WorldWideScience

Sample records for extension rate testing

  1. An Extension and Test of Sutherland's Concept of Differential Social Organization: The Geographic Clustering of Japanese Suicide and Homicide Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baller, Robert D.; Shin, Dong-Joon; Richardson, Kelly K.

    2005-01-01

    In an effort to explain the spatial patterning of violence, we expanded Sutherland's (1947) concept of differential social organization to include the level of deviance exhibited by neighboring areas. To test the value of this extension, the geographic clustering of Japanese suicide and homicide rates is assessed using 1985 and 1995 data for…

  2. test with extensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. W. Rayner

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The data for the tests considered here may be presented in two-way contingency tables with all marginal totals fixed. We show that Pearson's test statistic XP2 (P for Pearson may be partitioned into useful and informative components. The first detects location differences be tween the treatments, and the subsequent components detect dispersion and higher order moment differences. For Kruskal-Wallis-type data when there are no ties, the location component is the Kruskal-Wallis test. The subsequent components are the extensions. Our approach enables us to generalise to when there are ties, and to when there is a fixed number of categories and a large number of observations. We also propose a generalisation of the well-known median test. In this situation the location-detecting first component of XP2 reduces to the usual median test statistic when there are only two categories. Subsequent components detect higher moment departures from the null hypothesis of equal treatment effects

  3. 15 CFR 700.15 - Extension of priority ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension of priority ratings. 700.15 Section 700.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL SECURITY INDUSTRIAL BASE REGULATIONS...

  4. Testing Extension Services through AKAP Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Marcello; Bartoli, Luca; La Rocca, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the attitude of Italian farms in gaining access to agricultural extension services (AES). Design/methodology/approach: The ways Italian farms use AES are described through the AKAP (Awareness, Knowledge, Adoption, Product) sequence. This article investigated the AKAP sequence by submitting a…

  5. Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) implemented the Comprehensive Error Rate Testing (CERT) program to measure improper payments in the Medicare...

  6. Coral growth rates revisited after 31 years: what is causing lower extension rates in Acropora palmata?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bak, R.P.M.; Nieuwland, G.; Meesters, H.W.G.

    2009-01-01

    Linear extension of branches in the same Acropora palmata (Lamarck, 1816) population in Curaçao was measured, employing exactly the same methods, in 1971-1973 and in 2002-2004, and the resulting coral growth rates are compared. Linear growth shows the same pattern over seasons in both periods with

  7. Body support testing and rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J E

    1992-08-01

    The REF, C, and score are a means to give quantitative values for product performance. Other product variables defined as humidity control factor, shear control factor, differential temperature control factor, product life factor, and cost factor were not addressed as part of this study. Additional variables include delivery, maintenance, and warranties. These components can be added to the score in some weighted manner as they become clinically founded. Interface pressures and shears were not measured for beds that are gatched. Each product tested will have characteristics pertinent to its own design that must be addressed to minimize sacral and coccyx skin breakdown when subjects are in this posture because some pneumatic pads bottom out to give excessive sacral and coccyx pressure while others wrinkle when used in this position. This is of major concern when one considers that the coccyx is more susceptible to pressure than any other bony prominence. There may be some aversion to labeling support product performance because it will allow the purchaser to know what is being bought. This initial study indicates the feasibility of quantitating what all patients require: a valid interface support surface for each specific need. The user can be adequately informed before the purchase as to a product's merits without being influenced by the results of inadequate testing, referrals, or sales media influences. Although cushions, shoes, or other prosthetic/orthotic devices were not part of this study, it is appropriate to rate all these devices in a similar manner by simply comparing pressure relief attained to that desired, expressing the result as a percentage of the worst case, and then labeling the product accordingly. Those subjects with sensation can rate comfort as part of the overall score. For cushions, ischial tuberosity pressure relief can be expressed as a percentage of the maximum attainable relief. Metatarsal head relief during gait as well as during static

  8. The Standard-Model Extension and Gravitational Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay D. Tasson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Standard-Model Extension (SME provides a comprehensive effective field-theory framework for the study of CPT and Lorentz symmetry. This work reviews the structure and philosophy of the SME and provides some intuitive examples of symmetry violation. The results of recent gravitational tests performed within the SME are summarized including analysis of results from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO, sensitivities achieved in short-range gravity experiments, constraints from cosmic-ray data, and results achieved by studying planetary ephemerids. Some proposals and ongoing efforts will also be considered including gravimeter tests, tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle, and antimatter experiments. Our review of the above topics is augmented by several original extensions of the relevant work. We present new examples of symmetry violation in the SME and use the cosmic-ray analysis to place first-ever constraints on 81 additional operators.

  9. Technology and testing for the extension of plant life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, U.R.; Edelmann, X.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes selected portions of a recommended program for the application of equipment-manufacturing-related technology and testing for the extension of life for operating nuclear power plants. It is appropriate to mention that the Swiss nuclear plants, their staffs, and the supporting Swiss nuclear industry are rightfully proud of their record of performance. Plant staffs have been intimately involved in system and equipment design and engineering from the very beginnings of their plants. Maintenance of the plant systems and equipment is referred to as engineering rather than maintenance, because it is viewed as a technical effort and an extension of the original plant and equipment design and construction effort. Care, competence, cleanliness, and attention to detail have been bywords for the Swiss plants. Success has been demonstrated through enviable availability performance. With operation and availability capability already demonstrated, the Swiss are now turning their attention to the extension of plant life. This summary describes some aspects of this work, which is fundamentally based on the application of technology and testing skills developed for equipment manufacture and the original installation of this equipment in the plants, but has been enhanced by research and development (R and D) and an ongoing effort to serve utilities in their maintenance activities

  10. An Extensible Open-Source Compiler Infrastructure for Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinlan, D; Ur, S; Vuduc, R

    2005-12-09

    Testing forms a critical part of the development process for large-scale software, and there is growing need for automated tools that can read, represent, analyze, and transform the application's source code to help carry out testing tasks. However, the support required to compile applications written in common general purpose languages is generally inaccessible to the testing research community. In this paper, we report on an extensible, open-source compiler infrastructure called ROSE, which is currently in development at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. ROSE specifically targets developers who wish to build source-based tools that implement customized analyses and optimizations for large-scale C, C++, and Fortran90 scientific computing applications (on the order of a million lines of code or more). However, much of this infrastructure can also be used to address problems in testing, and ROSE is by design broadly accessible to those without a formal compiler background. This paper details the interactions between testing of applications and the ways in which compiler technology can aid in the understanding of those applications. We emphasize the particular aspects of ROSE, such as support for the general analysis of whole programs, that are particularly well-suited to the testing research community and the scale of the problems that community solves.

  11. Auditing HIV Testing Rates across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raben, D; Mocroft, A; Rayment, M

    2015-01-01

    European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC). Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour...... candidiasis. Observed HIV-positive rates were applied by region and IC to estimate the number of HIV diagnoses potentially missed. Outcomes examined were: HIV test rate (% of total patients with IC), HIV test accepted (% of tests performed/% of tests offered) and new HIV diagnosis rate (%). There were 49...... audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97), lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68%) and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100). Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0...

  12. 78 FR 45010 - Modifications to the Disability Determination Procedures; Extension of Testing of Some Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2013-0030] Modifications to the Disability Determination Procedures; Extension of Testing of Some Disability Redesign Features AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of the extension of tests involving modifications to the disability determination...

  13. 77 FR 35464 - Modifications to the Disability Determination Procedures; Extension of Testing of Some Disability...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION [Docket No. SSA-2012-0029] Modifications to the Disability Determination Procedures; Extension of Testing of Some Disability Redesign Features AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Notice of the Extension of Tests Involving Modifications to the Disability Determination...

  14. False Discovery Rates and Multiple Testing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    RESONANCE | December 2013. GENERAL | ARTICLE. False Discovery Rates and Multiple Testing. Soumen Dey and Mohan Delampady. Keywords. False discovery rate, FDR,. pFDR, multiple testing, empiri- cal Bayes, hierarchical Bayes, high-dimensional problems. Soumen Dey is a research scholar at ISI, Bangalore.

  15. Influence of PCR reagents on DNA polymerase extension rates measured on real-time PCR instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Jesse L; Wittwer, Carl T

    2014-02-01

    Radioactive DNA polymerase activity methods are cumbersome and do not provide initial extension rates. A simple extension rate assay would enable study of basic assumptions about PCR and define the limits of rapid PCR. A continuous assay that monitors DNA polymerase extension using noncovalent DNA dyes on common real-time PCR instruments was developed. Extension rates were measured in nucleotides per second per molecule of polymerase. To initiate the reaction, a nucleotide analog was heat activated at 95 °C for 5 min, the temperature decreased to 75 °C, and fluorescence monitored until substrate exhaustion in 30-90 min. The assay was linear with time for over 40% of the reaction and for polymerase concentrations over a 100-fold range (1-100 pmol/L). Extension rates decreased continuously with increasing monovalent cation concentrations (lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium, and ammonium). Melting-temperature depressors had variable effects. DMSO increased rates up to 33%, whereas glycerol had little effect. Betaine, formamide, and 1,2-propanediol decreased rates with increasing concentrations. Four common noncovalent DNA dyes inhibited polymerase extension. Heat-activated nucleotide analogs were 92% activated after 5 min, and hot start DNA polymerases were 73%-90% activated after 20 min. Simple DNA extension rate assays can be performed on real-time PCR instruments. Activity is decreased by monovalent cations, DNA dyes, and most melting temperature depressors. Rational inclusion of PCR components on the basis of their effects on polymerase extension is likely to be useful in PCR, particularly rapid-cycle or fast PCR.

  16. Verification testing of the compression performance of the HEVC screen content coding extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gary J.; Baroncini, Vittorio A.; Yu, Haoping; Joshi, Rajan L.; Liu, Shan; Xiu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jizheng

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on verification testing of the coding performance of the screen content coding (SCC) extensions of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard (Rec. ITU-T H.265 | ISO/IEC 23008-2 MPEG-H Part 2). The coding performance of HEVC screen content model (SCM) reference software is compared with that of the HEVC test model (HM) without the SCC extensions, as well as with the Advanced Video Coding (AVC) joint model (JM) reference software, for both lossy and mathematically lossless compression using All-Intra (AI), Random Access (RA), and Lowdelay B (LB) encoding structures and using similar encoding techniques. Video test sequences in 1920×1080 RGB 4:4:4, YCbCr 4:4:4, and YCbCr 4:2:0 colour sampling formats with 8 bits per sample are tested in two categories: "text and graphics with motion" (TGM) and "mixed" content. For lossless coding, the encodings are evaluated in terms of relative bit-rate savings. For lossy compression, subjective testing was conducted at 4 quality levels for each coding case, and the test results are presented through mean opinion score (MOS) curves. The relative coding performance is also evaluated in terms of Bjøntegaard-delta (BD) bit-rate savings for equal PSNR quality. The perceptual tests and objective metric measurements show a very substantial benefit in coding efficiency for the SCC extensions, and provided consistent results with a high degree of confidence. For TGM video, the estimated bit-rate savings ranged from 60-90% relative to the JM and 40-80% relative to the HM, depending on the AI/RA/LB configuration category and colour sampling format.

  17. Bedside paediatric HIV testing in Malawi: Impact on testing rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Provider initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is recommended for all inpatients in Malawi if they have not been tested in the previous 3 months. However testing rates remain low among children. We audited the effect of implementing a bedside diagnostic HIV testing service to determine if it would improve ...

  18. EFAM GTP-CREEP 02 - the GKSS test procedure for determining the creep crack extension of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    This document describes a fracture mechanics method in procedural form for determining the creep crack extension of materials. It is based on the unified fracture mechanics test method EFAM GTP 02, the ASTM standard E 1457-98, activities of VAMAS TWA 19, and GKSS experience in creep crack extension testing. It introduces novel features such as the rate of the δ 5 crack tip opening displacement, the crack tip opening angle, and the middle cracked tension specimen. (orig.) [de

  19. Understanding Plug-in Test Suites from an Extensibility Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.; Gross, H.G.; Van Deursen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in architectures enable developers to build extensible software products. Such products are assembled from plug-ins, and their functionality can be enriched by adding or configuring plug-ins. The plug-ins themselves consist also of multiple plug-ins, and offer dedicated points through which

  20. Test and Evaluation of Training Extension Course (TEC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, T. O.; Hardy, Richard A., Jr.

    The effectiveness of a Training Extension Course (TEC) as a means of increasing the Military Occupational Specialty (MOS) proficiency of Army personnel was evaluated. TEC was implemented by the Combat Arms Training Board using sound/slide as the basic media for 56 lessons. Training material relevant to MOS 11B40, Light Weapons Infantryman, was…

  1. Extensive and intensive margins and the choice of exchange rate regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Masashige Hamano; Pierre M. Picard

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies how the choice of fixed or flexible exchange rate regimes is affected by the existence of intensive and extensive margins. We study two models where firms enter during or before each period of production. We show how the the choice of those regimes depend on the level and the volatily of the intensive and extensive margins as well as on the congruence between consumers' preferences and the supply and diversity of products. We show that fixed exchange rate regimes are prefer...

  2. Primary containment intergrated leakage rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-04-01

    Primary containment integrated leakage rate tests (ILRTs) have previously been conducted with a minimum duration of 24 hr. However, analysis of data from recent ILRTs has shown that a test duration considerably less than 24 hr would have been sufficient. This report summarizes these recent ILRTs and analyzes and discusses the test results. Test and analytical methods, including the LEAKFIT computer program, are also discussed. The conclusion is reached that an ILRT with a duration of 6 hr and at least 20 data points is sufficient

  3. Extensive test of an SU(3)-based partial dynamical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R F

    2014-01-01

    The concept of symmetries pervades much of our understanding of nature. In nuclear structure, the IBA embodies a framework with three dynamical symmetries U(5), O(6) and SU(3). Of course, most nuclei break these symmetries. Leviatan has discussed a concept of Partial Dynamical Symmetry (PDS) in which the states of the ground and gamma bands, only, are exactly described by SU(3) while all others are not. With an E2 operator which is not a generator of SU(3), this PDS gives a parameter-free description of γ to ground band relative B(E2) values in 168 Er that is virtually identical to the best collective model (IBA) calculations with 2-3 parameters. We have carried out the first extensive study of this PDS, in 47 rare earth nuclei. Overall, the PDS works very well, and the deviations from the data are usually understandable in terms of specific kinds of mixing.

  4. Extensive Test of an SU(3)-based Partial Dynamical Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casten, R. F.

    2014-09-01

    The concept of symmetries pervades much of our understanding of nature. In nuclear structure, the IBA embodies a framework with three dynamical symmetries U(5), O(6) and SU(3). Of course, most nuclei break these symmetries. Leviatan has discussed a concept of Partial Dynamical Symmetry (PDS) in which the states of the ground and gamma bands, only, are exactly described by SU(3) while all others are not. With an E2 operator which is not a generator of SU(3), this PDS gives a parameter-free description of γ to ground band relative B(E2) values in 168Er that is virtually identical to the best collective model (IBA) calculations with 2-3 parameters. We have carried out the first extensive study of this PDS, in 47 rare earth nuclei. Overall, the PDS works very well, and the deviations from the data are usually understandable in terms of specific kinds of mixing.

  5. THE MISHKIN TEST: AN ANALYSIS OF MODEL EXTENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana MURESAN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews empirical research that apply Mishkin test for the examination of the existence of accruals anomaly using alternative approaches. Mishkin test is a test used in macro-econometrics for rational hypothesis, which test for the market efficiency. Starting with Sloan (1996 the model has been applied to accruals anomaly literature. Since Sloan (1996, the model has known various improvements and it has been the subject to many debates in the literature regarding its efficacy. Nevertheless, the current evidence strengthens the pervasiveness of the model. The analyses realized on the extended studies on Mishkin test highlights that adding additional variables enhances the results, providing insightful information about the occurrence of accruals anomaly.

  6. DWPF Macrobatch 2 Melt Rate Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-01-03

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister production rate must be increased to meet canister production goals. Although a number of factors exist that could potentially increase melt rate, this study focused on two: (1) changes in frit composition and (2) changes to the feed preparation process to alter the redox of the melter feed. These two factors were investigated for Macrobatch 2 (sludge batch 1B) utilizing crucible studies and a specially designed ''melt rate'' furnace. Other potential factors that could increase melt rate include: mechanical mixing via stirring or the use of bubblers, changing the power skewing to redistribute the power input to the melter, and elimination of heat loss (e.g. air in leakage). The melt rate testing in FY00 demonstrated that melt rate can be improved by adding a different frit or producing a much more reducing glass by the addition of sugar as a reductant. The frit that melted the fastest in the melt rate testing was Frit 165. A paper stud y was performed using the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to determine the impact on predicted glass viscosity, liquidus, durability, and operating window if the frit was changed from Frit 200 to Frit 165. PCCS indicated that the window was very similar for both frits. In addition, the predicted viscosity of the frit 165 glass was 46 poise versus 84 poise for the Frit 200 glass. As a result, a change from Frit 200 to Frit 165 is expected to increase the melt rate in DWPF without decreasing waste loading.

  7. Humidity Testing for Human Rated Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gary B.

    2009-01-01

    Determination that equipment can operate in and survive exposure to the humidity environments unique to human rated spacecraft presents widely varying challenges. Equipment may need to operate in habitable volumes where the atmosphere contains perspiration, exhalation, and residual moisture. Equipment located outside the pressurized volumes may be exposed to repetitive diurnal cycles that may result in moisture absorption and/or condensation. Equipment may be thermally affected by conduction to coldplate or structure, by forced or ambient air convection (hot/cold or wet/dry), or by radiation to space through windows or hatches. The equipment s on/off state also contributes to the equipment s susceptibility to humidity. Like-equipment is sometimes used in more than one location and under varying operational modes. Due to these challenges, developing a test scenario that bounds all physical, environmental and operational modes for both pressurized and unpressurized volumes requires an integrated assessment to determine the "worst-case combined conditions." Such an assessment was performed for the Constellation program, considering all of the aforementioned variables; and a test profile was developed based on approximately 300 variable combinations. The test profile has been vetted by several subject matter experts and partially validated by testing. Final testing to determine the efficacy of the test profile on actual space hardware is in the planning stages. When validation is completed, the test profile will be formally incorporated into NASA document CxP 30036, "Constellation Environmental Qualification and Acceptance Testing Requirements (CEQATR)."

  8. Reliability of the active and passive knee extension test in acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Oomen, Henricus G.; Moen, Maarten H.; Tol, Johannes L.; Verhaar, Jan A. N.; Weir, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Hamstring flexibility measurements are of clinical relevance for the prognosis of hamstring injury and for monitoring recovery after such injury. The active knee extension test (AKET) and passive knee extension test (PKET) are proven to be reliable in healthy subjects. Reliability has not been

  9. Reliability of the active and passive knee extension test in acute hamstring injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Reurink (Gustaaf); G.J. Goudswaard (Gert Jan); H.G. Oomen (Henricus); M.H. Moen (Maaike); J.L. Tol (Johannes); J.A.N. Verhaar (Jan); A. Weir (Adam)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Hamstring flexibility measurements are of clinical relevance for the prognosis of hamstring injury and for monitoring recovery after such injury. The active knee extension test (AKET) and passive knee extension test (PKET) are proven to be reliable in healthy subjects.

  10. 75 FR 9953 - Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ...] Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (NRTL); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of Information Collection (Paperwork) Requirements AGENCY... its Regulation on the Definition and Requirements for a Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory (29...

  11. New results from an extensive aging test on bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2067339; De Capua, Stefano; Domenici, Danilo; Ganis, Gerardo; Messi, Roberto; Passaleva, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Veltri, Michele; Carboni, Giovanni; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Capua, Stefano De; Domenici, Danilo; Ganis, Gerardo; Messi, Roberto; Passaleva, Giovanni; Santovetti, Emanuele; Veltri, Michele

    2003-01-01

    We present recent results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility on two single-gap RPC prototypes, developed for the LHCb Muon System. With a method based on a model describing the behaviour of an RPC under high particle flux conditions, we have periodically measured the electrode resistance R of the two RPC prototypes over three years: we observe a large spontaneous increase of R with time, from the initial value of about 2 MOhm to more than 250 MOhm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capabilities, from more than 3 kHz/cm^2 to less than 0.15 kHz/cm^2 is also found.

  12. Final results from an extensive ageing test of bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Carboni, G; De Capua, S; Dominici, Daniele; Messi, R; Passaleva, G; Santovetti, E; Veltri, M

    2004-01-01

    We present the final results of an extensive aging test, performed at the CERN Gamma Irradiation Facility on two bakelite Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) detectors. With a method based on a model describing the behaviour of an RPC under high particle flux conditions, we have periodically measured the electrode resistivity rho of the two RPC prototypes over 3 years. We observed a large spontaneous increase of rho with time, from the initial value of about 10**1**0 Omega cm to more than 200 multiplied by 10**1**0 Omega cm. A corresponding degradation of the RPC rate capabilities, from more than 3 kHz/cm**2 to less than 200 Hz/cm**2, was observed; the reversibility of the process, using a humid gas mixture, has also been studied. We also present a study of the effects of humidity on the bakelite resistivity using two 10 multiplied by 10 cm**2 bakelite samples.

  13. Bayesian noninferiority test for 2 binomial probabilities as the extension of Fisher exact test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Masaaki; Takahashi, Fumihiro; Kawasaki, Yohei

    2017-12-30

    Noninferiority trials have recently gained importance for the clinical trials of drugs and medical devices. In these trials, most statistical methods have been used from a frequentist perspective, and historical data have been used only for the specification of the noninferiority margin Δ>0. In contrast, Bayesian methods, which have been studied recently are advantageous in that they can use historical data to specify prior distributions and are expected to enable more efficient decision making than frequentist methods by borrowing information from historical trials. In the case of noninferiority trials for response probabilities π 1 ,π 2 , Bayesian methods evaluate the posterior probability of H 1 :π 1 >π 2 -Δ being true. To numerically calculate such posterior probability, complicated Appell hypergeometric function or approximation methods are used. Further, the theoretical relationship between Bayesian and frequentist methods is unclear. In this work, we give the exact expression of the posterior probability of the noninferiority under some mild conditions and propose the Bayesian noninferiority test framework which can flexibly incorporate historical data by using the conditional power prior. Further, we show the relationship between Bayesian posterior probability and the P value of the Fisher exact test. From this relationship, our method can be interpreted as the Bayesian noninferior extension of the Fisher exact test, and we can treat superiority and noninferiority in the same framework. Our method is illustrated through Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the operating characteristics, the application to the real HIV clinical trial data, and the sample size calculation using historical data. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. 76 FR 76711 - DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ...] DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on November 30, 2011, DCP Raptor Pipeline, LLC (Raptor) filed a request for an extension consistent..., Raptor requests that the date for its next rate filing be extended to September 1, 2014, which is five...

  15. 77 FR 11367 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Test Program for Negotiation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Program for Negotiation of Comprehensive Small Business Subcontracting Plans. DATES: Effective Date... Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Extension of the Test Program for Negotiation of Comprehensive Small Business Subcontracting Plans (DFARS Case 2012-D026) AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations...

  16. Assessing Progress in an Extensive Reading Program Using a Cloze Test

    OpenAIRE

    Pederson, Stan; ピダーソン, スタンリ クレランス; Pederson, Stanley Clarence

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigated the suitability of a pre-test post-test cloze procedure as a measure of reading progress in an extensive reading class at a high-level Japanese high school. Results showed the test to be reliable, consistent with a construct of reading fluency and sensitive to improvement in reading proficiency.

  17. Testing for a Level Effect in Short-Term Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Olan T. Henry; Sandy Suardi

    2004-01-01

    There is an extensive theoretical and empirical literature discussing the link between short-term interest rate volatility and interest rate levels. We present an LM based test for the presence of a level effect which is robust to the presence of unidentified nuisance parameter under the null of no level effect. We provide extensive Monte-Carlo evidence on the performance of this test under various DGPs. When applied to data on the 3-month US Treasury Bills rate, the test reports significant ...

  18. High Strain Rate Testing of Welded DOP-26 Iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneibel, J. H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Miller, R. G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Carmichael, C. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Fox, E. E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ulrich, G. B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); George, E. P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The iridium alloy DOP-26 is used to produce Clad Vent Set cups that protect the radioactive fuel in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) which provide electric power for spacecraft and rovers. In a previous study, the tensile properties of DOP-26 were measured over a wide range of strain rates and temperatures and reported in ORNL/TM-2007/81. While that study established the properties of the base material, the fabrication of the heat sources requires welding, and the mechanical properties of welded DOP-26 have not been extensively characterized in the past. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the mechanical properties of DOP-26 specimens containing a transverse weld in the center of their gage sections. Tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 750, 900, and 1090°C and engineering strain rates of 1×10-3 and 10 s-1. Room temperature testing was performed in air, while testing at elevated temperatures was performed in a vacuum better than 1×10-4 Torr. The welded specimens had a significantly higher yield stress, by up to a factor of ~2, than the non-welded base material. The yield stress did not depend on the strain rate except at 1090°C, where it was slightly higher for the faster strain rate. The ultimate tensile stress, on the other hand, was significantly higher for the faster strain rate at temperatures of 750°C and above. At 750°C and above, the specimens deformed at 1×10-3 s-1 showed pronounced necking resulting sometimes in perfect chisel-edge fracture. The specimens deformed at 10 s-1 exhibited this fracture behavior only at the highest test temperature, 1090°C. Fracture occurred usually in the fusion zone of the weld and was, in most cases, primarily intergranular.

  19. Extension of a Kinetic-Theory Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates to Reactions with Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechty, Derek S.; Lewis, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently introduced molecular-level chemistry models that predict equilibrium and nonequilibrium reaction rates using only kinetic theory and fundamental molecular properties (i.e., no macroscopic reaction rate information) are extended to include reactions involving charged particles and electronic energy levels. The proposed extensions include ionization reactions, exothermic associative ionization reactions, endothermic and exothermic charge exchange reactions, and other exchange reactions involving ionized species. The extensions are shown to agree favorably with the measured Arrhenius rates for near-equilibrium conditions.

  20. 26 CFR 1.1274-4 - Test rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... test rate of interest—(1) In general—(i) Test rate is the 3-month rate. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the test rate of interest for a debt instrument issued in consideration for... rate (based on the appropriate compounding period) in effect during the 3-month period ending with the...

  1. Framed bit error rate testing for 100G ethernet equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2010-01-01

    of performing bit error rate testing at 100Gbps. In particular, we show how Bit Error Rate Testing (BERT) can be performed over an aggregated 100G Attachment Unit Interface (CAUI) by encapsulating the test data in Ethernet frames at line speed. Our results show that framed bit error rate testing can...... functionality besides the bit error rate tester....

  2. Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lijing

    2014-03-21

    The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.

  3. Extension of the master sintering curve for constant heating rate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Tammy Michelle

    The purpose of this work is to extend the functionality of the Master Sintering Curve (MSC) such that it can be used as a practical tool for predicting sintering schemes that combine both a constant heating rate and an isothermal hold. Rather than just being able to predict a final density for the object of interest, the extension to the MSC will actually be able to model a sintering run from start to finish. Because the Johnson model does not incorporate this capability, the work presented is an extension of what has already been shown in literature to be a valuable resource in many sintering situations. A predicted sintering curve that incorporates a combination of constant heating rate and an isothermal hold is more indicative of what is found in real-life sintering operations. This research offers the possibility of predicting the sintering schedule for a material, thereby having advanced information about the extent of sintering, the time schedule for sintering, and the sintering temperature with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. The research conducted in this thesis focuses on the development of a working model for predicting the sintering schedules of several stabilized zirconia powders having the compositions YSZ (HSY8), 10Sc1CeSZ, 10Sc1YSZ, and 11ScSZ1A. The compositions of the four powders are first verified using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size and surface area are verified using a particle size analyzer and BET analysis, respectively. The sintering studies were conducted on powder compacts using a double pushrod dilatometer. Density measurements are obtained both geometrically and using the Archimedes method. Each of the four powders is pressed into ¼" diameter pellets using a manual press with no additives, such as a binder or lubricant. Using a double push-rod dilatometer, shrinkage data for the pellets is obtained over several different heating rates. The shrinkage data is then converted to reflect the change in relative

  4. PHENIX Muon Piston Calorimeter (MPC) APD and Prototype MPC Extension (MPC-EX) Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajoie, John [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2013-06-20

    This is a technical scope of work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of Muon Piston Calorimeter Extension (MPC-EX) Collaboration who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2013- 2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program.

  5. Pre-Gas Drilling Drinking Water Testing--An Educational Opportunity for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swistock, Brian; Clark, James

    2015-01-01

    The increase in shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania has resulted in thousands of landowners receiving predrilling testing of their drinking water. Landowners often have difficulty understanding test reports resulting in low awareness of pre-existing problems. Extension and several partners developed a program to improve understanding of…

  6. 76 FR 24060 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ..., testing, approval and certification, and quality control of mining equipment and components, materials, instruments, and explosives used in both underground and surface coal, metal, and nonmetal mines. Title 30... Extension of Existing Information Collection; Testing, Evaluation, and Approval of Mining Products AGENCY...

  7. Development and Testing of Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extensions for Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Gradl, Paul R.; Greene, Sandra E.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon-carbon (C-C) composite nozzle extensions are of interest for use on a variety of launch vehicle upper stage engines and in-space propulsion systems. The C-C nozzle extension technology and test capabilities being developed are intended to support National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Department of Defense (DOD) requirements, as well as those of the broader Commercial Space industry. For NASA, C-C nozzle extension technology development primarily supports the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) and NASA's Commercial Space partners. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) efforts are aimed at both (a) further developing the technology and databases needed to enable the use of composite nozzle extensions on cryogenic upper stage engines, and (b) developing and demonstrating low-cost capabilities for testing and qualifying composite nozzle extensions. Recent, on-going, and potential future work supporting NASA, DOD, and Commercial Space needs will be discussed. Information to be presented will include (a) recent and on-going mechanical, thermal, and hot-fire testing, as well as (b) potential future efforts to further develop and qualify domestic C-C nozzle extension solutions for the various upper stage engines under development.

  8. 76 FR 18754 - J-W Pipeline Company; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR09-6-003] J-W Pipeline Company; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on March 28, 2011, J-W Pipeline Company (J-W) filed a request for an extension consistent with the Commission's revised...

  9. Coral Cores for selected locations in the Pacific Ocean obtained to determine calcification and extension rates of Porites spp. corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Laboratory experiments reveal calcification and extension rates of corals are strongly correlated to seawater aragonite saturation state. Predictions of reduced...

  10. The Effects of Extensive Reading on Reading Comprehension, Reading Rate, and Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Namhee

    2017-01-01

    Several empirical studies and syntheses of extensive reading have concluded that extensive reading has positive impacts on language learning in second- and foreign-language settings. However, many of the studies contained methodological or curricular limitations, raising questions about the asserted positive effects of extensive reading. The…

  11. Plasma volume, intravascular albumin and its transcapillary escape rate in patients with extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Worm, A M; Rossing, N

    1976-01-01

    Plasma volume and plasma concentration and transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, were determined using 125I-labelled human albumin in eight patients with extensive skin disease....... Plasma volume and plasma albumin concentration were reduced (P less than 0-05). Thus the intravascular albumin mass was moderately decreased to an average of 0-55 +/- 0-06 (s.d.) g/cm height compared with a normal mean value of 0-77 +/- 0-07 (s.d.) g/cm. This 29% decrease is statistically significant (P...... less than 0-001). The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb) was significantly elevated, mean 8-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, as compared to normal subjects, mean 5-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, (+54%, P less than 0-001). The same patients were studied again after a 1-week treatment with prednisone...

  12. Voluminous lava flow from Axial Seamount's south rift constrains extension rate on northern Vance Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Saout, M.; Clague, D. A.; Paduan, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    Axial Seamount is characterized by a robust magma supply resulting from the interaction between the Cobb hotspot and the Juan de Fuca Ridge. During the last two decades, magmatic activity was focused within the summit caldera and upper and middle portions of the two rift zones, with eruptions in 1998, 2011, and 2015. However, the distal ends of both rift zones have experienced numerous eruptions in the past. The most voluminous flows are located near the extreme ends, greater than 40 kilometers from the caldera. Where Axial's South Rift Zone overlaps with the Vance Segment of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, the 2015 MBARI expedition mapped 16 km2 of the seafloor with our AUV, and collected 33 rocks and 33 sediment cores during two ROV dives. The data were used to confirm the boundaries of an extensive flow tentatively identified using modern ship based bathymetry. This flow is 18 km wide and 6 km long for a total surface area of 63 km2. The flow is modified by superficial ( 5 m deep) and deep (25 to 45 m deep) subsidence pits, with the deepest pits giving an indication of the minimum thickness of the flow. The maximum thickness of 100 m is measured at the margins of the flow. We thus estimate a volume between 2.5 and 6 km3, making this flow the most voluminous known on the global mid ocean ridge system. The minimum volume is equivalent to the present volume of the summit caldera. Radiocarbon ages of foraminifera from the basal sections of sediment cores suggest that this flow is 1000 years old. This flow travelled east and partially filled the axial valley of the adjacent Vance Segment. Since emplacement, this part of the flow has experienced deformation by fissures and faults aligned with the trend of the Vance Segment. The horizontal extension across these features allows us to estimate a local deformation rate of 3 cm/yr of tectonic extension on the northern end of Vance Segment during the last 1000 years.

  13. Risk-Based Allowed Outage Time and Surveillance Test Interval Extensions for Angra 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M. Orlando Gibelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA is used to evaluate Allowed Outage Times (AOT and Surveillance Test Intervals (STI extensions for three Angra 1 nuclear power plant safety systems. The interest in such an analysis lies on the fact that PSA comprises a risk-based tool for safety evaluation and has been increasingly applied to support both the regulatory and the operational decision-making processes. Regarding Angra 1, among other applications, PSA is meant to be an additional method that can be used by the utility to justify Technical Specification relaxation to the Brazilian regulatory body. The risk measure used in this work is the Core Damage Frequency, obtained from the Angra 1 Level 1 PSA study. AOT and STI extensions are evaluated for the Safety Injection, Service Water and Auxiliary Feedwater Systems using the SAPHIRE code. In order to compensate for the risk increase caused by the extensions, compensatory measures as (1 test of redundant train prior to entering maintenance and (2 staggered test strategy are proposed. Results have shown that the proposed AOT extensions are acceptable for two of the systems with the implementation of compensatory measures whereas STI extensions are acceptable for all three systems.

  14. Model 9975 Life Extension Test Package 3 - Interim Report - January 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-31

    Life extension package LE3 (9975-03203) has been instrumented and subjected to an elevated temperature environment for approximately 8 years. During this time, the cane fiberboard has been maintained at a maximum temperature of ~160 - 165 °F, which was established by a combination of internal (19 watts) and external heat sources. Several tests and parameters were used to characterize the package components. Results from these tests generally indicate agreement between this full-scale shipping package and small-scale laboratory tests on fiberboard samples, including the degradation models based on the laboratory tests. These areas of agreement include the rate of change of fiberboard weight, dimensions and density, and change in fiberboard thermal conductivity. Corrosion of the lead shield occurred at a high rate during the first several weeks of aging, but dropped significantly after most of the moisture in the fiberboard migrated away from the lead shield. Dimensional measurements of the lead shield indicate that no significant creep deformation has occurred. This is consistent with literature data that predict a very small creep deformation for the time at temperature experienced by this package. The SCV O-rings were verified to remain leak-tight after ~5 years aging at an average temperature of ~170 °F. This package provides an example of the extent to which moisture within a typical fiberboard assembly can redistribute in the presence of a temperature gradient such as might be created by a 19 watt internal heat load. The majority of water within the fiberboard migrated to the bottom layers of fiberboard, with approximately 2 kg of water (2 liters) eventually escaping from the package. Two conditions have developed that are not consistent with package certification requirements. The axial gap at the top of the package increased to a maximum value of 1.549 inches, exceeding the 1 inch criterion. In addition, staining and/or corrosion have formed in a few spots

  15. 76 FR 9374 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Examinations and Testing of Electrical...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Testing of Electrical Equipment, Including High Voltage Longwalls AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health... on the right of the homepage. On the next screen, select ``Paperwork Reduction Act Supporting...: Extension. Agency: Mine Safety and Health Administration. OMB Number: 1219-0116. Frequency: Daily, weekly...

  16. Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards for Airplane, Helicopter, Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Instrument Rating Practical Test Standards (PTS) book has : been published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to : establish the standards for the instrument rating practical test for : airplanes, helicopters, and airships. FAA inspecto...

  17. Show Me the Money: Impact of County Funding on Retention Rates for Extension Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldhues, Katherine; Tanner, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Extension administrators contemplating the challenge of employee turnover should consider potential motivation factors. Through the lens of Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory, we explored the relationship between financial uncertainty and employee turnover in Ohio State University Extension. The Human Resources department and Business Office of…

  18. The criterion-referenced validity of the FITNESSGRAM Trunk-Extension test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Maurice, P F; Welk, G J; Burns, R; Plowman, S A; Corbin, C B; Hannon, J C

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to test utility of different fitness field tests to predict self-reported low-back pain (LBP) in youth. A sample of 376 school aged (4th through 10th grade students) first completed a survey instrument designed to assess past events (and degree) of LBP. On subsequent days, participants completed a battery of different muscular fitness tests including the current FITNESSGRAM trunk extension test. Receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) were used to test the utility of single and combined scores from various tests to predict self-reported LBP. The results show that the trunk extension test used in FITNESSGRAM has poor utility for predicting self-reported LBP. In girls, the sit-and-reach, the static curl-up test, and a composite score using static and dynamic curl-up scores had the highest Area Under the Curve (AUC=0.80, 0.71, and 0.79, respectively). Sensitivity (Se) values ranged from 75.0-85.7 while Specificity (Sp) ranged from 59.1-81.4. In boys, the dynamic curl-up test alone was the best predictor of LBP in high-school boys (AUC=0.75, Sensitivity=75.0 and Specificity=74.1). The reasonable Sensitivity values from the ROC analyses indicate that individual and aggregate indicators of musculoskeletal fitness can potentially identify girls that had LBP in the past. However, the low values for Specificity indicates that girls with "No LBP" can be misclassified as being at risk for LBP. The current FITNESSGRAM trunk extension test was not able to discriminate between students with and without LBP therefore, the utility of this test for fitness assessment in youth should be revisited.

  19. 46 CFR 107.260 - Rated load test for cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated load test for cranes. 107.260 Section 107.260... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification § 107.260 Rated load test for cranes. (a) To meet the requirements in § 107.231(l), each crane must meet the following rated load test at both the...

  20. Outcome after surgical treatment for lumbar spinal stenosis: the lumbar extension test is not a predictive factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, Lars; Hauerberg, John; Springborg, Jacob B

    2009-01-01

    surgery and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery using 3 different scoring systems: Swiss Spinal Stenosis Questionnaire, Neurogenic Claudication Outcome Score, and Oswestry Disability Index. The group of patients with preoperative aggravation of the symptoms by the lumbar extension test, (positive...... itself had no prognostic value for the overall outcome after lumbar decompression. Using regression models with the 2-year Oswestry Disability Index as dependent variable, only before surgery self-reported health and age were found to have prognostic significance. CONCLUSION: The lumbar extension test...... extension test), was compared with the group of patients without aggravation by the test, (negative extension test). RESULTS: Before surgery, patients with a positive extension test scored significantly worse on all disability scoring systems than patients with a negative test. However, the extension test...

  1. Sex Ratios, Economic Power, and Women's Roles: A Theoretical Extension and Empirical Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.

    1988-01-01

    Tested hypotheses concerning sex ratios, women's roles, and economic power with data from 111 countries. Found undersupply of women positively associated with proportion of women who marry and fertility rate; inversely associated with women's average age at marriage, literacy rate, and divorce rate. Suggests women's economic power may counteract…

  2. Field Cone Penetration Tests with Various Penetration Rates - Test Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    was encountered at approximately 0.2-0.6 m below the ground level. The soil stratigraphy of the test site was before test start identified by geotechnical borings results. The geotechnical borings indicated that the site contains of sandy silt with clay stripes from approx. 4.0 to 10 m. In the top the silty soil...... is very sandy with few clay stripes, and gradually the clay stripes increases wherefore the soil from approx. 10 m contains of clay with sandy silt stripes. Large soil sample was also collected from the test site in order to determine basic soil properties in the laboratory.......The test site is located at Nordre Ringgade near the town called Dronninglund in the northern Jutland in Denmark. The site area is relatively flat, and was chosen because it has a size of approximately 3 ha and contains a relatively thick deposit of silty soils. Furthermore the groundwater...

  3. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Merino-Marban, Rafael; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r) between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp), unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error), was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility) were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67), but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35). Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility. Key PointsOverall sit

  4. Bedside paediatric HIV testing in Malawi: Impact on testing rates

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-05-25

    May 25, 2017 ... The patient and guardian were then referred by nursing staff to attend the HIV counsellor's office, situated in a room approximately 100 metres from the Paediatric Emergency Department, or to another room approximately 50 meters from the main paediatric inpatient ward. HIV testing was not done at the ...

  5. Extension of the ACE solar panels is tested in SAEF-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  6. 46 CFR 162.018-7 - Flow rating tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flow rating tests. 162.018-7 Section 162.018-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS... rating tests. (a) Flow rating of valves shall be conducted in accordance with UG-131 of section VIII of...

  7. 40 CFR 280.104 - Local government bond rating test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local government bond rating test. 280... STORAGE TANKS (UST) Financial Responsibility § 280.104 Local government bond rating test. (a) A general... million or more, excluding refunded obligations, with a Moody's rating of Aaa, Aa, A, or Baa, or a...

  8. Tests at constant extension velocity CERT for the evaluation of environmental assisted cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The test at constant velocity extension (CERT) is firmly established as a technique for the study of environmentally cracking (stress corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement) and is widely used, mainly in mechanistic studies. In CERT test, an increasing charge is applied to a sample and the extension velocity is hold up constant to allow that corrosion interplay in the process. The type of crack and ductility measurements with the conditions for testing are compared with a cracked sample in an inert media. Required equipment: 1) A charge mechanism capable to control the elongation of test samples in a rank of 1 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -7 inch/inch sec and capable to hold up constant such elongation. 2) A suitable standard (Astm standard A-370). 3) A chamber or cell for the media in which the chemical composition of the solution, the gas composition, the pressure, temperature and electrochemical potential can be controlled in order to simulate with anticipation the service conditions. The cell must allow the mechanical access of the test sample to the charge train of the machine. (Author)

  9. Competition-Induced Reductions in Soil Water Availability Reduced Pine Root Extension Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Ludovici; L.A. Morris

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between soil water availability, root extension, and shoot growth of loblolly pine seedlings (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated in a rhizotron sand mixture in the absence and presence of crabgrass (Digitaria spp.) competition. Heights and diameters of seedlings grown with crabgrass were reduced 33 and SO%, respectively, compared with...

  10. 76 FR 51969 - New Mexico Gas Company, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Mexico Gas Company, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline Take notice that on August 12, 2011, New Mexico Gas Company, Inc. (NMGC) filed a request.... \\1\\ Contract Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies, Order No. 735, 131 FERC ] 61...

  11. Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research Support Instruments, Inc. (RSI) proposes to develop the Retroreflector Array for Test Environments (RATE), an innovative technology that will...

  12. Strength of wood versus rate of testing - A theoretical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    2007-01-01

    Strength of wood is normally measured in ramp load experiments. Experience shows that strength increases with increasing rate of testing. This feature is considered theoretically in this paper. It is shown that the influence of testing rate is a phenomenon, which depends on the quality...... of the considered wood. Low quality wood shows lesser influence of testing rate. This observation agrees with the well-known statement made by Borg Madsen that weak wood subjected to a constant load, has a longer lifetime than strong wood. In general, the influence of testing rate on strength increases...

  13. Dose rate range extension of the calibration of dosemeters at LNMRI, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral, T.S.; Carlos, M.T.; Ramos, M.M.O.

    2009-01-01

    The present work has an objective the implantation of a experimental arrange for application of essays of instrument calibration for measurement of low dose rate, which measure rate less than 10 μSv/h

  14. Integrated leak rate test results of JOYO reactor containment vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, M.; Endo, J.

    1982-02-01

    Integrated leak rate tests of JOYO after the reactor coolant system had been filled with sodium have been performed two times since 1978 (February 1978 and December 1979). The tests were conducted with the in-containment sodium systems, primary argon cover gas system and air conditioning systems operating. Both the absolute pressure method and the reference chamber method were employed during the test. The results of both tests confirmed the functioning of the containment vessel, and leak rate limits were satisfied. In Addition, the adequancy of the test instrumentation system and the test method was demonstrated. Finally the plant conditions required to maintain reasonable accuracy for the leak rate testing of LMFBR were established. In this paper, the test conditions and the test results are described. (author)

  15. Reliability of transverse plane pelvic alignment measurement during the bridge test with unilateral knee extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Juliana A; Figueiredo, Luisa C; Santos, Thiago R T; Paula, Ana C V; Bittencourt, Natália F N; Fonseca, Sérgio T

    2012-01-01

    The bridge test with unilateral knee extension evaluates the stability of the trunk and pelvis. The evaluation of this stability can contribute to the understanding of the occurrence of musculoskeletal injuries. To investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a qualitative analysis and intra-test reliability of a quantitative analysis of transverse plane pelvic alignment during the bridge test with unilateral knee extension. Thirty participants (24.73±4.24 years old) were tested. The qualitative analysis was conducted by asking two raters to judge the transverse plane pelvic alignment and its reliability was assessed with the weighted kappa coefficient (k(w)). The quantitative analysis was conducted by measuring the greatest pelvic tilt angle in transverse plane and its reliability was assessed by use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); the mean change, which was evaluated using 95% confidence interval of the mean difference (95%CI d) and Bland-Altman plot; and the quantification of measurement variability, which was assessed using standard error of measurement (SEM) and the coefficient of variation of the typical error (CVTE). In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC₉₅) was determined. The intra-rater reliability ranged from fair to moderate (k(w)=0.32 to 0.58) and the inter-rater reliability was substantial (k(w)=0.80). The intra-test reliability was excellent (ICC=0.82), the 95%CI d ranged from -0.51º to 1.99º, the SEM was 2.38° and the CV(TE) was 28.75%. The MDC₉₅ was 6.59°. The inter-rater reliability was greater than the intra-rater reliability; the intra-test reliability was excellent and showed no systematic or random error.

  16. Extensive variation in synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of seed plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mower, Jeffrey P; Touzet, Pascal; Gummow, Julie S; Delph, Lynda F; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2007-08-09

    It has long been known that rates of synonymous substitutions are unusually low in mitochondrial genes of flowering and other land plants. Although two dramatic exceptions to this pattern have recently been reported, it is unclear how often major increases in substitution rates occur during plant mitochondrial evolution and what the overall magnitude of substitution rate variation is across plants. A broad survey was undertaken to evaluate synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of angiosperms and gymnosperms. Although most taxa conform to the generality that plant mitochondrial sequences evolve slowly, additional cases of highly accelerated rates were found. We explore in detail one of these new cases, within the genus Silene. A roughly 100-fold increase in synonymous substitution rate is estimated to have taken place within the last 5 million years and involves only one of ten species of Silene sampled in this study. Examples of unusually slow sequence evolution were also identified. Comparison of the fastest and slowest lineages shows that synonymous substitution rates vary by four orders of magnitude across seed plants. In other words, some plant mitochondrial lineages accumulate more synonymous change in 10,000 years than do others in 100 million years. Several perplexing cases of gene-to-gene variation in sequence divergence within a plant were uncovered. Some of these probably reflect interesting biological phenomena, such as horizontal gene transfer, mitochondrial-to-nucleus transfer, and intragenomic variation in mitochondrial substitution rates, whereas others are likely the result of various kinds of errors. The extremes of synonymous substitution rates measured here constitute by far the largest known range of rate variation for any group of organisms. These results highlight the utility of examining absolute substitution rates in a phylogenetic context rather than by traditional pairwise methods. Why substitution rates are generally so low

  17. FLECHT low flooding rate cosine test series data report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosal, E.R.; Hochreiter, L.E.; McGuire, M.F.; Krepinevich, M.C.

    1975-12-01

    The FLECHT Low Flooding Rate Tests were conducted in an improved original FLECHT Test Facility to provide heat transfer coefficient and entrainment data at forced flooding rates of 1 in./sec and below. In addition these tests were performed to supplement parametric effects studied in the original FLECHT program, provide data for reflood model development, repeat original FLECHT tests with new instrumentation and data processing techniques, and to provide data to establish test repeatability. These tests examined the effects of low initial clad temperature, variable stepped and continuously variable flooding rates, housing heat release, run peak power, constant low flooding rates, coolant subcooling, hot and cold channel entrainment, and bundle stored and generated power. Data obtained in sixty four runs which met the test specifications are reported, and include rod clad temperatures, turn around and quench times, heat transfer coefficients, inlet flooding rates, overall mass balances, differential pressures and calculated void fractions in the test section, thimble wall and steam temperatures, exhaust steam and liquid carryover rates, and housing total and rate of heat release

  18. Criterion-Related Validity of Sit-and-Reach Tests for Estimating Hamstring and Lumbar Extensibility: a Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mayorga-Vega

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present meta-analysis was to examine the scientific literature on the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach tests for estimating hamstring and lumbar extensibility. For this purpose relevant studies were searched from seven electronic databases dated up through December 2012. Primary outcomes of criterion-related validity were Pearson´s zero-order correlation coefficients (r between sit-and-reach tests and hamstrings and/or lumbar extensibility criterion measures. Then, from the included studies, the Hunter- Schmidt´s psychometric meta-analysis approach was conducted to estimate population criterion- related validity of sit-and-reach tests. Firstly, the corrected correlation mean (rp, unaffected by statistical artefacts (i.e., sampling error and measurement error, was calculated separately for each sit-and-reach test. Subsequently, the three potential moderator variables (sex of participants, age of participants, and level of hamstring extensibility were examined by a partially hierarchical analysis. Of the 34 studies included in the present meta-analysis, 99 correlations values across eight sit-and-reach tests and 51 across seven sit-and-reach tests were retrieved for hamstring and lumbar extensibility, respectively. The overall results showed that all sit-and-reach tests had a moderate mean criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility (rp = 0.46-0.67, but they had a low mean for estimating lumbar extensibility (rp = 0. 16-0.35. Generally, females, adults and participants with high levels of hamstring extensibility tended to have greater mean values of criterion-related validity for estimating hamstring extensibility. When the use of angular tests is limited such as in a school setting or in large scale studies, scientists and practitioners could use the sit-and-reach tests as a useful alternative for hamstring extensibility estimation, but not for estimating lumbar extensibility.

  19. A standardised knowledge test to measure the extent of knowledge of agricultural extension personnel on m-tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Kumari Nagam

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A standardised teacher made test for assessing the extent of knowledge of agricultural extension on m-tools was developed using the item analysis procedure. For the purpose, a teacher made test consisting of 30 items were prepared and administered to 30 agricultural extension personnel. Based on the results of the study,14 items having difficulty index value ranging from 20 to 80 and discrimination index value above 0.10 were selected to construct the knowledge test. This standardised test can be used to measure knowledge level of the extension personnel on m-tools.

  20. Clinical utility of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate test and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is a relatively non-specific test that is often ignored during the diagnosis and monitoring of disease. However, in recent times, the test is often requested alongside haemoglobin electrophoretic pattern as pre marital test. This study was aimed at determining the ESR ...

  1. Extension of a generalized state-vector model of radiation carcinogenesis to consideration of dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Hofmann, W.

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical models for radiation carcinogenesis typically employ transition rates that either are a function of the dose to specific cells or are purely empirical constructs unrelated to biophysical theory. These functions either ignore or do not explicitly model interactions between the fates of cells in a community. This paper extends a model of mitosis, cell transformation, promotion, and progression to cases in which interacting cellular communities are irradiated at specified dose rates. The model predicts that lower dose rates are less effective at producing cancer when irradiation is by X- or gamma rays but are generally more effective in instances of irradiation by alpha particles up to a dose rate in excess of 0.01 Gy/day. The resulting predictions are compared with existing experimental data. 39 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  2. Extensive recombination rate variation in the house mouse species complex inferred from genetic linkage maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Beth L; White, Michael A; Steffy, Brian; Wiltshire, Tim; Payseur, Bret A

    2011-01-01

    The rate of recombination is a key genomic parameter that displays considerable variation among taxa. Species comparisons have demonstrated that the rate of evolution in recombination rate is strongly dependent on the physical scale of measurement. Individual recombination hotspots are poorly conserved among closely related taxa, whereas genomic-scale recombination rate variation bears a strong signature of phylogenetic history. In contrast, the mode and tempo of evolution in recombination rates measured on intermediate physical scales is poorly understood. Here, we conduct a detailed statistical comparison between two whole-genome F₂ genetic linkage maps constructed from experimental intercrosses between closely related house mouse subspecies (Mus musculus). Our two maps profile a common wild-derived inbred strain of M. m. domesticus crossed to distinct wild-derived inbred strains representative of two other house mouse subspecies, M. m. castaneus and M. m. musculus. We identify numerous orthologous genomic regions with significant map length differences between these two crosses. Because the genomes of these recently diverged house mice are highly collinear, observed differences in map length (centimorgans) are suggestive of variation in broadscale recombination rate (centimorgans per megabase) within M. musculus. Collectively, these divergent intervals span 19% of the house mouse genome, disproportionately aggregating on the X chromosome. In addition, we uncover strong statistical evidence for a large effect, sex-linked, site-specific modifier of recombination rate segregating within M. musculus. Our findings reveal considerable variation in the megabase-scale recombination landscape among recently diverged taxa and underscore the continued importance of genetic linkage maps in the post-genome era.

  3. High rate tests of microstrip gas chambers for CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Malina, R F; Bell, B; Bellazzini, R; Bozzo, M; Brand, C; Brez, A; Caner, A; Cattai, A; Chorowicz, V; Contardo, D; Latronico, L; Lumb, N; Magazzù, C; Martín, J; Massai, M M; Mirabito, L; Morelli, A; Raffo, R; Rolandi, Luigi; Smadja, G; Spandre, G; Spezziga, M; Tsirou, A L

    1999-01-01

    Microstrip gas chambers (MSGC's) have been proposed for equipping the outer region of the tracker of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The MSGC's have undergone extensive development and tests during the last few years and their performance is well established. An important issue that has to be addressed to date is whether MSGC's can maintain their characteristics after a long exposure to an intense flux of particles, similar to LHC. We report results from the most recent beam test addressing this topic. (9 refs).

  4. Linear extension rates and fluctuations of trace metals in Porites sp. from around Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Liyana; Mohamed, Che Abd Rahim

    2018-04-01

    Coral cores were collected from P. Payar, Port Dickson, P. Redang and P. Tioman. The length of cores represented data spanning from year 2009 - 2015. Satellite sea surface temperatures from year 2009 - 2015 were obtained from the Reynolds and Smith dataset. Sr/Ca concentrations were measured from the coral powder taken at 1mm intervals along the vertical growth axis. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) was significantly higher during year 2010 in all four locations and linear extension was observed to have declined in year 2010 compared to year 2009 in cores from both sites. This decline coincides with the higher SST observed in year 2010 as a result of the El Niño event. Correlation analysis showed that Sr/Ca ratios in cores from all sites have a significant inverse relationship with SST. Analysis of the trace metals such as Pb, Ba, Cr and Cu produced results that were within the reported range in coral skeleton. Concentrations were significantly higher in Port Dickson and the lowest in P. Redang. These findings could be due to differences in terrestrial input at respective reef sites.

  5. Heart Rate Measures of Flight Test and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Malcolm A; Wilson, Glenn F

    2001-01-01

    .... Because flying is a complex task, several measures are required to derive the best evaluation. This article describes the use of heart rate to augment the typical performance and subjective measures used in test and evaluation...

  6. User’s Guide for Getter Rate Test System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, Monte R.

    2007-06-27

    This User’s Guide describes the operation and maintenance of the Getter Rate Test System, including the mechanical equipment, instrumentation, and datalogger/computer components. The Getter Rate Test System includes equipment and instrumentation to conduct two getter rate tests simultaneously. The mechanical equipment comprises roughing and high-vacuum pumps, heated test chambers, standard hydrogen leaks, and associated piping and valves. Instrumentation includes thermocouples, pressure (vacuum) transducers, panel displays, analog-to-digital signal converter, and associated wiring. The datalogger/computer is a stand-alone computer with installed software to allow the user to record data input from the pressure transducers to data files and to calculate the getter rate from the data in an Excel® spreadsheet.

  7. Standard test method for determination of resistance to stable crack extension under low-constraint conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01

    1.1 This standard covers the determination of the resistance to stable crack extension in metallic materials in terms of the critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOAc), ψc and/or the crack-opening displacement (COD), δ5 resistance curve (1). This method applies specifically to fatigue pre-cracked specimens that exhibit low constraint (crack-length-to-thickness and un-cracked ligament-to-thickness ratios greater than or equal to 4) and that are tested under slowly increasing remote applied displacement. The recommended specimens are the compact-tension, C(T), and middle-crack-tension, M(T), specimens. The fracture resistance determined in accordance with this standard is measured as ψc (critical CTOA value) and/or δ5 (critical COD resistance curve) as a function of crack extension. Both fracture resistance parameters are characterized using either a single-specimen or multiple-specimen procedures. These fracture quantities are determined under the opening mode (Mode I) of loading. Influences of environment a...

  8. Subsidence and Extension Rates of Laguna Salada Basin, Northeastern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J.; Martin-Barajas, A.; Herguera, J. C.

    2002-12-01

    Laguna Salada basin in northeastern Baja California, Mexico, is an active half-graben product of the trans-tensional tectonics of the Gulf of California. It lies at the boundary between the North America and Pacific plates, 15 km west of the Cerro Prieto-Imperial fault system. We present the results of a time series analysis of the uppermost 980 m of a gamma ray log from the geothermal exploratory well ELS1 drilled in the proximity of the Laguna Salada fault, which bounds the basin on its eastern margin. Our analysis indicates its stratigraphy is cyclical and that the spectrum of the gamma ray log is similar to the spectrum of δ18O Pleistocene variations, which strongly suggest an orbital origin. Based on this, we establish a correlation between the gamma ray log and δ18O stages to constrain ages of sediments with an estimated uncertainty of ~10 kyr. We found that sedimentation rates at ELS1 site have remained constant during the last 780 kyr. The sedimentation rate at the ELS1 site is 1.6 mm/yr. This value is extrapolated to obtain the vertical and perpendicular to strike slip rates of Laguna Salada fault. It was found that the vertical slip component is 4.22 mm/yr and the perpendicular to strike slip component (E-W direction) is 1.55 mm/yr.

  9. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The

  10. Effects of health information exchange adoption on ambulatory testing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen E; Radcliff, Tiffany A; Leblanc, William G; Dickinson, L Miriam; Libby, Anne M; Nease, Donald E

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effects of the adoption of ambulatory electronic health information exchange (HIE) on rates of laboratory and radiology testing and allowable charges. Claims data from the dominant health plan in Mesa County, Colorado, from 1 April 2005 to 31 December 2010 were matched to HIE adoption data on the provider level. Using mixed effects regression models with the quarter as the unit of analysis, the effect of HIE adoption on testing rates and associated charges was assessed. Claims submitted by 306 providers in 69 practices for 34 818 patients were analyzed. The rate of testing per provider was expressed as tests per 1000 patients per quarter. For primary care providers, the rate of laboratory testing increased over the time span (baseline 1041 tests/1000 patients/quarter, increasing by 13.9 each quarter) and shifted downward with HIE adoption (downward shift of 83, prates or imputed charges in either provider group. Ambulatory HIE adoption is unlikely to produce significant direct savings through reductions in rates of testing. The economic benefits of HIE may reside instead in other downstream outcomes of better informed, higher quality care.

  11. PRESAGE: PRivacy-preserving gEnetic testing via SoftwAre Guard Extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Wang, Chenghong; Dai, Wenrui; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Mohammed, Noman; Al Aziz, Md Momin; Sadat, Md Nazmus; Sahinalp, Cenk; Lauter, Kristin; Wang, Shuang

    2017-07-26

    Advances in DNA sequencing technologies have prompted a wide range of genomic applications to improve healthcare and facilitate biomedical research. However, privacy and security concerns have emerged as a challenge for utilizing cloud computing to handle sensitive genomic data. We present one of the first implementations of Software Guard Extension (SGX) based securely outsourced genetic testing framework, which leverages multiple cryptographic protocols and minimal perfect hash scheme to enable efficient and secure data storage and computation outsourcing. We compared the performance of the proposed PRESAGE framework with the state-of-the-art homomorphic encryption scheme, as well as the plaintext implementation. The experimental results demonstrated significant performance over the homomorphic encryption methods and a small computational overhead in comparison to plaintext implementation. The proposed PRESAGE provides an alternative solution for secure and efficient genomic data outsourcing in an untrusted cloud by using a hybrid framework that combines secure hardware and multiple crypto protocols.

  12. An Efficient Implementation of Fixed Failure-Rate Ratio Test for GNSS Ambiguity Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanqing; Verhagen, Sandra; Wu, Jie

    2016-06-23

    Ambiguity Resolution (AR) plays a vital role in precise GNSS positioning. Correctly-fixed integer ambiguities can significantly improve the positioning solution, while incorrectly-fixed integer ambiguities can bring large positioning errors and, therefore, should be avoided. The ratio test is an extensively used test to validate the fixed integer ambiguities. To choose proper critical values of the ratio test, the Fixed Failure-rate Ratio Test (FFRT) has been proposed, which generates critical values according to user-defined tolerable failure rates. This contribution provides easy-to-implement fitting functions to calculate the critical values. With a massive Monte Carlo simulation, the functions for many different tolerable failure rates are provided, which enriches the choices of critical values for users. Moreover, the fitting functions for the fix rate are also provided, which for the first time allows users to evaluate the conditional success rate, i.e., the success rate once the integer candidates are accepted by FFRT. The superiority of FFRT over the traditional ratio test regarding controlling the failure rate and preventing unnecessary false alarms is shown by a simulation and a real data experiment. In the real data experiment with a baseline of 182.7 km, FFRT achieved much higher fix rates (up to 30% higher) and the same level of positioning accuracy from fixed solutions as compared to the traditional critical value.

  13. 78 FR 4855 - Random Drug Testing Rate for Covered Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-23

    ... deterring and detecting illegal drug abuse in the maritime industry, and to encourage employers to maintain a drug-free workplace with the incentive of a reduced testing rate (and associated reduced costs... their efforts to create a drug-free workplace and encourages marine employers and drug testing service...

  14. Integrated Test Scoring, Performance Rating and Assessment Records Keeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Gerald J.; And Others

    The Objective Test Scoring and Performance Rating (OTS-PR) system is a fully integrated set of 70 modular FORTRAN programs run on a VAX-8530 computer. Even with no knowledge of computers, the user can implement OTS-PR to score multiple-choice tests, include scores from external sources such as hand-scored essays or scores from nationally…

  15. Water chemistry experience following an extensive power up-rate in Oskarshamn 3 BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegemar, Boerje; Nilsson, Jimmy; Lejon Johan; Bergfors, Asa; Arnberg, Bo

    2012-09-01

    The Swedish Oskarshamn 3 BWR plant, operated by OKG, was first connected to the grid in 1985. The plant has been power up-rated in two steps; from the original design, 3020 MWth, to 3300 MWth (109%, 1989) and recently to 3900 MWth (129%, 2009). Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB (former ASEA-Atom, OEM of the plant) was rewarded a major contract in the recently implemented up-rating project, the PULS project. The PULS project is quite unique since no operating experience has to date been reported from a similar major power up-rate in a BWR plant. Water chemistry experience from the first period of operation following the implementation of the PULS project is reported and discussed in the paper. Reported chemistry and radiochemistry measurements in feedwater (FW) and reactor water (RW) include corrosion products, activated corrosion products, dissolved oxygen and impurities like chloride, sulfate etc. Furthermore, a comparison of water quality prior to implementation of the PULS project is included. Several process systems have been modified, one of them being the condensate cleanup system (CCU), a Pre-coat filter system. The design criteria for the CCU system include the filter run-lengths, pressure drop before back-washing and requirements on water chemistry quality. The paper describes in some detail the CCU system modifications being implemented in order to fulfil the design criterion. CCU cleanup efficiency, operating temperature and influence of hydrogen peroxide on the CCU resin are all important issues being covered in the paper. As for the latter, it is well known that oxygen and hydrogen peroxide (from radiolysis in the core region) might cause partial deterioration of CCU standard cation resin resulting in increased RW sulfate concentrations. This aspect is covered in the paper as well. The reactor water cleanup system (RWCU) in Oskarshamn 3 consists of deep bed ion exchange filters (mixed bed filter). The purpose of RWCU is to maintain a low level of

  16. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...-11213, Notice No. 14] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011... random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for alcohol. Because the... effective December 20, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  17. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013...., Washington, DC 20590, (telephone 202-493- 1342); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist... from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive rate has...

  18. Subscale Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extension Development and Hot Fire Testing in Support of Upper Stage Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Paul; Valentine, Peter; Crisanti, Matthew; Greene, Sandy Elam

    2016-01-01

    Upper stage and in-space liquid rocket engines are optimized for performance through the use of high area ratio nozzles to fully expand combustion gases to low exit pressures increasing exhaust velocities. Due to the large size of such nozzles and the related engine performance requirements, carbon-carbon (C/C) composite nozzle extensions are being considered for use in order to reduce weight impacts. NASA and industry partner Carbon-Carbon Advanced Technologies (C-CAT) are working towards advancing the technology readiness level of large-scale, domestically-fabricated, C/C nozzle extensions. These C/C extensions have the ability to reduce the overall costs of extensions relative to heritage metallic and composite extensions and to decrease weight by 50%. Material process and coating developments have advanced over the last several years, but hot fire testing to fully evaluate C/C nozzle extensions in relevant environments has been very limited. NASA and C-CAT have designed, fabricated and hot fire tested multiple subscale nozzle extension test articles of various C/C material systems, with the goal of assessing and advancing the manufacturability of these domestically producible materials as well as characterizing their performance when subjected to the typical environments found in a variety of liquid rocket and scramjet engines. Testing at the MSFC Test Stand 115 evaluated heritage and state-of-the-art C/C materials and coatings, demonstrating the capabilities of the high temperature materials and their fabrication methods. This paper discusses the design and fabrication of the 1.2k-lbf sized carbon-carbon nozzle extensions, provides an overview of the test campaign, presents results of the hot fire testing, and discusses potential follow-on development work.

  19. Extensive synteny conservation of holocentric chromosomes in Lepidoptera despite high rates of local genome rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alençon, E; Sezutsu, H; Legeai, F; Permal, E; Bernard-Samain, S; Gimenez, S; Gagneur, C; Cousserans, F; Shimomura, M; Brun-Barale, A; Flutre, T; Couloux, A; East, P; Gordon, K; Mita, K; Quesneville, H; Fournier, P; Feyereisen, R

    2010-04-27

    The recent assembly of the silkworm Bombyx mori genome with 432 Mb on 28 holocentric chromosomes has become a reference in the genomic analysis of the very diverse Order of Lepidoptera. We sequenced BACs from two major pests, the noctuid moths Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera frugiperda, corresponding to 15 regions distributed on 11 B. mori chromosomes, each BAC/region being anchored by known orthologous gene(s) to analyze syntenic relationships and genome rearrangements among the three species. Nearly 300 genes and numerous transposable elements were identified, with long interspersed nuclear elements and terminal inverted repeats the most abundant transposable element classes. There was a high degree of synteny conservation between B. mori and the two noctuid species. Conserved syntenic blocks of identified genes were very small, however, approximately 1.3 genes per block between B. mori and the two noctuid species and 2.0 genes per block between S. frugiperda and H. armigera. This corresponds to approximately two chromosome breaks per Mb DNA per My. This is a much higher evolution rate than among species of the Drosophila genus and may be related to the holocentric nature of the lepidopteran genomes. We report a large cluster of eight members of the aminopeptidase N gene family that we estimate to have been present since the Jurassic. In contrast, several clusters of cytochrome P450 genes showed multiple lineage-specific duplication events, in particular in the lepidopteran CYP9A subfamily. Our study highlights the value of the silkworm genome as a reference in lepidopteran comparative genomics.

  20. Uniaxial tension test on Rubber at constant true strain rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourne H.L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers are widely used for damping parts in different industrial contexts because of their remarkable dissipation properties. Indeed, they can undergo severe mechanical loading conditions, i.e., high strain rates and large strains. Nevertheless, the mechanical response of these materials can vary from purely rubber-like to glassy depending on the strain rate undergone. Classically, uniaxial tension tests are made in order to find a relation between the stress and the strain in the material at various strain rates. However, even if the strain rate is searched to be constant, it is the nominal strain rate that is considered. Here we develop a test at constant true strain rate, i.e. the strain rate that is experienced by the material. In order to do such a test, the displacement imposed by the machine is an exponential function of time. This test has been performed with a high speed hydraulic machine for strain rates between 0.01/s and 100/s. A specific specimen has been designed, yielding a uniform strain field (and so a uniform stress field. Furthermore, an instrumented aluminum bar has been used to take into account dynamic effects in the measurement of the applied force. A high speed camera enables the determination of strain in the sample using point tracking technique. Using this method, the stress-strain curve of a rubber-like material during a loading-unloading cycle has been determined, up to a stretch ratio λ = 2.5. The influence of the true strain rate both on stiffness and on dissipation of the material is then discussed.

  1. Digital sound: Subjective tests on low bit-rate codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, N. H. C.

    At the beginning of 1990, BBC Research Department tested four experimental high-quality low bit-rate audio codecs which were under development as part of the Eureka 147 Digital Audio Broadcasting project. The work involved preliminary listening tests to identify critical test material, followed by formal subjective tests to determine audio quality and error performance. The listeners could detect some loss of audio quality with all of the codecs using the most critical material. There were also indications that one of the codecs did not always reproduce the phantom sound sources in their correct position.

  2. Development of Wireless System for Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Dae; Oh, Eung-Se; Yang, Seung-Ok

    2006-01-01

    The containment system leakage rate should be estimated periodically with reliable test equipment. In light-water reactor nuclear power plants, ANSI/ANS- 56.8 is a basis for determining leakage rates. Two types of data acquisition system, centralized type and networked type, has been used. In centralized type, all sensors are connected directly from sensors in the containment to the measuring equipment outside the building. The other hand, the networked type has several branch chains which connect one group of the network-sensors together. To test leakage rate, more than 20 temperature sensors and 6 humidity sensors, which are different for each plant, should be installed on a specific level in the containment. A wireless technology gives the benefits such as reducing installation efforts, making pretest easy, so it is widely used more and more in the plant monitoring. As the containment system has many kinds of complex barriers to the radio frequency, the radio power and frequency band for better transmission rate as well as the interference by the radio frequency should be considered. The overview of the wireless sensor system for the containment leakage rate test is described here and the test results on Yonggwang unit 4 PWR plant is presented

  3. High rate tests of the LHCb RICH Upgrade system

    CERN Multimedia

    Blago, Michele Piero

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for the upgrade of the LHCb RICH detectors from 2020 is to readout the photon detectors at the full 40 MHz rate of the LHC proton-proton collisions. A test facility has been setup at CERN with the purpose to investigate the behaviour of the Multi Anode PMTs, which have been proposed for the upgrade, and their readout electronics at high trigger rates. The MaPMTs are illuminated with a monochromatic laser that can be triggered independently of the readout electronics. A first series of tests, including threshold scans, is performed at low trigger rates (20 kHz) for both the readout and the laser with the purpose to characterise the behaviour of the system under test. Then the trigger rate is increased in two separate steps. First the MaPMTs are exposed to high illumination by triggering the pulsed laser at a high (20 MHz) repetition rate while the DAQ is readout at the same low rate as before. In this way the performance of the MaPMTs and the attached electronics can be evaluated ...

  4. Power ramp performance of some 15 x 15 PWR test fuel rods tested in the STUDSVIK SUPER-RAMP and SUPER-RAMP extension projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djurle, S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results obtained from the STUDSVIK SUPER-RAMP (SR) and SUPER-RAMP EXTENSION (SRX) projects. As parts of these projects test fuel rods of the same PWR type were base irradiated in the Obrigheim power reactor and power ramp tested in the STUDSVIK R2 reactor. Some of the rods were ramped using an inlet coolant water temperature 50 deg. C below the normal one. Fabricated data on the test fuel rods are presented as well as data on the base irradiation, interim examination, conditioning irradiation, power ramp irradiation and results of the post irradiation examination. The data on the change of diameter at ridges due to power ramping have shown that a lower clad temperature during ramping leads to smaller deformations. Most likely this may be explained as due to a smaller creep rate in the cladding at the lower temperature, resulting in a more severe stress situation. The combination of low cladding temperature, high ramp terminal level and the presence of a stress corrosion agent may have caused the failure of one of the test rods. (author)

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF VELOCITY OVERSHOOT MOVEMENT ARTIFACT ON ISOKINETIC KNEE EXTENSION TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Peruzzo Schwartz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise on an isokinetic device involves three distinct movement phases: acceleration, constant velocity, and deceleration. Inherent in these phases are unique occurrences that may confound test data and, thereby, test interpretation. Standard methods of data reduction like windowing and other techniques consist of removing the acceleration and deceleration phases in order to assure analysis under constant velocity conditions. However, none of these techniques adequately quantify the velocity overshoot (VO movement artifact which is a result of the devices resistance imposed to the limb. This study tested the influence of VO on isokinetic data interpretation. A computational algorithm was developed to accurately identify each movement phase and to delineate the VO segment. Therefore, the VO was then treated as a fourth and independent phase. A total of sixteen healthy men (26.8 ± 4.7 yrs, 1.76 ± 0.05 m, and 79.2 ± 9.4 kg performed two sets of ten maximal concentric extension repetitions of their dominant knee (at 60º·s-1 and 180º·s-1, on separate days and in a counterbalanced order, on a Biodex System 3 Pro dynamometer. All the phases of the isokinetic exercise were measured in terms of their biomechanical descriptors and according to the developed algorithm, the windowing method, and a data reduction technique that eliminates the first and last 10º of the total range of motion. Results showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between the constant velocity phases found by each method: the largest segment was obtained with the windowing method; the second one, with the algorithm; and the smallest, with data reduction technique. The point of peak torque was not affected by none of the techniques, but significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between the data including and not including the VO phase, concerning total work, time interval, and average length of load range: VO represents more than 10% of the amount calculated in constant

  6. 18 CFR 806.12 - Constant-rate aquifer testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constant-rate aquifer testing. 806.12 Section 806.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN... groundwater availability analysis to determine the availability of water during a 1-in-10-year recurrence...

  7. Effective Rating Scale Development for Speaking Tests: Performance Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred; Kemp, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    Rating scale design and development for testing speaking is generally conducted using one of two approaches: the measurement-driven approach or the performance data-driven approach. The measurement-driven approach prioritizes the ordering of descriptors onto a single scale. Meaning is derived from the scaling methodology and the agreement of…

  8. Fabrication and Testing of Low Cost 2D Carbon-Carbon Nozzle Extensions at NASA/MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Shigley, John K.; George, Russ; Roberts, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Subscale liquid engine tests were conducted at NASA/MSFC using a 1.2 Klbf engine with liquid oxygen (LOX) and gaseous hydrogen. Testing was performed for main-stage durations ranging from 10 to 160 seconds at a chamber pressure of 550 psia and a mixture ratio of 5.7. Operating the engine in this manner demonstrated a new and affordable test capability for evaluating subscale nozzles by exposing them to long duration tests. A series of 2D C-C nozzle extensions were manufactured, oxidation protection applied and then tested on a liquid engine test facility at NASA/MSFC. The C-C nozzle extensions had oxidation protection applied using three very distinct methods with a wide range of costs and process times: SiC via Polymer Impregnation & Pyrolysis (PIP), Air Plasma Spray (APS) and Melt Infiltration. The tested extensions were about 6" long with an exit plane ID of about 6.6". The test results, material properties and performance of the 2D C-C extensions and attachment features will be discussed.

  9. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2015-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  10. Significance of Test-based Ratings for Metropolitan Boston Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Bolon

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1998 Massachusetts began state-sponsored, annual achievement testing of all students in three public school grades. It has created a school and district rating system for which scores on these tests are the sole factor. It proposes to use tenth-grade test scores as a sole criterion for high school graduation, beginning with the class of 2003. The state is treating scores and ratings as though they were precise educational measures of high significance. A review of tenth-grade mathematics test scores from academic high schools in metropolitan Boston showed that statistically they are not. Community income is strongly correlated with test scores and accounted for more than 80 percent of the variance in average scores for a sample of Boston-area communities. Once community income was included in models, other factors--including percentages of students in disadvantaged populations, (Note 1 percentages receiving special education, percentages eligible for free or reduced price lunch, percentages with limited English proficiency, school sizes, school spending levels, and property values--all failed to associate substantial additional variance. Large uncertainties in residuals of school-averaged scores, after subtracting predictions based on community income, tend to make the scores ineffective for rating performance of schools. Large uncertainties in year-to-year score changes tend to make the score changes ineffective for measuring performance trends.

  11. Risk-based evaluation of allowed outage time and surveillance test interval extensions for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, Sonia Maria Orlando

    2008-03-01

    The main goal of this work is, through the use of Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA), to evaluate Technical Specification (TS) Allowed Outage Times (AOT) and Surveillance Test Intervals (STI) extensions for Angra 1 nuclear power plant. PSA has been incorporated as an additional tool, required as part of NPP licensing process. The risk measure used in this work is the Core Damage Frequency (CDF), obtained from the Angra 1 PSA Level 1. AOT and STI extensions are calculated for the Safety Injection System (SIS), Service water System (SAS) and Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFS) through the use of SAPHIRE code. In order to compensate for the risk increase caused by the extensions, compensatory measures as test of redundant train prior to entering maintenance and staggered test strategy are proposed. Results have shown that the proposed AOT extensions are acceptable for the SIS and SAS with the implementation of compensatory measures. The proposed AOT extension is not acceptable for the AFS. The STI extensions are acceptable for all three systems. (author)

  12. Evaluation of dispersive mixing, extension rate and bubble size distribution using numerical simulation of a non-Newtonian fluid in a twin-screw mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Maureen L.

    Initially 3D FEM simulation of a simplified mixer was used to examine the effect of mixer configuration and operating conditions on dispersive mixing of a non-Newtonian fluid. Horizontal and vertical velocity magnitudes increased with increasing mixer speed, while maximum axial velocity and shear rate were greater with staggered paddles. In contrast, parallel paddles produced an area of efficient dispersive mixing between the center of the paddle and the barrel wall. This study was expanded to encompass the complete nine-paddle mixing section using power-law and Bird-Carreau fluid models. In the center of the mixer, simple shear flow was seen, corresponding with high [special character omitted]. Efficient dispersive mixing appeared near the barrel wall at all flow rates and near the barrel center with parallel paddles. Areas of backflow, improving fluid retention time, occurred with staggered paddles. The Bird-Carreau fluid showed greater influence of paddle motion under the same operating conditions due to the inelastic nature of the fluid. Shear-thinning behavior also resulted in greater maximum shear rate as shearing became easier with decreasing fluid viscosity. Shear rate distributions are frequently calculated, but extension rate calculations have not been made in a complex geometry since Debbaut and Crochet (1988) defined extension rate as the ratio of the third to the second invariant of the strain rate tensor. Extension rate was assumed to be negligible in most studies, but here extension rate is shown to be significant. It is possible to calculate maximum stable bubble diameter from capillary number if shear and extension rates in a flow field are known. Extension rate distributions were calculated for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. High extension and shear rates were found in the intermeshing region. Extension is the major influence on critical capillary number and maximum stable bubble diameter, but when extension rate values are low shear rate has

  13. Study on DOP substitutes for leaking rate testing of HEPA filter used in nuclear air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dangui; Zhang Jirong; Hou Jianrong; Qiao Taifei; Shen Dapeng; Shi Yingxia

    2012-01-01

    Based on an extensive investigation over available literatures concerning HEPA filter testing, PEG400, SHELL on dina oil 15 and P.a. were chosen as candidates for Dop substitutes, and on which a series of tests were conducted about their aerosol conversion rate, particle size distribution, Dop detector response and leaking rate in H EPA filter. With consideration of technical properties, safety performance and economy, homemade P.a. is finally selected as the best substitute for Dop among the three. (authors)

  14. HIV Testing Rates and Factors Associated With Recent HIV Testing Among Male Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Petroll, Andrew E.

    2012-01-01

    Little data exists on HIV testing rates among male couples. By using dyadic data from 142 male couples, we found that less than a quarter of the men had gotten tested for HIV in the previous three months. Few factors also were associated with their most recent HIV test.

  15. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...-11213, Notice No. 13] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing... percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0... effective upon publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  16. KiDS-450: testing extensions to the standard cosmological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudaki, Shahab; Mead, Alexander; Blake, Chris; Choi, Ami; de Jong, Jelte; Erben, Thomas; Fenech Conti, Ian; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Joachimi, Benjamin; Klaes, Dominik; Köhlinger, Fabian; Kuijken, Konrad; McFarland, John; Miller, Lance; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    We test extensions to the standard cosmological model with weak gravitational lensing tomography using 450 deg2 of imaging data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS). In these extended cosmologies, which include massive neutrinos, non-zero curvature, evolving dark energy, modified gravity and running of the scalar spectral index, we also examine the discordance between KiDS and cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements from Planck. The discordance between the two data sets is largely unaffected by a more conservative treatment of the lensing systematics and the removal of angular scales most sensitive to non-linear physics. The only extended cosmology that simultaneously alleviates the discordance with Planck and is at least moderately favoured by the data includes evolving dark energy with a time-dependent equation of state (in the form of the w0 - wa parametrization). In this model, the respective S_8=σ _8√{Ω m/0.3} constraints agree at the 1σ level, and there is 'substantial concordance' between the KiDS and Planck data sets when accounting for the full parameter space. Moreover, the Planck constraint on the Hubble constant is wider than in Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) and in agreement with the Riess et al. (2016) direct measurement of H0. The dark energy model is moderately favoured as compared to ΛCDM when combining the KiDS and Planck measurements, and marginalized constraints in the w0-wa plane are discrepant with a cosmological constant at the 3σ level. KiDS further constrains the sum of neutrino masses to 4.0 eV (95% CL), finds no preference for time or scale-dependent modifications to the metric potentials, and is consistent with flatness and no running of the spectral index.

  17. Optical Methods For Automatic Rating Of Engine Test Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, James R.; Moss, Brian C.

    1989-03-01

    In recent years, increasing commercial and legislative pressure on automotive engine manufacturers, including increased oil drain intervals, cleaner exhaust emissions and high specific power outputs, have led to increasing demands on lubricating oil performance. Lubricant performance is defined by bench engine tests run under closely controlled conditions. After test, engines are dismantled and the parts rated for wear and accumulation of deposit. This rating must be consistently carried out in laboratories throughout the world in order to ensure lubricant quality meeting the specified standards. To this end, rating technicians evaluate components, following closely defined procedures. This process is time consuming, inaccurate and subject to drift, requiring regular recalibration of raters by means of international rating workshops. This paper describes two instruments for automatic rating of engine parts. The first uses a laser to determine the degree of polishing of the engine cylinder bore, caused by the reciprocating action of piston. This instrument has been developed to prototype stage by the NDT Centre at Harwell under contract to Exxon Chemical, and is planned for production within the next twelve months. The second instrument uses red and green filtered light to determine the type, quality and position of deposit formed on the piston surfaces. The latter device has undergone feasibility study, but no prototype exists.

  18. Chronic ankle instability affects learning rate during repeated proprioception testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witchalls, Jeremy B; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger; Blanch, Peter

    2014-05-01

    1. To determine whether individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have lower proprioception sensitivity scores from a test on the Active Movement Extent Discrimination Apparatus (AMEDA). 2. To determine whether individuals with CAI can improve proprioception sensitivity scores with repeated active movement testing using the AMEDA. 3. To assess the test-retest reliability of the AMEDA. A cohort study comparing those with CAI or healthy ankles. University clinical laboratory. 61 healthy university students, 36 with CAI, 25 with stable ankles. A 2-way ANOVA was conducted to compare performance of CAI and stable ankle groups, over 3 test repetitions on the AMEDA. The reliability intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was obtained for test repetitions. The scores improved in both groups when the AMEDA test was repeated (p = proprioception test scores differed, with the CAI group showing a slower learning rate than the stable ankle group (p = 0.047). The ICC for the whole group across the three trials was 0.80 (95% CI = 0.69 to 0.87, p = proprioception scores more slowly upon repeated AMEDA testing, suggesting differences in learning strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High rate loading tests and impact tests of concrete and reinforcement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, J.I.; Tachikawa, H.; Fujimoto, K.

    1982-01-01

    The responses of reinforced concrete structural members and structures subjected to impact or impulsive loadings are affected by the behavior of constituent concrete and reinforcement which are the synthesis of the rate effects and the contribution of propagating stress waves of them. The rate effects and the contribution of stress waves do not have the same tendency in the variation of magnitude of them with speed of impact or impulsive loadings. Therefore the rate effects, mentioned above, should be obtained by the tests minimized the effect of stress waves (high rate loading test). This paper deals with the testing techniques with high rate loadings and impact, and also reports the main results of these tests. (orig.) [de

  20. Hamstring muscle extensibility influences the criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miñarro, Pedro A; Rodríguez-García, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of hamstring muscle extensibility on the hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests. Two hundred forty young adults (mean age: 22.9 +/- 3.6 years) participated in this study. Three trials of straight leg raise (SLR) (left and right), SR, and TT tests were performed in a random order. The subjects were dichotomized into group A (subjects with an SLR angle /= 75 degrees ). The correlation values between SLR angle and SR and TT scores were calculated and compared between both groups. Group B elicited higher mean SR and TT scores than group A (p tests. Group B showed moderate values for both SR (r = 0.55) and TT (r = 0.60-0.61) tests. The hamstring criterion-related validity of the SR and TT tests is influenced by hamstring muscle extensibility. From the results of this investigation, we find that the SR and TT tests are not valid measures of hamstring extensibility for subjects with reduced hamstring muscle extensibility.

  1. Motor operated valve testing and the 'rate of loading' phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, B.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses valve design features which affect the ability to predict motor operated valve (MOV) performance and reviews factors which should be considered when selecting switch settings to limit stem loads. Considerable attention is given to the rate of loading phenomenon which affects the relationship between valve stem thrust and actuator spring pack deflection. Equations are developed, and testing is discussed which permit the construction of an MOV dynamic model. Factors which must be considered when maintaining switch settings correct throughout the life of the plant are discussed. And switch setting acceptance criteria for use with baseline Static and Design Basis testing are suggested

  2. Parent Ratings of Impulsivity and Inhibition Predict State Testing Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Lundwall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One principle of cognitive development is that earlier intervention for educational difficulties tends to improve outcomes such as future educational and career success. One possible way to help students who struggle is to determine if they process information differently. Such determination might lead to clues for interventions. For example, early information processing requires attention before the information can be identified, encoded, and stored. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parent ratings of inattention, inhibition, and impulsivity, and whether error rate on a reflexive attention task could be used to predict child scores on state standardized tests. Finding such an association could provide assistance to educators in identifying academically struggling children who might require targeted educational interventions. Children (N = 203 were invited to complete a peripheral cueing task (which measures the automatic reorienting of the brain’s attentional resources from one location to another. While the children completed the task, their parents completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire gathered information on broad indicators of child functioning, including observable behaviors of impulsivity, inattention, and inhibition, as well as state academic scores (which the parent retrieved online from their school. We used sequential regression to analyze contributions of error rate and parent-rated behaviors in predicting six academic scores. In one of the six analyses (for science, we found that the improvement was significant from the simplified model (with only family income, child age, and sex as predictors to the full model (adding error rate and three parent-rated behaviors. Two additional analyses (reading and social studies showed near significant improvement from simplified to full models. Parent-rated behaviors were significant predictors in all three of these analyses. In the reading score analysis

  3. Effect of Control Mode and Test Rate on the Measured Fracture Toughness of Advanced Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bronson D.; Salem, Jonathan A.

    2018-01-01

    The effects of control mode and test rate on the measured fracture toughness of ceramics were evaluated by using chevron-notched flexure specimens in accordance with ASTM C1421. The use of stroke control gave consistent results with about 2% (statistically insignificant) variation in measured fracture toughness for a very wide range of rates (0.005 to 0.5 mm/min). Use of strain or crack mouth opening displacement (CMOD) control gave approx. 5% (statistically significant) variation over a very wide range of rates (1 to 80 µm/m/s), with the measurements being a function of rate. However, the rate effect was eliminated by use of dry nitrogen, implying a stress corrosion effect rather than a stability effect. With the use of a nitrogen environment during strain controlled tests, fracture toughness values were within about 1% over a wide range of rates (1 to 80 micons/m/s). CMOD or strain control did allow stable crack extension well past maximum force, and thus is preferred for energy calculations. The effort is being used to confirm recommendations in ASTM Test Method C1421 on fracture toughness measurement.

  4. 78 FR 5430 - Extension of Approval Period for Certain Tests Used in the National Reporting System for Adult...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Extension of Approval Period for Certain Tests Used in the National Reporting System for Adult Education AGENCY: Office of Vocational and Adult Education, Department of... National Reporting System for Adult Education (NRS regulations) (73 FR 2306). The NRS regulations...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1112 - Extension of compliance, and performance test, monitoring, recordkeeping and reporting waivers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by which orders will be issued for the purchase of component parts to accomplish emission control or... or intention to deny approval of a request for an extension of compliance within 30 days after... writing of the Administrator's intention to issue the denial, together with— (A) Notice of the information...

  6. Typing of 49 autosomal SNPs by single base extension and capillary electrophoresis for forensic genetic testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Claus; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Morling, Niels

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for simultaneous amplification of 49 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) by multiplex PCR and detection of the SNP alleles by single base extension (SBE) and capillary electrophoresis. All the SNPs may be amplified from only 100 pg of genomic DNA and the length...

  7. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014... December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Manager, W38...-493-6313); or Sam Noe, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Specialist, (telephone 615-719- 2951). Issued in...

  8. Partitioned log-rank tests for the overall homogeneity of hazard rate functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yukun; Yin, Guosheng

    2017-07-01

    In survival analysis, it is routine to test equality of two survival curves, which is often conducted by using the log-rank test. Although it is optimal under the proportional hazards assumption, the log-rank test is known to have little power when the survival or hazard functions cross. To test the overall homogeneity of hazard rate functions, we propose a group of partitioned log-rank tests. By partitioning the time axis and taking the supremum of the sum of two partitioned log-rank statistics over different partitioning points, the proposed test gains enormous power for cases with crossing hazards. On the other hand, when the hazards are indeed proportional, our test still maintains high power close to that of the optimal log-rank test. Extensive simulation studies are conducted to compare the proposed test with existing methods, and three real data examples are used to illustrate the commonality of crossing hazards and the advantages of the partitioned log-rank tests.

  9. Development and validation of a Chinese music quality rating test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yuexin; Zhao, Fei; Zheng, Yiqing

    2013-09-01

    The present study aims to develop and validate a Chinese music quality rating test (MQRT). In Experiment 1, 22 music pieces were initially selected and paired as a 'familiar music piece' and 'unfamiliar music piece' based on familiarities amongst the general public in the categories of classical music (6), Chinese folk music (8), and pop music (8). Following the selection criteria, one pair of music pieces from each music category was selected and used for the MQRT in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, the MQRT was validated using these music pieces in the categories 'Pleasantness', 'Naturalness', 'Fullness', 'Roughness', and 'Sharpness'. Seventy-two adult participants and 30 normal-hearing listeners were recruited in Experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Significant differences between the familiar and unfamiliar music pieces were found in respect of pleasantness rating for folk and pop music pieces as well as in sharpness rating for pop music pieces. The comparison of music category effect on MQRT found significant differences in pleasantness, fullness, and sharpness ratings. The Chinese MQRT developed in the present study is an effective tool for assessing music quality.

  10. Clinimetric testing of the comprehensive cervical dystonia rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comella, Cynthia L; Perlmutter, Joel S; Jinnah, Hyder A; Waliczek, Tracy A; Rosen, Ami R; Galpern, Wendy R; Adler, Charles A; Barbano, Richard L; Factor, Stewart A; Goetz, Christopher G; Jankovic, Joseph; Reich, Stephen G; Rodriguez, Ramon L; Severt, William L; Zurowski, Mateusz; Fox, Susan H; Stebbins, Glenn T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the clinimetric properties of the Comprehensive Cervical Dystonia Rating Scale. This is a modular scale with modifications of the Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (composed of three subscales assessing motor severity, disability, and pain) now referred to as the revised Toronto Western Spasmodic Torticollis Scale-2; a newly developed psychiatric screening instrument; and the Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile-58 as a quality of life measure. Ten dystonia experts rated subjects with cervical dystonia using the comprehensive scale. Clinimetric techniques assessed each module of the scale for reliability, item correlation, and factor structure. There were 208 cervical dystonia patients (73% women; age, 59 ± 10 years; duration, 15 ± 12 years). Internal consistency of the motor severity subscale was acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.57). Item to total correlations showed that elimination of items with low correlations (Rating Scale are internally consistent with a logical factor structure. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  11. FFTF hot standby integrated leak-rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrads, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    During the conduct of the FFTF ILRT-2 in May/June, 1981 a very noticeable diurnal effect was apparent. A diurnal effect can cause the resulting leak rate calculations to be erroneous if the proper time periods or analysis techniques are not utilized. This report depicts a technique on how to properly select the ILRT test period so that an even mass vs time function is analyzed and that the test period must extend beyond one diurnal cycle. Another technique was developed and used to correlate the change in containment volume as a function of containment average air temperature. This technique was shown to be independent of the diurnal cycle and gave consistent results. A third technique of using a finite element program to calculate volume changes as a function of containment skin temperatures was deemed in theory to be acceptable, but there was not sufficient skin temperature data at various elevations to demonstrate its utility

  12. High rabbit abundance proves detrimental to the population growth rate in European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. extensive breeding enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ruiz-Aizpurua

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus L. is a key prey species in Mediterranean ecosystems that has declined in its natural ranges as a result of diseases and loss of habitat. This situation has led to the production of wild rabbits in enclosures in which they can acclimate and breed. The efficiency of these enclosures as extensive breeding systems is defined by their population growth rate (PGR. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of rabbit abundance on the PGR. This has been done by creating general linear models to explain autumn and spring PGR with the use of rabbit abundance estimates, enclosure size, aerial predation and previous PGR as possible explanatory variables. Rabbit abundance and enclosure size negatively affected the autumn PGR, while only rabbit abundance affected the spring PGR in the best-fit models. It is suggested that maintaining rabbit densities at fewer than 30 rabbits per hectare might help to optimise the efficiency inside enclosures.

  13. Integrated leak rate testing of the fast flux test facility reactor containment building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, E.B.; Farabee, O.A.; Bliss, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The initial Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) of the Fast Flux Test Facility containment building was performed from May 27 to June 2, 1978. The test was conducted in air with systems vented and with the containment recirculating coolers in operation. 10 psig and 5 psig tests were run using the absolute pressure test method. The measured leakage rates were .033% Vol/24 hr. and -.0015% Vol/24 hrs. respectively. Subsequent verification tests at both 10 psig and 5 psig proved that the test equipment was operating properly and it was sensitive enough to detect leaks at low pressures. This ILRT was performed at a lower pressure than any previous ILRT on a reactor containment structure in the United States. While the initial design requirements for ice condenser containments called for a part pressure test at 6 psig, the tests were waived due to the apparent statistical problems of data analysis and the repeatability of the data itself at such low pressure. In contrast to this belief, both the 5 and 10 psig ILRT's were performed in a successful manner at FFTF

  14. NASA Common Research Model Test Envelope Extension With Active Sting Damping at NTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Melissa B.; Balakrishna, S.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Common Research Model (CRM) high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel testing program was established to generate an experimental database for applied Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) validation studies. During transonic wind tunnel tests, the CRM encounters large sting vibrations when the angle of attack approaches the second pitching moment break, which can sometimes become divergent. CRM transonic test data analysis suggests that sting divergent oscillations are related to negative net sting damping episodes associated with flow separation instability. The National Transonic Facility (NTF) has been addressing remedies to extend polar testing up to and beyond the second pitching moment break point of the test articles using an active piezoceramic damper system for both ambient and cryogenic temperatures. This paper reviews CRM test results to gain understanding of sting dynamics with a simple model describing the mechanics of a sting-model system and presents the performance of the damper under cryogenic conditions.

  15. Mechanically Evoked Torque and Electromyographic Responses During Passive Elbow Extension in Upper Limb Tension Test Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-25

    electromyography, (5 th edn). William & Wilkins, Baltimore, MD, 1985. [12] S. J. Coakes and L. G. S. Steed, SPSS Analysis without anguish , John Wiley & Sons...test. Keywords: Mechanically Evoked EMG; Neural Tension testing; Upper Limb Tension Test (ULLT); Pain; Median nerve; Human motion analysis ; Neuromuscular...mechanosensitivity of the median nerve in both neutral position of the arm and the tensioned position of median nerve in the ULTT. Statistical analysis Differences

  16. Voltage stress effects on microcircuit accelerated life test failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    The applicability of Arrhenius and Eyring reaction rate models for describing microcircuit aging characteristics as a function of junction temperature and applied voltage was evaluated. The results of a matrix of accelerated life tests with a single metal oxide semiconductor microcircuit operated at six different combinations of temperature and voltage were used to evaluate the models. A total of 450 devices from two different lots were tested at ambient temperatures between 200 C and 250 C and applied voltages between 5 Vdc and 15 Vdc. A statistical analysis of the surface related failure data resulted in bimodal failure distributions comprising two lognormal distributions; a 'freak' distribution observed early in time, and a 'main' distribution observed later in time. The Arrhenius model was shown to provide a good description of device aging as a function of temperature at a fixed voltage. The Eyring model also appeared to provide a reasonable description of main distribution device aging as a function of temperature and voltage. Circuit diagrams are shown.

  17. Dynamic testing at high strain rates of an ultrafine-grained magnesium alloy processed by ECAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, B., E-mail: bli@jhu.edu [Center for Advanced Metallic and Ceramic Systems, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Joshi, S. [Center for Advanced Metallic and Ceramic Systems, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Azevedo, K.; Ma, E.; Ramesh, K.T. [Center for Advanced Metallic and Ceramic Systems, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Figueiredo, R.B. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Department of Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Langdon, T.G. [Department of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Department of Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-08-20

    A ZK60 magnesium alloy was processed by equal-channel angular pressing (ECAP) at 473 K to produce a grain size of {approx}0.8 {mu}m and it was then tested under dynamic conditions at strain rates up to 4.0 x 10{sup 3} s{sup -1} using a split-Hopkinson bar. The stress-strain curves in dynamic testing exhibited upwards concave curvature suggesting the occurrence of twinning. Examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that dislocation slip played a major role in the flow behavior with dislocation accumulation as the main source of work hardening. An identification of Burgers vectors revealed the extensive presence of prismatic dislocations. Rod-shaped Mg{sub 1}(Zn,Zr){sub 1} precipitates present in the as-received alloy become fragmented and overaged during ECAP.

  18. Stationarity test with a direct test for heteroskedasticity in exchange rate forecasting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khin, Aye Aye; Chau, Wong Hong; Seong, Lim Chee; Bin, Raymond Ling Leh; Teng, Kevin Low Lock

    2017-05-01

    Global economic has been decreasing in the recent years, manifested by the greater exchange rates volatility on international commodity market. This study attempts to analyze some prominent exchange rate forecasting models on Malaysian commodity trading: univariate ARIMA, ARCH and GARCH models in conjunction with stationarity test on residual diagnosis direct testing of heteroskedasticity. All forecasting models utilized the monthly data from 1990 to 2015. Given a total of 312 observations, the data used to forecast both short-term and long-term exchange rate. The forecasting power statistics suggested that the forecasting performance of ARIMA (1, 1, 1) model is more efficient than the ARCH (1) and GARCH (1, 1) models. For ex-post forecast, exchange rate was increased from RM 3.50 per USD in January 2015 to RM 4.47 per USD in December 2015 based on the baseline data. For short-term ex-ante forecast, the analysis results indicate a decrease in exchange rate on 2016 June (RM 4.27 per USD) as compared with 2015 December. A more appropriate forecasting method of exchange rate is vital to aid the decision-making process and planning on the sustainable commodities' production in the world economy.

  19. [CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY OF SIT-AND-REACH TEST AS A MEASURE OF HAMSTRING EXTENSIBILITY IN OLDER WOMEN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Miñarro, Pedro Ángel; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Muyor, José María; Espejo-Antúnez, Luis

    2015-07-01

    lumbo-sacral posture and the sit-andreach score have been proposed as measures of hamstring extensibility. However, the validity is influenced by sample characteristics. to determine the validity of lumbo-horizontal angle and score in the sit-and-reach test as measures of hamstring extensibility in older women. a hundred and twenty older women performed the straight leg raise test with both leg, and the sit-and-reach test (SR) in a random order. For the sitand- reach test, the score and the lumbo-sacral posture in bending (lumbo-horizontal angle, L-Hfx) were measured. the mean values of straight leg raise in left and right leg were 81.70 ± 13.83º and 82.10 ± 14.36º, respectively. The mean value of EPR of both legs was 81.90 ± 12.70º. The mean values of SR score and L-Hfx were -1.54 ± 8.09 cm and 91.08º ± 9.32º, respectively. The correlation values between the mean straight leg raise test with respect to lumbo-sacral posture and SR score were moderate (L-Hfx: r = -0.72, p < 0.01; SR: r = 0.70, p < 0.01). Both variables independently explained about 50% of the variance (L-Hfx: R2 = 0.52, p < 0,001; SR: R2 = 0.49, p < 0,001). the validity of lumbo-sacral posture in bending as measure of hamstring muscle extensibility on older women is moderate, with similar values than SR score. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of strain rate, test temperature and test environment on tensile properties of vandium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubbi, A.N.; Rowcliffe, A.F.; Eatherly, W.S.; Gibson, L.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Tensile testing was carried out on SS-3 tensile specimens punched from 0.762-mm-thick sheets of the large heat of V-4Cr-4Ti and small heats of V-3Cr-3Ti and V-6Cr-6Ti. The tensile specimens were annealed at 1000{degrees} for 2 h to obtain a fully recrystallized, fine grain microstructure with a grain size in the range of 10-19 {mu}m. Room temperature tests at strain rates ranging from 10{sup {minus}3} to 5 x 10{sup {minus}1}/s were carried out in air; elevated temperature testing up to 700{degrees}C was conducted in a vacuum better than 1 x 10{sup {minus}5} torr (<10{sup {minus}3} Pa). To study the effect of atomic hydrogen on ductility, tensile tests were conducted at room temperature in an ultra high vacuum chamber (UHV) with a hydrogen leak system.

  1. Extensive tests of Hybrid Photon Detectors (HPD) used to collect Cherenkov light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsato, E.; Buccheri, A.; DalCorso, F.; Ferroni, F.; Iacovella, F.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Morandin, M.; Morganti, S.; Piredda, G.; Posocco, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Stroili, R.; Torassa, E.; Voci, C.

    1997-01-01

    The principle of operation of a newly developed proximity focused Hybrid Photon Detector is described. The HPD characteristics, performance and calibration are reported. Results from beam tests of aerogel threshold counters read out by HPD and the particle identification performance are presented. (orig.)

  2. 78 FR 694 - Proposed Extension of Approval of Information Collection; Comment Request-Testing and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... ignition of mattresses, 16 CFR part 1632. The Open- Flame standard is intended to reduce unreasonable risks... may be introduced into commerce. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) previously approved the... suppliers, and confirmation test records, if establishments choose to pool a prototype. This documentation...

  3. Testing Theories of Transfer Using Error Rate Learning Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koedinger, Kenneth R; Yudelson, Michael V; Pavlik, Philip I

    2016-07-01

    We analyze naturally occurring datasets from student use of educational technologies to explore a long-standing question of the scope of transfer of learning. We contrast a faculty theory of broad transfer with a component theory of more constrained transfer. To test these theories, we develop statistical models of them. These models use latent variables to represent mental functions that are changed while learning to cause a reduction in error rates for new tasks. Strong versions of these models provide a common explanation for the variance in task difficulty and transfer. Weak versions decouple difficulty and transfer explanations by describing task difficulty with parameters for each unique task. We evaluate these models in terms of both their prediction accuracy on held-out data and their power in explaining task difficulty and learning transfer. In comparisons across eight datasets, we find that the component models provide both better predictions and better explanations than the faculty models. Weak model variations tend to improve generalization across students, but hurt generalization across items and make a sacrifice to explanatory power. More generally, the approach could be used to identify malleable components of cognitive functions, such as spatial reasoning or executive functions. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. A New Compression Intermediate Strain Rate Testing Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matrka T.A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A new apparatus for testing in compression at intermediate strain rates is introduced. The apparatus consists of a loading hydraulic actuator and a very long (40 m transmitter bar. The specimen is placed with one end touching the end surface of the long bar and the other end free. The specimen is loaded by the actuator that impacts the specimen’s free end directly. Once loaded, the specimen deforms between the actuator and the transmitter bar. As the specimen is loaded and deformed, a compression wave propagates into the transmitter bar. The amplitude of this wave is measured with strain gages that are placed on the transmitter bar at a distance of about five diameters from the specimen. The wave in the transmitter bar propagates all the way to the end of the bar and then reflects back toward the specimen. The experiment can continue until the reflected wave reaches the strain gages (milliseconds. The strain in the specimen (full field is measured directly on the specimen using Digital Image Correlation with high speed cameras.

  5. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Tsalatsanis

    Full Text Available Dual Processing Theories (DPT assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive and type 2 (deliberative. Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  6. Dual Processing Model for Medical Decision-Making: An Extension to Diagnostic Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Hozo, Iztok; Kumar, Ambuj; Djulbegovic, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Dual Processing Theories (DPT) assume that human cognition is governed by two distinct types of processes typically referred to as type 1 (intuitive) and type 2 (deliberative). Based on DPT we have derived a Dual Processing Model (DPM) to describe and explain therapeutic medical decision-making. The DPM model indicates that doctors decide to treat when treatment benefits outweigh its harms, which occurs when the probability of the disease is greater than the so called "threshold probability" at which treatment benefits are equal to treatment harms. Here we extend our work to include a wider class of decision problems that involve diagnostic testing. We illustrate applicability of the proposed model in a typical clinical scenario considering the management of a patient with prostate cancer. To that end, we calculate and compare two types of decision-thresholds: one that adheres to expected utility theory (EUT) and the second according to DPM. Our results showed that the decisions to administer a diagnostic test could be better explained using the DPM threshold. This is because such decisions depend on objective evidence of test/treatment benefits and harms as well as type 1 cognition of benefits and harms, which are not considered under EUT. Given that type 1 processes are unique to each decision-maker, this means that the DPM threshold will vary among different individuals. We also showed that when type 1 processes exclusively dominate decisions, ordering a diagnostic test does not affect a decision; the decision is based on the assessment of benefits and harms of treatment. These findings could explain variations in the treatment and diagnostic patterns documented in today's clinical practice.

  7. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M; Brown, Barbara B; Tribby, Calvin P; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J; Smith, Ken R; Jensen, Wyatt

    2016-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the "displacement" measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant ( p rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services.

  8. 76 FR 2902 - National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Docket No. PR07-19-002 National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation; Notice of..., National Fuel Gas Distribution Corporation (National Fuel) filed a request for an extension consistent with... Reporting Requirements of Intrastate Natural Gas Companies, Order No. 735, 131 FERC ] 61,150 (May 20, 2010...

  9. Safety margin evaluation concepts for plant Up rates and life extension. Results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belac, J

    2006-01-01

    This presentation summarizes results of the OECD/NEA/CSNI working group on Safety Margin Action Plan (SMAP) aimed to develop generalized safety margin concept and means of its quantification for the process of evaluating plant safety in the frame of plant life extension and power up rating activities to be used by OECD member countries. (author)

  10. Evaluating the attractiveness of a new light rail extension: Testing simple change and displacement change hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Tharp, Doug; Flick, Kristi; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.; Jensen, Wyatt

    2015-01-01

    Many communities in the United States have been adding new light rail to bus-predominant public transit systems. However, there is disagreement as to whether opening light rail lines attracts new ridership or merely draws ridership from existing transit users. We study a new light rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA, which is part of a complete street redevelopment. We utilize a pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design to test two different measures of ridership change. The first measure is calculated from stops along the light rail route; the second assumes that nearby bus stops might be displaced by the rail and calculates ridership change with those stops included as baseline. Both the simple measure (transit use changes on the complete street light rail corridor) and the “displacement” measure (transit use changes in the one-quarter mile catchment areas around new light rail stops) showed significant (p rail bus users. In particular, the displacement analysis discredits a common challenge that when a new light rail line opens, most passengers are simply former bus riders whose routes were canceled in favor of light rail. The study suggests that light rail services can attract additional ridership to public transit systems. In addition, although pre-post control-group designs require time and effort, this project underscores the benefits of such quasi-experimental designs in terms of the strength of the inferences that can be drawn about the impacts of new transit infrastructure and services. PMID:26543329

  11. Common Diaper Ingredient Questions: Modern Disposable Diaper Materials Are Safe and Extensively Tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Jennifer; Weisbrod, Annie; Yin, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Today's disposable diapers are high-performance and well-tested products, designed to keep skin dry and healthy. They are primarily made of biologically inert polymers, commonly used in fabrics and other materials that are in contact with skin, and in foods and cosmetics. Still, product safety and ingredients in everyday products can be a source of anxiety for new parents. This article provides the facts behind some commonly asked questions from consumers about diaper ingredients and safety, including myths and facts related to chlorine, latex, dyes, and chemical additives.

  12. Outcome on EPIZONE Extension on VER/ VNN: Diagnostics, proficiency test and qRT-PCR validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigarré, Laurent; Panzarin, Valentina; Baud, Marine

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Betanodaviruses are genetically very diverse with at least five genogroups described and a large range of variants within each group, including reassortants carrying components of two groups (Panzarin et al., 2011; Toffolo et al., 2007). Their genome is composed of two strands of RNA......1 is to bring valuable genetic information on the second genome component of a given isolate. ANSES has developed new DNA probes targeting RNA1 with the goal of detecting all genotypes of nodaviruses. The aim of the project is thus: - To organize, conduct and report an inter-laboratory proficiency...... and the mean Ct values reported. Results A total of 192 virus-containing samples were tested (negative controls excluded), implicating 5 partners performing each two or four methods (16 tubes with virus * 12 methods). For each genetic component (RNA1 or RNA2), the same ratio of detection (80 / 96) was found...

  13. Correlation of isokinetic and novel hand-held dynamometry measures of knee flexion and extension strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Rod; Jacobsen, Phillip; Prior, Simon; Skazalski, Christopher; Otten, Roald; Johnson, Amanda

    2012-09-01

    Describe inter-rater reliability of, and correlations between a novel method of isometric knee extension and flexion and eccentric knee flexion strength using hand-held dynamometry and isokinetic testing for flexion/extension in the knees of athletic participants. Document strength data normalized to the individual's limb muscle mass. Observational and reliability study. Inter-rater reliability for each of the hand-held dynamometry measures was established in both legs of 10 volunteers (6 male). During routine annual screening, 216 male professional football (soccer) players were examined using these same measures in addition to performing an isokinetic evaluation of knee flexion and extension strength. Intra-class correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability, Pearson r correlations between hand-held dynamometry and isokinetic dynamometry were calculated. Peak torque, peak torque normalized to: body weight; lean body mass; and lean limb mass were documented. Excellent inter-rater reliability was demonstrated with intra-class correlation₂,₁ values of 0.90, 0.91, and 0.96, for the eccentric hamstrings, isometric hamstrings, and isometric quadriceps measures respectively. Medium to high correlations (r=0.322-0.617) which were all significant (pdynamometry and isokinetic measures. We present 3 novel and reliable methods of examining knee flexion and extension strength using hand-held dynamometry which require less skill and strength on the part of the examiner than previous measures. Correlations between these measures and isokinetic dynamometry are documented. The hand-held dynamometry examinations took less than 4 min per player to conduct and may be useful in clinical practice where isokinetic examination can be difficult to implement. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Regional admixture mapping and structured association testing: conceptual unification and an extensible general linear model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Redden

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Individual genetic admixture estimates, determined both across the genome and at specific genomic regions, have been proposed for use in identifying specific genomic regions harboring loci influencing phenotypes in regional admixture mapping (RAM. Estimates of individual ancestry can be used in structured association tests (SAT to reduce confounding induced by various forms of population substructure. Although presented as two distinct approaches, we provide a conceptual framework in which both RAM and SAT are special cases of a more general linear model. We clarify which variables are sufficient to condition upon in order to prevent spurious associations and also provide a simple closed form "semiparametric" method of evaluating the reliability of individual admixture estimates. An estimate of the reliability of individual admixture estimates is required to make an inherent errors-in-variables problem tractable. Casting RAM and SAT methods as a general linear model offers enormous flexibility enabling application to a rich set of phenotypes, populations, covariates, and situations, including interaction terms and multilocus models. This approach should allow far wider use of RAM and SAT, often using standard software, in addressing admixture as either a confounder of association studies or a tool for finding loci influencing complex phenotypes in species as diverse as plants, humans, and nonhuman animals.

  15. Hydrogen embrittlement of duplex steel tested using slow strain rate test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Vaňova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is dealing with hydrogen embrittlement of austenitic-ferritic 2205 duplex steel using the slow strain rate test (SSRT. The original material was subjected to heat treatment under 700 °C during 5 hours and following aircooling with the aim of provoking sigma phase precipitation and embrittlement of the material. The samples of both states were electrolytic saturation with hydrogen in 0,1N solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 with addition KSCN during 24 hours. The hydrogen embrittlement appeared on fracture surfaces of tested tensile bars as a quasi-cleavage damage on their perimeter. From the established depth of hydrogen charging the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in duplex steel with ferritic-austenitic structure and with the structure containing the sigma phase as well were estimated.

  16. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  17. Investigating DIF and extensions using an LLTM approach and also an individual differences approach: an international testing context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIYU XIE

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate two ways to generalise differential item functioning (DIF by grouping of items that share a common feature, or an item property as in the Linear Logistic Test Model (LLTM. An item “facet” refers to this type of grouping, and DIF can be expressed in terms of more fundamental parameters that relate to the facet of items. Hence the differential facet functioning (DFF model, a particular version of the LLTM, helps to explain the DIF effects more substantively. Using the mathematics data from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA 2003, this study shows that modeling the DFF effect through an interaction of the group-by-facet parameter rather than DIF effect on the individual item level can be handled easily with the NLMIXED procedure of SAS. We found that the results are more interpretable when the bias is interpreted on the facet level rather than the item level. Analogous to the multidimensional DIF model, one natural extension of the DFF model is to make the model multidimensional when DFF facets (i.e., LLTM facets are considered as dimensions. This extension, multidimensional DFF (MDFF, is also investigated. The MDFF model allows individual differences to be modeled on the dimension that exhibits a DFF effect. However, it is always recommended to check the individual DIF estimates and construct a substantive analysis first before conducting DFF and MDFF analysis.

  18. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Sioux County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  19. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Johnson County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  20. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Ida County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  1. Respirator Filter Efficiency Testing Against Particulate and Biological Aerosols Under Moderate to High Flow Rates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richardson, Aaron W; Eshbaugh, Jonathan P; Hofacre, Kent C; Gardner, Paul D

    2006-01-01

    ...) and biological test aerosols under breather flow rates associated with high work rates. The inert test challenges consisted of solid and oil aerosols having nominal diameters ranging from 0.02...

  2. Large scale high strain-rate tests of concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiefer R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the stages of development of some innovative equipment, based on Hopkinson bar techniques, for performing large scale dynamic tests of concrete specimens. The activity is centered at the recently upgraded HOPLAB facility, which is basically a split Hopkinson bar with a total length of approximately 200 m and with bar diameters of 72 mm. Through pre-tensioning and suddenly releasing a steel cable, force pulses of up to 2 MN, 250 μs rise time and 40 ms duration can be generated and applied to the specimen tested. The dynamic compression loading has first been treated and several modifications in the basic configuration have been introduced. Twin incident and transmitter bars have been installed with strong steel plates at their ends where large specimens can be accommodated. A series of calibration and qualification tests has been conducted and the first real tests on concrete cylindrical specimens of 20cm diameter and up to 40cm length have commenced. Preliminary results from the analysis of the recorded signals indicate proper Hopkinson bar testing conditions and reliable functioning of the facility.

  3. Automated preference testing apparatus for rating palatability of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R D; Grant, C V

    1971-03-01

    An electronic preference testing apparatus is described for measuring taste preference of rodents and other small animals with solid or liquid foods. The apparatus is designed on the principle of the two-choice, preference technique. It operates photoelectrically with a sequence of presentations so that whenever a subject eats from a compartmentalized food tray, a standard and a test food are each briefly sampled alone before both foods are presented together (in alternate positions) for preference determination. Preferences are automatically recorded on digital counters. The apparatus is built in two modules (a preference tester and the master control) connected by multiconductor cable. The modular design provides portability and isolation of the animals from the major noise-producing components. Diagrams of the apparatus are given, and test results from a trial that evaluated positional bias and a sucrose-concentration preference experiment are presented to demonstrate its application in research.

  4. Automated preference testing apparatus for rating palatability of foods1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. D.; Grant, C. V.

    1971-01-01

    An electronic preference testing apparatus is described for measuring taste preference of rodents and other small animals with solid or liquid foods. The apparatus is designed on the principle of the two-choice, preference technique. It operates photoelectrically with a sequence of presentations so that whenever a subject eats from a compartmentalized food tray, a standard and a test food are each briefly sampled alone before both foods are presented together (in alternate positions) for preference determination. Preferences are automatically recorded on digital counters. The apparatus is built in two modules (a preference tester and the master control) connected by multiconductor cable. The modular design provides portability and isolation of the animals from the major noise-producing components. Diagrams of the apparatus are given, and test results from a trial that evaluated positional bias and a sucrose-concentration preference experiment are presented to demonstrate its application in research. PMID:5550602

  5. Melt Rate Improvement for DWPF MB3: Melt Rate Furnace Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M.E.

    2001-07-24

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) would like to increase its canister production rate. The goal of this study is to improve the melt rate in DWPF specifically for Macrobatch 3. However, the knowledge gained may result in improved melting efficiencies translating to future DWPF macrobatches and in higher throughput for other Department of Energy's (DOE) melters. Increased melting efficiencies decrease overall operational costs by reducing the immobilization campaign time for a particular waste stream. For melt rate limited systems, a small increase in melting efficiency translates into significant hard dollar savings by reducing life cycle operational costs.

  6. Field Testing and Load Rating Report, Bridge S-1090

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    stiffness and fixity ratio. ......................................................80 Figure H1. AASHTO rating and posting load configurations (SI...stiffness (Kr) of the springs is equal to 0.0. Conversely, if the value of Kr is set to infinity (rigid), the moment ratio will equal 1.0. If a fixity term...K r EI Figure G2. Moment diagram of beam with rotational end-restraint. The next step is to relate the fixity term to the actual spring stiffness

  7. Tests of a high rate pixel detector for CMS upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mersi, Stefano [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States). et al.

    2013-07-13

    This is a Technical Scope of Work (TSW) between the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the experimenters of the CMS Pixel group, which consists of individuals from the Bristol University, CERN, Fermilab, Rutherford Laboratory (UK), and National Taiwan University who have committed to participate in beam tests to be carried out during the 2013 - 2014 Fermilab Test Beam Facility program. The TSW is intended solely for the purpose of recording expectations for budget estimates and work allocations for Fermilab, the funding agencies and the participating institutions. It reflects an arrangement that currently is satisfactory to the parties; however, it is recognized and anticipated that changing circumstances of the evolving research program will necessitate revisions. The parties agree to modify this TSW to reflect such required adjustments. Actual contractual obligations will be set forth in separate documents. This TSW fulfills Article 1 (facilities and scope of work) of the User Agreements signed (or still

  8. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet testing for maximum hydrogen generation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site is developing for implementation a flowsheet with a new reductant to replace formic acid. Glycolic acid has been tested over the past several years and found to effectively replace the function of formic acid in the DWPF chemical process. The nitric-glycolic flowsheet reduces mercury, significantly lowers the chemical generation of hydrogen and ammonia, allows purge reduction in the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT), stabilizes the pH and chemistry in the SRAT and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), allows for effective adjustment of the SRAT/SME rheology, and is favorable with respect to melter flammability. The objective of this work was to perform DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) testing at conditions that would bound the catalytic hydrogen production for the nitric-glycolic flowsheet.

  9. Acceptance Rate of HIV Testing among Women Seeking Induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A l\\'aide d\\'un questionnaire semi-structuré et auto-administré, nous avons interviewé 1051 femmes qui recherchaient l\\'avortement provoqué dans quatre cliniques selectionnées au hazard à Benin City entre janvier et septembre 2002. Les échantillons sanguins de celles qui ont accepté le test du VIH ont été collectés et ont ...

  10. 75 FR 56093 - Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, LP; Notice of Motion for Extension of Rate Case Filing Deadline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PR09-1-002] Eagle Rock... notice that on September 8, 2010, Eagle Rock Desoto Pipeline, L.P. (Eagle Rock) filed a request to extend the date for filing its next rate case to May 1, 2012. Eagle Rock states that in Order No. 735 the...

  11. An Extension to the Constructivist Coding Hypothesis as a Learning Model for Selective Feedback when the Base Rate Is High

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffarzadegan, Navid; Stewart, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Elwin, Juslin, Olsson, and Enkvist (2007) and Henriksson, Elwin, and Juslin (2010) offered the constructivist coding hypothesis to describe how people code the outcomes of their decisions when availability of feedback is conditional on the decision. They provided empirical evidence only for the 0.5 base rate condition. This commentary argues that…

  12. Testing General Relativity using the growth rate of structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouri, Athina; Basilakos, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    We place tight constraints on the growth index γ by using the recent growth history results of 2dFGRS, SDSS-LRG, VIMOS-VLT deep Survey (VVDS), and WiggleZ datasets. Utilizing a standard likelihood analysis, we find that the use of the combined growth data provided by the previous mentioned galaxy surveys, puts the most stringent constraints on the value of the growth index. Assuming a constant growth index, we obtain that γ = 0.602±0.055 for the concordance ΛCDM expansion model. Based on the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati gravity model, we find γ = 0.503±0.06 which is lower, and almost 3σ away, from the theoretically predicted value of γ DGP ≊ 11/16 implying that the present growth rate data disfavor the DGP gravity

  13. Throttling Characteristics of the RL10 Derivative Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine -- Demo 1.6 and 1.7 Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew K.; Hulka, James; Adamski, Walt; Brown, Corey

    2010-01-01

    The Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) is a deep throttling cryogenic Lunar Module Descent Engine (LMDE) technology development demonstrator based on the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) RL10 engine. Previous testing on this engine occurred during 2006 as Demo 1.0, then Demo 1.5 in 2007, Demo 1.6 in 2008 and finally Demo 1.7 in 2010. A review of Demo 1.0, 1.5, and preliminary results of 1.6 were reported in previous JANNAF papers. Demo 1.6 was tested at the PWR E-6 test facility in November 2008. The primary goal of this series was to mitigate low frequency combustion instability observed at low power levels. To mitigate the chug, the Demo 1.6 injector was modified from the previous configurations to include an approximately 0.050 inch thick teflon-type spray-on insulation to reduce heat transfer to the LOX manifold, which was believed to be a significant contributor to the low power instability. In addition, gaseous helium injection into the LOX manifold was used as a means to stabilize the system. Also explored in this test series was mitigation for a low power 1 Hz fuel system oscillation caused by sub-critical hydrogen boiling in the chamber cooling jacket. Reduced area gas venturis were utilized to avoid the 1 Hz fuel-size oscillation by keeping the cooling jacket supercritical down to lower engine power levels. Demo 1.7 began testing in March 2010. Its primary objectives were to demonstrate closed loop control capability on mixture ratio and chamber pressure, start to lower power levels and increased throttling ramp rates. Secondary test objectives that are discussed include multiple engine starts, higher mixture ratio excursions and additional time at low power level. While the complete test series and data reduction is not yet complete for Demo 1.7, an overview and up-to-date status is provided.

  14. Artificial Differences in Clostridium difficile Infection Rates Associated with Disparity in Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brite, Jennifer; Aslam, Anoshe; Kennington, Jessica; Babady, N. Esther; Calfee, David; Furuya, Yoko; Chen, Donald; Augenbraun, Michael; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Patel, Gopi; Mircescu, Monica; Kak, Vivek; Tuma, Roman; Karre, Teresa A.; Fry, Deborah A.; Duhaney, Yola P.; Moyer, Amber; Mitchell, Denise; Cantu, Sherry; Hsieh, Candace; Warren, Nancy; Martin, Stacy; Willson, Jill; Dickman, Jeanne; Knight, Julie; Delahanty, Kim; Flood, Annemarie; Harrington, Jennifer; Korenstein, Deborah; Eagan, Janet; Sepkowitz, Kent

    2018-01-01

    In 2015, Clostridium difficile testing rates among 30 US community, multispecialty, and cancer hospitals were 14.0, 16.3, and 33.9/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Pooled hospital onset rates were 0.56, 0.84, and 1.57/1,000 patient-days, respectively. Higher testing rates may artificially inflate reported rates of C. difficile infection. C. difficile surveillance should consider testing frequency. PMID:29460760

  15. Servohydraulic methods for mechanical testing in the Sub-Hopkinson rate regime up to strain rates of 500 1/s.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crenshaw, Thomas B.; Boyce, Brad Lee

    2005-10-01

    Tensile and compressive stress-strain experiments on metals at strain rates in the range of 1-1000 1/s are relevant to many applications such as gravity-dropped munitions and airplane accidents. While conventional test methods cover strain rates up to {approx}10 s{sup -1} and split-Hopkinson and other techniques cover strain rates in excess of {approx}1000 s{sup -1}, there are no well defined techniques for the intermediate or ''Sub-Hopkinson'' strain-rate regime. The current work outlines many of the challenges in testing in the Sub-Hopkinson regime, and establishes methods for addressing these challenges. The resulting technique for obtaining intermediate rate stress-strain data is demonstrated in tension on a high-strength, high-toughness steel alloy (Hytuf) that could be a candidate alloy for earth penetrating munitions and in compression on a Au-Cu braze alloy.

  16. The Impact of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Guideline Changes in Pap Tests on Annual Chlamydia Test Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Hsien-Lin; Huppert, Jill; Patel, Chirag G; Tao, Guoyu

    2017-10-01

    To assess impact of the 2009 American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Pap guideline changes on chlamydia testing rates among sexually active young women. The study included sexually active women aged 15-25 years enrolled in commercial health plans from 2005 to 2014. We identified sexually active women by diagnosis, procedure, and drug codes in inpatient, outpatient, and drug claims databases. We identified Pap tests and chlamydia tests among sexually active adolescents (15-20 years) and young adults (21-25 years) over time. Using piecewise regression models, we compared the change in chlamydia testing rates before and after 2009 ACOG guidelines. From 2005 to 2014, chlamydia testing rates in sexually active women increased from 23% to 37% among adolescents and from 24% to 43% among young adults. Although the overall increase in chlamydia testing was positive, the annual rate of change in chlamydia testing (slope) decreased significantly after the 2009 ACOG guideline change from 1.9% before to 1.0% after for adolescents (p test rates are increasing among sexually active women aged 15-25 years from 2005 to 2014, the slower growth in chlamydia testing rate after 2009 may relate to the change in the Pap testing guidelines. Our finding that more than half of sexually active women aged 15-25 years did not have chlamydia testing and that the rate of increased chlamydia testing slowed after 2009 suggests that interventions to improve chlamydia testing apart from combining with Pap testing are still needed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The specification of cross exchange rate equations used to test Purchasing Power Parity

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, J; Simpson, M

    2004-01-01

    The Article considers the speciÞcation of models used to test Pur- chasing Power Parity when applied to cross exchange rates. SpeciÞcally, conventional dynamic models used to test stationarity of the real exchange rate are likely to be misspeciÞed, except when the parameters of each ex- change rate equation are the same

  18. HIV Testing and Diagnosis Rates in Kiev, Ukraine: April 2013-March 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmons, Ruth; Malyuta, Ruslan; Chentsova, Nelli; Medoeva, Antonia; Kruglov, Yuri; Yurchenko, Alexander; Copas, Andrew; Porter, Kholoud; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Bucher, Heiner C.; Chêne, Geneviève; Hamouda, Osamah; Pillay, Deenan; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Sabin, Caroline; Touloumi, Giota; Olson, Ashley; Cartier, Andrea; Fradette, Lorraine; Walker, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Muga, Roberto; Kelleher, Tony; Cooper, David; Finlayson, Robert; Bloch, Mark; Ramacciotti, Tim; Gelgor, Linda; Smith, Don; Zangerle, Robert; Gill, John; Lutsar, Irja; Wittkop, Linda; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Vanhems, Philippe; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Ghosn, Jade; Boufassa, Faroudy; Kücherer, Claudia; Bartmeyer, Barbara; Sambatakou, Helen; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Gogos, Charalambos A.; Pantazis, Nikos; Katsarou, Olga; Rezza, Giovanni; Dorrucci, Maria; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Geskus, Ronald; van der Helm, Jannie; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Sannes, Mette; Brubakk, Oddbjorn; Kran, Anne-Marte Bakken; Riise, Anne Margarita Dyrhol; Rosinska, Magdalena; Tor, Jordi; de Olalla, Patricia Garcia; Cayla, Joan; Moreno, Santiago; Monge, Susana; del Romero, Jorge; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Sönnerborg, Anders; Günthard, Huldrych; Rickenbach, Martin; Murphy, Gary; Johnson, Anne; Phillips, Andrew; Morrison, Charles; Salata, Robert; Mugerwa, Roy; Chipato, Tsungai; Amornkul, Pauli N.; Gilmour, Jill; Kamali, Anatoli; Karita, Etienne; Burns, Fiona; Giaquinto, Carlo; Grarup, Jesper; Kirk, Ole; Bailey, Heather; Anne, Alain Volny; Panteleev, Alex; Thorne, Claire; Aboulker, Jean-Pierre; Albert, Jan; Asandi, Silvia; de Wit, Stéphane; Reiss, Peter; Gatell, José; Karpov, Igor; Ledergerber, Bruno; Lundgren, Jens; Møller, Claus; Rakhmanova, Aza; Rockstroh, Jürgen; Sandhu, Manjinder; Dedes, Nikos; Fenton, Kevin; Pizzuti, David; Vitoria, Marco; Faggion, Silvia; Frost, Richard; Raben, Dorthe; Schwimmer, Christine; Scott, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Data from Ukraine on risk factors for HIV acquisition are limited. We describe the characteristics of individuals testing for HIV in the main testing centres of the Ukrainian capital Kiev, including HIV risk factors, testing rates, and positivity rates. Methods As part of a larger study to

  19. Is procrastination a vulnerability factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease? Testing an extension of the procrastination-health model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Fuschia M

    2015-06-01

    Personality is an important epidemiological factor for understanding health outcomes. This study investigated the associations of trait procrastination with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (HT/CVD) and maladaptive coping by testing an extension of the procrastination-health model among individuals with and without HT/CVD. Individuals with self-reported HT/CVD (N = 182) and healthy controls (N = 564), from a community sample, completed an online survey including measures of personality, coping, and health outcomes. Logistic regression analysis controlling for demographic and higher order personality factors found that older age, lower education level and higher procrastination scores were associated with HT/CVD. Moderated mediation analyses with bootstrapping revealed that procrastination was more strongly associated with maladaptive coping behaviours in participants with HT/CVD than the healthy controls, and the indirect effects on stress through maladaptive coping were larger for the HT/CVD sample. Results suggest procrastination is a vulnerability factor for poor adjustment to and management of HT/CVD.

  20. Well hydraulics in pumping tests with exponentially decayed rates of abstraction in confined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zhang; Zhan, Hongbin; Wang, Quanrong; Liang, Xing; Ma, Teng; Chen, Chen

    2017-05-01

    Actual field pumping tests often involve variable pumping rates which cannot be handled by the classical constant-rate or constant-head test models, and often require a convolution process to interpret the test data. In this study, we proposed a semi-analytical model considering an exponentially decreasing pumping rate started at a certain (higher) rate and eventually stabilized at a certain (lower) rate for cases with or without wellbore storage. A striking new feature of the pumping test with an exponentially decayed rate is that the drawdowns will decrease over a certain period of time during intermediate pumping stage, which has never been seen before in constant-rate or constant-head pumping tests. It was found that the drawdown-time curve associated with an exponentially decayed pumping rate function was bounded by two asymptotic curves of the constant-rate tests with rates equaling to the starting and stabilizing rates, respectively. The wellbore storage must be considered for a pumping test without an observation well (single-well test). Based on such characteristics of the time-drawdown curve, we developed a new method to estimate the aquifer parameters by using the genetic algorithm.

  1. Test-Retest Reliability of Rating of Perceived Exertion and Agreement With 1-Repetition Maximum in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Allyn M; Lynch, Andrew D; DePaul, Samantha M; Terhorst, Lauren; Irrgang, James J; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Study Design Clinical measurement. Background It has been suggested that rating of perceived exertion (RPE) may be a useful alternative to 1-repetition maximum (1RM) to determine proper resistance exercise dosage. However, the test-retest reliability of RPE for resistance exercise has not been determined. Additionally, prior research regarding the relationship between 1RM and RPE is conflicting. Objectives The purpose of this study was to (1) determine test-retest reliability of RPE related to resistance exercise and (2) assess agreement between percentages of 1RM and RPE during quadriceps resistance exercise. Methods A sample of participants with and without knee pathology completed a series of knee extension exercises and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale, then repeated the procedure 1 to 2 weeks later for test-retest reliability. To determine agreement between RPE and 1RM, participants completed knee extension exercises at various percentages of their 1RM (10% to 130% of predicted 1RM) and rated the perceived difficulty of each exercise on a 0-to-10 RPE scale. Percent agreement was calculated between the 1RM and RPE at each resistance interval. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient indicated excellent test-retest reliability of RPE for quadriceps resistance exercises (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.895; 95% confidence interval: 0.866, 0.918). Overall percent agreement between RPE and 1RM was 60%, but agreement was poor within the ranges that would typically be used for training (50% 1RM for muscle endurance, 70% 1RM and greater for strength). Conclusion Test-retest reliability of perceived exertion during quadriceps resistance exercise was excellent. However, agreement between the RPE and 1RM was poor, especially in common training zones for knee extensor strengthening. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(9):768-774. Epub 5 Aug 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6498.

  2. Workplace Breathing Rates: Defining Anticipated Values and Ranges for Respirator Certification Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caretti, David M; Gardner, Paul D; Coyne, Karen M

    2004-01-01

    .... For air-purifying respirators (APRs), the primary performance tests most affected by airflow rate are filter gas-life capacity, particulate filter efficiency, and respirator breathing resistances...

  3. Live load testing and load rating of five reinforced concrete bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Five cast-in-place concrete T-beam bridges Eustis #5341, Whitefield #3831, Cambridge #3291, Eddington #5107, : and Albion #2832 were live load tested. Revised load ratings were computed either using test data or detailed : analysis when possi...

  4. Auditing HIV Testing Rates across Europe: Results from the HIDES 2 Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Raben

    Full Text Available European guidelines recommend the routine offer of an HIV test in patients with a number of AIDS-defining and non-AIDS conditions believed to share an association with HIV; so called indicator conditions (IC. Adherence with this guidance across Europe is not known. We audited HIV testing behaviour in patients accessing care for a number of ICs. Participating centres reviewed the case notes of either 100 patients or of all consecutive patients in one year, presenting for each of the following ICs: tuberculosis, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, anal and cervical cancer, hepatitis B and C and oesophageal candidiasis. Observed HIV-positive rates were applied by region and IC to estimate the number of HIV diagnoses potentially missed. Outcomes examined were: HIV test rate (% of total patients with IC, HIV test accepted (% of tests performed/% of tests offered and new HIV diagnosis rate (%. There were 49 audits from 23 centres, representing 7037 patients. The median test rate across audits was 72% (IQR 32-97, lowest in Northern Europe (median 44%, IQR 22-68% and highest in Eastern Europe (median 99%, IQR 86-100. Uptake of testing was close to 100% in all regions. The median HIV+ rate was 0.9% (IQR 0.0-4.9, with 29 audits (60.4% having an HIV+ rate >0.1%. After adjustment, there were no differences between regions of Europe in the proportion with >0.1% testing positive (global p = 0.14. A total of 113 patients tested HIV+. Applying the observed rates of testing HIV+ within individual ICs and regions to all persons presenting with an IC suggested that 105 diagnoses were potentially missed. Testing rates in well-established HIV ICs remained low across Europe, despite high prevalence rates, reflecting missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis and care. Significant numbers may have had an opportunity for HIV diagnosis if all persons included in IC audits had been tested.

  5. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing...: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25, Federal... Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955). Issued in...

  6. Do laboratory frontal crash test programs predict driver fatality risk? Evidence from within vehicle line variation in test ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harless, David W; Hoffer, George E

    2007-09-01

    A number of studies have examined whether the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) frontal crash test results reliably indicate the risk of fatality or injury in serious crashes. The conclusions of these studies are mixed. Generally, studies that examine crashes in the circumstances as close as possible to those of the laboratory test find that crash test results do predict real-world risk, but studies of crashes outside those specific circumstances find either no support for the predictive validity of crash test results or limited support with important inconsistencies. We provide a new test of the predictive validity of the crash test results using information from multiple crash tests within vehicle lines, thus controlling for systematic differences in driver behavior across vehicle lines. Among drivers of passenger cars, we find large, statistically significant differences in fatality risk for vehicles with one- to four-star NHTSA ratings versus a five-star rating. We also examine the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety's frontal offset crash test, though our sample of vehicle lines tested twice or more is considerably smaller than for NHTSA ratings. Our results also support the predictive validity of the frontal offset crash test results for passenger cars, but not for trucks.

  7. Using An Adapter To Perform The Chalfant-Style Containment Vessel Periodic Maintenance Leak Rate Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT and PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT and PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

  8. Reconciling longwall gob gas reservoirs and venthole production performances using multiple rate drawdown well test analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacan, C. Oezgen [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Pittsburgh Research Laboratory, Pittsburgh 15236, PA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Longwall mining is an underground mining method during which a mechanical shearer progressively mines a large block of coal, called a panel, in an extensive area. During this operation the roof of the coal seam is supported only temporarily with hydraulic supports that protect the workers and the equipment on the coal face. As the coal is extracted, the supports automatically advance and the roof strata cave behind the supports. Caving results in fracturing and relaxation of the overlying strata, which is called ''gob.'' Due its highly fractured nature, gob contains many flow paths for gas migration. Thus, if the overlying strata contain gassy sandstones or sandstone channels, gas shales or thinner coal seams which are not suitable for mining, then the mining-induced changes can cause unexpected or uncontrolled gas migration into the underground workplace. Vertical gob gas ventholes (GGV) are drilled into each longwall panel to capture the methane within the overlying fractured strata before it enters the work environment. Thus, it is important, first to understand the properties of the gas reservoir created by mining disturbances and, second, to optimize the well parameters and placement accordingly. In this paper, the production rate-pressure behaviors of six GGVs drilled over three adjacent panels were analyzed by using conventional multi-rate drawdown analysis techniques. The analyses were performed for infinite acting and pseudo-steady state flow models, which may be applicable during panel mining (DM) and after mining (AM) production periods of GGVs. These phases were analyzed separately since the reservoir properties, due to dynamic subsidence, boundary conditions and gas capacity of the gob reservoir may change between these two stages. The results suggest that conventional well test analysis techniques can be applicable to highly complex gob reservoirs and GGVs to determine parameters such as skin, permeability, radius of investigation

  9. Acceptance test procedure for the 105-KW isolation barrier leak rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCracken, K.J.

    1995-05-19

    This acceptance test procedure shall be used to: First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin West. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared in accordance with CM-6-1 EP 4.2, Standard Engineering Practices.

  10. Pre-service proof pressure and leak rate tests for the Qinshan CANDU project reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrunik, K.J.; Khan, A.; Ricciuti, R.; Ivanov, A.; Chen, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Qinshan CANDU Project Reactor Buildings (Units 1 and 2) have been successfully tested for the Pre-Service Proof Pressure and Integrated Leak Rate Tests. The Unit 1 tests took place from May 3 to May 9, 2002 and from May 22 to May 25, 2002, and the Unit 2 tests took place from January 21 to January 27, 2003. This paper discusses the significant steps taken at minimum cost on the Qinshan CANDU Project, which has resulted in a) very good leak rate (0.21%) for Unit 1 and excellent leak rate (0.130%) for Unit 2; b) continuous monitoring of the structural behaviour during the Proof Pressure Test, thus eliminating any repeat of the structural test due to lack of data; and c) significant schedule reduction achieved for these tests in Unit 2. (author)

  11. 78 FR 41129 - Market Test of Experimental Product - International Merchandise Return Service-Non-Published Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... POSTAL SERVICE Market Test of Experimental Product -- International Merchandise Return Service... hereby gives notice of a market test for International Merchandise Return Service--Non-Published Rates in... notice pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3641(c)(1) that it will begin a market test of its International Merchandise...

  12. Testing of empirical grounds for theoretical models of real exchange rate: research of real exchange rate between RSD and Euro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Petrović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this research holds the most important determinants of real exchange rate covered by various theoretical models. The empirical testing was carried out on the real exchange rate between RSD and Euro for the period from January 2007 to December 2010, which was significantly imposed by availability of consistent time series. The research pertains to five basic model specifications and is based on the testing of time series cointegration by applying Johansen and Engle-Granger’s test. The obtained results have shown that the observed models do not have grounds in empirical data. Time series figuring in models are not cointegrated, and besides that, the estimated cointegration coefficients have signs opposite to the expected ones in large number of cases. In our opinion, the reasons for such findings can be found in the fact that used time series are quite short, i.e. they pertain to the period of only four years, as well as that prices of some significant services are still under the administrative control. Still, despite the aforementioned lacks, we think that our findings can be accepted as preliminary knowledge about the ability of the observed models to explain the dynamics of real exchange rate between RSD and Euro.

  13. SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1992-09-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.

  14. Refinement of the wedge bar technique for compression tests at intermediate strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stander M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A refined development of the wedge-bar technique [1] for compression tests at intermediate strain rates is presented. The concept uses a wedge mechanism to compress small cylindrical specimens at strain rates in the order of 10s−1 to strains of up to 0.3. Co-linear elastic impact principles are used to accelerate the actuation mechanism from rest to test speed in under 300μs while maintaining near uniform strain rates for up to 30 ms, i.e. the transient phase of the test is less than 1% of the total test duration. In particular, a new load frame, load cell and sliding anvil designs are presented and shown to significantly reduce the noise generated during testing. Typical dynamic test results for a selection of metals and polymers are reported and compared with quasistatic and split Hopkinson pressure bar results.

  15. Rating

    OpenAIRE

    Karas, Vladimír

    2006-01-01

    Charakteristika ratingu. Dělení a druhy ratingu (rating emise × rating emitenta; dlouhodobý rating × krátkodobý rating; mezinárodní rating × lokální rating). Obecné požadavky kladené na rating. Proces tvorby ratingu. Vyžádaný rating. Nevyžádaný rating. Ratingový proces na bázi volně přístupných informací. Uplatňované ratingové systémy. Ratingová kriteria. Využití a interpretace ratingové známky. Funkce ratingu. Rating v souvislosti s BASEL II. Rating v souvislosti s hospodářskými krizemi....

  16. Error, power, and cluster separation rates of pairwise multiple testing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Juliet Popper; Kowalchuk, Rhonda K; Keselman, H J

    2013-09-01

    In comparing multiple treatments, 2 error rates that have been studied extensively are the familywise and false discovery rates. Different methods are used to control each of these rates. Yet, it is rare to find studies that compare the same methods on both of these rates, and also on the per-family error rate, the expected number of false rejections. Although the per-family error rate and the familywise error rate are similar in most applications when the latter is controlled at a conventional low level (e.g., .05), the 2 measures can diverge considerably with methods that control the false discovery rate at that same level. Furthermore, we shall consider both rejections of true hypotheses (Type I errors) and rejections of false hypotheses where the observed outcomes are in the incorrect direction (Type III errors). We point out that power estimates based on the number of correct rejections do not consider the pattern of those rejections, which is important in interpreting the total outcome. The present study introduces measures of interpretability based on the pattern of separation of treatments into nonoverlapping sets and compares methods on these measures. In general, range-based (configural) methods are more likely to obtain interpretable patterns based on treatment separation than individual p-value-based measures. Recommendations for practice based on these results are given in the article. Although the article is complex, these recommendations can be understood without the necessity for detailed perusal of the supporting material.

  17. 105-KE Isolation Barrier leak rate acceptance test procedure WHC-SD-SNF-ATP-005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehurst, R.; McCracken, K.; Papenfuss, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the procedure for performing the acceptance test on the two isolation barriers being installed in K East basin. This acceptance test procedure shall be used to : First establish a basin water loss rate prior to installation of the two isolation barriers between the main basin and the discharge chute in K-Basin East. Second, perform an acceptance test to verify an acceptable leakage rate through the barrier seals. This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared in accordance with CM-6-1 EP 4.2, Standard Engineering Practices

  18. Performance and Abuse Testing of 5 Year Old Low Rate and Medium Rate Lithium Thionyl Chloride Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerker, Rick; Zhang, Wenlin; Jeevarajan, Judith; Bragg, Bobby J.

    2001-01-01

    Most cells survived the 3 amp (A) over-discharge at room temperature for 2 hours. The cell that failed was the LTC-114 after high rate discharge of 500 mA similar to the results of the 1 A over-discharge test. Most cells opened during 0.05 Ohm short circuit test without incident but three LTC-111 cells exploded apparently due to a lack of a thermal cutoff switch. The LTC-114 cells exposed to a hard short of 0.05 Ohms recovered but the LTC-114 cells exposed to a soft short of 1 Ohm did not. This is probably due to the activation of a resetable fuse during a hard short. Fresh cells tend to survive exposure to higher temperatures than cells previously discharged at high rate (1 Amp). LTC-111 cells tend to vent at lower temperatures than the all LTC-114 cells and the LTC-115 cells that were previously discharged at rates exceeding 1 Amp.

  19. FIELD TEST INSTRUCTION 100-NR-2 OPERABLE UNIT DESIGN OPTIMIZATION STUDY FOR SEQUESTRATION OF SR-90 SATURATED ZONE APATITE PERMEABLE REACTIVE BARRIER EXTENSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOWLES NA

    2010-10-06

    the barrier extension wells, particularly those in the Ringold formation. The downstream portion of the original barrier, shown on Figure 1, is characterized by generally higher well specific capacity and a larger hydraulic conductivity contrast between the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation. Hydraulic conductivity rates for the Hanford formation and Ringold Formation over the downstream portion of the barrier were estimated at 29 and 9 m/day (95 and 29 ft/day), respectively (with the Hanford formation hydraulic conductivity being greater in the downstream portion than the upstream portion). Once again, it should be noted that the actual conductivities may vary significantly, and the values state above should only be used as a rough initial estimates. Optimum apatite emplacement has been shown to occur when injections targeting the Hanford formation and the Ringold Formation are performed separately. The remainder of this test instruction provides details for conducting these formation-targeted injections.

  20. Field Test Evaluation of Effect on Cone Resistance Caused by Change in Penetration Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Rikke; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents how a change in cone penetration rate affects the measured cone resistance during cone penetration testing in silty soils. Regardless of soil, type the standard rate of penetration is 20 mm/s and it is generally accepted that undrained penetration occurs in clay while drained...... in the laboratory. A change in the measured cone resistance occurs by lowering the penetration rate. This is caused by the changes in drainage conditions. Compared to the normal penetration rate of 20 mm/s, this paper illustrates that lowering the penetration rate leads to an increase in the cone resistance from 1...

  1. Combination of poroelasticity theory and constant strain rate test in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien Hung; Rühaak, Wolfram; Sass, Ingo

    2017-04-01

    Extensive groundwater extraction leads to a drawdown of the ground water table. Consequently, soil effective stress increases and can cause land subsidence. Analysis of land subsidence generally requires a numerical model based on poroelasticity theory, which was first proposed by Biot (1941). In the review of regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction, Galloway and Burbey (2011) stated that more research and application is needed in coupling of stress-dependent land subsidence process. In geotechnical field, the constant rate of strain tests (CRS) was first introduced in 1969 (Smith and Wahls 1969) and was standardized in 1982 through the designation D4186-82 by American Society for Testing and Materials. From the reading values of CRS tests, the stress-dependent parameters of poroelasticity model can be calculated. So far, there is no research to link poroelasticity theory with CRS tests in modelling land subsidence due to groundwater extraction. One dimensional CRS tests using conventional compression cell and three dimension CRS tests using Rowe cell were performed. The tests were also modelled by using finite element method with mixed elements. Back analysis technique is used to find the suitable values of hydraulic conductivity and bulk modulus that depend on the stress or void ratio. Finally, the obtained results are used in land subsidence models. Biot, M. A. (1941). "General theory of three-dimensional consolidation." Journal of applied physics 12(2): 155-164. Galloway, D. L. and T. J. Burbey (2011). "Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction." Hydrogeology Journal 19(8): 1459-1486. Smith, R. E. and H. E. Wahls (1969). "Consolidation under constant rates of strain." Journal of Soil Mechanics & Foundations Div.

  2. Crash test ratings and real-world frontal crash outcomes: a CIREN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryb, Gabriel E; Burch, Cynthia; Kerns, Timothy; Dischinger, Patricia C; Ho, Shiu

    2010-05-01

    To establish whether the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) offset crash test ratings are linked to different mortality rates in real world frontal crashes. The study used Crash Injury Research Engineering Network drivers of age older than 15 years who were involved in frontal crashes. The Crash Injury Research Engineering Network is a convenience sample of persons injured in crashes with at least one Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 3+ injury or two Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 2+ injuries who were either treated at a Level I trauma center or died. Cases were grouped by IIHS crash test ratings (i.e., good, acceptable, marginal, poor, and not rated). Those rated marginal were excluded because of their small numbers. Mortality rates experienced by these ratings-based groups were compared using the Mantel-Haenszel chi test. Multiple logistic regression models were built to adjust for confounders (i.e., occupant, vehicular, and crash factors). A total of 1,226 cases were distributed within not rated (59%), poor (12%), average (16%), and good (14%) categories. Those rated good and average experienced a lower unadjusted mortality rate. After adjustment by confounders, those in vehicles rated good experienced a lower risk of death (adjusted OR 0.38 [0.16-0.90]) than those in vehicles rated poor. There was no significant effect for "acceptable" rating. Other factors influencing the occurrence of death were age, DeltaV >or=70 km/h, high body mass index, and lack of restraint use. After adjusting for occupant, vehicular, and crash factors, drivers of vehicles rated good by the IIHS experienced a lower risk of death in frontal crashes.

  3. Classroom Test Report: Compressed Speech Tapes--An Effective Teaching Tool for Increasing Rate and Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jerry

    Compressed speech tapes--recordings of a voice reading a selection at the normal rate of approximately 150 words per minute that are speeded up to as much as 400 words a minute--can be used successfully with students to provide practice in improving reading rate and comprehension. In a field test conducted with 23 high school juniors and seniors…

  4. Testing linear growth rate formulas of non-scale endogenous growth models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziesemer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous growth theory has produced formulas for steady-state growth rates of income per capita which are linear in the growth rate of the population. Depending on the details of the models, slopes and intercepts are positive, zero or negative. Empirical tests have taken over the assumption of

  5. Calorimeter measures high nuclear heating rates and their gradients across a reactor test hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burwell, D.; Coombe, J. R.; Mc Bride, J.

    1970-01-01

    Pedestal-type calorimeter measures gamma-ray heating rates from 0.5 to 7.0 watts per gram of aluminum. Nuclear heating rate is a function of cylinder temperature change, measured by four chromel-alumel thermocouples attached to the calorimeter, and known thermoconductivity of the tested material.

  6. Working with Sparse Data in Rated Language Tests: Generalizability Theory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Kai

    2017-01-01

    Sparse-rated data are common in operational performance-based language tests, as an inevitable result of assigning examinee responses to a fraction of available raters. The current study investigates the precision of two generalizability-theory methods (i.e., the rating method and the subdividing method) specifically designed to accommodate the…

  7. New physical examination tests for lumbar spondylolisthesis and instability: low midline sill sign and interspinous gap change during lumbar flexion-extension motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Kang; Jhun, Hyung-Joon

    2015-04-22

    Lumbar spondylolisthesis (LS) and lumbar instability (LI) are common disorders in patients with low back or lumbar radicular pain. However, few physical examination tests for LS and LI have been reported. In the study described herein, new physical examination tests for LS and LI were devised and evaluated for their validity. The test for LS was designated "low midline sill sign", and that for LI was designated "interspinous gap change" during lumbar flexion-extension motion. The validity of the low midline sill sign was evaluated in 96 patients with low back or lumbar radicular pain. Validity of the interspinous gap change during lumbar flexion-extension motion was evaluated in 73 patients with low back or lumbar radicular pain. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the two tests were also investigated. The sensitivity and specificity of the low midline sill sign for LS were 81.3% and 89.1%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values of the test were 78.8% and 90.5%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the interspinous gap change test for LI were 82.2% and 60.7%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values of the test were 77.1% and 68.0%, respectively. The low midline sill sign and interspinous gap change tests are effective for the detection of LS and LI, and can be performed easily in an outpatient setting.

  8. Maximum acceptable weight of lift reflects peak lumbosacral extension moments in a functional capacity evaluation test using free style, stoop and squat lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, P P F M; van Oostrom, S H; Duijzer, K; van Dieën, J H

    2012-01-01

    It is unclear whether the maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL), a common psychophysical method, reflects joint kinetics when different lifting techniques are employed. In a within-participants study (n = 12), participants performed three lifting techniques--free style, stoop and squat lifting from knee to waist level--using the same dynamic functional capacity evaluation lifting test to assess MAWL and to calculate low back and knee kinetics. We assessed which knee and back kinetic parameters increased with the load mass lifted, and whether the magnitudes of the kinetic parameters were consistent across techniques when lifting MAWL. MAWL was significantly different between techniques (p = 0.03). The peak lumbosacral extension moment met both criteria: it had the highest association with the load masses lifted (r > 0.9) and was most consistent between the three techniques when lifting MAWL (ICC = 0.87). In conclusion, MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. Tests of maximum acceptable weight of lift (MAWL) from knee to waist height are used to assess work capacity of individuals with low-back disorders. This article shows that the MAWL reflects the lumbosacral extension moment across free style, stoop and squat lifting in healthy young males, but the relation between the load mass lifted and lumbosacral extension moment is different between techniques. This suggests that standardisation of lifting technique used in tests of the MAWL would be indicated if the aim is to assess the capacity of the low back.

  9. A comparative study of heart rate variability tests and lipid profile in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: We found a decrease in values of HRV tests during the Valsalva maneuver, deep breathing in male individuals as compared with age- and Body Mass Index, BMI-matched females. VHeart Rate Variability tests during 30:15 R-R intervals Ratio in male individuals were significantly decreased as compared with ...

  10. Multi-laboratory testing of environmental gamma dose-rate meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boetter-Jensen, L.; Lauterbach, U.; Pessara, W.; Thompson, I.M.G.

    1989-01-01

    Several European laboratories participated in intercomparison experiments with the aim of testing environmental gamma dose-rate meters. This paper describes methods and presents results of the experiments which included different calibration techniques, field measurements, testing of energy responses, linearities, and determination of the inherent zero readings. (author)

  11. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G

    1994-12-01

    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  12. 105-KE Basin isolation barrier leak rate test analytical development. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides an analytical development in support of the proposed leak rate test of the 105-KE Basin. The analytical basis upon which the K-basin leak test results will be used to determine the basin leakage rates is developed in this report. The leakage of the K-Basin isolation barriers under postulated accident conditions will be determined from the test results. There are two fundamental flow regimes that may exist in the postulated K-Basin leakage: viscous laminar and turbulent flow. An analytical development is presented for each flow regime. The basic geometry and nomenclature of the postulated leak paths are denoted

  13. Standard Test Method for Determining Thermal Neutron Reaction Rates and Thermal Neutron Fluence Rates by Radioactivation Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 The purpose of this test method is to define a general procedure for determining an unknown thermal-neutron fluence rate by neutron activation techniques. It is not practicable to describe completely a technique applicable to the large number of experimental situations that require the measurement of a thermal-neutron fluence rate. Therefore, this method is presented so that the user may adapt to his particular situation the fundamental procedures of the following techniques. 1.1.1 Radiometric counting technique using pure cobalt, pure gold, pure indium, cobalt-aluminum, alloy, gold-aluminum alloy, or indium-aluminum alloy. 1.1.2 Standard comparison technique using pure gold, or gold-aluminum alloy, and 1.1.3 Secondary standard comparison techniques using pure indium, indium-aluminum alloy, pure dysprosium, or dysprosium-aluminum alloy. 1.2 The techniques presented are limited to measurements at room temperatures. However, special problems when making thermal-neutron fluence rate measurements in high-...

  14. USING AN ADAPTER TO PERFORM THE CHALFANT-STYLE CONTAINMENT VESSEL PERIODIC MAINTENANCE LEAK RATE TEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Trapp, D.

    2011-06-03

    Recently the Packaging Technology and Pressurized Systems (PT&PS) organization at the Savannah River National Laboratory was asked to develop an adapter for performing the leak-rate test of a Chalfant-style containment vessel. The PT&PS organization collaborated with designers at the Department of Energy's Pantex Plant to develop the adapter currently in use for performing the leak-rate testing on the containment vessels. This paper will give the history of leak-rate testing of the Chalfant-style containment vessels, discuss the design concept for the adapter, give an overview of the design, and will present results of the testing done using the adapter.

  15. Testing for long-range dependence in the Brazilian term structure of interest rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical evidence of fractional dynamics in interest rates for different maturities for Brazil. A variation of a newly developed test for long-range dependence, the V/S statistic, with a post-blackening bootstrap is employed. Results suggest that Brazilian interest rates possess strong long-range dependence in volatility, even when considering the structural break in 1999. These findings imply that the development of policy models that give rise to long-range dependence in interest rates' volatility could be very useful. The long-short-term interest rates spread has strong long-range dependence, which suggests that traditional tests of expectation hypothesis of the term structure of interest rates may be misspecified.

  16. IIHS side crash test ratings and occupant death risk in real-world crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Eric R; Lund, Adrian K

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate how well the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side crash test ratings predict real-world occupant death risk in side-impact crashes. The IIHS has been evaluating passenger vehicle side crashworthiness since 2003. In the IIHS side crash test, a vehicle is impacted perpendicularly on the driver's side by a moving deformable barrier simulating a typical sport utility vehicle (SUV) or pickup. Injury ratings are computed for the head/neck, torso, and pelvis/leg, and vehicles are rated based on their ability to protect occupants' heads and resist occupant compartment intrusion. Component ratings are combined into an overall rating of good, acceptable, marginal, or poor. A driver-only rating was recalculated by omitting rear passenger dummy data. Data were extracted from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) and National Automotive Sampling System/General Estimates System (NASS/GES) for the years 2000-2009. Analyses were restricted to vehicles with driver side air bags with head and torso protection as standard features. The risk of driver death was computed as the number of drivers killed (FARS) divided by the number involved (NASS/GES) in left-side impacts and was modeled using logistic regression to control for the effects of driver age and gender and vehicle type and curb weight. Death rates per million registered vehicle years were computed for all outboard occupants and compared by overall rating. Based on the driver-only rating, drivers of vehicles rated good were 70 percent less likely to die when involved in left-side crashes than drivers of vehicles rated poor, after controlling for driver and vehicle factors. Compared with vehicles rated poor, driver death risk was 64 percent lower for vehicles rated acceptable and 49 percent lower for vehicles rated marginal. All 3 results were statistically significant. Among components, vehicle structure rating exhibited the strongest relationship with driver death risk. The vehicle

  17. Understanding High Recession Rates of Carbon Ablators Seen in Shear Tests in an Arc Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Olson, Michael W.; Barnhardt, Michael D.; MacLean, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    High rates of recession in arc jet shear tests of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) inspired a series of tests and analysis on FiberForm (a carbon preform used in the fabrication of PICA). Arc jet tests were performed on FiberForm in both air and pure nitrogen for stagnation and shear configurations. The nitrogen tests showed little or no recession, while the air tests of FiberForm showed recession rates similar to that of PICA (when adjusted for the difference in density). While mechanical erosion can not be ruled out, this is the first step in doing so. Analysis using a carbon oxidation boundary condition within DPLR was used to predict the recession rate of FiberForm. The analysis indicates that much of the anomalous recession behavior seen in shear tests may simply be an artifact of the non-flight like test configuration (copper upstream of the test article) a result of dissimilar enthalpy and oxygen concentration profiles on the copper. Shape change effects were also investigated and shown to be relatively small.

  18. Evaluation of susceptibility of high strength steels to delayed fracture by using cyclic corrosion test and slow strain rate test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Songjie; Zhang Zuogui; Akiyama, Eiji; Tsuzaki, Kaneaki; Zhang Boping

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate susceptibilities of high strength steels to delayed fracture, slow strain rate tests (SSRT) of notched bar specimens of AISI 4135 with tensile strengths of 1300 and 1500 MPa and boron-bearing steel with 1300 MPa have been performed after cyclic corrosion test (CCT). During SSRT the humidity around the specimen was kept high to keep absorbed diffusible hydrogen. The fracture stresses of AISI 4135 steels decreased with increment of diffusible hydrogen content which increased with CCT cycles. Their delayed fracture susceptibilities could be successfully evaluated in consideration of both influence of hydrogen content on mechanical property and hydrogen entry.

  19. Increasing chlamydia test of re-infection rates using SMS reminders and incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Sandra Gaye; Cashman, Colette; McNamee, Heather; Penney, Debbie; Russell, Darren B; Hellard, Margaret E

    2013-02-01

    Clients diagnosed and treated for Chlamydia trachomatis are a recognised high-risk group for subsequent infection. An estimated 8% of clients treated for chlamydia at Cairns Sexual Health Service return for re-testing within the recommended 3-4-month period. There is no recall or reminder system in place. This study assesses the effectiveness of using short messaging service (SMS) reminders with and without incentive payments to increase re-testing rates. Eligible consenting clients were randomly allocated to one of three groups. Group 1 (controls) received the standard advice from the clinician to return for re-testing in 3-4 months. Group 2 received the standard advice and an SMS reminder at 10-12 weeks post-treatment. Group 3 received the standard advice and the SMS reminder, which also offered an incentive payment on clinic attendance. 32 participants were recruited to groups 1 and 2 and 30 participants to group 3. 62 SMS reminders were sent with 13 (21.0%) reported as undelivered. Re-testing rates were 6.3%, 28.1% and 26.7% for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. SMS reminders with or without an incentive payment increased re-testing rates in our clients who were diagnosed and treated for chlamydia. However, re-testing remained less than ideal, and the high rate of undelivered SMS reminders suggest that this intervention alone will not achieve desired re-testing rates and that a range of strategies will be required to increase re-testing in this population.

  20. High-strain rate Brazilian testing of an explosive simulant using speckle metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham, S. G.; Siviour, C. R.; Proud, W. G.; Field, J. E.

    2004-09-01

    The application of high-speed photography and image correlation has allowed dynamic Brazilian tests to be carried out using the split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) on PBS9501, an explosive simulant. The essential features of low-rate Brazilian tests are found to occur in the high-rate experiments, with the samples reaching equilibrium quickly and remaining in equilibrium throughout the experiment. The advantage of the approach described here is the ability to make tensile stress/strain measurements in the high-strain rate regime using a compression Hopkinson bar. This allows smaller sample sizes, making testing of expensive or dangerous materials easier, while expanding the capabilities of the compression bar.

  1. A facility for the test of large area muon chambers at high rates

    CERN Document Server

    Agosteo, S; Belli, G; Bonifas, A; Carabelli, V; Gatignon, L; Hessey, N P; Maggi, M; Peigneux, J P; Reithler, H; Silari, Marco; Vitulo, P; Wegner, M

    2000-01-01

    Operation of large area muon detectors at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be characterized by large sustained hit rates over the whole area, reaching the range of kHz/\\scm. We describe a dedicated test zone built at CERN to test the performance and the aging of the muon chambers currently under development. A radioactive source delivers photons causing the sustained rate of random hits, while a narrow beam of high energy muons is used to directly calibrate the detector performance. A system of remotely controlled lead filters serves to vary the rate of photons over four orders of magnitude, to allow the study of performance as a function of rate.

  2. Repeat HIV Testing and Incident Rates among Individuals Attending Voluntary Counseling and Testing Clinics in Wuxi, China: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiao Jun; Grulich, Andrew; Wang, Xu Wen; Yin, Han Lu; Gu, Jing; Zhang, Xuan; Gu, Jing; Zou, Hua Chun

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to elucidate the rates of repeat HIV testing and incident HIV diagnosis, and baseline CD4+ T cell count among individuals attending HIV voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) clinics in Wuxi, China. A repeat HIV testing within 12 months was recorded if individuals had their first test with negative results, during 2013-2014 and retested within 12 months. An incident HIV diagnosis was recorded if individuals had their first test with negative results, during 2013-2015 and had a subsequent positive result at any point by the end of 2015. Data on HIV testing and diagnosis among individuals attending 32 VCT clinics from 2013 to 2015 and HIV diagnosis from other clinical services in Wuxi, China, were retrieved. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze factors associated with repeat HIV testing. Cox regression was used to evaluate factors associated with incident HIV diagnosis. From 2013 to 2014, 11,504 individuals tested HIV negative at their first recorded test, with 655 (5.7%) retesting within 12 months. Higher repeat HIV testing within 12 months was associated with male gender [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4-2.2], risk behaviors [commercial heterosexual behaviors (aOR = 1.4, CI: 1.1-1.6), male-male sexual behaviors (aOR = 3.7, CI: 2.7-4.9)], injection drug use (aOR = 9.9, CI: 6.5-15.1), and having taken HIV tests previously (aOR = 2.0, CI: 1.6-2.4). From 2013 to 2015, 1,088 individuals tested negative on HIV test at their visit and at ⋝ 2 subsequent tests; of them 30 had incident HIV diagnosis. The overall rate of incident HIV diagnosis among all VCT individuals was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.1) per 100 person-years. Incident HIV diagnosis was associated with male gender [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 8.5, 95% CI: 1.9-38.1], attending hospital-based VCT clinics (aHR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.1-58.3), and male-male sexual behavior (aHR = 8.4, 95% CI: 1.5-46.7). Individuals diagnosed at VCT clinics had higher CD4+ T

  3. PWR integrated leak rate test, a review of experiences and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koegh, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the Integrated Leak Rate Test as carried out in the USA and as reported in papers for European countries. The methods of analysis of test results are discussed and it is recommended that only the mass point method be permitted. The reliability of the instruments used in a test are described and the care needed during a test is identified. The use of a preliminary zero pressure test is recommended as a necessary part of the test to counter any instrument inaccuracies, to identify any unwanted temperature gradients, and to ensure that no ingress of water or air is taking place at the start of a test. Valves are identified as the major leak source during tests with about 40% of tests being adversely affected by their performance. Recommendations are given to improve the reported integrity of the valves. The use of the part pressure test is discussed and for various reasons it is recommended that only full pressure tests (at design accident pressure) be permitted. The lack of correlation between full and part pressure tests is considered to be due to gas absorption/release of internal concrete and the behaviour of steam generator equipment giving greater leaks at higher pressures. Secondary effects of diurnal influences and the use of the ideal gas laws in place of more accurate Van de Waals state equation are discussed

  4. Recent breeding history of dog breeds in Sweden: modest rates of inbreeding, extensive loss of genetic diversity and lack of correlation between inbreeding and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, M; Laikre, L

    2014-04-01

    One problem in modern dogs is a high occurrence of physical diseases, defects and disorders. Many breeds exhibit physical problems that affect individual dogs throughout life. A potential cause of these problems is inbreeding that is known to reduce the viability of individuals. We investigated the possible correlation between recent inbreeding and health problems in dogs and used studbook data from 26 breeds provided by the Swedish Kennel Club for this purpose. The pedigrees date back to the mid-20th century and comprise 5-10 generations and 1 000-50 000 individuals per pedigree over our study period of 1980-2010. We compared levels of inbreeding and loss of genetic variation measured in relation to the number of founding animals during this period in the investigated dog breeds that we classified as 'healthy' (11 breeds) or 'unhealthy' (15) based on statistics on the extent of veterinary care obtained from Sweden's four largest insurance companies for pets. We found extensive loss of genetic variation and moderate levels of recent inbreeding in all breeds examined, but no strong indication of a difference in these parameters between healthy versus unhealthy breeds over this period. Thus, recent breeding history with respect to rate of inbreeding does not appear to be a main cause of poor health in the investigated dog breeds in Sweden. We identified both strengths and weaknesses of the dog pedigree data important to consider in future work of monitoring and conserving genetic diversity of dog breeds. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Testing Extensions of Our Quantitative Daily of San Joaquin Wintertime Aerosols Using MAIAC and Meteorology Without Transport/Transformation Assumptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Sorek Hamer, Meytar; Esswein, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    The Western US and many regions globally present daunting difficulties in understanding and mapping PM2.5 episodes. We evaluate extensions of a method independent of source-description and transport/transformation. These regions suffer frequent few-day episodes due to shallow mixing; low satellite AOT and bright surfaces complicate the description. Nevertheless, we expect residual errors in our maps of less than 8 ug/m^3 in episodes reaching 60-100 ug/m^3; maps which detail pollution from Interstate 5. Our current success is due to use of physically meaningful functions of MODIS-MAIAC-derived AOD, afternoon mixed-layer height, and relative humidity for a basin in which the latter are correlated. A mixed-effects model then describes a daily AOT-to-PM2.5 relationship. (Note: in other published mixed-effects models, AOT contributes minimally. We seek to extend on these to develop useful estimation methods for similar situations. We evaluate existing but more spotty information on size distribution (AERONET, MISR, MAIA, CALIPSO, other remote sensing). We also describe the usefulness of an equivalent mixing depth for water vapor vs meteorological boundary layer height. Each has virtues and limitations. Finally, we begin to evaluate methods for removing the complications due to detached but polluted layers (which don't mix to the surface) using geographical, meteorological, and remotely sensed data.

  6. The corrosion rate of copper in a bentonite test package measured with electric resistance sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosborg, Bo [Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Kosec, Tadeja; Kranjc, Andrej; Kuhar, Viljem; Legat, Andraz [Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-12-15

    LOT1 test parcel A2 was exposed for six years in the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory, which offers a realistic environment for the conditions that will prevail in a deep repository for high-level radioactive waste disposal in Sweden. The test parcel contained copper electrodes for real-time corrosion monitoring in bentonite ring 36, where the temperature was 24 deg C, and copper coupons in bentonite rings 22 and 30, where the temperature was higher. After retrieval of the test parcel in January 2006, a bentonite test package consisting of bentonite rings 35 - 37 was placed in a container and sealed with a thick layer of paraffin. Later the same year new copper electrodes were installed in the test package. In January 2007 electric resistance (ER) sensors of pure copper with a thickness of 35 {mu}m were also installed in the test package mainly to facilitate the interpretation of the results from the real-time corrosion monitoring with electrochemical techniques. The ER measurements have shown that the corrosion rate of pure copper exposed in an oxic bentonite/ saline groundwater environment at room temperate decreases slowly with time to low but measurable values. The corrosion rates estimated from the regularly performed EIS measurements replicate the ER data. Thus, for this oxic environment in which copper acquires corrosion potentials of the order of 200 mV (SHE) or higher, electrochemical measurements provide believable data. Comparing the recorded ER data with an estimate of the average corrosion rate based on comparing cross-sections from exposed and protected sensor elements, it is obvious that the former overestimates the actual corrosion rate, which is understandable. It seems as if electrochemical measurements can provide a better estimate of the corrosion rate; however, this is quite dependent on the use of proper measuring frequencies and evaluation methods. In this respect ER measurements are more reliable. It has been shown that real-time corrosion

  7. Production test IP-550-I: Routine monitoring for moderator oxidation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baars, R.E.

    1963-04-01

    The objectives of this production test are: 1. To authorize the outage time involved in installing and removing oxidation monitors for the reactors, and 2. To specifically define sample design, spacing of samples in the channels, and residence times to insure adequate routine monitoring of moderator oxidation rates. This production test is concerned with B, C, D, F, DR, F, and H reactors. Similar requirements have been specified in PITA IP-20-I for KE and KW reactors

  8. 78 FR 23884 - Seed Testing Service Program; Request for an Extension of and Revision to a Currently Approved...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request approval from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), for... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [Doc. No. AMS-LS-13-0007] Seed Testing... AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  9. 78 FR 52128 - Cotton Classing, Testing and Standards: Notice of Request for an Extension and Revision to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service's (AMS) intention to request approval from the Office of Management and Budget... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service [AMS-CN-13-0044] Cotton Classing, Testing... Collection AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In...

  10. Do exchange rates follow random walks? A variance ratio test of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The random-walk hypothesis in foreign-exchange rates market is one of the most researched areas, particularly in developed economies. However, emerging markets in sub-Saharan Africa have received little attention in this regard. This study applies Lo and MacKinlay's (1988) conventional variance ratio test and Wright's ...

  11. 78 FR 71036 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... PHMSA-2013-0248] Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor Management Information System Reporting; and Obtaining Drug and Alcohol Management Information System Sign-In Information AGENCY: Pipeline... Management Information System (MIS) Data; and New Method for Operators to Obtain User Name and Password for...

  12. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of study is to determine whether glucose pump test (GPT) is used for surveillance of native AV fistulas by using Doppler US as reference. Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by ...

  13. The PWR integrated leak rate test, a review of experiences and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keogh, P.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) as it has been carried out in the USA and as reported in papers in European countries. The test procedures are critically appraised and recommendations are given for modifications to them. The values used in a PWR are identified as a main source of leaks and possibilities for improvement are discussed. The use of a part pressure test and its limitations are considered. A part pressure test cannot give the same assurance as a full pressure test but may be useful for the identification of gross leaks. Secondary effects such as weather and the use of Van de Waals equations are considered and are found to be not important for concrete containments. (orig.)

  14. Infection control, genetic assessment of drug resistance and drug susceptibility testing in the current management of multidrug/extensively-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothamley, Graham H.; Lange, Christoph; Albrecht, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    AIM: Europe has the highest documented caseload and greatest increase in multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) of all World Health Organization (WHO) regions. This survey examines how recommendations for M/XDR-TB management are being implemented. METHODS: TBNET is a pan......-European clinical research collaboration for tuberculosis. An email survey of TBNET members collected data in relation to infection control, access to molecular tests and basic microbiology with drug sensitivity testing. RESULTS: 68/105 responses gave valid information and were from countries within the WHO...... widely available (88%), even in lower income and especially in high incidence countries. Molecular tests for other first line and second line drugs were less accessible (76 and 52% respectively). A third of physicians considered that drug susceptibility results were delayed by > 2 months. CONCLUSION...

  15. Postpartum Diabetes Testing Rates after Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Canadian Women: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butalia, Sonia; Donovan, Lois; Savu, Anamaria; Johnson, Jeffrey; Edwards, Alun; Kaul, Padma

    2017-12-01

    We assessed the rate and type of postpartum glycemic testing in women with impaired glucose tolerance of pregnancy (IGTp) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). We examined whether the likelihood of testing was modulated by patients' characteristics and pregnancy outcomes. Our population-level cohort study included data from 132,905 pregnancies between October 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011, in Alberta, Canada. Laboratory data within 270 days before and 1 year after delivery were used to identify pregnancies involving IGTp/GDM and postpartum glycemic testing, respectively. Logistic regression was used to identify maternal and pregnancy factors associated with postpartum testing. A total of 8,703 pregnancies were affected by IGTp (n=3669) or GDM (n=5034) as defined by the prevailing Canadian Diabetes Association 2008 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada. By 1 year postpartum, 55.1% had undergone glycemic assessments. Of those, 59.7% had had 75 g oral glucose tolerance tests, 17.4% had had glycated hemoglobin tests without oral glucose tolerance tests and 22.9% had had only fasting or random glucose tests. Women with IGTp or GDM, respectively, who were younger, smokers and residing in rural areas and whose labours were not induced were less likely to be tested postpartum. Having large for gestational age infants was also associated with a lower likelihood of postpartum testing in women with GDM. Despite a universal health-care system in Canada, many women with IGTp or GDM do not undergo postpartum glucose testing. Maternal and pregnancy characteristics influence postpartum testing and provide valuable information for creating targeted strategies to improve postpartum testing in this group of high-risk women. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk assessment by percolation leaching tests of extensive green roofs with fine fraction of mixed recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Uceda, Antonio; Galvín, Adela P; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, José Ramón; Vanwalleghem, Tom; Peña, Adolfo

    2018-03-19

    Extensive green roofs are urban construction systems that provide thermal regulation and sound proofing for the buildings involved, in addition to providing an urban heat island mitigation or water retention. On the other hand, policies towards reduction of energy consumption, a circular economy and sustainability are core in the European Union. Motivated by this, an experimental study was carried out to evaluate the environmental risk assessment according to release levels of polluting elements on leachates of different green roof substrate mixtures based on recycled aggregates from construction and demolition waste through (i) the performance in laboratory of two procedures: compliance and percolation tests and (ii) an upscaled experimental leaching test for long-term on-site prediction. Four plots were built on a building roof and covered with autochthonous Mediterranean plants in Córdoba, South of Spain. As growing substrate, four mixtures were used of a commercial growing substrate with different proportions of a fine mixed recycled aggregate ranging from 0 to 75% by volume. The results show that these mixtures were classified as non-hazardous materials according to legal limits of the Landfill Directive 2003/33/CE. The release levels registered in extensive green roofs were lower compared to the laboratory test data. This shows how laboratory conditions can overestimate the potential pollutant effect of these materials compared to actual conditions.

  17. System Testing Evaluation for Enterprise Resource Planning to Reduce Failure Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Mathara Arachchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP systems are widely used applications to manage resources, communication and data exchange between different departments and modules with the purpose of managing the overall business process of the organization using one integrated software system. Due to the large scale and the complexity nature of these systems, many ERP implementation projects have become failure. It is necessary to have a better test project management and test performance assessing system. To build a successful ERP system these processes are important. The purpose of the Test project management is verification and validation of the system. There was a separate stage to test the quality of software in the software development lifecycle and there is a separate independent Quality Assurance and testing team for a successful ERP development team. According to best practice testing principles it is necessary to, understand the requirements, test planning, test execution, identify and improve processes. Identify the necessary infrastructure; hardware and software are the major areas when developing test procedures. The aim of this survey is to identify ERP failures associated with the ERP projects, general and security within the Asian region, so that the parties responsible for the project can take necessary precautions to deal with those failures for a successful ERP implementation and bring down the ERP failure rate.

  18. A step forward in the quality control testing of inactivated rabies vaccines - extensive evaluation of European vaccines by using alternative methods to the in vivo potency tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence

    2015-03-01

    The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. 2015 FRAME.

  19. Towards a systematic assessment of assay interference: Identification of extensively tested compounds with high assay promiscuity [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Gilberg

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A large-scale statistical analysis of hit rates of extensively assayed compounds is presented to provide a basis for a further assessment of assay interference potential and multi-target activities. A special feature of this investigation has been the inclusion of compound series information in activity analysis and the characterization of analog series using different parameters derived from assay statistics. No prior knowledge of compounds or targets was taken into consideration in the data-driven study of analog series. It was anticipated that taking large volumes of activity data, assay frequency, and assay overlap information into account would lead to statistically sound and chemically meaningful results. More than 6000 unique series of analogs with high hit rates were identified, more than 5000 of which did not contain known interference candidates, hence providing ample opportunities for follow-up analyses from a medicinal chemistry perspective.

  20. Linking job demands and resources to employee engagement and burnout: a theoretical extension and meta-analytic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Eean R; Lepine, Jeffery A; Rich, Bruce Louis

    2010-09-01

    We refine and extend the job demands-resources model with theory regarding appraisal of stressors to account for inconsistencies in relationships between demands and engagement, and we test the revised theory using meta-analytic structural modeling. Results indicate support for the refined and updated theory. First, demands and burnout were positively associated, whereas resources and burnout were negatively associated. Second, whereas relationships among resources and engagement were consistently positive, relationships among demands and engagement were highly dependent on the nature of the demand. Demands that employees tend to appraise as hindrances were negatively associated with engagement, and demands that employees tend to appraise as challenges were positively associated with engagement. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Testing the Relationship between Interest Rates Volatility and Market Capitalization: the case of Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edesiri Godsday Okoro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the relationship between interest rates volatility and market capitalization in Mauritius. Using annual time series data sourced from the Financial Services Commission Annual Statistical Bulletin of Mauritius during the period 2006 through 2010, data of interest rates volatility and market capitalization were estimated in a non-linear model using the Vector Auto-regression technique. The study found that interest rates volatility has significant effect on the level of market capitalization although a negative effect. This implies a negative relationship between interest rates volatility and market capitalization. Thus, if market capitalization is affected by interest rates, then the economy becomes highly susceptible to volatile external distress. This indicates some dangers for the economic survival of Mauritius. It was on this note that we recommended an effective policy aimed at stabilizing macroeconomic variable like interest rates, focusing at the same time on alternative measures of promoting market capitalization if aggregate economic growth must be harnessed. Policymakers should design the optimal policy mix that would help the nation cope efficiently with the economic and social costs of the external distress accompanying higher and dwindling interest rates in Mauritius.

  2. Cardio-pulmonary fitness test by ultra-short heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Arsalan; Aslani, Amir; Kheirkhah, Jalal; Sobhani, Vahid

    2011-10-01

    It is known that exercise induces cardio-respiratory autonomic modulation. The aim of this study was to assess the cardio-pulmonary fitness by ultra-short heart rate variability. Study population was divided into 3 groups: Group-1 (n = 40) consisted of military sports man. Group-2 (n = 40) were healthy age-matched sedentary male subjects with normal body mass index [BMI = 19 - 25 kg/m(2)). Group-3 (n = 40) were healthy age-matched obese male subjects [BMI > 29 kg/m(2)). Standard deviation of normal-to-normal QRS intervals (SDNN) was recorded over 15 minutes. Bruce protocol treadmill test was used; and, maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2)max) was calculated. WHEN THE STUDY POPULATION WAS DIVIDED INTO QUARTILES OF SDNN (FIRST QUARTILE: 60 and 100 and 140 msec), progressive increase was found in VO(2)max; and, SDNN was significantly linked with estimated VO(2)max. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate that exercise training improves cardio-respiratory autonomic function (and increases heart rate variability). Improvement in cardio-respiratory autonomic function seems to translate into a lower rate of long term mortality. Ultra-short heart rate variability is a simple cardio-pulmonary fitness test which just requires 15 minutes, and involves no exercise such as in the treadmill or cycle test.

  3. High-Rate Material Modeling and Validation Using the Taylor Cylinder Impact Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maudlin, P.J.; Gray, G.T. III; Cady, C.M.; Kaschner, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    Taylor Cylinder impact testing is used to validate anisotropic elastoplastic constitutive modeling by comparing polycrystal simulated yield surface shapes (topography) to measured shapes from post-test Taylor impact specimens and quasistatic compression specimens. Measured yield surface shapes are extracted from the experimental post-test geometries using classical r-value definitions modified for arbitrary stress state and specimen orientation. Rolled tantalum (body-centered-cubic metal) plate and clock-rolled zirconium (hexagonal-close-packed metal) plate are both investigated. The results indicate that an assumption of topography invariance with respect to strain-rate is justifiable for tantalum. However, a strong sensitivity of topography with respect to strain-rate for zirconium was observed, implying that some accounting for a deformation mechanism rate-dependence associated with lower-symmetry materials should be included in the constitutive modeling. Discussion of the importance of this topography rate-dependence and texture evolution in formulating constitutive models appropriate for FEM applications is provided

  4. Solar Variability and the Near-Earth Environment: Mining Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity Data From the Microelectronics and Photonics Test Bed Space Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turflinger, T.; Schmeichel, W.; Krieg, J.; Titus, J.; Campbell, A.; Reeves, M.; Marshall (P.); Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This effort is a detailed analysis of existing microelectronics and photonics test bed satellite data from one experiment, the bipolar test board, looking to improve our understanding of the enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) phenomenon. Over the past several years, extensive total dose irradiations of bipolar devices have demonstrated that many of these devices exhibited ELDRS. In sensitive bipolar transistors, ELDRS produced enhanced degradation of base current, resulting in enhanced gain degradation at dose rates 1 rd(Si)/s. This Technical Publication provides updated information about the test devices, the in-flight experiment, and both flight-and ground-based observations. Flight data are presented for the past 5 yr of the mission. These data are compared to ground-based data taken on devices from the same date code lots. Information about temperature fluctuations, power shutdowns, and other variables encountered during the space flight are documented.

  5. Detecting Randomness: the Sensitivity of Statistical Tests to Deviations from a Constant Rate Poisson Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Detecting trends in the rate of sporadic events is a problem for earthquakes and other natural hazards such as storms, floods, or landslides. I use synthetic events to judge the tests used to address this problem in seismology and consider their application to other hazards. Recent papers have analyzed the record of magnitude ≥7 earthquakes since 1900 and concluded that the events are consistent with a constant rate Poisson process plus localized aftershocks (Michael, GRL, 2011; Shearer and Stark, PNAS, 2012; Daub et al., GRL, 2012; Parsons and Geist, BSSA, 2012). Each paper removed localized aftershocks and then used a different suite of statistical tests to test the null hypothesis that the remaining data could be drawn from a constant rate Poisson process. The methods include KS tests between event times or inter-event times and predictions from a Poisson process, the autocorrelation function on inter-event times, and two tests on the number of events in time bins: the Poisson dispersion test and the multinomial chi-square test. The range of statistical tests gives us confidence in the conclusions; which are robust with respect to the choice of tests and parameters. But which tests are optimal and how sensitive are they to deviations from the null hypothesis? The latter point was raised by Dimer (arXiv, 2012), who suggested that the lack of consideration of Type 2 errors prevents these papers from being able to place limits on the degree of clustering and rate changes that could be present in the global seismogenic process. I produce synthetic sets of events that deviate from a constant rate Poisson process using a variety of statistical simulation methods including Gamma distributed inter-event times and random walks. The sets of synthetic events are examined with the statistical tests described above. Preliminary results suggest that with 100 to 1000 events, a data set that does not reject the Poisson null hypothesis could have a variability that is 30% to

  6. Pressure Decay Testing Methodology for Quantifying Leak Rates of Full-Scale Docking System Seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Garafolo, Nicholas G.; Penney, Nicholas; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. This system, called the Low Impact Docking System, is a mechanism designed to connect the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to the International Space Station, the lunar lander (Altair), and other future Constellation Project vehicles. NASA Glenn Research Center is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this docking system. This seal will be relatively large with an outside diameter in the range of 54 to 58 in. (137 to 147 cm). As part of this effort, a new test apparatus has been designed, fabricated, and installed to measure leak rates of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Using this test apparatus, a pressure decay testing and data processing methodology has been developed to quantify full-scale seal leak rates. Tests performed on untreated 54 in. diameter seals at room temperature in a fully compressed state resulted in leak rates lower than the requirement of less than 0.0025 lbm, air per day (0.0011 kg/day).

  7. Correlation between Material Properties and Breakage Rate Parameters Determined from Grinding Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Petrakis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates four materials, namely quartz, marble, quartzite and metasandstone and aims to establish correlations, with the use of simple and multiple regression analysis, between their properties and breakage rate parameters. The material properties considered in this study derived from the application of destructive and non-destructive tests and include P-wave velocity (Vp, Schmidt rebound value (RL, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS and tangent modulus of elasticity (Et, while the breakage rate parameters determined from batch grinding tests, include breakage rate Si, maximum breakage rate Sm, αT and α, and optimum particle size xm. The results indicate that the properties of all materials examined show very good correlation and can be used to predict Si or αT. Furthermore, parameter α is well correlated with Vp, RL and Et using inverse exponential functions, while Sm is strongly correlated with RL and UCS. Overall, it is deduced that multiple regression analysis involving two independent variables is a reliable approach and can be used to identify correlations between properties and breakage rate parameters for quartz, quartzite and metasandstone, which are silica rich materials. The only exception shown is the determination of xm for marble.

  8. Does extensive genotyping and nasal potential difference testing clarify the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis among patients with single-organ manifestations of cystic fibrosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Chee Y; Dupuis, Annie; Ellis, Lynda; Jarvi, Keith; Martin, Sheelagh; Ray, Peter N; Steele, Leslie; Kortan, Paul; Gonska, Tanja; Dorfman, Ruslan; Solomon, Melinda; Zielenski, Julian; Corey, Mary; Tullis, Elizabeth; Durie, Peter

    2014-03-01

    The phenotypic spectrum of cystic fibrosis (CF) has expanded to include patients affected by single-organ diseases. Extensive genotyping and nasal potential difference (NPD) testing have been proposed to assist in the diagnosis of CF when sweat testing is inconclusive. However, the diagnostic yield of extensive genotyping and NPD and the concordance between NPD and the sweat test have not been carefully evaluated. We evaluated the diagnostic outcomes of genotyping (with 122 mutations included as disease causing), sweat testing and NPD in a prospectively ascertained cohort of undiagnosed patients who presented with chronic sino-pulmonary disease (RESP), chronic/recurrent pancreatitis (PANC) or obstructive azoospermia (AZOOSP). 202 patients (68 RESP, 42 PANC and 92 AZOOSP) were evaluated; 17.3%, 22.8% and 59.9% had abnormal, borderline and normal sweat chloride results, respectively. Only 17 (8.4%) patients were diagnosable as having CF by genotyping. Compared to sweat testing, NPD identified more patients as having CF (33.2%) with fewer borderline results (18.8%). The level of agreement according to kappa statistics (and the observed percentage of agreement) between sweat chloride and NPD in RESP, PANC and AZOOSP subjects was 'moderate' (65% observed agreement), 'poor' (33% observed agreement) and 'fair' (28% observed agreement), respectively. The degree of agreement only improved marginally when subjects with borderline sweat chloride results were excluded from the analysis. The diagnosis of CF or its exclusion is not always straightforward and may remain elusive even with comprehensive evaluation, particularly among individuals who present at an older age with single-organ manifestations suggestive of CF.

  9. Testing the discriminant validity of Schwartz' Portrait Value Questionnaire items – A replication and extension of Knoppen and Saris (2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanze Beierlein

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Schwartz' theory of ten basic human values has stimulated numerous studies using a variety of instruments. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA of the properties of some of the instruments have revealed that three pairs of values were excessively highly correlated. This led Davidov et al. (2008 to propose unifying values. To overcome the problems of loss of precision due to unifying distinct values, Knoppen and Saris (2009a,b investigated the factorial structure of each of the ten values measured with the PVQ (Schwartz et al. 2001. They identified both cross-loadings and distinct sub-dimensions for the pairs of nondiscriminated values in two German student samples. They concluded that the original strategy for selecting items, maximizing theoretical coverage at the expense of item homogeneity, produced the poor discrimination between values. Our Study 1 examines whether the Knoppen and Saris findings generalize to a representative sample of the German population. With some notable exceptions, our findings replicate theirs. Study 2 uses 33 items from an experimental version of the PVQ to operationalize and test a full model of the 11 basic values. Following Knoppen and Saris, we included only one sub-dimension of each of the 11 values. This CFA model yielded a satisfactory fit with no estimation problems. We conclude that available indicators permit measuring the distinct values without the need to collapse factors. Limitations and implications of the research are discussed.

  10. The Effects of Life Domains, Constraints, and Motivations on Academic Dishonesty: A Partial Test and Extension of Agnew's General Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, John K

    2017-08-01

    Recently, Robert Agnew introduced a new general theory of crime and delinquency in which he attempted to corral the vast array of theoretical "causes" of criminal conduct into a more parsimonious statement organized into one of five life domains: self, family, peers, school, and work as well as constraints against crime and motivation for it. These domains are depicted as the source of constraints and motivations and whose effects are, in part, mediated by these constraints and motivations. Based on self-report data on academic dishonesty from a sample of college students, the present study attempts to test this general theory. While several of the life domain variables had significant effects of cheating in the baseline model, all of these effects were fully mediated by constraints and motivations. In the final model, academic dishonesty was observed to be most significantly affected by the perceived severity of formal sanction threats, the number of credit hours enrolled, the frequency of skipping classes, and pressure from friends.

  11. Characterization and BMP Tests of Liquid Substrates for High-rate Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mainardis

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was focused on the physicochemical characterization and biochemical methane potential (BMP tests of some liquid organic substrates, to verify if they were suitable for undergoing a process of high-velocity anaerobic digestion. The selected substrates were: first and second cheese whey, organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW leachate, condensate water and slaughterhouse liquid waste. Firstly, a physicochemical characterization was performed, using traditional and macromolecular parameters; then, batch anaerobic tests were carried out, and some continuous tests were planned. The results revealed that all the analyzed substrates have a potential to be anaerobically treated. Valuable information about treatment rate for a high-velocity anaerobic digestion process was obtained. Start-up of a lab-scale UASB reactor, treating diluted cheese whey, was successfully achieved with good COD removal efficiency. These preliminary results are expected to be further investigated in a successive phase, where continuous tests will be conducted on condensate water and OFMSW leachate.

  12. The examination of the heart rate regulation in healthy people with the stochastic tests methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksana Kotava

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The determination of relations between the complexity of the cardiovascular system regulation and the com-plexity of the test signal is not a fully solved problem. The elimination of this uncertainty can be done using stochastic test signals and power value which changes are random. Aim of research: To compare the reaction of cardio - vascular system during the deterministic and random loads. Material and methods:In the research,h two types of physical loads were used: the traditional bicycle ergometer test with stepwise increasing load and 3 minutes steps duration and test with a stochastic pseudonormal load values distribution and 30 seconds steps duration. Results: It is established that the average load required to achieve a submaximal heart rate was 509 W for the traditional and 445 W for the stochastic test, respectively. The time of obtained submaximal heart rate during stepwise-increasing load was 7 min., whereas during the stochastic load significantly less - 5min. The results show that the limit of efficiency of the cardio-vascular system during stochastic load test is achieved faster than during deterministic load test. Conclusions: Stress tests using random loads can be useful for the athletes training. Supposedly, the use of stochastic loads must be effective during rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular diseases, for instance the increasing of the physical load time in each stage can be used in order to reach steady state. Also, the proposed study confirms the perspectives of non-linear and stochastic methods in the diagnosis of the cardiovascular system diseases.

  13. Relation of heart rate recovery after exercise testing to coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jae, Sae Young; Kurl, Sudhir; Laukkanen, Jari A; Yoon, Eun Sun; Choi, Yoon-Ho; Fernhall, Bo; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-08-01

    We examined whether slow heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise testing as an estimate of impaired autonomic function is related to coronary artery calcification (CAC), an emerging marker of coronary atherosclerosis. We evaluated 2088 men who participated in a health-screening program that included measures of CAC and peak or symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. HRR was calculated as the difference between peak heart rate (HR) during exercise testing and the HR at 2 min of recovery after peak exercise. We measured CAC using multidetector computed tomography to calculate the Agatston coronary artery calcium score. Advanced CAC was defined as a mean CAC >75th percentile for each age group. HRR was negatively correlated with CAC (r = -.14, p 52 bpm). Each 1 bpm decrease in HRR was associated with 1% increase in advanced CAC after adjusting for potential confounders. An attenuated HRR after exercise testing is associated with advanced CAC, independent of coronary risk factors and other related hemodynamic response. KEY MESSAGES Slow heart rate recovery (HRR) after maximal exercise testing, indicating decreased autonomic function, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular event and mortality. Slow HRR has been linked with the occurrence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias, but it remains unclear whether slow HRR is associated with an increased risk of coronary artery calcification (CAC), an emerging marker of coronary atherosclerosis. An attenuated HRR after exercise testing was associated with advanced CAC, independent of coronary risk factors and other potential hemodynamic confounder, supporting the hypothesis that slow HRR is related to the burden of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.

  14. Effects of State Cervical Cancer Insurance Mandates on Pap Test Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitler, Marianne P; Carpenter, Christopher S

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of state insurance mandates requiring insurance plans to cover Pap tests, the standard screening for cervical cancer that is recommended for nearly all adult women. Individual-level data on 600,000 women age 19-64 from the CDC's Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Twenty-four states adopted state mandates requiring private insurers in the state to cover Pap tests from 1988 to 2000. We performed a difference-in-differences analysis comparing within-state changes in Pap test rates before and after adoption of a mandate, controlling for the associated changes in other states that did not adopt a mandate. Difference-in-differences estimates indicated that the Pap test mandates significantly increased past 2-year cervical cancer screenings by 1.3 percentage points, with larger effects for Hispanic and non-Hispanic white women. These effects are plausibly concentrated among insured women. Mandating more generous insurance coverage for even inexpensive, routine services with already high utilization rates such as Pap tests can significantly further increase utilization. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  15. Incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation determines performance speed during cognitive Stroop test: the effect of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Kana; Liang, Nan; Idesako, Mitsuhiro; Ishii, Kei; Matsukawa, Kanji

    2018-02-19

    Cognitive function declines with age. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the deterioration of cognitive performance, however, remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that an incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation during a cognitive Stroop test decreases in progress of ageing, resulting in a slowdown of cognitive performance. To test this hypothesis, we identified, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy, the characteristics of the oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) responses of the prefrontal cortex to both incongruent Stroop and congruent word-reading test. Spatial distributions of the significant changes in the three components (initial slope, peak amplitude, and area under the curve) of the Oxy-Hb response were compared between young and elderly subjects. The Stroop interference time (as a difference in total periods for executing Stroop and word-reading test, respectively) approximately doubled in elderly as compared to young subjects. The Oxy-Hb in the rostrolateral, but not caudal, prefrontal cortex increased during the Stroop test in both age groups. The initial slope of the Oxy-Hb response, rather than the peak and area under the curve, had a strong correlation with cognitive performance speed. Taken together, it is likely that the incremental rate of prefrontal oxygenation may decrease in progress of ageing, resulting in a decline in cognitive performance.

  16. Field Tests to Investigate the Penetration Rate of Piles Driven by Vibratory Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors directly affecting the penetration rate of piles installed by vibratory driving technique are summarized and classified into seven aspects which are driving force, resistance, vibratory amplitude, energy consumption, speeding up at the beginning, pile plumbness keeping, and slowing down at the end, from the mechanism and engineering practice of the vibratory pile driving. In order to find out how these factors affect the penetration rate of the pile in three major actors of vibratory pile driving: (i the pile to be driven, (ii the selected driving system, and (iii the imposed soil conditions, field tests on steel sheet piles driven by vibratory driving technique in different soil conditions are conducted. The penetration rates of three different sheet pile types having up to four different lengths installed using two different vibratory driving systems are documented. Piles with different lengths and types driven with or without clutch have different penetration rates. The working parameters of vibratory hammer, such as driving force and vibratory amplitude, have great influences on the penetration rate of the pile, especially at the later stages of the sinking process. Penetration rate of piles driven in different soil conditions is uniform because of the different penetration resistance including shaft friction and toe resistance.

  17. TEST OF THE CATCH-UP HYPOTHESIS IN AFRICAN AGRICULTURAL GROWTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalu Ukpai IFEGWU

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper tested the catch-up hypothesis in agricultural growth rates of twenty-six African countries. Panel data used was drawn from the Food and Agricultural Organization Statistics (FAOSTAT of the United Nations. The Data Envelopment Analysis Method for measuring productivity was used to estimate productivity growth rates. The cross-section framework consisting of sigma-convergence and beta-convergence was employed to test the catching up process. Catching up is said to exist if the value of beta is negative and significant. Since catching up does not necessarily imply narrowing of national productivity inequalities, sigma-convergence which measures inequality, was estimated for the same variables. The results showed evidence of the catch-up process, but failed to find a narrowing of productivity inequalities among countries.

  18. Identification of neutron irradiation induced strain rate sensitivity change using inverse FEM analysis of Charpy test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haušild, Petr; Materna, Aleš; Kytka, Miloš

    2015-04-01

    A simple methodology how to obtain additional information about the mechanical behaviour of neutron-irradiated WWER 440 reactor pressure vessel steel was developed. Using inverse identification, the instrumented Charpy test data records were compared with the finite element computations in order to estimate the strain rate sensitivity of 15Ch2MFA steel irradiated with different neutron fluences. The results are interpreted in terms of activation volume change.

  19. Identification of neutron irradiation induced strain rate sensitivity change using inverse FEM analysis of Charpy test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haušild, Petr, E-mail: petr.hausild@fjfi.cvut.cz [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Materials, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Materna, Aleš [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Materials, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Kytka, Miloš [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Nuclear Sciences and Physical Engineering, Department of Materials, Trojanova 13, 120 00 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institut, ÚJV Řež, a.s., Hlavní 130, Řež, 250 68 Husinec (Czech Republic)

    2015-04-15

    A simple methodology how to obtain additional information about the mechanical behaviour of neutron-irradiated WWER 440 reactor pressure vessel steel was developed. Using inverse identification, the instrumented Charpy test data records were compared with the finite element computations in order to estimate the strain rate sensitivity of 15Ch2MFA steel irradiated with different neutron fluences. The results are interpreted in terms of activation volume change.

  20. Testing Long-Run Purchasing Power Parity under Exchange Rate Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Sophocles N. Brissimis; Dimitris A. Sideris; Fragiska K. Voumvaki

    2004-01-01

    The present paper exploits the idea that empirical estimates of the long-run PPP relationship may compound two distinct influences coming from the behavior of market participants and policy makers when the latter are targeting the exchange rate. This tends to bias tests of long-run PPP against its acceptance. The validity of the theoretical arguments is assessed by drawing on the experience of two European Union countries, Greece and France for the post-Bretton Woods period. Estimation biases...

  1. Heart rate deflection point during incremental test in competitive agility border collies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Lada; Belić, Maja; Brkljača Bottegaro, Nika; Hrastić, Hrvoje; Torti, Marin; Vučetić, Vlatko; Stanin, Damir; Vrbanac, Zoran

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine a heart rate deflection point (HRdp) in competitive agility dogs. Fourteen healthy border collies underwent progressive incremental treadmill exercise--modified Conconi test protocol. Heart rate was continuously recorded, and the HRdp was estimated using two methods: subjective and computer aided regression. Maximal heart rate (HRmax), achieved running speed at the anaerobic threshold and at the end of test were also determined. Statistical analysis showed a very high positive correlation between HRdp determined by two methods. The mean HRdp in this research corresponded to 80% of HRmax. The wide range of individual HRdp (162-229 BPM) indicates the need of an individual approach in assessing physiological parameters. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first application of Conconi modified test for estimating anaerobic threshold in agility dogs since the standard for dogs is yet undetermined. Future studies need to detect the most appropriate and reliable technique for its determination as well as its applicability in programming of the optimal training intensity.

  2. Durability predictions from rate of diffusion testing of normal portland cement, fly ash, and slag concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipose, K.E.

    1991-09-01

    A waste repository for the belowground disposal of low-level radioactive waste, labelled IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure), is planned at the Chalk River Laboratories. It relies greatly on the durability of concrete for a minimum of 500 years of service life. A research program based on laboratory testing to design a durable concrete and predict its useful engineered service life is in progress. The durability of concrete depends on its resistance to deterioration from both internal and external causes. Since the rate of degradation depends to a major extent on the rate of ingress of aggressive ions into concrete, laboratory testing is in progress to establish the diffusion rates of chlorides and sulphate ions. A total of 1000 concrete specimens and 500 paste specimens are being exposed at 22 degrees and 45 degrees C to twenty-five different combinations of corrosive agents, including CO 2 . Procedures to measure the ionic penetration profile and to determine the factors controlling diffusion of ions in the various concretes have been developed. The paper presents the initial results from the research program and the longevity predictions to qualify concretes for the IRUS waste repository, based on 16 months of diffusion testing on laboratory specimens

  3. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students' Test Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Haverinen-Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109 on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person. The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points were increased by up to eleven points (0.5% per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points. There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points. Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.

  4. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Hydrogen Generation Rate Measurement Apparatus Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Smith, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-06-01

    The generation rate of hydrogen gas in the Hanford tank waste will be measured during the qualification of the staged tank waste for processing in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. Based on a review of past practices in measurement of the hydrogen generation, an apparatus to perform this measurement has been designed and tested for use during waste feed qualification. The hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus (HGRMA) described in this document utilized a 100 milliliter sample in a continuously-purged, continuously-stirred vessel, with measurement of hydrogen concentration in the vent gas. The vessel and lid had a combined 220 milliliters of headspace. The vent gas system included a small condenser to prevent excessive evaporative losses from the sample during the test, as well as a demister and filter to prevent particle migration from the sample to the gas chromatography system. The gas chromatograph was an on line automated instrument with a large-volume sample-injection system to allow measurement of very low hydrogen concentrations. This instrument automatically sampled the vent gas from the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus every five minutes and performed data regression in real time. The fabrication of the hydrogen generation rate measurement apparatus was in accordance with twenty three (23) design requirements documented in the conceptual design package, as well as seven (7) required developmental activities documented in the task plan associated with this work scope. The HGRMA was initially tested for proof of concept with physical simulants, and a remote demonstration of the system was performed in the Savannah River National Laboratory Shielded Cells Mockup Facility. Final verification testing was performed using non-radioactive simulants of the Hanford tank waste. Three different simulants were tested to bound the expected rheological properties expected during waste feed qualification testing. These

  5. New tests of the distal speech rate effect: examining cross-linguistic generalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Laura C; Morrill, Tuuli H; Banzina, Elina

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings [Dilley and Pitt, 2010. Psych. Science. 21, 1664-1670] have shown that manipulating context speech rate in English can cause entire syllables to disappear or appear perceptually. The current studies tested two rate-based explanations of this phenomenon while attempting to replicate and extend these findings to another language, Russian. In Experiment 1, native Russian speakers listened to Russian sentences which had been subjected to rate manipulations and performed a lexical report task. Experiment 2 investigated speech rate effects in cross-language speech perception; non-native speakers of Russian of both high and low proficiency were tested on the same Russian sentences as in Experiment 1. They decided between two lexical interpretations of a critical portion of the sentence, where one choice contained more phonological material than the other (e.g., /str'na/ "side" vs. /str'na/ "country"). In both experiments, with native and non-native speakers of Russian, context speech rate and the relative duration of the critical sentence portion were found to influence the amount of phonological material perceived. The results support the generalized rate normalization hypothesis, according to which the content perceived in a spectrally ambiguous stretch of speech depends on the duration of that content relative to the surrounding speech, while showing that the findings of Dilley and Pitt (2010) extend to a variety of morphosyntactic contexts and a new language, Russian. Findings indicate that relative timing cues across an utterance can be critical to accurate lexical perception by both native and non-native speakers.

  6. New tests of the distal speech rate effect: Examining cross-linguistic generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eDilley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent findings [Dilley and Pitt, 2010. Psych. Science. 21, 1664-1670] have shown that manipulating context speech rate in English can cause entire syllables to disappear or appear perceptually. The current studies tested two rate-based explanations of this phenomenon while attempting to replicate and extend these findings to another language, Russian. In Experiment 1, native Russian speakers listened to Russian sentences which had been subjected to rate manipulations and performed a lexical report task. Experiment 2 investigated speech rate effects in cross-language speech perception; non-native speakers of Russian of both high and low proficiency were tested on the same Russian sentences as in Experiment 1. They decided between two lexical interpretations of a critical portion of the sentence, where one choice contained more phonological material than the other (e.g., /stərʌ'na/ side vs. /strʌ'na/ country. In both experiments, with native and non-native speakers of Russian, context speech rate and the relative duration of the critical sentence portion were found to influence the amount of phonological material perceived. The results support the generalized rate normalization hypothesis, according to which the content perceived in a spectrally ambiguous stretch of speech depends on the duration of that content relative to the surrounding speech, while showing that the findings of Dilley and Pitt (2010 extend to a variety of morphosyntactic contexts and a new language, Russian. Findings indicate that relative timing cues across an utterance can be critical to accurate lexical perception by both native and non-native speakers.

  7. Challenges in developing estimates of exposure rate near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    As one of several dose reconstruction projects, the Off-site Radiation Exposure Review Project needed to develop models that reflect processes and lifestyles of the past and obtain accurate and adequate historical data to drive the models. One of the critical pieces, ultimately used to estimate the potential dose to people in the area surrounding the Nevada Test Site, was the development of exposure rate estimates used as input to the external and internal dose models. The historical data available for making these estimates were collected in manners and for purposes not necessarily consistent with the needs of this task. The Town Data Base is the culmination of the effort to develop those estimates for the Project's Phase I region (or for locations near the Nevada Test Site that were primarily covered by ground monitoring at the time of the nuclear tests). It includes estimates of discernible exposure rate at 353 populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah and for 74 nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Each dose reconstruction effort has similarities with, and variations from, others. This paper describes some of the challenges encountered in creating the Town Data Base and the approaches used to address them. These challenges included collecting historical data, incorporating net exposure rate values of zero into the estimates, defining a discernible fallout level, handling the lack of measurements at some locations and creating dispersion estimates. The approaches were developed to create open-quotes bestclose quotes estimates and to use actual data (as opposed to assumed values) as the primary source where such data were available. A summary of the spatial distribution of these estimates and a comparison of relative levels of fallout by location are also included

  8. High rates of metal allergy amongst Nuss procedure patients dictate broader pre-operative testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhairav; Cohee, Amy; Deyerle, Ashley; Kelly, Cynthia S; Frantz, Frazier; Kelly, Robert E; Kuhn, Marcia A; Lombardo, Michele; Obermeyer, Robert; Goretsky, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    A previous study from our group estimated that as few as 2.2% of pectus excavatum patients suffered from allergy to the implanted metal bar. We sought to assess recent changes in incidence of metal allergy and identify the benefit of metal allergy testing prior to surgery. A retrospective review was performed of all consenting patients undergoing pectus repair during the six years between 9/2004 and 12/2010 at our institution. Incidence was based on clinical symptoms and/or T.R.U.E.® patch testing. Demographic data, history of atopy and history of metal allergy were collected. Type and number of bars used, suture site infection, skin rash and wound infection rates were reviewed. Forty one of 639 patients (6.4%) had clinical or patch test evidence of metal allergy. Family history of metal allergy and pre-operative history of metal sensitivity were found to be statistically significant correlates. The rate of metal allergy in the pectus excavatum population may be higher than previously reported. Patient or family history of metal allergy or metal sensitization may indicate increased risk. Metal allergy testing should be performed before Nuss procedure. © 2014.

  9. Web-based training and interrater reliability testing for scoring the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Jules; Mulsant, Benoit H; Marino, Patricia; Groening, Christopher; Young, Robert C; Fox, Debra

    2008-10-30

    Despite the importance of establishing shared scoring conventions and assessing interrater reliability in clinical trials in psychiatry, these elements are often overlooked. Obstacles to rater training and reliability testing include logistic difficulties in providing live training sessions, or mailing videotapes of patients to multiple sites and collecting the data for analysis. To address some of these obstacles, a web-based interactive video system was developed. It uses actors of diverse ages, gender and race to train raters how to score the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and to assess interrater reliability. This system was tested with a group of experienced and novice raters within a single site. It was subsequently used to train raters of a federally funded multi-center clinical trial on scoring conventions and to test their interrater reliability. The advantages and limitations of using interactive video technology to improve the quality of clinical trials are discussed.

  10. False positive rate of rapid oral fluid HIV tests increases as kits near expiration date.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley N Facente

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because a recent cluster of false positive results on the OraQuick ADVANCE Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test occurred in San Francisco on test kits close to their expiration date, we decided to assess the relationship between time to expiration and rate of false positive results from tests used with oral fluid. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed results of 20,904 tests with either an initial HIV-negative result (n = 20,828 or a preliminary positive result that was then negative on confirmatory tests (n = 76. We computed specificity for kits with time to expiration from or = 6 months, with exact binomial confidence intervals, then used logistic regression to estimate the independent association of time to expiration with false positive results, adjusting for site and technician effects. For 1,108 kits used in the last month before expiration, specificity was 98.83% (95% exact binomial confidence interval (CI 98.00%-99.37%; the upper bound is below the claimed specificity of 99.60%. After adjustment using regression standardization for the effects of site, test lot, and technician factors, adjusted specificity in the last month before expiration was 99.18% (95% bootstrap confidence interval 98.60-99.57%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that specificity of the OraQuick ADVANCE with oral fluid declined significantly with < or = 1 month remaining to expiration, leaving little margin for error from other sources.

  11. Testing of currency substitution effect on exchange rate volatility in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite numerous different definitions existing in the literature, currency substitution is generally understood as a phenomenon when domestic residents prefer to use foreign currency rather than domestic currency. The main reasons for such phenomenon include high and volatile inflation, strong depreciation of national currency and high interest rate differential in favour of foreign currency. Currency substitution, as a monetary phenomenon, is widely spread in Latin American, Eastern European and some Asian countries. This paper is dedicated to the influence of currency substitution on exchange rate volatility in Serbia. The research included testing of three hypotheses: (i currency substitution positively affects depreciation rate volatility, (ii depreciation rate volatility has stronger responses to the past negative than to the past positive depreciation shocks, and (iii currency substitution positively affects expected depreciation rate. The analysis was implemented for the period 2002:m1-2015:m12 (2004:m1- 2015:m12, applying modified EGARCH-M model. Based on the obtained results, all three hypotheses have been supremely rejected regardless of the manner of quantification of currency substitution.

  12. Less extensive surgery compared to extensive surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn F; Petersen, Astrid Christine; Neumann, Gudrun

    2014-01-01

    in postmenopausal women was associated with surgery including hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy (pcarcinoma was found 138 times (95% CI: 48, 275) more prevalent than the expected rate. CONCLUSION......: The survival of women was better in AGCT than in epithelial ovarian tumor. Age and type of surgery, besides stage, influenced survival. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is the recommended treatment with advancing age. At younger age less extensive surgery was associated...

  13. Testing the impact of local alcohol licencing policies on reported crime rates in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vocht, F; Heron, J; Campbell, R; Egan, M; Mooney, J D; Angus, C; Brennan, A; Hickman, M

    2017-02-01

    Excessive alcohol use contributes to public nuisance, antisocial behaviour, and domestic, interpersonal and sexual violence. We test whether licencing policies aimed at restricting its spatial and/or temporal availability, including cumulative impact zones, are associated with reductions in alcohol-related crime. Reported crimes at English lower tier local authority (LTLA) level were used to calculate the rates of reported crimes including alcohol-attributable rates of sexual offences and violence against a person, and public order offences. Financial fraud was included as a control crime not directly associated with alcohol abuse. Each area was classified as to its cumulative licensing policy intensity for 2009-2015 and categorised as 'passive', low, medium or high. Crime rates adjusted for area deprivation, outlet density, alcohol-related hospital admissions and population size at baseline were analysed using hierarchical (log-rate) growth modelling. 284 of 326 LTLAs could be linked and had complete data. From 2009 to 2013 alcohol-related violent and sexual crimes and public order offences rates declined faster in areas with more 'intense' policies (about 1.2, 0.10 and 1.7 per 1000 people compared with 0.6, 0.01 and 1.0 per 1000 people in 'passive' areas, respectively). Post-2013, the recorded rates increased again. No trends were observed for financial fraud. Local areas in England with more intense alcohol licensing policies had a stronger decline in rates of violent crimes, sexual crimes and public order offences in the period up to 2013 of the order of 4-6% greater compared with areas where these policies were not in place, but not thereafter. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. [Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-nian; Jiang, Dan; Liu, Ying-ying; Ding, Wei-min; Ding, Qi-shuo; Zha, Liang-yu

    2014-06-01

    Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.

  15. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M.

    2011-11-01

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm 3 in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  16. Psychomotor testing predicts rate of skill acquisition for proficiency-based laparoscopic skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Korndorffer, James R; Black, F William; Dunne, J Bruce; Sierra, Rafael; Touchard, Cheri L; Rice, David A; Markert, Ronald J; Kastl, Peter R; Scott, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    Laparoscopic simulator training translates into improved operative performance. Proficiency-based curricula maximize efficiency by tailoring training to meet the needs of each individual; however, because rates of skill acquisition vary widely, such curricula may be difficult to implement. We hypothesized that psychomotor testing would predict baseline performance and training duration in a proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator curriculum. Residents (R1, n = 20) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective study at the beginning of the academic year. All completed the following: a background information survey, a battery of 12 innate ability measures (5 motor, and 7 visual-spatial), and baseline testing on 3 validated simulators (5 videotrainer [VT] tasks, 12 virtual reality [minimally invasive surgical trainer-virtual reality, MIST-VR] tasks, and 2 laparoscopic camera navigation [LCN] tasks). Participants trained to proficiency, and training duration and number of repetitions were recorded. Baseline test scores were correlated to skill acquisition rate. Cutoff scores for each predictive test were calculated based on a receiver operator curve, and their sensitivity and specificity were determined in identifying slow learners. Only the Cards Rotation test correlated with baseline simulator ability on VT and LCN. Curriculum implementation required 347 man-hours (6-person team) and 795,000 dollars of capital equipment. With an attendance rate of 75%, 19 of 20 residents (95%) completed the curriculum by the end of the academic year. To complete training, a median of 12 hours (range, 5.5-21), and 325 repetitions (range, 171-782) were required. Simulator score improvement was 50%. Training duration and repetitions correlated with prior video game and billiard exposure, grooved pegboard, finger tap, map planning, Rey Figure Immediate Recall score, and baseline performance on VT and LCN. The map planning cutoff score proved most specific in identifying slow learners

  17. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Titanium

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reactions 46Ti(n,p) 46Sc + 47Ti(n, np)46Sc. Note 1—Since the cross section for the (n,np) reaction is relatively small for energies less than 12 MeV and is not easily distinguished from that of the (n,p) reaction, this test method will refer to the (n,p) reaction only. 1.2 The reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies above approximately 4.4 MeV and for irradiation times up to about 250 days (for longer irradiations, see Practice E 261). 1.3 With suitable techniques, fission-neutron fluence rates above 109 cm–2·s–1 can be determined. However, in the presence of a high thermal-neutron fluence rate, 46Sc depletion should be investigated. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E 261. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all...

  18. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat Transfer Rate Using a Thin-Skin Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the design and use of a thin metallic calorimeter for measuring heat transfer rate (also called heat flux). Thermocouples are attached to the unexposed surface of the calorimeter. A one-dimensional heat flow analysis is used for calculating the heat transfer rate from the temperature measurements. Applications include aerodynamic heating, laser and radiation power measurements, and fire safety testing. 1.2 Advantages 1.2.1 Simplicity of ConstructionThe calorimeter may be constructed from a number of materials. The size and shape can often be made to match the actual application. Thermocouples may be attached to the metal by spot, electron beam, or laser welding. 1.2.2 Heat transfer rate distributions may be obtained if metals with low thermal conductivity, such as some stainless steels, are used. 1.2.3 The calorimeters can be fabricated with smooth surfaces, without insulators or plugs and the attendant temperature discontinuities, to provide more realistic flow conditions for ...

  19. Standard Test Method for Measuring Neutron Fluence Rate by Radioactivation of Cobalt and Silver

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a suitable means of obtaining the thermal neutron fluence rate, or fluence, in well moderated nuclear reactor environments where the use of cadmium, as a thermal neutron shield as described in Method E262, is undesirable because of potential spectrum perturbations or of temperatures above the melting point of cadmium. 1.2 This test method describes a means of measuring a Westcott neutron fluence rate (Note 1) by activation of cobalt- and silver-foil monitors (See Terminology E170). The reaction 59Co(n,γ)60Co results in a well-defined gamma emitter having a half-life of 1925.28 days (1). The reaction 109Ag(n,˙γ) 110mAg results in a nuclide with a complex decay scheme which is well known and having a half-life of 249.76 days (1). Both cobalt and silver are available either in very pure form or alloyed with other metals such as aluminum. A reference source of cobalt in aluminum alloy to serve as a neutron fluence rate monitor wire standard is available from the National Institute ...

  20. Integration and software for thermal test of heat rate sensors. [space shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, C. J.; Shrider, K. R.

    1982-01-01

    A minicomputer controlled radiant test facility is described which was developed and calibrated in an effort to verify analytical thermal models of instrumentation islands installed aboard the space shuttle external tank to measure thermal flight parameters during ascent. Software was provided for the facility as well as for development tests on the SRB actuator tail stock. Additional testing was conducted with the test facility to determine the temperature and heat flux rate and loads required to effect a change of color in the ET tank external paint. This requirement resulted from the review of photographs taken of the ET at separation from the orbiter which showed that 75% of the external tank paint coating had not changed color from its original white color. The paint on the remaining 25% of the tank was either brown or black, indicating that it had degraded due to heating or that the spray on form insulation had receded in these areas. The operational capability of the facility as well as the various tests which were conducted and their results are discussed.

  1. Assessment of Surgical Success Rate and Acoustic Tests Findings in Patients with Otosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MH Baradaranfar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Otoacoustic emissions are low density sounds produced from intact cochlea measureable in the presence of an intact conduction structure. The goal of this study was to assess the surgical success rate after stapes surgery by standard audiometric tests, Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emission (DPOAE and Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emission (TEOAE as methods of evaluation of postoperative hearing. Methods: A descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 50 patients with otosclerosis at Yazd Shaheed Sadoughi Medical University from March 2004 till October 2007. TEOAE, DPOAE and other behavioral audiometric tests were performed before, three months and six months after surgery on patients and results were compared. Results: The air-bone gap threshold decreased significantly in audiogram of patients after surgery. Prior to surgery, TEOAE and DPOAE responses were not recordable in any of the patients, but after surgery, they were recordable in only two patients. Conclusion: Although conductive hearing loss improved significantly in patients who underwent successful stapes surgery, OAE tests were recordable in an insignificant number of patients. Therefore, this is not an optimal method for evaluating the surgical success rate.

  2. Assessing temporal variations in diversification rates from phylogenies: estimation and hypothesis testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, E.

    1997-01-01

    A new method to estimate the diversification rate of a lineage from a phylogeny of recent species is presented. This uses survival models to analyse the ages of the species as derived from the phylogeny. Survival models can analyse missing data where the exact date of death is unknown (censoring). This approach allows us to include missing data (species not included in a detailed phylogenetic study) in the analysis, provided a minimum age is known for these species. Three models are presented, with emphasis on temporal variation in diversification rates. The maximum likelihood method and Akaike information criteria are used to derive estimators and tests of hypotheses. A simulation study demonstrates that the method is able to detect a temporal variation in diversification rate only when it is present, avoiding type I and type II errors. A lineage with ten species may be sufficient to detect a temporal variation in diversification rate even with 50 per cent of missing data. An application is presented with data from a phylogeny of birds of the genus Ramphocelus.

  3. Conformance contrast testing between rates of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ecuadorian border areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ortiz-Rico

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate rates of cases of respiratory symptomatic subjects and the incidence rate of pulmonary tuberculosis in two border areas of Ecuador, and contrast them with official figures. Materials and methods. Cross-sectional survey in the southeastern (SEBA, and the Andean southern Ecuadorian border areas (ASBA, which were conducted, respectively, in 1 598 and 2 419 persons aged over 15 years recruited over periods of three weeks. In identified respiratory symptomatic cases, a sputum sample was taken for smear testing. The results (odds ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals, were compared with local and national official figures using maximum likelihood contrasts. Results. The rates of respiratory symptomatic subjects (7.7% and 5.9% in the SEBA, and ASBA, respectively and of pulmonary tuberculosis (cumulative incidence rates of 125 and 140 per 100 000 inhabitants, in the same order were significantly greater than the official figures (of 0.98 and 0.99% for respiratory symptomatic subjects in the SEBA and ASBA, respectively; and of 38.23 per 100 000 inhabitants for pulmonary tuberculosis in Ecuador as a whole (p<0.001. Conclusion. It is necessary to reinforce both active case finding for respiratory symptomatic subject cases, and epidemiological surveillance of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ecuadorian border regions.

  4. Method for compression testing of composite materials at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, I. M.; Labedz, R. H.

    1983-01-01

    A method is presented for testing composite materials in compression at strain rates up to approximately 500 per s. The method uses a thin ring specimen (4 in. in diameter, 1 in. wide, six-eight plies thick) loaded dynamically by an external pressure pulse applied explosively through a liquid. Strains in the specimen and in a steel calibration ring are recoorded with a digital processing oscilloscope. Results are plotted by an x-y plotter in the form of a dynamic stress-strain curve. Data analysis is based on a numerical solution of the equation of motion. A computer program is used which involves smoothing and approximation of the strain magnitude, strain rate, and strain acceleration. Dynamic stress-strain curves obtained for 0-deg and 90-deg specimens of two graphite/epoxy composites are presented.

  5. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Aluminum

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction 27Al(n,α)24Na. 1.2 This activation reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies above approximately 6.5 MeV and for irradiation times up to about 2 days (for longer irradiations, see Practice E261). 1.3 With suitable techniques, fission-neutron fluence rates above 106 cm−2·s−1 can be determined. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E261. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Food preference, keeper ratings, and reinforcer effectiveness in exotic animals: the value of systematic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalema, Diann E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Kelling, Angela S

    2011-01-01

    Food preference describes the behavior of selecting between items for consumption; reinforcer effectiveness is the functional effect of that item in controlling behavior. Food preference and reinforcer effectiveness were examined in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). A pairwise comparison between food items was used to assess food preference. High-, moderate-, and low-preference items were selected and tested for reinforcer effectiveness. High-preference items controlled behavior more effectively than less-preferred items. Caregiver ratings of food preferences were also collected for each subject, but these reports did not necessarily coincide with actual subject preferences. Caregiver ratings correlated with the food preferences of only 1 individual of each species; thus, preferences of 1 nonhuman animal may be falsely generalized to all animals of that species. Results suggest that food choice and reinforcer effectiveness should be investigated empirically and not rely on anecdotal reports.

  7. Investigation of the sintering rate of snow with high-resolution penetration tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinke, Isabel; Hagenmuller, Pascal; Chambon, Guillaume; Roulle, Jacques; Morin, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    Sintering in snow is very active due to a high homologous temperature and has a major effect on the evolution of the snow mechanical properties. We investigated the sintering rate of snow using high-resolution penetration tests performed with the Snow Micro Penetrometer (SMP) in a cold room at -10°C. To this end, we prepared several samples by sieving rounded grain snow with different sieve sizes (0.8, 1 and 1.6 mm) and conducted numerous SMP tests at different times during the first day of sintering. The SMP was modified such that only the measuring tip was in contact to the snow and we mounted three different tips with diameters of 4, 5 and 8 mm. The increase of the measured mean penetration resistance is shown to follow a power law whose exponent is defined as the sintering rate. The sintering rate mean value is about 0.25, which is consistent with values reported in the literature and it increases with specific surface area and depth. However, the sintering rate diminishes when SMP tip size increases, which is counterintuitive for a material property. An advanced analysis is thus required to extract relevant material properties, as the deflection at rupture, individual rupture force of bonds, and spatial intensity of rupture events, out of the SMP signal. A Poisson shot noise model [Löwe and Herwijnen 2012] was used, in which a depth-dependence of the parameters was assumed. The individual rupture force follows a power law with exponents around 0.3 with almost no dependency on the tip size. In comparison, the time evolution of intensity and deflection at rupture were negligible. This approach exploits the high-resolution of the SMP to give new insights on the sintering mechanisms in snow.

  8. Methods for identifying the cost effective case definition cut-off for sequential monitoring tests: an extension of Phelps and Mushlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberta; Baxter, Paul; Hall, Peter; Hewison, Jenny; Afshar, Mehran; Hall, Geoff; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of personalized medicine in the clinic means that treatment decisions will increasingly rely on test results. The challenge of limited health care resources means that the dissemination of these technologies will be dependent on their value in relation to their cost; i.e. their cost effectiveness. Phelps and Mushlin have described how to optimize tests to meet cost effectiveness target. However, when tests are applied repeatedly the case mix of the patients tested changes with each administration, and this impacts upon the value of each subsequent test administration. In this paper we present a modification of Phelps and Mushlin’s framework for diagnostic tests; to identify the cost effective cut-off for monitoring tests. Using the Ca125 test monitoring for relapse in Ovarian Cancer, we show how the repeated use of the initial cut-off can lead to a substantially increased false negative rate compared to the monitoring cut-off – over 20% higher than in this example – with the associated harms for individual and population health. PMID:24488576

  9. Decreased Variability of the 6-Minute Walk Test by Heart Rate Correction in Patients with Neuromuscular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Witting, Nanna; Vissing, John

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The 6-minute walk test is widely used to assess functional status in neurological disorders. However, the test is subject to great inter-test variability due to fluctuating motivation, fatigue and learning effects. We investigated whether inter-test variability of the 6MWT can be reduced...... cardiac arrhythmias, if they received drug treatment for hypertension or any other medical conditions that could interfere with the interpretation of the heart rate and walking capability. All completed three 6-minute walk tests on three different test-days. Heart rate was measured continuously. RESULTS......: Successive standard 6-minute walk tests showed considerable learning effects between Tests 1 and 2 (4.9%; P = 0.026), and Tests 2 and 3 (4.5%; P = 0.020) in patients. The same was seen in controls between Tests 1 and 2 (8.1%; P = 0.039)). Heart rate correction abolished this learning effect. CONCLUSION...

  10. Dose rate laser simulation tests adequacy: Shadowing and high intensity effects analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikiforov, A.Y.; Skorobogatov, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    The adequacy of laser based simulation of the flash X-ray effects in microcircuits may be corrupted mainly due to laser radiation shadowing by the metallization and the non-linear absorption in a high intensity range. The numerical joint solution of the optical equations and the fundamental system of equations in a two-dimensional approximation were performed to adjust the application range of laser simulation. As a result the equivalent dose rate to laser intensity correspondence was established taking into account the shadowing as well as the high intensity effects. The simulation adequacy was verified in the range up to 4·10 11 rad(Si)/s with the comparative laser test of a specially designed test structure

  11. AISI 304 Welding Fracture Resistance by a Charpy Impact Test with a High Speed Sampling Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Riyanta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance in AISI 304. The J-R curve was constructed from data, which resulted from an impact test by Charpy Impact machine equipped with high-speed sampling rate data acquisition equipment. The critical values of fracture resistance in fusion zones (FZ, high temperature heat affected zones (HTHAZ, low temperature heat affected zones (LTHAZ and unaffected base metals (UBM were obtained by calculation methods using some formulas and by graphical methods. Laboratory experiments demonstrated the relationships among the values of energy absorption along the impact test with the obstruction of dislocation movement due to the presence of chromium interstitial solute in all zones and chromium rich carbide precipitates in fusion zones and heat affected zones.

  12. Standard Test Method for Measuring Heat-Transfer Rate Using a Thermal Capacitance (Slug) Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes the measurement of heat transfer rate using a thermal capacitance-type calorimeter which assumes one-dimensional heat conduction into a cylindrical piece of material (slug) with known physical properties. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. Note 1—For information see Test Methods E 285, E 422, E 458, E 459, and E 511.

  13. Pre-operational proof and leakage rate testing requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    This Standard provides the requirements for pre-operational proof tests and leakage rate tests of concrete containment structures of a containment system designed as Class Containment components. 1 fig

  14. Attenuated Heart Rate Recovery Following Exercise Testing in Overweight Young Men with Untreated Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Trent A.; Guill, Stephen G.; Zedalis, Donald; Gregg, John M.; Nickols-Richardson, Sharon M.; Herbert, William G.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objective: To evaluate whether cardiovascular responses to maximal exercise testing and recovery are altered with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in overweight young adult men. Design: Three sedentary subject groups were recruited: Overweight with OSA (OSA), overweight without OSA (No-OSA), and normal weight without OSA (Control). Presence of OSA was screened via portable diagnostic device. Body composition was measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects performed maximal ramping exercise testing (RXT) on a cycle ergometer with 5 minutes of active recovery. Exercise measurements included heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and oxygen consumption (VO2). Recovery HR was converted to a HR difference (HRdiff) calculation (HRpeak − HR each minute recovery), and BP was converted to a recovery ratio for each minute. Setting: The study was carried out on the campus of Virginia Tech, Department of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Blacksburg, Virginia. Participants: 14 OSA, 16 No-OSA, and 14 Control volunteers. Intervention: N/A Measurements and Results: In OSA subjects, HR recovery was significantly attenuated compared to the No-OSA and Control groups throughout recovery (P = 0.009). No differences were noted in the HR or BP response to exercise in any group. The VO2, adjusted for fat-free soft tissue mass, did not differ between groups. Conclusions: We found that OSA elicits alterations in the cardiovascular response post exercise, reflected by an attenuated HR recovery. This may indicate an imbalance in the autonomic regulation of HR. Exercise tests may provide utility in risk stratification for those at risk for OSA. Citation: Hargens TA; Guill SG; Zedalis D; Gregg JM; Nickols-Richardson SM; Herbert WG. Attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise testing in overweight young men with untreated obstructive sleep apnea. SLEEP 2008;31(1):104-110. PMID:18220083

  15. Determination of fan flow and water rate adjustment for off-design cooling tower tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, J.M.

    1984-02-01

    The determination of the performance of a mechanical draft cooling tower requires that the air mass flow through the tower be known. Since this flow is not measured, it has been customary to use the manufacturer's design air flow and adjust it by the one-third power of the ratio of the design to test fan horsepower. The most nearly correct approximation of air flow through a tower can be obtained by incrementally moving through the tower from air inlet to outlet while calculating mass flows, energy balances, and pressure drops for each increment and then utilizing fan curves to determine volumetric and mass flows. This procedure would account for changes in air humidity and density through the tower, evaporation of water, effect of water rate on air pressure drop, and changes in fan characteristics. These type calculations may be within the capabilities of all in the near future, but for the interim, it is recommended that a more elementary approach be used which can be handled with a good calculator and without any proprietary data. This approach depends on certain assumptions which are acceptable if the tower test is conducted within CTI code requirements. The fan must be considered a constant suction volume blower for a given blade pitch. The total pressure at the fan, a function of volumetric flow and wet air density, must be assumed to be unaffected by other considerations, and the fan horsepower must be assumed to change only as volumetric flow and wet air density changes. Given these assumptions, along with design information normally provided with a tower, the determination of air flow through a tower in a test can be made from CTI test data. The air flow, and consequently the water rate adjustment and corrected water to air ratio, are derived and found to be direct functions of horsepower and density and an inverse function of wet air humidities

  16. Effects of Age, Exercise Duration, and Test Conditions on Heart Rate Variability in Young Endurance Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes, Mohamed; Robert, Céline; Barrey, Eric; Cottin, François

    2016-01-01

    Although cardiac recovery is an important criterion for ranking horses in endurance competitions, heart rate variability (HRV) has hardly ever been studied in the context of this equestrian discipline. In the present study, we sought to determine whether HRV is affected by parameters such as age, exercise duration and test site. Accordingly, HRV might be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of age, exercise duration, and test site on HRV variables at rest and during exercise and recovery in young Arabian endurance horses. Over a 3-year period, 77 young Arabian horses aged 4-6 years performed one or more exercise tests (consisting of a warm-up, cantering at 22 km.h(-1)and a final 500 m gallop at full speed) at four different sites. Beat-to-beat RR intervals were continuously recorded and then analyzed (using a time-frequency approach) to determine the instantaneous HRV components before, during and after the test. At rest, the root-mean-square of successive differences in RR intervals (RMSSD) was higher in the 4-year-olds (54.4 ± 14.5 ms) than in the 5-or 6-year-olds (44.9 ± 15.5 and 49.1 ± 11.7 ms, respectively). During the first 15 min of exercise (period T), the heart rate (HR) and RMSSD decreased with age. In 6-year-olds, RMSSD decreased as the exercise duration increased (T: 3.0 ± 1.4 vs. 2T: 3.6 ± 2.2 vs. 3T: 2.8 ± 1.0). During recovery, RMSSD was negatively correlated with the cardiac recovery time (CRT) and the recovery heart rate (RHR; R = -0.56 and -0.53, respectively; p exercise and recovery, RMSSD and several HRV variables differed significantly as a function of the test conditions. HRV in endurance horses appears to be strongly influenced by age and environmental factors (such as ambient temperature, ambient humidity, and track quality). Nevertheless, RMSSD can be used to select endurance horses with the fastest cardiac recovery.

  17. A Randomized Rounding Approach for Optimization of Test Sheet Composing and Exposure Rate Control in Computer-Assisted Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chu-Fu; Lin, Chih-Lung; Deng, Jien-Han

    2012-01-01

    Testing is an important stage of teaching as it can assist teachers in auditing students' learning results. A good test is able to accurately reflect the capability of a learner. Nowadays, Computer-Assisted Testing (CAT) is greatly improving traditional testing, since computers can automatically and quickly compose a proper test sheet to meet user…

  18. 75 FR 76069 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2011, through December... Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  19. 77 FR 71669 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2013, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  20. 76 FR 74843 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...

  1. 78 FR 77196 - Random Drug and Alcohol Testing Percentage Rates of Covered Aviation Employees for the Period of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2014, through... Federal Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing...

  2. Factors contributing to high ThinPrep® Pap test unsatisfactory rates in an academic medical center laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaggi, Suzanne M

    2014-05-01

    Specimen adequacy is a key component in the cytologic evaluation of cervical Pap tests. At our institution, yearly unsatisfactory rates continue to be high, placing our laboratory in the 95th percentile for CAP benchmark data for unsatisfactory Pap test rates. Using the 2001 Bethesda System criteria, unsatisfactory Pap test rates were calculated over a ten year period (January 2002 to December 2011) and contributing factors were analyzed. Of the 124,457 ThinPrep Pap tests performed, 4,163 (3.3%) were unsatisfactory for evaluation, the majority (90%) due to too few squamous epithelial cells. Peri/postmenopausal women and those who had received radiation/chemotherapy had the highest unsatisfactory rates; 55% and 25%, respectively. Higher unsatisfactory Pap test rates are related to the patient population served. Defined, reproducible adequacy criteria need to be defined for Pap tests from patients in certain clinical conditions. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. High strain rate tensile testing of sheet materials using three Hopkinson pressure bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to circumvent the inherent problems associated with Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar (SHTB systems, a new experimental technique is proposed for the high strain rate tensile testing of sheet specimens in Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB systems. Existing solutions employ a multiple gage section hat-shaped specimen to transform the incoming pulse from compression into tension at the specimen level. However, multiple gage section specimens are not suitable for studying the post-necking behavior of materials as the required symmetry of the mechanical system is no longer guaranteed in the post-necking range. Here, we present a new load-inversion device that is used in conjunction with three Hopkinson pressure bars for the tensile loading of single gage section sheet specimen. The device is designed to transform the compression load applied at its boundaries into a tensile loading of the specimen. Two output bars are used to measure the total force applied on the specimen boundaries, while Digital Image Correlation (DIC is used to determine the strain histories on the specimen surface based on photographs acquired at a frequency of about 100 kHz. In addition to uniaxial tensile experiments on TRIP780 steel sheet specimens at strain rates ranging from 200/s to 1000/s, results are presented on the dynamic fracture testing of notched tensile specimens.

  4. The ECG component of Thallium-201 exercise testing impacts on cardiac intervention rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deague, J.; Salehi, N.; Grigg, L.; Lichtenstein, M.; Better, N. [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Cardiology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Thallium exercise testing (Tlex) offers superior sensitivity and specificity to exercise electrocardiography (ECG), but the value of the ECG data in Tlex remains poorly studied. While a normal Tlex is associated with an excellent prognosis, patients with a positive Tlex have a higher cardiac event rate. We aimed to see if a negative ECG Component of the Tlex (ECGTl) was associated with an improved outcome compared with a positive ECGTl, in those patients with a reversible Tlex defect. We followed 100 consecutive patients retrospectively with a reversible defect on Tlex (50 with negative and 50 with positive ECGTI) for 12 months. The ECG was reviewed as positive (1mm ST depression 0.08 seconds after J point or >2mm if on digoxin or prior ECG changes), negative, equivocal or uninterpretable. We excluded patients with pharmacological testing, and those with equivocal or uninterpretable ECGs. End-points included angiography, cardiac interventions and cardiac event rate (CER) incorporating unstable angina, acute myocardial infarction, and cardiac death. In conclusion 24% of patients with reversible defects on Tlex who had a negative ECGTI still proceeded to PTCA or CABG. Those with a positive ECGTI had a higher incidence of angiography and cardiac revascularisation, but this difference was only evident in patients with mild to moderate reversibility

  5. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et al. 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples (i.e., Hoke and SUMMA) will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determine using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step-by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  6. Test Plan for Measuring Ventilation Rates and Combustible Gas Levels in TWRS Active Catch Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGUYEN, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this data collection activity is to obtain data for a screening of combustible gases in catch tanks that are currently operated by the River Protection Project (RPP). The results will be used to support closure of the flammable gas unreviewed safety question for these facilities. The data collection will be conducted in accordance with the ''Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective'' (Dukelow et a1 1995). Combustible gas, ammonia, and organic vapor levels in the headspace of the catch tanks will be field-measured using hand-held instruments. If a combustible gas level measurement in a tank exceeds an established threshold, vapor grab samples will be collected for laboratory analysis. In addition, ventilation rates of some catch tanks will be determined using the tracer gas injection method to evaluate removal of flammable gas by air flowing through the tanks. This test plan identifies the field tests, sample collection, laboratory analysis, quality assurance, and reporting objectives for this data collection effort. The plan also provides step by-step direction for field measurement of combustible gas concentrations and determination of ventilation rates

  7. Hopkinson bar techniques for the intermediate strain rate testing of bovine cortical bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloete, T J; Paul, G; Ismail, E B

    2014-05-13

    Detailed knowledge of the dynamic viscoelastic properties of bone is required to understand the mechanisms of macroscopic bone fracture in humans, and other terrestrial mammals, during impact loading events (e.g. falls, vehicle accidents, etc.). While the dynamic response of bone has been studied for several decades, high-quality data remain limited, and it is only within the last decade that techniques for conducting dynamic compression tests on bone at near-constant strain rates have been developed. Furthermore, there appears to be a lack of published bone data in the intermediate strain rate (ISR) range (i.e. 1-100 s(-1)), which represents a regime in which many dynamic bone fractures occur. In this paper, preliminary results for the dynamic compression of bovine cortical bone in the ISR regime are presented. The results are obtained using two Hopkinson-bar-related techniques, namely the conventional split Hopkinson bar arrangement incorporating a novel cone-in-tube striker design, and the recently developed wedge bar apparatus. The experimental results show a rapid transition in the strain rate sensitive behaviour of bovine cortical bone in the ISR range. Finally, a new viscoelastic model is proposed that captures the observed transition behaviour.

  8. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Nickel

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction 58Ni(n,p)58Co. 1.2 This activation reaction is useful for measuring neutrons with energies above approximately 2.1 MeV and for irradiation times up to about 200 days in the absence of high thermal neutron fluence rates (for longer irradiations, see Practice E 261). 1.3 With suitable techniques fission-neutron fluence rates densities above 107 cm−2·s−1 can be determined. 1.4 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E 261. 1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Note—The burnup corrections were com...

  9. Lidocaine Test Increases the Success Rates of Corticosteroid Injection in Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Jun; Lee, Hyo Sun

    2016-10-01

    To determine whether lidocaine test injections would increase the success rate of corticosteroid injection for treatment of impingement syndrome. Two hundred thirty-nine patients diagnosed with impingement syndrome were allocated to the lidocaine test (LC) group (N = 139) and the subacromial (SA) group (N = 100). The LC group received 1 ml of 1% lidocaine injection into the subacromial bursa under ultrasound guidance and a second injection of the steroid solution into the subacromial bursa or glenohumeral joint according to the response. The SA group received the same amount of steroid injection into the subacromial bursa without a prior lidocaine injection. Categorical outcomes were utilized and subjects were grouped based on percentage pain relief. Clinical improvement was expressed in terms of the patient's global impression of change (PGIC) as 'not improved,' 'slightly improved,' and 'much improved. In the LC group, 76 of the 139 patients (54% [95 CI 46-63%]) showed '50-80% improvement' and 15 (11% [95% CI 6.6-17%]) patients showed 'more than 80% improvement' at 3 weeks after the injection. While in the SA group, 29 of the 100 patient (29% [95% CI 21-39%]) showed '50-80% improvement' and 13 (13% [95% CI 7.7-21%]) showed 'more than 80% 3 weeks after the injection (χ 2  = 15.073, P = 0.001). This difference persisted at 3 months (χ 2  =   8.015, P = 0.018). The chi-square test of PGIC at 3 weeks also showed significant differences (P lidocaine pre-injection increases the success rate of steroid injection in patients suspected of having impingement syndrome. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. High Strain Rate Testing of Rocks using a Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiessler, Ruprecht; Kenkmann, Thomas; Poelchau, Michael; Nau, Siegfried; Hess, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    Dynamic mechanical testing of rocks is important to define the onset of rate dependency of brittle failure. The strain rate dependency occurs through the propagation velocity limit (Rayleigh wave speed) of cracks and their reduced ability to coalesce, which, in turn, significantly increases the strength of the rock. We use a newly developed pressurized air driven Split-Hopkinson-Pressure Bar (SHPB), that is specifically designed for the investigation of high strain rate testing of rocks, consisting of several 10 to 50 cm long strikers and bar components of 50 mm in diameter and 2.5 meters in length each. The whole set up, composed of striker, incident- and transmission bar is available in aluminum, titanium and maraging steel to minimize the acoustic impedance contrast, determined by the change of density and speed of sound, to the specific rock of investigation. Dynamic mechanical parameters are obtained in compression as well as in spallation configuration, covering a wide spectrum from intermediate to high strain rates (100-103 s-1). In SHPB experiments [1] one-dimensional longitudinal compressive pulses of diverse shapes and lengths - formed with pulse shapers - are used to generate a variety of loading histories under 1D states of stress in cylindrical rock samples, in order to measure the respective stress-strain response at specific strain rates. Subsequent microstructural analysis of the deformed samples is aimed at quantification fracture orientation, fracture pattern, fracture density, and fracture surface properties as a function of the loading rate. Linking mechanical and microstructural data to natural dynamic deformation processes has relevance for the understanding of earthquakes, landslides, impacts, and has several rock engineering applications. For instance, experiments on dynamic fragmentation help to unravel super-shear rupture events that pervasively pulverize rocks up to several hundred meters from the fault core [2, 3, 4]. The dynamic, strain

  11. Reliability of heart rate variability threshold and parasympathetic reactivation after a submaximal exercise test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Janssen Gomes da Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate reproducibility of heart rate variability threshold (HRVT and parasympathetic reactivation in physically active men (n= 16, 24.3 ± 5.1 years. During the test, HRVT was assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics. Immediately after exercise, r-MSSD was analyzed in segments of 60 seconds for a period of five minutes. High absolute and relatively reproducible analysis of HRVT were observed, as assessed by SD1 and r-MSSD dynamics (ICC = 0.92, CV = 10.8, SEM = 5.8. During the recovery phase, a moderate to high reproducibility was observed for r-MSSD from the first to the fifth minute (ICC = 0.69-0.95, CV = 7.5-14.2, SEM = 0.07-1.35. We conclude that HRVT and r-MSSD analysis after a submaximal stress test are highly reproducible measures that might be used to assess the acute and chronic effects of exercise training on cardiac autonomic modulation during and/or after a submaximal stress test.

  12. Effects of Appropriate Prolonged Sacral Neuromodulation Testing in Improving Implantation Rate of a Permanent Implantable Pulse Generator in Patients with Refractory Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunctions in Mainland China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Results: Among 51 patients receiving SNM therapy, 19 patients (mean age 45.0 ± 16.9 years had poor Stage I test results, and on an average, the electrode was removed 27.4 ± 9.6 days after the surgery. In one patient, the electrode was removed within 2 weeks; when the remaining 18 patients were questioned 2 weeks after testing, none of the patients wanted to terminate the test, and all the 18 patients desired to prolong the testing time to further observe the treatment effect. The remaining 32 patients (mean age 46.7 ± 15.3 years received Stage II permanent implantation at 19.6 ± 10.4 days after the surgery. The overall Stage I–II conversion was 62.7% (32/51 in this study. Within 2 weeks after the surgery, only eight patients received Stage II permanent implantation, and the conversion rate was only 15.7% (8/51, which was much lower than the overall conversion rate of 62.7%. Nearly 84.4% (27/32 of the patients received Stage II implantation within 4 weeks. None of the patients had incision infections. In one patient, the entire system was removed 1 month after Stage II implantation due to pain in the implantation site. Conclusions: Appropriate extension of the Stage I testing time of an SNM-barbed electrode could significantly improve the Stage II permanent implantation rate in Chinese refractory LUTS patients; there were no wound infections, and the postoperative complication rate was low. This study recommended that Stage I period of SNM therapy should be 4 weeks according to safety and successful conversion rate.

  13. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement The mission of the "Journal of Agricultural Extension" is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds ... Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial messages among rural women in Abia State Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  14. Understanding sexual activity and Chlamydia testing rate based on linked national survey and Medicaid claims data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Tao

    Full Text Available Monitoring adherence to national recommendations for annual chlamydia screening of female adolescents and young adult women is important for targeting quality improvement interventions to improve low screening rates. However, accurate measurement of rates may vary depending on the data source used to determine eligible sexually-active women.The 2001-2004 NHANES data linked with Medicaid administrative data by respondent's unique identifier, the 2011-2012 NHANES data, and the 2004 and 2010 Medicaid data were used in this cross-sectional analysis. We defined self-reported sexual activity by self-reported sexual behaviors, claim-identified sexual activity by reproductive-related claims among women who had ≥ one healthcare claim, HEDIS-defined sexual activity by reproductive-related claims among women who were enrolled in Medicaid for ≥330 days and had ≥ one healthcare claim, and chlamydia tests by claims submitted in the 12 months prior to the survey interview.Of Medicaid women aged 18-25 years, 91.5% self-reported to be sexually-active. Of self-reported sexually-active women aged 18-25 years, 92.0% had ≥ one healthcare claim in the 12 months prior to the survey interview; of this subpopulation, only 58.8% were enrolled in Medicaid for ≥ 330 days in the 12 months prior to the survey interview; of this further subpopulation, 74.1% had healthcare claims identifying them as sexually-active in the 12 months prior to the survey interview. Of HEDIS-defined sexually-active women, 42.4% had chlamydia testing.Our study suggests that the number of sexually-active women aged 18-25 years used as the denominator in the chlamydia testing measure could be significantly different, depending upon the definition applied and the data used. Our data highlight the limited representativeness of Medicaid population in the current HEDIS measure on chlamydia testing when a high proportion of women who were enrolled in Medicaid for <330 days had been excluded from

  15. Error-Rate Estimation Based on Multi-Signal Flow Graph Model and Accelerated Radiation Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei He

    Full Text Available A method of evaluating the single-event effect soft-error vulnerability of space instruments before launched has been an active research topic in recent years. In this paper, a multi-signal flow graph model is introduced to analyze the fault diagnosis and meantime to failure (MTTF for space instruments. A model for the system functional error rate (SFER is proposed. In addition, an experimental method and accelerated radiation testing system for a signal processing platform based on the field programmable gate array (FPGA is presented. Based on experimental results of different ions (O, Si, Cl, Ti under the HI-13 Tandem Accelerator, the SFER of the signal processing platform is approximately 10-3(error/particle/cm2, while the MTTF is approximately 110.7 h.

  16. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keikha, Fatemeh; Vahdani, Fahimeh Ghotbizadeh; Latifi, Sahar

    2016-11-01

    Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR) characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (Popium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care.

  17. A test of the Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems using the Clinical Rating Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V; Ozechowski, T J

    2000-10-01

    Most studies of the Olson Circumplex Model of Marital and Family Systems have utilized a version of the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales (FACES). Because FACES does not appear to operationalize the curvilinear dimension of the Circumplex Model, researchers have been pessimistic about the model's validity. However, the Clinical Rating Scale (CRS) has received some support as a curvilinear measure of the Circumplex Model. Therefore, we used the CRS rather than FACES to test the validity of the Circumplex Model hypotheses. Using a structural equation-modeling analytical approach, we found support for the hypotheses pertaining to the effects of cohesion and communication on family functioning. However, we found no support for the hypotheses pertaining to the concept of adaptability. We discuss these results in the context of previous studies of the Circumplex Model using FACES. Based on the collective findings, we propose a preliminary reformulation of the Circumplex Model.

  18. SLUDGE BATCH 4 BASELINE MELT RATE FURNACE AND SLURRY-FED MELT RATE FURNACE TESTS WITH FRITS 418 AND 510 (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M; Timothy Jones, T; Donald02 Miller, D

    2007-01-01

    Several Slurry-Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) tests with earlier projections of the Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) composition have been performed.1,2 The first SB4 SMRF test used Frits 418 and 320, however it was found after the test that the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) correlation at that time did not have the proper oxidation state for manganese. Because the manganese level in the SB4 sludge was higher than previous sludge batches tested, the impact of the higher manganese oxidation state was greater. The glasses were highly oxidized and very foamy, and therefore the results were inconclusive. After resolving this REDOX issue, Frits 418, 425, and 503 were tested in the SMRF with the updated baseline SB4 projection. Based on dry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) tests and the above mentioned SMRF tests, two previous frit recommendations were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for processing of SB4 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The first was Frit 503 based on the June 2006 composition projections.3 The recommendation was changed to Frit 418 as a result of the October 2006 composition projections (after the Tank 40 decant was implemented as part of the preparation plan). However, the start of SB4 processing was delayed due to the control room consolidation outage and the repair of the valve box in the Tank 51 to Tank 40 transfer line. These delays resulted in changes to the projected SB4 composition. Due to the slight change in composition and based on preliminary dry-fed MRF testing, SRNL believed that Frit 510 would increase throughput in processing SB4 in DWPF. Frit 418, which was used in processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), was a viable candidate and available in DWPF. Therefore, it was used during the initial SB4 processing. Due to the potential for higher melt rates with Frit 510, SMRF tests with the latest SB4 composition (1298 canisters) and Frits 510 and 418 were performed at a targeted waste loading (WL) of 35%. The '1298 canisters

  19. [Effect of Music Intervention on Maternal Anxiety and Fetal Heart Rate Pattern During Non-Stress Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myung Ok; Kim, Young Jeoum; Baek, Cho Hee; Kim, Ju Hee; Park, No Mi; Yu, Mi Jeong; Song, Han Sol

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this cross-over experimental study was to examine effects of music intervention on maternal anxiety, fetal heart rate pattern and testing time during non-stress tests (NST) for antenatal fetal assessment. Sixty pregnant women within 28 to 40 gestational weeks were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n=30) or control group (n=30). Music intervention was provided to pregnant women in the experimental group during NST. Degree of maternal anxiety and fetal heart rate pattern were our primary outcomes. State-trait anxiety inventory, blood pressure, pulse rate, and changes in peripheral skin temperature were assessed to determine the degree of maternal anxiety. Baseline fetal heart rate, frequency of acceleration in fetal heart rate, fetal movement test and testing time for reactive NST were assessed to measure the fetal heart rate pattern. The experimental group showed significantly lower scores in state anxiety than the control group. There were no significant differences in systolic blood pressure and pulse rate between the two groups. Baseline fetal heart rate was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. Frequency of acceleration in fetal heart rate was significantly increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. There were no significant differences in fetal movement and testing time for reactive NST between the two groups. Present results suggest that music intervention could be an effective nursing intervention for alel viating anxiety during non-stress test.

  20. Standard practice for measurement of the glass dissolution rate using the single-pass flow-through test method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a single-pass flow-through (SPFT) test method that can be used to measure the dissolution rate of a homogeneous silicate glass, including nuclear waste glasses, in various test solutions at temperatures less than 100°C. Tests may be conducted under conditions in which the effects from dissolved species on the dissolution rate are minimized to measure the forward dissolution rate at specific values of temperature and pH, or to measure the dependence of the dissolution rate on the concentrations of various solute species. 1.2 Tests are conducted by pumping solutions in either a continuous or pulsed flow mode through a reaction cell that contains the test specimen. Tests must be conducted at several solution flow rates to evaluate the effect of the flow rate on the glass dissolution rate. 1.3 This practice excludes static test methods in which flow is simulated by manually removing solution from the reaction cell and replacing it with fresh solution. 1.4 Tests may be conducted wit...

  1. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Copper

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for measuring reaction rates by the activation reaction 63Cu(n,α)60Co. The cross section for 60Co produced in this reaction increases rapidly with neutrons having energies greater than about 5 MeV. 60Co decays with a half-life of 1925.27 days (±0.29 days)(1) and emits two gamma rays having energies of 1.1732278 and 1.332492 MeV (1). The isotopic content of natural copper is 69.17 % 63Cu and 30.83 % 65Cu (2). The neutron reaction, 63Cu(n,γ)64Cu, produces a radioactive product that emits gamma rays which might interfere with the counting of the 60Co gamma rays. 1.2 With suitable techniques, fission-neutron fluence rates above 109 cm−2·s−1 can be determined. The 63Cu(n,α)60Co reaction can be used to determine fast-neutron fluences for irradiation times up to about 15 years (for longer irradiations, see Practice E261). 1.3 Detailed procedures for other fast-neutron detectors are referenced in Practice E261. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the...

  2. Diagnosing Psychopathy through Emotional Regulation Tasks: Heart Rate Variability versus Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; Vila, Xosé A; Lado, María J; Cuesta, Pedro; Ferrer, Ventura; García, Luis S; Crespo, María R; Pérez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the assessment of psychopathy relies on semistructured interviews plus file reviews. In order to improve the predictive validity of psychopathy at the individual level, tools that are not based on the rating of signs and symptoms are in great need. The present study was conducted in a representative sample of 204 Spanish sentenced inmates. These inmates have served at least 6 months of their sentence at the Pereiro de Aguiar (Ourense, Spain) penitentiary. Psychopathy signs and symptoms were scored through interview and file review. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and heart rate variability (HRV) experiments were also conducted. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was performed as a control measure. Spectral HRV indices were able to detect psychopathic inmates at a significant level, while IAT experiments and the IGT could not discriminate them. HRV indices showed a more significant difference when assessing the affective-interpersonal dimensions of psychopathy. An HRV experiment is better than IAT in order to detect psychopathy in a representative sample of Spanish inmates. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Iron

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    DESIG: E 263 09 ^TITLE: Standard Test Method for Measuring Fast-Neutron Reaction Rates by Radioactivation of Iron ^SIGNUSE: Refer to Guide E 844 for guidance on the selection, irradiation, and quality control of neutron dosimeters. Refer to Practice E 261 for a general discussion of the determination of fast-neutron fluence rate with threshold detectors. Pure iron in the form of foil or wire is readily available and easily handled. Fig. 1 shows a plot of cross section as a function of neutron energy for the fast-neutron reaction 54Fe(n,p)54Mn (1). This figure is for illustrative purposes only to indicate the range of response of the 54Fe(n,p)54Mn reaction. Refer to Guide E 1018 for descriptions of recommended tabulated dosimetry cross sections. 54Mn has a half-life of 312.13 days (3) (2) and emits a gamma ray with an energy of 834.845 keV (5). (2) Interfering activities generated by neutron activation arising from thermal or fast neutron interactions are 2.57878 (46)-h 56Mn, 44.95-d (8) 59Fe, and 5.27...

  4. Corrosion rate of copper in aqueous lithium bromide concentrated solutions at room temperature by immersion tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz-Portero, M.J.; Garcia-Anton, J.; Guinon-Segura, J.L.; Perez-Herranz, V. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Nuclear, E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, P.O. Box 22012, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    Concentrated solutions of lithium bromide (LiBr) are widely used in absorption refrigeration and heating systems. However, LiBr solutions can cause serious corrosion problems in structural materials (copper, steels, and other metals) in an absorption plant. The aim of the present work was the study of the corrosion rate of copper in 400 and 700 g/L (4.61 and 8.06 M) LiBr solutions pre-nitrogenous or pre-oxygenated at room temperature by immersion tests. The corroded copper concentration was determined with two techniques: weight-loss method and polarographic method. The corrosion curves of copper in LiBr solutions at room temperature as a function of the exposure time showed a similar tendency, and were fitted to a power function such as: C = kt{sup b}, where C was the corroded copper quantity per unit area (mg/cm{sup 2}), t was the exposure time (h), k was the corrosion coefficient, and b was the time exponent. From the corrosion coefficient values (k) it was deduced that the corrosion rate of copper in LiBr solutions at room temperature followed the order: 400 g/L (bubble of O{sub 2}) > 400 g/L (bubble of N{sub 2}) > 700 g/L (bubble of O{sub 2}) > 700 g/L (bubble of N{sub 2}). (authors)

  5. Pre-installation empirical testing of room shielding for high dose rate remote afterloaders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, E.E.; Grigsby, P.W.; Williamson, J.F.; Meigooni, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    PURPOSE: Many facilities are acquiring high dose rate remote afterloading units. It is economical that these units be placed in existing shielded teletherapy rooms. Scatter-radiation barriers marginally protect uncontrolled areas from a high dose rate source especially in a room that houses a non-dynamic Cobalt-60 unit. In addition the exact thickness and material composition of the barriers are unknown and therefore, a calculation technique may give misleading results. Also, it would be impossible to evaluate an entire wall barrier by taking isolated core samples in order to assist in the calculations. A quick and inexpensive measurement of dose equivalent using a rented high activity 192Ir source evaluates the barriers and locates shielding deficiencies. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed transmission calculations for primary and scattered radiation based on National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports 49 and 51, respectively. We then rented a high activity 21.7 Ci (8.03 x 10(11) Bq) Ir-192 source to assess our existing teletherapy room shielding for adequacy and voids. This source was placed at the proposed location for clinical high dose rate treatment and measurements were performed. RESULTS: No deficiencies were found in controlled areas surrounding the room, but large differences were found between the calculated and measured values. Our survey located a region in the uncontrolled area above the room requiring augmented shielding which was not predicted by the calculations. A canopy shield was designed to potentially augment the shielding in the ceiling direction. CONCLUSION: Pre-installation testing by measurement is an invaluable method for locating shielding deficiencies and avoiding unnecessary enhancement of shielding particularly when there is lack of information of the inherent shielding

  6. Extensive radioactive characterization of a phosphogypsum stack in SW Spain: {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U, {sup 210}Po concentrations and {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abril, Jose-Maria, E-mail: jmabril@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada I, Universidad de Sevilla, EUITA, Ctra Utrera Km 1, 41013 Seville (Spain); Garcia-Tenorio, Rafael, E-mail: gtenorio@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, ETSA, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain); Manjon, Guillermo, E-mail: manjon@us.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada II, Universidad de Sevilla, ETSA, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, 41012 Seville (Spain)

    2009-05-30

    Phosphogypsum (PG) is a by-product of the phosphate fertilizer industries that contains relatively high concentrations of uranium series radionuclides. The US-EPA regulates the agriculture use of PG, attending to its {sup 226}Ra content and to the {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate from inactive stacks. Measurements of {sup 222}Rn exhalation rates in PG stacks typically show a large and still poorly understood spatial and temporal variability, and the published data are scarce. This work studies an inactive PG stack in SW Spain of about 0.5 km{sup 2} from where PG can be extracted for agriculture uses, and an agriculture soil 75 km apart, being representative of the farms to be amended with PG. Activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 238}U and {sup 210}Po have been measured in 30 PG samples (0-90 cm horizon) allowing for the construction of maps with spatial distributions in the PG stack and for the characterization of the associated PG inputs to agriculture soils. Averaged {sup 226}Ra concentrations for the stack were 730 {+-} 60 Bq kg{sup -1} (d.w.), over the US-EPA limit of 370 Bq kg{sup -1}. {sup 222}Rn exhalation rate has been measured by the charcoal canister method in 49 sampling points with 3 canisters per sampling point. Values in PG stack were under the US-EPA limit of 2600 Bq m{sup -2} h{sup -1}, but they were one order of magnitude higher than those found in the agriculture soil. Variability in radon emissions has been studied at different spatial scales. Radon exhalation rates were correlated with {sup 226}Ra concentrations and daily potential evapotranspiration (ETo). They increased with ETo in agriculture soils, but showed an opposite behaviour in the PG stack.

  7. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A. [Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Univ. of WA, Crawley (Australia); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom); Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-15

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the {approx} 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely

  8. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A.; Johansson, E.; Hudson, J.A.; Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-01

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the ∼ 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely different to the NW-SE regional

  9. Value of the "Test & Treat" Strategy for Uninvestigated Dyspepsia at Low Prevalence Rates of Helicobacter pylori in the Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agréus, Lars; Talley, Nicholas J; Jones, Michael

    2016-06-01

    In populations with a low prevalence rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection from Western countries, guidelines for the management of uninvestigated dyspepsia generally recommend that the "test and treat" strategy should be avoided in favor of empiric proton-pump inhibitor therapy in younger patients (on average pylori infection has fallen from about 30% to about 10% in Sweden and other countries. We aimed to explore whether the rationale for test and treat is relevant in contemporary clinical practice. In settings with an infection rate in the adult population of 30% and 10%, we modeled the positive and negative predictive values for indirect (nonendoscopy) tests on current H. pylori infection with a presumed sensitivity and specificity of 95%. We then calculated the difference in false-negative and false-positive test outcome, and eradication prescription rates in the two scenarios. While the positive predictive value for the test decreased from 0.89 to 0.68 when the prevalence of H. pylori fell from 30% to 10%, there were only 1% more false-negative tests and 1% less false-positive tests. The eradication prescription rate would decrease by 18% with a 10% prevalence rate. The recommendation to stop applying "test and treat" at lower prevalence rates of H. pylori should be reconsidered. The test and treat strategy is the preferred approach for most patients who present with dyspepsia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Decision Analysis and Its Application to the Frequency of Containment Integrated Leakage Rate Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, George E.; Koser, John P.; Sato, Gaku

    2004-01-01

    For nuclear utilities to become competitive in a deregulated electricity market, costs must be reduced, safety must be maintained, and interested stakeholders must remain content with the decisions being made. One way to reduce costs is to reduce the frequency of preventive maintenance and testing. However, these changes must be weighed against their impact on safety and stakeholder relations. We present a methodology that allows the evaluation of decision options using a number of objectives that include safety, economics, and stakeholder relations. First, the candidate decision options are screened to make sure that they satisfy the relevant regulatory requirements. The remaining options are evaluated using multiattribute utility theory. The results of the formal analysis include a ranking of the options according to their desirability as well as the major reasons that explain this ranking. These results are submitted to a deliberative process in which the decision makers scrutinize the results to ensure that they are meaningful. During the deliberation, new decision options may be formulated based on the insights that the formal analysis provides, as happened in the case study of this paper. This case study deals with the reduction in frequency of the containment integrated leak rate test of a boiling water reactor

  11. Standard Test Method for Measuring Reaction Rates by Analysis of Barium-140 From Fission Dosimeters

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method describes two procedures for the measurement of reaction rates by determining the amount of the fission product 140Ba produced by the non-threshold reactions 235U(n,f), 241Am(n,f), and 239Pu(n,f), and by the threshold reactions 238U(n,f), 237Np(n,f), and 232Th(n,f). 1.2 These reactions produce many fission products, among which is 140Ba, having a half-life of 12.752 days. 140Ba emits gamma rays of several energies; however, these are not easily detected in the presence of other fission products. Competing activity from other fission products requires that a chemical separation be employed or that the 140Ba activity be determined indirectly by counting its daughter product 140La. This test method describes both procedure (a), the nondestructive determination of 140Ba by the direct counting of 140La several days after irradiation, and procedure (b), the chemical separation of 140Ba and the subsequent counting of 140Ba or its daughter 140La. 1.3 With suitable techniques, fission neutron fl...

  12. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  13. Characterising the fracture toughness of polymers at moderately high rates of loading with the use of instrumented tensile impact testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Roy; Caimmi, F.; Pavan, A.

    2013-01-01

    The more common use of instrumentation in impact testing opened up the possibility to apply fracture mechanics testing methods to polymers at moderately high impact rates. Tensile impact testing offers some advantages over the more common three-point bending and compact tension geometries. Most

  14. Eradication Rate of Helicobacter pylori on the US-Mexico Border Using the Urea Breath Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Roy P; Romero, Roberta; Sarosiek, Jerzy; Dodoo, Christopher; Dwivedi, Alok K; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2018-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is prevalent worldwide, especially in Latin America. Triple and quadruple antibiotic therapies have been relatively effective; however, resistance has emerged in recent years. The treatment success rate of these regimens on the border of the United States and Mexico is unknown. Our study attempted to determine eradication rates of two major regimens based on urea breath test (UBT) results in patients previously diagnosed as having H. pylori in a single center in El Paso, Texas, a city on the geographic border with Mexico. This was a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with H. pylori who underwent UBT after being treated with triple therapy (amoxicillin/clarithromycin/proton pump inhibitor for 14 days), quadruple therapy (tetracycline/metronidazole/bismuth/proton pump inhibitor, usually for 10 days), or both for H. pylori from 2010 to 2015 in a county hospital. Patients were excluded if they did not complete therapy or if their treatment regimen was unknown. The Student t test and the χ 2 test were used to analyze the data. The cumulative incidence and 95% confidence interval (CI) for treatment success were estimated. A total of 104 patients completed the treatment for H. pylori and had UBT. Mean age was 53 years, 76% were women, 85% were Hispanic, and mean body mass index was 30.5 kg/m 2 . Of the 104 patients diagnosed as having H. pylori , 88 received triple therapy (84.6%) and 16 received quadruple therapy: 12 (11.5%) standard quadruple therapy, 4 (3.9%) triple therapy plus metronidazole. There were no differences between groups regarding age, sex, body mass index, or ethnicity. Overall, 90 (86.5%, 95% CI 78-92) patients had negative UBT after initial treatment. Based on posttreatment UBT, the triple therapy group had a similar eradication rate compared with the quadruple therapy group (78/88, 88.6% vs 12/16, 75.0%, P = 0.22). Of the 14 patients with positive posttreatment UBT, 12 (85.7%) received retreatment (2 were lost to follow

  15. Load rating and retrofit testing of bridge timber piles subjected to eccentric loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report first evaluated the load rating procedure currently in use by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) for rating timber : piles supporting multiple-span, simply supported bridges. For simplicity, these piles are often rated under...

  16. Implementation of Electronic Medical Record Hard Stop Alerts for Inappropriate Clostridium difficile Tests in Academic and Community Hospital Setting; Impact on Testing Rates and Clinical Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Rock, Clare; Mizusawa, Masako; Small, Bryce; Hsu, Yea-Jen; Kauffman, Christopher; Trivedi, Julie; Landrum, B Mark; Feldman, Leonard; Pahwa, Amit; Carroll, Karen C; Maragakis, Lisa L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Ensuring appropriate C. diff nucleic acid amplification testing is increasingly important. We implemented electronic medical record (EMR) hard stop alerts across our health-system to reduce inappropriate tests. We review the impact on testing rates and outcome of those where testing was not pursed. Methods C. diff order in a patient with previous test (14 or 7 days for positive or negative), or receipt of laxative in past 48 hours triggered an EMR alert; test could only pr...

  17. Cognitive tests predict real-world errors: the relationship between drug name confusion rates in laboratory-based memory and perception tests and corresponding error rates in large pharmacy chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Salomon, Meghan M; Galanter, William L; Schiff, Gordon D; Vaida, Allen J; Gaunt, Michael J; Bryson, Michelle L; Rash, Christine; Falck, Suzanne; Lambert, Bruce L

    2017-01-01

    Background Drug name confusion is a common type of medication error and a persistent threat to patient safety. In the USA, roughly one per thousand prescriptions results in the wrong drug being filled, and most of these errors involve drug names that look or sound alike. Prior to approval, drug names undergo a variety of tests to assess their potential for confusability, but none of these preapproval tests has been shown to predict real-world error rates. Objectives We conducted a study to assess the association between error rates in laboratory-based tests of drug name memory and perception and real-world drug name confusion error rates. Methods Eighty participants, comprising doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and lay people, completed a battery of laboratory tests assessing visual perception, auditory perception and short-term memory of look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs (eg, hydroxyzine/hydralazine). Results Laboratory test error rates (and other metrics) significantly predicted real-world error rates obtained from a large, outpatient pharmacy chain, with the best-fitting model accounting for 37% of the variance in real-world error rates. Cross-validation analyses confirmed these results, showing that the laboratory tests also predicted errors from a second pharmacy chain, with 45% of the variance being explained by the laboratory test data. Conclusions Across two distinct pharmacy chains, there is a strong and significant association between drug name confusion error rates observed in the real world and those observed in laboratory-based tests of memory and perception. Regulators and drug companies seeking a validated preapproval method for identifying confusing drug names ought to consider using these simple tests. By using a standard battery of memory and perception tests, it should be possible to reduce the number of confusing look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs that reach the market, which will help protect patients from potentially

  18. Standardized exercise test and daily heart rate responses of thoroughbreds undergoing conventional race training and detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, J H; Bayly, W M; Grant, B D; Gollnick, P D

    1990-06-01

    Ten healthy sedentary male Thoroughbreds with previous race training experience were studied for 14 weeks. Horses were trained for 9 weeks, using a program designed after those used commonly in the United States. Horses were trained conventionally by slow trotting (250 m/min) for 2 weeks and galloping (390 to 450 m/min) for 4 weeks, followed by 3 weeks of galloping (440 to 480 m/min) and intermittent sprinting exercises (breezes) at distances between 600 and 1,000 m (900 to 950 m/min). The horses were then pasture rested for 5 weeks. A standardized exercise test (SET) involving an 800-m gallop at 800 m/min was administered before and after the 9-week training period and after the 5-week detraining period. Heart rate (HR) was monitored during exercise and at standardized intervals after exercise for 60 minutes. Venous blood for determination of plasma lactate concentration was obtained at 5 minutes after exercise. Heart rate was monitored daily at rest, during exercise, and through the first 60 minutes of recovery. Venous plasma samples (for lactate determination) were obtained 5 minutes after the sprinting exercises. Horses were observed daily before exercise for signs of lameness and were not allowed to train if lame. Differences after 9 weeks' training were seen in the SET recovery HR at 0.5 through 5 minutes after exercise (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.01). Differences after detraining were seen in the SET recovery HR at 40 and 60 minutes after exercise (P less than 0.05 to P less than 0.01). Neither training nor detraining resulted in differences in plasma lactate concentration after the SET gallop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Testing a novel method for measuring sleeping metabolic rate in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summer, Suzanne S; Pratt, Jesse M; Koch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Jeffrey B

    2014-07-01

    Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) is used as a proxy for basal metabolic rate in infants, when measurement while awake is not practical. Measuring SMR via indirect calorimetry (IC) can be useful for assessing feeding adequacy especially in compromised neonates. Standard IC equipment, including a hood placed over the head, is not designed for the smallest of patients. Our aim was to determine whether a nonstandard smaller hood measures SMR in neonates similarly compared with a standard large hood. SMR was measured in healthy neonates (controls) and those born with single-ventricle congenital heart disease (cases). Two measurements were performed: SMR using a standard large hood and SMR using a smaller hood. Time-to-steady state, minute ventilation (V̇E), and fraction of exhaled carbon dioxide (FĒCO2 ; an indicator of data quality) were also measured. Primary outcome was SMR using both hoods. Results are stated as median (interquartile range). Spearman's correlations measured association between the small and large hoods. We studied 9 controls and 7 cases. SMR in controls was not different between the small and large hoods (35.7 [15.14] vs 37.8 [7.41] kcal/kg/d, respectively). In cases, SMR with the small hood was significantly greater than that with the large hood (45.5 [4.63] vs 34.2 [8] kcal/kg/d, P < .02). FĒCO2 was significantly higher with the small hood versus the large hood in both groups, and V̇E was significantly lower with the small hood versus the large hood in controls only. The SMRs with the small and large hoods were significantly correlated in the control group (r = 0.80, P < .01). Time-to-steady state was similar in both groups regardless of hood size. SMR measured with a small hood yields results similar to those measured with a large hood in healthy neonates without affecting testing time or other aspects of the IC procedure. Furthermore, results in compromised infants suggest that a smaller hood may facilitate SMR testing in this population

  20. Shutdown dose rate analysis of European test blanket modules shields in ITER Equatorial Port #16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez, Rafael, E-mail: rjuarez@ind.uned.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Sauvan, Patrick; Perez, Lucia [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Panayotov, Dobromir; Vallory, Joelle; Zmitko, Milan; Poitevin, Yves [Fusion for Energy (F4E), Torres Diagonal Litoral B3, Josep Pla 2, Barcelona 08019 (Spain); Sanz, Javier [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, ETSII-UNED, Calle Juan del Rosal 12, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Nuclear analysis for European TBMs and shields, in ITER Equatorial Port #16, has been conducted in support of the ‘Concept Design Review’ from ITER. • The objective of the work is the characterization of the Shutdown Dose Rates at Equatorial Port #16 interspace. • The role played by the TBM and TBM shields, the equatorial port gaps and the vacuum vessel permeation, in terms of neutron flux transmission is assessed. • The role played by the TBM, TBM shields, Port Plug Frame, Pipe Forest and the machine in terms of activation is also investigated. - Abstract: ‘Fusion for Energy’ (F4E) is designing, developing, and implementing the European Helium-Cooled Lead-Lithium (HCLL) and Helium-Cooled Pebble-Bed (HCPB) Test Blanket Systems (TBSs) for ITER (Nuclear Facility INB-174). An essential element of the Conceptual Design Review (CDR) of these TBSs is the demonstration of capability of Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and their shields to fulfil their function and comply with the design requirements. One of the TBM shields highly relevant design aspects is the project target for shutdown dose rates (SDDR) in the interspace. We investigated two functions of the TBMs and TBM shields—the neutron flux attenuation along the shields, and the reduction of the activation of the components contributing to SDDR. It is shown that TBMs and TBM shields reduce significantly the neutron flux in the port plug (PP). In terms of neutron flux attenuation, the TBM shield provides sufficient neutron flux reduction, being responsible for 5 × 10{sup 6} n/cm{sup 2} s at port interspace, while the EPP gaps and BSM gaps are responsible for 5 × 10{sup 7} n/cm{sup 2} s each. When considering closed upper, lower and lateral neighbour equatorial ports (thus, excluding the cross-talk between ports), a SDDR of 121 μSv/h averaged near the port closure flange was obtained, out of which, only 4 μSv/h are due to the activation of TBMs and TBM shields. Maximum SDDR in the range

  1. Delayed heart rate recovery after treadmill test: comparison with clinical, exercise and myocardial perfusion parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, S.Y.; Seo, J. H.; Bae, J. H.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J.; Lee, K. B.; Chae, S. C [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Imbalance autonomic nervous tone are fundamental risk factors for cardiac death. Recent studies reported abnormal heart rate recovery(HRR) after the treadmill exercise test is a powerful predictor of significant excess mortality. To evaluate HRR as an index of coronary artery disease(CAD). we have compared perfusion defect. 252 patients(147 men) underwent exercise myocardial perfusion imaging were included. The value for HRR was defined as the decrease in heart rate from peak exercise to 1 minute after termination of exercise. Myocardial perfusion imaging was acquired at 1 hour after 740MBq {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI injection using dual head gamma camera(Vertex Plus, ADAC, USA). Summed stress score(SSS) and stress ejection fraction(sEF) were obtained from AutoQUANT program. 23 beats/min was defined as the lowest normal value for HRR. Patients were divided two groups: abnormal HRR(abHRR) and normal HRR(nHRR). We compared clinical(age, sex, pervious CAD history, DM, HTN), exercise test(exercise capacity, duration) and myocardial perfusion parameters(SSS, sEF) between two groups. Mean value of HRR was 50.814.2 beat/min. There were 25 patients(9.9%) with an abHRR. Patient with abHRR were generally in older age(61.59.2 vs 54.48.9yr), were more likely men(72 vs 56.8%), had a higher frequency of DM(16.7 vs 9%), HTN(52 vs 27.6%) and CAD history (28 vs 7%) compared to nHRR. In exercise and myocardial perfusion parameters, abHRR were showed more positive result(60 vs 30%), had short exercise duration(7.0{+-}3.0 vs 9.1{+-}2.7min) and small exercise capacity(7.2{+-}2.3 vs 10.0{+-}2.7Mets) compared to nHRR, had a higher frequency of CAD(76 vs 41.4%) and multivessel disease(25 vs 6.5%), had larger SSS(8.1{+-}8.8 vs 3.7{+-}6.3) and had smaller sEF(47.7{+-}14.3 vs 57.9{+-}10.3%) compared to nHRR. AbHRR was frequently found in patients with CAD, large myocardial perfusion defect and decreased LV function. It seems that the HRR may be considered a reliable index of the severity of CAD.

  2. Effect of pyrophyllite filler treatment toward water absorbance rate of SAPC and its application test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadigia Ginting

    2015-01-01

    An optimization treatment to pyrophyllite filler has been done to synthesis super absorbent polymers composite (SAPC) with copolymerization of acrylic. Pyrophyllite is one of a silicate mineral with chemical formula Al 2 Si 4 O 10 (OH) 2 having a reactive functional group -OH that easily making a bonding and therefore it is suitable for water absorbance materials. The pyrophyllite were studied as its weight composition and its powder-size in the SAPC preparation. To obtain the fine-size, the filler pyrophyllite were milled with high energy mechanical milling (HEMM) into divers hours of milling. The syntheses were carried out by using the settle method from Chemicals Engineering group of ITB Bandung. The samples of SAPC-prflt were then characterized with fourier-transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR), Xray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Effect of filler treatment toward water absorbance rate is the SAPC-prflt with 0.5 gr filler having the highest gradient absorbance 1,610; SAPC prflt which milled for 9 hours has gradient absorbance 1,526; SAPC-prflt after hot water test at 40°C has gradient absorbence 2,241 and SAPC-prflt as pampers test has the gradient absorbance 1,607. XRD data analysis showed a broad peak 2 θ at scale 5 w which correspond to the micrographs picture of the sample which has 0.5 gr filler pyrophyllite and sample after milled for 9 hours, that proposed increase the sample strength and stability which induce the increasing of its water absorbance.

  3. Relation between heart rate recovery after exercise testing and body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Lins, Tereza Cristina; Valente, Lucila Maria; Sobral Filho, Dário Celestino; Barbosa e Silva, Odwaldo

    2015-01-01

    Impaired heart rate (HR) recovery after exercise testing is considered a predictor of cardiovascular mortality as it reflects vagus nerve dysfunction. To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and HR recovery after exercise. We analyzed the records of 2443 patients of both sexes, aged between 20 and 59 years, in sinus rhythm, not using negative chronotropic agents and with no myocardial ischemic response to exercise testing carried out at a specialist clinic, between 2005 and 2011. BMI was categorized as normal (18.5-30 kg/m(2)). The different BMI groups were compared in terms of HR recovery after exercise, which was calculated as the difference between maximum HR during exercise and in the first minute of recovery. Recovery was considered impaired when the difference was ≤12 bpm. Eighty-seven (3.6%) patients presented impaired recovery, which was three times more prevalent in the obese group and twice as prevalent in the overweight group compared with the normal group (p<0.001 and p=0.010, respectively). Obese patients presented higher basal HR and lower maximum HR, as well as reduced chronotropic reserve (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, impaired HR recovery was associated with overweight (relative risk [RR]=1.8; p=0.035), obesity (RR=2; p=0.016), number of metabolic equivalents (RR=0.82; p<0.001) and resting HR (RR=1.05; p<0.001). The hazard ratio for hypertension was 2 (p=0.083, NS). Impaired HR recovery was associated with higher BMI, demonstrating that obese individuals present vagus nerve dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Does provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling lead to higher HIV testing rate and HIV case finding in Rwandan clinics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; van Santen, Daniëla; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Lammers, Judith; Mugisha, Veronicah; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Asiimwe, Anita; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV

  5. Neutron dose rate at the SwissFEL injector test facility: first measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, E.; Frey, N.; Fuchs, A.; Harm, C.; Hoedlmoser, H.; Luescher, R.; Mayer, S.; Morath, O.; Philipp, R.; Rehmann, A.; Schietinger, T.

    2014-01-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute, the new SwissFEL Free Electron Laser facility is currently in the design phase. It is foreseen to accelerate electrons up to a maximum energy of 7 GeV with a pulsed time structure. An injector test facility is operated at a maximum energy of 300 MeV and serves as the principal test and demonstration plant for the SwissFEL project. Secondary radiation is created in unavoidable interactions of the primary beam with beamline components. The resulting ambient dose-equivalent rate due to neutrons was measured along the beamline with different commercially available survey instruments. The present study compares the readings of these neutron detectors (one of them is specifically designed for measurements in pulsed fields). The experiments were carried out in both, a normal and a diagnostic mode of operation of the injector. Measurements were taken at the SwissFEL injector test facility using three different types of commercially available survey instruments for normal and diagnostic mode of operation at different positions inside the accelerator vault. During normal operation, the doses indicated by the different instruments agree within the measurement uncertainty except for the beam dump region. There, due to its limited energy range and high sensitivity, the LB6411 shows significantly lower dose values than the other instruments. The photon background in the vault associated with each pulse causes the scintillator used by the LB6419 to saturate. As a result, only the channel using the delayed 12 C(n,p)12-reaction could be used during the measurements. The highest doses per pulse were measured next to the beam dump and the bunch compressor. For the optimisation of the accelerator, luminescent screens can be inserted into the beam path causing a dose distributed over several metres depending on the screen type. The dose arise to 40 % from neutrons with energies of >20 MeV. Although the charge of each pulse were reduced to decrease

  6. Finite element analysis of the high strain rate testing of polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorwade, C V; Ashcroft, I A; Silberschmidt, V V; Alghamdi, A S; Song, M

    2012-01-01

    Advanced polymer materials are finding an increasing range of industrial and defence applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polymers (UHMWPE) are already used in lightweight body armour because of their good impact resistance with light weight. However, a broader use of such materials is limited by the complexity of the manufacturing processes and the lack of experimental data on their behaviour and failure evolution under high-strain rate loading conditions. The current study deals with an investigation of the internal heat generation during tensile of UHMWPE. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the tensile test is developed and validated the with experimental work. An elastic-plastic material model is used with adiabatic heat generation. The temperature and stresses obtained with FE analysis are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. The model can be used as a simple and cost effective tool to predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour of UHMWPE part under various loading conditions.

  7. The New Zealand Neuromuscular Disease Registry: rate of diagnoses confirmed by molecular testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Miriam; Kidd, Alexa; Love, Donald R; Roxburgh, Richard

    2015-02-01

    The New Zealand Neuromuscular Disease Registry (NZ NMD Registry) is part of the TREAT NMD Alliance, an international network that provides infrastructure ensuring the most promising new therapies reach neuromuscular patients as quickly as possible. Its main aim is to ensure that the most promising new therapies reach patients as quickly as possible. From the perspective of researchers interested in trialling treatments it is useful to have data on the pool of potential research participants. From a patient's perspective it is important to know what trials they can take part in. Both of these require a confirmed molecular diagnosis in the patient. Some therapeutic strategies not only require knowledge of which gene is affected but are targeted at specific mutations within the gene. In reviewing data held in the NZ NMD Registry it was noted that, of those diagnosed with a genetic condition, only 51% have a confirmed molecular genetic diagnosis. This low rate of genetic diagnosis is a potential barrier to research participation but can be removed with improved genetic technology and with changes in knowledge about and attitudes towards genetic testing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessing nursing students' basic communication and interviewing skills: the development and testing of a rating scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, D

    1999-03-01

    This study explores the communication skills of a group of nursing students who were required to interview a simulated client as part of their studies. In order to assess the students and to improve the process of learning discrete skills, an instrument was developed and tested as part of this process. The subjects were 212 nurses enrolled in a bachelor of nursing programme, in New South Wales, Australia, who were studying a problem-based learning package the focus of which was 'alcohol early intervention'. The sub-groups within the sample included registered nurses, a significant percentage of whom had completed their basic nursing education in overseas countries. The Simulated Client Interview Rating Scale (SCIRS) was developed to assess basic humanistic communication skills as well as beginning motivational interviewing skills. The students were required to interview a simulated client and demonstrate competence in interviewing. This was assessed by the SCIRS which was completed by the students and the simulated clients. The instrument proved to be a reliable and valid means of assessing student interview technique as well as a flexible educational tool, while valuable insights into students' interviewing techniques were gained.

  9. Finite element analysis of the high strain rate testing of polymeric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorwade, C. V.; Alghamdi, A. S.; Ashcroft, I. A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.; Song, M.

    2012-08-01

    Advanced polymer materials are finding an increasing range of industrial and defence applications. Ultra-high molecular weight polymers (UHMWPE) are already used in lightweight body armour because of their good impact resistance with light weight. However, a broader use of such materials is limited by the complexity of the manufacturing processes and the lack of experimental data on their behaviour and failure evolution under high-strain rate loading conditions. The current study deals with an investigation of the internal heat generation during tensile of UHMWPE. A 3D finite element (FE) model of the tensile test is developed and validated the with experimental work. An elastic-plastic material model is used with adiabatic heat generation. The temperature and stresses obtained with FE analysis are found to be in a good agreement with the experimental results. The model can be used as a simple and cost effective tool to predict the thermo-mechanical behaviour of UHMWPE part under various loading conditions.

  10. The Effects of Maternal Opium Abuse on Fetal Heart Rate using Non-Stress Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Keikha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Opium is one of the most commonly abused opiates in developing countries including Iran. Considering the importance of maternal health on the newborn, we aimed to assess the effect of opium abuse on fetal heart rate (FHR characteristics in a sample of pregnant women in Zahedan, Southeast Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done on 100 pregnant women referring to Ali-Ibn-Abi Talib Hospital in Zahedan, during 2011-2013. The participants were divided into two groups comprising of opium abusers and healthy individuals. The participants received 500cc intravenous fluid containing dextrose and then non-stress test results were recorded for 20 minutes. Results: We found no significant difference between the two groups with respect to their demographic characteristics. Fetal movements, variability, acceleration, and reactivity were significantly higher among addicted women (P<0.0001 for all. Periodic change was 9.8 times higher among opium abusers compared with the healthy women. Abnormal variability or oscillations of <15 beats/min, which indicates lack of beat-to-beat variability, was significantly higher in the fetuses of addicted mothers (P<0.0001. Conclusion: Considering significant abnormal patterns in FHR characteristics among the opium abuser group, mothers addicted to opium need specific prenatal care.

  11. Rate Control Performance under End-User's Perspective: A Test Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann De Meer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has been experiencing a large growth of multimedia traffic of applications performing over an RTP stack implemented on top of UDP/IP. Since UDP does not offer a congestion control mechanism (unlike TCP, studies on the rate control schemes have been increasingly done. Usually, new proposals are evaluated, by simulation, in terms of criteria such as fairness towards competing TCP connections and packet losses. However, results related to other performance aspects—quality achieved, overhead introduced by the control, and actual throughput after stream adaptation—are difficult to obtain by simulation. In order to provide actual results about these criteria, we developed a comprehensive live video delivery tool for testing RTP-based controllers. In this version of the tool, the video is encoded on the fly in the MPEG-2 standard, but we intend to use the H.264/AVC standard as soon as common PC's provide enough processing power to encode H.264/AVC live video. The tool allows to easily incorporate new control schemes. In this paper, we describe the tool architecture and some implementation details. We also evaluate the performance of the tool itself, in terms of efficacy, accuracy, and efficiency.

  12. Rate Control Performance under End-User's Perspective: A Test Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farines Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Internet has been experiencing a large growth of multimedia traffic of applications performing over an RTP stack implemented on top of UDP/IP. Since UDP does not offer a congestion control mechanism (unlike TCP, studies on the rate control schemes have been increasingly done. Usually, new proposals are evaluated, by simulation, in terms of criteria such as fairness towards competing TCP connections and packet losses. However, results related to other performance aspects—quality achieved, overhead introduced by the control, and actual throughput after stream adaptation—are difficult to obtain by simulation. In order to provide actual results about these criteria, we developed a comprehensive live video delivery tool for testing RTP-based controllers. In this version of the tool, the video is encoded on the fly in the MPEG-2 standard, but we intend to use the H.264/AVC standard as soon as common PC's provide enough processing power to encode H.264/AVC live video. The tool allows to easily incorporate new control schemes. In this paper, we describe the tool architecture and some implementation details. We also evaluate the performance of the tool itself, in terms of efficacy, accuracy, and efficiency.

  13. Effects of rapid versus standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing on receipt rate of HIV test results: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan; Guo, Jian; Lu, Wenli

    2015-03-01

    Rapid HIV voluntary counselling and testing (RVCT) is an alternative method of standard HIV voluntary counselling and testing (SVCT). Less is known about whether RVCT improves the receipt rate of HIV test results among clients who seek HIV counselling and testing. We aimed to evaluate effectiveness of RVCT on result receipt rate. We conducted a comprehensive search of databases containing Medline, EBSCO, Web of science, and Cochrane library to identify studies published up to August 2012. Reviewers extracted information independently. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing study quality. Five randomised controlled trials were included and analysed for the result receipt rate using a random-effects model. The pooled receipt rate of HIV test results in the RVCT was significantly higher than in the SVCT (RR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.47-2.07). Our results suggest RVCT as a favourable method to increase the receipt of HIV test results. Only two included studies assessed the modification of risk behaviour after HIV-CT in a different manner; also, the sample size was small in the current meta-analysis. In future research, it is necessary to confirm the effect of RVCT on disinhibition of post-test risk behaviour. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Extension of the carotenoid test to superficially porous C18 bonded phases, aromatic ligand types and new classical C18 bonded phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesellier, E

    2012-11-30

    The recent introduction of new stationary phases for liquid chromatography based on superficially porous particles, called core-shell or fused-core, dramatically improved the separation performances through very high efficiency, due mainly to reduced eddy diffusion. However, few studies have evaluated the retention and selectivity of C18 phases based on such particles, despite some retention order change reported in literature between some of these phases. The carotenoid test has been developed a few years ago in the goal to compare the chromatographic properties of C18 bonded phases. Based on the analysis of carotenoid pigments by using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC), it allows, with a single analysis, to measure three main properties of reversed phase chromatography stationary phases: hydrophobicity, polar surface activity and shape selectivity. Previous studies showed the effect of the endcapping treatment, the bonding density, the pore size, and the type of bonding (monomeric vs. polymeric) on these studied properties, and described the classification map used for a direct column comparison. It was applied to ten ODS superficially porous stationary phases, showing varied chromatographic behaviors amongst these phases. As expected, due to the lower specific surface area, these superficially porous phases are less hydrophobic than the fully porous one. In regards of the polar surface activity (residual silanols) and to the shape selectivity, some of these superficially porous phases display close chromatographic properties (Poroshell 120, Halo C18, Ascentis Express, Accucore C18, Nucleoshell C18 on one side and Aeris Wide pore, Aeris peptide and Kinetex XDB on the other side), whereas others, Kinetex C18 and Halo peptide ES C18 display more specific ones. Besides, they can be compared to classical fully porous phases, in the goal to improve method transfer from fully to superficially porous particles. By the way, the paper also report the extension of

  15. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Caustic Leach Rate Constants from PEP and Laboratory-Scale Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Rassat, Scot D.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Aker, Pamela M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Hanson, Brady D.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.; Sundaram, S. K.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2009-08-14

    concentrated to nominally 20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before adding caustic. The work described in this report addresses the kinetics of caustic leach under WTP conditions, based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed at the lab-scale and in the PEP, which is a 1/4.5-scale mock-up of key PTF process equipment. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to caustic leach chemistry to support a scale-up factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. The scale-up factor will take the form of an adjustment factor for the rate constant in the boehmite leach kinetic equation in the G2 model.

  16. High failure rate of the dissolution tests for 500-mg amoxicillin capsules sold in Cambodia: is it because of the product or the test method?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, J; Taga, M; Tey, S; Kataoka, Y; Nam, N; Kimura, K

    2010-11-01

    During the survey of substandard medicines in Cambodia in 2007, it was found that more than 90% of 500-mg amoxicillin (AMPC) capsules failed the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 30 TEST 1 dissolution test. In the USP, several monographs provide multiple methods for performing the dissolution test. By using the 500-mg AMPC capsule as an example, we aimed to identify the problems and implications of the USP methods adopted for the dissolution test as a global standard. All AMPC samples were collected from the Cambodian market in 2007. For the quantitative test, we referred to USP 30. We performed the USP 28 and USP 30 TEST 2 dissolution tests and compared these results with those of the USP 30 TEST 1. All 500-mg AMPC capsules used for the comparison passed the quantitative test. Samples that passed the USP 28 and USP 30 TEST 2 dissolution tests were identical, and the pass rate was 97.1% (34/35), whereas the pass rate with the USP 30 TEST 1 was 8.6% (3/35). The difference in the dissolution results between the three methods was significant (P<0.0001). This study revealed that many users would select the most stringent method when multiple methods exist in the USP. This may lead to a high failure rate of the tests. Because USP is a global standard, we recommend that it take into consideration the developing countries and create a more detailed user-friendly manual for selection for appropriate methods. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Do celebrity endorsements matter? Observational study of BRCA gene testing and mastectomy rates after Angelina Jolie's New York Times editorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Sunita; Jena, Anupam B

    2016-12-14

     To examine the effect on BRCA testing and mastectomy rates of a widely viewed 2013 New York Times editorial by public figure Angelina Jolie that endorsed BRCA testing and announced Jolie's decision to undergo preventive mastectomy.  Observational study with difference-in-difference analysis.  Commercially insured US population.  Women aged 18-64 years with claims in the Truven MarketScan commercial claims database (n=9 532 836).  Changes in BRCA testing rates in the 15 business days before versus after 14 May 2013 (editorial date) compared with the change in the same period in 2012; mastectomy rates in the months before and after publication, both overall and within 60 days of BRCA testing among women who were tested; national estimates of incremental tests and expenditures associated with Jolie's article in the 15 days after publication.  Daily BRCA test rates increased immediately after the 2013 editorial, from 0.71 tests/100 000 women in the 15 business days before to 1.13 tests/100 000 women in the 15 business days after publication. In comparison, daily test rates were similar in the same period in 2012 (0.58/100 000 women in the 15 business days before 14 May versus 0.55/100 000 women in the 15 business days after), implying a difference-in-difference absolute daily increase of 0.45 tests/100 000 women or a 64% relative increase (PCelebrity endorsements can have a large and immediate effect on use of health services. Such announcements can be a low cost means of reaching a broad audience quickly, but they may not effectively target the subpopulations that are most at risk for the relevant underlying condition. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Gait in children with cerebral palsy : observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  19. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... employees will remain at 25 percent during calendar year 2013. Operators are reminded that drug and alcohol... randomly select and test a percentage of covered employees for prohibited drug use. Pursuant to 49 CFR 199.... Therefore, the PHMSA minimum annual random drug testing selection rate will remain at 25 percent for...

  20. Standard practice for slow strain rate testing to evaluate the susceptibility of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2000-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the design, preparation, and use of axially loaded, tension test specimens and fatigue pre-cracked (fracture mechanics) specimens for use in slow strain rate (SSR) tests to investigate the resistance of metallic materials to environmentally assisted cracking (EAC). While some investigators utilize SSR test techniques in combination with cyclic or fatigue loading, no attempt has been made to incorporate such techniques into this practice. 1.2 Slow strain rate testing is applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of metallic materials in test environments which simulate aqueous, nonaqueous, and gaseous service environments over a wide range of temperatures and pressures that may cause EAC of susceptible materials. 1.3 The primary use of this practice is to furnish accepted procedures for the accelerated testing of the resistance of metallic materials to EAC under various environmental conditions. In many cases, the initiation of EAC is accelerated through the applic...

  1. Dependency of Shear Strength on Test Rate in SiC/BSAS Ceramic Matrix Composite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Both interlaminar and in-plane shear strengths of a unidirectional Hi-Nicalon(TM) fiber-reinforced barium strontium aluminosilicate (SiC/BSAS) composite were determined at 1100 C in air as a function of test rate using double notch shear test specimens. The composite exhibited a significant effect of test rate on shear strength, regardless of orientation which was either in interlaminar or in in-plane direction, resulting in an appreciable shear-strength degradation of about 50 percent as test rate decreased from 3.3 10(exp -1) mm/s to 3.3 10(exp -5) mm/s. The rate dependency of composite's shear strength was very similar to that of ultimate tensile strength at 1100 C observed in a similar composite (2-D SiC/BSAS) in which tensile strength decreased by about 60 percent when test rate varied from the highest (5 MPa/s) to the lowest (0.005 MPa/s). A phenomenological, power-law slow crack growth formulation was proposed and formulated to account for the rate dependency of shear strength of the composite.

  2. Ultimate Tensile Strength as a Function of Test Rate for Various Ceramic Matrix Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2002-01-01

    Ultimate tensile strength of five different continuous fiber-reinforced ceramic composites, including SiC/BSAS (2D 2 types), SiC/MAS-5 (2D), SiC/SiC (2D enhanced), and C/SiC(2D) was determined as a function of test rate at I 100 to 1200 'C in air. All five composite materials exhibited a significant dependency of ultimate strength on test rate such that the ultimate strength decreased with decreasing test rate, similar to the behavior observed in many advanced monolithic ceramics at elevated temperatures. The application of the preloading technique as well as the prediction of life from one loading configuration (constant stress rate) to another (constant stress loading) for SiC/BSAS suggested that the overall macroscopic failure mechanism of the composites would be the one governed by a power-law type of damage evolution/accumulation, analogous to slow crack growth commonly observed in advanced monolithic ceramics.

  3. Single Event Test Methodologies and System Error Rate Analysis for Triple Modular Redundant Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Gregory; Edmonds, Larry D.; Swift, Gary; Carmichael, Carl; Tseng, Chen Wei; Heldt, Kevin; Anderson, Scott Arlo; Coe, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We present a test methodology for estimating system error rates of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) mitigated with Triple Modular Redundancy (TMR). The test methodology is founded in a mathematical model, which is also presented. Accelerator data from 90 nm Xilins Military/Aerospace grade FPGA are shown to fit the model. Fault injection (FI) results are discussed and related to the test data. Design implementation and the corresponding impact of multiple bit upset (MBU) are also discussed.

  4. Long-term ongoing pregnancy rate and mode of conception after a positive and negative post-coital test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Marloes; Brandes, Monique; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Bots, Rob S G M; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Hamilton, Carl J C M

    2014-09-01

    Many fertility clinics have decided to abolish the post-coital test. Yet, it is a significant factor in prognostic models that predict the spontaneous pregnancy rate within one year. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome of infertile couples with a positive or a negative post-coital test during their fertility work-up and (2) the contribution of the different modes of conception. Retrospective cohort study. Three fertility clinics in the Netherlands, of which two are secondary care training hospitals and is a one tertiary care academic training hospital. 2476 newly referred infertile couples, where a post-coital test was performed in 1624 couples. After basic fertility work-up, couples were treated according to the national treatment protocols. Spontaneous and overall ongoing pregnancy rate. The spontaneous and overall ongoing pregnancy rates after three years were 37.7 and 77.5% after a positive post-coital test compared with 26.9 and 68.8% after a negative test (p pregnancy rate, justifying expectant management. After a follow-up of three years a positive post-coital test is still associated with a higher spontaneous and a higher overall ongoing pregnancy rate, even in couples with severe male factor infertility. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Failure cause and failure rate evaluation on pumps of BWR plants in PSA. Hypothesis testing for typical or plant specific failure rate of pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, Takahiro; Nakamura, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    In support of domestic nuclear industry effort to gather and analyze failure data of components concerning nuclear power plants, Nuclear Information Archives (NUCIA) are published for useful information to help PSA. This report focuses on NUCIA pertaining to pumps in domestic nuclear power plants, and provides the reliable estimation on failure rate of pumps resulting from failure cause analysis and hypothesis testing of classified and plant specific failure rate of pumps for improving quality in PSA. The classified and plant specific failure rate of pumps are estimated by analyzing individual domestic nuclear power plant's data of 26 Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) concerning functionally structurally classified pump failures reported from beginning of commercial operation to March 31, 2007. (author)

  6. Tailgate test kit for determining appropriate sediment reducing chemicals and dose rates : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    This study develops a Tailgate Test Kit to be used in the field to test flocculants for reducing turbidity in construction stormwater discharge. Turbidity of stormwater runoff at construction sites varies depending on which site soils are exposed to ...

  7. The evaluation of a rapid in situ HIV confirmation test in a programme with a high failure rate of the WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derryck B Klarkowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concerns about false-positive HIV results led to a review of testing procedures used in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF HIV programme in Bukavu, eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. In addition to the WHO HIV rapid diagnostic test algorithm (RDT (two positive RDTs alone for HIV diagnosis used in voluntary counselling and testing (VCT sites we evaluated in situ a practical field-based confirmation test against western blot WB. In addition, we aimed to determine the false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm compared with our adapted protocol including confirmation testing, and whether weakly reactive compared with strongly reactive rapid test results were more likely to be false positives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 2864 clients presenting to MSF VCT centres in Bukavu during January to May 2006 were tested using Determine HIV-1/2 and UniGold HIV rapid tests in parallel by nurse counsellors. Plasma samples on 229 clients confirmed as double RDT positive by laboratory retesting were further tested using both WB and the Orgenics Immunocomb Combfirm HIV confirmation test (OIC-HIV. Of these, 24 samples were negative or indeterminate by WB representing a false-positive rate of the WHO two-test algorithm of 10.5% (95%CI 6.6-15.2. 17 of the 229 samples were weakly positive on rapid testing and all were negative or indeterminate by WB. The false-positive rate fell to 3.3% (95%CI 1.3-6.7 when only strong-positive rapid test results were considered. Agreement between OIC-HIV and WB was 99.1% (95%CI 96.9-99.9% with no false OIC-HIV positives if stringent criteria for positive OIC-HIV diagnoses were used. CONCLUSIONS: The WHO HIV two-test diagnostic algorithm produced an unacceptably high level of false-positive diagnoses in our setting, especially if results were weakly positive. The most probable causes of the false-positive results were serological cross-reactivity or non-specific immune reactivity. Our findings show that the OIC

  8. Journal of Agricultural Extension: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mission Statement: The mission of the Journal of Agricultural Extension is to publish conceptual papers and empirical research that tests, extends, or builds ... research and methodological issues; nutrition extension; extension youth programme; women-in-agriculture; extension, Climate Change and the environment, ICT, ...

  9. Crash test rating and likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury in motor vehicle crashes: the new car assessment program side-impact crash test, 1998-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Bradley D; Mack, Christopher D; Kaufman, Robert; Wessells, Hunter; Bulger, Eileen; Smith, Thomas G; Voelzke, Bryan

    2014-03-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) implemented side-impact crash testing on all new vehicles since 1998 to assess the likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injuries during a side-impact crash. Higher crash test rating is intended to indicate a safer car, but the real-world applicability of these ratings is unknown. Our objective was to determine the relationship between a vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating and the risk of major thoracoabdominal injury among the vehicle's occupants in real-world side-impact motor vehicle crashes. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System contains detailed crash and injury data in a sample of major crashes in the United States. For model years 1998 to 2010 and crash years 1999 to 2010, 68,124 occupants were identified in the Crashworthiness Data System database. Because 47% of cases were missing crash severity (ΔV), multiple imputation was used to estimate the missing values. The primary predictor of interest was the occupant vehicle's NCAP side-impact crash test rating, and the outcome of interest was the presence of major (Abbreviated Injury Scale [AIS] score ≥ 3) thoracoabdominal injury. In multivariate analysis, increasing NCAP crash test rating was associated with lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at high (odds ratio [OR], 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9; p crash severity (ΔV), but not at low ΔV (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.8-1.2; p = 0.55). In our model, older age and absence of seat belt use were associated with greater likelihood of major thoracoabdominal injury at low and medium ΔV (p crashes, a higher NCAP side-impact crash test rating is associated with a lower likelihood of major thoracoabdominal trauma. Epidemiologic study, level III.

  10. Cognitive tests predict real-world errors: the relationship between drug name confusion rates in laboratory-based memory and perception tests and corresponding error rates in large pharmacy chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Scott R; Salomon, Meghan M; Galanter, William L; Schiff, Gordon D; Vaida, Allen J; Gaunt, Michael J; Bryson, Michelle L; Rash, Christine; Falck, Suzanne; Lambert, Bruce L

    2017-05-01

    Drug name confusion is a common type of medication error and a persistent threat to patient safety. In the USA, roughly one per thousand prescriptions results in the wrong drug being filled, and most of these errors involve drug names that look or sound alike. Prior to approval, drug names undergo a variety of tests to assess their potential for confusability, but none of these preapproval tests has been shown to predict real-world error rates. We conducted a study to assess the association between error rates in laboratory-based tests of drug name memory and perception and real-world drug name confusion error rates. Eighty participants, comprising doctors, nurses, pharmacists, technicians and lay people, completed a battery of laboratory tests assessing visual perception, auditory perception and short-term memory of look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs (eg, hydroxyzine/hydralazine). Laboratory test error rates (and other metrics) significantly predicted real-world error rates obtained from a large, outpatient pharmacy chain, with the best-fitting model accounting for 37% of the variance in real-world error rates. Cross-validation analyses confirmed these results, showing that the laboratory tests also predicted errors from a second pharmacy chain, with 45% of the variance being explained by the laboratory test data. Across two distinct pharmacy chains, there is a strong and significant association between drug name confusion error rates observed in the real world and those observed in laboratory-based tests of memory and perception. Regulators and drug companies seeking a validated preapproval method for identifying confusing drug names ought to consider using these simple tests. By using a standard battery of memory and perception tests, it should be possible to reduce the number of confusing look-alike and sound-alike drug name pairs that reach the market, which will help protect patients from potentially harmful medication errors. Published by the BMJ

  11. Test Review: Delis, D. (2012) "Delis Rating of Executive Function (D-REF)." Bloomington, Minnesota: Pearson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Brittany; Drake, Morgan; Vidrine, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    The Delis Rating of Executive Function (D-REF) is a set of rating scales designed to assess executive functions and their constituent sub-processes in children and adolescents between the ages of 5 and 18. More specifically, the D-REF is a supplemental assessment of children and adolescents demonstrating behavioral or cognitive difficulties often…

  12. Testing the hypothesis of the natural suicide rates: Further evidence from OECD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Antonio Rodriguez; Halicioglu, Ferda

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides further evidence on the hypothesis of the natural rate of suicide using the time series data for 15 OECD countries over the period 1970–2004. This hypothesis suggests that the suicide rate of a society could never be zero even if both the economic and the social conditions wer...

  13. Rate of detection of advanced neoplasms in proximal colon by simulated sigmoidoscopy vs fecal immunochemical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni; Quintero, Enrique; Álvarez, Cristina; Bujanda, Luis; Cubiella, Joaquín; Salas, Dolores; Lanas, Angel; Carballo, Fernando; Morillas, Juan Diego; Hernández, Cristina; Jover, Rodrigo; Hijona, Elizabeth; Portillo, Isabel; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Hernández, Vicent; Martínez-Turnes, Alfonso; Menéndez-Villalva, Carlos; González-Mao, Carmen; Sala, Teresa; Ponce, Marta; Andrés, Mercedes; Teruel, Gloria; Peris, Antonio; Sopeña, Federico; González-Rubio, Francisca; Seoane-Urgorri, Agustín; Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Pozo, Àngels; Pellisé, Maria; Balaguer, Francesc; Ono, Akiko; Cruzado, José; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Carrillo-Palau, Marta; de la Vega-Prieto, Mariola; Iglesias, Rosario; Amador, Javier; Blanco, José Manuel; Sastre, Rocio; Ferrándiz, Juan; González-Hernández, Ma José; Andreu, Montserrat; Bessa, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    We compared the ability of biennial fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and one-time sigmoidoscopy to detect colon side-specific advanced neoplasms in a population-based, multicenter, nationwide, randomized controlled trial. We identified asymptomatic men and women, 50-69 years old, through community health registries and randomly assigned them to groups that received a single colonoscopy examination or biennial FIT. Sigmoidoscopy yield was simulated from results obtained from the colonoscopy group, according to the criteria proposed in the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Trial for colonoscopy referral. Patients who underwent FIT and were found to have ≥75 ng hemoglobin/mL were referred for colonoscopy. Data were analyzed from 5059 subjects in the colonoscopy group and 10,507 in the FIT group. The main outcome was rate of detection of any advanced neoplasm proximal to the splenic flexure. Advanced neoplasms were detected in 317 subjects (6.3%) in the sigmoidoscopy simulation group compared with 288 (2.7%) in the FIT group (odds ratio for sigmoidoscopy, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.93-2.70; P = .0001). Sigmoidoscopy also detected advanced distal neoplasia in a higher percentage of patients than FIT (odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 2.20-3.10; P = .0001). The methods did not differ significantly in identifying patients with advanced proximal neoplasms (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.76; P = .44). This was probably due to the lower performance of both strategies in detecting patients with proximal lesions (sigmoidoscopy detected these in 19.1% of patients and FIT in 14.9% of patients) vs distal ones (sigmoidoscopy detected these in 86.8% of patients and FIT in 33.5% of patients). Sigmoidoscopy, but not FIT, detected proximal lesions in lower percentages of women (especially those 50-59 years old) than men. Sigmoidoscopy and FIT have similar limitations in detecting advanced proximal neoplasms, which depend on patients' characteristics

  14. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  15. Testing hypotheses in an I(2) model with applications to the persistent long swings in the Dmk/$ rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Søren; Juselius, Katarina; Frydman, Roman

    components in the I(2) model is discussed at some length. Model specification and tests are illustrated with an empirical analysis of long and persistent swings in the foreign exchange market between Germany and USA. The data analyzed consist of nominal exchange rates, relative prices, US inflation rate, two...... in nominal exchange rates, typical in periods of floating exchange rates....... long-term interest rates and two short-term interest rates over the 1975-1999 period. One important aim of the paper is to demonstrate that by structuring the data with the help of the I(2) model one can achieve a better understanding of the empirical regularities underlying the persistent swings...

  16. Type I Error Rates and Power Estimates of Selected Parametric and Nonparametric Tests of Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olejnik, Stephen F.; Algina, James

    1987-01-01

    Estimated Type I Error rates and power are reported for the Brown-Forsythe, O'Brien, Klotz, and Siegal-Tukey procedures. The effect of aligning the data using deviations from group means or group medians is investigated. (RB)

  17. Some Tests of Random Walk Hypothesis for Bulgarian Foreign Exchange Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolai Gueorguiev

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to check if the exchange rate in newly emerged, relatively thin foreign exchange markets, follows a random walk pattern. The findings of the current study cast doubts on random walk presence in Bulgarian exchange rates against major international currencies. It turns out that the series of daily returns are stationary but correlated and therefore can be modelled better by higher-order ARIMA processes than by random walk.

  18. Scaling up penetration rates in field tests by emulating V2X communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netten, B.; Passchier, I.; Wedemeijer, H.; Bours, R.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative systems require the presence of multiple cooperative ITS stations to be effective and able to cooperate. Testing a single cooperative vehicle or road side unit will require a large number of other cooperative vehicles. Equipping additional test vehicles is expensive on hardware, drivers,

  19. A Southwide Rate Test of Azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for Cone and Seed Insect Control In Loblolly Pine Seed Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.C. Mangini; L.R. Barber; R.S. Cameron; G.L. DeBarr; G.R. Hodge; J.B. Jett; W.L. Lowe; J.L. McConnell; J. Nord; J.W. Taylor

    1998-01-01

    A southwide efficiency test of reduced rates of azinphosmethyl (Guthion®) for control of seed and cone insects in loblolly pine seed orchards was conducted in 1992. In each of nine loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seed orchards, an untreated (no protection) check and two of five possible rates of Guthion® (1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, or 3.0 lb ai/ac/...

  20. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed...

  1. Continuous multivariate exponential extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, H.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Freund-Weinman multivariate exponential extension is generalized to the case of nonidentically distributed marginal distributions. A fatal shock model is given for the resulting distribution. Results in the bivariate case and the concept of constant multivariate hazard rate lead to a continuous distribution related to the multivariate exponential distribution (MVE) of Marshall and Olkin. This distribution is shown to be a special case of the extended Freund-Weinman distribution. A generalization of the bivariate model of Proschan and Sullo leads to a distribution which contains both the extended Freund-Weinman distribution and the MVE

  2. A music quality rating test battery for cochlear implant users to compare the FSP and HDCIS strategies for music appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Valerie; Winter, Philip; Anderson, Ilona; Sucher, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a music quality rating test battery (MQRTB) and pilot test it by comparing appraisal ratings from cochlear implant (CI) recipients using the fine-structure processing (FSP) and high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) speech processing strategies. The development of the MQRTB involved three stages: (1) Selection of test items for the MQRTB; (2) Verification of its length and complexity with normally-hearing individuals; and (3) Pilot testing with CI recipients. Part 1 involved 65 adult listeners, Part 2 involved 10 normally-hearing adults, and Part 3 involved five adult MED-EL CI recipients. The MQRTB consisted of ten songs, with ratings made on scales assessing pleasantness, naturalness, richness, fullness, sharpness, and roughness. Results of the pilot study, which compared FSP and HDCIS for music, indicated that acclimatization to a strategy had a significant effect on ratings (p genre on ratings. Overall the results suggest that the use of FSP as the default strategy for MED-EL recipients would have a positive effect on music appreciation, and that the MQRTB is an effective tool for assessing music sound quality.

  3. [Validation of an observer-based rating set compared to a standardized written psychological test for the diagnosis of depression and anxiety in a university preadmission test center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Stübner, S; de Bruin, J; Neuser, J; Rossaint, R

    2001-06-01

    Depression and anxiety can be a major factor of perioperative stress and might contribute to patients dissatisfaction with medical care if they remain unrecognized. There are several methods to diagnose depression and anxiety like standardized written psychological tests or self report scales. Because these tests are not always suitable for routine use in a busy preadmission test center we evaluated an observer-based rating set for the diagnosis of depression and anxiety. 70 patients of a university hospital preadmission test center were tested with the HADS-D-Test and the observer-based rating set after approval of the institutional review board and written informed consent. Test-data were compared using a logistic regression model and demographic variables were analyzed using t-Test. ANOVA and Pearson correlation. The prevalence of depression in our study population was 11.11% (14.75% in male, 9.76% in female) and the prevalence of anxiety was 7.14% (6.9% in male and 7.32% in female). The correlation between the observer-based rating items and the HADS-D-diagnosis was statistically highly significant. The observer based items "unsteady eye movements" and "general worrisome mood" proved to be especially sensitive for anxiety and the items "sorrowful mood" and "impression of resignation" were sensitive for depression without any influence of the experience of the anesthesiologist. A higher prevalence of depression and anxiety was found in patients with ASA-class III compared to those with ASA-classes I and II while age and type of surgery had no significant influence. Based on our observations depression and anxiety are a relevant factor of preoperative morbidity assessment. Observer-based items are a reliable tool to detect those patients which might need special assistance and therapy in the perioperative period to reduce stress associated with high preexisting levels of depression and anxiety.

  4. Tests of a fiber detector concept for high rate particle tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenauer, E. C.; Bähr, J.; Gapienko, V.; Hoffmann, B.; Lüdecke, H.; Menchikov, A.; Mertens, C.; Nahnhauer, R.; Shanidze, R.

    1998-11-01

    A fiber detector concept is suggested allowing to registrate particles within less than 100 nsec with a space point precision of about 100 μm at low occupancy. The fibers should be radiation hard for 1 Mrad/year. Corresponding prototypes have been build and tested at a 3 GeV electron beam at DESY. Preliminary results of these tests indicate that the design goal for the detector is reached.

  5. Tests of a fiber detector concept for high rate particle tracking

    OpenAIRE

    Aschenauer, E. C.; Baehr, J.; Gapienko, V.; Hoffmann, B.; Luedecke, H.; Menchikov, A.; Mertens, C.; Nahnhauer, R.; Shanidze, R.

    1998-01-01

    A fiber detector concept is suggested allowing to registrate particles within less than 100 nsec with a space point precision of about 0.1 mm at low occuppancy. The fibers should be radiation hard for 1 Mrad/year. Corresponding prototypes have been build and tested at a 3 GeV electron beam at DESY. Preliminary results of these tests indicate that the design goal for the detector is reached.

  6. Testing the Monetary Model for Exchange Rate Determination in South Africa: Evidence from 101 Years of Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riané de Bruyn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence in favor of the monetary model of exchange rate determination for the South African Rand is, at best, mixed. A co-integrating relationship between the nominal exchange rate and monetary fundamentals forms the basis of the monetary model. With the econometric literature suggesting that the span of the data, not the frequency, determines the power of the co-integration tests and the studies on South Africa primarily using short-span data from the post-Bretton Woods era, we decided to test the long-run monetary model of exchange rate determination for the South African Rand relative to the US Dollar using annual data from 1910 – 2010. The results provide some support for the monetary model in that long-run co-integration is found between the nominal exchange rate and the output and money supply deviations. However, the theoretical restrictions required by the monetary model are rejected. A vector error-correction model identifies both the nominal exchange rate and the monetary fundamentals as the channel for the adjustment process of deviations from the long-run equilibrium exchange rate. A subsequent comparison of nominal exchange rate forecasts based on the monetary model with those of the random walk model suggests that the forecasting performance of the monetary model is superior.

  7. Correlation between Positive Rate and Number of Biopsy Samples on Urease Test in Childhood Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Hyun; Park, Ji Sook; Yeom, Jung Sook; Lim, Jae-Young; Park, Chan-Hoo; Woo, Hyang-Ok; Baik, Seung-Chul; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho

    2014-01-01

    To identify the correlation between the number of gastric biopsy samples and the positive rate, we compared the results of urease test using one and three biopsy samples from each 255 children who underwent gastroduodenoscopy at Gyeongsang National University Hospital. The children were divided into three age groups: 0-4, 5-9, and 10-15 yr. The gastric endoscopic biopsies were subjected to the urease test. That is, one and three gastric antral biopsy samples were collected from the same child. The results of urease test were classified into three grades: Grade 0 (no change), 1 (6-24 hr), 2 (1-6 hr), and 3 (<1 hr). The positive rate of urease test was increased by the age with no respect to the number of gastric biopsy samples (one biopsy P = 0.001, three biopsy P < 0.001). The positive rate of the urease test was higher on three biopsy samples as compared with one biopsy sample (P < 0.001). The difference between one and three biopsy samples was higher in the children aged 0-9 yr. Our results indicate that the urease test might be a more accurate diagnostic modality when it is performed on three or more biopsy samples in children. PMID:24431913

  8. A New Extension of the Binomial Error Model for Responses to Items of Varying Difficulty in Educational Testing and Attitude Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Wiley

    Full Text Available We put forward a new item response model which is an extension of the binomial error model first introduced by Keats and Lord. Like the binomial error model, the basic latent variable can be interpreted as a probability of responding in a certain way to an arbitrarily specified item. For a set of dichotomous items, this model gives predictions that are similar to other single parameter IRT models (such as the Rasch model but has certain advantages in more complex cases. The first is that in specifying a flexible two-parameter Beta distribution for the latent variable, it is easy to formulate models for randomized experiments in which there is no reason to believe that either the latent variable or its distribution vary over randomly composed experimental groups. Second, the elementary response function is such that extensions to more complex cases (e.g., polychotomous responses, unfolding scales are straightforward. Third, the probability metric of the latent trait allows tractable extensions to cover a wide variety of stochastic response processes.

  9. Forming limit curves determined in high-speed Nakajima tests and predicted by a strain rate sensitive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß-Borkowski, Nathalie; Lian, Juhne; Marten, Thorsten; Tröster, Thomas; Münstermann, Sebastian; Bleck, Wolfgang

    2017-10-01

    Material characteristics such as yield strength and failure strain are affected by the loading speed. Even the start of instability and necking depends not only on the strain hardening coefficient but also on the strain rate sensitivity parameter. Therefore, the strain rate dependence of materials for both plasticity and the failure behavior is taken into account in crash simulations for strain rates up to 1,000 s-1. The current standard experiment for investigation of strain rate dependence is the high speed tensile test as described in a FAT guideline. Moreover, the need of material characterization at multi-axial loadings and high strain rates is pointed out in FAT guideline. Forming limit diagrams (FLD) can be used for the description of the material`s instability behavior at multi-axial loading. Usually, the FLD are determined quasi-statically at 1.5 mm/s. The usage of experimentally determined, quasi-static FLD also at high strain rates leads to great uncertainties and thus can be hardly used in crash simulations. A possibility for experimentally recording FLD at high forming rates > 100 s-1 offers the present described high speed Nakajima test. The results for the deep drawing steel DC01 illustrate the need of the determination of dynamic FLD. In this context, due to the strain rate dependence of the material behavior an extrapolation of quasi-static FLD is not feasible. Alternatively, the prediction of forming limit curves (FLC) at high strain rates is possible with the extended modified maximum force criterion. This new and extended model includes the strain rate dependence and therefore predicting forming limits at dynamic forming gets possible. The new approach is described and the accordance of experimental determined and predicted results for the begin of instability is presented.

  10. Are Charter Schools Safer in Deindustrialized Cities with High Rates of Crime? Testing Hypotheses in Detroit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Families in deindustrialized cities with high crime rates report prioritizing school safety when opting for charter schools. Yet, very little research has investigated whether charter schools are safer than traditional public schools. This study compares charter and traditional public schools in Detroit, Michigan, on perceived school safety by…

  11. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Methods: In 93 chronic hemodialysis patients with native AV fistula, blood flow rates were measured by Doppler US and GPT. For GPT, glucose was infused to 16 mL/min by pump and was measured at basal before the infusion and 11 s after the start of ... Doppler US is expensive and time consuming,.

  12. Exposure testing of fasteners in preservative treated wood : gravimetric corrosion rates and corrosion product analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Rebecca J. Sichel; Donald S. Stone

    2010-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the corrosion rates of metals in preservative treated wood and also understand the mechanism of metal corrosion in treated wood. Steel and hot-dip galvanized steel fasteners were embedded in wood treated with one of six preservative treatments and exposed to 27oC at 100% relative humidity for 1 year. The...

  13. Effects of media ratings on children and adolescents: a litmus test of the forbidden fruit effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper

    2012-01-01

    Media ratings serve to inform parents about and protect minors from violent or otherwise harmful media content. Most of these systems use age pictograms and content warning pictograms for entertainment products. An experiment was conducted to investigate whether these pictograms, contrary to their

  14. Conflicting deductions from machining and other tests, concerning flow stress at high strain rates and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, T.H.C.

    1974-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the friction interaction between an En1A chip and a cemented tungsten--titanium carbide cutting tool during turning En1A on a lathe at speeds between 0.25 and 7.5 m s -1 and at feeds of 0.13 and 0.26 mm rev -1 . The mean friction stress has been measured and deductions made from chip shape measurements about the variation of the friction stress over the rake face. Three regimes of continuous chip formation were seen. In the first, the mean friction stress was independent of strain rate and temperature, in the second it depended on temperature and in the third, at the highest cutting speeds, it depended on temperature and feed. In the third regime, softening of the chip material caused by frictional heating limited the friction force, but the softening temperature depended on the heating rate of the chip material. Softening occurred at 700 0 C when the rate of heating from room temperature was 5.4 x 10 5 0 C s -1 and at 1160 0 C when the rate was 1.7 x 10 7 0 C s -1 . (U.S.)

  15. What determines crime rates? An empirical test of integrated economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, Peter Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832227; Lander, Michel W.; van Essen, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357514491

    Research on crime has by no means reached a definitive conclusion on which factors are related to crime rates. We contribute to the crime literature by providing an integrated empirical model of economic and sociological theories of criminal behavior and by using a very comprehensive set of

  16. The Nonlinear Dynamic Relationship of Exchange Rates: Parametric and Nonparametric Causality testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekiros, S.D.; Diks, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates the long-term linear and nonlinear causal linkages among six currencies, namely EUR/USD, GBP/USD, USD/JPY, USD/CHF, AUD/USD and USD/CAD. The prime motivation for choosing these exchange rates comes from the fact that they are the most liquid and widely traded, covering

  17. The bacterial contamination rate of glucose meter test strips in the hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid A.; Saeb, Amr T. M.; AlNaqeb, Dhekra M.; AlQumaidi, Hamed M.; AlMogbel, Turki A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the rate of bacterial contamination of the multi-use vial and single-use packed glucose meter strips, and to identify the type and frequency of various bacterial contamination in different hospital wards. Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted by a team from the Strategic Center for Diabetes Research in 7 general hospitals in the Central region of Saudi Arabia during the period from August to September 2014 to assess the bacterial contamination rate of the unused strips. A total of 10,447 strips were cultured using proper agar media and incubated both aerobically and anaerobically. Results: The total bacterial contamination rate for the multi-use vials glucose strips was 31.7%, while single-use packed strips were not contaminated at all. Ministry of Health hospitals had the highest contamination rates compared with other hospitals. Critical, obstetric, and surgical wards had the highest bacterial isolates number, where most were in the risk group 3 according to the National Institute of Health guidelines. Staphylococcus species were the most common bacteria found. Conclusion: Glucose meter strips should be recognized as a source of bacterial contamination that could be behind serious hospital acquired infections. The hospital infection control team should adopt proper measures to implement protocols for glucose meter cleaning and glucose strips handling. PMID:27570855

  18. 12 CFR 563e.21 - Performance tests, standards, and ratings, in general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... constraints, including the size and financial condition of the savings association, the economic climate... a savings association's assessment area(s); (2) Any information about lending, investment, and...) Any other information deemed relevant by the OTS. (c) Assigned ratings. The OTS assigns to a savings...

  19. Testing the growth rate hypothesis in vascular plants with above- and below-ground biomass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Yu

    Full Text Available The growth rate hypothesis (GRH proposes that higher growth rate (the rate of change in biomass per unit biomass, μ is associated with higher P concentration and lower C:P and N:P ratios. However, the applicability of the GRH to vascular plants is not well-studied and few studies have been done on belowground biomass. Here we showed that, for aboveground, belowground and total biomass of three study species, μ was positively correlated with N:C under N limitation and positively correlated with P:C under P limitation. However, the N:P ratio was a unimodal function of μ, increasing for small values of μ, reaching a maximum, and then decreasing. The range of variations in μ was positively correlated with variation in C:N:P stoichiometry. Furthermore, μ and C:N:P ranges for aboveground biomass were negatively correlated with those for belowground. Our results confirm the well-known association of growth rate with tissue concentration of the limiting nutrient and provide empirical support for recent theoretical formulations.

  20. Glucose Pump Test can be Used to Measure Blood Flow Rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-07

    Feb 7, 2018 ... Blood flow rates of AV fistula can be affected by osmotic and oncotic pressures of blood and arterial blood pressures. Sodium, glucose, hemoglobin, and albumin are significant effectors, created osmotic and oncotic pressures [Table 3]. Blood levels of hemoglobin. (Hb), albumin, sodium (Na), and glucose ...

  1. Deposition Rates on Smooth Surfaces and Coagulation of Aerosol Particles Inside a Test Chamber

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hussein, T.; Hruška, A.; Dohányosová, Pavla; Ondráčková, Lucie; Hemerka, J.; Kulmala, M.; Smolík, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2009), s. 905-914 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/04/1190; GA ČR GA101/07/1361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : deposition rate * turbophoresis * coagulation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.139, year: 2009

  2. Sociologists in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, James A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The article describes the work activities of the extension sociologist, the relative advantage and disadvantage of extension roles in relation to teaching/research roles, and the relevance of sociological training and research for extension work. (NQ)

  3. Impact of an intensive follow-up program on the postpartum glucose tolerance testing rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Figueroa, Hector; Daley, Julie; Breault, Pauline; Lopes, Vrishali V; Paine, Virginia; Goldman, Dona; Francis, Mary Jean; Delgado, Blanca; Coustan, Donald R

    2014-06-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a strong risk factor for the development of diabetes. We assessed the impact of a 1-year intensive follow-up demonstration program, using direct nurse and outreach worker case management, aimed at increasing compliance with postpartum oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT). During the year of implementation, a nurse or bilingual outreach worker contacted patients to encourage attendance at their scheduled postpartum 2-h 75-g OGTT and assisted in overcoming obstacles to testing. All patients with GDM seen in our specialty clinic the previous year served as a control group for comparison. One hundred eighty-one patients treated during the year prior to implementation were compared to the 207 in the demonstration program. Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. After the program's implementation, postpartum OGTT adherence increased from 43.1 to 59.4 % (p worker case management leads to a modest, but important increase in adherence to postpartum OGTT testing.

  4. Effect of Exercise Testing on Short-term Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niu, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Dai-Fu; Liang, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of exercise testing on short term heart rate variability in patients with CHD.Methods In 12 patients with CHD and 12 age-and sex-matched healthy controls, short-term frequency domain analysis was performed at respective stage before, during and after ET...

  5. Developing and Pilot Testing a Spanish Translation of CollaboRATE for Use in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forcino, R.C.; Bustamante, N.; Thompson, R.; Percac-Lima, S.; Elwyn, G.; Perez-Arechaederra, D.; Barr, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Given the need for access to patient-facing materials in multiple languages, this study aimed to develop and pilot test an accurate and understandable translation of CollaboRATE, a three-item patient-reported measure of shared decision-making, for Spanish-speaking patients in the

  6. Long-term ongoing pregnancy rate and mode of conception after a positive and negative post-coital test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, M.; Brandes, M.; Bruin, J.P.; Bots, R.S.; Kremer, J.A.; Nelen, W.L.; Hamilton, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many fertility clinics have decided to abolish the post-coital test. Yet, it is a significant factor in prognostic models that predict the spontaneous pregnancy rate within one year. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome of infertile couples with a positive or a

  7. Flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD): inconsistency between neuropsychological tests and parent-based rating scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Roelofs, R.L.; Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Cuppen, L.; Mol, J.; Berger, H.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared neuropsychological tests and parent-based ratings of flexibility in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated the discriminant validity of the domain-specific flexibility measures by comparison with the domain general measures, general

  8. Flexibility in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD): Inconsistency between neuropsychological tests and parent-based rating scales.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunisse, J.P.W.M.; Roelofs, R.L.; Verhoeven, E.W.M.; Cuppen, L.; Mol, J.; Berger, H.J.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared neuropsychological tests and parent-based ratings of flexibility in a sample of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We investigated the discriminant validity of the domain-specific flexibility measures by comparison with the domain general measures, general

  9. Heart rate recovery after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in older adults with intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent predictor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. To investigate the usefulness of HRR in cardiorespiratory exercise testing in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the aims of this study were (a) to assess HRR in older

  10. Evaluation of an exercise field test using heart rate monitors to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and heart rate recovery in an asymptomatic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal L Coolbaugh

    Full Text Available Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF and heart rate recovery (HRR can improve risk stratification for cardiovascular disease, but these measurements are rarely made in asymptomatic individuals due to cost. An exercise field test (EFT to assess CRF and HRR would be an inexpensive method for cardiovascular disease risk assessment in large populations. This study assessed 1 the predictive accuracy of a 12-minute run/walk EFT for estimating CRF ([Formula: see text] and 2 the accuracy of HRR measured after an EFT using a heart rate monitor (HRM in an asymptomatic population.Fifty subjects (48% women ages 18-45 years completed a symptom-limited exercise tolerance test (ETT (Bruce protocol and an EFT on separate days. During the ETT, [Formula: see text] was measured by a metabolic cart, and heart rate was measured continuously by a HRM and a metabolic cart.EFT distance and sex independently predicted[Formula: see text]. The average absolute difference between observed and predicted [Formula: see text] was 0.26 ± 3.27 ml·kg-1·min-1 for our model compared to 7.55 ± 3.64 ml·kg-1·min-1 for the Cooper model. HRM HRR data were equivalent to respective metabolic cart values during the ETT. HRR at 1 minute post-exercise during ETT compared to the EFT had a moderate correlation (r=0.75, p<0.001.A more accurate model to estimate CRF from a 12-minute run/walk EFT was developed, and HRR can be measured using a HRM in an asymptomatic population outside of clinical settings.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL TESTS OF VANADIUM STRENGTH MODELS AT HIGH PRESSURES AND STRAIN RATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H; Barton, N R; Becker, R C; Bernier, J V; Cavallo, R M; Lorenz, K T; Pollaine, S M; Remington, B A; Rudd, R E

    2010-03-02

    Experimental results showing significant reductions from classical in the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability growth rate due to high pressure material strength or effective lattice viscosity in metal foils are presented. On the Omega Laser in the Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, target samples of polycrystalline vanadium are compressed and accelerated quasi-isentropically at {approx}1 Mbar pressures, while maintaining the samples in the solid-state. Comparison of the results with constitutive models for solid state strength under these conditions show that the measured RT growth is substantially lower than predictions using existing models that work well at low pressures and long time scales. High pressure, high strain rate data can be explained by the enhanced strength due to a phonon drag mechanism, creating a high effective lattice viscosity.

  12. Assessing temporal variations in diversification rates from phylogenies: estimation and hypothesis testing

    OpenAIRE

    Paradis, E.

    1997-01-01

    A new method to estimate the diversification rate of a lineage from a phylogeny of recent species is presented. This uses survival models to analyse the ages of the species as derived from the phylogeny. Survival models can analyse missing data where the exact date of death is unknown (censoring). This approach allows us to include missing data (species not included in a detailed phylogenetic study) in the analysis, provided a minimum age is known for these species. Three models are presented...

  13. Testing the link between genome size and growth rate in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud I. Tenaillon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the factors driving within species Genome Size (GS variation. GS may be shaped indirectly by natural selection on development and adaptative traits. Because GS variation is particularly pronounced in maize, we have sampled 83 maize inbred lines from three well described genetic groups adapted to contrasted climate conditions: inbreds of tropical origin, Flint inbreds grown in temperate climates, and Dent inbreds distributed in the Corn Belt. As a proxy for growth rate, we measured the Leaf Elongation Rate maximum during nighttime (LERmax as well as GS in all inbred lines. In addition we combined available and new nucleotide polymorphism data at 29,090 sites to characterize the genetic structure of our panel. We found significant variation for both LERmax and GS among groups defined by our genetic structuring. Tropicals displayed larger GS than Flints while Dents exhibited intermediate values. LERmax followed the opposite trend with greater growth rate in Flints than in Tropicals. In other words, LERmax and GS exhibited a significantly negative correlation (r = − 0.27. However, this correlation was driven by among-group variation rather than within-group variation—it was no longer significant after controlling for structure and kinship among inbreds. Our results indicate that selection on GS may have accompanied ancient maize diffusion from its center of origin, with large DNA content excluded from temperate areas. Whether GS has been targeted by more intense selection during modern breeding within groups remains an open question.

  14. Construction and Test of Muon Drift Tube Chambers for High Counting Rates

    CERN Document Server

    Schwegler, Philipp; Dubbert, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Since the start of operation of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN on 20 November 2009, the instantaneous luminosity is steadily increasing. The muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector at the LHC is instrumented with trigger and precision tracking chambers in a toroidal magnetic field. Monitored Drift-Tube (MDT) chambers are employed as precision tracking chambers, complemented by Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) in the very forward region where the background counting rate due to neutrons and γ's produced in shielding material and detector components is too high for the MDT chambers. After several upgrades of the CERN accelerator system over the coming decade, the instantaneous luminosity is expected to be raised to about five times the LHC design luminosity. This necessitates replacement of the muon chambers in the regions with the highest background radiation rates in the so-called Small Wheels, which constitute the innermost layers of the muon spectrometer end-caps, by new detectors with higher rate cap...

  15. The hyperbolic sine relation and dip test data in constant strain rate compression experiments

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kruml, Tomáš; Coddet, O.; Martin, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 240, - (2010), 012028 ISSN 1742-6588. [ICSMA-15 (15th International Conference on the Strength of Materials). Dresden, 16.08.2009-21.08.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : dip test * effective stress * compression Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials

  16. About stress reduction experiments during constant strain-rate deformation tests

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kruml, Tomáš; Coddet, O.; Martin, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 96, - (2005), s. 589-594 ISSN 0044-3093 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : dip test * interní napětí * tepelná aktivace Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 0.842, year: 2005

  17. Estimating Rates of Fault Insertion and Test Effectiveness in Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikora, A.; Munson, J.

    1998-01-01

    In developing a software system, we would like to estimate the total number of faults inserted into a software system, the residual fault content of that system at any given time, and the efficacy of the testing activity in executing the code containing the newly inserted faults.

  18. Stress corrosion cracking test with slow strain rate and constant current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    A rapid electrochemical tensile test was developed for evaluating stress corrosion crack initiation in carbon steel. Constant anodic current was imposed on smooth-bar tensile specimens as the specimens were slowly strained to fracture at cross-head speeds of 1.3 x 10 -6 /sec. Equivalent response results were obtained for all ductility properties measured; uniform elongation, total elongation and reduction of area. Total elongation was chosen as the index for stress corrosion crack initiation. An equation was developed that allowed calculation of total elongation of specimens in electrolytes (test solutions) with composition ranges of 1.5 to 5.5 M nitrate, 0 to 3.5 M nitrite, and 0 to 5.0 M hydroxide, and a temperature range of 50 0 C to 100 0 C. A minimum of 13 percent total elongation was selected to indicate the possible initiation of cracking in A 285-B steel alloy. The test was used to evaluate relative aggressiveness of synthetic nuclear wastes on A 285-B carbon steel and the relative resistances of several steels to given solution compositions. Test results formed one of the bases for setting temperature limits and concentration limits for several ions in nuclear wastes that are stored in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Plant

  19. Clostridium difficile Infection and Patient-Specific Antimicrobial Resistance Testing Reveals a High Metronidazole Resistance Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkin, Jodie A; Sussman, Daniel A; Fifadara, Nimita; Barkin, Jamie S

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium difficile (CD) infection (CDI) causes marked morbidity and mortality, accounting for large healthcare expenditures annually. Current CDI treatment guidelines focus on clinical markers of patient severity to determine the preferred antibiotic regimen of metronidazole versus vancomycin. The antimicrobial resistance patterns for patients with CD are currently unknown. The aim of this study was to define the antimicrobial resistance patterns for CD. This study included all patients with stools sent for CD testing to a private laboratory (DRG Laboratory, Alpharetta, Georgia) in a 6-month period from across the USA. Patient data was de-identified, with only age, gender, and zip-code available per laboratory protocol. All samples underwent PCR testing followed by hybridization for CD toxin regions A and B. Only patients with CD-positive PCR were analyzed. Antimicrobial resistance testing using stool genomic DNA evaluated presence of imidazole- and vancomycin-resistant genes using multiplex PCR gene detection. Of 2743, 288 (10.5%) stool samples were positive for CD. Six were excluded per protocol. Of 282, 193 (69.4%) were women, and average age was 49.4 ± 18.7 years. Of 282, 62 were PCR positive for toxins A and B, 160 for toxin A positive alone, and 60 for toxin B positive alone. Antimicrobial resistance testing revealed 134/282 (47.5%) patients resistant to imidazole, 17 (6.1%) resistant to vancomycin, and 9 (3.2%) resistant to imidazole and vancomycin. CD-positive patients with presence of imidazole-resistant genes from stool DNA extract was a common phenomenon, while vancomycin resistance was uncommon. Similar to treatment of other infections, antimicrobial resistance testing should play a role in CDI clinical decision-making algorithms to enable more expedited and cost-effective delivery of patient care.

  20. [Comparison of application of Cochran-Armitage trend test and linear regression analysis for rate trend analysis in epidemiology study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Z; Wang, C; Shen, C F; Zhang, Y; Zhang, H; Song, G D; Xue, X D; Xu, Z L; Zhang, S; Jiang, G H

    2017-05-10

    We described the time trend of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) from 1999 to 2013 in Tianjin incidence rate with Cochran-Armitage trend (CAT) test and linear regression analysis, and the results were compared. Based on actual population, CAT test had much stronger statistical power than linear regression analysis for both overall incidence trend and age specific incidence trend (Cochran-Armitage trend P valuelinear regression P value). The statistical power of CAT test decreased, while the result of linear regression analysis remained the same when population size was reduced by 100 times and AMI incidence rate remained unchanged. The two statistical methods have their advantages and disadvantages. It is necessary to choose statistical method according the fitting degree of data, or comprehensively analyze the results of two methods.

  1. A study on rate sensitivity of elasto-plastic fracture toughness of TRIP steel evaluated by a small punch test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available TRIP steel indicates an excellent characteristic in energy absorption because of its high ductility and strength by strain-induced martensitic transformation (SIMT. Recently, some shock absorption members are being used for automotive industries. For good fuel consumption of the automobile, it would realize the weight reduction without decaying performance if TRIP steel can be applied to those members. It can be considered that the fracture toughness is an important factor to evaluate the performance. To evaluate fracture toughness locally at any point of a product of those members, small punch testing method is quite effective. In the present study, first, an impact small punch testing apparatus is established. In addition, elasto-plastic fracture toughness of TRIP steel under impact loading and its rate sensitivity tested at various deflection rates are challenged to evaluate.

  2. Inflation of type I error rates by unequal variances associated with parametric, nonparametric, and Rank-Transformation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. Zimmerman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the two-sample Student t test fails to maintain its significance level when the variances of treatment groups are unequal, and, at the same time, sample sizes are unequal. However, introductory textbooks in psychology and education often maintain that the test is robust to variance heterogeneity when sample sizes are equal. The present study discloses that, for a wide variety of non-normal distributions, especially skewed distributions, the Type I error probabilities of both the t test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test are substantially inflated by heterogeneous variances, even when sample sizes are equal. The Type I error rate of the t test performed on ranks replacing the scores (rank-transformed data is inflated in the same way and always corresponds closely to that of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. For many probability densities, the distortion of the significance level is far greater after transformation to ranks and, contrary to known asymptotic properties, the magnitude of the inflation is an increasing function of sample size. Although nonparametric tests of location also can be sensitive to differences in the shape of distributions apart from location, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and rank-transformation tests apparently are influenced mainly by skewness that is accompanied by specious differences in the means of ranks.

  3. Standard test method for determining atmospheric chloride deposition rate by wet candle method

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers a wet candle device and its use in measuring atmospheric chloride deposition (amount of chloride salts deposited from the atmosphere on a given area per unit time). 1.2 Data on atmospheric chloride deposition can be useful in classifying the corrosivity of a specific area, such as an atmospheric test site. Caution must be exercised, however, to take into consideration the season because airborne chlorides vary widely between seasons. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  4. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  5. A Test Bed for Detection of Botnet Infections in Low Data Rate Tactical Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    has developed numerous tools and architectures designed for research in botnet tracking [1] and collection [9, 10], with Nepenthes [11] capable of...recorded by the Sebek server at the honeywall [10]. Yet another type of honeypot is a low interaction honeypot called Nepenthes that is specifically...actual malware code/files. To fix this, the test bed could be modified to include Nepenthes . The reader is reminded Nepenthes is a malware collection

  6. Large Strain Range Dynamic Testing at High and Medium Strain Rates, Using a Common Scale SHPB

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, H.; Gary, G.

    1997-01-01

    The measuring duration of a SHPB (Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar) set-up is limited by the length of the bars because of the superimposition of the waves propagating in opposite directions, so that there exists a limitation of maximum measurable strains in material testing applications. This paper presents a new two-gauges measurement method taking account of the correction of wave dispersion effects, as it is indeed indispensable for long time measurements. Using bars of common dimensions, it ...

  7. Leak rates and structural integrity tests for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant primary containment. Regulatory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani Alegria, Yuri Raul; Salgado Gonzalez, Julio Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    In the Appendix A General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants of the US Code of Federal Regulations title 10 part 50 (10CFR50) is established the Criterion 1 Quality standards and records which requires that structures, systems and components important to safety should be tested to quality standards according with the importance of the safety function to be performed. This regulation has been adopted by the Mexican Regulatory Body (CNSNS) for their nuclear power plants. (author)

  8. On-Line High Dose-rate Gamma Irradiation Test of the Profibus/DP module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Koo, In Soo; Hong, Seok Boong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The field bus data communication is considered for application in nuclear environments. The nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants, high radioactivity waste disposals, reprocessing plants and thermonuclear fusion installations can benefit from the unique advantages of the field bus communication network for the smart field instruments and controls. A major problem which arises when dealing with one in these nuclear environments, in special circumstances such as the RCS (reactor coolant system) area, is the presence of high gamma-ray irradiation fields. Radioactive constraints for the DBA(design basis accident) qualification of the RTD transmitter installed in the inside of the RCS pump are typically on the order of 4kGy/h with total doses up to 10kGy. In order to use an industrial field bus communication network as an ad-hoc sensor data link in the vicinity of the RCS area of the nuclear power plant, the robust survivability of these system in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore needs to be verified. We have conducted high dose-rate (up to 4kGy) gamma irradiation experiments on a profibus/DP communication module. In this paper we describe the evolution of its basic characteristics with high dose-rate gamma irradiation and shortly explain the observed phenomena.

  9. On-Line High Dose-rate Gamma Irradiation Test of the Profibus/DP module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jai Wan; Choi, Young Soo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Koo, In Soo; Hong, Seok Boong

    2009-01-01

    The field bus data communication is considered for application in nuclear environments. The nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants, high radioactivity waste disposals, reprocessing plants and thermonuclear fusion installations can benefit from the unique advantages of the field bus communication network for the smart field instruments and controls. A major problem which arises when dealing with one in these nuclear environments, in special circumstances such as the RCS (reactor coolant system) area, is the presence of high gamma-ray irradiation fields. Radioactive constraints for the DBA(design basis accident) qualification of the RTD transmitter installed in the inside of the RCS pump are typically on the order of 4kGy/h with total doses up to 10kGy. In order to use an industrial field bus communication network as an ad-hoc sensor data link in the vicinity of the RCS area of the nuclear power plant, the robust survivability of these system in such intense gamma-radiation fields therefore needs to be verified. We have conducted high dose-rate (up to 4kGy) gamma irradiation experiments on a profibus/DP communication module. In this paper we describe the evolution of its basic characteristics with high dose-rate gamma irradiation and shortly explain the observed phenomena

  10. Testing cosmic dose rate models for ESR: Dating corals and molluscs on San Salvador, Bahamas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deely, A.E. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Blackwell, B.A.B., E-mail: bonnie.a.b.blackwell@williams.edu [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States); Mylroie, J.E. [Dept. of Geosciences, Mississippi State University, MS, 39762-5448 (United States); Carew, J.L. [Dept. of Geology and Environmental Geosciences, College of Charleston, Charleston, SC 29424 (United States); Blickstein, J.I.B. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Skinner, A.R. [RFK Science Research Institute, Glenwood Landing, NY, 11547-0866 (United States); Dept. of Chemistry, Williams College, Williamstown MA, 01267-2692 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Sealevel curves are best developed on tectonically stable coastlines, like San Salvador, where eolianites preserve transgressive and regressive phases associated with Quaternary high seastands, while reef facies mark the highstands. At 11 locations around San Salvador, terrestrial molluscs (Cerion) from the eolianites, lagoonal bivalves (Codakia), and corals from the highstand deposits were dated by ESR. Volumetrically averaged sedimentary dose rates were calculated from sedimentary geochemistry and time-averaged cosmic dose rates from each sample's current and past geologic contexts. Rice Bay Formation corals dated at 3.9 {+-} 0.3 to 7.1 {+-} 0.4 ka (OIS 1). Minimum ages for the Cockburn Town Member's regressive phase ranged from 49 {+-} 6 to 75 {+-} 8 ka, correlating with OIS 3-4. Codakia dates showed that an OIS 5a sealevel approached modern levels at 91-78 ka. In situ corals from the Cockburn Town Reef averaged from 127 {+-} 6 to 138 {+-} 10 ka, correlating well with OIS 5e. Ages from the Reef's rubble zones hint that some coral reefs grew as early as OIS 7, but were likely reworked during OIS 5. San Salvador preserves deposits from three mid to late Quaternary highstands above, and as many as three that closely approach, modern sealevel.

  11. Influence of Strain Rate and Temperature of Hot Tension Testing on Mechanical Properties of Medium Carbon Steel S48C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Priadi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of S48C by hot tension testing was done to understanding the influence of temperature and strain rate for S48C flow stress, that close relationship with its forge ability. The hot tension testing was performed on temperatures and strain rates variation (T 850, 900, 950 0C and έ 0,01;1 s-1. The result of hot tension testing showed that increasing temperature decreases ultimate tensile strength (UTS and flow stress of S48C. The higher decreasing of UTS is on 950 0C about 85% from room temperature condition, while the higher decreasing of flow stress has occurred on 950 0C about 31 % compare to conditions of temperature 850 0C, strain 0,23 & strain rate (έ1 second-1 and about 27% compare to the same conditions but έ= 0,01 second-1 . For increasing strain rate from 0,01 to 1 second-1 on the temperature range (850-950 0C increases UTS about 33 - 50 % and flow stress about 46-53%.

  12. A Performance Evaluation of a Notebook PC under a High Dose-Rate Gamma Ray Irradiation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Wan Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the performance of a notebook PC under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation test. A notebook PC, which is small and light weight, is generally used as the control unit of a robot system and loaded onto the robot body. Using TEPCO’s CAMS (containment atmospheric monitoring system data, the gamma ray dose rate before and after a hydrogen explosion in reactor units 1–3 of the Fukushima nuclear power plant was more than 150 Gy/h. To use a notebook PC as the control unit of a robot system entering a reactor building to mitigate the severe accident situation of a nuclear power plant, the performance of the notebook PC under such intense gamma-irradiation fields should be evaluated. Under a similar dose-rate (150 Gy/h gamma ray environment, the performances of different notebook PCs were evaluated. In addition, a simple method for a performance evaluation of a notebook PC under a high dose-rate gamma ray irradiation test is proposed. Three notebook PCs were tested to verify the method proposed in this paper.

  13. New modelling of transient well test and rate decline analysis for a horizontal well in a multiple-zone reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Ren-Shi; Guo, Jian-Chun; Jia, Yong-Lu; Zhu, Shui-Qiao; Rao, Zheng; Zhang, Chun-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The no-type curve with negative skin of a horizontal well has been found in the current research. Negative skin is very significant to transient well test and rate decline analysis. This paper first presents the negative skin problem where the type curves with negative skin of a horizontal well are oscillatory. In order to solve the problem, we propose a new model of transient well test and rate decline analysis for a horizontal well in a multiple-zone composite reservoir. A new dimensionless definition of r D is introduced in the dimensionless mathematical modelling under different boundaries. The model is solved using the Laplace transform and separation of variables techniques. In Laplace space, the solutions for both constant rate production and constant wellbore pressure production are expressed in a unified formula. We provide graphs and thorough analysis of the new standard type curves for both well test and rate decline analysis; the characteristics of type curves are the reflections of horizontal well production in a multiple-zone reservoir. An important contribution of our paper is that our model removed the oscillation in type curves and thus solved the negative skin problem. We also show that the characteristics of type curves depend heavily on the properties of different zones, skin factor, well length, formation thickness, etc. Our research can be applied to a real case study

  14. Impact of different cutoff criteria on rate of (central auditory processing disorders diagnosis using the central test battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmed Shaikh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify how the use of two different cutoff criteria affects the test failure rate and potential diagnosis of central auditory processing disorder ([C]APD in a sample of children subjected to central auditory processing ([C]AP assessment. Test failure rates for the central test battery (CTB using two different cutoff criteria (1 and 2 SDs below the mean were measured retrospectively for 98 children who completed (CAP assessment. The rates of potential (CAPD diagnosis ranged from 86.8% [when a 1 standard deviation (SD cutoff was used] to 66.2% (when a 2 SD cutoff was used. The current use of two different cutoffs for the CTB has a large impact on the diagnostic rate for (CAPD. These findings have clinical implications for the diagnosis of (CAPD due to the widespread use of the CTB in the United States for the assessment of (CAPD in children. Thus, it is important to create awareness among audiologists that use of the 2 SDs cutoff criterion is recommended for reducing false positives (error.

  15. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  16. Heart rate recovery after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in older adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-03-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after exercise is an independent predictor for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. To investigate the usefulness of HRR in cardiorespiratory exercise testing in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), the aims of this study were (a) to assess HRR in older adults with ID after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT) and (b) its association with personal characteristics (gender, age, distance walked on the ISWT, level of ID, genetic syndrome causing ID, autism, behavioral problems, and peak heart rate (HRpeak)). HRR was assessed after the 10-m incremental shuttle walking test in 300 older adults (>50 years) with borderline to profound ID. HRR was defined as the change from HRpeak during the ISWT to heart rate measured after 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min of passive recovery. The largest decrease in heart rate was in the first minute of recovery leveling off toward the fifth minute of recovery. An abnormal HHR (≤12 bpm) was seen in 36.1% of the participants with Down syndrome (DS) and in 30.7% of the participants with ID by other causes. After the fifth minute the heart rates of 69.4% of the participants with DS and of 61.4% of the participants with ID by other causes returned to resting levels. HRpeak and distance walked on the ISWT were positively related to all HRR measures. More severe ID was negatively related and having DS positively related to HRR after 3-5 min of recovery. The other characteristics were not significantly associated to HRR. HRR is a potentially useful outcome measure in cardiorespiratory fitness testing of older adults with ID with a direct, objective, and non-invasive measurement. Further research is needed to identify the relation between HRR and adverse health outcomes in this population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal-hydraulic analysis for changing feedwater check valve leakage rate testing methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, R.; Harrell, J.

    1996-12-01

    The current design and testing requirements for the feedwater check valves (FWCVs) at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station are established from original licensing requirements that necessitate extremely restrictive air testing with tight allowable leakage limits. As a direct result of these requirements, the original high endurance hard seats in the FWCVs were modified with elastomeric seals to provide a sealing surface capable of meeting the stringent air leakage limits. However, due to the relatively short functional life of the elastomeric seals compared to the hard seats, the overall reliability of the sealing function actually decreased. This degraded performance was exhibited by frequent seal failures and subsequent valve repairs. The original requirements were based on limited analysis and the belief that all of the high energy feedwater vaporized during the LOCA blowdown. These phenomena would have resulted in completely voided feedwater lines and thus a steam environment within the feedwater leak pathway. To challenge these criteria, a comprehensive design basis accident analysis was developed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. Realistic assumptions were used to more accurately model the post-accident fluid conditions within the feedwater system. The results of this analysis demonstrated that no leak path exists through the feedwater lines during the reactor blowdown phase and that sufficient subcooled water remains in various portions of the feedwater piping to form liquid water loop seals that effectively isolate this leak path. These results provided the bases for changing the leak testing requirements of the FWCVs from air to water. The analysis results also established more accurate allowable leakage limits, determined the real effective margins associated with the FWCV safety functions, and led to design changes that improved the overall functional performance of the valves.

  18. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Tiina M.; Alho, Olli-Pekka; Seppänen, Tapio

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS) is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects' reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency) ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS. PMID:27196870

  19. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina M. Seppänen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects’ reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS.

  20. Predicting the continued use of overlays in school children--a comparison of the Developmental Eye Movement test and the Rate of Reading test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, Nadia

    2003-09-01

    Coloured overlays have been advocated to enhance reading speed and ability in children with reading difficulty or dyslexia. Assessing the efficacy of overlays has to date been largely subjective. Objective assessment is presently carried out with the Rate of Reading test (RRT), where an increase in reading speed of more than 5% is considered to indicate a positive prognosis for continued use of the overlay. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is used to assess horizontal scanning behaviour in a number naming task. In this study both tests were utilised to determine whether coloured overlays could enhance reading performance or scanning. This article shows that for some children rate of reading is not improved with coloured overlays although performance on the DEM test does improve. Improvements to the DEM scores occurred in 88% of children who continued to use overlays for more than 3 months. This compared with 60% sensitivity in the RRT. The possible reasons for this phenomenon and the clinical implications are discussed.

  1. The possibility to increase the rated output as a result of index tests performed in Iron Gates II- Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novac, D; Pantelimon, D [Hidroelectrica - SH Portile de Fier, Str. I.G. Bibicescu Nr.2, Drobeta Turnu Severin, RO - 220103 (Romania); Popescu, E, E-mail: dragos.novac@hidroelectrica.r [Hidroelectrica Bucuresti, Str. C-tin Nacu Nr.3, Bucuresti, RO - 020995 (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The Index Tests have been used for many years to obtain the optimized cam correlation between wicket gates and runner blades for double regulated turbines (Kaplan, bulb). The cam is based on homologous model tests and is verified by site measurements, as model tests generally do not reproduce the exact intake configuration. Index Tests have also a considerable importance for checking of the relative efficiency curve of all type of turbines and can demonstrate if the prototype efficiency curve at plant condition has the shape expected from the test of the homologues model. During the Index Tests measurements the influence of all losses at multiple points of turbine operation can be proved. This publication deals with an overview on the Index Tests made after modernization of large bulb units in Iron Gates II - Romania. These field tests, together with the comparative, fully homologous tests for the new hydraulic shape of the runner blades have confirmed the smooth operational behavior and the guaranteed performance. Over the whole 'guaranteed operating range' for H = 8m, the characteristic of the Kaplan curve (enveloping curve to the propeller curves), agreed very well to the predicted efficiency curve from the hydraulic prototype hill chart. The new cam correlation have been determined for different head and realised in the governor, normally based on model tests. The guaranteed, maximum turbine output for H = 7,8m is specified with 32, 5 MW. The maximum measured turbine output during the Index Tests on cam operation was 35,704 MW at the net head of 7,836 m. This corresponds to 35,458 MW for the specified head H= 7, 8 m. All these important improvements ensure a significant increase of annual energy production without any change of the civil construction and without increasing the runner diameter. Also the possibility to increase the turbine rated output is evident.

  2. The possibility to increase the rated output as a result of index tests performed in Iron Gates II- Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novac, D; Pantelimon, D; Popescu, E

    2010-01-01

    The Index Tests have been used for many years to obtain the optimized cam correlation between wicket gates and runner blades for double regulated turbines (Kaplan, bulb). The cam is based on homologous model tests and is verified by site measurements, as model tests generally do not reproduce the exact intake configuration. Index Tests have also a considerable importance for checking of the relative efficiency curve of all type of turbines and can demonstrate if the prototype efficiency curve at plant condition has the shape expected from the test of the homologues model. During the Index Tests measurements the influence of all losses at multiple points of turbine operation can be proved. This publication deals with an overview on the Index Tests made after modernization of large bulb units in Iron Gates II - Romania. These field tests, together with the comparative, fully homologous tests for the new hydraulic shape of the runner blades have confirmed the smooth operational behavior and the guaranteed performance. Over the whole 'guaranteed operating range' for H = 8m, the characteristic of the Kaplan curve (enveloping curve to the propeller curves), agreed very well to the predicted efficiency curve from the hydraulic prototype hill chart. The new cam correlation have been determined for different head and realised in the governor, normally based on model tests. The guaranteed, maximum turbine output for H = 7,8m is specified with 32, 5 MW. The maximum measured turbine output during the Index Tests on cam operation was 35,704 MW at the net head of 7,836 m. This corresponds to 35,458 MW for the specified head H= 7, 8 m. All these important improvements ensure a significant increase of annual energy production without any change of the civil construction and without increasing the runner diameter. Also the possibility to increase the turbine rated output is evident.

  3. Study of performance of acoustic fixture for using in noise reduction rate tests of hearing protection devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zam Biabani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:One of the recommended methods for evaluation effectiveness of hearing protection is use the acoustic fixture accordance with standard ISO 4869-3. The aim of this study was evaluate the acoustic performance of fixture for using in noise reduction rate tests of hearing protection devices in the laboratory. Methods: In this cross-sectional study , noise reduction rates of five common ear muffs used in the Iran industries were investigated based on the ISO 11904 standard, microphone in real ear method, using noise dosimeter (SVANTEK , Model SV102 equipped with microphone SV25 model which can install inside the ear on 30 subjects under laboratory conditions. Also, noise reduction rate of earmuffs was determined using the fixture model AVASINA9402 accordance with standard procedures. Data were analyzed using the software SPSS21. Results: The results showed the real noise reduction rates of the earmuffs on the studied subjects are from 59% to 94% nominal reduction rates. That rates for the ear muffs on the studied fixture are from 64% to 92.The results showed that the noise reduction rates of the ear muffs on subjects compared with and noise reduction rates of the ear muffs on fixture were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. Conclusion: The results showed the accuracy of noise reduction rate of earmuffs using the fixture compared with real subjects is acceptable. Hence, the fixture is good choice for environments where there’s no possibility of acoustic evaluation on real subjects, also for quality control of productions in the earmuff manufacturers.

  4. Did an extensive forest ever develop on the Chinese Loess Plateau during the past 130 ka?: a test using soil carbon isotopic signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Weiguo; Yang Hong; Cao Yunning; Ning Youfeng; Li Li; Zhou Jie; An Zhisheng

    2005-01-01

    Pleistocene vegetation history on the Chinese Loess Plateau has been traditionally investigated using palynological methods, and questions remain regarding whether an extensive broadleaf deciduous forest ever developed on the loess table under favorable climatic conditions. The authors have employed a C isotope approach to address this question by comparing δ 13 C values in soil organic matter from different loess ecological domains with known source vegetation to the C isotope values obtained from a paleosol section that can be dated back to 130 ka. The C isotopic compositions of modern soils from the loess table and the loess-desert transition gave δ 13 C values of -24.5 per mille to -18.2 per mille and -25.7 per mille to -20.7 per mille, respectively. These C isotopic ratios are consistent with the standing modern vegetation that is dominated by a mixture of C 3 and C 4 plants and can be distinguished from that in the patchy forest areas where exclusive C 3 trees yield a narrow δ 13 C value range from -26.9 per mille to -25 per mille (average -26.1 per mille). Obtained δ 13 C compositions from paleosols and loess sediments in the Lantian and the Luochuan profiles vary from -24 per mille to -16.9 per mille, indicating a grass-dominated steppe with shifting C 3 and C 4 contributions controlled mainly by paleoclimatic changes during the late Pleistocene. The present results suggest no extensive forest coverage on the loess table during the past 130 ka even under the most suitable conditions for forest development. This conclusion supports the explanation of natural causes for the development of only patchy forests on the modern loess table and provides critical historical information toward the vegetation restoration project that is currently underway on the Chinese Loess Plateau

  5. Development of multipurpose test apparatus for core assemblies in FMF-extension. Examination of size and cross section form measurement for core assemblies irradiated in 'JOYO'. Technical document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.; Abe, K.; Nagamine, T.; Matsumoto, S.

    2002-04-01

    In the place adjacent to the Fuel Monitoring Facility (FMF) in the O-arai Engineering Center, FMF-Extension was constructed to examine large subassemblies irradiated in the prototype fast breeder reactor 'MONJU' and so on. Until now, in order to confirm the performances of subassembly vertical examination machine, which is one of main apparatus installed in FMF-Extension, it has been experimentally conducted to measure six subassemblies irradiated in the experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. This machine has multi-functions such appearance inspection, various size measurements and dismantling a subassembly. As to the size measurements, it is possible to measure subassembly length, hexagonal wrapper tube face-to-face distance, corner-to-corner distance, bowing and twisting automatically. Furthermore, this machine has a function of grasping the cross section form of hexagonal wrapper tube, using a new special tool. The results measured by this machine were compared with the data of the same subassemblies with the exiting machine in FMF, which was calibrated already. For the data of subassembly length, hexagonal wrapper tube face-to-face distance and corner-to-corner distance, the difference of both machines was within a measurement error. In some results of bowing, the difference was over 1mm. It was thought that the difference was not a considerable error when taking into account the characteristics of these machines that the error was easy to propagate. The results of cross section form of hexagonal wrapper tube newly introduced in this machine were in a good agreement within a measurement error, compared with the data calculated on the basis of size measurement results. The existing machine in FMF could not treat this cross section form measurement. (author)

  6. The Development of a Microbial Challenge Test with Acholeplasma laidlawii To Rate Mycoplasma-Retentive Filters by Filter Manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folmsbee, Martha; Lentine, Kerry Roche; Wright, Christine; Haake, Gerhard; Mcburnie, Leesa; Ashtekar, Dilip; Beck, Brian; Hutchison, Nick; Okhio-Seaman, Laura; Potts, Barbara; Pawar, Vinayak; Windsor, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Mycoplasma are bacteria that can penetrate 0.2 and 0.22 μm rated sterilizing-grade filters and even some 0.1 μm rated filters. Primary applications for mycoplasma filtration include large scale mammalian and bacterial cell culture media and serum filtration. The Parenteral Drug Association recognized the absence of standard industry test parameters for testing and classifying 0.1 μm rated filters for mycoplasma clearance and formed a task force to formulate consensus test parameters. The task force established some test parameters by common agreement, based upon general industry practices, without the need for additional testing. However, the culture medium and incubation conditions, for generating test mycoplasma cells, varied from filter company to filter company and was recognized as a serious gap by the task force. Standardization of the culture medium and incubation conditions required collaborative testing in both commercial filter company laboratories and in an Independent laboratory (Table I). The use of consensus test parameters will facilitate the ultimate cross-industry goal of standardization of 0.1 μm filter claims for mycoplasma clearance. However, it is still important to recognize filter performance will depend on the actual conditions of use. Therefore end users should consider, using a risk-based approach, whether process-specific evaluation of filter performance may be warranted for their application. Mycoplasma are small bacteria that have the ability to penetrate sterilizing-grade filters. Filtration of large-scale mammalian and bacterial cell culture media is an example of an industry process where effective filtration of mycoplasma is required. The Parenteral Drug Association recognized the absence of industry standard test parameters for evaluating mycoplasma clearance filters by filter manufacturers and formed a task force to formulate such a consensus among manufacturers. The use of standardized test parameters by filter manufacturers

  7. Achieving high rates of consent for genetic testing among African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Bronars, Carrie A; Thomas, Janet L; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; King, Gary; Mayo, Matthew S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2007-06-01

    Genetic factors play an important role in smoking behavior. Although African Americans are at disproportionately increased risk for tobacco-related morbidity and mortality, limited attention has been given to genetic investigation of tobacco use in this population. The present study examined consent for genetic testing among African American smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. African American light smokers (genetic analysis related to smoking. Participants completed assessment of demographic, psychosocial, and tobacco-related variables. Of 755 clinical trial participants, 745 (99%) responded to the genetic consent form. Of participants who responded, 620 (83%) provided consent for blood collection for genetic analysis. No significant differences were identified between individuals who consented to genetic analysis and those who denied consent. This study demonstrated the feasibility of obtaining consent for genetic analysis for smoking-related investigation among African American smokers. Findings support the inclusion of African Americans within genetic investigation of tobacco use and treatment.

  8. The effects of environmental factors and experimental method on the results of low dose rate microprocessor irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviron, A.; Gerard, G.; Gauthier, G.; Henry, J.Y.; Le Meur, M.

    1992-02-01

    As part of the safety studies of nuclear facilities, a series of experiments have been in progress over a number of years to determine the principal parameters for which allowance needs to be made in the testing of microprocessors in low dose rate nuclear irradiation environments. This paper contains a brief description of the results already published, followed by a review of the latest results obtained, specifically as concerns the effects of temperature, the origin of the batch, the angle of incidence of the radiation and the test routine used. (author)

  9. Assessing the effectiveness of the COPD Assessment Test (CAT) to evaluate COPD severity and exacerbation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, Yelda; Ozacar, Rifat; Balci, Gunseli; Usta, Levent; Taymaz, Zuhre

    2014-04-01

    The CAT is a short, simple eight-item questionnaire for assessing and monitoring COPD. It is not known how reliable the CAT scores are for COPD patients who are frequently exacerbated. The effectiveness of the CAT for assessing COPD severity and exacerbation rates was evaluated. This study enrolled 165 stable COPD patients who completed the CAT between April 2011 and February 2012. Patients had a mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) equal to 43.7% of the predicted value and a mean CAT score of 21.2 (± 7.56) units. There was a good association between the FEV1 (percentage of predicted value) and CAT scores (p CAT scores than infrequent exacerbators (24.8 ± 6.7 versus 17.5 ± 6.5, p CAT scores (p CAT scores (p = 0.001). We observed a good relation between the CAT, FEV 1, and disease severity in patients with COPD. We found that the baseline CAT scores are elevated in frequent exacerbators.

  10. Using NIF to Test Theories of High-Pressure, High-Rate Plastic Flow in Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, Robert E.; Arsenlis, A.; Cavallo, R. M.; Huntington, C. M.; McNaney, J. M.; Park, H. S.; Powell, P.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Remington, B. A.; Swift, D.; Wehrenberg, C. E.; Yang, L.

    2017-10-01

    Precisely controlled plasmas are playing key roles both as pump and probe in experiments to understand the strength of solid metals at high energy density (HED) conditions. In concert with theoretical advances, these experiments have enabled a predictive capability to model material strength at Mbar pressures and high strain rates. Here we describe multiscale strength models developed for tantalum starting with atomic bonding and extending up through the mobility of individual dislocations, the evolution of dislocation networks and so on until the ultimate material response at the scale of an experiment. Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) probe strength in metals ramp compressed to 1-8 Mbar. The model is able to predict 1 Mbar experiments without adjustable parameters. The combination of experiment and theory has shown that solid metals can behave significantly differently at HED conditions. We also describe recent studies of lead compressed to 3-5 Mbar. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA273.

  11. Propagating mass accretion rate fluctuations in black hole X-ray binaries: quantitative tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, S.; Ingram, A.; van der Klis, M.

    2017-10-01

    Over the past 20 years, a consistent phenomenology has been established to describe the variability properties of Black Hole X-ray Binaries (BHBs). However, the physics behind the observational data is still poorly understood. The recently proposed model PROPFLUC assumes a truncated disc/hot inner flow geometry, with mass accretion rate fluctuations propagating through a precessing inner flow. These two processes give rise respectively to broad band variability and QPO. Because of propagation, the emission from different regions of the disc/hot flow geometry is correlated. In our study we applied the model PROPFLUC on different BHBs (including XTE J1550-564 and Cygnus X-1) in different spectral states, fitting jointly the power spectra in two energy bands and the cross-spectrum between these two bands. This represents the first study to utilize quantitive fitting of a physical model simultaneously to observed power and cross-spectra. For the case of XTE J1550-564, which displays a strong QPO, we found quantitative and qualitative discrepancies between model predictions and data, whereas we find a good fit for the Cygnus X-1 data, which does not display a QPO. We conclude that the discrepancies are generic to the propagating fluctuations paradigm, and may be related to the mechanism originating the QPO.

  12. DYNAMIC CHANGES IN SPECTRAL HEART RATE VARIABILITY PARAMETERS IN PACED BREATHING TEST IN PATIENT WITH UNCONTROLLED ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION AND POLYMORBIDITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Oyeleye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A clinical case of a patient with uncontrolled hypertension and polymorbidity. The paced breathing test was made, was found prevalence of low frequency influences at the initial stage and its intensification at the resting stage, growth of the total power of heart rate variability spectrum (TP with respiratory modulation. The course of the disease worsened the appearance of new-onset atrial fibrillation (registered paroxysm on Holter monitoring; the general deterioration of the patient’s state reflected HRV changes on sinus rhythm tracing - significantly reduced TP growth in response to paced breathing, an increase in LF/HF (ratio of low frequency to high frequency waves, as well as switching to the neurohormonal level of heart rate regulation at the resting stage. After the treatment the growth of TP in response to the test has increased and LF/HF level has decreased.

  13. Biaxial direct tensile tests in a large range of strain rates. Results on a ferritic nuclear steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertini, C.; Labibes, K.; Montagnani, M.; Pizzinato, E.V.; Solomos, G.; Viaccoz, B. [Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy). Joint Research Centre

    2000-09-01

    Constitutive equations are usually calibrated only trough the experimental results obtained by means of unixial tests because of the lack of adequate biaxial experimental data especially at high strain rate conditions. These data are however important for the validation of analytical models and also for the predictions of mechanical behaviour of real structures subjected to multiaxial loading by numerical simulations. In this paper some developments are shown concerning biaxial cruciform specimens and different experimental machines allowing biaxial tests in a large range of strain rates. This experimental campaign has also allowed study of the influence of changing the strain paths. Diagrams of equivalent stress versus straining direction and also equivalent plastic fracture strain versus straining direction are shown. (orig.)

  14. A Study on the Significance of the Colloidal Radiogold Disappearance Rate as a Simple Clinical Liver Function Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Chang Gi

    1969-01-01

    Liver function in diffuse parenchymal liver such as cirrhosis of the liver depend largely on the effective hepatic blood flow rather than on the individual cell functions. Clinical methods of measuring the hepatic blood flow were developed recently by the application of colloidal disappearance rate. In order to correlate the radiogold disappearance rate to conventional biochemical liver function tests, 21 normal subjects and 80 cases of cirrhosis of the liver were studied with both methods. The results are summarized as following: 1) The validity of external counting method to measure the blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was confirmed by in vitro counting of the serial blood samples. 2) The blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was essentially the same as the liver uptake rate of colloidal radiogold in normal and cirrhotic subjects with various degrees of functional disturbance. And it seemed there was no serious extrahepatic removal of the colloidal radiogold. 3) The disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was not significant changed by the posture change, but was enhanced by ingestion of 500 ml of water. 4) The disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold was not influenced y single dose of Telepaque, while BSP retention was increased after Telepaque. 5) The mean disappearance half time of colloidal radiogold in normal subjects was 2.49±0.391 (S.D.) minutes. The mean normal disappearance rate constant (K value) was 0.285±0.0428 (S.D.)/minute. 6) The colloidal radiogold disappearance half time was abnormally prolonged (over 3.2 mm) in 87.7±3.68 (S.D.) % of cirrhotic subjects. 7) In patients of liver cirrhosis the blood disappearance rate of colloidal radiogold correlated well to serum albumin and globulin levels and BSP retention which were considered to reflect functions of hepatic parenchymal cells. There was, however, no correlation between colloidal disappearance rate and thymol turbidity test, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase

  15. BWR operation for life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stancavage, P.

    1987-01-01

    Most nuclear power plant life extension studies conducted to date focus on the technology, licensing, and economics of extended service life. The most significant factor in plant longevity, however, is proper operation and maintenance. This paper highlights the benefits of boiling water reactor (BWR) operation for life extension and discusses specific recommendations that will enhance the prospects for safe, reliable, and economic power production in the long term. The benefits of BWR operation for life extension include a lower cost of electric energy production, increased capacity and availability factors, a lower forced outage rate, and reduced occupational exposure to radiation. Operating experience and advanced in technology have provided a wealth of knowledge that can be used to develop specific recommendations for adding years to the expected life of BWR plants. This paper discusses key factors in operation for life extension

  16. The influence of test temperature and strain rate on the mechanical properties of steel A533 B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, O.

    1983-01-01

    Tensile testing has been performed at three different strain rates (2,4times10 -2 , 2,4times10 -3 , 2,4times10 -4 s -1 ) in the temperature range 20-375degreeC on a quenched-and-tempered nuclear-reactor pressure-vessel steel, A533 B. The appearance of serrated flow over a certain temperature range indicates that the material undergoes dynamic strain aging. As expected the temperature range where serrated flow is observed is displaced to higher temperatures as the strain rate is raised. For strain rates 2,4times10 -4 , 2,4times10 -3 and 2,4times10 -2 s -1 , serrated flow is observed in the temperature range approx.205-325degreeC, approx.215-335degreeC and approx.240-360degreeC respectively. Compared to the behaviour at room temperature, the greatest reduction in elongation and reduction in area amounts to 25percent and 10percent respectively, in the temperature range where the steel undergoes dynamic strian aging. The temperature and strain-rate dependence of fracture toughness can, in an analogous manner to the behaviour during tensile testing, be accounted for by an effect of dynamic strain aging. It is also shown that it is possible to reconcile theoretically the decrease in fracture thoughness derived from dynamic strain aging in terms of the ductility decrease found in tensile tests. An analysis of the temperature and strain-rate dependence of dj/da shows that it can not be excluded that even this quantity is sensitive to dynamic strain aging. (author)

  17. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D.; Hutchinson, S.W.

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests

  18. Reproducibility for Heart Rate Variability Analysis during 6-Min Walk Test in Patients with Heart Failure and Agreement between Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Lays Magalhães; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Umeda, Iracema Ioco Kikuchi; Kawauchi, Tatiana Satie; Taboada, Adriana Marques Fróes; Azevedo, Raymundo Soares; Pereira Filho, Horacio Gomes; Grupi, César José; Souza, Hayala Cristina Cavenague; Moreira, Dalmo Antônio Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a useful method to assess abnormal functioning in the autonomic nervous system and to predict cardiac events in patients with heart failure (HF). HRV measurements with heart rate monitors have been validated with an electrocardiograph in healthy subjects but not in patients with HF. We explored the reproducibility of HRV in two consecutive six-minute walk tests (6MW), 60-minute apart, using a heart rate monitor (PolarS810i) and a portable electrocardiograph (called Holter) in 50 HF patients (mean age 59 years, NYHA II, left ventricular ejection fraction ~35%). The reproducibility for each device was analysed using a paired t-test or the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Additionally, we assessed the agreement between the two devices based on the HRV indices at rest, during the 6MW and during recovery using concordance correlation coefficients (CCC), 95% confidence intervals and Bland-Altman plots. The test-retest for the HRV analyses was reproducible using Holter and PolarS810i at rest but not during recovery. In the second 6MW, patients showed significant increases in rMSSD and walking distance. The PolarS810i measurements had remarkably high concordance correlation [0.86rates, a small effect in increasing differences between Holter and Polar in R-R intervals was observed. In conclusion, our study showed good reproducibility of HRV at rest in two consecutive 6MW using Holter and PolarS810i. Additionally, PolarS810i produced good agreements in short-term HRV indices based on Holter simultaneous recordings at rest, during the 6MW and recovery in HF patients. PMID:27936043

  19. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hutchinson, S.W. [Mead Johnson Nutritional Group, Evansville, IN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

  20. Development of a Low Strain-Rate Gun Propellant Bed Compression Test and its Use in Evaluating Mechanical Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    3291 UNCLASSIFIED Nomenclature Symbol Description a Burn rate coefficient ADI Australian Defence Industries AISI American Iron and Steel...received, besides grain density determination, which was by helium pycnometry with grains first ground and sieved , with material passing through a 1.00...mm sieve but retained on a 0.425 mm sieve tested as per Method 502/83 of [19]. The resulting ground and sieved propellant was then placed in the

  1. Effect of molecular weight and testing rate on adhesion property of pressure-sensitive adhesives prepared from epoxidized natural rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Imran; Poh, B.T.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Elucidation of adhesion property of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 25). → Correlation of peel and shear strength with molecular weight and rate of testing. → Confirmation of miscibility of tackifier and ENR 25 by DSC and FTIR study. → Applicability of Fox equation in ENR 25/coumarone-indene resin system. -- Abstract: The dependence of peel strength and shear strength of epoxidized natural rubber (ENR 25)-based pressure-sensitive adhesive on molecular weight and rate of testing was investigated using coumarone-indene as the tackifying resin. Toluene and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were used as the solvent and substrate respectively throughout the study. A SHEEN hand coater was used to coat the adhesive on the substrate at a coating thickness of 120 μm. All the adhesion properties were determined by a Llyod Adhesion Tester operating at different rates of testing. Result shows that peel strength and shear strength increases up to an optimum molecular weight of 6.5 x 10 4 of ENR 25. For peel strength, the observation is attributed to the combined effects of wettability and mechanical strength of rubber at the optimum molecular weight, whereas for the shear strength, it is ascribed to the increasing amount of adhesive present in the coating layer which enhances the shear resistance of the adhesive. Peel strength and shear strength also increases with increase in rate of testing, an observation which is associated to the viscoeslastic response of the adhesive. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the miscibility of tackifier and the ENR 25.

  2. Heart Rate and Oxygen Saturation Change Patterns During 6-min Walk Test in Subjects With Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Takeshi; Terada, Jiro; Yahaba, Misuzu; Kawata, Naoko; Jujo, Takayuki; Nagashima, Kengo; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2017-12-26

    The 6-min walk test (6MWT) is commonly performed to assess functional status in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. However, changes in heart rate and oxygen saturation ( S pO 2 ) patterns during 6MWT in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension remain unclear. Thirty-one subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension were retrospectively evaluated to examine the relationships between the change in heart rate (Δheart rate), heart rate acceleration time, slope of heart rate acceleration, heart rate recovery during the first minute after 6MWT (HRR1), change in S pO 2 (Δ S pO 2 ), S pO 2 reduction time, and S pO 2 recovery time during 6MWT, and the severity of pulmonary hemodynamics assessed by right heart catheterization and echocardiography. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had significantly longer heart rate acceleration time (144.9 ± 63.9 s vs 96.0 ± 42.5 s, P = .033), lower Δheart rate (47.4 ± 16.9 vs 61.8 ± 13.6 beats, P = .02), and lower HRR1 (13.3 ± 9.0 beats vs 27.1 ± 9.2 beats, P pulmonary hypertension. Subjects with severe chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension also had significantly longer S pO 2 reduction time (178.3 ± 70.3 s vs 134.3 ± 58.4 s, P = .03) and S pO 2 recovery time (107.6 ± 35.3 s vs 69.8 ± 32.7 s, P = .004) than did subjects with mild chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed only mean pulmonary arterial pressure independently was associated with heart rate acceleration time and slope of heart rate acceleration. Heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT is predominantly associated with pulmonary hemodynamics in subjects with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Evaluating heart rate and S pO 2 change patterns during 6MWT may serve a safe and convenient way to follow the change in pulmonary hemodynamics. Copyright © 2017 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  3. Current patch test results with the European baseline series and extensions to it from the 'European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy' network, 2007-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Aberer, Werner; Armario-Hita, José Carlos; Fernandez-Vozmediano, José M; Ayala, Fabio; Balato, Anna; Bauer, Andrea; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara; Beliauskiene, Aiste; Fortina, Anna Belloni; Bircher, Andreas; Brasch, Jochen; Chowdhury, Mahbub M U; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Cooper, Sue; Czarnecka-Operacz, Magda; Zmudzinska, Maria; Elsner, Peter; English, John S C; Frosch, Peter J; Fuchs, Thomas; García-Gavín, Juan; Fernández-Redondo, Virginia; Gawkrodger, David J; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; Green, Cathy M; Horne, Helen L; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Jolanki, Riitta; Pesonen, Maria; King, Clodagh M; Krêcisz, Beata; Chomiczewska, Dorota; Kiec-Swierczynska, Marta; Larese, Francesca; Mahler, Vera; Ormerod, Anthony D; Peserico, Andrea; Rantanen, Tapio; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Sánchez-Pérez, Javier; Sansom, Jane E; Silvestre, Juan Fco; Simon, Dagmar; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Statham, Barry N; Stone, Natalie; Wilkinson, Mark; Schnuch, Axel

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of contact sensitization to the supposedly most important allergens assembled in the baseline series differs between countries, presumably at least partly because of exposure differences. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of contact sensitization to allergens tested in

  4. Current patch test results with the European baseline series and extensions to it from the 'European Surveillance System on Contact Allergy' network, 2007-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uter, Wolfgang; Aberer, Werner; Armario-Hita, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The pattern of contact sensitization to the supposedly most important allergens assembled in the baseline series differs between countries, presumably at least partly because of exposure differences. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of contact sensitization to allergens tested in consecutive...

  5. Does a Negative Triple Test Reduce the Rate of Negative Appendectomy in Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud F. Sakr

    2012-08-01

    Results: Sixty-seven patients (65.9% were female and 35 (34.1% were male. Their ages ranged between 16 and 49 years (mean 27.5 years. Most patients (87.3% had their symptoms for 12-36 hours before hospital admission. The mean values for TLC, NP, and CRP were 7,573/ and micro;L, 54.53%, and 0.61 mg/L, respectively. Of the 102 patients with NTT, 101 (99% proved not to have appendiceal inflammation (NPV=99%. Only 39 patients were operated upon, of whom 38 (97.4% had a normal appendix, and the remaining 63 patients were either discharged (n=47 or referred to other specialties (n=16. There were significantly more women (76.3%, 29/38 with negative appendectomy than men (24.7%, 9/38 (X2= 21.1, p=0.0001. Gynecological causes were the most common (60.5%, 23/38 and in 11 cases, the exact etiology could not be identified. Conclusions: From the data presented, it may be concluded that TLC, NP and CRP blood levels (triple test should be measured upon hospital admission of adult patients with clinically suspected acute appendicitis. If used judiciously, they may spare the group of patients with an NTT an unnecessary surgical operation, hence markedly reducing the NAR with its potential risks. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2012; 1(4.000: 229-236

  6. Prediction of time dependent standby failure rates for periodically tested components taking into account the operational history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simic, Zdenko; Vrbanic, Ivan; Vukovic, Igor [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing

    2009-11-15

    The prediction of time dependent standby failure rates was studied, taking into account the operational history of a component. These studies are important for applications such as system modeling in probabilistic safety analysis to evaluate the impact of equipment aging and maintenance strategies on the risk measures (e.g. reactor core damage frequency) considered. The time dependent model for the standby failure rate is defined based on the Weibull distribution and the principles of proportional age reduction by equipment overhauls. The parameters which determine the standby failure rate are estimated, including the definition of the operational history model and likelihood function for Bayesian analysis of parameters for periodically tested standby repairable components. The operational history is provided as time axis with defined times of overhauls, surveillance tests and failures. Assessment of time dependent unavailability due to the failure of periodically tested standby components is described. As an example, the prediction of the future behavior of components for seven different operational histories is described. (orig.)

  7. Cardiorespiratory endurance evaluation using heart rate analysis during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test in elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo Taek; Roh, Hyo Lyun; Kim, Yoon Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Efficient management using exercise programs with various benefits should be provided by educational institutions for children in their growth phase. We analyzed the heart rates of children during ski simulator exercise and the Harvard step test to evaluate the cardiopulmonary endurance by calculating their post-exercise recovery rate. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects (n = 77) were categorized into a normal weight and an overweight/obesity group by body mass index. They performed each exercise for 3 minutes. The cardiorespiratory endurance was calculated using the Physical Efficiency Index formula. [Results] The ski simulator and Harvard step test showed that there was a significant difference in the heart rates of the 2 body mass index-based groups at each minute. The normal weight and the ski-simulator group had higher Physical Efficiency Index levels. [Conclusion] This study showed that a simulator exercise can produce a cumulative load even when performed at low intensity, and can be effectively utilized as exercise equipment since it resulted in higher Physical Efficiency Index levels than the Harvard step test. If schools can increase sport durability by stimulating students' interests, the ski simulator exercise can be used in programs designed to improve and strengthen students' physical fitness.

  8. Performance assessment of mass flow rate measurement capability in a large scale transient two-phase flow test system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nalezny, C.L.; Chapman, R.L.; Martinell, J.S.; Riordon, R.P.; Solbrig, C.W.

    1979-01-01

    Mass flow is an important measured variable in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program. Large uncertainties in mass flow measurements in the LOFT piping during LOFT coolant experiments requires instrument testing in a transient two-phase flow loop that simulates the geometry of the LOFT piping. To satisfy this need, a transient two-phase flow loop has been designed and built. The load cell weighing system, which provides reference mass flow measurements, has been analyzed to assess its capability to provide the measurements. The analysis consisted of first performing a thermal-hydraulic analysis using RELAP4 to compute mass inventory and pressure fluctuations in the system and mass flow rate at the instrument location. RELAP4 output was used as input to a structural analysis code SAPIV which is used to determine load cell response. The computed load cell response was then smoothed and differentiated to compute mass flow rate from the system. Comparison between computed mass flow rate at the instrument location and mass flow rate from the system computed from the load cell output was used to evaluate mass flow measurement capability of the load cell weighing system. Results of the analysis indicate that the load cell weighing system will provide reference mass flows more accurately than the instruments now in LOFT

  9. ICD implantation without intraoperative testing does not increase the rate of system modifications and does not impair defibrillation efficacy tested in follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Dirk; Kracker, Stefan; Pauschinger, Matthias; Göhl, Konrad

    2013-06-01

    The need for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) defibrillation testing (DT) and subsequent intraoperative system modifications is discussed controversially. The study's goal was to prove that consequent abdication of intraoperative DT does not impair defibrillation efficacy and does not increase the rate of postoperative system revisions. In a prospective single-center observational study, 609 out of 648 consecutive patients underwent transvenous ICD implantation (left-sided, active can, dual coil lead, and biphasic shock waveform) waiving intraoperative DT. Defibrillation efficacy was validated prior to hospital discharge (PHD) by applying two 10 J safety margin (SM) shocks. Following "schockless" implantation 580 out of 609 patients (95.2 %) met a 10 J SM with default programming. Shock path reversal provided 10 J SM in 13 out of 29 cases with initially failed DT. In four patients (0.7 %) maximum energy shocks were ineffective. There was no morbidity or mortality related to DT. The total rate of surgical ICD revisions was 1.8 %. Routine ICD implantation without intraoperative DT does not lead to an increased rate of postoperative system modifications and does not decrease defibrillation efficacy as tested PHD.

  10. Temporary Relocation of the Testes in Anteromedial Thigh Pouches Facilitates Delayed Primary Scrotal Wound Closure in Fournier Gangrene With Extensive Loss of Scrotal Skin-Experience With 12 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwudili, Obi Anselm

    2016-03-01

    To share our experience on the use of temporary testicular thigh pouches to facilitate scrotal wound closure in Fournier gangrene with extensive loss of scrotal skin. Patients seen over a 10-year period who had extensive (>50%) loss of scrotal skin precluding delayed primary closure of the residual scrotal skin over the testes were documented. Patients had serial debridement as required with scrotal wound dressing until healthy granulation tissue was achieved. The testes were placed temporarily in anteromedial thigh pouches to allow for scrotal wound closure. In the postoperative period, the testes were gradually massaged back into the residual scrotal pouch, thus acting as natural tissue expanders. Mean patient age was 38.1 ± 10.0 years. Mean duration of admission was 24.4 ± 4.7 days. Identified predisposing factors were ischiorectal fossa abscess in 2 patients and urethral stricture in 1 patient. The rest were idiopathic. Mean Fournier gangrene severity index was 6.0 ± 1.3. Mean number of debridements was 2.3 ± 0.5. There was no mortality. The residual scrotal pouches expanded sufficiently over time (3-8 months) to accommodate the testes. Normal testicular volume was maintained in all patients. Mean testicular volume was 19.0 ± 3.2 cm. Follow-up was for 14.8 ± 9.7 months. Temporarily relocating the testes in anteromedial thigh pouches facilitates scrotal wound closure in Fournier gangrene with extensive loss of scrotal skin and obviates the need for specialized reconstructive surgery.

  11. The effect of test kit provision, and individual and family education on the uptake rates of fecal occult blood test in an Asian population: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tam Cam; Yong, Sook Kwin; Yeoh, Kheng-Wei; Kamberakis, Kay; Yeo, Richard Ming Chert; Koh, Gerald Choon-Huat

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether fecal occult blood test (FOBT) home-delivery and individual education or combined with family education increases FOBT uptake rates in Singapore. This is a randomized controlled intervention study of Singaporean residents aged 50 years and above, conducted in May 2012 till May 2013. Eligible individuals in randomly selected households were screened, and one member was randomly selected and allocated to one of the four arms: Group A (individual and family education, FOBT kits provided), Group B (individual education only, FOBT kits provided), Group C (no education, FOBT kits provided) and Group D (no education or FOBT kits provided). Overall response rate was 74.7 %. The FOBT return rates for groups A, B, C and D were 24.5 % [CI 16.2-34.4 %], 25.3 % [CI 16.4-36.0 %], 10.7 % [CI 4.7-19.9 %] and 2.2 % [CI 0.3-7.7 %], respectively. Respondents who were provided education and home-delivered FOBT kits were 15 times more likely to return FOBT kits [Group A: OR 15.0 (3.4-66.2); Group B: OR 15.5 (3.5-68.8)] and those provided with home-delivered FOBT without education were five times more likely to return FOBT kits [Group C: OR 5.8 (1.2-28.3)] than those without education and FOBT kits (Group D). There was no significant difference in return of FOBT kits whether education was provided to subject with or without a family member. Home delivery of FOBT kits increased FOBT return rates and individual education combined with home-delivered FOBT increased FOBT return rates even further. However, additional combination with family education did not increase FOBT rates further.

  12. The effect of an electronic "hard-stop" alert on HIV testing rates in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Sperling, Jeremy D; Liu, Nan; Green, Robert A; Clark, Sunday; Vawdrey, David K

    2013-01-01

    Use of electronic alerts in clinical practice has had mixed effects on providers' prescribing practices. Little research has explored the use of electronic alerts for improving screening practices. New York City has one of the highest rates of HIV in the United States. Recent New York State legislation requires healthcare providers to offer an HIV test to patients aged 13-64 years during a clinical encounter. Adhering to this requirement is particularly challenging in emergency department (ED) settings, which are frequently overcrowded and under-resourced. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electronic "hard-stop" alert on HIV testing rates in the ED. Approximately four months of data were reviewed before and after the implementation of the alert. We found that use of the electronic alert significantly increased documentation of offering an HIV test (O.R. = 267.27, p<0.001) and resulted in a significant increase in HIV testing. Findings from this study add to the current knowledge about the use of electronic alertsfor improving disease screening.

  13. Application of the re-circulating tracer well test method to determine nitrate reaction rates in shallow unconfined aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbery, Lee F; Flintoft, Mark J; Close, Murray E

    2013-02-01

    Five re-circulating tracer well tests (RCTWTs) have been conducted in a variety of aquifer settings, at four sites across New Zealand. The tests constitute the first practical assessment of the two-well RCTWT methodology described by Burbery and Wang (Journal of Hydrology, 2010; 382:163-173) and were aimed at evaluating nitrate reaction rates in situ. The performance of the RCTWTs differed significantly at the different sites. The RCTWT method performed well when it was applied to determine potential nitrate reaction rates in anoxic, electro-chemically reductive, nitrate-free aquifers of volcanic lithology, on the North Island, New Zealand. Regional groundwater flow was not fast-flowing in this setting. An effective first-order nitrate reaction rate in the region of 0.09 d(-1) to 0.26 d(-1) was determined from two RCTWTs applied at one site where a reaction rate of 0.37 d(-1) had previously been estimated from a push-pull test. The RCTWT method performed poorly, however, in a fast-flowing, nitrate-impacted fluvio-glacial gravel aquifer that was examined on the South Island, New Zealand. This setting was more akin to the hypothetical physiochemical problem described by Burbery and Wang (2010). Although aerobic conditions were identified as the primary reason for failure to measure any nitrate reaction in the gravel aquifer, failure to establish significant interflow in the re-circulation cell due to the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer structure, and natural variability exhibited in nitrate contaminant levels of the ambient groundwater further contributed to the poor performance of the test. Our findings suggest that in practice, environmental conditions are more complex than assumed by the RCTWT methodology, which compromises the practicability of the method as one for determining attenuation rates in groundwater based on tracing ambient contaminant levels. Although limited, there appears to be a scope for RCTWTs to provide useful information on potential

  14. Application of the re-circulating tracer well test method to determine nitrate reaction rates in shallow unconfined aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbery, Lee F.; Flintoft, Mark J.; Close, Murray E.

    2013-02-01

    Five re-circulating tracer well tests (RCTWTs) have been conducted in a variety of aquifer settings, at four sites across New Zealand. The tests constitute the first practical assessment of the two-well RCTWT methodology described by Burbery and Wang (Journal of Hydrology, 2010; 382:163-173) and were aimed at evaluating nitrate reaction rates in situ. The performance of the RCTWTs differed significantly at the different sites. The RCTWT method performed well when it was applied to determine potential nitrate reaction rates in anoxic, electro-chemically reductive, nitrate-free aquifers of volcanic lithology, on the North Island, New Zealand. Regional groundwater flow was not fast-flowing in this setting. An effective first-order nitrate reaction rate in the region of 0.09 d- 1 to 0.26 d- 1 was determined from two RCTWTs applied at one site where a reaction rate of 0.37 d- 1 had previously been estimated from a push-pull test. The RCTWT method performed poorly, however, in a fast-flowing, nitrate-impacted fluvio-glacial gravel aquifer that was examined on the South Island, New Zealand. This setting was more akin to the hypothetical physiochemical problem described by Burbery and Wang (2010). Although aerobic conditions were identified as the primary reason for failure to measure any nitrate reaction in the gravel aquifer, failure to establish significant interflow in the re-circulation cell due to the heterogeneous nature of the aquifer structure, and natural variability exhibited in nitrate contaminant levels of the ambient groundwater further contributed to the poor performance of the test. Our findings suggest that in practice, environmental conditions are more complex than assumed by the RCTWT methodology, which compromises the practicability of the method as one for determining attenuation rates in groundwater based on tracing ambient contaminant levels. Although limited, there appears to be a scope for RCTWTs to provide useful information on potential

  15. Criterion-related validity of sit-and-reach and toe-touch tests as a measure of hamstring extensibility in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Alacid, Fernando; López-Miñarro, Pedro A

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to determine and compare the concurrent hamstring criterion-related validity of the sit-and-reach (SR) and toe-touch (TT) tests in different athletes (tennis players, kayakers, canoeists, and cyclists); (b) to determine the criterion-related validity of the pelvic tilt assessed by the Spinal Mouse system as a measure of hamstring flexibility in athletes; and (c) to evaluate the influence of spinal posture, pelvic tilt, and hamstring muscle flexibility in the SR and TT scores. Twenty-four tennis players, 30 canoeists, 43 kayakers, and 44 cyclists were recruited. Passive straight leg raise (PSLR), SR, and TT tests were randomly performed. Spinal curvatures and pelvic tilt were evaluated with a Spinal Mouse system when the maximal trunk flexion was achieved in the SR and TT tests. Tennis players and cyclists showed moderate correlations between PSLR with respect to SR (β = 0.78 and β = 0.76, respectively) and TT (β = 0.77 and β = 0.74, respectively). Correlations were slightly lower in canoeists (SR, β = 0.64; TT, β = 0.75). Kayakers showed the lowest correlation values (SR, β = 0.53; TT, β = 0.57). Correlation values between PSLR and pelvic tilt angle in both the SR and TT tests were β tests can be appropriate measures to determine spine flexibility and pelvic tilt range of motion but not to evaluate the hamstring muscle flexibility in tennis players, canoeists, kayakers, and cyclists.

  16. Impact of polymerase chain reaction testing on Clostridium difficile infection rates in an acute health care facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Yanal M; Perez, Justo; Nokhbeh, Reza; Ybazeta, Gustavo; Dewar, Brenda; Lefebvre, Sebastien; Diaz-Mitoma, Francisco

    2015-04-01

    Two rapid methods of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) diagnosis were compared between June 2012 and March 2013: a GeneXpert (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, Calif) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and an enzyme immunoassay (EIA). The influence of these methods on the detection of hospital-acquired CDI and identification of CDI outbreaks was evaluated. We tested 1,592 stool samples for C difficile. The GeneXpert PCR test identified 211 positive samples (68 determined to be hospital-acquired infection), whereas EIA identified 105 positive samples (36 determined to be hospital-acquired infection). The GeneXpert PCR method in contrast to the EIA method increased the detection rates of nosocomial CDI cases and contributed to the declaration of CDI outbreaks. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing the effect of paraquat exposure on genomic recombination rates in queens of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Kurt; Phillips, Matthew; Rueppell, Olav

    2018-04-01

    The rate of genomic recombination displays evolutionary plasticity and can even vary in response to environmental factors. The western honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) has an extremely high genomic recombination rate but the mechanistic basis for this genome-wide upregulation is not understood. Based on the hypothesis that meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair share common mechanisms in honey bees as in other organisms, we predicted that oxidative stress leads to an increase in recombination rate in honey bees. To test this prediction, we subjected honey bee queens to oxidative stress by paraquat injection and measured the rates of genomic recombination in select genome intervals of offspring produced before and after injection. The evaluation of 26 genome intervals in a total of over 1750 offspring of 11 queens by microsatellite genotyping revealed several significant effects but no overall evidence for a mechanistic link between oxidative stress and increased recombination was found. The results weaken the notion that DNA repair enzymes have a regulatory function in the high rate of meiotic recombination of honey bees, but they do not provide evidence against functional overlap between meiotic recombination and DNA damage repair in honey bees and more mechanistic studies are needed.

  18. Testing the Expectations Hypothesis of the Term Structure of Interest Rates in BRICS Countries: A Multivariate Co-integration Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Francois Muzindutsi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The BRICS is a group of major emerging economies in the world which have combined financial resources to form the New Development Bank in an effort to address economic challenges faced by these countries. Thus, the flow of funds among the BRICS countries are expected to increase and this has implication on interest rates changes in these countries. Employing monthly short and long term interest rates from June 2005 to June 2015, this study used a multivariate cointegration approach to test for the validity of the expectations hypothesis (EH of the term structure of interest rates in BRICS countries. The results of the co-integration analysis revealed that the EH only holds in three of the five countries, namely China, India, and South Africa. Short and long term interest rates for these three countries converge to the long-run equilibrium at different speed, where the convergence was found to be quick in South Africa and slow in China. This study found no evidence of EH in Brazil and Russia. Findings of this study are relevant to current developments within BRICS financial markets and provide valuable information that can be used to forecast future changes in interest rates in BRICS countries.

  19. Role of Sexual Objectification Experiences and Internalization of Standards of Beauty in Eating Disorder Symptomatology: A Test and Extension of Objectification Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Bonnie; Dirks, Danielle; Matteson, Alicia V.

    2005-01-01

    This study extends the literature on eating disorder symptomatology by testing, based on extant literature on objectification theory (B. L. Fredrickson & T. Roberts, 1997) and the role of sociocultural standards of beauty (e.g., L. J. Heinberg, J. K. Thompson, & S. Stormer, 1995), a model that examines (a) links of reported sexual objectification…

  20. Final Report: Part 1. In-Place Filter Testing Instrument for Nuclear Material Containers. Part 2. Canister Filter Test Standards for Aerosol Capture Rates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Austin Douglas [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Runnels, Joel T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moore, Murray E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reeves, Kirk Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-11-02

    ) fouling of o-rings, (B) leakage through simulated cracks in o-rings, and (C) air leakage due to inadequately tightened canister lids. The Los Alamos POC instrument determined pertinent air flow and pressure quantities, and this knowledge was used to specify a customized Isaac® (Z axis, Salt Lake City, UT) leak test module. The final Los Alamos IPFT (incorporating the Isaac® leak test module) was used to repeat the tests in the Instrument Development Plan (with simulated filter clogging tests and canister leak pathway tests). The Los Alamos IPFT instrument is capable of determining filter clogging and leak rate conditions, without requiring removal of the container lid. The IPFT measures pressure decay rate from 1.7E-03 in WC/sec to 1.7E-01 in WC/sec. On the same unit scale, helium leak testing of canisters has a range from 5.7E-07 in WC/sec to 1.9E-03 in WC/sec. For a 5-quart storage canister, the IPFT measures equivalent leak flow rates from 0.03 to 3.0 cc/sec. The IPFT does not provide the same sensitivity as helium leak testing, but is able to gauge the assembled condition of as-found and in-situ canisters.

  1. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Materials and Methods: Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. Results: The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. Conclusion: The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:29123441

  2. Evaluation of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST Kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl Test for Detecting Extensively Drug-resistant Tuberculosis Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Kemal; Albay, Ali; Simsek, Hulya; Sig, Ali Korhan; Guney, Mustafa

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the performances of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test for detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance in Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases. Forty-six MDR-TB strains were studied. Second-line antituberculosis drug resistances were detected using the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl test. The Middlebrook 7H10 agar proportion method was used as the reference test. The sensitivity and specificity values for the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit were both 100% for amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin (4 µg/mL), and ofloxacin; 100% and 95.3%, respectively, for capreomycin (10 µg/mL); and 85.7% and 100%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The sensitivity and specificity values for the GenoType MTBDRsl test to detect fluoroquinolone and aminoglycoside/cyclic peptide resistance were 88.9% and 100%, respectively, for ofloxacin and 85.7% and 94.9%, respectively, for moxifloxacin (0.5 µg/mL). The accuracy of the GenoType MTBDRsl assay for kanamycin, capreomycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin was lower than that of the BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST. The BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit and the GenoType MTBDRsl were successful in detecting second-line antituberculosis drug resistance. Preliminary results of the GenoType MTBDRsl are very valuable for early treatment decisions, but we still recommend additional BACTEC MGIT 960 SL DST kit usage in the routine evaluation of drug-resistant tuberculosis.

  3. Classification based hypothesis testing in neuroscience: Below-chance level classification rates and overlooked statistical properties of linear parametric classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamalabadi, Hamidreza; Alizadeh, Sarah; Schönauer, Monika; Leibold, Christian; Gais, Steffen

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has recently become a popular tool for data analysis. Often, classification accuracy as quantified by correct classification rate (CCR) is used to illustrate the size of the effect under investigation. However, we show that in low sample size (LSS), low effect size (LES) data, which is typical in neuroscience, the distribution of CCRs from cross-validation of linear MVPA is asymmetric and can show classification rates considerably below what would be expected from chance classification. Conversely, the mode of the distribution in these cases is above expected chance levels, leading to a spuriously high number of above chance CCRs. This unexpected distribution has strong implications when using MVPA for hypothesis testing. Our analyses warrant the conclusion that CCRs do not well reflect the size of the effect under investigation. Moreover, the skewness of the null-distribution precludes the use of many standard parametric tests to assess significance of CCRs. We propose that MVPA results should be reported in terms of P values, which are estimated using randomization tests. Also, our results show that cross-validation procedures using a low number of folds, e.g. twofold, are generally more sensitive, even though the average CCRs are often considerably lower than those obtained using a higher number of folds. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1842-1855, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Maximal torque- and power-pedaling rate relationships for elite sprint cyclists in laboratory and field tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A Scott; Martin, James C; Martin, David T; Barras, Martin; Jenkins, David G

    2007-10-01

    Performance models provide an opportunity to examine cycling in a broad parameter space. Variables used to drive such models have traditionally been measured in the laboratory. The assumption, however, that maximal laboratory power is similar to field power has received limited attention. The purpose of the study was to compare the maximal torque- and power-pedaling rate relationships during "all-out" sprints performed on laboratory ergometers and on moving bicycles with elite cyclists. Over a 3-day period, seven male (mean +/- SD; 180.0 +/- 3.0 cm; 86.2 +/- 6.1 kg) elite track cyclists completed two maximal 6 s cycle ergometer trials and two 65 m sprints on a moving bicycle; calibrated SRM powermeters were used and data were analyzed per revolution to establish torque- and power-pedaling rate relationships, maximum power, maximum torque and maximum pedaling rate. The inertial load of our laboratory test was (37.16 +/- 0.37 kg m(2)), approximately half as large as the field trials (69.7 +/- 3.8 kg m(2)). There were no statistically significant differences between laboratory and field maximum power (1791 +/- 169; 1792 +/- 156 W; P = 0.863), optimal pedaling rate (128 +/- 7; 129 +/- 9 rpm; P = 0.863), torque-pedaling rate linear regression slope (-1.040 +/- 0.09; -1.035 +/- 0.10; P = 0.891) and maximum torque (266 +/- 20; 266 +/- 13 Nm; P = 0.840), respectively. Similar torque- and power-pedaling rate relationships were demonstrated in laboratory and field settings. The findings suggest that maximal laboratory data may provide an accurate means of modeling cycling performance.

  5. Advanced bridge safety initiative : live load testing and load rating of the Evans Brook Bridge (#5506) and the Hastings Bridge (#5507) in Batchelders Grant, Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Advanced Structures and Composites Center at the University of Maine (UMaine) performed live load testing : and rating factor analysis for two bridges (No. 5506 and No. 5507) in Batchelders Grant, Maine. The bridge load : rating performed by cons...

  6. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Sartor

    Full Text Available Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9, 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30. The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI, which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40, but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91. The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93. It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42 than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29. In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  7. A 45-Second Self-Test for Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Heart Rate-Based Estimation in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Francesco; Bonato, Matteo; Papini, Gabriele; Bosio, Andrea; Mohammed, Rahil A; Bonomi, Alberto G; Moore, Jonathan P; Merati, Giampiero; La Torre, Antonio; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is a widespread essential indicator in Sports Science as well as in Sports Medicine. This study aimed to develop and validate a prediction model for CRF based on a 45 second self-test, which can be conducted anywhere. Criterion validity, test re-test study was set up to accomplish our objectives. Data from 81 healthy volunteers (age: 29 ± 8 years, BMI: 24.0 ± 2.9), 18 of whom females, were used to validate this test against gold standard. Nineteen volunteers repeated this test twice in order to evaluate its repeatability. CRF estimation models were developed using heart rate (HR) features extracted from the resting, exercise, and the recovery phase. The most predictive HR feature was the intercept of the linear equation fitting the HR values during the recovery phase normalized for the height2 (r2 = 0.30). The Ruffier-Dickson Index (RDI), which was originally developed for this squat test, showed a negative significant correlation with CRF (r = -0.40), but explained only 15% of the variability in CRF. A multivariate model based on RDI and sex, age and height increased the explained variability up to 53% with a cross validation (CV) error of 0.532 L ∙ min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.91). The best predictive multivariate model made use of the linear intercept of HR at the beginning of the recovery normalized for height2 and age2; this had an adjusted r2 = 0. 59, a CV error of 0.495 L·min-1 and substantial repeatability (ICC = 0.93). It also had a higher agreement in classifying CRF levels (κ = 0.42) than RDI-based model (κ = 0.29). In conclusion, this simple 45 s self-test can be used to estimate and classify CRF in healthy individuals with moderate accuracy and large repeatability when HR recovery features are included.

  8. Psychiatric symptoms and response quality to self-rated personality tests: Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Marc; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Capel, Roland; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2017-06-01

    Despite the fact that research has demonstrated consistent associations between self-rated measures of personality dimensions and mental disorders, little has been undertaken to investigate the relation between psychiatric symptoms and response patterns to self-rated tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between psychiatric symptoms and response quality using indices from our functional method. A sample of 1,784 participants from a Swiss population-based cohort completed a personality inventory (NEO-FFI) and a symptom checklist of 90 items (SCL-90-R). Different indices of response quality were calculated based on the responses given to the NEO-FFI. Associations among the responses to indices of response quality, sociodemographic characteristics and the SCL-90-R dimensions were then established. Psychiatric symptoms were associated with several important differences in response quality, questioning subjects' ability to provide valid information using self-rated instruments. As suggested by authors, psychiatric symptoms seem associated with differences in personality scores. Nonetheless, our study shows that symptoms are also related to differences in terms of response patterns as sources of differences in personality scores. This could constitute a bias for clinical assessment. Future studies could still determine whether certain subpopulations of subjects are more unable to provide valid information to self-rated questionnaires than others. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pseudo Algebraically Closed Extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bary-Soroker, Lior

    2009-07-01

    This PhD deals with the notion of pseudo algebraically closed (PAC) extensions of fields. It develops a group-theoretic machinery, based on a generalization of embedding problems, to study these extensions. Perhaps the main result is that although there are many PAC extensions, the Galois closure of a proper PAC extension is separably closed. The dissertation also contains the following subjects. The group theoretical counterpart of pseudo algebraically closed extensions, the so-called projective pairs. Applications to seemingly unrelated subjects, e.g., an analog of Dirichlet's theorem about primes in arithmetic progression for polynomial rings in one variable over infinite fields.

  10. A simple-beam diameter transducer for tensile testing of round specimens at constant true strain rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrie, J.N.

    1977-06-01

    A simple-beam diameter transducer was developed for tensile testing of round specimens at constant true strain rates. The design adopted consists of a pair of thin beams of spring steel bent across the specimen mid-point and hinged at their extremities. A strain gauge is bonded to the outer surface at the mid-length of one of the beams. If the hinge points and vertical centre line of the specimen lie in the same plane, the strain measured on the beam will vary linearly with the diameter of the specimen. In practice, this geometric requirement is satisfied by the method of construction, and linearity was confirmed by experiment. (author)

  11. The presence of a dog attenuates cortisol and heart rate in the Trier Social Stress Test compared to human friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polheber, John P; Matchock, Robert L

    2014-10-01

    Limited research has addressed how social support in the form of a pet can affect both sympathetic and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal reactivity in response to a psychological challenge. The present study examined the effects of social support on salivary cortisol and heart rate (HR). Forty-eight participants were randomly assigned to three different conditions (human friend, novel dog, or control). All participants completed the Trier Social Stress Test and provided cortisol, HR, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measures. For participants paired with a dog, overall cortisol levels were attenuated throughout the experimental procedure, and HR was attenuated during the Trier Social Stress Test. For all groups, state anxiety increased after the Trier Social Stress Test, and HR during the Trier Social Stress Test was a predictor of cortisol. These results suggest that short-term exposure to a novel dog in an unfamiliar setting can be beneficial. They also suggest a possible mechanism for the beneficial effect associated with affiliation with pets.

  12. Determination of the onset of ductile crack extension in 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel by multi-specimen J integral testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, S.G.

    1982-02-01

    Results obtained at AERE Harwell as part of the first phase of the European Group on Fracture round robin activity into ductile crack initiation detection are presented and discussed. Data are analysed using the current ASTM Jsub(IC) testing procedure and by an alternative procedure. Difficulties in the definition of 'initiation' are highlighted and deficiencies of the ASTM procedure exposed. The ASTM Jsub(IC) value for 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel was determined as 0.21 MN/m. The alternative procedure provides a more accurate evaluation of the 'initiation' value of J, that is, at the point of crack advance in excess of that due to crack tip blunting. Using this procedure the 'initiation' value, Jsub(i), was measured as 0.14 MN/m. (author)

  13. Effect of the Stroop test performed in supine position on the heart rate variability in both genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazan, Rastislav; Filcikova, Diana; Mravec, Boris

    2017-12-01

    The effect of Stroop test (ST)-induced stress on autonomic nervous system activity is often examined via measurement of heart rate variability (HRV). However, HRV may be significantly affected by interfering factors, including vocalization and inappropriate body position. Surprisingly, published studies ignore these issues, so the aim of our study was to test the innovative procedure for correct HRV measurement in individuals exposed to ST. Moreover, we examined possible gender differences in HRV and heart rate (HR) during ST. Healthy participants (21 men, 34 women) were placed in a supine position (no orthostatic activation) and then exposed to a 5 min relaxation period and a 5 min period of computerized ST (no vocalization). We found significant differences in HR and HRV parameters in both genders during ST when compared to relaxation (baseline) values. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in HR and HRV between males and females (except for a higher baseline HR in women). Also, reactivity to ST stress (difference between baseline and ST value) showed no gender differences. In conclusion, when performed in a supine position and without vocalization, the ST induces significant stress-related changes of HR and HRV in both genders, with no gender differences in the magnitude of reaction to ST stress. This experimental procedure can be used for correct examination of mental stress-related changes in the autonomic nervous system, and is particularly useful for examining mixed-gender experimental groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. OBSERVER RATING VERSUS THREE-DIMENSIONAL MOTION ANALYSIS OF LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS DURING FUNCTIONAL SCREENING TESTS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclachlan, Liam; White, Steven G; Reid, Duncan

    2015-08-01

    Functional assessments are conducted in both clinical and athletic settings in an attempt to identify those individuals who exhibit movement patterns that may increase their risk of non-contact injury. In place of highly sophisticated three-dimensional motion analysis, functional testing can be completed through observation. To evaluate the validity of movement observation assessments by summarizing the results of articles comparing human observation in real-time or video play-back and three-dimensional motion analysis of lower extremity kinematics during functional screening tests. Systematic review. A computerized systematic search was conducted through Medline, SPORTSdiscus, Scopus, Cinhal, and Cochrane health databases between February and April of 2014. Validity studies comparing human observation (real-time or video play-back) to three-dimensional motion analysis of functional tasks were selected. Only studies comprising uninjured, healthy subjects conducting lower extremity functional assessments were appropriate for review. Eligible observers were certified health practitioners or qualified members of sports and athletic training teams that conduct athlete screening. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) was used to appraise the literature. Results are presented in terms of functional tasks. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. Across these studies, two-legged squats, single-leg squats, drop-jumps, and running and cutting manoeuvres were the functional tasks analysed. When compared to three-dimensional motion analysis, observer ratings of lower extremity kinematics, such as knee position in relation to the foot, demonstrated mixed results. Single-leg squats achieved target sensitivity values (≥ 80%) but not specificity values (≥ 50%>%). Drop-jump task agreement ranged from poor ( 80%). Two-legged squats achieved 88% sensitivity and 85% specificity. Mean underestimations as large as 198 (peak knee flexion) were found in

  15. Application of the multi-rate diffusion approach in tracer test studies at Aespoe HRL. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haggerty, R. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Geosciences

    1999-11-01

    adequately for some cases of multi-rate diffusion. (2) For both multi-rate and anomalous diffusion the diffusivity may decrease with time- and length-scale of measurement, making the parameter value dependent upon the experimental design. (3) A transport model using a single diffusion rate coefficient and that assumes the total matrix porosity is accessible by diffusion will over-estimate the late-time retardation of the solute plume. Third, with respect to our scoping calculations for the LTDE, we make the following points: (1) Maximum information regarding heterogeneity in diffusivity will be obtained with monitoring back-diffusion data from either an injected (long-term) or natural tracer.Both must be measured over several decades of concentration and time. (2) Care must be taken not to misinterpret heterogeneity in diffusivity as a single diffusivity but with higher value. (3) The radial nature of the geometry used in the scoping calculations interferes to some extent with current methods of identifying multi-rate diffusion. Fourth, in regard to incorporation of anomalous matrix diffusion into a solute transport model, we report the following: (1) We are in the process of developing a renormalization methodology that allows diffusion on a fractal matrix while allowing advection and dispersion. Preliminary results indicate that this is feasible and extremely efficient. (2) Resulting late-time breakthrough curves behave as a power-law. Fifth, in regard to the late-time behavior of breakthrough curves, we investigated the late-time behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves with rate-limited mass transfer. Recommendations: Based on the findings of our investigation, we make the following recommendations: Current efforts with the LTDE give high priority to investigation of heterogeneity in diffusivity at Aespoe. This should include an attempt to optimize the experiment in terms of its capability to extract information about the distribution of diffusion rate coefficients

  16. Application of the multi-rate diffusion approach in tracer test studies at Aespoe HRL. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, R.

    1999-11-01

    cases of multi-rate diffusion. (2) For both multi-rate and anomalous diffusion the diffusivity may decrease with time- and length-scale of measurement, making the parameter value dependent upon the experimental design. (3) A transport model using a single diffusion rate coefficient and that assumes the total matrix porosity is accessible by diffusion will over-estimate the late-time retardation of the solute plume. Third, with respect to our scoping calculations for the LTDE, we make the following points: (1) Maximum information regarding heterogeneity in diffusivity will be obtained with monitoring back-diffusion data from either an injected (long-term) or natural tracer. Both must be measured over several decades of concentration and time. (2) Care must be taken not to misinterpret heterogeneity in diffusivity as a single diffusivity but with higher value. (3) The radial nature of the geometry used in the scoping calculations interferes to some extent with current methods of identifying multi-rate diffusion. Fourth, in regard to incorporation of anomalous matrix diffusion into a solute transport model, we report the following: (1) We are in the process of developing a renormalization methodology that allows diffusion on a fractal matrix while allowing advection and dispersion. Preliminary results indicate that this is feasible and extremely efficient. (2) Resulting late-time breakthrough curves behave as a power-law. Fifth, in regard to the late-time behavior of breakthrough curves, we investigated the late-time behavior of tracer test breakthrough curves with rate-limited mass transfer. Recommendations: Based on the findings of our investigation, we make the following recommendations: Current efforts with the LTDE give high priority to investigation of heterogeneity in diffusivity at Aespoe. This should include an attempt to optimize the experiment in terms of its capability to extract information about the distribution of diffusion rate coefficients within the rock

  17. The Term Structure of Interest Rates and its Impact on the Liability Adequacy Test for Insurance Companies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aurelio Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian regulation for applying the Liability Adequacy Test (LAT to technical provisions in insurance companies requires that the current estimate is discounted by a term structure of interest rates (hereafter TSIR. This article aims to analyze the LAT results, derived from the use of various models to build the TSIR: the cubic spline interpolation technique, Svensson's model (adopted by the regulator and Vasicek's model. In order to achieve the objective proposed, the exchange rates of BM&FBOVESPA trading days were used to model the ETTJ and, consequently, to discount the cash flow of the insurance company. The results indicate that: (i LAT is sensitive to the choice of the model used to build the TSIR; (ii this sensitivity increases with cash flow longevity; (iii the adoption of an ultimate forward rate (UFR for the Brazilian insurance market should be evaluated by the regulator, in order to stabilize the trajectory of the yield curve at longer maturities. The technical provision is among the main solvency items of insurance companies and the LAT result is a significant indicator of the quality of this provision, as this evaluates its sufficiency or insufficiency. Thus, this article bridges a gap in the Brazilian actuarial literature, introducing the main methodologies available for modeling the yield curve and a practical application to analyze the impact of its choice on LAT.

  18. Definition of the minimum longitude of insert in the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes for surveillance and life extension of vessels in Mexico; Definicion de la longitud minima de inserto en la reconstitucion de probetas Charpy para vigilancia y extension de vida de vasijas en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero C, J.; Hernandez C, R.; Rocamontes A, M., E-mail: jesus.romero@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    In the National Institute of Nuclear Research (Mexico) a welding system for the rebuilding of Charpy test tubes has been developed, automated, qualified and used for the surveillance of the mechanical properties (mainly embrittlement) of the vessel. This system uses the halves of the rehearsed Charpy test tubes of the surveillance capsules extracted of the reactors, to obtain, of a rehearsed test tube, two reconstituted test tubes. This rebuilding process is used so much in the surveillance program like in the potential extension of the operation license of the vessel. To the halves of Charpy test tubes that have been removed the deformed part by machine are called -insert- and in a very general way the rebuilding consists in weld with the welding process -Stud Welding- two metallic implants in the ends of the insert, to obtain a reconstituted test tube. The main characteristic of this welding are the achieved small dimensions, so much of the areas welded as of the areas affected by the heat. The applicable normative settles down that the minim longitude of the insert for the welding process by Stud Welding it should be of 18 mm, however according to the same normative this longitude can diminish if is demonstrated analytic or experimentally that the central volume of 1 cm{sup 3} in the insert is not affected. In this work the measurement of the temperature profiles to different distances of the welding interface is presented, defining an equation for the maximum temperatures reached in function of the distance, on the other hand the real longitude affected in the test tube by means of metallography is determined and this way the minimum longitude of the insert for this developed rebuilding system was determined. (Author)

  19. SB5 WITH THE ESTIMATED IMPACT OF LOW TEMPERATURE ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION: PRELIMINARY FRITS FOR MELT RATE TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, K; Tommy Edwards, T

    2008-01-01

    WL was limited by both the TL and nepheline constraints for all three frits. Changes in the projected SB5 composition are anticipated before processing begins at the DWPF, which will likely require additional paper study assessments as well as experimental frit development studies. This study identifies several frits which provide insight into potential operating windows for SB5 vitrification in DWPF. However, until experimental studies can be performed to gain information on melt rate and other parameters needed to optimize frit selection, no final frit recommendation can be made. Information regarding melt rate cannot be inferred from the paper study results. Experimental studies to evaluate this critical factor in DWPF processing must be performed to support frit optimization for any projected sludge composition. Five frit compositions were identified for melt rate testing at SRNL with simulated SB5 Case F SRAT product. The results of these tests will be used to evaluate the impact of the frit components--particularly B 2 O 3 and Na 2 O--that are expected to influence melt rate for SB5-like sludges. The results of the melt rate testing will be documented in a separate report and will be used to help guide the frit recommendation process as the final SB5 composition becomes clearer

  20. Women's Behaviors Toward Mammogram and Pap Test: Opportunities to Increase Cervical Cancer Screening Participation Rates among Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasoli, Simon M; Kane, Eli; Chiarelli, Anna M; Kupets, Rachel

    Screening rates for cervical cancer remain moderate among women over 50 years of age. Because cervical and breast screening interventions can be linked, evaluating screening factors relating to both is important. This study evaluates factors associated with breast and cervical screening participation in women aged 52 to 69. A cross-sectional study was used to describe characteristics associated with screening behaviors of 1,173,456 eligible women in Ontario, Canada. Overdue for screening was defined as more than 2.5 years from last mammogram or more than 3.5 years from last Pap test. Factors that might influence uptake of mammogram or Pap test were included as covariates in a multivariable multinomial logistic regression model. Overall, 52.4% of eligible women were up-to-date for both, 21.3% were overdue for both, 14.4% were overdue for Pap test but were up-to-date with mammogram, and 11.9% were overdue for mammogram but were up-to-date with Pap test. There was an opposite effect of age on likelihood of being overdue for Pap test only versus mammogram only. Women aged 67 to 69 compared with those 52 to 54 were more likely to be overdue for Pap test only (adjusted odds ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-2.4) and less likely to be overdue for mammogram only (adjusted odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.5-0.6). A greater proportion of women rostered to a female physician versus a male physician were up-to-date for both (63.7% vs. 51.5%). Comparing screening patterns may provide physician- and patient-directed strategies to increase cervical screening participation by recruiting women who are overdue for Pap test but undergoing breast cancer screening. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.