drop jumps (DJ) from the various heights (20 to 100 cm) on to the platform followed immediately by a vertical jump. In all subjects the SJ, in which condition no appreciable storage of elastic energy takes place, produced the lowest height of rise of the whole body center of gravity (C.G.). The stretch load (drop height) influenced the performance so that height of rise of C. of G. increased when the drop height increased from 26 up to 62 cm (males) and from 20 to 50 cm (females). In all jumping conditions the men jumped higher than the women. However, examination of the utilization of elastic energy indicated that in CMJ the female subjects were able to utilize most (congruent to 90%) of the energy produced in the prestretching phase. Similarly, in DJ the overall change in positive energy over SJ condition was higher in women as compared to men. Thus the results suggest that although the leg extensor muscles of the men subjects could sustain much higher stretch loads, the females may be able to utilize a greater portion of the stored elastic energy in jumping activities.

  11. Association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris tendon pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Connie Y.; Huang, Ambrose J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Kattapuram, Susan V.; Torriani, Martin [General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between distal ulnar morphology and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU) tendon pathology. We retrospectively reviewed 71 adult wrist MRI studies with ECU tendon pathology (tenosynovitis, tendinopathy, or tear), and/or ECU subluxation. Subjects did not have a history of trauma, surgery, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. MRI studies from 46 subjects without ECU tendon pathology or subluxation were used as controls. The following morphological parameters of the distal ulna were measured independently by two readers: ulnar variance relative to radius, ulnar styloid process length, ECU groove depth and length. Subjects and controls were compared using Student's t test. Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was calculated. There was a significant correlation between negative ulnar variance and ECU tendon pathology (reader 1 [R1], P = 0.01; reader 2 [R2], P < 0.0001; R1 and R2 averaged data, P < 0.0001) and ECU tendon subluxation (P = 0.001; P = 0.0001; P < 0.0001). In subjects with ECU tendon subluxation there was also a trend toward a shorter length (P = 0.3; P <0.0001; P = 0.001) and a shallower ECU groove (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.01; R1 and R2 averaged data with Bonferroni correction, P = 0.08). ECU groove depth (P = 0.6; P = 0.8; P = 0.9) and groove length (P = 0.1; P = 0.4; P = 0.7) showed no significant correlation with ECU tendon pathology, and length of the ulnar styloid process showed no significant correlation with ECU tendon pathology (P = 0.2; P = 0.3; P = 0.2) or subluxation (P = 0.4; P = 0.5; P = 0.5). Inter-observer agreement (ICC) was >0.64 for all parameters. Distal ulnar morphology may be associated with ECU tendon abnormalities. (orig.)

  12. Sex differences in muscle morphology of the knee flexors and knee extensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fearghal P Behan

    Full Text Available Females experience higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL injuries; males experience higher risk of hamstring strain injuries. Differences in injury may be partially due to sex differences in knee flexor (KF to knee extensor (KE muscle size ratio and the proportional size of constituent muscles.To compare the absolute and proportional size, and mass distribution, of individual KE and KF muscles, as well as overall size and balance (size ratio of these muscle groups between the sexes.T1-weighted axial plane MR images (1.5T of healthy untrained young males and females (32 vs 34 were acquired to determine thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA. Maximal ACSA (ACSAmax of constituent muscles, summated for KF and KE muscle groups, and the KF:KE ratio were calculated.Females had 25.3% smaller KE ACSAmax (70.9±12.1 vs 93.6±10.3 cm2; P<0.001 and 29.6% smaller KF ACSAmax than males (38.8±7.3cm2 vs 55.1±7.3cm2; P<0.001. Consequently, females had lower KF:KE ACSA ratio (P = 0.031. There were sex differences in the proportional size of 2/4 KE and 5/6 KF. In females, vastus lateralis (VL, biceps femoris long-head (BFlh and semimembranosus (SM were a greater proportion and sartorius (SA, gracilis (GR and biceps femoris short-head (BFsh a smaller proportion of their respective muscle groups compared to males (All P<0.05.Sex differences in KF:KE ACSAmax ratio may contribute to increased risk of ACL injury in females. Sex discrepancies in absolute and proportional size of SA, GR, VL and BFlh may contribute further anatomical explanations for sex differences in injury incidence.

  13. Trunk extensor and flexor strength of long-distance race car drivers and physically active controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Heiner; Muller, Steffen; Pilz, Frederike; Mayer, Patrizia; Mayer, Frank

    2010-09-01

    Seventy percent of motor sports athletes report low back pain. Information on the physical capacity of race car drivers is limited. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum trunk extensor and flexor strength of elite race car drivers and physically active controls. Thirteen elite race car drivers and 13 controls were measured in concentric mode for maximal trunk flexion and extension at 60° x s(-1) and 120° x s(-1). Peak torque (mean ± s) at 60° x s(-1) in trunk extension was 283 ± 80 N x m in the drivers and 260 ± 88 N x m in controls (P > 0.05). At 120° x s(-1), drivers produced peak torques of 248 ± 55 N x m compared with 237 ± 74 N x m for controls (P > 0.05). Peak torques in flexion were less than in extension for both groups (60° x s(-1): drivers 181 ± 56 N x m, controls 212 ± 54 N x m, P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): drivers 191 ± 57 N x m, controls 207 ± 48 N x m, P > 0.05). Individual ratios of flexion to extension forces exhibited ratios of 0.88 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.93 (120° x s(-1)) for controls and 0.66 (60° x s(-1)) and 0.77 (120° x s(-1)) for drivers (60° x s(-1): P > 0.05; 120° x s(-1): P > 0.05). The maximum strength performance capacity of the trunk muscles of elite motor sport athletes competing in long-distance racing did not differ from that of anthropometrically matched and physically active controls.

  14. Joint Moment-Angle Properties of the Hip Extensors in Subjects With and Without Patellofemoral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindel, Curtis; Challis, John

    2018-04-01

    Strength deficits of hip extension in individuals with patellofemoral syndrome are commonly reported in literature. No literature to date has examined these deficits with variable positions of the knee and hip; altering knee angle alters the length and therefore potentially the force produced by the biarticular muscles. Beyond strength, neuromuscular control can also be assessed through the analysis of isometric joint moment steadiness. Subjects consisted of a group of individuals with patellofemoral syndrome (n = 9), and a group of age- and size-matched controls with no symptoms (n = 9). Maximum isometric joint moments for hip extension were measured at 4 points within the joint's range of motion, at 2 different knee positions (0° and 90°) for each group. The joint moment signals were analyzed by computing signal Coefficient of Variation (CV). The results indicate that no significant differences were found between the groups of subjects for the hip extension moments when the knee was extended. However, there was a significant difference between the groups for the joint moments of hip extension with the knee flexed at all 4 hip positions. Results also showed hip extension CV values to be significantly higher in the patellofemoral group compared with the control group, indicating greater signal noise and therefore poorer neuromuscular control of the hip extensor musculature. This study demonstrated that individuals with patellofemoral syndrome have reduced hip extension strength and reduced neuromuscular control with the knee flexed compared with a control group. These results have implications for the etiology of patellofemoral syndrome and its rehabilitation.

  15. Reliability and validity of the Performance Recorder 1 for measuring isometric knee flexor and extensor strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Sarah E; Myring, Alec; Peeters, Mon Jef; Pirie, Ian; Jacobs, Rachel; Hunt, Michael A; Garland, S Jayne; Campbell, Kristin L

    2013-11-01

    Muscular strength is a key parameter of rehabilitation programs and a strong predictor of functional capacity. Traditional methods to measure strength, such as manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD), are limited by the strength and experience of the tester. The Performance Recorder 1 (PR1) is a strength assessment tool attached to resistance training equipment and may be a time- and cost-effective tool to measure strength in clinical practice that overcomes some limitations of MMT and HHD. However, reliability and validity of the PR1 have not been reported. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability was assessed using the PR1 in healthy adults (n  =  15) during isometric knee flexion and extension. Criterion-related validity was assessed through comparison of values obtained from the PR1 and Biodex® isokinetic dynamometer. Test-retest reliability was excellent for peak knee flexion (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) and knee extension (ICC  =  0.96, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99). Inter-rater reliability was also excellent for peak knee flexion (ICC  =  0.95, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) and peak knee extension (ICC  =  0.97, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Validity was moderate for peak knee flexion (ICC  =  0.75, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.92) but poor for peak knee extension (ICC  =  0.37, 95% CI: 0, 0.73). The PR1 provides a reliable measure of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength in healthy adults that could be used in the clinical setting, but absolute values may not be comparable to strength assessment by gold-standard measures.

  16. Renal posttransplant's vascular complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bašić Dragoslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Despite high graft and recipient survival figures worldwide today, a variety of technical complications can threaten the transplant in the postoperative period. Vascular complications are commonly related to technical problems in establishing vascular continuity or to damage that occurs during donor nephrectomy or preservation [13]. AIM The aim of the presenting study is to evaluate counts and rates of vascular complications after renal transplantation and to compare the outcome by donor type. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 463 kidneys (319 from living related donor LD and 144 from cadaveric donor - CD were transplanted during the period between June 1975 and December 1998 at the Urology & Nephrology Institute of Clinical Centre of Serbia in Belgrade. Average recipients' age was 33.7 years (15-54 in LD group and 39.8 (19-62 in CD group. Retrospectively, we analyzed medical records of all recipients. Statistical analysis is estimated using Hi-squared test and Fischer's test of exact probability. RESULTS Major vascular complications including vascular anastomosis thrombosis, internal iliac artery stenosis, internal iliac artery rupture obliterant vasculitis and external iliac vein rupture were analyzed. In 25 recipients (5.4% some of major vascular complications were detected. Among these cases, 22 of them were from CD group vs. three from LD group. Relative rate of these complications was higher in CD group vs. LD group (p<0.0001. Among these complications dominant one was vascular anastomosis thrombosis which occurred in 18 recipients (17 from CD vs. one from LD. Of these recipients 16 from CD lost the graft, while the rest of two (one from each group had lethal outcome. DISCUSSION Thrombosis of renal allograft vascular anastomosis site is the most severe complication following renal transplantation. In the literature, renal allograft thrombosis is reported with different incidence rates, from 0.5-4% [14, 15, 16]. Data from the

  17. Membrane Compartmentalization Reducing the Mobility of Lipids and Proteins within a Model Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Reddy, Tyler; Fowler, Philip W; Duncan, Anna L; Sansom, Mark S P

    2016-09-01

    The cytoskeleton underlying cell membranes may influence the dynamic organization of proteins and lipids within the bilayer by immobilizing certain transmembrane (TM) proteins and forming corrals within the membrane. Here, we present coarse-grained resolution simulations of a biologically realistic membrane model of asymmetrically organized lipids and TM proteins. We determine the effects of a model of cytoskeletal immobilization of selected membrane proteins using long time scale coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations. By introducing compartments with varying degrees of restraints within the membrane models, we are able to reveal how compartmentalization caused by cytoskeletal immobilization leads to reduced and anomalous diffusional mobility of both proteins and lipids. This in turn results in a reduced rate of protein dimerization within the membrane and of hopping of membrane proteins between compartments. These simulations provide a molecular realization of hierarchical models often invoked to explain single-molecule imaging studies of membrane proteins.

  18. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B

    2016-01-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main...... variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data...... obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization...

  19. Savannah River Laboratory DOSTOMAN code: a compartmental pathways computer model of contaminant transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Wilhite, E.L.; Root, R.W. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory DOSTOMAN code has been used since 1978 for environmental pathway analysis of potential migration of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals. The DOSTOMAN work is reviewed including a summary of historical use of compartmental models, the mathematical basis for the DOSTOMAN code, examples of exact analytical solutions for simple matrices, methods for numerical solution of complex matrices, and mathematical validation/calibration of the SRL code. The review includes the methodology for application to nuclear and hazardous chemical waste disposal, examples of use of the model in contaminant transport and pathway analysis, a user's guide for computer implementation, peer review of the code, and use of DOSTOMAN at other Department of Energy sites. 22 refs., 3 figs

  20. A dynamic compartmental food chain model of radiocaesium transfer to Apodemus sylvaticus in woodland ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toal, M.E.; Copplestone, D.; Johnson, M.S.; Jackson, D.; Jones, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    A study was undertaken to quantify the activity concentrations of 137Cs in Apodemus sylvaticus (the woodmouse) in two woodland sites, Lady Wood and Longrigg Wood, adjacent to British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. (BNFL) Sellafield, Cumbria, UK. A deterministic dynamic compartmental food chain model was also constructed to predict 137Cs activity concentration [Bq kg -1 dry weight (dw)] in A. sylvaticus on a seasonal basis given the activity concentrations in its diet. Within the coniferous woodland site (Lady Wood), significant differences were found between seasons (P x / 2.3 Bq kg -1 dw) being attributed to mycophagy. Fungal concentrations ranged from 2-3213 Bq kg -1 dw. The modelled activity concentrations fell between the confidence intervals of the observed data in four of the six seasonal cohorts sampled. Disparities between predicted and observed activity concentrations are attributed to uncertainties surrounding the fundamental feeding ecology of small mammals

  1. Measurement of renal glomerular filtration rate using labelled substances with compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberstadt, P.L.

    1981-10-01

    Using a model for the two-compartmental open system and experiments on animals (rabbits and dogs) as well as on human healthy volunteers, an attempt was made to study the advantages and limitations of different radionuclide methods for glomerular filtration rate determination. Labelled compounds used in different combinations were: 3 H-inulin, sup(113m)In-EDTA, 131 I-iothalamate, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA and 14 C-creatinine. The results of the study lead to some working hypotheses concerning the value of creatinine and other labelled substances in the measurement of glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. The advantages and disadvantages of individual methods summarized in the final report are generally in agreement with the present views of many research workers. Also the hypothesis can be justified that the different labelled compounds which have been studied might be handled independently by the membranes involved but at the long run produce similar homeostatic balance

  2. Geo-environmental zoning using physiographic compartmentalization: a proposal for supporting sustainable decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA V.S. CORRÊA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The geo-environmental zoning represents an important strategy in the territorial management. However, it requires a logical and structured procedure. Therefore, an approach using physiographic compartmentalization is proposed and applied as case study in a region covered by the topographic maps of São José dos Campos and Jacareí, Brazil. This region has great geological and geomorphological peculiarities, beyond being a place with large human interventions because of its quickly economic growth. The methodology is based on photointerpretation techniques and remote sensing in GIS environment. As a result, seven geo-environmental zones were obtained from a weighted integration by multicriteria analysis of physiographic units with land-use classes. In conclusion, taking into account potentialities and limitations, the proposed approach can be considered able to support sustainable decision-making, being applicable in other regions.

  3. Fatigue in isometric contraction in a single muscle fibre: a compartmental calcium ion flow model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothiyal, K P; Ibramsha, M

    1986-01-01

    Fatigue in muscle is a complex biological phenomenon which has so far eluded a definite explanation. Many biochemical and physiological models have been suggested in the literature to account for the decrement in the ability of muscle to sustain a given level of force for a long time. Some of these models have been critically analysed in this paper and are shown to be not able to explain all the experimental observations. A new compartmental model based on the intracellular calcium ion movement in muscle is proposed to study the mechanical responses of a muscle fibre. Computer simulation is performed to obtain model responses in isometric contraction to an impulse and a train of stimuli of long duration. The simulated curves have been compared with experimentally observed mechanical responses of the semitendinosus muscle fibre of Rana pipiens. The comparison of computed and observed responses indicates that the proposed calcium ion model indeed accounts very well for the muscle fatigue.

  4. [Effect of NaCl stress on ion compartmentation, photosynthesis and growth of Salicornia bigelovii Torr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Yan; Zhao, Ke-Fu

    2004-02-01

    Seedlings of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. were treated with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 100, 300, 600 mmol/L). Ion contents, Na(+) subcelluar localization, photosynthetic rate, ultrastructure of chloroplast and other parameters were measured. The data showed both fresh and dry weight of whole plant of Salicornia bigelovii Torr. under salinity were higher than the control. When NaCl concentration is about 300 mmol/L Salicornia bigelovii Torr. grow strongest. The contents of Na(+) and Cl(-) and c(Na)/c(K) in shoots increased with the salinity. Both Na(+) and Cl(-) were mainly transported to shoots. Ion X-ray microanalysis indicated Na(+) was mainly compartmentalized into vacuoles. Photosynthetic rate increased with the salinity under NaCl 100-300 mmol/L, but declined under NaCl 600 mmol/L. Ultrastructure of chloroplast was destroyed by NaCl 600 mmol/L.

  5. Dual regulation of muscle glycogen synthase during exercise by activation and compartmentalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Clara; Helge, Jørn W; Nordby, Pernille

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen synthase (GS) is considered the rate-limiting enzyme in glycogenesis but still today there is a lack of understanding on its regulation. We have previously shown phosphorylation-dependent GS intracellular redistribution at the start of glycogen re-synthesis in rabbit skeletal muscle (Prats......, C., Cadefau, J. A., Cussó, R., Qvortrup, K., Nielsen, J. N., Wojtaszewki, J. F., Wojtaszewki, J. F., Hardie, D. G., Stewart, G., Hansen, B. F., and Ploug, T. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 23165-23172). In the present study we investigate the regulation of human muscle GS activity by glycogen, exercise......, and insulin. Using immunocytochemistry we investigate the existence and relevance of GS intracellular compartmentalization during exercise and during glycogen re-synthesis. The results show that GS intrinsic activity is strongly dependent on glycogen levels and that such regulation involves associated...

  6. Estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters from non-compartmental variables using Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansirikul, Chantaratsamon; Choi, Malcolm; Duffull, Stephen B

    2005-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a method, termed 'back analysis (BA)', for converting non-compartmental variables to compartment model dependent pharmacokinetic parameters for both one- and two-compartment models. A Microsoft Excel spreadsheet was implemented with the use of Solver and visual basic functions. The performance of the BA method in estimating pharmacokinetic parameter values was evaluated by comparing the parameter values obtained to a standard modelling software program, NONMEM, using simulated data. The results show that the BA method was reasonably precise and provided low bias in estimating fixed and random effect parameters for both one- and two-compartment models. The pharmacokinetic parameters estimated from the BA method were similar to those of NONMEM estimation.

  7. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis in the HIV infection and compartmentalization of HIV in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Monteiro de Almeida

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The nervous system plays an important role in HIV infection. The purpose of this review is to discuss the indications for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis in HIV infection in clinical practice. CSF analysis in HIV infection is indicated for the diagnosis of opportunistic infections and co-infections, diagnosis of meningitis caused by HIV, quantification of HIV viral load, and analysis of CNS HIV compartmentalization. Although several CSF biomarkers have been investigated, none are clinically applicable. The capacity of HIV to generate genetic diversity, in association with the constitutional characteristics of the CNS, facilitates the generation of HIV quasispecies in the CNS that are distinct from HIV in the systemic circulation. CSF analysis has a well-defined and valuable role in the diagnosis of CNS infections in HIV/AIDS patients. Further research is necessary to establish a clinically applicable biomarker for the diagnosis of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.

  8. Heterogeneity and compartmentalization of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis genotypes in autopsy lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, J; Lundgren, Bettina; Lundgren, Jens Dilling

    2001-01-01

    The extent and importance of genotype heterogeneity of Pneumocystis carinii f. sp. hominis within lungs have not previously been investigated. Two hundred forty PCR clones obtained from respiratory specimens and lung segments from three patients with fatal P. carinii pneumonia were investigated....... Not all genotypes present in the lungs at autopsy were detected in the diagnostic respiratory samples. Compartmentalization of specific ITS and mtLSU rRNA sequence types was observed in different lung segments. In conclusion, the interpretation of genotype data and in particular ITS sequence types...... in the assessment of epidemiological questions should be cautious since genotyping done on respiratory samples cannot a priori be assumed to represent all genotypes present within the lung....

  9. Dynamic of CSF and serum biomarkers in HIV-1 subtype C encephalitis with CNS genetic compartmentalization-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Sergio M; Rotta, Indianara; Ribeiro, Clea E; Oliveira, Michelli F; Chaillon, Antoine; de Pereira, Ana Paula; Cunha, Ana Paula; Zonta, Marise; Bents, Joao França; Raboni, Sonia M; Smith, Davey; Letendre, Scott; Ellis, Ronald J

    2017-06-01

    Despite the effective suppression of viremia with antiretroviral therapy, HIV can still replicate in the central nervous system (CNS). This was a longitudinal study of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum dynamics of several biomarkers related to inflammation, the blood-brain barrier, neuronal injury, and IgG intrathecal synthesis in serial samples of CSF and serum from a patient infected with HIV-1 subtype C with CNS compartmentalization.The phylogenetic analyses of plasma and CSF samples in an acute phase using next-generation sequencing and F-statistics analysis of C2-V3 haplotypes revealed distinct compartmentalized CSF viruses in paired CSF and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples. The CSF biomarker analysis in this patient showed that symptomatic CSF escape is accompanied by CNS inflammation, high levels of cell and humoral immune biomarkers, CNS barrier dysfunction, and an increase in neuronal injury biomarkers with demyelization. Independent and isolated HIV replication can occur in the CNS, even in HIV-1 subtype C, leading to compartmentalization and development of quasispecies distinct from the peripheral plasma. These immunological aspects of the HIV CNS escape have not been described previously. To our knowledge, this is the first report of CNS HIV escape and compartmentalization in HIV-1 subtype C.

  10. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-01-01

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development

  11. Sequence Stratigraphy of the Dakota Sandstone, Eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and its Relationship to Reservoir Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varney, Peter J.

    2002-04-23

    This research established the Dakota-outcrop sequence stratigraphy in part of the eastern San Juan Basin, New Mexico, and relates reservoir quality lithologies in depositional sequences to structure and reservoir compartmentalization in the South Lindrith Field area. The result was a predictive tool that will help guide further exploration and development.

  12. Cs-137 accumulation and elimination by Gracilaria caudata alga and Abudefduf saxatilis fish. Compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattiolo-Marchese, Sandra Regina

    1998-01-01

    From the ecological point of view, 137 Cs is a critical radionuclide because its physical half-life is long (30 years), and it has a high fission yield. Besides, it presents similar characteristics to sodium and potassium, fundamental elements for the living organisms, in great concentration in all cells. This work has as aim to study the 137 Cs accumulation and elimination by the alga Gracilaria caudata and by the fish Abudefduf saxatilis as well as to obtain the transfer constants of the 137 Cs from the water into the organisms. The concentration factor found for the fish was 5.6 +- 0.2 and for the alga, 13.0 +- 0,6. With 7 and 22 days, the fish and alga respectively had already eliminated half of the accumulated radionuclide. The 137 Cs ingestion efficiency by the fish was also studied and it was verified that the fish assimilated only 47.6 % of the cesium content in the food; and within of 4 days it had eliminated more than half of ingested cesium. A compartmental model was proposed to explain the distribution of cesium in the compartments (water - alga and water - fish). Data obtained from the experiments of 137 Cs accumulation and elimination were applied in the Ana Comp Program. This program permits the compartmental analysis, and quantifies the cesium distribution from the sea-water to the organisms, and vice versa, through the transfer constants (k). The Ana Comp Program also allowed to calculate the dose that one would receive by the consumption of fish contaminated by cesium. Levels of 137 Cs from the global fallout in environmental samples, from Sao Sebastiao, northern coast of Sao Paulo, (where the 'Centro de Biologia Marinha da Universidade de Sao Paulo - CEBIMar - USP' is located), were verified. (author)

  13. PKA catalytic subunit compartmentation regulates contractile and hypertrophic responses to β-adrenergic signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jason H.; Polanowska-Grabowska, Renata K.; Smith, Jeffrey S.; Shields, Charles W.; Saucerman, Jeffrey J.

    2014-01-01

    β-adrenergic signaling is spatiotemporally heterogeneous in the cardiac myocyte, conferring exquisite control to sympathetic stimulation. Such heterogeneity drives the formation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling microdomains, which regulate Ca2+ handling and contractility. Here, we test the hypothesis that the nucleus independently comprises a PKA signaling microdomain regulating myocyte hypertrophy. Spatially-targeted FRET reporters for PKA activity identified slower PKA activation and lower isoproterenol sensitivity in the nucleus (t50 = 10.60±0.68 min; EC50 = 89.00 nmol/L) than in the cytosol (t50 = 3.71±0.25 min; EC50 = 1.22 nmol/L). These differences were not explained by cAMP or AKAP-based compartmentation. A computational model of cytosolic and nuclear PKA activity was developed and predicted that differences in nuclear PKA dynamics and magnitude are regulated by slow PKA catalytic subunit diffusion, while differences in isoproterenol sensitivity are regulated by nuclear expression of protein kinase inhibitor (PKI). These were validated by FRET and immunofluorescence. The model also predicted differential phosphorylation of PKA substrates regulating cell contractility and hypertrophy. Ca2+ and cell hypertrophy measurements validated these predictions and identified higher isoproterenol sensitivity for contractile enhancements (EC50 = 1.84 nmol/L) over cell hypertrophy (EC50 = 85.88 nmol/L). Over-expression of spatially targeted PKA catalytic subunit to the cytosol or nucleus enhanced contractile and hypertrophic responses, respectively. We conclude that restricted PKA catalytic subunit diffusion is an important PKA compartmentation mechanism and the nucleus comprises a novel PKA signaling microdomain, insulating hypertrophic from contractile β-adrenergic signaling responses. PMID:24225179

  14. The construction of next-generation matrices for compartmental epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, O; Heesterbeek, J A P; Roberts, M G

    2010-06-06

    The basic reproduction number (0) is arguably the most important quantity in infectious disease epidemiology. The next-generation matrix (NGM) is the natural basis for the definition and calculation of (0) where finitely many different categories of individuals are recognized. We clear up confusion that has been around in the literature concerning the construction of this matrix, specifically for the most frequently used so-called compartmental models. We present a detailed easy recipe for the construction of the NGM from basic ingredients derived directly from the specifications of the model. We show that two related matrices exist which we define to be the NGM with large domain and the NGM with small domain. The three matrices together reflect the range of possibilities encountered in the literature for the characterization of (0). We show how they are connected and how their construction follows from the basic model ingredients, and establish that they have the same non-zero eigenvalues, the largest of which is the basic reproduction number (0). Although we present formal recipes based on linear algebra, we encourage the construction of the NGM by way of direct epidemiological reasoning, using the clear interpretation of the elements of the NGM and of the model ingredients. We present a selection of examples as a practical guide to our methods. In the appendix we present an elementary but complete proof that (0) defined as the dominant eigenvalue of the NGM for compartmental systems and the Malthusian parameter r, the real-time exponential growth rate in the early phase of an outbreak, are connected by the properties that (0) > 1 if and only if r > 0, and (0) = 1 if and only if r = 0.

  15. Evaluation of a compartmental model for estimating tumor hypoxia via FMISO dynamic PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenli; Nehmeh, Sadek A; O'Donoghue, Joseph; Zanzonico, Pat B; Schmidtlein, C Ross; Lee, Nancy Y; Humm, John L; Georgi, Jens-Christoph; Paulus, Timo; Narayanan, Manoj; Bal, Matthieu

    2009-01-01

    This paper systematically evaluates a pharmacokinetic compartmental model for identifying tumor hypoxia using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with 18 F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO). A generic irreversible one-plasma two-tissue compartmental model was used. A dynamic PET image dataset was simulated with three tumor regions-normoxic, hypoxic and necrotic-embedded in a normal-tissue background, and with an image-based arterial input function. Each voxelized tissue's time activity curve (TAC) was simulated with typical values of kinetic parameters, as deduced from FMISO-PET data from nine head-and-neck cancer patients. The dynamic dataset was first produced without any statistical noise to ensure that correct kinetic parameters were reproducible. Next, to investigate the stability of kinetic parameter estimation in the presence of noise, 1000 noisy samples of the dynamic dataset were generated, from which 1000 noisy estimates of kinetic parameters were calculated and used to estimate the sample mean and covariance matrix. It is found that a more peaked input function gave less variation in various kinetic parameters, and the variation of kinetic parameters could also be reduced by two region-of-interest averaging techniques. To further investigate how bias in the arterial input function affected the kinetic parameter estimation, a shift error was introduced in the peak amplitude and peak location of the input TAC, and the bias of various kinetic parameters calculated. In summary, mathematical phantom studies have been used to determine the statistical accuracy and precision of model-based kinetic analysis, which helps to validate this analysis and provides guidance in planning clinical dynamic FMISO-PET studies.

  16. Relation between knee extensors' strength, postural stability and variability of centre of pressure displacement during gait in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza C. de Souza

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been shown that variability of walking is related to fall risk similarly as postural control and muscle strength. Joint potential of this group of variables for fall risk assessment is promising, however research interested in relations between them is lacking. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between knee extensors' strength, centre of pressure (COP velocity during one-leg stance and variability of COP displacement during various phases of gait cycle in middle-age women. Methods: A single group of 40 healthy women (age 56 ± 4.2 years took part in the study. For assessment of knee extensors' strength (peak torque and average work during concentric and eccentric contractions an isokinetic dynamometer was used. Mean velocity of COP during one-leg stance in anterior-posterior (AP and medial-lateral (ML directions was assessed on a force plate on a rigid surface with eyes open (two 30 s trials. Variability of COP displacement was assessed for loading response, midstance, terminal stance and preswing gait cycle phases (determined by vertical ground reaction force in AP and ML directions. It was measured by two force plates positioned in the middle of an 8 m walkway (5 trials at a self-selected speed. For statistical analysis of relationships between variables Pearson correlation was applied. Results: Our results showed significant correlations between eccentric peak torque and COP velocity in AP direction during one-leg stance, eccentric and concentric peak torque and COP variability during loading response in both ML and AP directions and during terminal stance in AP direction. Conclusion: Loading response and terminal stance seems to be more related to knee extensors' strength. Variables derived from postural stability assessment during one-leg stance are independent from variables derived from assessment of COP displacement variability during walking.

  17. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Relu, Mihai U.

    2009-01-01

    temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (Pmuscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast......The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without...... twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (Pfibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41...

  18. Major Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder: A Reappraisal to Vascular Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Kumral

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Major vascular neurocognitive disorder (NCD is the second leading form of dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, accounting for 17-20% of all dementias. Vascular NCD is a progressive disease caused by reduced cerebral blood flow related to multiple large volume or lacunar infarcts that induce a sudden onset and stepwise decline in cognitive abilities. Despite its prevalence and clinical importance, there is still controversy in the terminology of vascular NCD. Only after the release of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 (DSM-5 (2013 did the American Psychiatric Association define vascular dementia as “major vascular NCD”. This review includes an overview of risk factors, pathophysiology, types, diagnostic and clinical features of major vascular NCD, and current treatment options of vascular NCD regarding to DSM-5 criteria

  19. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  20. Vascular cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Vakhnina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular pathology of the brain is the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer's disease. The article describes the modern concepts of etiology, pathogenetic mechanisms, clinical features and approaches to diagnosis and therapy of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI. Cerebrovascular accident, chronic cerebral circulatory insufficiency and their combination, sometimes in combination with a concomitant neurodegenerative process, are shown to be the major types of brain lesions leading to VCI. The clinical presentation of VCI is characterized by the neuropsychological status dominated by impairment of the executive frontal functions (planning, control, attention in combination with focal neurological symptoms. The diagnosis is based on comparing of the revealed neuropsychological and neurological features with neuroimaging data. Neurometabolic, acetylcholinergic, glutamatergic, and other vasoactive drugs and non-pharmacological methods are widely used to treat VCI. 

  1. Vascular Surgery and Robotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Sen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of robotics to Vascular surgery has not progressed as rapidly as of endovascular technology, but this is changing with the amalgamation of these two fields. The advent of Endovascular robotics is an exciting field which overcomes many of the limitations of endovascular therapy like vessel tortuosity and operator fatigue. This has much clinical appeal for the surgeon and hold significant promise of better patient outcomes. As with most newer technological advances, it is still limited by cost and availability. However, this field has seen some rapid progress in the last decade with the technology moving into the clinical realm. This review details the development of robotics, applications, outcomes, advantages, disadvantages and current advances focussing on Vascular and Endovascular robotics

  2. Vascular lesions following radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, L.F.; Berthrong, M.

    1988-01-01

    The special radiation sensitivity of the vascular system is mainly linked to that of endothelial cells, which are perhaps the most radiation-vulnerable elements of mesenchymal tissues. Within the vascular tree, radiation injures most often capillaries, sinusoids, and small arteries, in that order. Lesions of veins are observed less often, but in certain tissues the veins are regularly damaged (e.g., intestine) or are the most affected structures (i.e., liver). Large arteries do suffer the least; however, when significant damage does occur in an elastic artery (e.g., thrombosis or rupture), it tends to be clinically significant and even fatal. Although not always demonstrable in human tissues, radiation vasculopathy generally is dose and time dependent. Like other radiation-induced lesions, the morphology in the vessels is not specific, but it is characteristic enough to be often recognizable. Vascular injury, especially by therapeutic radiation is not just a morphologic marker. It is a mediator of tissue damage; perhaps the most consistent pathogenetic mechanism in delayed radiation injury

  3. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  4. Pulmonary vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedullo, P.F.; Shure, D.

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of pulmonary vascular imaging techniques are available for the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary vascular disease. The characteristics of any ideal technique would include high sensitivity and specificity, safety, simplicity, and sequential applicability. To date, no single technique meets these ideal characteristics. Conventional pulmonary angiography remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of acute thromboembolic disease despite the introduction of newer techniques such as digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging. Improved noninvasive lower extremity venous testing methods, particularly impedance plethysmography, and ventilation-perfusion scanning can play significant roles in the noninvasive diagnosis of acute pulmonary emboli when properly applied. Ventilation-perfusion scanning may also be useful as a screening test to differentiate possible primary pulmonary hypertension from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. And, finally, angioscopy may be a useful adjunctive technique to detect chronic thromboembolic disease and determine operability. Optimal clinical decision-making, however, will continue to require the proper interpretation of adjunctive information obtained from the less-invasive techniques, applied with an understanding of the natural history of the various forms of pulmonary vascular disease and with a knowledge of the capabilities and shortcomings of the individual techniques

  5. Biomechanical Analysis of All-Inside, Arthroscopic Suture Repair Versus Extensor Retinaculum Capsulorrhaphy for Triangular Fibrocartilage Complex Tears With Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amar A; Alhandi, Ali A; Milne, Edward; Dy, Christopher J; Latta, Loren L; Ouellette, E Anne

    2016-03-01

    To assess ulnocarpal joint stability after treatment of a peripheral triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) injury with all-inside arthroscopic suture repair (SR), extensor retinaculum capsulorrhaphy with the Herbert sling (HS), and a combination of both (SR+HS). Twelve fresh-frozen, age-matched, upper-extremity specimens intact from the distal humerus were prepared. Nondestructive mechanical testing was performed to assess native ulnocarpal joint stability and load-displacement curves were recorded. A peripheral, ulnar-sided TFCC injury was created with arthroscopic assistance, and mechanical testing was performed. Each specimen was treated with SR or HS and testing was repeated. The 6 specimens treated with SR were then treated with HS (SR+HS), and testing was repeated. We used paired Student t tests for statistical analysis within cohorts. For all cohorts, there was an average increase in ulnar translation after the creation of a peripheral TFCC injury and an average decrease after repair. Herbert sling decreased translation by 21%, SR decreased translation by 12%, and SR+HS decreased translation by 26%. Suture repair plus HS and HS reduce ulnar translation the most after a peripheral TFCC injury, followed by SR alone. Ulnocarpal joint stability should be assessed clinically in patients with peripheral TFCC injury, and consideration should be made for using extensor capsulorrhaphy in isolation or as an adjunct to SR as a treatment option. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Compartmentalized PDE4A5 Signaling Impairs Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Long-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Park, Alan J; Tolentino, Rosa E; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Lee, Yool; Hansen, Rolf T; Guercio, Leonardo A; Linton, Edward; Neves-Zaph, Susana R; Meerlo, Peter; Baillie, George S; Houslay, Miles D; Abel, Ted

    2016-08-24

    Alterations in cAMP signaling are thought to contribute to neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric disorders. Members of the cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) family, which contains >25 different isoforms, play a key role in determining spatial cAMP degradation so as to orchestrate compartmentalized cAMP signaling in cells. Each isoform binds to a different set of protein complexes through its unique N-terminal domain, thereby leading to targeted degradation of cAMP in specific intracellular compartments. However, the functional role of specific compartmentalized PDE4 isoforms has not been examined in vivo Here, we show that increasing protein levels of the PDE4A5 isoform in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons impairs a long-lasting form of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and attenuates hippocampus-dependent long-term memories without affecting anxiety. In contrast, viral expression of a truncated version of PDE4A5, which lacks the unique N-terminal targeting domain, does not affect long-term memory. Further, overexpression of the PDE4A1 isoform, which targets a different subset of signalosomes, leaves memory undisturbed. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer sensor-based cAMP measurements reveal that the full-length PDE4A5, in contrast to the truncated form, hampers forskolin-mediated increases in neuronal cAMP levels. Our study indicates that the unique N-terminal localization domain of PDE4A5 is essential for the targeting of specific cAMP-dependent signaling underlying synaptic plasticity and memory. The development of compounds to disrupt the compartmentalization of individual PDE4 isoforms by targeting their unique N-terminal domains may provide a fruitful approach to prevent cognitive deficits in neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive disorders that are associated with alterations in cAMP signaling. Neurons exhibit localized signaling processes that enable biochemical cascades to be activated selectively in specific subcellular compartments. The

  7. Compartmental analysis of the disposition of benzo[a]pyrene in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, D R; Weyand, E H

    1988-11-01

    We have previously reported the disposition of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and its metabolites in male Sprague-Dawley rats following intratracheal instillation of [3H]B[a]P [Weyand, E.H. and Bevan, D.R. (1986) Cancer Res., 46, 5655-5661]. In some experiments, cannulas were implanted in the bile duct of the animals prior to administration of [3H]B[a]P [Weyand, E.H. and Bevan, D.R. (1987) Drug Metab. Disposition, 15, 442-448]. Based on these data, we have developed a compartmental model of the distribution of radioactivity to provide a quantitative description of the fate of B[a]P and its metabolites in rats. Modeling of the distribution of radioactivity was performed using the Simulation, Analysis and Modeling (SAAM) and conversational SAAM (CONSAM) computer programs. Compartments in the model included organs into which the largest amounts of radioactivity were distributed as well as pathways for excretion of radioactivity from the animals. Data from animals with and without cannulas implanted in the bile duct were considered simultaneously during modeling. Radioactivity was so rapidly absorbed from the lungs that an absorption phase into blood was not apparent at the earliest sampling times. Using the model of extrapolate to shorter times, it was predicted that the maximum amount of radioactivity was present in blood within 2 min after administration. In addition, considerable recycling of radioactivity back to lungs from blood was predicted by the model. Transfer of radioactivity from blood to liver and carcass (skin, muscle, bones, fat and associated blood) also was extensive. Carcass was modeled as the sum of two compartments to obtain agreement between the model and experimental data. The model accounted for enterohepatic circulation of B[a]P metabolites; data also required that intestinal secretion be included in the model. Quantitative data obtained from compartmental analysis included rate constants for transfer of radioactivity among compartments as well as

  8. Knee Extensor Strength and Risk of Structural, Symptomatic, and Functional Decline in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Ruhdorfer, Anja; Juhl, Carsten; Eckstein, Felix; Øiestad, Britt Elin

    2017-05-01

    To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on the association between knee extensor strength and the risk of structural, symptomatic, or functional deterioration in individuals with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We systematically identified and methodologically appraised all longitudinal studies (≥1-year followup) reporting an association between knee extensor strength and structural (tibiofemoral, patellofemoral), symptomatic (self-reported, knee replacement), or functional (subjective, objective) decline in individuals with or at risk of radiographic or symptomatic KOA. Results were pooled for each of the above associations using meta-analysis, or if necessary, summarized according to a best-evidence synthesis. Fifteen studies were included, evaluating >8,000 participants (51% female), with a followup time between 1.5 and 8 years. Meta-analysis revealed that lower knee extensor strength was associated with an increased risk of symptomatic (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC] pain: odds ratio [OR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.10-1.67) and functional decline (WOMAC function: OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.00-1.89, and chair-stand task: OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.03-1.04), but not increased risk of radiographic tibiofemoral joint space narrowing (JSN) (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.84-1.56). No trend in risk was observed for KOA status (present versus absent). Best-evidence synthesis showed inconclusive evidence for lower knee extensor strength being associated with increased risk of patellofemoral deterioration. Meta-analysis showed that lower knee extensor strength is associated with an increased risk of symptomatic and functional deterioration, but not tibiofemoral JSN. The risk of patellofemoral deterioration in the presence of knee extensor strength deficits is inconclusive. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  9. Trajectory of self-reported pain and function and knee extensor muscle strength in young patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery for meniscal tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Østengaard, Lasse; Cardy, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    . PATIENTS AND INTERVENTION: People aged 30 years or younger undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear. OUTCOMES: and comparator: (1) Self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing meniscal surgery compared to a non-operative control group (2). Knee extensor strength in the leg undergoing surgery...... the trajectory of self-reported pain and function in patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery compared with non-operative treatments for young patients with meniscal tears. Knee extensor strength seemed to be impaired up to 12 months after surgery in young patients undergoing surgery for meniscal tears...

  10. Vascular remodeling and mineralocorticoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, K T; Sun, Y; Campbell, S E; Slight, S H; Ganjam, V K

    1995-01-01

    Circulating mineralocorticoid hormones are so named because of their important homeostatic properties that regulate salt and water balance via their action on epithelial cells. A broader range of functions in nonclassic target cellular sites has been proposed for these steroids and includes their contribution to wound healing following injury. A chronic, inappropriate (relative to intravascular volume and dietary sodium intake) elevation of these circulating hormones evokes a wound healing response in the absence of tissue injury--a wound healing response gone awry. The adverse remodeling of vascularized tissues seen in association with chronic mineralocorticoid excess is the focus of this review.

  11. Micro-compartmentalized cultivation of cyanobacteria for mutant screening using glass slides with highly water-repellent mark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuri Arai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic microorganisms such as cyanobacteria have attracted attention for their potential to produce biofuels and biochemicals directly from CO2. Cell isolation by colony has conventionally been used for selecting target cells. Colony isolation methods require a significant amount of time for cultivation, and the colony-forming ratio is potentially low for cyanobacteria. Here, we overcome such limitations by encapsulating and culturing cells in droplets with an overlay of dodecane using glass slides printed with highly water-repellent mark. In the compartmentalized culture, the oil phase protects the small volume of culture medium from drying and increases the CO2 supply. Since a difference in cell growth was observed with and without the addition of antibiotics, this compartmentalized culture method could be a powerful tool for mutant selection.

  12. Mathematical basis for the measurement of absolute and fractional cardiac output with diffusible tracers by compartmental analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.

    1984-01-01

    Using compartmental analysis methods, a mathematical basis is given for the measurement of absolute and fractional cardiac output with diffusible tracers. Cardiac output is shown to be the product of the blood volume and the sum of the rate constants of tracer egress from blood, modified by a factor reflecting transcapillary diffusibility, the transfer fraction. The return of tracer to the blood and distant (intracellular) events are shown to play no role in the solution. Fractional cardiac output is the ratio of the rate constant of tracer egress from blood to an organ, divided by the sum of the egress constants from blood. Predominantly extracellular ions such as sodium or bromide are best suited for this technique, although theoretically any diffusible tracer whose compartmental model can be solved may be used. It is shown that fractional cardiac output is independent of the transfer fraction, and therefore can be measured accurately by tracers which are not freely diffusible

  13. Three-compartmental analysis of effects of D-propranolol on thyroid hormone kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Heijden, J.T.M.; Krenning, E.P.; Van Toor, H.; Hennemann, G.; Docter, R.

    1988-01-01

    Tracer thyroxine (T 4 ), 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (T 3 ), and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT 3 ) kinetic studies were performed in normal T 4 substituted subjects before and during oral D-propranolol treatment to determine whether changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in a propranolol-induced low-T 3 syndrome result from inhibition of 5'-deiodination or inhibition of transport of iodothyronines into tissues. Data were analyzed according to a three-compartmental model of distribution and metabolism. No changes were observed in size of the three T 4 compartments or in fractional and mass transfer rates of T 4 from plasma to the rapidly (REP) and slowly (SEP) equilibrating pools. Serum T 3 , free T 3 , T 3 plasma pool, T 3 mass transfer rate to REP and SEP, and the T 3 pool masses were all significantly decreased during propranolol to a similar extent as the T 3 plasma production rate (PR). It is concluded that the D-propranolol-induced changes in thyroid hormone metabolism, resulting in a low-T 3 syndrome, are due to inhibition of thyroid hormone deiodination. This is in contrast to the low-T 3 syndrome during caloric deprivation, which results from inhibition of transport of iodothyronines into the liver

  14. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of symmetric dinuclear complexes derived from a novel macrocyclic compartmental ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mruthyunjayaswamy, B.H.M.; Ijare, Omkar B.; Jadegoud, Y. [Gulbarga University (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: bhmmswamy53@rediffmail.com

    2005-07-15

    A phenol based novel macrocyclic binucleating compartmental ligand N,N-bis(2,6-diiminomethyl-4-methyl-1-hydroxyphenyl)malonoyldicarboxamide was prepared. The complexes were prepared by template method by reacting 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol, malonoyl dihydrazide and the metal chlorides of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) in methanol to get a series of dinuclear complexes. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility data, IR, UV-Vis, ESR, NMR and FAB mass spectral data. The dinuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and FAB mass spectral data. The ligand as well as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal properties against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes reveal that these complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling behavior due to the presence of two metal ions in close proximity. FAB mass spectrum of the Cu(II) complex gave a clear evidence for the dinuclear nature. The ligand and the complexes were found to be less active against the tested bacteria, but the ligand alone was found active against the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (author)

  15. Compartmental modelling of the pharmacokinetics of a breast cancer resistance protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Thomas R B; Chappell, Mike J; Yates, James T W; Jones, Kevin; Wood, Gemma; Coleman, Tanya

    2011-11-01

    A mathematical model for the pharmacokinetics of Hoechst 33342 following administration into a culture medium containing a population of transfected cells (HEK293 hBCRP) with a potent breast cancer resistance protein inhibitor, Fumitremorgin C (FTC), present is described. FTC is reported to almost completely annul resistance mediated by BCRP in vitro. This non-linear compartmental model has seven macroscopic sub-units, with 14 rate parameters. It describes the relationship between the concentration of Hoechst 33342 and FTC, initially spiked in the medium, and the observed change in fluorescence due to Hoechst 33342 binding to DNA. Structural identifiability analysis has been performed using two methods, one based on the similarity transformation/exhaustive modelling approach and the other based on the differential algebra approach. The analyses demonstrated that all models derived are uniquely identifiable for the experiments/observations available. A kinetic modelling software package, namely FACSIMILE (MPCA Software, UK), was used for parameter fitting and to obtain numerical solutions for the system equations. Model fits gave very good agreement with in vitro data provided by AstraZeneca across a variety of experimental scenarios. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Compartmental analysis and dosimetric aspects applied to cholesterol with 3H labeled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Adriano dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are one of the major reasons of death around the world according to the World Health Organization (WHO). It is well known that changes in levels of plasma lipoproteins, which are responsible for the transport of cholesterol into the bloodstream, are associated with cardiovascular diseases. For this reason to know the biokinetic parameters of plasma lipoproteins and quantifies them is important to correct and deep understanding about the diseases associated with these disorders. The main aim of this study is to provide a biokinetic model and estimate the radiometric doses for 3 H-Cholesterol, a radioactive tracer widely used in physiological and metabolic studies. The model was based on [Schwartz et al. 2004] about the distribution of cholesterol by the lipoprotein and gastrointestinal model [ICRP 30, 1979]. The doses distribution in compartments of the model and other organs and tissues of a standard adult described in [ICRP 106, 2008] was calculated using MIRD method (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) and compartmental analysis using the computer program Matlab®. The dose coefficients were estimated for a standard phantom man (73 kg) described in [ICRP 60, 1991]. The estimated doses for both model and for other organs were low and did not exceed the highest dose obtained that was in the upper large intestine, as 44,8 μGy these parameters will assist in ethics committee's opinions on the use of works that use the 3 H-cholesterol which radioactive tracer. (author)

  17. Linear least squares compartmental-model-independent parameter identification in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thie, J.A.; Smith, G.T.; Hubner, K.F.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified approach involving linear-regression straight-line parameter fitting of dynamic scan data is developed for both specific and nonspecific models. Where compartmental-model topologies apply, the measured activity may be expressed in terms of: its integrals, plasma activity and plasma integrals -- all in a linear expression with macroparameters as coefficients. Multiple linear regression, as in spreadsheet software, determines parameters for best data fits. Positron emission tomography (PET)-acquired gray-matter images in a dynamic scan are analyzed: both by this method and by traditional iterative nonlinear least squares. Both patient and simulated data were used. Regression and traditional methods are in expected agreement. Monte-Carlo simulations evaluate parameter standard deviations, due to data noise, and much smaller noise-induced biases. Unique straight-line graphical displays permit visualizing data influences on various macroparameters as changes in slopes. Advantages of regression fitting are: simplicity, speed, ease of implementation in spreadsheet software, avoiding risks of convergence failures or false solutions in iterative least squares, and providing various visualizations of the uptake process by straight line graphical displays. Multiparameter model-independent analyses on lesser understood systems is also made possible

  18. Reservoir compartmentalization and management strategies: Lessons learned in the Illinois basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grube, J.P.; Crockett, J.E.; Huff, B.G. [and others

    1997-08-01

    A research project jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Illinois State Geological Survey focused on the Cypress and Aux Vases Formations (Mississippian), major clastic reservoirs in the Illinois Basin. Results from the research showed that understanding the nature and distribution of reservoir compartments, and using effective reservoir management strategies, can significantly improve recovery efficiencies from oil fields in this mature basin. Compartments can be most effectively drained where they are geologically well defined and reservoir management practices are coordinated through unified, compartment-wide, development programs. Our studies showed that the Cypress and Aux Vases reservoirs contain lateral and vertical permeability barriers forming compartments that range in size from isolated, interlaminated sandstone and shale beds to sandstone bodies tens of feet in thickness and more than a mile in length. Stacked or shingled, genetically similar sandstone bodies are commonly separated by thin impermeable intervals that can be difficult to distinguish on logs and can, therefore, cause correlation problems, even between wells drilled on spacing of less than ten acres. Lateral separation of sandstone bodies causes similar problems. Reservoir compartmentalization reduces primary and particularly secondary recovery by trapping pockets of by-passed or banked oil. Compartments can be detected by comparing recovery factors of genetically similar sandstone bodies within a field; using packers to separate commingled intervals and analyzing fluid recoveries and pressures; making detailed core-to-log calibrations that identify compartment boundaries; and analyzing pressure data from waterflood programs.

  19. Bystander effects and compartmental stress response to X-ray irradiation in L929 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temelie, Mihaela; Stroe, Daniela; Petcu, Ileana; Mustaciosu, Cosmin; Moisoi, Nicoleta; Savu, Diana

    2016-08-01

    Bystander effects are indirect consequences of radiation and many other stress factors. They occur in cells that are not directly exposed to these factors, but receive signals from affected cells either by gap junctions or by molecules released in the medium. Characterizing these effects and deciphering the underlying mechanisms involved in radiation-induced bystander effects are relevant for cancer radiotherapy and radioprotection. At doses of X-ray radiation 0.5 and 1 Gy, we detected bystander effects as increased numbers of micronuclei shortly after the treatment, through medium transfer and by co-cultures. Interestingly, bystander cells did not exhibit long-term adverse changes in viability. Evaluation of several compartmental stress markers (CHOP, BiP, mtHsp60, cytHsp70) by qRT-PCR did not reveal expression changes at transcriptional level. We investigated the involvement of ROS and NO in this process by addition of specific scavengers of these molecules, DMSO or c-PTIO in the transferred medium. This approach proved that ROS but not NO is involved in the induction of lesions in the acceptor cells. These results indicate that L929 cells are susceptible to stress effects of radiation-induced bystander signaling.

  20. Effects of hypoxia on 13NH4+ fluxes in rice roots: kinetics and compartmental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronzucker, H.J.; Kirk, G.J.D.; Siddiqi, M.Y.; Glass, A.D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental (efflux) and kinetic influx analyses with the radiotracer 13NH4+ were used to examine the adaptation to hypoxia (15, 35, and 50% O2 saturation) of root N uptake and metabolism in 3-week-old hydroponically grown rice (Oryza sativa L., cv IR72) seedlings. A time-dependence study of NH4+ influx into rice roots after onset of hypoxia (15% O2) revealed an initial increase in the first 1 to 2.5 h after treatment imposition, followed by a decline to less than 50% of influx in control plants by 4 d. Efflux analyses conducted 0, 1, 3, and 5 d after the treatment confirmed this adaptation pattern of NH4+ uptake. Half-lives for NH4+ exchange with subcellular compartments, cytoplasmic NH4+ concentrations, and efflux (as percentage of influx) were unaffected by hypoxia. However, significant differences were observed in the relative amounts of N allocated to NH4+ assimilation and the vacuole versus translocation to the shoot. Kinetic experiments conducted at 100, 50, 35, and 15% O2 saturation showed no significant change in the K(m) value for NH4+ uptake with varying O2 supply. However, V(max) was 42% higher than controls at 50% O2 saturation, unchanged at 35%, and 10% lower than controls at 15% O2. The significance of these flux adaptations is discussed

  1. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of symmetric dinuclear complexes derived from a novel macrocyclic compartmental ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruthyunjayaswamy, B.H.M.; Ijare, Omkar B.; Jadegoud, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A phenol based novel macrocyclic binucleating compartmental ligand N,N-bis(2,6-diiminomethyl-4-methyl-1-hydroxyphenyl)malonoyldicarboxamide was prepared. The complexes were prepared by template method by reacting 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol, malonoyl dihydrazide and the metal chlorides of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) in methanol to get a series of dinuclear complexes. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility data, IR, UV-Vis, ESR, NMR and FAB mass spectral data. The dinuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and FAB mass spectral data. The ligand as well as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal properties against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes reveal that these complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling behavior due to the presence of two metal ions in close proximity. FAB mass spectrum of the Cu(II) complex gave a clear evidence for the dinuclear nature. The ligand and the complexes were found to be less active against the tested bacteria, but the ligand alone was found active against the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (author)

  2. Metabolic Compartmentation – A System Level Property of Muscle Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Wallimann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Problems of quantitative investigation of intracellular diffusion and compartmentation of metabolites are analyzed. Principal controversies in recently published analyses of these problems for the living cells are discussed. It is shown that the formal theoretical analysis of diffusion of metabolites based on Fick’s equation and using fixed diffusion coefficients for diluted homogenous aqueous solutions, but applied for biological systems in vivo without any comparison with experimental results, may lead to misleading conclusions, which are contradictory to most biological observations. However, if the same theoretical methods are used for analysis of actual experimental data, the apparent diffusion constants obtained are orders of magnitude lower than those in diluted aqueous solutions. Thus, it can be concluded that local restrictions of diffusion of metabolites in a cell are a system-level properties caused by complex structural organization of the cells, macromolecular crowding, cytoskeletal networks and organization of metabolic pathways into multienzyme complexes and metabolons. This results in microcompartmentation of metabolites, their channeling between enzymes and in modular organization of cellular metabolic networks. The perspectives of further studies of these complex intracellular interactions in the framework of Systems Biology are discussed.

  3. Compartmentalized Epidermal Activation of β-Catenin Differentially Affects Lineage Reprogramming and Underlies Tumor Heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kretzschmar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wnt/β-catenin activation in adult epidermis can induce new hair follicle formation and tumor development. We used lineage tracing to uncover the relative contribution of different stem cell populations. LGR6+ and LRIG1+ stem cells contributed to ectopic hair follicles formed in the sebaceous gland upon β-catenin activation, whereas LGR5+ cells did not. Lgr6, but not Lrig1 or Lgr5, was expressed in a subpopulation of interfollicular epidermal cells that were competent to form new hair follicles. Oncogenic β-catenin expression in LGR5+ cells led to formation of pilomatricomas, while LRIG1+ cells formed trichoadenomas and LGR6+ cells formed dermatofibromas. Tumor formation was always accompanied by a local increase in dermal fibroblast density and transient extracellular matrix remodeling. However, each tumor had a distinct stromal signature in terms of immune cell infiltrate and expression of CD26 and CD44. We conclude that compartmentalization of epidermal stem cells underlies different responses to β-catenin and skin tumor heterogeneity.

  4. Characterization and subcellular compartmentation of recombinant 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase from Arabidopsis in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, I; Rodgers, M; Pepin, R; Hsieh, T F; Matringe, M

    1999-04-01

    4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (4HPPD) catalyzes the formation of homogentisate (2,5-dihydroxyphenylacetate) from p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate and molecular oxygen. In plants this enzyme activity is involved in two distinct metabolic processes, the biosynthesis of prenylquinones and the catabolism of tyrosine. We report here the molecular and biochemical characterization of an Arabidopsis 4HPPD and the compartmentation of the recombinant protein in chlorophyllous tissues. We isolated a 1508-bp cDNA with one large open reading frame of 1338 bp. Southern analysis strongly suggested that this Arabidopsis 4HPPD is encoded by a single-copy gene. We investigated the biochemical characteristics of this 4HPPD by overproducing the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli JM105. The subcellular localization of the recombinant 4HPPD in chlorophyllous tissues was examined by overexpressing its complete coding sequence in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), using Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation. We performed western analyses for the immunodetection of protein extracts from purified chloroplasts and total leaf extracts and for the immunocytochemistry on tissue sections. These analyses clearly revealed that 4HPPD was confined to the cytosol compartment, not targeted to the chloroplast. Western analyses confirmed the presence of a cytosolic form of 4HPPD in cultured green Arabidopsis cells.

  5. Integrated compartmental model for describing the transport of solute in a fractured porous medium. [FRACPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, D.L.; Yeh, G.T.; Huff, D.D.

    1984-10-01

    This report documents a model, FRACPORT, that simulates the transport of a solute through a fractured porous matrix. The model should be useful in analyzing the possible transport of radionuclides from shallow-land burial sites in humid environments. The use of the model is restricted to transport through saturated zones. The report first discusses the general modeling approach used, which is based on the Integrated Compartmental Method. The basic equations of solute transport are then presented. The model, which assumes a known water velocity field, solves these equations on two different time scales; one related to rapid transport of solute along fractures and the other related to slower transport through the porous matrix. FRACPORT is validated by application to a simple example of fractured porous medium transport that has previously been analyzed by other methods. Then its utility is demonstrated in analyzing more complex cases of pulses of solute into a fractured matrix. The report serves as a user's guide to FRACPORT. A detailed description of data input, along with a listing of input for a sample problem, is provided. 16 references, 18 figures, 3 tables.

  6. A comprehensive compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, O; Kwok, K E; Gopaluni, R B; Knop, F K

    2016-09-01

    We have expanded a former compartmental model of blood glucose regulation for healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects. The former model was a detailed physiological model which considered the interactions of three substances, glucose, insulin and glucagon on regulating the blood sugar. The main drawback of the former model was its restriction on the route of glucose entrance to the body which was limited to the intravenous glucose injection. To handle the oral glucose intake, we have added a model of glucose absorption in the gastrointestinal tract to the former model to address the resultant variations of blood glucose concentrations following an oral glucose intake. Another model representing the incretins production in the gastrointestinal tract along with their hormonal effects on boosting pancreatic insulin production is also added to the former model. We have used two sets of clinical data obtained during oral glucose tolerance test and isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion test from both type 2 diabetic and healthy subjects to estimate the model parameters and to validate the model results. The estimation of model parameters is accomplished through solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The results show acceptable precision of the estimated model parameters and demonstrate the capability of the model in accurate prediction of the body response during the clinical studies.

  7. Proposing a Compartmental Model for Leprosy and Parameterizing Using Regional Incidence in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rebecca Lee

    2016-08-01

    Hansen's disease (HD), or leprosy, is still considered a public health risk in much of Brazil. Understanding the dynamics of the infection at a regional level can aid in identification of targets to improve control. A compartmental continuous-time model for leprosy dynamics was designed based on understanding of the biology of the infection. The transmission coefficients for the model and the rate of detection were fit for each region using Approximate Bayesian Computation applied to paucibacillary and multibacillary incidence data over the period of 2000 to 2010, and model fit was validated on incidence data from 2011 to 2012. Regional variation was noted in detection rate, with cases in the Midwest estimated to be infectious for 10 years prior to detection compared to 5 years for most other regions. Posterior predictions for the model estimated that elimination of leprosy as a public health risk would require, on average, 44-45 years in the three regions with the highest prevalence. The model is easily adaptable to other settings, and can be studied to determine the efficacy of improved case finding on leprosy control.

  8. cGMP Signaling in the Cardiovascular System—The Role of Compartmentation and Its Live Cell Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bork, Nadja I.; Nikolaev, Viacheslav O.

    2018-01-01

    The ubiquitous second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) regulates multiple physiologic processes in the cardiovascular system. Its intracellular effects are mediated by stringently controlled subcellular microdomains. In this review, we will illustrate the current techniques available for real-time cGMP measurements with a specific focus on live cell imaging methods. We will also discuss currently accepted and emerging mechanisms of cGMP compartmentation in the cardiovascular system. PMID:29534460

  9. Kinetic compartmental analysis of carnitine metabolism in the human carnitine deficiency syndromes. Evidence for alterations in tissue carnitine transport.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebouche, C J; Engel, A G

    1984-01-01

    The human primary carnitine deficiency syndromes are potentially fatal disorders affecting children and adults. The molecular etiologies of these syndromes have not been determined. In this investigation, we considered the hypothesis that these syndromes result from defective transport of carnitine into tissues, particularly skeletal muscle. The problem was approached by mathematical modeling, by using the technique of kinetic compartmental analysis. A tracer dose of L-[methyl-3H]carnitine wa...

  10. Interventional vascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yune, H.Y.

    1984-01-01

    The papers published during this past year in the area of interventional vascular radiology presented some useful modifications and further experiences both in the area of thromboembolic therapy and in dilation and thrombolysis, but no new techniques. As an introductory subject, an excellent monograph reviewing the current spectrum of pharmacoangiography was presented in Radiographics. Although the presented material is primarily in diagnostic application of various pharmacologic agents used today to facilitate demonstration of certain diagnostic criteria of various disease processes, both vasodilatory and vasoconstrictive reaction to these agents are widely used in various therapeutic vascular procedures. This monograph should be reviewed by every angiographer whether or not he or she performs interventional procedures, and it would be very convenient to have this table available in the angiography suite. In a related subject, Bookstein and co-workers have written an excellent review concerning pharmacologic manipulations of various blood coagulative parameters during angiography. Understanding the proper method of manipulation of the bloodclotting factors during angiography, and especially during interventional angiography, is extremely important. Particularly, the method of manipulating the coagulation with the use of heparin and protamine and modification of the platelet activity by using aspirin and dipyridamole are succinctly reviewed. The systemic and selective thrombolytic activities of streptokianse are also discussed

  11. Vascular dysfunction in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Lesley J; Morton, Jude S; Davidge, Sandra T

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complex disorder which affects an estimated 5% of all pregnancies worldwide. It is diagnosed by hypertension in the presence of proteinuria after the 20th week of pregnancy and is a prominent cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. As delivery is currently the only known treatment, preeclampsia is also a leading cause of preterm delivery. Preeclampsia is associated with maternal vascular dysfunction, leading to serious cardiovascular risk both during and following pregnancy. Endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased peripheral resistance, is an integral part of the maternal syndrome. While the cause of preeclampsia remains unknown, placental ischemia resulting from aberrant placentation is a fundamental characteristic of the disorder. Poor placentation is believed to stimulate the release of a number of factors including pro- and antiangiogenic factors and inflammatory activators into the maternal systemic circulation. These factors are critical mediators of vascular function and impact the endothelium in distinctive ways, including enhanced endothelial oxidative stress. The mechanisms of action and the consequences on the maternal vasculature will be discussed in this review. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Compartmentalized Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Originates from Long-Lived Cells in Some Subjects with HIV-1–Associated Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Gretja; Spudich, Serena; Harrington, Patrick; Price, Richard W.; Swanstrom, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) invades the central nervous system (CNS) shortly after systemic infection and can result in the subsequent development of HIV-1–associated dementia (HAD) in a subset of infected individuals. Genetically compartmentalized virus in the CNS is associated with HAD, suggesting autonomous viral replication as a factor in the disease process. We examined the source of compartmentalized HIV-1 in the CNS of subjects with HIV-1–associated neurological disease and in asymptomatic subjects who were initiating antiretroviral therapy. The heteroduplex tracking assay (HTA), targeting the variable regions of env, was used to determine which HIV-1 genetic variants in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were compartmentalized and which variants were shared with the blood plasma. We then measured the viral decay kinetics of individual variants after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy. Compartmentalized HIV-1 variants in the CSF of asymptomatic subjects decayed rapidly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, with a mean half-life of 1.57 days. Rapid viral decay was also measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in four HAD subjects (t1/2 mean = 2.27 days). However, slow viral decay was measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants from an additional four subjects with neurological disease (t1/2 range = 9.85 days to no initial decay). The slow decay detected for CSF-compartmentalized variants was not associated with poor CNS drug penetration, drug resistant virus in the CSF, or the presence of X4 virus genotypes. We found that the slow decay measured for CSF-compartmentalized variants in subjects with neurological disease was correlated with low peripheral CD4 cell count and reduced CSF pleocytosis. We propose a model in which infiltrating macrophages replace CD4+ T cells as the primary source of productive viral replication in the CNS to maintain high viral loads in the CSF in a substantial subset of subjects with HAD

  13. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viru...

  14. Vascular Remodeling in Experimental Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma R. Risler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic hemodynamic abnormality in hypertension is an increased peripheral resistance that is due mainly to a decreased vascular lumen derived from structural changes in the small arteries wall, named (as a whole vascular remodeling. The vascular wall is an active, flexible, and integrated organ made up of cellular (endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, adventitia cells, and fibroblasts and noncellular (extracellular matrix components, which in a dynamic way change shape or number, or reorganize in response to physiological and pathological stimuli, maintaining the integrity of the vessel wall in physiological conditions or participating in the vascular changes in cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Research focused on new signaling pathways and molecules that can participate in the mechanisms of vascular remodeling has provided evidence showing that vascular structure is not only affected by blood pressure, but also by mechanisms that are independent of the increased pressure. This review will provide an overview of the evidence, explaining some of the pathophysiologic mechanisms participating in the development of the vascular remodeling, in experimental models of hypertension, with special reference to the findings in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a model of essential hypertension, and in fructose-fed rats as a model of secondary hypertension, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. The understanding of the mechanisms producing the vascular alterations will allow the development of novel pharmacological tools for vascular protection in hypertensive disease.

  15. Vascular pattern formation in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpella, Enrico; Helariutta, Ykä

    2010-01-01

    Reticulate tissue systems exist in most multicellular organisms, and the principles underlying the formation of cellular networks have fascinated philosophers, mathematicians, and biologists for centuries. In particular, the beautiful and varied arrangements of vascular tissues in plants have intrigued mankind since antiquity, yet the organizing signals have remained elusive. Plant vascular tissues form systems of interconnected cell files throughout the plant body. Vascular cells are aligned with one another along continuous lines, and vascular tissues differentiate at reproducible positions within organ environments. However, neither the precise path of vascular differentiation nor the exact geometry of vascular networks is fixed or immutable. Several recent advances converge to reconcile the seemingly conflicting predictability and plasticity of vascular tissue patterns. A control mechanism in which an apical-basal flow of signal establishes a basic coordinate system for body axis formation and vascular strand differentiation, and in which a superimposed level of radial organizing cues elaborates cell patterns, would generate a reproducible tissue configuration in the context of an underlying robust, self-organizing structure, and account for the simultaneous regularity and flexibility of vascular tissue patterns. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Isokinetic assessment of knee flexor/extensor muscular strength in elderly women Avaliação isocinética do torque muscular flexor-extensor do joelho em mulheres com idade entre 75-83 anos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos de Amorim Aquino

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess knee flexor-extensor muscular strength in elderly women with no previous history of musculoskeletal disorders on the lower limbs using an isokinetic dynamometer, in order to obtain data that could be used as a comparative parameter in the evaluation of elderly women with knee disorders, thus facilitating a better rehabilitation of these patients. METHODS: Twenty-six volunteers aged 75 to 83 years were studied using a Cybex® 6000 isokinetic dynamometer. The chosen angular velocity was 60 º/s, and concentric exercise was used for either flexion or extension. The studied parameters were: peak torque, angle of peak torque, and flexor-extensor torque rate. RESULTS: There were no differences between dominant (D and nondominant (ND knee peak torque values. This was true for both flexor (D = 42.46 ± 9.09 Nm / ND = 40.65 ± 9.38 Nm and extensor (D = 76.92 ± 13.97 Nm / ND = 77.65 ± 15.21 Nm movements. The descriptive statistical analysis of the values obtained for the flexor-extensor peak torque rate and for the angle of occurrence of peak torque was the same for the dominant and nondominant sides. CONCLUSIONS: The values of peak torque for the contralateral side can be used as a reference during rehabilitation of elderly women with acute disease of the knee, and the angular velocity of 60 º/s is proper and safe for isokinetic assessment of elderly people.OBJETIVO: Avaliar, isocineticamente, o torque dos músculos flexores e extensores dos joelhos de mulheres idosas sem afecções do sistema músculo-esquelético em membros inferiores, obtendo dados que possam servir como parâmetro de comparação na avaliação de mulheres idosas portadoras de afecções nos joelhos, colaborando para uma melhor reabilitação dessas pacientes. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis voluntárias foram avaliadas. O estudo foi realizado através de um dinamômetro isocinético marca CYBEXâ modelo 6000 na velocidade angular de 60º/s. O tipo do

  17. Additive Manufacturing of Vascular Grafts and Vascularized Tissue Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, Laura; Yang, Yunzhi Peter

    2017-10-01

    There is a great need for engineered vascular grafts among patients with cardiovascular diseases who are in need of bypass therapy and lack autologous healthy blood vessels. In addition, because of the severe worldwide shortage of organ donors, there is an increasing need for engineered vascularized tissue constructs as an alternative to organ transplants. Additive manufacturing (AM) offers great advantages and flexibility of fabrication of cell-laden, multimaterial, and anatomically shaped vascular grafts and vascularized tissue constructs. Various inkjet-, extrusion-, and photocrosslinking-based AM techniques have been applied to the fabrication of both self-standing vascular grafts and porous, vascularized tissue constructs. This review discusses the state-of-the-art research on the use of AM for vascular applications and the key criteria for biomaterials in the AM of both acellular and cellular constructs. We envision that new smart printing materials that can adapt to their environment and encourage rapid endothelialization and remodeling will be the key factor in the future for the successful AM of personalized and dynamic vascular tissue applications.

  18. Isokinetic dynamometry of knee flexors and extensors: comparative study among non-athletes, jumper athletes and runner athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siqueira Cássio Marinho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Participation in intensive sports activities leads to muscular specializations that may generate alterations in involved articular forces and cause static (posture and dynamic changes (alterations of articular stability, coordination, etc.. Prevention of injury requires specific functional muscular evaluation in all athletes and for any kind of sport. OBJECTIVE: To dynamically evaluate, through isokinetic tests, the peak torque, total work, and average power of the knee flexor and extensor muscles of jumper and runner athletes and compare them to those of a non-athletic population, evaluating dominance and balance between agonistic and antagonistic muscle groups. RESULTS: In the non-athlete group, we noted a higher asymmetry between the dominant and nondominant members. The jumpers had the highest values of the evaluated parameters of all groups, whereas parameters for the runners were intermediate between non-athletes and jumpers.

  19. Ischemia Increases the Twitch Latent Period in the Soleus and Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Muscles from Adult Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Camilo; Fierro, Leonardo

    2017-10-01

    Complete ischemia and reperfusion effects on twitch force (∫(F·t)), twitch latent period (TLP), maximal rate of rise of twitch tension (δF/δt) max , and twitch maximum relaxation rate (TMRR) were assessed. We divided 36 adult rats into four groups; two control groups (n = 9), a group undergoing 1 hour of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (n = 9), and one group exposed to 2 hours of ischemia followed by 1 hour of reperfusion (n = 9). We have induced twitch contractions every 10 minutes in the soleus and the extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL). Twitch contractions were recorded and then analyzed for ∫(F·t), TLP, (δF/δt) max , and TMRR. During 1 hour and 40 minutes of ischemia, TLP increased to 179 ± 24% (p values.

  20. Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Acupuncture Effect on Common Extensor Tendon Thickness in Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ural, Fatma Gülçin; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna; Bölük, Hüma; Akkuş, Selami

    2017-10-01

    To explore the effect of acupuncture on common extensor tendon (CET) thickness in patients with lateral epicondylitis (LE). Additionally, to identify whether clinical and ultrasonographic changes showed any correlation. Forty-one patients were randomly assigned to acupuncture and control groups. Conventional treatment (rest, NSAİİ, bracing, exercise) methods for LE were applied to all patients. In addition to this, the acupuncture treatment was applied to the acupuncture group. The visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the Duruoz Hand Index (DHI) for functioning of the affected limb, the pressure pain threshold, and CET thickness (via ultrasound imaging) were assessed before and end of the treatment in both groups. The VAS and DHI scores in both groups decreased. The pressure pain threshold and CET thickness only demonstrated improvement in the acupuncture group. These findings show that the CET thickness was reduced after 10 sessions of acupuncture treatment in LE patients.

  1. Influence of acetaminophen and ibuprofen on in vivo patellar tendon adaptations to knee extensor resistance exercise in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carroll, Chad C; Dickinson, Jared M; Lemoine, Jennifer K

    2011-01-01

    Millions of older individuals consume acetaminophen or ibuprofen daily and these same individuals are encouraged to participate in resistance training. Several in vitro studies suggest that cyclooxygenase-inhibiting drugs can alter tendon metabolism and may influence adaptations to resistance...... training. Thirty-six individuals were randomly assigned to a Placebo (67±2y), Acetaminophen (64±1y; 4000mg(.)d(-1)), or Ibuprofen (64±1y; 1200mg(.)d(-1)) group in a double-blind manner and completed 12-weeks of knee extensor resistance-training. Before and after training in vivo patellar tendon properties......, and this response was not influenced with ibuprofen consumption. Mean tendon CSA increased with training in the Acetaminophen group (3%, p0.05) with training in the Placebo group. These responses were generally uninfluenced by ibuprofen consumption. In the Acetaminophen group, tendon deformation and strain...

  2. THE EFFICACY OF ANGLE-MATCHED ISOKINETIC KNEE FLEXOR AND EXTENSOR STRENGTH PARAMETERS IN PREDICTING AGILITY TEST PERFORMANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Matt; Naylor, James

    2017-10-01

    Agility is a fundamental performance element in many sports, but poses a high risk of injury. Hierarchical modelling has shown that eccentric hamstring strength is the primary determinant of agility performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between knee flexor and extensor strength parameters and a battery of agility tests. Controlled laboratory study. Nineteen recreational intermittent games players completed an agility battery and isokinetic testing of the eccentric knee flexors (eccH) and concentric knee extensors (conQ) at 60, 180 and 300°·s -1 . Peak torque and the angle at which peak torque occurred were calculated for eccH and conQ at each speed. Dynamic control ratios (eccH:conQ) and fast:slow ratios (300:60) were calculated using peak torque values, and again using angle-matched data, for eccH and conQ. The agility test battery differentiated linear vs directional changes and prescriptive vs reactive tasks. Linear regression showed that eccH parameters were generally a better predictor of agility performance than conQ parameters. Stepwise regression showed that only angle-matched strength ratios contributed to the prediction of each agility test. Trdaitionally calculated strength ratios using peak torque values failed to predict performance. Angle-matched strength parameters were able to account for 80% of the variation in T-test performance, 70% of deceleration distance, 55% of 10m sprint performance, and 44% of reactive change of direction speed. Traditionally calculated strength ratios failed to predict agility performance, whereas angle-matched strength ratios had better predictive ability and featured in a predictive stepwise model for each agility task. 2c.

  3. Investigation of radialization and rerouting of the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) in the abduction deformity of the little finger: a cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aaken, Jan; Zhu, Jin; Fasel, Jean H D; Beaulieu, Jean-Yves

    2011-06-01

    One of several operations to correct abduction deformity of the little finger, (Wartenberg's sign) in ulnar nerve palsy, is a combined procedure that radializes the extensor digiti minimi (EDM) at the level of the fifth metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint and reroutes it from the fifth to fourth extensor compartment. This cadaveric study was designed to investigate the impact of both elements on adduction. Anatomy of the little finger extensor apparatus was studied in 16 freshly frozen cadaver hands sectioned at mid forearm. We observed little finger motion after different modifications of the EDM. We tested the effect of a rerouting maneuver by pulling on the EDM, as well as radialization of the EDM alone and in combination with rerouting. The EDM was present in all cases. Little finger extensor digitorum communis (EDC(V)) was missing in two cadavers. In no case was adduction created by rerouting the EDM to the fourth compartment. Radialization of the EDM corrected the abduction deformity beyond the axis of abduction/adduction of the fifth MCP joint in 13 cases and only up to it in three cases. In one of the three with limited correction, a rerouting maneuver allowed for further adduction. The key to correct abduction deformity of the little finger is radialization of the EDM, which can be done through a solitary incision at the level of the MCP joint. Rerouting alone does not correct the abduction deformity, and in combination with radialization it does not predictably enhance the correction.

  4. Can a fatigue test of the isolated lumbar extensor muscles of untrained young men predict strength progression in a resistance exercise program?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmhout, P.; Staal, B.; Dijk, J. van; Harts, C.; Bertina, F.; Bie, R. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the predictive value of a fatigue test of the lumbar extensor muscles for training progression in a group of 28 healthy but predominantly sedentary male students, in an 8-week resistance exercise program. METHODS: A three-phased fatigue test

  5. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, Theresa; Sobol, Nanna Aue; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL-) reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT) versus low-intensity (LRT) resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. METH...

  6. Comparison of Early Active Tension and Immobilization Protocols in Rehabilitation of the Hand, Following Zone 5-6 Extensor Tendon Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereidoun Layeghi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the study was to assess and compare Early Active Tension and Immobilization Protocols in Rehabilitation of the Hand, Following Zone 5-6 Extensor Tendon Repair. Materials & Methods: From the 21 patients enrolled in a randomized controlled trial study, 18 cases with average age of 32. 43 years completed the protocol. A total of 41 extensor tendons from 27 fingers of the subjects were studied. A surgeon repaired all tendons in zone 5 and/or 6 by an end to end epitenon running technique using prolen 0.3. For rehabilitation, subjects were randomly assigned into two “Immobilization” and “early active tension” group. Edema, metacarpophalangeal flexion, combined flexion and extension of wrist and fingers, total active motion of fingers and metacarpal extensor lag were assessed 6 weeks after surgery. All aforementioned variables and grip strength were reassessed 12 weeks after surgery. Results: Compared to traditional immobilization protocol, early active tension could significantly improve hand edema, metacarpal flexion, combined flexion and extension of wrist and fingers, total active motion of fingers and grip strength (P0.05. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that in compliant patients, early active tension could be an alternative method for traditional immobilization protocol, after surgical repair of extensor tendon injuries in zone 5 and/or 6.

  7. Comparing two methods to record maximal voluntary contractions and different electrode positions in recordings of forearm extensor muscle activity: Refining risk assessments for work-related wrist disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlqvist, Camilla; Nordander, Catarina; Granqvist, Lothy; Forsman, Mikael; Hansson, Gert-Åke

    2018-01-01

    Wrist disorders are common in force demanding industrial repetitive work. Visual assessment of force demands have a low reliability, instead surface electromyography (EMG) may be used as part of a risk assessment for work-related wrist disorders. For normalization of EMG recordings, a power grip (hand grip) is often used as maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the forearm extensor muscles. However, the test-retest reproducibility is poor and EMG amplitudes exceeding 100% have occasionally been recorded during work. An alternative MVC is resisted wrist extension, which may be more reliable. To compare hand grip and resisted wrist extension MVCs, in terms of amplitude and reproducibility, and to examine the effect of electrode positioning. Twelve subjects participated. EMG from right forearm extensors, from four electrode pairs, was recorded during MVCs, on three separate occasions. The group mean EMG amplitudes for resisted wrist extension were 1.2-1.7 times greater than those for hand grip. Resisted wrist extension showed better reproducibility than hand grip. The results indicate that the use of resisted wrist extension is a more accurate measurement of maximal effort of wrist extensor contractions than using hand grip and should increase the precision in EMG recordings from forearm extensor muscles, which in turn will increase the quality of risk assessments that are based on these.

  8. Cardiac and vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, S.; Ley-Zaporozhan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Malformations of the heart and great vessels show a high degree of variation. There are numerous variants and defects with only few clinical manifestations and are only detected by chance, such as a persistent left superior vena cava or a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection. Other cardiovascular malformations are manifested directly after birth and need prompt mostly surgical interventions. At this point in time echocardiography is the diagnostic modality of choice for morphological and functional characterization of malformations. Additional imaging using computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is only required in a minority of cases. If so, the small anatomical structures, the physiological tachycardia and tachypnea are a challenge for imaging modalities and strategies. This review article presents the most frequent vascular, cardiac and complex cardiovascular malformations independent of the first line diagnostic imaging modality. (orig.) [de

  9. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. The CIRSE registry of closure devices

  10. Dynamic adaption of vascular morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okkels, Fridolin; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings

    2012-01-01

    The structure of vascular networks adapts continuously to meet changes in demand of the surrounding tissue. Most of the known vascular adaptation mechanisms are based on local reactions to local stimuli such as pressure and flow, which in turn reflects influence from the surrounding tissue. Here ...

  11. Diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheltens, P.; Hijdra, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    The term vascular dementia implies the presence of a clinical syndrome (dementia) caused by, or at least assumed to be caused by, a specific disorder (cerebrovascular disease). In this review, the various sets of criteria used to define vascular dementia are outlined. The various sets of criteria

  12. The vascular secret of Klotho

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewin, Ewa; Olgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Klotho is an evolutionarily highly conserved protein related to longevity. Increasing evidence of a vascular protecting effect of the Klotho protein has emerged and might be important for future treatments of uremic vascular calcification. It is still disputed whether Klotho is locally expressed ...

  13. Compartmentalized microbial composition, oxygen gradients and nitrogen fixation in the gut of Odontotaenius disjunctus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Nguyen, Nhu H; Karaoz, Ulas; Gross, Stephanie R; Herman, Donald J; Andersen, Gary L; Bruns, Thomas D; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Blackwell, Meredith; Brodie, Eoin L

    2014-01-01

    Coarse woody debris is an important biomass pool in forest ecosystems that numerous groups of insects have evolved to take advantage of. These insects are ecologically important and represent useful natural analogs for biomass to biofuel conversion. Using a range of molecular approaches combined with microelectrode measurements of oxygen, we have characterized the gut microbiome and physiology of Odontotaenius disjunctus, a wood-feeding beetle native to the eastern United States. We hypothesized that morphological and physiological differences among gut regions would correspond to distinct microbial populations and activities. In fact, significantly different communities were found in the foregut (FG), midgut (MG)/posterior hindgut (PHG) and anterior hindgut (AHG), with Actinobacteria and Rhizobiales being more abundant toward the FG and PHG. Conversely, fermentative bacteria such as Bacteroidetes and Clostridia were more abundant in the AHG, and also the sole region where methanogenic Archaea were detected. Although each gut region possessed an anaerobic core, micron-scale profiling identified radial gradients in oxygen concentration in all regions. Nitrogen fixation was confirmed by (15)N2 incorporation, and nitrogenase gene (nifH) expression was greatest in the AHG. Phylogenetic analysis of nifH identified the most abundant transcript as related to Ni-Fe nitrogenase of a Bacteroidetes species, Paludibacter propionicigenes. Overall, we demonstrate not only a compartmentalized microbiome in this beetle digestive tract but also sharp oxygen gradients that may permit aerobic and anaerobic metabolism to occur within the same regions in close proximity. We provide evidence for the microbial fixation of N2 that is important for this beetle to subsist on woody biomass.

  14. The Importance of Bank Storage in Supplying Baseflow to Rivers Flowing Through Compartmentalized, Alluvial Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Kimberly A.; Proffitt, Tiffany; Rowley, Taylor; Knappett, Peter S. K.; Montiel, Daniel; Dimova, Natasha; Tebo, Daniel; Miller, Gretchen R.

    2017-12-01

    As water grows scarcer in semiarid and arid regions around the world, new tools are needed to quantify fluxes of water and chemicals between aquifers and rivers. In this study, we quantify the volumetric flux of subsurface water to a 24 km reach of the Brazos River, a lowland river that meanders through the Brazos River Alluvium Aquifer (BRAA), with 8 months of high-frequency differential gaging measurements using fixed gaging stations. Subsurface discharge sources were determined using natural tracers and End-Member Mixing Analysis (EMMA). During a 4 month river stage recession following a high stage event, subsurface discharge decreased from 50 m3/s to 0, releasing a total of 1.0 × 108 m3 of water. Subsurface discharge dried up even as the groundwater table at two locations in the BRAA located 300-500 m from the river remained ˜4 m higher than the river stage. Less than 4% of the water discharged from the subsurface during the prolonged recession period resembled the chemical fingerprint of the alluvial aquifer. Instead, the chemistry of this discharged water closely resembled high stage "event" river water. Together, these findings suggest that the river is well connected to rechargeable bank storage reservoirs but disconnected from the broader alluvial aquifer. The average width of discrete bank storage zones on each side of the river, identified with Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), was approximately 1.5 km. In such highly compartmentalized aquifers, groundwater pumping is unlikely to impact the exchange between the river and the alluvium.

  15. Ocular pharmacokinetics of a novel tetrahydroquinoline analog in rabbit: absorption, disposition, and non-compartmental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamulapati, Chandrasena R; Schoenwald, Ronald D

    2011-12-01

    The pharmacologically active compound (33% reduction in rabbit intraocular pressure recovery rate assay) 1-ethyl-6-fluoro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline (MC4), which showed ocular hypotensive action and had optimum physicochemical properties, was characterized for its ocular absorption and distribution properties to better understand its in vivo potency in comparison with an inactive compound, N-ethyl-1,4-benzoxazine (MC1). Tissue distribution to various ocular tissues was determined after absorption by both corneal and conjunctival-scleral routes, following administration by the "topical infusion" technique. The rank order of penetration for both the compounds was cornea > iris-ciliary body > aqueous humor > lens > conjunctiva-sclera. Overall, MC4 had significantly higher concentrations than MC1 in various ocular tissues, but particularly in the iris-ciliary body, which is the site of action (biophase). Ocular disposition studies of the active compound MC4 were then conducted to characterize its elimination kinetics, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental and moment analysis using equations specific to "topical infusion" technique: first-order absorption rate constant, 4.1 × 10(-4) min(-1) ; elimination rate constant, 0.012 min(-1) ; mean residence time, 39.6 min; steady-state volume of distribution, 0.721 mL; and aqueous humor ocular clearance, 8.44 µL/min. The results were consistent with the conclusion that MC4 is well absorbed and distributed to the active site. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Validation of Bayesian analysis of compartmental kinetic models in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, Arkadiusz; Li, Quanzheng; El Fakhri, Georges; Alpert, Nathaniel M

    2016-10-01

    Kinetic compartmental analysis is frequently used to compute physiologically relevant quantitative values from time series of images. In this paper, a new approach based on Bayesian analysis to obtain information about these parameters is presented and validated. The closed-form of the posterior distribution of kinetic parameters is derived with a hierarchical prior to model the standard deviation of normally distributed noise. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are used for numerical estimation of the posterior distribution. Computer simulations of the kinetics of F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) are used to demonstrate drawing statistical inferences about kinetic parameters and to validate the theory and implementation. Additionally, point estimates of kinetic parameters and covariance of those estimates are determined using the classical non-linear least squares approach. Posteriors obtained using methods proposed in this work are accurate as no significant deviation from the expected shape of the posterior was found (one-sided P>0.08). It is demonstrated that the results obtained by the standard non-linear least-square methods fail to provide accurate estimation of uncertainty for the same data set (P<0.0001). The results of this work validate new methods for a computer simulations of FDG kinetics. Results show that in situations where the classical approach fails in accurate estimation of uncertainty, Bayesian estimation provides an accurate information about the uncertainties in the parameters. Although a particular example of FDG kinetics was used in the paper, the methods can be extended for different pharmaceuticals and imaging modalities. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Barcoding of GPCR trafficking and signaling through the various trafficking roadmaps by compartmentalized signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahouth, Suleiman W; Nooh, Mohammed M

    2017-08-01

    Proper signaling by G protein coupled receptors (GPCR) is dependent on the specific repertoire of transducing, enzymatic and regulatory kinases and phosphatases that shape its signaling output. Activation and signaling of the GPCR through its cognate G protein is impacted by G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)-imprinted "barcodes" that recruit β-arrestins to regulate subsequent desensitization, biased signaling and endocytosis of the GPCR. The outcome of agonist-internalized GPCR in endosomes is also regulated by sequence motifs or "barcodes" within the GPCR that mediate its recycling to the plasma membrane or retention and eventual degradation as well as its subsequent signaling in endosomes. Given the vast number of diverse sequences in GPCR, several trafficking mechanisms for endosomal GPCR have been described. The majority of recycling GPCR, are sorted out of endosomes in a "sequence-dependent pathway" anchored around a type-1 PDZ-binding module found in their C-tails. For a subset of these GPCR, a second "barcode" imprinted onto specific GPCR serine/threonine residues by compartmentalized kinase networks was required for their efficient recycling through the "sequence-dependent pathway". Mutating the serine/threonine residues involved, produced dramatic effects on GPCR trafficking, indicating that they played a major role in setting the trafficking itinerary of these GPCR. While endosomal SNX27, retromer/WASH complexes and actin were required for efficient sorting and budding of all these GPCR, additional proteins were required for GPCR sorting via the second "barcode". Here we will review recent developments in GPCR trafficking in general and the human β 1 -adrenergic receptor in particular across the various trafficking roadmaps. In addition, we will discuss the role of GPCR trafficking in regulating endosomal GPCR signaling, which promote biochemical and physiological effects that are distinct from those generated by the GPCR signal transduction

  18. DNA precursor compartmentation in mammalian cells: distribution and rates of equilibration between nucleus and cytoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeds, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A rapid nuclear isolation technique was adapted in order to examine the question of DNA precursor compartmentation in mammalian cells. By using this method a reproducible proportion of the cellular nucleotides remained associated with the isolated nuclei. Examination, at several different cell densities, of exponentially growing HeLa cells showed that the nuclei contained a constant but distinct proportion of each dNTP. The nuclear dATP and dTTP concentrations were equal at all densities examined even though the dTTP pool was 150% of the dATP whole-cell pool. The nuclear portion of the whole-cell pools was roughly equal to the volume occupied by the nucleus. The nuclear-cytoplasmic dNTP pool distribution did not change throughout the cell cycle of synchronized Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The rates at which either radiolabeled cytidine or deoxycytidine equilibrated with the nuclear and whole-cell dCTP pools of G1 and S phase CHO cells were compared. Experiments comparing the labeling kinetics of 3 H-thymidine in G1, S phase, and exponentially growing cells revealed that the S phase dTTP pool equilibrated with exogenously added thymidine faster than the G1 phase pool. The rate of equilibration in exponentially growing cells appeared to be a combination of that seen in G1 and S phases. A linear rate of 3 H-thymidine incorporation into DNA occurred at the same rate in S phase and exponentially growing cells

  19. Relationships between metal compartmentalization and biomarkers in earthworms exposed to field-contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumelle, Léa; Hedde, Mickaël; Vandenbulcke, Franck; Lamy, Isabelle

    2017-05-01

    Partitioning tissue metal concentration into subcellular compartments reflecting toxicologically available pools may provide good descriptors of the toxicological effects of metals on organisms. Here we investigated the relationships between internal compartmentalization of Cd, Pb and Zn and biomarker responses in a model soil organism: the earthworm. The aim of this study was to identify metal fractions reflecting the toxic pressure in an endogeic, naturally occurring earthworm species (Aporrectodea caliginosa) exposed to realistic field-contaminated soils. After a 21 days exposure experiment to 31 field-contaminated soils, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations in earthworms and in three subcellular fractions (cytosol, debris and granules) were quantified. Different biomarkers were measured: the expression of a metallothionein gene (mt), the activity of catalase (CAT) and of glutathione-s-transferase (GST), and the protein, lipid and glycogen reserves. Biomarkers were further combined into an integrated biomarker index (IBR). The subcellular fractionation provided better predictors of biomarkers than the total internal contents hence supporting its use when assessing toxicological bioavailability of metals to earthworms. The most soluble internal pools of metals were not always the best predictors of biomarker responses. metallothionein expression responded to increasing concentrations of Cd in the insoluble fraction (debris + granules). Protein and glycogen contents were also mainly related to Cd and Pb in the insoluble fraction. On the other hand, GST activity was better explained by Pb in the cytosolic fraction. CAT activity and lipid contents variations were not related to metal subcellular distribution. The IBR was best explained by both soluble and insoluble fractions of Pb and Cd. This study further extends the scope of mt expression as a robust and specific biomarker in an ecologically representative earthworm species exposed to field-contaminated soils. The

  20. Distribution and compartmental organization of GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons in the mouse Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eGangarossa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens (NAc is a critical brain region involved in many reward-related behaviors. The NAc comprises major compartments the core and the shell, which encompass several subterritories. GABAergic medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs constitute the output neurons of the NAc core and shell. While the functional organization of the NAc core outputs resembles the one described for the dorsal striatum, a simple classification of the NAc shell neurons has been difficult to define due to the complexity of the compartmental segregation of cells. We used a variety of BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescence (EGFP or the Cre-recombinase (Cre under the control of the promoter of dopamine D1, D2, and D3 receptors and of adenosine A2a receptor to dissect the microanatomy of the NAc. Moreover, using various immunological markers we characterized in detail the distribution of MSNs in the mouse NAc. In addition, cell-type specific ERK phosphorylation in the NAc subterritories was analyzed following acute administration of SKF81297 (a D1R-like agonist, quinpirole (a D2R-like agonist, apomorphine (a non-selective DA receptor agonist, raclopride (a D2R-like antagonist, and psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine and d-amphetamine. Each drug generated a unique topography and cell-type specific activation of ERK in the NAc. Our results show the existence of marked differences in the receptor expression pattern and functional activation of MSNs within the shell subterritories. This study emphasizes the anatomical and functional heterogeneity of the NAc, which will have to be considered in its further study.

  1. An improved single cell ultrahigh throughput screening method based on in vitro compartmentalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Ma

    Full Text Available High-throughput screening is a key technique in discovery and engineering of enzymes. In vitro compartmentalization based fluorescence-activated cell sorting (IVC-FACS has recently emerged as a powerful tool for ultrahigh-throughput screening of biocatalysts. However, the accuracy of current IVC-FACS assays is severely limited by the wide polydispersity of micro-reactors generated by homogenizing. Here, an improved protocol based on membrane-extrusion technique was reported to generate the micro-reactors in a more uniform manner. This crucial improvement enables ultrahigh-throughput screening of enzymatic activity at a speed of >10⁸ clones/day with an accuracy that could discriminate as low as two-fold differences in enzymatic activity inside the micro-reactors, which is higher than similar IVC-FACS systems ever have reported. The enzymatic reaction in the micro-reactors has very similar kinetic behavior compared to the bulk reaction system and shows wide dynamic range. By using the modified IVC-FACS, E. coli cells with esterase activity could be enriched 330-fold from large excesses of background cells through a single round of sorting. The utility of this new IVC-FACS system was further illustrated by the directed evolution of thermophilic esterase AFEST. The catalytic activity of the very efficient esterase was further improved by ∼2-fold, resulting in several improved mutants with k(cat/K(M values approaching the diffusion-limited efficiency of ∼10⁸ M⁻¹s⁻¹.

  2. Comparison of total and compartmental gastric emptying and antral motility between healthy men and women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, R.; Van den Maegdenbergh, V.; Roo, M. de; Mortelmans, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium); Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P. [Department of Gastroenterology, UZ KU Leuven (Belgium)

    1998-09-01

    There is increasing evidence of gender-related differences in gastric emptying. The purpose of this study was first, to confirm the difference in gastric emptying for both solid and liquid test meals between healthy men and women, and secondly, to investigate the origin of this difference by studying regional gastric emptying and antral motility. A standard gastric emptying test with additional compartmental (proximal and distal) evaluation and dynamic imaging of the antrum was performed in 20 healthy women studied during the first 10 days of the menstrual cycle, and in 31 healthy age-matched men. In concordance with previous reports, women had a longer half-emptying time for solids as compared to men (86.2{+-}5.1 vs 52.2{+-}2.9 min, P<0.05). In our observations this seemed to be related to a significantly prolonged lag phase and a significant decrease in terminal slope. Dynamical antral scintigraphy did not show a significant difference. The distribution of the test meal within the stomach (proximal vs distal) showed more early proximal retention in women as compared to men. The terminal slope of the distal somach was significantly lower in women. We did not observe a significant difference in gastric emptying of the liquid test meal between men and women. Gastric emptying of solids is significantly slower in healthy women as compared to men. These findings emphasise the importance of using different normal values for clinical and research purposes in gastric emptying scintigraphy in men and women. The difference could not be explained by antral motility alone. Increased proximal retention and a lower terminal emptying rate in women are observations to be further investigated. (orig.) With 5 figs., 2 tabs., 36 refs.

  3. Retinol metabolism in rats with low vitamin A status: A compartmental model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, K.C.; Green, M.H.; Green, J.B.; Zech, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    A compartmental model was developed to describe the metabolism of vitamin A in rats with low vitamin A status maintained by a low dietary intake of vitamin A (approximately 2 micrograms retinol equivalents/day). After the IV bolus injection of [3H]retinol in its physiological transport complex, tracer and trace data were obtained from plasma, organs (liver, kidneys, small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, lungs, carcass), and tracer data were obtained from urine and feces. The dietary protocol developed for this study resulted in animals having plasma vitamin A levels less than 10 micrograms retinol/dl and total liver vitamin A levels of approximately 1 microgram retinol equivalent. Four compartments were used to model the plasma: one to describe retinol, one to describe the nonphysiological portion of the dose, and two to simulate polar metabolites derived from retinol. The liver required two compartments and a delay, the carcass (small intestine, eyes, adrenals, testes, and lungs, plus remaining carcass) required three compartments, and the kidneys required two. The model predicted a vitamin A utilization rate of 1.65 micrograms retinol equivalents/day with the urine and feces accounting for most of the output. The plasma retinol turnover rate was approximately 20 micrograms retinol equivalents/day; this was 12 times greater than the utilization rate. This indicated that, of the large amount of retinol moving through the plasma each day, less than 10% of this was actually being irreversibly utilized. Similarly, as compared to the whole-body utilization rate, there was a relatively high turnover rate of retinol in the kidneys, carcass, and liver, coupled with a high degree of recycling of vitamin A through these tissues. Of the total vitamin A that entered the liver from all sources including the diet, approximately 86% was mobilized into the plasma

  4. Axial compartmentation of descending and ascending thin limbs of Henle's loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrick, Kristen Y; Serack, Bradley; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2013-02-01

    In the inner medulla, radial organization of nephrons and blood vessels around collecting duct (CD) clusters leads to two lateral interstitial regions and preferential intersegmental fluid and solute flows. As the descending (DTLs) and ascending thin limbs (ATLs) pass through these regions, their transepithelial fluid and solute flows are influenced by variable transepithelial solute gradients and structure-to-structure interactions. The goal of this study was to quantify structure-to-structure interactions, so as to better understand compartmentation and flows of transepithelial water, NaCl, and urea and generation of the axial osmotic gradient. To accomplish this, we determined lateral distances of AQP1-positive and AQP1-negative DTLs and ATLs from their nearest CDs, so as to gauge interactions with intercluster and intracluster lateral regions and interactions with interstitial nodal spaces (INSs). DTLs express reduced AQP1 and low transepithelial water permeability along their deepest segments. Deep AQP1-null segments, prebend segments, and ATLs lie equally near to CDs. Prebend segments and ATLs abut CDs and INSs throughout much of their descent and ascent, respectively; however, the distal 30% of ATLs of the longest loops lie distant from CDs as they approach the outer medullary boundary and have minimal interaction with INSs. These relationships occur regardless of loop length. Finally, we show that ascending vasa recta separate intercluster AQP1-positive DTLs from descending vasa recta, thereby minimizing dilution of gradients that drive solute secretion. We hypothesize that DTLs and ATLs enter and exit CD clusters in an orchestrated fashion that is important for generation of the corticopapillary solute gradient by minimizing NaCl and urea loss.

  5. Heterogeneity and compartmental properties of insulin storage and secretion in rat islets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, G.; Landahl, H.D.; Gishizky, M.L.; Grodsky, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    To investigate compartmental properties of insulin storage and secretion, isolated rat islets were used for pulse-labeling experiments, after which proinsulin and insulin were purified rigorously. Processing of proinsulin to insulin neared completion by 3 h without additional loss of either radioactive peptide by cellular or extracellular proteolysis. The amount of labeled hormone rapidly diminished in islets; it was secreted at a higher fractional rate than immunoreactive insulin, resulting in secreted insulin's having a higher specific activity than the average cellular insulin. Newly synthesized insulin, therefore, was secreted preferentially. Changes in the specific activity of secreted and cellular insulin with time were consistent with changes predicted for islets containing 33% of their total insulin in a glucose-labile compartment. Predictions were based on steady-state analysis of a simple storage-limited representation of B cell function. Islets from either the dorsal or ventral part of the pancreas also contained 33% of their total insulin in a glucose-labile compartment. The same compartment was mobilized by 20 mM glucose, 50 mM potassium + 2 mM glucose, or 20 MM glucose + 1 mM 3-isobutylmethylxanthine as indicated by the specific activity ratio of secreted vs. cellular insulin, even though average secretion rates with these stimuli differed by more than threefold. In the absence of calcium, the effectiveness of 20 mM glucose as a secretagogue declined markedly, and the older stored insulin was preferentially mobilized because secreted insulin had a lower rather than a higher specific activity than cellular insulin. Results provide insight into the mechanisms of nonrandom mobilization and secretion of insulin form the B cell

  6. Compartmental and dosimetric studies of anti-CD20 labelled with 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Graciela Barrio

    2016-01-01

    The radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses MAbs conjugated to radionuclides α or β - emitters, both for therapy. Your treatment is based on the irradiation and tumor destruction, preserving the normal organs as the excess radiation. Radionuclides β - emitters as 131 I, 90 Y, 188 Re 177 Lu and are useful for the development of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals and, when coupled with MAb and Anti-CD20 it is important mainly for the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL). 188 Re (E β = 2.12 MeV; E γ = 155 keV; t1/2 = 16.9 h) is an attractive radionuclide for RIT. However, 188 Re can be obtained from a radionuclide generator of 188 W/ 188 Re, commercially available, making it convenient for use in research and for clinical routine. The CR of IPEN has a project aimed at the production of radiopharmaceutical 188 Re-Anti-CD20, where the radionuclide can be obtained from a generator system 188 W/ 188 Re. With this proposed a study to assess the efficiency of this labeling technique for treatment in accordance compartmental and dosimetry. The objective of this study was to compare the marking of anti-CD20 MAb with 188 Re with the marking of the antibody with 90 Y, 131 I, 177 Lu and 99m Tc (for their similar chemical characteristics) and 211 At, 213 Bi, 223 Ra and 225 Ac); through the study of labeling techniques reported in literature, the proposal of a compartmental model to evaluate its pharmacokinetic and dosimetric studies, high interest for therapy. The result of the study shows a favorable kinetics for 188 Re, by their physical and chemical characteristics compared to the other evaluated radionuclides. The compartment proposed study describes the metabolism of 188 Reanti- CD20 through a compartment mammillary model, which by their pharmacokinetic analysis, performed compared to products emitters β -131 I-labeled anti CD20, 177 Luanti- CD20, the γ emitter 99m Tc-Anti-CD20 and α emitter 211 At-Anti-CD20 presented a elimination constant of approximately 0.05 hours

  7. Social media in vascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indes, Jeffrey E; Gates, Lindsay; Mitchell, Erica L; Muhs, Bart E

    2013-04-01

    There has been a tremendous growth in the use of social media to expand the visibility of various specialties in medicine. The purpose of this paper is to describe the latest updates on some current applications of social media in the practice of vascular surgery as well as existing limitations of use. This investigation demonstrates that the use of social networking sites appears to have a positive impact on vascular practice, as is evident through the incorporation of this technology at the Cleveland Clinic and by the Society for Vascular Surgery into their approach to patient care and physician communication. Overall, integration of social networking technology has current and future potential to be used to promote goals, patient awareness, recruitment for clinical trials, and professionalism within the specialty of vascular surgery. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Measurement of maximal isometric torque and muscle quality of the knee extensors and flexors in healthy 50- to 70-year-old women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Peter; Toomey, Clodagh; Mc Cormack, William; Lyons, Mark; Jakeman, Philip

    2017-07-01

    Muscle quality is defined as strength per unit muscle mass. The aim of this study was to measure the maximal voluntary isometric torque of the knee extensor and flexor muscle groups in healthy older women and to develop an index of muscle quality based on the combined knee extensor and flexor torque per unit lean tissue mass (LTM) of the upper leg. One hundred and thirty-six healthy 50- to 70-year-old women completed an initial measurement of isometric peak torque of the knee extensors and flexors (Con-Trex MJ; CMV AG, Dubendorf, Switzerland) that was repeated 7 days later. Subsequently, 131 women returned for whole- and regional-body composition analysis (iDXA ™ ; GE Healthcare, Chalfont St Giles, Buckinghamshire, UK). Isometric peak torque demonstrated excellent within-assessment reliability for both the knee extensors and flexors (ICC range: 0·991-1·000). Test-retest reliability was lower (ICC range: 0·777-0·828) with an observed mean increase of 5% in peak torque [6·2 (17·2) N m] on the second day of assessment (Ptorque (-12·2%; P = 0·001) was double that of the relative, non-significant, median difference in upper leg LTM (-5·3%; P = 0·102) between those in the 5th and 6th decade. The majority of difference in peak isometric torque came from the knee extensors (15·1 N m, Ptorque normalized for upper leg LTM (muscle quality) was 8% lower between decades (P = 0·029). These findings suggest strength per unit tissue may provide a better indication of age-related differences in muscle quality prior to change in LTM. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Vascular disease in cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachi, Keren; Mani, Venkatesh; Jeyachandran, Devi; Fayad, Zahi A; Goldstein, Rita Z; Alia-Klein, Nelly

    2017-07-01

    Cocaine, a powerful vasoconstrictor, induces immune responses including cytokine elevations. Chronic cocaine use is associated with functional brain impairments potentially mediated by vascular pathology. Although the Crack-Cocaine epidemic has declined, its vascular consequences are increasingly becoming evident among individuals with cocaine use disorder of that period, now aging. Paradoxically, during the period when prevention efforts could make a difference, this population receives psychosocial treatment at best. We review major postmortem and in vitro studies documenting cocaine-induced vascular toxicity. PubMed and Academic Search Complete were used with relevant terms. Findings consist of the major mechanisms of cocaine-induced vasoconstriction, endothelial dysfunction, and accelerated atherosclerosis, emphasizing acute, chronic, and secondary effects of cocaine. The etiology underlying cocaine's acute and chronic vascular effects is multifactorial, spanning hypertension, impaired homeostasis and platelet function, thrombosis, thromboembolism, and alterations in blood flow. Early detection of vascular disease in cocaine addiction by multimodality imaging is discussed. Treatment may be similar to indications in patients with traditional risk-factors, with few exceptions such as enhanced supportive care and use of benzodiazepines and phentolamine for sedation, and avoiding β-blockers. Given the vascular toxicity cocaine induces, further compounded by smoking and alcohol comorbidity, and interacting with aging of the crack generation, there is a public health imperative to identify pre-symptomatic markers of vascular impairments in cocaine addiction and employ preventive treatment to reduce silent disease progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [The future of vascular medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, K; Luther, B

    2014-10-01

    In the future vascular medicine will still have a great impact on health of people. It should be noted that the aging of the population does not lead to a dramatic increase in patient numbers, but will be associated with a changing spectrum of co-morbidities. In addition, vascular medical research has to include the intensive care special features of vascular patients, the involvement of vascular medicine in a holistic concept of fast-track surgery, a geriatric-oriented intensive monitoring and early geriatric rehabilitation. For the future acceptance of vascular medicine as a separate subject area under delimitation of cardiology and radiology is important. On the other hand, the subject is so complex and will become more complex in future specialisations that mixing of surgery and angiology is desirable, with the aim to preserve the vascular surgical knowledge and skills on par with the medical and interventional measures and further develop them. Only large, interdisciplinary guided vascular centres will be able to provide timely diagnosis and therapy, to deal with the growing multi-morbidity of the patient, to perform complex therapies even in an acute emergency and due to sufficient number of cases to present with well-trained and experienced teams. These requirements are mandatory to decrease patients' mortality step by step. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Contemporary vascular smartphone medical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Thomas; O'Neill, Stephen; Johns, Neil; Brady, Richard R W

    2013-08-01

    Use of smartphones and medical mHealth applications (apps) within the clinical environment provides a potential means for delivering elements of vascular care. This article reviews the contemporary availability of apps specifically themed to major vascular diseases and the opportunities and concerns regarding their integration into practice. Smartphone apps relating to major vascular diseases were identified from the app stores for the 6 most popular smartphone platforms, including iPhone, Android, Blackberry, Nokia, Windows, and Samsung. Search terms included peripheral artery (arterial) disease, varicose veins, aortic aneurysm, carotid artery disease, amputation, ulcers, hyperhydrosis, thoracic outlet syndrome, vascular malformation, and lymphatic disorders. Forty-nine vascular-themed apps were identified. Sixteen (33%) were free of charge. Fifteen apps (31%) had customer satisfaction ratings, but only 3 (6%) had greater than 100. Only 13 apps (27%) had documented medical professional involvement in their design or content. The integration of apps into the delivery of care has the potential to benefit vascular health care workers and patients. However, high-quality apps designed by clinicians with vascular expertise are currently lacking and represent an area of concern in the mHealth market. Improvement in the quality and reliability of these apps will require the development of robust regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endothelial mechanotransduction proteins and vascular function are altered by dietary sucrose supplementation in healthy young male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Rytter, Nicolai; Lindskrog, Mads; Slingsby, Martina H Lundberg; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Sylow, Lykke; Richter, Erik A; Hellsten, Ylva

    2017-08-15

    Mechanotransduction in endothelial cells is a central mechanism in the regulation of vascular tone and vascular remodelling Mechanotransduction and vascular function may be affected by high sugar levels in plasma because of a resulting increase in oxidative stress and increased levels of advanced glycation end-products (AGE). In healthy young subjects, 2 weeks of daily supplementation with 3 × 75 g of sucrose was found to reduce blood flow in response to passive lower leg movement and in response to 12 W of knee extensor exercise. This vascular impairment was paralleled by up-regulation of platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM)-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase and Rho family GTPase Rac1 protein expression, an increased basal phosphorylation status of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and a reduced phosphorylation status of PECAM-1. There were no measurable changes in AGE levels. The findings of the present study demonstrate that daily high sucrose intake markedly affects mechanotransduction proteins and has a detrimental effect on vascular function. Endothelial mechanotransduction is important for vascular function but alterations and activation of vascular mechanosensory proteins have not been investigated in humans. In endothelial cell culture, simple sugars effectively impair mechanosensor proteins. To study mechanosensor- and vascular function in humans, 12 young healthy male subjects supplemented their diet with 3 × 75 g sucrose day -1 for 14 days in a randomized cross-over design. Before and after the intervention period, the hyperaemic response to passive lower leg movement and active knee extensor exercise was determined by ultrasound doppler. A muscle biopsy was obtained from the thigh muscle before and after acute passive leg movement to allow assessment of protein amounts and the phosphorylation status of mechanosensory proteins and NADPH oxidase. The sucrose intervention led to a reduced flow

  13. Constructal vascularized structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetkin, Erdal

    2015-06-01

    Smart features such as self-healing and selfcooling require bathing the entire volume with a coolant or/and healing agent. Bathing the entire volume is an example of point to area (or volume) flows. Point to area flows cover all the distributing and collecting kinds of flows, i.e. inhaling and exhaling, mining, river deltas, energy distribution, distribution of products on the landscape and so on. The flow resistances of a point to area flow can be decreased by changing the design with the guidance of the constructal law, which is the law of the design evolution in time. In this paper, how the flow resistances (heat, fluid and stress) can be decreased by using the constructal law is shown with examples. First, the validity of two assumptions is surveyed: using temperature independent Hess-Murray rule and using constant diameter ducts where the duct discharges fluid along its edge. Then, point to area types of flows are explained by illustrating the results of two examples: fluid networks and heating an area. Last, how the structures should be vascularized for cooling and mechanical strength is documented. This paper shows that flow resistances can be decreased by morphing the shape freely without any restrictions or generic algorithms.

  14. Stratigraphic and structural compartmentalization observed within a model turbidite reservoir, Pennsylvanian Upper Jackfork Formation, Hollywood Quarry, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatt, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, D. [Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Stone, C. [Arkansas Geological Commission, Little Rock, AR (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Hollywood Quarry is a 600 x 375 x 150 ft. (200 x 125 x 50m) excavation which provides a window into lower Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation turbidite stratal architecture along the crest of a faulted anticlinal fold. A variety of turbidite facies are present, including: (a) lenticular, channelized sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates within shale, (b) laterally continuous, interbedded thin sandstones and shales, and (c) thicker, laterally continuous shales. The sandstone and shale layers we broken by several strike-slip and reverse faults, with vertical displacements of up to several feet. This combination of facies and structural elements has resulted in a highly compartmentalized stratigraphic interval, both horizontally and vertically, along the anticlinal flexure. The quarry can be considered analogous to a scaled-down turbidite reservoir. Outcrop gamma-ray logs, measured sections, a fault map, and cross sections provide a database which is analogous to what would be available for a subsurface reservoir. Thus, the quarry provides an ideal outdoor geologic and engineering {open_quote}workshop{close_quote} venue for visualizing the potential complexities of a combination structural-stratigraphic (turbidite) reservoir. Since all forms of compartmentalization are readily visible in the quarry, problems related to management of compartmentalized reservoirs can be discussed and analyzed first-hand while standing in the quarry, within this {open_quote}model reservoir{close_quotes}. These problems include: (a) the high degree of stratigraphic and structural complexity that may be encountered, even at close well spacings, (b) uncertainty in well log correlations and log-shape interpretations, (c) variations in volumetric calculations as a function of amount of data available, and (d) potential production problems associated with specific {open_quote}field{close_quote} development plans.

  15. [CLINICAL APPLICATION OF OXFORD MOBILE-BEARING BIPOLAR PROSTHESIS UNICOMPARTMENTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY FOR SINGLE COMPARTMENTAL KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shangzeng; Cheng, Shao; Wang, Yisheng

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) in the treatment of single compartmental knee osteoarthritis. Between June 2011 and July 2013, 22 cases of single compartmental knee osteoarthritis were treated by Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis UKA. Of 22 cases, 8 were male and 14 were female with an average age of 65 years (range, 45-80 years); the left knee was involved in 12 cases, and the right knee in 10 cases, with a mean disease duration of 32.5 months (range, 8-90 months). The mean weight was 55.2 kg (range, 50-65 kg), and the mean body mass index was 20.8 kg/m2 (range, 17-25 kg/m2). Osteoarthritis involved in the single knee medial compartment in all patients. Knee society score (KSS) and range of motion (ROM) were measured to evaluate the knee joint function. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients, and there was no complication of infection, bedsore, or deep venous thrombosis. Postoperative follow-up was 2-4 years (mean, 3.2 years). The X-ray films showed good position of prosthesis, no prosthesis dislocation, or periprosthetic infection during follow-up. Knee ROM, KSS function score, and KSS clinical score were significantly improved at 1 week after operation and at last follow-up when compared with preoperative ones (P 0.05). Oxford mobile-bearing bipolar prosthesis UKA is an effective method to treat single compartmental knee osteoarthritis, with the advantages of less trauma, earlier rehabilitation exercise, near physiological state in joint function, and less risk of complications.

  16. Purkinje Cell Compartmentation in the Cerebellum of the Lysosomal Acid Phosphatase 2 Mutant Mouse (Nax - Naked-Ataxia Mutant Mouse)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Karen; Rahimi Balaei, Maryam; Mannan, Ashraf; Del Bigio, Marc R.; Marzban, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The Acp2 gene encodes the beta subunit of lysosomal acid phosphatase, which is an isoenzyme that hydrolyzes orthophosphoric monoesters. In mice, a spontaneous mutation in Acp2 results in severe cerebellar defects. These include a reduced size, abnormal lobulation, and an apparent anterior cerebellar disorder with an absent or hypoplastic vermis. Based on differential gene expression in the cerebellum, the mouse cerebellar cortex can normally be compartmentalized anteroposteriorly into four transverse zones and mediolaterally into parasagittal stripes. In this study, immunohistochemistry was performed using various Purkinje cell compartmentation markers to examine their expression patterns in the Acp2 mutant. Despite the abnormal lobulation and anterior cerebellar defects, zebrin II and PLCβ4 showed similar expression patterns in the nax mutant and wild type cerebellum. However, fewer stripes were found in the anterior zone of the nax mutant, which could be due to a lack of Purkinje cells or altered expression of the stripe markers. HSP25 expression was uniform in the central zone of the nax mutant cerebellum at around postnatal day (P) 18–19, suggesting that HSP25 immunonegative Purkinje cells are absent or delayed in stripe pattern expression compared to the wild type. HSP25 expression became heterogeneous around P22–23, with twice the number of parasagittal stripes in the nax mutant compared to the wild type. Aside from reduced size and cortical disorganization, both the posterior zone and nodular zone in the nax mutant appeared less abnormal than the rest of the cerebellum. From these results, it is evident that the anterior zone of the nax mutant cerebellum is the most severely affected, and this extends beyond the primary fissure into the rostral central zone/vermis. This suggests that ACP2 has critical roles in the development of the anterior cerebellum and it may regulate anterior and central zone compartmentation. PMID:24722417

  17. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreck, Eva; Dappe, Vincent; Sarret, Géraldine; Sobanska, Sophie; Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna; Magnin, Valérie; Ranieri, Vincent; Dumat, Camille

    2014-01-01

    assess the health risks involved. - Highlights: • Plants were exposed to factory process particles via atmosphere or soil transfer. • Pathways of Pb uptake were investigated using microscopy and spectroscopy. • Contrary to lettuces, Pb speciation has changed in the leaf surfaces of rye-grass. • In the case of root exposure, pyromorphite was formed in the leaves of rye-grass. • Pb compartmentalization and speciation depend on transfer way and plant species

  18. Compartmentalization of innate immune responses in the central nervous system during cryptococcal meningitis/HIV coinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Chang, Christina C; Durgiah, Raveshni; Omarjee, Saleha; Lim, Andrew; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus S; Elliot, Julian H; Ndung'u, Thumbi; Lewin, Sharon R; French, Martyn A; Carr, William H

    2014-03-13

    The role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningitis is unclear. We hypothesized that natural killer (NK) cell and monocyte responses show central nervous system (CNS) compartment-specific profiles, and are altered by antifungal therapy and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during cryptococcal meningitis/HIV coinfection. Substudy of a prospective cohort study of adults with cryptococcal meningitis/HIV coinfection in Durban, South Africa. We used multiparametric flow cytometry to study compartmentalization of subsets, CD69 (a marker of activation), CXCR3 and CX3CR1 expression, and cytokine secretion of NK cells and monocytes in freshly collected blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis (n = 23), completion of antifungal therapy induction (n = 19), and after a further 4 weeks of cART (n = 9). Relative to blood, CSF was enriched with CD56(bright) (immunoregulatory) NK cells (P = 0.0004). At enrolment, CXCR3 expression was more frequent among blood CD56(bright) than either blood CD56(dim) (P pos) NK-cell proportions nor CX3CR1(pos) NK-cell proportions. CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells were more activated in CSF than blood (P < 0.0001). Antifungal therapy induction reduced CD56(dim) NK-cell activation in CSF (P = 0.02). Activation of blood CD56(bright) and CD56(dim) NK cells was diminished following cART commencement (P < 0.0001, P = 0.03). Immunoregulatory NK cells in CSF tended to secrete higher levels of CXCL10 (P = 0.06) and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.06) than blood immunoregulatory NK cells. CSF was enriched with nonclassical monocytes (P = 0.001), but antifungal therapy restored proportions of classical monocytes (P = 0.007). These results highlight CNS activation, trafficking, and function of NK cells and monocytes in cryptococcal meningitis/HIV and implicate immunoregulatory NK cells and proinflammatory monocytes as potential modulators of cryptococcal meningitis pathogenesis during HIV coinfection.

  19. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Eva [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dappe, Vincent [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Sarret, Géraldine [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna [Department of Chemistry, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Kraśnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Magnin, Valérie [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Ranieri, Vincent [CEA-INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dumat, Camille, E-mail: camille.dumat@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2014-04-01

    better assess the health risks involved. - Highlights: • Plants were exposed to factory process particles via atmosphere or soil transfer. • Pathways of Pb uptake were investigated using microscopy and spectroscopy. • Contrary to lettuces, Pb speciation has changed in the leaf surfaces of rye-grass. • In the case of root exposure, pyromorphite was formed in the leaves of rye-grass. • Pb compartmentalization and speciation depend on transfer way and plant species.

  20. Compartmental Modeling and Dosimetry of in Vivo Metabolic Studies of Leucine and Three Secretory Proteins in Humans Using Radioactive Tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatakrishnan, Vaidehi

    1995-01-01

    Physical and mathematical models provide a systematic means of looking at biological systems. Radioactive tracer kinetic studies open a unique window to study complex tracee systems such as protein metabolism in humans. This research deals with compartmental modeling of tracer kinetic data on leucine and apolipoprotein metabolism obtained using an endogenous tritiated leucine tracer administered as a bolus, and application of compartmental modeling techniques for dosimetric evaluation of metabolic studies of radioiodinated apolipoproteins. Dr. Waldo R. Fisher, Department of Medicine, was the coordinating research supervisor and the work was carried out in his laboratory. A compartmental model for leucine kinetics in humans has been developed that emphasizes its recycling pathways which were examined over two weeks. This model builds on a previously published model of Cobelli et al, that analyzed leucine kinetic data up to only eight hours. The proposed model includes different routes for re-entry of leucine from protein breakdown into plasma accounting for proteins which turn over at different rates. This new model successfully incorporates published models of three secretory proteins: albumin, apoA-I, and VLDL apoB, in toto thus increasing its validity and utility. The published model of apoA-I, based on an exogenous radioiodinated tracer, was examined with data obtained using an endogenous leucine tracer using compartmental techniques. The analysis concludes that the major portion of apoA-I enters plasma by a fast pathway but the major fraction of apoA-I in plasma resides with a second slow pathway; further the study is suggestive of a precursor-product relationship between the two plasma apoA-I pools. The possible relevance of the latter suggestion to the aberrant kinetics of apoA-I in Tangier disease is discussed. The analysis of apoA-II data resulted in similar conclusions. A methodology for evaluating the dosimetry of radioiodinated apolipoproteins by

  1. Diabetes and Retinal Vascular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes predominantly affects the microvascular circulation of the retina resulting in a range of structural changes unique to this tissue. These changes ultimately lead to altered permeability, hyperproliferation of endothelial cells and edema, and abnormal vascularization of the retina with resulting loss of vision. Enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress are primary insults with significant contribution to the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy (DR. We have determined the identity of the retinal vascular cells affected by hyperglycemia, and have delineated the cell autonomous impact of high glucose on function of these cells. We discuss some of the high glucose specific changes in retinal vascular cells and their contribution to retinal vascular dysfunction. This knowledge provides novel insight into the molecular and cellular defects contributing to the development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and will aid in the development of innovative, as well as target specific therapeutic approaches for prevention and treatment of DR.

  2. Vascular graft infections with Mycoplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levi-Mazloum, Niels Donald; Skov Jensen, J; Prag, J

    1995-01-01

    laboratory techniques, the percentage of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts seems to be increasing and is not adequately explained by the prior use of antibiotics. We have recently reported the first case of aortic graft infection with Mycoplasma. We therefore suggest the hypothesis...... that the large number of culture-negative yet grossly infected vascular grafts may be due to Mycoplasma infection not detected with conventional laboratory technique....

  3. Limb vascular function in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Gliemann, Lasse

    2018-01-01

    Throughout life, women are subjected to both acute fluctuations in sex hormones, associated with the menstrual cycle, and chronic changes following the onset of menopause. Female sex hormones, and in particular estrogen, strongly influence cardiovascular function such as the regulation of vascular...... studies. Physical activity should be recommended for women of all ages, but the most essential timing for maintenance of vascular health may be from menopause and onwards....

  4. Facial vascular malformations in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunelle, F.O.; Lallemand, D.; Chaumont, P.; Teillac, D.; Manach, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present their experience with conventional and digital angiography of vascular malformations of the head and neck in children. 22 hemangioendotheliomas, 8 venous angiomas, and 3 arteriovenous fistula were studied. 22 patients were embolised. DSA offers many advantages during the diagnostic as well as during the therapeutic phase of angiography. Embolization appears to have a major role in treatment of such vascular malformations. (orig.)

  5. Angiogenesis, Cancer, and Vascular Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Moriya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence have revealed that the angiogenic response to ischemic injury declines with age, which might account for the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD among the elderly. While impairment of angiogenesis with aging leads to delayed wound healing or exacerbation of atherosclerotic ischemic diseases, it also inhibits the progression of cancer. Age-related changes of angiogenesis have been considered to at least partly result from vascular aging or endothelial cell senescence. There is considerable evidence supporting the hypothesis that vascular cell senescence contributes to the pathogenesis of age-related CVD, suggesting that vascular aging could be an important therapeutic target. Since therapeutic angiogenesis is now regarded as a promising concept for patients with ischemic CVD, it has become even more important to understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying impairment of angiogenesis in older patients. To improve the usefulness of therapeutic angiogenesis, approaches are needed that can compensate for impaired angiogenic capacity in the elderly while not promoting the development or progression of malignancy. In this review, we briefly outline the mechanisms of angiogenesis and vascular aging, followed by a description of how vascular aging leads to impairment of angiogenesis. We also examine potential therapeutic approaches that could enhance angiogenesis and/or vascular function in the elderly, as well as discussing the possibility of anti-senescence therapy or reversal of endothelial cell senescence.

  6. The role of propriospinal neuronal network in transmitting the alternating muscular activities of flexor and extensor in parkinsonian tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, M; He, X; Lan, N

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that normal cyclic movement of human arm and resting limb tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with the oscillatory neuronal activities in different cerebral networks, which are transmitted to the antagonistic muscles via the same spinal pathway. There are mono-synaptic and multi-synaptic corticospinal pathways for conveying motor commands. This study investigates the plausible role of propriospinal neuronal (PN) network in the C3-C4 levels in multi-synaptic transmission of cortical commands for oscillatory movements. A PN network model is constructed based on known neurophysiological connections, and is hypothesized to achieve the conversion of cortical oscillations into alternating antagonistic muscle bursts. Simulations performed with a virtual arm (VA) model indicate that without the PN network, the alternating bursts of antagonistic muscle EMG could not be reliably generated, whereas with the PN network, the alternating pattern of bursts were naturally displayed in the three pairs of antagonist muscles. Thus, it is suggested that oscillations in the primary motor cortex (M1) of single and double tremor frequencies are processed at the PN network to compute the alternating burst pattern in the flexor and extensor muscles.

  7. Relationships between the mechanomyographic amplitude patterns of response and concentric isokinetic fatiguing tasks of the leg extensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Fry, Andrew C; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Phillip M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible correlations between the b terms (slopes) form the log-transformed mechanomyographic amplitude (MMG RMS )–force relationships and the fatigue index calculated from 50 maximal concentric contractions. Forty healthy subjects (age = 21 ± 2 yr) performed isometric ramp contractions from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction followed by a 50-repetition concentric fatigue protocol of the leg extensors, fatigue index (%) was calculated from the 50-repetitions. MMG was recorded during the ramp contractions from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). The b terms (slopes) were calculated from the log-transformed MMG RMS –force relationships. Correlations were performed comparing the b terms from the MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL and RF with the fatigue index. Significant positive correlations were found among the b terms from the MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL (p = 0.007, r = 0.417) and RF (p = 0.014, r = 0.386) with the fatigue index. The b terms from the log-transformed MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL and RF may have reflected muscle fiber type composition and, thus, correlated with the fatigue index. This adds further support that the MMG RMS –force relationships may reflect muscle fiber type composition. (paper)

  8. Incidental magnetic resonance imaging signal changes in the extensor carpi radialis brevis origin are more common with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Wouter F; Janssen, Stein J; Ring, David; Chen, Neal

    2016-07-01

    Patients with enthesopathy of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) demonstrate signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is likely that these MRI changes persist for many years or may be permanent, regardless of symptoms, and represent an estimation of disease prevalence. We tested the hypothesis that the prevalence of incidental signal changes in the ECRB origin increases with age. We searched MRI reports of 3374 patients who underwent an MRI scan, including the elbow, for signal changes in the ECRB origin. Medical records were reviewed for symptoms consistent with ECRB enthesopathy. Prevalences of incidental and symptomatic signal changes were calculated and stratified by age. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to test whether age, sex, and race were independently associated with ECRB enthesopathy and calculated odds ratios. Signal changes in ECRB origin were identified on MRI scans of 369 of 3374 patients (11%) without a clinical suspicion of tennis elbow. The prevalence increased from 5.7% in patients aged between 18 and 30 years up to 16% in patients aged 71 years and older. Older age (odds ratio, 1.04; P elbow MRI scans. Increased MRI signal in the ECRB origin is common in symptomatic and in asymptomatic elbows. Our findings support the concept that ECRB enthesopathy is a highly prevalent, self-limited process that seems to affect a minimum of 1 in approximately every 7 people. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fatigue reduces the complexity of knee extensor torque fluctuations during maximal and submaximal intermittent isometric contractions in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular fatigue increases the amplitude of fluctuations in torque output during isometric contractions, but the effect of fatigue on the temporal structure, or complexity, of these fluctuations is not known. We hypothesised that fatigue would result in a loss of temporal complexity and a change in fractal scaling of the torque signal during isometric knee extensor exercise. Eleven healthy participants performed a maximal test (5 min of intermittent maximal voluntary contractions, MVCs), and a submaximal test (contractions at a target of 40% MVC performed until task failure), each with a 60% duty factor (6 s contraction, 4 s rest). Torque and surface EMG signals were sampled continuously. Complexity and fractal scaling of torque were quantified by calculating approximate entropy (ApEn), sample entropy (SampEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) scaling exponent α. Fresh submaximal contractions were more complex than maximal contractions (mean ± SEM, submaximal vs. maximal: ApEn 0.65 ± 0.09 vs. 0.15 ± 0.02; SampEn 0.62 ± 0.09 vs. 0.14 ± 0.02; DFA α 1.35 ± 0.04 vs. 1.55 ± 0.03; all P torque, fatigue reduces the neuromuscular system's adaptability to external perturbations. PMID:25664928

  10. Effects of chronic administration of clenbuterol on contractile properties and calcium homeostasis in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirvent, Pascal; Douillard, Aymerick; Galbes, Olivier; Ramonatxo, Christelle; Py, Guillaume; Candau, Robin; Lacampagne, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Clenbuterol, a β2-agonist, induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and a shift from slow-oxidative to fast-glycolytic muscle fiber type profile. However, the cellular mechanisms of the effects of chronic clenbuterol administration on skeletal muscle are not completely understood. As the intracellular Ca2+ concentration must be finely regulated in many cellular processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic clenbuterol treatment on force, fatigue, intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis and Ca2+-dependent proteolysis in fast-twitch skeletal muscles (the extensor digitorum longus, EDL, muscle), as they are more sensitive to clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy. Male Wistar rats were chronically treated with 4 mg.kg-1 clenbuterol or saline vehicle (controls) for 21 days. Confocal microscopy was used to evaluate sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load, Ca2+-transient amplitude and Ca2+ spark properties. EDL muscles from clenbuterol-treated animals displayed hypertrophy, a shift from slow to fast fiber type profile and increased absolute force, while the relative force remained unchanged and resistance to fatigue decreased compared to control muscles from rats treated with saline vehicle. Compared to control animals, clenbuterol treatment decreased Ca2+-transient amplitude, Ca2+ spark amplitude and frequency and the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ load was markedly reduced. Conversely, calpain activity was increased by clenbuterol chronic treatment. These results indicate that chronic treatment with clenbuterol impairs Ca2+ homeostasis and this could contribute to the remodeling and functional impairment of fast-twitch skeletal muscle.

  11. [Statistical (Poisson) motor unit number estimation. Methodological aspects and normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle of healthy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murga Oporto, L; Menéndez-de León, C; Bauzano Poley, E; Núñez-Castaín, M J

    Among the differents techniques for motor unit number estimation (MUNE) there is the statistical one (Poisson), in which the activation of motor units is carried out by electrical stimulation and the estimation performed by means of a statistical analysis based on the Poisson s distribution. The study was undertaken in order to realize an approximation to the MUNE Poisson technique showing a coprehensible view of its methodology and also to obtain normal results in the extensor digitorum brevis muscle (EDB) from a healthy population. One hundred fourteen normal volunteers with age ranging from 10 to 88 years were studied using the MUNE software contained in a Viking IV system. The normal subjects were divided into two age groups (10 59 and 60 88 years). The EDB MUNE from all them was 184 49. Both, the MUNE and the amplitude of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were significantly lower in the older age group (page than CMAP amplitude ( 0.5002 and 0.4142, respectively pphisiology of the motor unit. The value of MUNE correlates better with the neuromuscular aging process than CMAP amplitude does.

  12. MR Imaging of Patients with Lateral Epicondylitis of the Elbow: Is the Common Extensor Tendon an Isolated Lesion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Wang, Ren-Fa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET) is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1) the injury degree of CET; (2) associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman’s rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at plateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL). Conclusion Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL. PMID:24244512

  13. MR imaging of patients with lateral epicondylitis of the elbow: is the common extensor tendon an isolated lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Qi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an injury of the common extensor tendon (CET is associated with other abnormalities in the elbow joint and find the potential relationships between these imaging features by using a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. METHODS: Twenty-three patients were examined with 3.0 T MR. Two reviewers were recruited for MR images evaluation. Image features were recorded in terms of (1 the injury degree of CET; (2 associated injuries in the elbow joint. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was performed to analyze the relationships between the injury degree of CET and associated abnormalities of the elbow joint, correlations were considered significant at p<0.05. RESULTS: Total 24 elbows in 23 patients were included. Various degrees of injuries were found in total 24 CETs (10 mild, 7 moderate and 7 severe. Associated abnormalities were detected in accompaniments of the elbow joints including ligaments, tendons, saccussynovialis and muscles. A significantly positive correlation (r = 0.877,p<0.01 was found in injuries of CET and lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL. CONCLUSION: Injury of the CET is not an isolated lesion for lateral picondylitis, which is mostly accompanied with other abnormalities, of which the LUCL injury is the most commonly seen in lateral epicondylitis, and there is a positive correlation between the injury degree in CET and LUCL.

  14. Ultrasonography versus magnetic resonance imaging in detecting and grading common extensor tendon tear in chronic lateral epicondylitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Bachta

    Full Text Available To investigate the diagnostic performance and reliability of ultrasonography (US in detecting and grading common extensor tendon (CET tear in patients with chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as the reference standard.The study comprised fifty-eight chronic LE patients. Each patient underwent US and MRI. CET status was classified as: high-grade tear (≥50% thickness, low-grade tear (<50% thickness, suspected tear (possible but not evident tear, no tear. Additionally, the following dichotomous scale was used: confirmed or unconfirmed CET tear. Relative US parameters (versus MRI for detecting CET tear included: sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and accuracy. The agreement between US and MRI findings was measured using the weighted Cohen kappa coefficient (κ.US showed moderate agreement with MRI in detecting and grading CET tear (κ = 0.49. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in CET tear detecting by US were 64.52%, 85.19%, and 72.73%, respectively. PPV and NPV of US were 83.33% and 67.65%, respectively. No patient with unconfirmed CET tear on US had high-grade CET tear on MRI.Ultrasonography is a valuable imaging modality that can be used as a screening tool to exclude high-grade CET tear in chronic LE patients. Once a tear is evident on US, MRI should be considered to assess precisely the extent of tendon injury.

  15. Calcium dynamics in vascular smooth muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Gregory C.; Navedo, Manuel F.

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle cells are ultimately responsible for determining vascular luminal diameter and blood flow. Dynamic changes in intracellular calcium are a critical mechanism regulating vascular smooth muscle contractility. Processes influencing intracellular calcium are therefore important regulators of vascular function with physiological and pathophysiological consequences. In this review we discuss the major dynamic calcium signals identified and characterized in vascular smooth muscle cells....

  16. Gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging and compartmental modelling to assess hepatocyte bidirectional transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraudeau, Celine; Leporq, Benjamin; Doblas, Sabrina [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Lagadec, Matthieu; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E. [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Beaujon University Hospital Paris Nord, Department of Radiology, Clichy (France); Pastor, Catherine M. [University Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Hopital Beaujon, Laboratory of Imaging Biomarkers, UMR1149 Inserm, Clichy (France); Hopitaux Universitaires de Geneve, Departement d' Imagerie et des Sciences de l' Information Medicale, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    Changes in the expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters in advanced fibrosis decrease the hepatic transport function of organic anions. The aim of our study was to assess if these changes can be evaluated with pharmacokinetic analysis of the hepatobiliary transport of the MR contrast agent gadoxetate. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI was performed in 17 rats with advanced fibrosis and 8 normal rats. After deconvolution, hepatocyte three-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the hepatocyte influx, biliary efflux and sinusoidal backflux rates. The expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp2 and Mrp3 organic anion membrane transporters was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the rats with advanced fibrosis, the influx and efflux rates of gadoxetate decreased and the backflux rate increased significantly (p = 0.003, 0.041 and 0.010, respectively). Significant correlations were found between influx and Oatp1a1 expression (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), biliary efflux and Mrp2 (r = 0.50, p = 0.016) and sinusoidal backflux and Mrp3 (r = 0.61, p = 0.002). These results show that changes in the bidirectional organic anion hepatocyte transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. (orig.)

  17. A novel three-input monomolecular logic circuit on a rhodamine inspired bio-compatible bi-compartmental molecular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistri, Tarun; Bhowmick, Rahul; Katarkar, Atul; Chaudhuri, Keya; Ali, Mahammad

    2017-01-01

    Methodological synthesis of a new biocompatible bi-compartmental rhodamine based probe (L 3 ) provides a multi-inputs and multi-outputs molecular logic circuit based on simple chemosensing phenomena. Spectroscopic responses of Cu 2+ and Hg 2+ towards L 3 together with reversible binding of S 2- with L 3 -Cu 2+ and L 3 -Hg 2+ complexes help us to construct a thee-input molecular circuit on their control and sequential addition to a solution of L 3 in a mixed organo-aqueous medium. We have further successfully encoded binary digits out of these inputs and outputs which may convert a three-digit input string into a two-digit output string resulting a simple monomolecular logic circuit. Such a molecular ‘Boolean’ logic operation may improve the complexity of logic gate circuitry and computational speed and may be useful to employ in potential biocompatible molecular logic platforms. - Graphical abstract: A new bi-compartmental molecular system equipped with Rhodamine fluorophore unit provides a Multi-inputs and Multi-outputs Molecular Logic Circuit based on a very simple observation of chemosensing activities.

  18. A novel three-input monomolecular logic circuit on a rhodamine inspired bio-compatible bi-compartmental molecular platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistri, Tarun; Bhowmick, Rahul [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Katarkar, Atul; Chaudhuri, Keya [Molecular & Human Genetics Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, 4 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India); Ali, Mahammad, E-mail: mali@chemistry.jdvu.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Jadavpur University, 188 Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-05-15

    Methodological synthesis of a new biocompatible bi-compartmental rhodamine based probe (L{sup 3}) provides a multi-inputs and multi-outputs molecular logic circuit based on simple chemosensing phenomena. Spectroscopic responses of Cu{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+} towards L{sup 3} together with reversible binding of S{sup 2-} with L{sup 3}-Cu{sup 2+} and L{sup 3}-Hg{sup 2+} complexes help us to construct a thee-input molecular circuit on their control and sequential addition to a solution of L{sup 3} in a mixed organo-aqueous medium. We have further successfully encoded binary digits out of these inputs and outputs which may convert a three-digit input string into a two-digit output string resulting a simple monomolecular logic circuit. Such a molecular ‘Boolean’ logic operation may improve the complexity of logic gate circuitry and computational speed and may be useful to employ in potential biocompatible molecular logic platforms. - Graphical abstract: A new bi-compartmental molecular system equipped with Rhodamine fluorophore unit provides a Multi-inputs and Multi-outputs Molecular Logic Circuit based on a very simple observation of chemosensing activities.

  19. [Correlation of medial compartmental joint line elevation with femorotibial angle correction and clinical function after unicompartmental arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Wang, Dan; Min, Ji-Kang

    2017-04-25

    To study the correlation of postoperative femorotibial angle with medial compartmental joint line elevation after unicompartmental arthroplasty(UKA), as well as the correlation of joint line elevation with the clinical function by measuring radiological joint line. A retrospective study of 56 patients from July 2012 to August 2015 was performed. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 23.5 (ranged, 18.3 to 30.1). The standing anteroposterior radiographs of these patients were assessed both pre-and post-operatively, and the knee function was evaluated according to HSS grading. The correlation between postoperative femorotibial angle(FTA) and joint line elevation was analyzed as well as the correlation between joint line elevation and the clinical function. The mean medial joint line elevation was (2.2±2.0) mm(ranged, -3.3 to 7.0 mm), and the mean FTA correction was (2.3±3.0)°(ranged, -4.5° to 9.6°). The mean follow-up period was 12.2 months. There was a significant correlation between in joint line elevation and FTA correction( P clinical function( P >0.05). There was a significant correlation between medial compartmental joint line elevation and FTA correction after UKA, and the proximal tibial osteotomy was critical during the procedure. There was no significant correlation between joint line elevation and the clinical function, which may be related to the design of UKA prosthesis.

  20. Inter-compartmental transport of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in South China: Implications for a regional risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huizhen; Wei, Yanli; Lydy, Michael J.; You, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic flux of an organophosphate and four pyrethroid pesticides was determined in an air-(soil)-water-sediment system based on monitoring data from Guangzhou, China. The total air–water flux, including air–water gaseous exchange and atmospheric deposition, showed deposition from air to water for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and cypermethrin, but volatilization for lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin. The transport of the pesticides from overlying water to sediment suggested that sediment acted as a sink for the pesticides. Additionally, distinct annual atmospheric depositional fluxes between legacy and current-use pesticides suggested the role of consumer usage in their transport throughout the system. Finally, pesticide toxicity was estimated from annual air–water-sediment flux within an urban stream in Guangzhou. A dynamic flux-based risk assessment indicated that inter-compartmental transport of chlorpyrifos decreased its atmospheric exposure, but had little influence on its aquatic toxicity. Instead, water-to-sediment transport of pyrethroids increased their sediment toxicity, which was supported by previously reported toxicity data. - Highlights: • Transport fluxes of chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids were assessed in Guangzhou, China. • Sediment acted as a sink for chlorpyrifos and pyrethroids. • Air-to-water transport decreased the exposure risk of atmospheric chlorpyrifos. • Dynamic transport might increase the risk of pyrethroids in air and sediment. • Flux-based pesticide concentrations provide a way to estimate sediment toxicity. - Regional risk assessment could be improved by integrating dynamic flux information derived from inter-compartmental models

  1. Gadoxetate-enhanced MR imaging and compartmental modelling to assess hepatocyte bidirectional transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudeau, Celine; Leporq, Benjamin; Doblas, Sabrina; Lagadec, Matthieu; Daire, Jean-Luc; Van Beers, Bernard E.; Pastor, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in the expression of hepatocyte membrane transporters in advanced fibrosis decrease the hepatic transport function of organic anions. The aim of our study was to assess if these changes can be evaluated with pharmacokinetic analysis of the hepatobiliary transport of the MR contrast agent gadoxetate. Dynamic gadoxetate-enhanced MRI was performed in 17 rats with advanced fibrosis and 8 normal rats. After deconvolution, hepatocyte three-compartmental analysis was performed to calculate the hepatocyte influx, biliary efflux and sinusoidal backflux rates. The expression of Oatp1a1, Mrp2 and Mrp3 organic anion membrane transporters was assessed with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In the rats with advanced fibrosis, the influx and efflux rates of gadoxetate decreased and the backflux rate increased significantly (p = 0.003, 0.041 and 0.010, respectively). Significant correlations were found between influx and Oatp1a1 expression (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), biliary efflux and Mrp2 (r = 0.50, p = 0.016) and sinusoidal backflux and Mrp3 (r = 0.61, p = 0.002). These results show that changes in the bidirectional organic anion hepatocyte transport function in rats with advanced liver fibrosis can be assessed with compartmental analysis of gadoxetate-enhanced MRI. (orig.)

  2. Lean and Obese Zucker Rat Extensor Digitorum Longus Muscle high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFES Data: Regulation of p70S6kinase Associated Proteins

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    Kevin M. Rice

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic exercise has been advocated as a prescribed treatment for the management of diabetes: however, alterations in exercise-induced signaling remain largely unexplored in the diabetic muscle. Here, we compare the basal and the in situ contraction-induced phosphorylation of the AKT, GSK3beta, mTor, p70s6K, Pten, and Shp2 in the lean and obese (fa/fa Zucker rat Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL muscle following a single bout of contractile stimuli. This article represents data associated with prior publications from our lab (Katta et al., 2009a, 2009b; Tullgren et al., 1991 [1–3] and concurrent Data in Brief articles (Ginjupalli et al., 2017a, 2017b; Rice et al., 2017a, 2017b [4–7]. Keywords: Diabetes, Skeletal muscle, High-frequency electrical stimulation (HFES, Zucker rat, Extensor Digitorum Longus, p70s6k

  3. Cellular compartmentation follows rules: The Schnepf theorem, its consequences and exceptions: A biological membrane separates a plasmatic from a non-plasmatic phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Daniel; Maier, Uwe G

    2017-08-01

    Is the spatial organization of membranes and compartments within cells subjected to any rules? Cellular compartmentation differs between prokaryotic and eukaryotic life, because it is present to a high degree only in eukaryotes. In 1964, Prof. Eberhard Schnepf formulated the compartmentation rule (Schnepf theorem), which posits that a biological membrane, the main physical structure responsible for cellular compartmentation, usually separates a plasmatic form a non-plasmatic phase. Here we review and re-investigate the Schnepf theorem by applying the theorem to different cellular structures, from bacterial cells to eukaryotes with their organelles and compartments. In conclusion, we can confirm the general correctness of the Schnepf theorem, noting explicit exceptions only in special cases such as endosymbiosis and parasitism. © 2017 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Injuries to the vascular endothelium: vascular wall and endothelial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Vascular endothelial injury has multiple elements, and this article focuses on ischemia-related processes that have particular relevance to ischemic stroke. Distinctions between necrotic and apoptotic cell death provide a basic science context in which to better understand the significance of classical core and penumbra concepts of acute stroke, with apoptotic processes particularly prominent in the penumbra. The mitochondria are understood to serve as a reservoir of proteins that mediate apoptosis. Oxidative stress pathways generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) are prominent in endothelial injury, both ischemic and nonischemic, with prominent roles of enzyme- and nonenzymemediated pathways; mitochondria once again have a critical role, particularly in the nonenzymatic pathways generating ROS. Inflammation also contributes to vascular endothelial injury, and endothelial cells have the capacity to rapidly increase expression of inflammatory mediators following ischemic challenge; this leads to enhanced leukocyte-endothelial interactions mediated by selectins and adhesion molecules. Preconditioning consists of a minor version of an injurious event, which in turn may protect vascular endothelium from injury following a more substantial event. Presence of the blood-brain barrier creates unique responses to endothelial injury, with permeability changes due to impairment of endothelial-matrix interactions compounding altered vasomotor tone and tissue perfusion mediated by nitric oxide. Pharmacological protection against vascular endothelial injury can be provided by several of the phosphodiesterases (cilostazol and dipyridamole), along with statins. Optimal clinical responses for protection of brain vascular endothelium may use preconditioning as a model, and will likely require combined protection against apoptosis, ROS, and inflammation.

  5. Non-invasive vascular imaging: assessing tumour vascularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, S.; Knopp, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of vascularity is a new diagnostic approach to characterise tumours. Vascular assessment is based on the pathophysiology of tumour angiogenesis and its diagnostic implications for tumour biology, prognosis and therapy response. Two current techniques investigating vascular features in addition to morphology are Doppler ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced MRI. Diagnostic differentiation has been shown to be possible with Doppler, and a high degree of observed vascularity could be linked to an aggressive course of the disease. Dynamic MRI using gadolinium chelates is already used clinically to detect and differentiate tumours. The histological correlation shows that capillary permeability is increased in malignant tumours and is the best criterion for differentiation from benign processes. Permeability and perfusion factors seem to be more diagnostic than overall vessel density. New clinical applications are currently being established for therapy monitoring. Further instrumental developments will bring harmonic imaging in Doppler, and faster imaging techniques, higher spatial resolution and novel pharmacokinetic concepts in MRI. Upcoming contrast agents for both Doppler and MRI will further improve estimation of intratumoural blood volume and vascular permeability. (orig.)

  6. The Comparison of Forces Applied to the Knee Extensor Mechanism during Stance Phase of Gait in Flat Footed Females Three Different in-Shoe Orthotics

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    Mohsen Razeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It has been postulated that subtalar position and movement would influence the function of the foot and the lower limb’s biomechanical alignment as a whole. The aim of this study was to compare the changes of force applied to the knee extensor mechanism of the female subjects while applying three different in-shoe orthotic appliances. Materials & Methods: Feiss Line test was used to assign a group of 10 healthy female subjects aged at 19-25 years as flat foot group. Retro reflective calibration and tracking markers were placed on the subjects over anatomically relevant locations. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected by employing a three dimensional motion capture system (Qualisys®Ltd, Sweden and a force platform (Kistler®, Switzerland respectively, while subjects walked at their preferred speed with 3 different in-shoe orthotics: simple insole, insole with medial arch support, insole with medial arch support and medial heel wedge, and insole with medial arch support and lateral forefoot wedge. Results: A statistically significant lower amount of the force applied to the extensor mechanism was found while applying medial arch support combined with lateral wedge (P=0.005. Conclusion: It could be concluded that changes of the different foot insoles would alter the force applied to the knee extensor mechanism. Results of this study emphasize the immediate effect of applying a medial arch support combined lateral wedge on reduction of the force applied to the extensor mechanism through which decrease a tendency towards musculoskeletal injuries.

  7. Computer Modeling of Sand Transport on Mars Using a Compart-Mentalized Fluids Algorithm (CFA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Stratton, D.

    1999-01-01

    of sand comminution on Mars. A multiple-grain transport model using just the equations of grain motion describing lift and drag is impossible to develop owing to stochastic effects --the very effects we wish to model. Also, unless we were to employ supercomputing techniques and extremely complex computer codes that could deal with millions of grains simultaneously, it would also be difficult to model grain transport if we attempted to consider every grain in motion. No existing computer models were found that satisfactorily used the equations of motion to arrive at transport flux numbers for the different populations of saltation and reptation. Modeling all the grains in a transport system was an intractable problem within our resources, and thus we developed what we believe to be a new modeling approach to simulating grain transport. The CFA deals with grain populations, but considers them to belong to various compartmentalized fluid units in the boundary layer. In this way, the model circumvents the multigrain problem by dealing primarily with the consequences of grain transport --momentum transfer between air and grains, which is the physical essence of a dynamic grain-fluid mixture. We thus chose to model the aeolian transport process as a superposition of fluids. These fluids include the air as well as particle populations of various properties. The prime property distinguishing these fluids is upward and downward grain motion. In a normal saltation trajectory, a grain's downwind velocity increases with time, so a rising grain will have a smaller downwind velocity than a failing grain. Because of this disparity in rising and falling grain proper-ties, it seemed appropriate to track these as two separate grain populations within the same physical space. The air itself can be considered a separate fluid superimposed within and interacting with the various grain-cloud "fluids". Additional informaiton is contained in the original.

  8. The cell cycle of the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus with respect to cell compartmentalization

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    Fuerst John A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gemmata obscuriglobus is a distinctive member of the divergent phylum Planctomycetes, all known members of which are peptidoglycan-less bacteria with a shared compartmentalized cell structure and divide by a budding process. G. obscuriglobus in addition shares the unique feature that its nucleoid DNA is surrounded by an envelope consisting of two membranes forming an analogous structure to the membrane-bounded nucleoid of eukaryotes and therefore G. obscuriglobus forms a special model for cell biology. Draft genome data for G. obscuriglobus as well as complete genome sequences available so far for other planctomycetes indicate that the key bacterial cell division protein FtsZ is not present in these planctomycetes, so the cell division process in planctomycetes is of special comparative interest. The membrane-bounded nature of the nucleoid in G. obscuriglobus also suggests that special mechanisms for the distribution of this nuclear body to the bud and for distribution of chromosomal DNA might exist during division. It was therefore of interest to examine the cell division cycle in G. obscuriglobus and the process of nucleoid distribution and nuclear body formation during division in this planctomycete bacterium via light and electron microscopy. Results Using phase contrast and fluorescence light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, the cell division cycle of G. obscuriglobus was determined. During the budding process, the bud was formed and developed in size from one point of the mother cell perimeter until separation. The matured daughter cell acted as a new mother cell and started its own budding cycle while the mother cell can itself initiate budding repeatedly. Fluorescence microscopy of DAPI-stained cells of G. obscuriglobus suggested that translocation of the nucleoid and formation of the bud did not occur at the same time. Confocal laser scanning light microscopy applied to cells stained for membranes as

  9. Activation amplitude and temporal synchrony among back extensor and abdominal muscles during a controlled transfer task: comparison of men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L; Butler, Heather L; Kozey, John W

    2012-08-01

    Muscle synergies are important for spinal stability, but few studies examine temporal responses of spinal muscles to dynamic perturbations. This study examined activation amplitudes and temporal synergies among compartments of the back extensor and among abdominal wall muscles in response to dynamic bidirectional moments of force. We further examined whether responses were different between men and women. 19 women and 18 men performed a controlled transfer task. Surface electromyograms from bilateral sites over 6 back extensor compartments and 6 abdominal wall muscle sites were analyzed using principal component analysis. Key features were extracted from the measured electromyographic waveforms capturing amplitude and temporal variations among muscle sites. Three features explained 97% of the variance. Scores for each feature were computed for each measured waveform and analysis of variance found significant (pWomen had more differences among muscle sites than men for the lateral flexion moment feature. For the abdominal wall muscles the oblique muscles responded with synergies related to fiber orientation, with women having higher amplitudes and more responsiveness to the lateral flexion moment than men. Synergies between the abdominal and back extensor sites as the moment demands change are discussed. These findings illustrate differential activation among erector spinae compartments and abdominal wall muscle sites supporting a highly organized pattern of response to bidirectional external moments with asynchronies more apparent in women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Speed, not magnitude, of knee extensor torque production is associated with self-reported knee function early after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Chao-Jung; Indelicato, Peter A; Moser, Michael W; Vandenborne, Krista; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2015-11-01

    To examine the magnitude and speed of knee extensor torque production at the initiation of advanced anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation and the associations with self-reported knee function. Twenty-eight subjects who were 12 weeks post-ACL reconstruction and 28 age- and sex-matched physically active controls participated in this study. Knee extensor torque was assessed bilaterally with an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s. The variables of interest were peak torque, average rate of torque development, time to peak torque and quadriceps symmetry index. Knee function was assessed with the International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF). Peak torque and average rate of torque development were lower on the surgical side compared to the non-surgical side and controls. Quadriceps symmetry index was lower in subjects with ACL reconstruction compared to controls. On the surgical side, average rate of torque development was positively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = 0.379) while time to peak torque was negatively correlated with IKDC-SKF score (r = -0.407). At the initiation of advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation, the surgical side displayed deficits in peak torque and average rate of torque development. A higher rate of torque development and shorter time to peak torque were associated with better self-reported knee function. The results suggest that the rate of torque development should be addressed during advanced ACL reconstruction rehabilitation and faster knee extensor torque generation may lead to better knee function. III.

  11. Extensor and flexor digit synovial sheath, sac and synovial capsule in the distal part of the limbs in buffalos and camels and its relation of surgical interference

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    S. AL-sadi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sixty one samples of the distal parts of limbs were obtained from different ages of buffalo and camels of both sex to study the synovial structures to determine the suitable sites for injection of surgical interference. The result showed that extensor digit synovial sheath was extend between middle or distal part of metacarpal (metatarsal to the extensor processes and this formed with synovial capsule dorsal pouches which serve in surgical interference. The flexor digit synovial sheath extended to palmar (planter between distal extremity of metacarpal (metatarsal to the middle of second phalanx in buffalo while in camel it extended to the proximal extremity of second phalanx, that sheath was formed with suspensory ligament and sessamoid bone palmar or planter pouches which were serve the surgical interference. Fourth synovial bursa observed situated dorsally between the extensor digit laterals tendon and capsule of fetlock joint, forms site of injection during surgical interference, while the other two synovial bursa were located to palmer (planter between deep flexor tendon and distal sessamoid bone in buffalo while in camel these bursa were located between deep flexor tendon and cartilage of the second phalanx, these bursa were served for surgical interference. The synovial capsule which serve the surgical interference through digit cushion these were shown extended from the claw capsule. The result show that surgical interference was form six pouches in buffalo and eight pouches in camel, which formed by synovial structures and the tissue associated with them.

  12. Análise eletromiográfica e força do grupo muscular extensor do punho durante isquemia induzida Electromyographic analysis and strength of the wrist extensor muscle group during induced ischemia

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    CCA Bandeira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da isquemia induzida sobre os parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico e a força do grupo muscular extensor do punho (GMEP em mulheres saudáveis. MÉTODOS: Participaram 13 voluntárias, destras, sedentárias, com idade de 23,38±2,32 anos e índice de massa corporal (IMC de 20,68±1,87kg/m². Para determinar a força do GMEP, foram realizadas 3 contrações isométricas voluntárias máximas (CIVM, utilizando-se uma célula de carga por 15 segundos, com intervalos de 2 minutos entre cada contração, sendo todo procedimento repetido por 3 dias não consecutivos. A isquemia foi realizada por 5 minutos, utilizando um esfigmomanômetro posicionado no braço dominante e inflado até a ausência do fluxo sanguíneo, confirmada pelo ultrassom Doppler. Para coleta do sinal eletromiográfico do GMEP, utilizou-se o equipamento EMG1000 (Lynx® com eletrodo de superfície diferencial (Lynx®. Foram coletadas 3 CIVM por 15 segundos, com intervalo de 30 segundos entre elas, nas situações de pré-isquemia; isquemia; pós-isquemia imediata (pós-1 e pós-isquemia tardia (pós-2 - após 10 minutos do início da isquemia. Para análise dos parâmetros do sinal eletromiográfico, root mean square (RMS, e frequência mediana do espectro de potência do sinal foi utilizado o software MATLAB 6.5.1. Para análise estatística, foram utilizados os testes de Friedman e ANOVA two-way. RESULTADOS: A isquemia promoveu redução significativa (pOBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of induced ischemia on the parameters of electromyographic signals and the strength of the wrist extensor muscle group (WEMG in healthy women. METHODS: Thirteen right-handed sedentary subjects aged 23.38±2.32 years old, with body mass index (BMI of 20.68±1.87kg/m², took part. To determine WEMG strength, three maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC were performed using a load cell for 15 seconds, with 2 minutes intervals between contractions. The entire

  13. Pediatric interventional radiology: vascular interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kandasamy, Devasenathipathy; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric interventional radiology (PIR) comprises a range of minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are performed using image guidance. PIR has emerged as an essential adjunct to various surgical and medical conditions. Over the years, technology has undergone dramatic and continuous evolution, making this speciality grow. In this review, the authors will discuss various vascular interventional procedures undertaken in pediatric patients. It is challenging for the interventional radiologist to accomplish a successful interventional procedure. There are many vascular interventional radiology procedures which are being performed and have changed the way the diseases are managed. Some of the procedures are life saving and have become the treatment of choice in those patients. The future is indeed bright for the practice and practitioners of pediatric vascular and non-vascular interventions. As more and more of the procedures that are currently being performed in adults get gradually adapted for use in the pediatric population, it may be possible to perform safe and successful interventions in many of the pediatric vascular lesions that are otherwise being referred for surgery. (author)

  14. Interstitial fluid flow and drug delivery in vascularized tumors: a computational model.

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    Michael Welter

    Full Text Available Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the human cells and provides them with nutrients and a way of waste removal. It is generally believed that elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP is partly responsible for the poor penetration and distribution of therapeutic agents in solid tumors, but the complex interplay of extravasation, permeabilities, vascular heterogeneities and diffusive and convective drug transport remains poorly understood. Here we consider-with the help of a theoretical model-the tumor IFP, interstitial fluid flow (IFF and its impact upon drug delivery within tumor depending on biophysical determinants such as vessel network morphology, permeabilities and diffusive vs. convective transport. We developed a vascular tumor growth model, including vessel co-option, regression, and angiogenesis, that we extend here by the interstitium (represented by a porous medium obeying Darcy's law and sources (vessels and sinks (lymphatics for IFF. With it we compute the spatial variation of the IFP and IFF and determine its correlation with the vascular network morphology and physiological parameters like vessel wall permeability, tissue conductivity, distribution of lymphatics etc. We find that an increased vascular wall conductivity together with a reduction of lymph function leads to increased tumor IFP, but also that the latter does not necessarily imply a decreased extravasation rate: Generally the IF flow rate is positively correlated with the various conductivities in the system. The IFF field is then used to determine the drug distribution after an injection via a convection diffusion reaction equation for intra- and extracellular concentrations with parameters guided by experimental data for the drug Doxorubicin. We observe that the interplay of convective and diffusive drug transport can lead to quite unexpected effects in the presence of a heterogeneous, compartmentalized vasculature. Finally we discuss

  15. Interstitial fluid flow and drug delivery in vascularized tumors: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welter, Michael; Rieger, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Interstitial fluid is a solution that bathes and surrounds the human cells and provides them with nutrients and a way of waste removal. It is generally believed that elevated tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is partly responsible for the poor penetration and distribution of therapeutic agents in solid tumors, but the complex interplay of extravasation, permeabilities, vascular heterogeneities and diffusive and convective drug transport remains poorly understood. Here we consider-with the help of a theoretical model-the tumor IFP, interstitial fluid flow (IFF) and its impact upon drug delivery within tumor depending on biophysical determinants such as vessel network morphology, permeabilities and diffusive vs. convective transport. We developed a vascular tumor growth model, including vessel co-option, regression, and angiogenesis, that we extend here by the interstitium (represented by a porous medium obeying Darcy's law) and sources (vessels) and sinks (lymphatics) for IFF. With it we compute the spatial variation of the IFP and IFF and determine its correlation with the vascular network morphology and physiological parameters like vessel wall permeability, tissue conductivity, distribution of lymphatics etc. We find that an increased vascular wall conductivity together with a reduction of lymph function leads to increased tumor IFP, but also that the latter does not necessarily imply a decreased extravasation rate: Generally the IF flow rate is positively correlated with the various conductivities in the system. The IFF field is then used to determine the drug distribution after an injection via a convection diffusion reaction equation for intra- and extracellular concentrations with parameters guided by experimental data for the drug Doxorubicin. We observe that the interplay of convective and diffusive drug transport can lead to quite unexpected effects in the presence of a heterogeneous, compartmentalized vasculature. Finally we discuss various

  16. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  17. Imaging after vascular gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, Hannu I.; Yang, Xiaoming

    2005-01-01

    Targets for cardiovascular gene therapy currently include limiting restenosis after balloon angioplasty and stent placement, inhibiting vein bypass graft intimal hyperplasia/stenosis, therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiac and lower-limb ischemia, and prevention of thrombus formation. While catheter angiography is still standard method to follow-up vascular gene transfer, other modern imaging techniques, especially intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), magnetic resonance (MR), and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging provide complementary information about the therapeutic effect of vascular gene transfer in humans. Although molecular imaging of therapeutic gene expression in the vasculatures is still in its technical development phase, it has already offered basic medical science an extremely useful in vivo evaluation tool for non- or minimally invasive imaging of vascular gene therapy

  18. Vascular Gene Expression: A Hypothesis

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    Angélica Concepción eMartínez-Navarro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The phloem is the conduit through which photoassimilates are distributed from autotrophic to heterotrophic tissues and is involved in the distribution of signaling molecules that coordinate plant growth and responses to the environment. Phloem function depends on the coordinate expression of a large array of genes. We have previously identified conserved motifs in upstream regions of the Arabidopsis genes, encoding the homologs of pumpkin phloem sap mRNAs, displaying expression in vascular tissues. This tissue-specific expression in Arabidopsis is predicted by the overrepresentation of GA/CT-rich motifs in gene promoters. In this work we have searched for common motifs in upstream regions of the homologous genes from plants considered to possess a primitive vascular tissue (a lycophyte, as well as from others that lack a true vascular tissue (a bryophyte, and finally from chlorophytes. Both lycophyte and bryophyte display motifs similar to those found in Arabidopsis with a significantly low E-value, while the chlorophytes showed either a different conserved motif or no conserved motif at all. These results suggest that these same genes are expressed coordinately in non- vascular plants; this coordinate expression may have been one of the prerequisites for the development of conducting tissues in plants. We have also analyzed the phylogeny of conserved proteins that may be involved in phloem function and development. The presence of CmPP16, APL, FT and YDA in chlorophytes suggests the recruitment of ancient regulatory networks for the development of the vascular tissue during evolution while OPS is a novel protein specific to vascular plants.

  19. Loss of knee extensor torque complexity during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions occurs exclusively above the critical torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pethick, Jamie; Winter, Samantha L; Burnley, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The complexity of knee extensor torque time series decreases during fatiguing isometric muscle contractions. We hypothesized that because of peripheral fatigue, this loss of torque complexity would occur exclusively during contractions above the critical torque (CT). Nine healthy participants performed isometric knee extension exercise (6 s of contraction, 4 s of rest) on six occasions for 30 min or to task failure, whichever occurred sooner. Four trials were performed above CT (trials S1-S4, S1 being the lowest intensity), and two were performed below CT (at 50% and 90% of CT). Global, central, and peripheral fatigue were quantified using maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) with femoral nerve stimulation. The complexity of torque output was determined using approximate entropy (ApEn) and the detrended fluctuation analysis-α scaling exponent (DFA-α). The MVC torque was reduced in trials below CT [by 19 ± 4% (means ± SE) in 90%CT], but complexity did not decrease [ApEn for 90%CT: from 0.82 ± 0.03 to 0.75 ± 0.06, 95% paired-samples confidence intervals (CIs), 95% CI = -0.23, 0.10; DFA-α from 1.36 ± 0.01 to 1.32 ± 0.03, 95% CI -0.12, 0.04]. Above CT, substantial reductions in MVC torque occurred (of 49 ± 8% in S1), and torque complexity was reduced (ApEn for S1: from 0.67 ± 0.06 to 0.14 ± 0.01, 95% CI = -0.72, -0.33; DFA-α from 1.38 ± 0.03 to 1.58 ± 0.01, 95% CI 0.12, 0.29). Thus, in these experiments, the fatigue-induced loss of torque complexity occurred exclusively during contractions performed above the CT. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Knee Extensor Rate of Torque Development Before and After Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy, With Analysis of Neuromuscular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian, Daniel G; Koch, Cameron M; Amendola, Annunziato; Williams, Glenn N

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Descriptive, prospective single-cohort longitudinal study. Background Though rapid torque development is essential in activities of daily living and sports, it hasn't been specifically tested by most physical therapists or incorporated into rehabilitation programs until late in the treatment process. Little evidence is available on quadriceps torque development capacity before and after arthroscopic knee surgery. Objectives To study knee extensor rate of torque development, contributing mechanisms, and associations with strength and patient-reported outcomes before and during the first 6 weeks after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. Methods Twenty subjects (mean ± SD age, 42.3 ± 13.7 years; body mass index, 26.6 ± 3.1 kg/m 2 ) were tested before surgery, and at 2 and 5 weeks after surgery. Quadriceps muscle volume, strength, activation, rate of torque development, and patient-reported outcomes were evaluated across the study period. Results Significant side-to-side differences in quadriceps strength and voluntary rate of torque development were observed at each time point (Ptorque development capacity. Side-to-side rate of torque development deficits after surgery were associated with lower patient-reported outcomes scores. Conclusion Diminished rapid torque development capacity is common in arthroscopic meniscal debridement patients. This reduced capacity is associated with an inability to quickly recruit and drive the quadriceps muscles (neural mechanisms) and not muscle atrophy or other peripheral factors tested. Patient-reported outcomes are associated with quadriceps rate of torque development, but not strength or muscle size. Rapid torque development warrants greater attention in rehabilitation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):945-956. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7310.

  1. Two novel MYH7 proline substitutions cause Laing Distal Myopathy-like phenotypes with variable expressivity and neck extensor contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein-Linial, Miora; Buvoli, Massimo; Buvoli, Ada; Sadeh, Menachem; Dabby, Ron; Straussberg, Rachel; Shelef, Ilan; Dayan, Daniel; Leinwand, Leslie Anne; Birk, Ohad S

    2016-08-12

    Human skeletal muscles express three major myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms: MyHCIIx (MYH1) in fast type 2B muscle fibers, MyHCIIa (MYH2) in fast type 2A fibers and MyHCI/β-cardiac MyHC (MYH7) in slow type I skeletal fibers and cardiac ventricles. In line with its expression pattern, MYH7 mutations have been reported in association with hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy, skeletal myopathies or a combination of both. We analyzed the clinical and molecular phenotype of two unrelated families of Jewish Moroccan ancestry that presented with apparently autosomal dominant inheritance of progressive Laing-like distal myopathy with non-specific myopathic changes, but uncommon marked contractures and wasting of the neck extensors. Clinical phenotyping, whole exome sequencing and restriction analysis, generation of mutants followed by cell culture transfection and imaging. Using whole exome sequencing we identified in both families two novel heterozygous proline substitutions located in exon 31 of MYH7 within its rod domain: c.4309G>C (p.Ala1437Pro) and c.4301G>C (p.Arg1434Pro). Here we show that the phenotype caused by these mutations includes marked cervical muscle contracture, and report that the severity of the phenotype varies significantly, to the extent of non-penetrance in one of the families. Finally, we provide evidence that both proline substitutions impair myosin self-assembly in non-muscle cells transfected with β-myosin constructs carrying the mutations, but do not prevent incorporation of the mutant molecules into the sarcomere. This study expands our clinical and molecular knowledge of MYH7 rod mutations causing skeletal myopathies, and underscores the importance of discussing disease penetrance during genetic counseling.

  2. Recombinant Uncarboxylated Osteocalcin Per Se Enhances Mouse Skeletal Muscle Glucose Uptake in both Extensor Digitorum Longus and Soleus Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhu Lin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC improves muscle glucose uptake in rodents. However, whether ucOC can directly increase glucose uptake in both glycolytic and oxidative muscles and the possible mechanisms of action still need further exploration. We tested the hypothesis that ucOC per se stimulates muscle glucose uptake via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, and/or the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2-protein kinase B (AKT-AKT substrate of 160 kDa (AS160 signaling cascade. Extensor digitorum longus (EDL and soleus muscles from male C57BL/6 mice were isolated, divided into halves, and then incubated with ucOC with or without the pretreatment of ERK inhibitor U0126. ucOC increased muscle glucose uptake in both EDL and soleus. It also enhanced phosphorylation of ERK2 (Thr202/Tyr204 and AS160 (Thr642 in both muscle types and increased mTOR phosphorylation (Ser2481 in EDL only. ucOC had no significant effect on the phosphorylation of AMPKα (Thr172. The inhibition of ucOC-induced ERK phosphorylation had limited effect on ucOC-stimulated glucose uptake and AS160 phosphorylation in both muscle types, but appeared to inhibit the elevation in AKT phosphorylation only in EDL. Taken together, ucOC at the physiological range directly increased glucose uptake in both EDL and soleus muscles in mouse. The molecular mechanisms behind this ucOC effect on muscle glucose uptake seem to be muscle type-specific, involving enhanced phosphorylation of AS160 but limitedly modulated by ERK phosphorylation. Our study suggests that, since ucOC increases muscle glucose uptake without insulin, it could be considered as a potential agent to improve muscle glucose uptake in insulin resistant conditions.

  3. [Vascular Calcification - Pathological Mechanism and Clinical Application - . Role of vascular smooth muscle cells in vascular calcification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-05-01

    Vascular calcification is commonly seen with aging, chronic kidney disese (CKD), diabetes, and atherosclerosis, and is closely associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as the final stage of degeneration and necrosis of arterial wall and a passive, unregulated process. However, it is now known to be an active and tightly regulated process involved with phenotypic transition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) that resembles bone mineralization. Briefly, calcium deposits of atherosclerotic plaque consist of hydroxyapatite and may appear identical to fully formed lamellar bone. By using a genetic fate mapping strategy, VSMC of the vascular media give rise to the majority of the osteochondrogenic precursor- and chondrocyte-like cells observed in the calcified arterial media of MGP (- / -) mice. Osteogenic differentiation of VSMC is characterized by the expression of bone-related molecules including bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) -2, Msx2 and osteopontin, which are produced by osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Our recent findings are that (i) Runx2 and Notch1 induce osteogenic differentiation, and (ii) advanced glycation end-product (AGE) /receptor for AGE (RAGE) and palmitic acid promote osteogenic differentiation of VSMC. To understand of the molecular mechanisms of vascular calcification is now under intensive research area.

  4. Vascular malforma- tions part 1 — normal and abnormal vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    to form the primitive vascular plexus. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels by sprouting or splitting of ... The differentiation of primitive vessels into arteries, veins or capillaries is determined by flow patterns .... identify, but it is probable that as time progresses further specific genetic defects related to the development ...

  5. Genetic Regulation of Vascular Development: Building the Zebrafish Vascular Tree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L.J.M. Herpers (Robert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe extensive networks of blood and lymphatic vessels within the vertebrate body are essential for the transport and delivery of fluids, gases, macromolecules and cells, and play important roles in facilitating immune responses. The development of the vascular tree requires a highly

  6. The cellular and compartmental profile of mouse retinal glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, and ~P transferring kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rueda, Elda M; Johnson, Jerry E; Giddabasappa, Anand; Swaroop, Anand; Brooks, Matthew J; Sigel, Irena; Chaney, Shawnta Y; Fox, Donald A

    2016-01-01

    The homeostatic regulation of cellular ATP is achieved by the coordinated activity of ATP utilization, synthesis, and buffering. Glucose is the major substrate for ATP synthesis through glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), whereas intermediary metabolism through the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle utilizes non-glucose-derived monocarboxylates, amino acids, and alpha ketoacids to support mitochondrial ATP and GTP synthesis. Cellular ATP is buffered by specialized equilibrium-driven high-energy phosphate (~P) transferring kinases. Our goals were twofold: 1) to characterize the gene expression, protein expression, and activity of key synthesizing and regulating enzymes of energy metabolism in the whole mouse retina, retinal compartments, and/or cells and 2) to provide an integrative analysis of the results related to function. mRNA expression data of energy-related genes were extracted from our whole retinal Affymetrix microarray data. Fixed-frozen retinas from adult C57BL/6N mice were used for immunohistochemistry, laser scanning confocal microscopy, and enzymatic histochemistry. The immunoreactivity levels of well-characterized antibodies, for all major retinal cells and their compartments, were obtained using our established semiquantitative confocal and imaging techniques. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase (COX) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity was determined histochemically. The Affymetrix data revealed varied gene expression patterns of the ATP synthesizing and regulating enzymes found in the muscle, liver, and brain. Confocal studies showed differential cellular and compartmental distribution of isozymes involved in glucose, glutamate, glutamine, lactate, and creatine metabolism. The pattern and intensity of the antibodies and of the COX and LDH activity showed the high capacity of photoreceptors for aerobic glycolysis and OXPHOS. Competition assays with pyruvate revealed that LDH-5 was localized in the photoreceptor inner segments. The

  7. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V; Milchakova, Nataliya A; Frontasyeva, Marina V

    2015-08-15

    Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in "branches" than in "stems". Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Modulation of cytokine release by differentiated CACO-2 cells in a compartmentalized coculture model with mononuclear leucocytes and nonpathogenic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr; Haller, D.; Brinz, S.

    2004-01-01

    To further investigate the interaction between human mononuclear leucocytes [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC)] and enterocytes, the effect of a confluent layer of differentiated CACO-2 cells on cytokine kinetics during challenge with bacteria in a compartmentalized coculture model...... cells when leucocytes were stimulated directly with bacteria. This suppression was not paralleled by changes in the production of IL-10, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta. When the bacteria were applied apically to the CACO-2 cell layer, the production of TNF-alpha, IL-12, IL-1beta, IL-8......, IL-6, IL-10, TGF-beta and interferon-gamma was pronouncedly lower as compared to the bacterial stimulation of leucocytes beneath the CACO-2 cells. In the latter experiments, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha were the cytokines being mostly induced by apical addition of E. coli. Quantitative mRNA expression...

  9. On the contributions of photorespiration and compartmentation to the contrasting intramolecular 2H profiles of C3 and C4 plant sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youping Zhou; Benli Zhang; Hilary Stuart-Williams; Kliti Grice; Charles H. Hocart; Arthur Gessler; Zachary E. Kayler; Graham D. Farquhar

    2018-01-01

    Compartmentation of C4 photosynthetic biochemistry into bundle sheath (BS) and mesophyll (M) cells, and photorespiration in C3 plants is predicted to have hydrogen isotopic consequences for metabolites at both molecular and site-specific levels. Molecular-level evidence was recently reported (Zhou et al., 2016), but...

  10. Human immunodeficiency viruses appear compartmentalized to the female genital tract in cross-sectional analyses but genital lineages do not persist over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta E; Heath, Laura M; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L; Kraft, Kelli M; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E; Cohn, Susan E; Tapia, Kenneth A; Holte, Sarah E; Dragavon, Joan A; Coombs, Robert W; Mullins, James I; Frenkel, Lisa M

    2013-04-15

    Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood.

  11. Human Immunodeficiency Viruses Appear Compartmentalized to the Female Genital Tract in Cross-Sectional Analyses but Genital Lineages Do Not Persist Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta E.; Heath, Laura M.; McKernan-Mullin, Jennifer L.; Kraft, Kelli M.; Acevedo, Luis; Hitti, Jane E.; Cohn, Susan E.; Tapia, Kenneth A.; Holte, Sarah E.; Dragavon, Joan A.; Coombs, Robert W.; Mullins, James I.; Frenkel, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood. Methods. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests. Results. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences. Conclusions. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood. PMID:23315326

  12. Kinetic compartmental analysis of carnitine metabolism in the human carnitine deficiency syndromes. Evidence for alterations in tissue carnitine transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebouche, C.J.; Engel, A.G.

    1984-01-01

    The human primary carnitine deficiency syndromes are potentially fatal disorders affecting children and adults. The molecular etiologies of these syndromes have not been determined. In this investigation, we considered the hypothesis that these syndromes result from defective transport of carnitine into tissues, particularly skeletal muscle. The problem was approached by mathematical modeling, by using the technique of kinetic compartmental analysis. A tracer dose of L-[methyl-3H]carnitine was administered intravenously to six normal subjects, one patient with primary muscle carnitine deficiency (MCD), and four patients with primary systemic carnitine deficiency (SCD). Specific radioactivity was followed in plasma for 28 d. A three-compartment model (extracellular fluid, muscle, and ''other tissues'') was adopted. Rate constants, fluxes, pool sizes, and turnover times were calculated. Results of these calculations indicated reduced transport of carnitine into muscle in both forms of primary carnitine deficiency. However, in SCD, the reduced rate of carnitine transport was attributed to reduced plasma carnitine concentration. In MCD, the results are consistent with an intrinsic defect in the transport process. Abnormal fluctuations of the plasma carnitine, but of a different form, occurred in MCD and SCD. The significance of these are unclear, but in SCD they suggest abnormal regulation of the muscle/plasma carnitine concentration gradient. In 8 of 11 subjects, carnitine excretion was less than dietary carnitine intake. Carnitine excretion rates calculated by kinetic compartmental analysis were higher than corresponding rates measured directly, indicating degradation of carnitine. However, we found no radioactive metabolites of L-[methyl-3H]carnitine in urine. These observations suggest that dietary carnitine was metabolized in the gastrointestinal tract

  13. Compartmentalization of HIV-1 within the female genital tract is due to monotypic and low-diversity variants not distinct viral populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Marta; Learn, Gerald; Genowati, Indira; McKernan, Jennifer; Hitti, Jane; Lockhart, David; Tapia, Kenneth; Holte, Sarah; Dragavon, Joan; Coombs, Robert; Mullins, James; Frenkel, Lisa

    2009-09-22

    Compartmentalization of HIV-1 between the genital tract and blood was noted in half of 57 women included in 12 studies primarily using cell-free virus. To further understand differences between genital tract and blood viruses of women with chronic HIV-1 infection cell-free and cell-associated virus populations were sequenced from these tissues, reasoning that integrated viral DNA includes variants archived from earlier in infection, and provides a greater array of genotypes for comparisons. Multiple sequences from single-genome-amplification of HIV-1 RNA and DNA from the genital tract and blood of each woman were compared in a cross-sectional study. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for evidence of compartmentalization using four statistical tests. Genital tract and blood HIV-1 appears compartmentalized in 7/13 women by >/=2 statistical analyses. These subjects' phylograms were characterized by low diversity genital-specific viral clades interspersed between clades containing both genital and blood sequences. Many of the genital-specific clades contained monotypic HIV-1 sequences. In 2/7 women, HIV-1 populations were significantly compartmentalized across all four statistical tests; both had low diversity genital tract-only clades. Collapsing monotypic variants into a single sequence diminished the prevalence and extent of compartmentalization. Viral sequences did not demonstrate tissue-specific signature amino acid residues, differential immune selection, or co-receptor usage. In women with chronic HIV-1 infection multiple identical sequences suggest proliferation of HIV-1-infected cells, and low diversity tissue-specific phylogenetic clades are consistent with bursts of viral replication. These monotypic and tissue-specific viruses provide statistical support for compartmentalization of HIV-1 between the female genital tract and blood. However, the intermingling of these clades with clades comprised of both genital and blood sequences and the absence

  14. [Vascular access guidelines for hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Hernández, J A; González Parra, E; Julián Gutiérrez, J M; Segarra Medrano, A; Almirante, B; Martínez, M T; Arrieta, J; Fernández Rivera, C; Galera, A; Gallego Beuter, J; Górriz, J L; Herrero, J A; López Menchero, R; Ochando, A; Pérez Bañasco, V; Polo, J R; Pueyo, J; Ruiz, Camps I; Segura Iglesias, R

    2005-01-01

    Quality of vascular access (VA) has a remarkable influence in hemodialysis patients outcomes. Dysfunction of VA represents a capital cause of morbi-mortality of these patients as well an increase in economical. Spanish Society of Neprhology, aware of the problem, has decided to carry out a revision of the issue with the aim of providing help in comprehensión and treatment related with VA problems, and achieving an homogenization of practices in three mayor aspects: to increase arteriovenous fistula utilization as first vascular access, to increment vascular access monitoring practice and rationalise central catheters use. We present a consensus document elaborated by a multidisciplinar group composed by nephrologists, vascular surgeons, interventional radiologysts, infectious diseases specialists and nephrological nurses. Along six chapters that cover patient education, creation of VA, care, monitoring, complications and central catheters, we present the state of the art and propose guidelines for the best practice, according different evidence based degrees, with the intention to provide help at the professionals in order to make aproppiate decissions. Several quality standars are also included.

  15. Image Quality in Vascular Radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanhavere, F.; Struelens, L.

    2005-01-01

    In vascular radiology, the radiologists use the radiological image to diagnose or treat a specific vascular structure. From literature, we know that related doses are high and that large dose variability exists between different hospitals. The application of the optimization principle is therefore necessary and is obliged by the new legislation. So far, very little fieldwork has been performed and no practical instructions are available to do the necessary work. It's indisputable that obtaining quantitative data is of great interest for optimization purposes. In order to gain insight into these doses and the possible measures for dose reduction, we performed a comparative study in 7 hospitals. Patient doses will be measured and calculated for specific procedures in vascular radiology and evaluated against their most influencing parameters. In view of optimization purposes, a protocol for dose audit will be set-up. From the results and conclusions in this study, experimentally based guidelines will be proposed, in order to improve clinical practice in vascular radiology

  16. Vascular aspects of multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haeseleer, Miguel; Cambron, Melissa; Vanopdenbosch, Ludo; De Keyser, Jacques

    Three types of vascular dysfunction have been described in multiple sclerosis (MS). First, findings from epidemiological studies suggest that patients with MS have a higher risk for ischaemic stroke than people who do not have MS. The underlying mechanism is unknown, but might involve endothelial

  17. Subclinical hypothyroidism after vascular complicated pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanden, M. van der; Hop-de Groot, R.J.; Sweep, F.C.; Ross, H.A.; Heijer, M. den; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Women with a history of vascular complicated pregnancy are at risk for developing remote cardiovascular disease. It is associated with underlying cardiovascular risk factors both jeopardizing trophoblast and vascular function. Subclinical hypothyroidism may relate to both conditions.

  18. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Ezra A.; Orbach, Darren B.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  19. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  20. ESRD QIP - Vascular Access - Payment Year 2018

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset includes facility details, performance rates, vascular access topic measure score, and the state and national average measure scores for the vascular...

  1. Comparison Between Elite and Subelite Swimmers on Dry Land and Tumble Turn Leg Extensor Force-Time Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julian V; Pyne, David B; Haff, G Greg; Newton, Robert U

    2018-06-01

    Jones, JV, Pyne, DB, Haff, GG, and Newton, RU. Comparison between elite and subelite swimmers on dry land and tumble turn leg extensor force-time characteristics. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1762-1769, 2018-Elite swimmers demonstrate faster swimming turn times that are potentially a result of having better strength-power characteristics than subelite swimmers. We quantified differences between dry-land and swimming turn force-time characteristics in elite swimmers and subelite swimmers. Subelite (11 males: 17.4 ± 0.6 years; 10 females: 17.1 ± 0.6 years) and elite swimmers (15 male: 23.2 ± 2.3 years; 7 female: 21.6 ± 2.5 years) were tested in a cross-sectional design. All swimmers performed a body weight and loaded (20 kg females, 30 kg males) squat jump (SJ) on a portable force platform. On the same day, all swimmers completed swimming turn analyses using a force platform fixed within the pool wall. The magnitude of difference between groups was estimated using a standardized mean difference (effect size statistic). Elite male and female swimmers had superior swimming turn and dry-land force-time characteristics to subelite swimmers in all tests. The standardized mean differences between groups ranged from small to very large. The largest differences were SJ peak velocity unloaded (3.07 ± 1.0 m·s males, 3.49 ± 2.29 m·s females; standardized mean difference ± 90% confidence limits) and SJ peak power unloaded (2.59 ± 0.79 w male, 2.80 ± 1.64 w female) with elite male and female swimmers having a ∼25-50% higher performance than the subelites in both characteristics. Elite swimmers exhibit superior strength and power characteristics for the swimming turn compared with younger and less experienced swimmers. A well-planned and executed strength and conditioning program is needed for emerging swimmers to develop these qualities, as they transition to senior levels.

  2. Atividade eletromiográfica dos extensores de tronco durante manuseio pelo Método Neuroevolutivo Bobath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline de Souza Pagnussat

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Paralisia cerebral é um distúrbio caracterizado por alterações no desenvolvimento da atividade, do movimento e da postura. O Conceito Neuroevolutivo Bobath é um método utilizado na reabilitação neuropediátrica, fundamentando-se na facilitação da aquisição de habilidades sensório-motoras de acordo com a sequência de desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor normal. OBJETIVO: Verificar atividade eletromiográfica de músculos envolvidos no controle cervical nos planos frontal, sagital e transverso, mediante manuseio em pontos-chave de controle, objetivando transferência de peso e estabilização corporal. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Trata-se de uma avaliação quantitativa em um estudo de caso, no qual uma paciente de sete anos de idade, com diagnóstico clínico de paralisia cerebral e síndrome de West, foi submetida à análise eletromiográfica da musculatura envolvida no controle cervical, mediante manuseio em pontos-chave de controle. O registo ocorreu durante o manuseio utilizando postura de decúbito ventral sobre cunha e postura de decúbito lateral sobre o solo. RESULTADOS: O sinal eletromiográfico dos extensores e flexores na região cervical intensificou-se mediante manuseio para transferência de peso em ponto-chave de quadril em ambas as posturas. Embora o sinal de base tenha sido ampliado durante a transferência de peso para o quadril, o registro eletromiográfico nos segmentos musculares avaliados foi superior no decúbito lateral. CONCLUSÕES: Verificou-se que a transferência de peso para o quadril induziu facilitação do controle cervical e que o decúbito lateral de forma repetida e sustentada, mediante correto manuseio, alinhamento e transferência de peso, facilitou de forma mais pronunciada a atividade muscular na região cervical e de tronco superior do que o manuseio em decúbito ventral sobre a cunha.

  3. Vascular neurocognitive disorders and the vascular risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen V. Albu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dementias are clinical neurodegenerative diseases characterized by permanent and progressive transformation of cognitive functions such as memory, learning capacity, attention, thinking, language, passing judgments, calculation or orientation. Dementias represent a relatively frequent pathology, encountered at about 10% of the population of 65-year olds and 20% of the population of 80-year olds. This review presents the main etiological forms of dementia, which include Alzheimer form of dementia, vascular dementia, dementia associated with alpha-synucleionopathies, and mixed forms. Regarding vascular dementia, the risk factors are similar to those for an ischemic or hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident: arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, smoking, obesity, age, alcohol consumption, cerebral atherosclerosis/ arteriosclerosis. Several studies show that efficient management of the vascular risk factors can prevent the expression and/ or progression of dementia. Thus, lifestyle changes such as stress reduction, regular physical exercise, decreasing dietary fat, multivitamin supplementation, adequate control of blood pressure and serum cholesterol, and social integration and mental stimulation in the elderly population are important factors in preventing or limiting the symptoms of dementia, a disease with significant individual, social, and economic implications.

  4. Comparative proteomic profiling of soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Steven; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Zhang, Yaxin; Winkler, Claudia K; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is due to genetic abnormalities in the dystrophin gene and represents one of the most frequent genetic childhood diseases. In the X-linked muscular dystrophy (mdx) mouse model of dystrophinopathy, different subtypes of skeletal muscles are affected to a varying degree albeit the same single base substitution within exon 23 of the dystrophin gene. Thus, to determine potential muscle subtype-specific differences in secondary alterations due to a deficiency in dystrophin, in this study, we carried out a comparative histological and proteomic survey of mdx muscles. We intentionally included the skeletal muscles that are often used for studying the pathomechanism of muscular dystrophy. Histological examinations revealed a significantly higher degree of central nucleation in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles compared with the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. Muscular hypertrophy of 20-25% was likewise only observed in the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles from mdx mice, but not in the flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscles. For proteomic analysis, muscle protein extracts were separated by fluorescence two-dimensional (2D) gel electrophoresis. Proteins with a significant change in their expression were identified by mass spectrometry. Proteomic profiling established an altered abundance of 24, 17, 19 and 5 protein species in the dystrophin-deficient soleus, extensor digitorum longus, flexor digitorum brevis and interosseus muscle, respectively. The key proteomic findings were verified by immunoblot analysis. The identified proteins are involved in the contraction-relaxation cycle, metabolite transport, muscle metabolism and the cellular stress response. Thus, histological and proteomic profiling of muscle subtypes from mdx mice indicated that distinct skeletal muscles are differentially affected by the loss of the membrane cytoskeletal protein, dystrophin. Varying degrees of perturbed protein

  5. Acute effects of maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauê V La Scala Teixeira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim the aim was to investigate the influence of a maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on the contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors. Methods Seventeen recreationally trained men (23.3 ± 4.9 yrs, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2 Kg/m² underwent two randomized different testing sessions separated by one week. In the control session (CON all subjects performed a maximum number of repetitions test (RMs at 75%1RM using the right elbow flexors. The experimental session (EXP was similar to the CON; however, all subjects were instructed to perform RMs at 75%1RM by using the right elbow flexors and maintaining the maximal voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors during the test. RMs, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and training volume (TV were measured and compared between sessions. Results The EXP showed a significant 10.4% increase on the RMs (13.8 vs. 12.5, p < 0.001, d = 0.44 and 12.1% increase in TV (238.0 vs. 212.4 kg, p < 0.001, d = 0.43 than CON. No differences were observed for RPE between sessions. Conclusion The maximum voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors increased the RMs of the contralateral elbow flexors, reflecting a higher TV, and no differences in the RPE. Our results suggest that the investigated method may be a viable and practical alternative to increase the acute strength performance of elbow flexors when using submaximal loads.

  6. Atualização da anatomia do mecanismo extensor do joelho com uso de técnica de visualização tridimensional Updating of the anatomy of the extensor mechanism of the knee using a three-dimensional viewing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Costa Astur

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available O mecanismo extensor do joelho é uma estrutura complexa formada pelo músculo e tendão quadricipital, a patela, o tendão patelar e os ligamentos que os circundam e auxiliam na estabilização do joelho. Através do uso de técnica de visualização tridimensional de imagens do aparelho extensor do joelho pretendemos mostrar de forma didática as estruturas que compõem este complexo ósteo-músculo-ligamentar. Dissecção anatômica do joelho com ênfase nas estruturas do seu mecanismo extensor foi realizada seguida de fotografias com câmera e lentes adequadas para simulação da visão humana através de técnica de construção de imagem tridimensional. Em seguida, com a ajuda de software apropriado, as duas imagens da mesma estrutura de diferentes ângulos simulando a visão humana são sobrepostas com adição de camada polarizante, concluindo a construção da imagem anaglífica. As principais estruturas do mecanismo extensor do joelho podem ser observadas com efeito tridimensional. Dentre os principais benefícios relacionados a esta técnica, destacamos, além do ensino e estudo da anatomia musculoesquelética, o potencial uso em treinamento de procedimentos cirúrgicos e a realização de imagens em exames diagnósticos.The knee extensor mechanism is a complex structure formed by the quadriceps muscle and tendon, the patella, the patellar tendon and the ligaments that surround and help stabilize the knee. Through using a three-dimensional viewing technique on images of the knee extensor apparatus, we aimed to didactically show the structures that compose this bone-muscle-ligament complex. Anatomical dissection of the knee with emphasis on the structures of its extensor mechanism was performed, followed by taking photographs using a camera and lenses suitable for simulating human vision, through a technique for constructing three-dimensional images. Then, with the aid of appropriate software, pairs of images of the same structure from

  7. TREATMENT OF TRANSCONDYLAR EXTENSOR FRACTURES OF THE HUMERUS IN CHILDREN: ON THE ISSUE OF HISTORY OF THE METHOD “COLLAR AND CUFF”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Zolotov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the history of one of the methods of conservative treatment humeral transcondylar extensor fractures in children - a method «collar and cuff». The second and very common name of this method is connected with the name of the american orthopaedist Walter Blount. «The method of Blount» is mentioned in many domestic and foreign sources. Nevertheless the analysis of publications on the history of the discussed method of treatment indicates the priority in this matter other famous doctor - British podiatrist Robert Jones.

  8. The identification of fall history using maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensors in healthy, recreationally active elderly females: a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Ty B; Thiele, Ryan M; Williams, Katherine B; Adams, Bailey M; Akehi, Kazuma; Smith, Douglas B; Thompson, Brennan J

    2015-08-01

    Maximal and rapid torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles play an important role in fall prevention and other balance-related performances; however, few studies have investigated the ability of these variables at identifying fall-history status in healthy, recreationally active elderly adults. This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of maximal and rapid isometric torque characteristics of the hip extensor muscles to differentiate between healthy, recreationally active elderly females with (fallers) and without (non-fallers) a history a falls. Six elderly female fallers (mean ± SD: age = 73 ± 7 year; mass = 68 ± 16 kg; height = 160 ± 5 cm) and nine elderly female non-fallers (age = 71 ± 7 year; mass = 66 ± 16 kg; height = 157 ± 6 cm) performed two isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) of the hip extensor muscles. Peak torque (PT) and absolute and relative rate of torque development (RTD) at the early (0-50 ms) and late (100-200 ms) phases of muscle contraction were examined during each MVC. Absolute and relative RTD at 0-50 ms were greater (P = 0.039 and 0.011, respectively) in the non-fallers compared to the fallers. However, no group-related differences (P = 0.160-0.573) were observed for PT nor absolute and relative RTD at 100-200 ms. Early rapid strength production of the hip extensor muscles may be a sensitive and effective measure for discriminating between elderly females of different fall histories. These findings may provide important insight regarding implications for the assessment of fall risk and in the development of proper training programs aimed at minimizing the occurrence of falls and other balance-related injuries in the elderly.

  9. Efeitos do método pilates no torque isocinético dos extensores e flexores do joelho: estudo piloto

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    Laís Campos de Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: apesar da popularização do método Pilates como forma de exercício físico, os estudos com a técnica ainda não têm explorado os seus efeitos sobre o torque isocinético dos músculos extensores e flexores do joelho. OBJETIVO: verificar os efeitos do método Pilates no torque isocinético dos extensores e flexores do joelho em mulheres jovens. MÉTODOS: 10 voluntárias foram submetidas à avaliação isocinética (60°/s e 300°/s dos extensores e flexores do joelho, do membro inferior dominante, pré e pós-intervenção com o método Pilates, considerando-se o pico de torque (PT e o trabalho total (TT. Oito intervenções foram realizadas ao longo de quatro semanas, constando de 28 exercícios de alongamento e fortalecimento para os principais grupos musculares. A análise estatística, utilizando os testes t de Student ou Wilcoxon para amostras dependentes, foi utilizada (p<0,05. RESULTADOS: os resultados mostraram melhora significativa para a maioria das variáveis observadas, tanto na extensão do joelho (TT 60°/s - 8,98%, p = 0,0166; PT 300°/s - 11,80%, p = 0,0077; TT 300°/s - 19,68%, p = 0,0051, quanto na flexão (PT 60°/s - 11,44%, p = 0,0171; TT 60°/s - 11,55%, p = 0,0395; TT 300°/s - 12,86%, p = 0,0145, com exceção para duas variáveis, uma referente ao movimento de extensão do joelho (PT 60°/s - 3,04%, p = 0,4413 e outra ao movimento de flexão (PT 300°/s - 2,30%, p = 0,3873. CONCLUSÃO: foi possível verificar que oito sessões de Pilates, realizadas ao longo de quatro semanas, proporcionaram melhora significativa do torque isocinético dos músculos extensores e flexores do joelho em mulheres jovens, em relação ao PT e TT (60°/s e 300°/s para a maioria das variáveis analisadas.

  10. Vascularized osseous graft for scaphoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Daza, Carlos Hernan; Mathoulin, Cristophe

    2004-01-01

    The most commonly used technique for treatment of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid is osteo-synthesis with Kirschnet wires and cortical sponge grafts. Results reported by different teams using this procedure show no more than 90% osseous consolidation, especially in cases where vascularisation of the proximal fragment of the scaphoid is compromised. Here we present a series of ten cases of pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid, treated using a new surgical technique involving a vascularized osseous graft of the distal radius. Using this procedure we obtained 100% consolidation, with no complications either during the procedure or immediately post-operatively. Patients returned to work in week 15 on average. In 4 cases we observed discomfort in the area of the scar, which was successfully treated using local cortisone injection. The results obtained are very similar to those seen in the literature on the different techniques for vascularized osseous grafts for pseudo-arthrosis of the scaphoid

  11. [Menopause: Hypertension and vascular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, J M

    Hypertension is the main cardiovascular risk factor affecting 25% of women. Hormone changes and hypertension after menopause may lead to higher target organ damage and cardiovascular disease such as increased arterial stiffness, coronary diseases, chronic heart failure and stroke. The physiopathological mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in menopausal women are controversial. There are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences in both sexes, the women have more coughing when using the converting-enzyme inhibitors, more cramps when using thiazide diuretics and more oedema in the inferior limbs when using calcium antagonists. The aim of this review is to analyse possible physiopathological mechanisms involved in hypertension after menopause and to gain a better understanding of the biological effects mediated by vascular ageing in women when the level of oestrogen protective effect decreases over the vascular system. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Vascular diagnostics for Raynaud's phenomenon

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    Dinsdale G

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Graham Dinsdale, Ariane L Herrick Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, Institute of Inflammation and Repair, Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK Abstract: Raynaud's phenomenon (RP is common, and in most patients is primary (idiopathic when due to reversible vasospasm and does not progress to irreversible tissue injury. However, in those patients for whom RP is secondary to an underlying disease (eg, systemic sclerosis or atherosclerosis, progression to digital ulceration or critical ischemia can occur. Therefore, the key question for the clinician is “Why does this patient have RP?” Vascular diagnostics play a key role in answering this. In this review, we firstly discuss the different vascular investigations relevant to clinical practice: nail fold capillaroscopy (including the different methodologies for examining the nail fold capillaries, and the role of capillaroscopy in helping to differentiate between primary and systemic sclerosis-related RP, thermography (available in specialist centers, and evaluation of large vessel disease (for example, due to atherosclerosis. We then discuss research tools, mainly laser Doppler methods, including laser Doppler imaging and laser speckle contrast imaging. These are commercially available as complete imaging systems and are (relatively easy to use. The main current goal in vascular imaging research is to validate these novel state-of-the-art techniques as outcome measures of digital vascular disease, and then apply them in early and later phase studies of new treatment approaches, thus facilitating drug development programs. Keywords: Raynaud's phenomenon, systemic sclerosis, nail fold capillaroscopy, thermography, laser Doppler, angiography

  13. Neck Flexor and Extensor Muscle Endurance in Subclinical Neck Pain: Intrarater Reliability, Standard Error of Measurement, Minimal Detectable Change, and Comparison With Asymptomatic Participants in a University Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana S; Lameiras, Carina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess intrarater reliability and to calculate the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) for deep neck flexor and neck extensor muscle endurance tests, and compare the results between individuals with and without subclinical neck pain. Participants were students of the University of Aveiro reporting subclinical neck pain and asymptomatic participants matched for sex and age to the neck pain group. Data on endurance capacity of the deep neck flexors and neck extensors were collected by a blinded assessor using the deep neck flexor endurance test and the extensor endurance test, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), SEM, and MDC were calculated for measurements taken within a session by the same assessor. Differences between groups for endurance capacity were investigated using a Mann-Whitney U test. The deep neck flexor endurance test (ICC = 0.71; SEM = 6.91 seconds; MDC = 19.15 seconds) and neck extensor endurance test (ICC = 0.73; SEM = 9.84 minutes; MDC = 2.34 minutes) are reliable. No significant differences were found between participants with and without neck pain for both tests of muscle endurance (P > .05). The endurance capacity of the deep neck flexors and neck extensors can be reliably measured in participants with subclinical neck pain. However, the wide SEM and MDC might limit the sensitivity of these tests. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines in the alveolar lining fluid of healthy adults: compartmentalization and physiological correlates.

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    Carlos O Mendivil

    Full Text Available Our current understanding of hormone regulation in lung parenchyma is quite limited. We aimed to quantify a diverse array of biologically relevant protein mediators in alveolar lining fluid (ALF, compared to serum concentrations, and explore factors associated with protein compartmentalization on either side of the air-blood barrier.Participants were 24 healthy adult non-smoker volunteers without respiratory symptoms or significant medical conditions, with normal lung exams and office spirometry. Cell-free bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and serum were analyzed for 24 proteins (including enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines using a highly sensitive multiplex ELISA. Measurements were normalized to ALF concentrations. The ALF:serum concentration ratios were examined in relation to measures of protein size, hydrophobicity, charge, and to participant clinical and spirometric values.ALF measurements from 24 individuals detected 19 proteins, including adiponectin, adipsin, apoA-I, apoA-II, apoB, apoC-II, apoC-III, apoE, C-reactive protein, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, resistin, and visfatin. C-peptide and serpin E1 were not detected in ALF for any individual, and IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-alpha were not detected in either ALF or serum for any individual. In general, ALF levels were similar or lower in concentration for most proteins compared to serum. However, ghrelin, resistin, insulin, visfatin and GLP-1 had ALF concentrations significantly higher compared to serum. Importantly, elevated ALF:serum ratios of ghrelin, visfatin and resistin correlated with protein net charge and isoelectric point, but not with molecular weight or hydrophobicity.Biologically relevant enteric and metabolic hormones, apolipoproteins, adipokines, and cytokines can be detected in the ALF of

  15. Compartmental and noncompartmental modeling of ¹³C-lycopene absorption, isomerization, and distribution kinetics in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy E; Cichon, Morgan J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Novotny, Janet A; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-12-01

    Lycopene, which is a red carotenoid in tomatoes, has been hypothesized to mediate disease-preventive effects associated with tomato consumption. Lycopene is consumed primarily as the all-trans geometric isomer in foods, whereas human plasma and tissues show greater proportions of cis isomers. With the use of compartmental modeling and stable isotope technology, we determined whether endogenous all-trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization or isomeric-bioavailability differences underlie the greater proportion of lycopene cis isomers in human tissues than in tomato foods. Healthy men (n = 4) and women (n = 4) consumed (13)C-lycopene (10.2 mg; 82% all-trans and 18% cis), and plasma was collected over 28 d. Unlabeled and (13)C-labeled total lycopene and lycopene-isomer plasma concentrations, which were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, were fit to a 7-compartment model. Subjects absorbed a mean ± SEM of 23% ± 6% of the lycopene. The proportion of plasma cis-(13)C-lycopene isomers increased over time, and all-trans had a shorter half-life than that of cis isomers (5.3 ± 0.3 and 8.8 ± 0.6 d, respectively; P lycopene bioavailability and endogenous trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization was predictive of plasma (13)C and unlabeled cis- and all-trans-lycopene concentrations. Although the bioavailability of cis (24.5% ± 6%) and all-trans (23.2% ± 8%) isomers did not differ, endogenous isomerization (0.97 ± 0.25 μmol/d in the fast-turnover tissue lycopene pool) drove tissue and plasma isomeric profiles. (13)C-Lycopene combined with physiologic compartmental modeling provides a strategy for following complex in vivo metabolic processes in humans and reveals that postabsorptive trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization, and not the differential bioavailability of isomers, drives tissue and plasma enrichment of cis-lycopene. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01692340. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Compartmental and noncompartmental modeling of 13C-lycopene absorption, isomerization, and distribution kinetics in healthy adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Nancy E; Cichon, Morgan J; Riedl, Kenneth M; Grainger, Elizabeth M; Schwartz, Steven J; Novotny, Janet A; Erdman, John W; Clinton, Steven K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lycopene, which is a red carotenoid in tomatoes, has been hypothesized to mediate disease-preventive effects associated with tomato consumption. Lycopene is consumed primarily as the all-trans geometric isomer in foods, whereas human plasma and tissues show greater proportions of cis isomers. Objective: With the use of compartmental modeling and stable isotope technology, we determined whether endogenous all-trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization or isomeric-bioavailability differences underlie the greater proportion of lycopene cis isomers in human tissues than in tomato foods. Design: Healthy men (n = 4) and women (n = 4) consumed 13C-lycopene (10.2 mg; 82% all-trans and 18% cis), and plasma was collected over 28 d. Unlabeled and 13C-labeled total lycopene and lycopene-isomer plasma concentrations, which were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, were fit to a 7-compartment model. Results: Subjects absorbed a mean ± SEM of 23% ± 6% of the lycopene. The proportion of plasma cis-13C-lycopene isomers increased over time, and all-trans had a shorter half-life than that of cis isomers (5.3 ± 0.3 and 8.8 ± 0.6 d, respectively; P lycopene bioavailability and endogenous trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization was predictive of plasma 13C and unlabeled cis- and all-trans-lycopene concentrations. Although the bioavailability of cis (24.5% ± 6%) and all-trans (23.2% ± 8%) isomers did not differ, endogenous isomerization (0.97 ± 0.25 μmol/d in the fast-turnover tissue lycopene pool) drove tissue and plasma isomeric profiles. Conclusion: 13C-Lycopene combined with physiologic compartmental modeling provides a strategy for following complex in vivo metabolic processes in humans and reveals that postabsorptive trans-to-cis-lycopene isomerization, and not the differential bioavailability of isomers, drives tissue and plasma enrichment of cis-lycopene. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01692340. PMID

  17. The Elbow-EpiTrainer: a method of delivering graded resistance to the extensor carpi radialis brevis. Effectiveness of a prototype device in a healthy population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navsaria, Rishi; Ryder, Dionne M; Lewis, Jeremy S; Alexander, Caroline M

    2015-03-01

    Tennis elbow or lateral epicondylopathy (LE) is experienced as the lateral elbow has a reported prevalence of 1.3%, with symptoms lasting up to 18 months. LE is most commonly attributed to tendinopathy involving the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon. The aim of tendinopathy management is to alleviate symptoms and restore function that initially involves relative rest followed by progressive therapeutic exercise. To assess the effectiveness of two prototype exercises using commonly available clinical equipment to progressively increase resistance and activity of the ECRB. Eighteen healthy participants undertook two exercise progressions. Surface electromyography was used to record ECRB activity during the two progressions, involving eccentric exercises of the wrist extensors and elbow pronation exercises using a prototype device. The two progressions were assessed for their linearity of progression using repeated ANOVA and linear regression analysis. Five participants repeated the study to assess reliability. The exercise progressions led to an increase in ECRB electromyographic (EMG) activity (p0.7) between the first and second tests for five participants. Manipulation of resistance and leverage with the prototype exercises was effective in creating significant increases of ECRB normalised EMG activity in a linear manner that may, with future research, become useful to clinicians treating LE. In addition, between trial reliability for the device to generate a consistent load was acceptable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. The effects of gender, level of co-contraction, and initial angle on elbow extensor muscle stiffness and damping under a step increase in elbow flexion moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunju; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2011-10-01

    Flexion buckling of an arm under the large ground reaction loads associated with arresting a fall to the ground increases the risk for head and thorax injuries. Yet, the factors that determine the arm buckling load remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis in 18 healthy young adults that neither gender, triceps co-contraction level (i.e., 25, 50, or 75% MVC) nor elbow angle would affect the rotational stiffness and damping resistance to step changes in elbow flexion loading. Data on the step response were gathered using optoelectronic markers (150 Hz) and myoelectric activity measurements (2 kHz), and an inverse dynamics analysis was used to estimate elbow extensor stiffness and damping coefficients. A repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that gender (p = 0.032), elbow flexion angle and co-contraction level (both p initial elbow flexion angle and maximum co-contraction, female stiffness and damping coefficients were 18 and 30% less, respectively, than male values after normalization by body height and weight. We conclude that the maximum extensor rotational stiffness and damping at the elbow is lower in women than in men of the same body size, and varies with triceps co-contraction level and initial elbow angle.

  19. Relationship between the Modified Modified Ashworth Scale and the Biomechanical Measure in Assessing Knee Extensor Muscle Spasticity in Patients with Post-Stroke Hemiparesia:A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nakhostin Ansari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS is a clinical meas-ure that has been recently developed for the assessment of muscle spasticity. There is a dearth of research on the validity of the MMAS. The aim of the present study was to investi-gate the relationship between the MMAS and the biomechanical measure of work-velocity slope in assessing knee extensor muscle spasticity in patients with hemiparesia. Materials & Methods: Fourteen patients with post-stroke hemiparesia were included in this cross sectional study. Knee extensor spasticity was assessed with MMAS. An isokinetic dy-namometer was used to impose knee passive flexion with the angular velocity of 10, 30, 60, and 90 °/Sec to measure Torque-angle data. Work (Joule was calculated at each velocity to determine the slope of the work-velocity curves as the biomechanical measure of muscle spasticity. Results: The mean work decreased as the velocity increased but was not statistically signifi-cant (P = 0.07. The mean slope was – 0.35 [J /(°/Sec]. There was no significant correlation between the MMAS and the work-velocity slope (r =0.31, P = 0.28. Conclusion: There was no significant relationship between the MMAS and the biomechanical measure of work-velocity slope. Further studies with larger sample size are suggested. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (2: 131-136

  20. The prevalence of the extensor digiti minimi tendon of the hand and its variants in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yammine, Kaissar

    2015-01-01

    The extensor digiti minimi (EDM) is frequently used in the case of an abduction deformity of the little finger. It is also considered as a main resource for tendon transfer. However, it shows many variations in the human hand, which include splitting into two or more slips and sending a slip to the fourth finger, named the extensor digiti minimi et quarti (EDMQ). The aim of this systematic review is to perform an evidence synthesis on the prevalence of the EDM and its variants. Twenty-six cadaveric studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 2247 hands. Meta-analysis results yielded an overall pooled prevalence estimate (PPE) of the EDM of 99.7% and PPEs of 11.5, 77.6, 7 and 0.6% for the single-, double-, triple- and quadruple-slip EDM, respectively. For the single-slip EDM, the frequencies were such that Indians > Middle Eastern > Europeans > Japanese > North Americans. For the double-slip EDM, the frequencies were such that Japanese > North Americans = Europeans > Middle Eastern > Indians. No significance was found with regard to hand side. The true EDMQ prevalence was found to be at 7.3%, whereas its crude prevalence was 8%. This artilce offers reference values on the prevalence of the EDM and its variants, which are thought to be highly relevant to both anatomists and clinicians.

  1. The Effects of High-Intensity versus Low-Intensity Resistance Training on Leg Extensor Power and Recovery of Knee Function after ACL-Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Bieler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Persistent weakness is a common problem after anterior cruciate ligament- (ACL- reconstruction. This study investigated the effects of high-intensity (HRT versus low-intensity (LRT resistance training on leg extensor power and recovery of knee function after ACL-reconstruction. Methods. 31 males and 19 females were randomized to HRT (n=24 or LRT (n=26 from week 8–20 after ACL-reconstruction. Leg extensor power, joint laxity, and self-reported knee function were measured before and 7, 14, and 20 weeks after surgery. Hop tests were assessed before and after 20 weeks. Results. Power in the injured leg was 90% (95% CI 86–94% of the noninjured leg, decreasing to 64% (95% CI 60–69% 7 weeks after surgery. During the resistance training phase there was a significant group by time interaction for power (P=0.020. Power was regained more with HRT compared to LRT at week 14 (84% versus 73% of noninjured leg, resp.; P=0.027 and at week 20 (98% versus 83% of noninjured leg, resp.; P=0.006 without adverse effects on joint laxity. No other between-group differences were found. Conclusion. High-intensity resistance training during rehabilitation after ACL-reconstruction can improve muscle power without adverse effects on joint laxity.

  2. Using Cluster Analysis to Compartmentalize a Large Managed Wetland Based on Physical, Biological, and Climatic Geospatial Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahus, Ian; Migliaccio, Kati; Douglas-Mankin, Kyle; Klarenberg, Geraldine; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2018-04-27

    Hierarchical and partitional cluster analyses were used to compartmentalize Water Conservation Area 1, a managed wetland within the Arthur R. Marshall Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuge in southeast Florida, USA, based on physical, biological, and climatic geospatial attributes. Single, complete, average, and Ward's linkages were tested during the hierarchical cluster analyses, with average linkage providing the best results. In general, the partitional method, partitioning around medoids, found clusters that were more evenly sized and more spatially aggregated than those resulting from the hierarchical analyses. However, hierarchical analysis appeared to be better suited to identify outlier regions that were significantly different from other areas. The clusters identified by geospatial attributes were similar to clusters developed for the interior marsh in a separate study using water quality attributes, suggesting that similar factors have influenced variations in both the set of physical, biological, and climatic attributes selected in this study and water quality parameters. However, geospatial data allowed further subdivision of several interior marsh clusters identified from the water quality data, potentially indicating zones with important differences in function. Identification of these zones can be useful to managers and modelers by informing the distribution of monitoring equipment and personnel as well as delineating regions that may respond similarly to future changes in management or climate.

  3. Role of cellular compartmentalization in the trophic transfer of mercury species in a freshwater plant-crustacean food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Chaumot, Arnaud; Gimbert, Frédéric; Quéau, Hervé; Geffard, Olivier; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) represents an important risk for human health through the food webs contamination. Macrophytes bioaccumulate Hg and play a role in Hg transfer to food webs in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, the compartmentalization of Hg within macrophytes, notably major accumulation in the cell wall and its impact on trophic transfer to primary consumers are overlooked. The present work focusses on the trophic transfer of inorganic Hg (IHg) and monomethyl-Hg (MMHg) from the intracellular and cell wall compartments of the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii - considered a good candidate for phytoremediation - to the crustacean Gammarus fossarum. The results demonstrated that Hg accumulated in both compartments was trophically bioavailable to gammarids. Besides IHg from both compartments were similarly transferred to G. fossarum, while for MMHg, uptake rates were ∼2.5-fold higher in G. fossarum fed with the cell wall vs the intracellular compartment. During the depuration phase, Hg concentrations in G. fossarum varied insignificantly suggesting that both IHg and MMHg were strongly bound to biological ligands in the crustacean. Our data imply that cell walls have to be considered as an important source of Hg to consumers in freshwater food webs when developing procedures for enhancing aquatic environment protection during phytoremediation programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug compartmentalization as strategy to improve the physico-chemical properties of diclofenac sodium loaded niosomes for topical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Lorena; de Cindio, Bruno; Picci, Nevio; Ioele, Giuseppina; Muzzalupo, Rita

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this research was to study the effect of diclofenac sodium compartmentalization on the physico-chemical properties (such as size, drug entrapment efficiency and percutaneous permeation across rabbit skin) of niosomal vesicles used as carriers. Niosomes were prepared starting from nonionic commercial surfactants belonging to the class of Polysorbates and Pluronics: mixtures of Span 60/F127 and Tween 60/F127 at different ratios were used to obtain vesicles and all formulations were compared in terms of dimensions, morphology, polydispersity index and entrapment efficiency. Moreover, the enhancing effect of niosomes on the ex vivo percutaneous penetration of diclofenac sodium was investigated using Franz-type diffusion chambers and compared to that obtained by using the corresponding drug solution. Results demonstrated that niosomes were spherical and homogeneous in shape. Their size was found to be dependent on the hydrophile-lipophile balance of the surfactant mixture: increasing hydrophobicity resulted in smaller vesicles. Drug incorporation led to a significant variation in vesicle size dependently from the compartment in which the drug was located. The permeation of diclofenac from free solution used as control was found to be lower respect to that obtained for all niosomal formulations, that can be considered as percutaneous permeation enhancers. In particular, the results indicated that the highest cumulative amounts of diclofenac permeated across rabbit skin after 24 h were obtained by formulations in which the drug was located in the aqueous core.

  5. Levels, spatial variation and compartmentalization of trace elements in brown algae Cystoseira from marine protected areas of Crimea (Black Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsova, Alexandra V.; Milchakova, Nataliya A.; Frontasyeva, Marina V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 19 trace elements were determined in Cystoseira spp. from marine protected areas. • Levels of 10 elements were lower than reported data for Black Sea Cystoseira spp. • Concentrations of most trace elements were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. • Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities. • Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th, U varied depending on geological composition of the coast. - Abstract: Levels of Al, Sc, V, Co, Ni, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Ag, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, Th and U that were rarely or never studied, as well as the concentrations of classically investigated Mn, Fe and Zn in brown algae Cystoseira barbata C. Ag. and Cystoseira crinita (Desf.) Bory from the coastal waters of marine protected areas (Crimea, Black Sea), were determined using neutron activation analysis. Spatial variation and compartmentalization were studied for all 19 trace elements (TE). Concentrations of most TE were higher in “branches” than in “stems”. Spatial variations of V, Co, Ni and Zn can be related to anthropogenic activities while Al, Sc, Fe, Rb, Cs, Th and U varied depending on chemical peculiarities of the coastal zone rocks. TE concentrations in C. crinita from marine protected areas near Tarkhankut peninsula and Cape Fiolent, identified as the most clean water areas, are submitted as the background concentrations

  6. Two-compartmental population balance modeling of a pulsed spray fluidized bed granulation based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huolong; Li, Mingzhong

    2014-11-20

    In this work a two-compartmental population balance model (TCPBM) was proposed to model a pulsed top-spray fluidized bed granulation. The proposed TCPBM considered the spatially heterogeneous granulation mechanisms of the granule growth by dividing the granulator into two perfectly mixed zones of the wetting compartment and drying compartment, in which the aggregation mechanism was assumed in the wetting compartment and the breakage mechanism was considered in the drying compartment. The sizes of the wetting and drying compartments were constant in the TCPBM, in which 30% of the bed was the wetting compartment and 70% of the bed was the drying compartment. The exchange rate of particles between the wetting and drying compartments was determined by the details of the flow properties and distribution of particles predicted by the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The experimental validation has shown that the proposed TCPBM can predict evolution of the granule size and distribution within the granulator under different binder spray operating conditions accurately. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inter-compartmental transport of organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides in South China: implications for a regional risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huizhen; Wei, Yanli; Lydy, Michael J; You, Jing

    2014-07-01

    The dynamic flux of an organophosphate and four pyrethroid pesticides was determined in an air-(soil)-water-sediment system based on monitoring data from Guangzhou, China. The total air-water flux, including air-water gaseous exchange and atmospheric deposition, showed deposition from air to water for chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and cypermethrin, but volatilization for lambda-cyhalothrin and permethrin. The transport of the pesticides from overlying water to sediment suggested that sediment acted as a sink for the pesticides. Additionally, distinct annual atmospheric depositional fluxes between legacy and current-use pesticides suggested the role of consumer usage in their transport throughout the system. Finally, pesticide toxicity was estimated from annual air-water-sediment flux within an urban stream in Guangzhou. A dynamic flux-based risk assessment indicated that inter-compartmental transport of chlorpyrifos decreased its atmospheric exposure, but had little influence on its aquatic toxicity. Instead, water-to-sediment transport of pyrethroids increased their sediment toxicity, which was supported by previously reported toxicity data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Prenatal HIV testing: the compartmentalization of women's sexual risk exposure and the return of the maternal fetal conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Kristin; Hampson, Sarah Cote; Huff, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the researchers in this study was to investigate how women who were being tested for HIV during their pregnancies were evaluating, conceptualizing, and negotiating their risk of infection. The study included two focus groups and 20 in-depth interviews with 30 patients, ages 17-38 years, from diverse ethnic/racial, social, and economic backgrounds. Qualitative analyses of the interview transcripts revealed support for the idea that pregnant women have a responsibility to minimize risks to their fetus, with all interviewees describing actions to minimize those risks while pregnant. Two sub-themes emerged that were related to the presence of differences in how interviewees conceptualized risk depending on the type of risk being discussed. In the case of diet and lifestyle influences, interviewees framed their health and the health of the fetus as connected. In contrast, when the issue of HIV risk and testing was raised, the interviewees described the risk of HIV to themselves and their fetuses as separate concerns and, with few exceptions, reported no effort to reduce the risk of becoming infected while pregnant (beyond consenting to HIV screening while receiving prenatal care). Findings suggest the importance of developing HIV prevention messages that counter the compartmentalization of risk during pregnancy.

  9. An Evaluation of the Correlation between the Free Moments Applied on the Lower Extremity and the Knee Extensor Mechanism Force in Pronated Foot Subjects during the Stance Phase of Gait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Yazdani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the rotatory nature of the excessive subtalar pronation and the possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, changes of the free moment (FM and changes of the extensor mechanism force are expected in hyper-pronated foot subjects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between the FM applied on the lower extremity and the knee extensor mechanism force in subjects with flexible pronated feet. Methods: Fifteen asymptomatic female subjects (21.32±1.66 y, 56.30±6.08 kg, 159±6.3 cm participated in the study. Excessive subtalar pronation was determined by measuring the resting calcaneal stance position (RCSP in the frontal plane during weight bearing. A neutrally aligned foot was defined as having an RCSP between 2° of inversion and 2° of eversion. On the other hand, a flat foot had an RCSP of more than or equal to 4° of eversion. Both kinetic and kinematic data were collected using a six-camera motion analysis system and a single force plate. Three successful barefoot walking trials were recorded at selfselected speeds. The extensor mechanism force and the adductory component of the free moment (ADD FM were calculated. The correlation between the ADD FM and the knee extensor mechanism force was examined using the Pearson correlation test. Results: The Pearson correlation analysis showed a high positive correlation between the ADD FM and the extensor mechanism force (r=0.917, P<0.001. Conclusion: Excessive subtalar pronation, along with a possible impairment of the tibial rotation-knee flexion mechanism, may affect the extensor mechanism force at the knee joint. From a clinical perspective, the possible biomechanical linkage between the knee and the foot complex in the physical examination and treatment of patients should be considered.

  10. Ghrelin improves vascular autophagy in rats with vascular calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingming; Liu, Lin; Song, Chenfang; Chen, Wei; Gui, Shuyan

    2017-06-15

    This study aimed to investigate whether ghrelin ameliorated vascular calcification (VC) through improving autophagy. VC model was induced by nicotine plus vitamin D 3 in rats and β-glycerophosphate in vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC). Calcium deposition was detected by von Kossa staining or alizarin red S staining. ALP activity was also detected. Western blot was used to assess the protein expression. Ghrelin treatment attenuated the elevation of calcium deposition and ALP activity in VC model both in vivo and in vitro. Interesting, the protein levels of autophagy markers, LC3 and beclin1 were significantly upregulated by ghrelin in VC model. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine blocks the ameliorative effect of ghrelin on VC. Furthermore, protein expressions of phosphate-AMPK were increased by ghrelin treatment both in calcified aorta and VSMC. The effect of ghrelin on autophagy induction and VC attenuation was prevented by AMPK inhibitor, compound C. Our results suggested that ghrelin improved autophagy through AMPK activation, which was resulted in VC amelioration. These data maybe throw light on prevention and therapy of VC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vascular dementia: Facts and controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular dementia (VaD is the second most frequent dementia after Alzheimer’s disease, and is diagnosed during lifetime in 20% of demented patients. Five­year survival rate in VaD is 39%, while it is estimated to be 75% in healthy persons of the same age. It is therefore important to make correct diagnosis of VaD early in the course of the disease. Risk factors for VaD are identical to stroke risk factors, and there are significant possibilities for the prevention of vascular cognitive decline. Cognitive decline develops acutely or step­by­step within three months after stroke, but more gradual progression of intellectual decline is also possible. Neurological examination can reveal pyramidal and extrapyramidal signs, pseudobulbar palsy, gait disturbance and urinary incontinence. Neuropsychological profile comprises the loss of cognitive set shifting, decline in word fluency, verbal learning difficulties, perseverations, difficulties in complex figure copying, and in patients with cortically located lesions also problems with speech and praxia. The basis of the diagnosis is, besides history, neurological examination and neuropsychological assessment, computed tomography and/ or magnetic resonance brain imaging. Vascular risk factors control is the most important measure in VaD prevention. Modern guidelines for the treatment of cognitive decline in VaD emphasize that donepezil can be useful in the improvement of cognitive status at the level of Class IIa recommendation at the level of evidence A, while memantine may be useful in patients with mixed VaD and Alzheimer’s disease dementia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175022 i br. 175033

  12. Non-vascular surgical mediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiavon, S.; Trenaghi, P.; Nardini, S.; Pagan, V.

    1989-01-01

    A review was made of the chest X-ray features of 120 patients who underwent surgical treatment for mediastinal non-vascular pathologies over the past 12 years in the Mestre Hospital. A method of analysis is proposed which takes into account not only the differences between the immediate post-operative period and the follow-up, but also the anatomotopographic partition and the surgical practice. Normal and pathological patterns for both of the above periods are described. The ''dimness'' of the arial tracheogram is emphasized as a usefull and early sign of mediastinal recurrence

  13. Vascular comorbidities in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Anja; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the occurrence of vascular comorbidities before and after the clinical onset of multiple sclerosis. In this combined case-control and cohort study, all Danish born citizens with onset of multiple sclerosis 1980-2005 were identified from the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry...... and randomly matched with controls regarding year of birth, gender, and municipality on January 1st in the year of multiple sclerosis (MS) onset (index date). Individual-level information on comorbidities was obtained from several independent nationwide registries and linked to the study population by unique...

  14. Heritability of Retinal Vascular Fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vergmann, Anna Stage; Broe, Rebecca; Kessel, Line

    2017-01-01

    , the retinal vascular fractal dimension was measured using the box-counting method and compared within monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs using Pearson correlation coefficients. Falconer's formula and quantitative genetic models were used to determine the genetic component of variation. Results: The mean...... fractal dimension did not differ statistically significantly between monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (1.505 vs. 1.495, P = 0.06), supporting that the study population was suitable for quantitative analysis of heritability. The intrapair correlation was markedly higher (0.505, P = 0...

  15. Força muscular e índice de fadiga dos extensores e flexores do joelho de jogadores profissionais de futebol de acordo com o posicionamento em campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Otoni do Carmo Carvalhais

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Assimetrias na capacidade de produção de força entre músculos dos membros inferiores e fadiga muscular podem favorecer a ocorrência de lesões em atletas de futebol. Considerando-se que existem diferenças individuais determinadas pelas diversas funções exercidas pelos jogadores, é possível que a presença de assimetrias de força e fadiga muscular esteja relacionada ao posicionamento em campo. OBJETIVOS: 1 Investigar diferenças na assimetria de pico de torque (PT, na assimetria de trabalho (T e no índice de fadiga (IF dos extensores e flexores do joelho de atletas profissionais de futebol de acordo com a posição em campo; e 2 Determinar se o IF dos flexores é superior ao dos extensores. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas avaliações isocinéticas de 164 atletas profissionais de futebol (atacantes, zagueiros, laterais, meio-campistas e goleiros. O protocolo para avaliação da força concêntrica dos extensores e flexores do joelho consistiu em cinco repetições a 60°/s e 30 repetições a 300°/s. O teste de Kruskall-Wallis foi utilizado para verificar diferenças na assimetria de PT, assimetria de T e IF dos extensores e flexores do joelho entre jogadores de diferentes posicionamentos. O teste de Wilcoxon foi realizado para verificar se havia diferença entre o IF dos extensores e flexores. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença entre os jogadores dos cinco posicionamentos para as assimetrias de PT e T, bem como para o IF dos extensores e flexores (p > 0,05. O IF flexor foi superior ao extensor em ambos os membros inferiores (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÃO: Variáveis isocinéticas comumente associadas a lesões não foram diferentes entre jogadores de diferentes posicionamentos. Os atletas apresentaram o IF flexor superior ao extensor, o que pode estar relacionado à maior frequência de estiramentos dos isquiossurais em comparação ao quadríceps.

  16. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reekers, Jim A.; Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods: The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results: Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion: The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters.

  17. Neuroradiological findings in vascular dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guermazi, Ali; Miaux, Yves; Suhy, Joyce; Pauls, Jon; Lopez, Ria [Synarc, Inc., Department of Radiology Services, San Francisco, CA (United States); Rovira-Canellas, Alex [Hospital General Universitari Vall d' Hebron, Unita de Resonancia Magnetica, Barcelona (Spain); Posner, Holly [Eisai, Inc., Teaneck, NJ (United States)

    2007-01-15

    There are multiple diagnostic criteria for vascular dementia (VaD) that may define different populations. Utilizing the criteria of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l'Enseignement en Neurosciences (NINDS-AIREN) has provided improved consistency in the diagnosis of VaD. The criteria include a table listing brain imaging lesions associated with VaD. The different neuroradiological aspects of the criteria are reviewed based on the imaging data from an ongoing large-scale clinical trial testing a new treatment for VaD. The NINDS-AIREN criteria were applied by a centralized imaging rater to determine eligibility for enrollment in 1,202 patients using brain CT or MRI. Based on the above data set, the neuroradiological features that are associated with VaD and that can result from cerebral small-vessel disease with extensive leukoencephalopathy or lacunae (basal ganglia or frontal white matter), or may be the consequence of single strategically located infarcts or multiple infarcts in large-vessel territories, are illustrated. These features may also be the consequence of global cerebral hypoperfusion, intracerebral hemorrhage, or other mechanisms such as genetically determined arteriopathies. Neuroimaging confirmation of cerebrovascular disease in VaD provides information about the topography and severity of vascular lesions. Neuroimaging may also assist with the differential diagnosis of dementia associated with normal pressure hydrocephalus, chronic subdural hematoma, arteriovenous malformation or tumoral diseases. (orig.)

  18. Diffuse and vascular hepatic diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreimeyer, S.; Grenacher, L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to focal liver lesions, diffuse and vascular disorders of the liver represent a wide spectrum of liver diseases which are from the radiological point of view often difficult or nearly impossible to diagnose. Classical diagnostic methods are computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in addition to ultrasound. Diffuse parenchymal damage caused by diseases of various etiologies is therefore difficult to evaluate because it often lacks characteristic morphological features. For hepatic steatosis, hemochromatosis/siderosis as an example of a diffuse storage disease and sarcoidosis and candidiasis as infectious/inflammatory diseases, an image-based diagnosis is appropriate in some cases. For most diffuse liver diseases, however only nonspecific changes are visualized. Vascular pathologies of the liver, such as the Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis, however, can usually be diagnosed very clearly using radiology and there is also a very effective interventional radiological treatment. Chronic diseases very often culminate in liver cirrhosis which is highly associated with an increased risk of liver cancer. (orig.) [de

  19. CIRSE Vascular Closure Device Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Hülsbeck, Stefan; Libicher, Martin; Atar, Eli; Trentmann, Jens; Goffette, Pierre; Borggrefe, Jan; Zeleňák, Kamil; Hooijboer, Pieter; Belli, Anna-Maria

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Vascular closure devices are routinely used after many vascular interventional radiology procedures. However, there have been no major multicenter studies to assess the safety and effectiveness of the routine use of closure devices in interventional radiology. Methods The CIRSE registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug started in January 2009 and ended in August 2009. A total of 1,107 patients were included in the registry. Results Deployment success was 97.2%. Deployment failure specified to access type was 8.8% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.0–14.5] for antegrade access and 1.8% (95% CI 1.1–2.9) for retrograde access (P = 0.001). There was no difference in deployment failure related to local PVD at the access site. Calcification was a reason for deployment failure in only 5.9 cm, and two vessel occlusions. Conclusion The conclusion of this registry of closure devices with an anchor and a plug is that the use of this device in interventional radiology procedures is safe, with a low incidence of serious access site complications. There seems to be no difference in complications between antegrade and retrograde access and other parameters. PMID:20981425

  20. Enhanced Recovery after Vascular Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena D. Stojanovic

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginnings of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS program were first developed for patients in colorectal surgery, and after it was established as the standard of care in this surgical field, it began to be applied in many others surgical areas. This is multimodal, evidence-based approach program and includes simultaneous optimization of preoperative status of patients, adequate selection of surgical procedure and postoperative management. The aim of this program is to reduce complications, the length of hospital stay and to improve the patients outcome. Over the past decades, special attention was directed to the postoperative management in vascular surgery, especially after major vascular surgery because of the great risk of multiorgan failure, such as: respiratory failure, myocardial infarction, hemodynamic instability, coagulopathy, renal failure, neurological disorders, and intra-abdominal complications. Although a lot of effort was put into it, there is no unique acceptable program for ERAS in this surgical field, and there is still a need to point out the factors responsible for postoperative outcomes of these patients. So far, it is known that special attention should be paid to already existing diseases, type and the duration of the surgical intervention, hemodynamic and fluid management, nutrition, pain management, and early mobilization of patients.

  1. Vascular access for home haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Shakarchi, Julien; Day, C; Inston, N

    2018-03-01

    Home haemodialysis has been advocated due to improved quality of life. However, there are very little data on the optimum vascular access for it. A retrospective cohort study was carried on all patients who initiated home haemodialysis between 2011 and 2016 at a large university hospital. Access-related hospital admissions and interventions were used as primary outcome measures. Our cohort consisted of 74 patients. On initiation of home haemodialysis, 62 individuals were using an arteriovenous fistula as vascular access, while the remaining were on a tunnelled dialysis catheter. Of the 12 patients who started on a tunnelled dialysis catheter, 5 were subsequently converted to either an arteriovenous fistula ( n = 4) or an arteriovenous graft ( n = 1). During the period of home haemodialysis use, four arteriovenous fistula failed or thrombosed with patients continuing on home haemodialysis using an arteriovenous graft ( n = 3) or a tunnelled dialysis catheter ( n = 1). To maintain uninterrupted home haemodialysis, interventional rates were 0.32 per arteriovenous fistula/arteriovenous graft access-year and 0.4 per tunnelled dialysis catheter access-year. Hospital admission rates for patients on home haemodialysis were 0.33 per patient-year. Our study has shown that home haemodialysis can be safely and independently performed at home within a closely managed home haemodialysis programme. The authors also advocate the use of arteriovenous fistulas for this cohort of patients due to both low complication and intervention rates.

  2. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)], E-mail: p-taourel@chu-montpellier.fr; Vernhet, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Suau, A.; Granier, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Lopez, F.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nimes (France); Aufort, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)

    2007-10-15

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications.

  3. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taourel, P.; Vernhet, H.; Suau, A.; Granier, C.; Lopez, F.M.; Aufort, S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications

  4. Vascularized bone transplant chimerism mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Wouter F; Larsen, Mikko; Friedrich, Patricia F; Bishop, Allen T

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induces angiogenesis and osteogenesis in bone allotransplants. We aim to determine whether bone remodeling in VEGF-treated bone allotransplants results from repopulation with circulation-derived autogenous cells or survival of allogenic transplant-derived cells. Vascularized femoral bone transplants were transplanted from female Dark Agouti rats (DA;RT1(a) ) to male Piebald Viral Glaxo (PVG;RT1(c) ). Arteriovenous bundle implantation and short-term immunosuppression were used to maintain cellular viability. VEGF was encapsulated in biodegradable microspheres and delivered intramedullary in the experimental group (n = 22). In the control group (n = 22), no VEGF was delivered. Rats were sacrificed at 4 or 18 weeks. Laser capture microdissection of bone remodeling areas was performed at the inner and outer cortex. Sex-mismatched genes were quantified with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to determine the amount of male cells to total cells, defined as the relative expression ratio (rER). At 4 weeks, rER was significantly higher at the inner cortex in VEGF-treated transplants as compared to untreated transplants (0.622 ± 0.225 vs. 0.362 ± 0.081, P = 0.043). At 4 weeks, the outer cortex in the control group had a significantly higher rER (P = 0.038), whereas in the VEGF group, the inner cortex had a higher rER (P = 0.015). Over time, in the outer cortex the rER significantly increased to 0.634 ± 0.106 at 18 weeks in VEGF-treated rats (P = 0.049). At 18 weeks, the rER was >0.5 at all cortical areas in both groups. These in vivo findings suggest a chemotactic effect of intramedullary applied VEGF on recipient-derived bone and could imply that more rapid angiogenesis of vascularized allotransplants can be established with microencapsulated VEGF. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Proatherogenic pathways leading to vascular calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzini, Michael J.; Schulze, P. Christian

    2006-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the western world and atherosclerosis is the major common underlying disease. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis involves local vascular injury, inflammation and oxidative stress as well as vascular calcification. Vascular calcification has long been regarded as a degenerative process leading to mineral deposition in the vascular wall characteristic for late stages of atherosclerosis. However, recent studies identified vascular calcification in early stages of atherosclerosis and its occurrence has been linked to clinical events in patients with cardiovascular disease. Its degree correlates with local vascular inflammation and with the overall impact and the progression of atherosclerosis. Over the last decade, diverse and highly regulated molecular signaling cascades controlling vascular calcification have been described. Local and circulating molecules such as osteopontin, osteoprogerin, leptin and matrix Gla protein were identified as critical regulators of vascular calcification. We here review the current knowledge on molecular pathways of vascular calcification and their relevance for the progression of cardiovascular disease

  6. World Federation of Vascular Societies: presidential address

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, Henrik Hegaard

    2010-01-01

    The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally imp...... throughout the world. In addition, for introduction of new treatments, training issues and dissemination of science a global organisation like the WFVS is needed.......The presidential address describes briefly the history of the World Federation for Vascular Societies (WFVS) and its objectives. Vascular Surgery today includes interventional procedures (open surgical and endovascular) in addition to risk factor reduction and medical treatment. It is equally...

  7. ANÁLISE BIOMECÂNICA DOS EXTENSORES E FLEXORES DO JOELHO POR MEIO DO DINAMÔMETRO ISOCINÉTICO EM PRATICANTES DE ARTES MARCIAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susane Moreira Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available As artes marciais Taekwondo e Kick Boxing utilizam o chute durante a competição, sobrecarregando a articulação do joelho que é solicitada para dar mobilidade e estabilidade e está em constante movimento e stress. A análise biomecânica em praticantes de artes marciais busca a compreensão e quantificação da sobrecarga mecânica imposta ao aparelho locomotor; para isso, há a avaliação isocinética. Este estudo consiste na análise biomecânica dos músculos extensores e flexores do joelho, por meio do dinamômetro isocinético, para a verificação da relação agonista/antagonista do joelho, na produção de torque, utilizando-se a velocidade de 60°/s, e comparação do pico de torque, na potência muscular dos atletas, nas velocidades de 180°/s e 240°/s. Observou-se que, entre a musculatura agonista e antagonista do joelho, na velocidade de 60°/s, uma média de 51,02% para o joelho esquerdo e 53,43% para o direito, apresentou um equilíbrio entre os lados, sem diferença significativa. Para o pico de torque na potência muscular dos atletas, nas velocidades de 180°/s e 240°/s, houve diferença significativa para os extensor direito e esquerdo e no flexor direito, comparando-se bilateralmente. Portanto, os praticantes de artes marciais avaliados apresentam-se dentro do padrão, de torque e potência muscular, descrito na literatura, quando realizados os testes, mantendo, assim, o padrão extensor mais desenvolvido que o flexor, evitando, dessa forma, lesões músculo-esqueléticas.

  8. Combined Proteomic and Transcriptomic Interrogation of the Venom Gland of Conus geographus Uncovers Novel Components and Functional Compartmentalization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavi-Hemami, Helena; Hu, Hao; Gorasia, Dhana G.; Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Veith, Paul D.; Young, Neil D.; Reynolds, Eric C.; Yandell, Mark; Olivera, Baldomero M.; Purcell, Anthony W.

    2014-01-01

    Cone snails are highly successful marine predators that use complex venoms to capture prey. At any given time, hundreds of toxins (conotoxins) are synthesized in the secretory epithelial cells of the venom gland, a long and convoluted organ that can measure 4 times the length of the snail's body. In recent years a number of studies have begun to unveil the transcriptomic, proteomic and peptidomic complexity of the venom and venom glands of a number of cone snail species. By using a combination of DIGE, bottom-up proteomics and next-generation transcriptome sequencing the present study identifies proteins involved in envenomation and conotoxin maturation, significantly extending the repertoire of known (poly)peptides expressed in the venom gland of these remarkable animals. We interrogate the molecular and proteomic composition of different sections of the venom glands of 3 specimens of the fish hunter Conus geographus and demonstrate regional variations in gene expression and protein abundance. DIGE analysis identified 1204 gel spots of which 157 showed significant regional differences in abundance as determined by biological variation analysis. Proteomic interrogation identified 342 unique proteins including those that exhibited greatest fold change. The majority of these proteins also exhibited significant changes in their mRNA expression levels validating the reliability of the experimental approach. Transcriptome sequencing further revealed a yet unknown genetic diversity of several venom gland components. Interestingly, abundant proteins that potentially form part of the injected venom mixture, such as echotoxins, phospholipase A2 and con-ikots-ikots, classified into distinct expression clusters with expression peaking in different parts of the gland. Our findings significantly enhance the known repertoire of venom gland polypeptides and provide molecular and biochemical evidence for the compartmentalization of this organ into distinct functional entities

  9. Compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) selection of Thermococcus litoralis Sh1B DNA polymerase for diminished uracil binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubeleviciute, Agne; Skirgaila, Remigijus

    2010-08-01

    The thermostable archaeal DNA polymerase Sh1B from Thermococcus litoralis has a typical uracil-binding pocket, which in nature plays an essential role in preventing the accumulation of mutations caused by cytosine deamination to uracil and subsequent G-C base pair transition to A-T during the genomic DNA replication. The uracil-binding pocket recognizes and binds uracil base in a template strand trapping the polymerase. Since DNA replication stops, the repair systems have a chance to correct the promutagenic event. Archaeal family B DNA polymerases are employed in various PCR applications. Contrary to nature, in PCR the uracil-binding property of archaeal polymerases is disadvantageous and results in decreased DNA amplification yields and lowered sensitivity. Furthermore, in diagnostics qPCR, RT-qPCR and end-point PCR are performed using dNTP mixtures, where dTTP is partially or fully replaced by dUTP. Uracil-DNA glycosylase treatment and subsequent heating of the samples is used to degrade the DNA containing uracil and prevent carryover contamination, which is the main concern in diagnostic laboratories. A thermostable archaeal DNA polymerase with the abolished uracil binding would be a highly desirable and commercially interesting product. An attempt to disable uracil binding in DNA polymerase Sh1B from T. litoralis by generating site-specific mutants did not yield satisfactory results. However, a combination of random mutagenesis of the whole polymerase gene and compartmentalized self-replication was successfully used to select variants of thermostable Sh1B polymerase capable of performing PCR with dUTP instead of dTTP.

  10. Comparison of linear and nonlinear implementation of the compartmental tissue uptake model for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallehauge, Jesper F; Sourbron, Steven; Irving, Benjamin; Tanderup, Kari; Schnabel, Julia A; Chappell, Michael A

    2017-06-01

    Fitting tracer kinetic models using linear methods is much faster than using their nonlinear counterparts, although this comes often at the expense of reduced accuracy and precision. The aim of this study was to derive and compare the performance of the linear compartmental tissue uptake (CTU) model with its nonlinear version with respect to their percentage error and precision. The linear and nonlinear CTU models were initially compared using simulations with varying noise and temporal sampling. Subsequently, the clinical applicability of the linear model was demonstrated on 14 patients with locally advanced cervical cancer examined with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Simulations revealed equal percentage error and precision when noise was within clinical achievable ranges (contrast-to-noise ratio >10). The linear method was significantly faster than the nonlinear method, with a minimum speedup of around 230 across all tested sampling rates. Clinical analysis revealed that parameters estimated using the linear and nonlinear CTU model were highly correlated (ρ ≥ 0.95). The linear CTU model is computationally more efficient and more stable against temporal downsampling, whereas the nonlinear method is more robust to variations in noise. The two methods may be used interchangeably within clinical achievable ranges of temporal sampling and noise. Magn Reson Med 77:2414-2423, 2017. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  11. The role of extracellular conductivity profiles in compartmental models for neurons: particulars for layer 5 pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Riera, Jorge; Enjieu-Kadji, Herve; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-07-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of technologies aimed at observing electric activity inside the brain, scientists have felt the urge to create proper links between intracellular- and extracellular-based experimental approaches. Biophysical models at both physical scales have been formalized under assumptions that impede the creation of such links. In this work, we address this issue by proposing a multicompartment model that allows the introduction of complex extracellular and intracellular resistivity profiles. This model accounts for the geometrical and electrotonic properties of any type of neuron through the combination of four devices: the integrator, the propagator, the 3D connector, and the collector. In particular, we applied this framework to model the tufted pyramidal cells of layer 5 (PCL5) in the neocortex. Our model was able to reproduce the decay and delay curves of backpropagating action potentials (APs) in this type of cell with better agreement with experimental data. We used the voltage drops of the extracellular resistances at each compartment to approximate the local field potentials generated by a PCL5 located in close proximity to linear microelectrode arrays. Based on the voltage drops produced by backpropagating APs, we were able to estimate the current multipolar moments generated by a PCL5. By adding external current sources in parallel to the extracellular resistances, we were able to create a sensitivity profile of PCL5 to electric current injections from nearby microelectrodes. In our model for PCL5, the kinetics and spatial profile of each ionic current were determined based on a literature survey, and the geometrical properties of these cells were evaluated experimentally. We concluded that the inclusion of the extracellular space in the compartmental models of neurons as an extra electrotonic medium is crucial for the accurate simulation of both the propagation of the electric potentials along the neuronal dendrites and the

  12. Aplicação de extensor de cadeia e emulsificante na flotação de minério de ferro.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, José Pedro da; Imbelloni, Alaine Moreira; Pereira, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Este trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar o desempenho da flotação reversa de minério de ferro, usando coletor (amina), na presença e na ausência de extensor de cadeia (óleo diesel) e emulsificante (lauril sulfato de sódio). Foram realizados seis ensaios de flotação com duplicata. Os ensaios utilizando amina, óleo diesel e lauril sulfato de sódio são os que mostram um melhor resultando, apresentando recuperação metálica de 91,82% e sílica no concentrado igual a 1,68%. Assim, comprova-se que o u...

  13. [Immunologic problems in vascular homografts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Addato, M; Mirelli, M

    2001-01-01

    Fresh arterial homograft