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Sample records for extends life span

  1. Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-08-01

    Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life.

  2. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms

  3. A Conserved MST-FOXO Signaling Pathway Mediates Oxidative-Stress Responses and Extends Life Span

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lehtinen, Maria K; Yuan, Zengqiang; Boag, Peter R; Yang, Yue; Villén, Judit; Becker, Esther B.E; DiBacco, Sara; de la Iglesia, Núria; Gygi, Steven; Blackwell, T. Keith; Bonni, Azad

    2006-01-01

    .... We also extend the MST-FOXO signaling link to nematodes. Knockdown of the C. elegans MST1 ortholog CST-1 shortens life span and accelerates tissue aging, while overexpression of cst-1 promotes life span and delays aging...

  4. From yeast to human: exploring the comparative biology of methionine restriction in extending eukaryotic life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Tequila Regulates Insulin-Like Signaling and Extends Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster.

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    Huang, Cheng-Wen; Wang, Horng-Dar; Bai, Hua; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Yen, Jui-Hung; Tatar, Marc; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2015-12-01

    The aging process is a universal phenomenon shared by all living organisms. The identification of longevity genes is important in that the study of these genes is likely to yield significant insights into human senescence. In this study, we have identified Tequila as a novel candidate gene involved in the regulation of longevity in Drosophila melanogaster. We have found that a hypomorphic mutation of Tequila (Teq(f01792)), as well as cell-specific downregulation of Tequila in insulin-producing neurons of the fly, significantly extends life span. Tequila deficiency-induced life-span extension is likely to be associated with reduced insulin-like signaling, because Tequila mutant flies display several common phenotypes of insulin dysregulation, including reduced circulating Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (Dilp2), reduced Akt phosphorylation, reduced body size, and altered glucose homeostasis. These observations suggest that Tequila may confer life-span extension by acting as a modulator of Drosophila insulin-like signaling. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Decreased energy metabolism extends life span in Caenorhabditis elegans without reducing oxidative damage.

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    Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy Michael; Meng, Yan; Camp, Darius; Yang, Wen; Jia, Xihua; Bénard, Claire; Hekimi, Siegfried

    2010-06-01

    On the basis of the free radical and rate of living theories of aging, it has been proposed that decreased metabolism leads to increased longevity through a decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this article, we examine the relationship between mitochondrial energy metabolism and life span by using the Clk mutants in Caenorhabditis elegans. Clk mutants are characterized by slow physiologic rates, delayed development, and increased life span. This phenotype suggests that increased life span may be achieved by decreasing energy expenditure. To test this hypothesis, we identified six novel Clk mutants in a screen for worms that have slow defecation and slow development and that can be maternally rescued. Interestingly, all 11 Clk mutants have increased life span despite the fact that slow physiologic rates were used as the only screening criterion. Although mitochondrial function is decreased in the Clk mutants, ATP levels are normal or increased, suggesting decreased energy utilization. To determine whether the longevity of the Clk mutants results from decreased production of ROS, we examined sensitivity to oxidative stress and oxidative damage. We found no evidence for systematically increased resistance to oxidative stress or decreased oxidative damage in the Clk mutants despite normal or elevated levels of superoxide dismutases. Overall, our findings suggest that decreased energy metabolism can lead to increased life span without decreased production of ROS.

  7. A Fasting-Responsive Signaling Pathway that Extends Life Span in C. elegans

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    Masaharu Uno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting is one of the most effective dietary restriction regimens that extend life span in C. elegans and mammals. Fasting-stimulus responses are key to the longevity response; however, the mechanisms that sense and transduce the fasting stimulus remain largely unknown. Through a comprehensive transcriptome analysis in C. elegans, we find that along with the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, AP-1 (JUN-1/FOS-1 plays a central role in fasting-induced transcriptional changes. KGB-1, one of the C. elegans JNKs, acts as an activator of AP-1 and is activated in response to fasting. KGB-1 and AP-1 are involved in intermittent fasting-induced longevity. Fasting-induced upregulation of the components of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex via AP-1 and DAF-16 enhances protein ubiquitination and reduces protein carbonylation. Our results thus identify a fasting-responsive KGB-1/AP-1 signaling pathway, which, together with DAF-16, causes transcriptional changes that mediate longevity, partly through regulating proteostasis.

  8. Inducible knockdown of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene expression in adult female mice extends life span.

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    Bale, Laurie K; West, Sally A; Conover, Cheryl A

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild-type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP-A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)-inducible Cre recombinase-mediated excision of the floxed PAPP-A (fPAPP-A) gene in mice at 5 months of age. fPAPP-A mice, which were either positive (pos) or negative (neg) for Tam-Cre, received Tam treatment with quarterly boosters. Only female mice could be used with this experimental design. fPAPP-A/neg and fPAPP-A/pos mice had similar weights at the start of the experiment and showed equivalent weight gain. We found that fPAPP-A/pos mice had a significant extension of life span (P = 0.005). The median life span was increased by 21% for fPAPP-A/pos compared to fPAPP-A/neg mice. Analysis of mortality in life span quartiles indicated that the proportion of deaths of fPAPP-A/pos mice were lower than fPAPP-A/neg mice at young adult ages (P = 0.002 for 601-800 days) and higher than fPAPP-A/neg mice at older ages (P = 0.004 for >1000 days). Thus, survival curves and age-specific mortality indicate that female mice with knockdown of PAPP-A gene expression as adults have an extended healthy life span. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Brief early-life non-specific incorporation of deuterium extends mean life span in Drosophila melanogaster without affecting fecundity.

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    Hammel, Stephanie C; East, Kyle; Shaka, A J; Rose, Michael R; Shahrestani, Parvin

    2013-04-01

    We have investigated the effects of brief, non-specific deuteration of Drosophila melanogaster by including varying percentages of ²H (D) in the H₂O used in the food mix consumed during initial development. Up to 22.5% deuterium oxide (D₂O) in H₂O was administered, with the result that a low percentage of D₂O in the water increased mean life span, whereas the highest percentage used (22.5%) reduced life span. After the one-time treatment period, adult flies were maintained ad libitum with food of normal isotopic distribution. At low deuterium levels, where life span extension was observed, there was no observed change in fecundity. Dead flies were assayed for deuterium incorporation by complete hydrolysis in hot 12 N HCl solution followed by subsequent high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). Isoleucine and leucine residues showed a small, linear dose-dependent incorporation of deuterium at non-exchangeable sites. Although high levels of D₂O itself are toxic for other reasons, higher levels of deuterium incorporation, which can be achieved without toxicity by strategies that avoid direct use of D₂O, are clearly worth exploring.

  10. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

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    Kim, Reuben H., E-mail: rkim@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shin, Ki-Hyuk [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Park, No-Hee [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kang, Mo K., E-mail: mkang@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  11. Life Span Developmental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Eryilmaz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Life Span Developmental Approach examines development of individuals which occurs from birth to death. Life span developmental approach is a multi-disciplinary approach related with disciplines like psychology, psychiatry, sociology, anthropology and geriatrics that indicates the fact that development is not completed in adulthood, it continues during the life course. Development is a complex process that consists of dying and death. This approach carefully investigates the development of individuals with respect to developmental stages. This developmental approach suggests that scientific disciplines should not explain developmental facts only with age changes. Along with aging, cognitive, biological, and socioemotional development throughout life should also be considered to provide a reasonable and acceptable context, guideposts, and reasonable expectations for the person. There are three important subjects whom life span developmental approach deals with. These are nature vs nurture, continuity vs discontinuity, and change vs stability. Researchers using life span developmental approach gather and produce knowledge on these three most important domains of individual development with their unique scientific methodology.

  12. The Life Span Dwelling

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    Hans-Peter Hebensperger-Hüther

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the findings from a survey of 10 different experimental housing projects in Bavaria. In 2005 students of architecture and students of social work at the University of Applied Science in Coburg approached the topic of “Life Span Dwelling” using interdisciplinary research methods. The scope of the research ranges from urban planning concepts to common spaces in the different neighborhoods, documenting user satisfaction with the individual unit and feasibility of rooms offered. The findings entered into guidelines for to serve all parties involved with the development and construction of social housing as well as to keep the topic of “Life Span Dwelling” viable in design studio projects.

  13. Metal-based superoxide dismutase and catalase mimics reduce oxidative stress biomarkers and extend life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Ribeiro, Thales de P; Fonseca, Fernanda L; de Carvalho, Mariana D C; Godinho, Rodrigo M da C; de Almeida, Fernando Pereira; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D; Rey, Nicolás A; Fernandes, Christiane; Horn, Adolfo; Pereira, Marcos D

    2017-01-15

    Aging is a natural process characterized by several biological changes. In this context, oxidative stress appears as a key factor that leads cells and organisms to severe dysfunctions and diseases. To cope with reactive oxygen species and oxidative-related damage, there has been increased use of superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase (CAT) biomimetic compounds. Recently, we have shown that three metal-based compounds {[Fe(HPClNOL)Cl2]NO3, [Cu(HPClNOL)(CH3CN)](ClO4)2 and Mn(HPClNOL)(Cl)2}, harboring in vitro SOD and/or CAT activities, were critical for protection of yeast cells against oxidative stress. In this work, treating Saccharomyces cerevisiae with these SOD/CAT mimics (25.0 µM/1 h), we highlight the pivotal role of these compounds to extend the life span of yeast during chronological aging. Evaluating lipid and protein oxidation of aged cells, it becomes evident that these mimics extend the life expectancy of yeast mainly due to the reduction in oxidative stress biomarkers. In addition, the treatment of yeast cells with these mimics regulated the amounts of lipid droplet occurrence, consistent with the requirement and protection of lipids for cell integrity during aging. Concerning SOD/CAT mimics uptake, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we add new evidence that these complexes, besides being bioabsorbed by S. cerevisiae cells, can also affect metal homeostasis. Finally, our work presents a new application for these SOD/CAT mimics, which demonstrate a great potential to be employed as antiaging agents. Taken together, these promising results prompt future studies concerning the relevance of administration of these molecules against the emerging aging-related diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and Huntington's. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Extended attention span training system

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    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  15. 2,5-Dimethyl-Celecoxib Extends Drosophila Life Span via a Mechanism That Requires Insulin and Target of Rapamycin Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qi; Lian, Ting; Fan, Xiaolan; Song, Chaochun; Gaur, Uma; Mao, Xueping; Yang, Deying; Piper, Matthew D W; Yang, Mingyao

    2017-10-01

    The search for antiaging drugs is a key component of gerontology research. A few drugs with positive effects on life span in model organisms have been found. Here, we report that 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib, a derivative of the anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib, can extend Drosophila life span and delay aging by a mechanism involving insulin signaling and target of rapamycin signaling. Importantly, its positive effects were apparent when the treatment window was restricted to the beginning of life or the later half. 2,5-Dimethyl-celecoxib-induced longevity was also associated with improvements in physical activity, intestinal integrity, and increased autophagy. In addition, 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib exhibited protective effects against several kinds of stress such as starvation and heat. The generally positive effects of 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib on both health and life span, combined with its mode of action via evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, indicate that it has the potential to become an effective antiaging drug. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Extracts of Cistanche deserticola Can Antagonize Immunosenescence and Extend Life Span in Senescence-Accelerated Mouse Prone 8 (SAM-P8 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 substrain (SAM-P8, widely accepted as an animal model for studying aging and antiaging drugs, was used to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with extracts of Cistanche deserticola (ECD which has been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine because of its perceived ability to promote immune function in the elderly. Eight-month-old male SAM-P8 mice were treated with ECD by daily oral administrations for 4 weeks. The results showed that dietary supplementation of 150 mg/kg and 450 mg/kg of ECD could extend the life span measured by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis in dose-dependent manner. Dietary supplementation of SAM-P8 mice for 4 weeks with 100, 500, and 2500 mg/kg of ECD was shown to result in significant increases in both naive T and natural killer cells in blood and spleen cell populations. In contrast, peripheral memory T cells and proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6 in serum, were substantially decreased in the mice that ingested 100 and 500 mg/kg of ECD daily. Additionally, Sca-1 positive cells, the recognized progenitors of peripheral naive T cells, were restored in parallel. Our results provide clear experimental support for long standing clinical observational studies showing that Cistanche deserticola possesses significant effects in extending life span and suggest this is achieved by antagonizing immunosenescence.

  17. Loneliness Across the Life Span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qualter, Pamela; Vanhalst, Janne; Harris, Rebecca; Van Roekel, Eeske; Lodder, Gerine; Bangee, Munirah; Maes, Marlies; Verhagen, Maaike

    Most people have experienced loneliness and have been able to overcome it to reconnect with other people. In the current review, we provide a life-span perspective on one component of the evolutionary theory of lonelinessa component we refer to as the reaffiliation motive (RAM). The RAM represents

  18. Genetics, life span, health span, and the aging process in Caenorhabditis elegans.

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    Tissenbaum, Heidi A

    2012-05-01

    As a tool for measuring the aging process, life span has been invaluable in dissecting the genes that modulate longevity. Studies over the past few decades have identified several hundred genes that can modify life span in model organisms such as yeast, worms, and flies. Yet, despite this vast amount of research, we still do not fully understand how the genes that affect life span influence how an organism ages. How does modulation of the genes that affect life span contribute to the aging process? Does life-span extension result in extension of healthy aging? Here, we will focus primarily on the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans because members of this pathway have been shown to be associated with extended life span across phylogeny, from worms to humans. I discuss how this connects to the aging process, age-associated disease, and the potential to increase healthy aging in addition to lengthening life span.

  19. Families as Life Span Experts

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    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    Professionals dealing with challenging behavior frequently operate detached from the other relationships in the child's life. This narrow approach has been called the unilateral strategy based on the belief that the child's outside world can be ignored and behavior can be changed by administering specific corrective interventions. In contrast,…

  20. Friendship and adaption across the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartup, W.W.; Stevens, N.L.

    1999-01-01

    Friends foster self-esteem and a sense of well-being, socialize one another, and support one another in coping with developmental transitions and life stress. Friends engage in different activities with one another across the life span, but friendship is conceived similarly by children and adults.

  1. D-penicillamine and granulosa cells can effectively extend the fertile life span of bovine frozen-thawed spermatozoa in vitro: effect on fertilization and polyspermy.

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    Pavlok, A

    2000-03-15

    The effect of D-penicillamine on the fertile life span of frozen-thawed bull spermatozoa was studied in Experiment 1. After thawing, the washed spermatozoa were incubated for 8 h in fertilization medium with 1 mg/mL polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and 0.5 mg/mL D-penicillamine. The addition of cumulus-free oocytes together with 10% of bovine serum (BOS) + 4 IU/mL heparin to the 8-h incubated spermatozoa resulted in high fertilization and polyspermy rates (97/103, 94.2% and 49/97, 50.5%, respectively). When BOS was substituted with 3 mg/mL of BSA, the fertilization and polyspermy rates decreased to 33/91 (36.3%) and 3/33 (9.1%), respectively. The total absence of fertilization was observed after substitution of proteins with PVA. The 8-h sperm incubation in fertilization medium without D-penicillamine and following fertilization in medium + different capacitation supplements resulted in the total absence of or a very low fertilization rate. In Experiment 2, the first set of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COC) and cumulus-free oocytes were fertilized for 8 h with nonincubated spermatozoa. The second set of COC and cumulus-free oocytes were fertilized in the same wells with spermatozoa after removal of the first set. The fertilization rate for the first set of COC and cumulus-free oocytes was 65/67 (97%) and 73/73 (100%), respectively, with 21/65 (32.3%) and 32/73 (43.8%) polyspermy, respectively. In the second set, the high penetration rate (67/73, 91.8%) was observed only for COC, while that for cumulus-free oocytes (19/76, 25%) was significantly lower (P polyspermy. In medium + BSA + 10 or 100 IU/mL heparin, the fertilization rate of COC was 64/72 (88.9%) and 70/79 (88.6%), respectively, with polyspermy at 2/64 (3.1%) and 7/70 (10%), respectively. In medium + BOS + 10 or 100 IU/mL heparin, the fertilization rate was 79/82 (96.3%) and 79/80 (98.7%), respectively, with a significantly (P polyspermy rate (34/79, 43% and 30/79, 38%, respectively). The vitality and capacitation

  2. Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti-aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TOR-independent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes

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    Goldberg, Alexander A.; Richard, Vincent R.; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Bourque, Simon D.; Beach, Adam; Burstein, Michelle T.; Glebov, Anastasia; Koupaki, Olivia; Boukh-Viner, Tatiana; Gregg, Christopher; Juneau, Mylène; English, Ann M.; Thomas, David Y.; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2010-01-01

    In chronologically aging yeast, longevity can be extended by administering a caloric restriction (CR) diet or some small molecules. These life-extending interventions target the adaptable target of rapamycin (TOR) and cAMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathways that are under the stringent control of calorie availability. We designed a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that increase the chronological life span of yeast under CR by targeting lipid metabolism and modulating housekeeping longevity pathways that regulate longevity irrespective of the number of available calories. Our screen identifies lithocholic acid (LCA) as one of such molecules. We reveal two mechanisms underlying the life-extending effect of LCA in chronologically aging yeast. One mechanism operates in a calorie availability-independent fashion and involves the LCA-governed modulation of housekeeping longevity assurance pathways that do not overlap with the adaptable TOR and cAMP/PKA pathways. The other mechanism extends yeast longevity under non-CR conditions and consists in LCA-driven unmasking of the previously unknown anti-aging potential of PKA. We provide evidence that LCA modulates housekeeping longevity assurance pathways by suppressing lipid-induced necrosis, attenuating mitochondrial fragmentation, altering oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, enhancing resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses, suppressing mitochondria-controlled apoptosis, and enhancing stability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. PMID:20622262

  3. Insulin-like growth factor-I extends in vitro replicative life span of skeletal muscle satellite cells by enhancing G1/S cell cycle progression via the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt signaling pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, M. V.; Abraha, T. W.; Schwartz, R. J.; Fiorotto, M. L.; Booth, F. W.

    2000-01-01

    Interest is growing in methods to extend replicative life span of non-immortalized stem cells. Using the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) transgenic mouse in which the IGF-I transgene is expressed during skeletal muscle development and maturation prior to isolation and during culture of satellite cells (the myogenic stem cells of mature skeletal muscle fibers) as a model system, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms of IGF-I-mediated enhancement of proliferative potential of these cells. Satellite cells from IGF-I transgenic muscles achieved at least five additional population doublings above the maximum that was attained by wild type satellite cells. This IGF-I-induced increase in proliferative potential was mediated via activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway, independent of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, facilitating G(1)/S cell cycle progression via a down-regulation of p27(Kip1). Adenovirally mediated ectopic overexpression of p27(Kip1) in exponentially growing IGF-I transgenic satellite cells reversed the increase in cyclin E-cdk2 kinase activity, pRb phosphorylation, and cyclin A protein abundance, thereby implicating an important role for p27(Kip1) in promoting satellite cell senescence. These observations provide a more complete dissection of molecular events by which increased local expression of a growth factor in mature skeletal muscle fibers extends replicative life span of primary stem cells than previously known.

  4. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

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    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  5. Career development: a life span issue.

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    Sterns, H L; Dorsett, J G

    1994-01-01

    One of the challenges for individuals pursuing a career throughout their life span is how to maintain a high level of professional competence. As the composition of the workforce changes, and new technologies are developed, workers are faced with changing job demands and pressures. A major issue for the 1990s is how long a worker's skills will remain current. With rapid technological changes, workers may find it necessary to update continually their knowledge, skills, and abilities or risk becoming obsolete. Factors such as individuals' motivation and attitudes and organizational climate can contribute to choices regarding career development. Current research on the factors that contribute to career development activities is reviewed, along with the impact of multiple career transitions throughout the life span. Interventions such as retraining and outplacement, which allow individuals in later life to continue work, change jobs, and further develop their careers, are also discussed.

  6. Developmental Origins of Health Span and Life Span: A Mini-Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Joshua D; Reynolds, Leryn J; Pearson, Kevin J

    2018-01-12

    A vast body of research has demonstrated that disease susceptibility and offspring health can be influenced by perinatal factors, which include both paternal and maternal behavior and environment. Offspring disease risk has the potential to affect the health span and life span of offspring. Various maternal factors, such as environmental toxicant exposure, diet, stress, exercise, age at conception, and longevity have the potential to influence age-associated diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, and cancer risk in offspring. Paternal factors such as diet, age at conception, and longevity can potentially impact offspring health span and life span-reducing traits as well. Continued research could go a long way toward defining mechanisms of the developmental origins of life span and health span, and eventually establishing regimens to avoid negative developmental influences and to encourage positive interventions to potentially increase life span and improve health span in offspring. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Functional Characterization of Primary Mammary Cells With Life Span Extension Using Ectopic Telomerase

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holt, Shawn

    2002-01-01

    .... Thus far, although still quite preliminary, our data indicate a relationship between the life span extended cells and the spontaneously immortal cells rather than those cells that are approaching...

  8. Extraordinary long life spans in fruit-feeding butterflies can provide window on evolution of life span and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Molleman, F.; Zwaan, B J; Brakefield, P M; Carey, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Information on the life span of organisms in the field is essential for elucidating the evolution of life span and aging. We present mark-recapture data (>30 000 marked individuals, >4000 recaptured at least once) on forty-seven species of fruit-feeding butterflies in a tropical forest in Uganda. The data reveal adult life spans in the field for several species that are significantly longer than previously recorded in Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Longevity records for species of which...

  9. Developmental Regulation across the Life Span: Toward a New Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Claudia M.; Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    How can individuals regulate their own development to live happy, healthy, and productive lives? Major theories of developmental regulation across the life span have been proposed (e.g., dual-process model of assimilation and accommodation; motivational theory of life-span development; model of selection, optimization, and compensation), but they…

  10. Life Span Approach to Growth and Human Development: A Broad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, the paper holds that amongst other things, the life span approach helps us to gain an understanding of our own history, as an infant, a child, an adolescent or a young adult – Finally, the paper draws the reader's attention to the fact that by adopting the life-span perspective, we gain insights into what our lives will ...

  11. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life...... span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke....

  12. A Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Wrosch, Carsten; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article had four goals. First, the authors identified a set of general challenges and questions that a life-span theory of development should address. Second, they presented a comprehensive account of their Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. They integrated the model of optimization in primary and secondary control and the action-phase model of developmental regulation with their original life-span theory of control to present a comprehensive theory of development. Third, they reviewed the relevant empirical literature testing key propositions of the Motivational Theory of Life-Span Development. Finally, because the conceptual reach of their theory goes far beyond the current empirical base, they pointed out areas that deserve further and more focused empirical inquiry. PMID:20063963

  13. Study Looks At Parkinson's Effect on Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/news/fullstory_165589.html Study Looks at Parkinson's Effect on Life Span 2-year difference seen ... HealthDay News) -- People with brain diseases such as Parkinson's and dementia with Lewy bodies die about two ...

  14. Decision making across the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, S.C.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Samanez-Larkin, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning to choose adaptively between different behavioral options in order to reach goals is a pervasive task in life for people of all ages. Individuals are often confronted with complex, uncertain situations that nonetheless require decisive actions that would facilitate the pursuit of short-term

  15. Life Span Exercise Among Elite Intercollegiate Student Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Hypothesis: Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Study Design: Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level of...

  16. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Post-reproductive life span and demographic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitteldorf, J J; Goodnight, C

    2013-09-01

    Recent field studies suggest that it is common in nature for animals to outlive their reproductive viability. Post-reproductive life span has been observed in a broad range of vertebrate and invertebrate species. But post-reproductive life span poses a paradox for traditional theories of life history evolution. The commonly cited explanation is the "grandmother hypothesis", which applies only to higher, social mammals. We propose that post-reproductive life span evolves to stabilize predator-prey population dynamics, avoiding local extinctions. In the absence of senescence, juveniles would be the most susceptible age class. If juveniles are the first to disappear when predation pressure is high, this amplifies the population's risk of extinction. A class of older, senescent individuals can help shield the juveniles from predation, stabilizing demographics and avoiding extinction. If, in addition, the life history is arranged so that the older individuals are no longer fertile, the stabilizing effect is further enhanced.

  18. Gene activities that mediate increased life span of C. elegans insulin-like signaling mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Andrew V; Carr, Christopher E; Ruvkun, Gary

    2007-11-15

    Genetic and RNA interference (RNAi) screens for life span regulatory genes have revealed that the daf-2 insulin-like signaling pathway plays a major role in Caenorhabditis elegans longevity. This pathway converges on the DAF-16 transcription factor and may regulate life span by controlling the expression of a large number of genes, including free-radical detoxifying genes, stress resistance genes, and pathogen resistance genes. We conducted a genome-wide RNAi screen to identify genes necessary for the extended life span of daf-2 mutants and identified approximately 200 gene inactivations that shorten daf-2 life span. Some of these gene inactivations dramatically shorten daf-2 mutant life span but less dramatically shorten daf-2; daf-16 mutant or wild-type life span. Molecular and behavioral markers for normal aging and for extended life span in low insulin/IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) signaling were assayed to distinguish accelerated aging from general sickness and to examine age-related phenotypes. Detailed demographic analysis, molecular markers of aging, and insulin signaling mutant test strains were used to filter progeric gene inactivations for specific acceleration of aging. Highly represented in the genes that mediate life span extension in the daf-2 mutant are components of endocytotic trafficking of membrane proteins to lysosomes. These gene inactivations disrupt the increased expression of the DAF-16 downstream gene superoxide dismutase sod-3 in a daf-2 mutant, suggesting trafficking between the insulin-like receptor and DAF-16. The activities of these genes may normally decline during aging.

  19. Extended mission life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Extended manned space missions which include interplanetary missions require regenerative life support systems. Manned mission life support considerations are placed in perspective and previous manned space life support system technology, activities and accomplishments in current supporting research and technology (SR&T) programs are reviewed. The life support subsystem/system technologies required for an enhanced duration orbiter (EDO) and a space operations center (SOC), regenerative life support functions and technology required for manned interplanetary flight vehicles, and future development requirements are outlined. The Space Shuttle Orbiters (space transportation system) is space cabin atmosphere is maintained at Earth ambient pressure of 14.7 psia (20% O2 and 80% N2). The early Shuttle flights will be seven-day flights, and the life support system flight hardware will still utilize expendables.

  20. Adaptive prolonged postreproductive life span in killer whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma A; Franks, Daniel W; Mazzi, Sonia; Darden, Safi K; Balcomb, Ken C; Ford, John K B; Croft, Darren P

    2012-09-14

    Prolonged life after reproduction is difficult to explain evolutionarily unless it arises as a physiological side effect of increased longevity or it benefits related individuals (i.e., increases inclusive fitness). There is little evidence that postreproductive life spans are adaptive in nonhuman animals. By using multigenerational records for two killer whale (Orcinus orca) populations in which females can live for decades after their final parturition, we show that postreproductive mothers increase the survival of offspring, particularly their older male offspring. This finding may explain why female killer whales have evolved the longest postreproductive life span of all nonhuman animals.

  1. Individual differences in personality change across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaba, Ted; Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2017-05-16

    A precise and comprehensive description of personality continuity and change across the life span is the bedrock upon which theories of personality development are built. Little research has quantified the degree to which individuals deviate from mean-level developmental trends. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining individual differences in personality trait change across the life span. Data came from a nationally representative sample of 9,636 Dutch participants who provided Big Five self-reports at five assessment waves across 7 years. We divided our sample into 14 age groups (ages 16-84 at initial measurement) and estimated latent growth curve models to describe individual differences in personality change across the study period for each trait and age group. Across the adult life span, individual differences in personality change were small but significant until old age. For Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, individual differences in change were most pronounced in emerging adulthood and decreased throughout midlife and old age. For Emotional Stability, individual differences in change were relatively consistent across the life span. These results inform theories of life span development and provide future directions for research on the causes and conditions of personality change. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Life Span and Resiliency Theory: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Smith-Osborne

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Theories of life span development describe human growth and change over the life cycle (Robbins, Chatterjee, & Canda, 2006. Major types of developmental theories include biological, psychodynamic, behavioral, and social learning, cognitive, moral, and spiritual, and those influenced by systems, empowerment, and conflict theory. Life span development theories commonly focus on ontogenesis and sequential mastery of skills, tasks, and abilities. Social work scholars have pointed out that a limitation of life span and other developmental theory is lack of attention to resilience (Greene, 2007; Robbins et al., 1998. The concept of resilience was developed to “describe relative resistance to psychosocial risk experiences” (Rutter, 1999b, p. 119. Longitudinal studies focused on typical and atypical child development informed theory formulation in developmental psychopathology (Garmezy & Rutter, 1983; Luthar, Cichetti,& Becker, 2000 and in an evolving resilience model (Richardson, 2002; Werner & Smith, 1992. Research on resilience has found a positive relationship between a number of individual traits and contextual variables and resistance to a variety of risk factors among children and adolescents. More recently, resilience research has examined the operation of these same factors in the young adult, middle-age, and elder life stages. This article examines the historical and conceptual progression of the two developmental theories—life span and resiliency—and discusses their application to social work practice and education in human behavior in the social environment.

  3. Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eWittmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practise as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e. by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barrett Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments.

  4. Extraordinary long life spans in fruit-feeding butterflies can provide window on evolution of life span and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, F; Zwaan, B J; Brakefield, P M; Carey, J R

    2007-06-01

    Information on the life span of organisms in the field is essential for elucidating the evolution of life span and aging. We present mark-recapture data (>30,000 marked individuals, >4000 recaptured at least once) on 47 species of fruit-feeding butterflies in a tropical forest in Uganda. The data reveal adult life spans in the field for several species that are significantly longer than previously recorded in Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths). Longevity records for species of which more than 100 individuals were recaptured ranged from 67 (Bicyclus auricruda) to 293 days (Euphaedra medon). In contrast to the majority of Lepidoptera which are short-lived, these all show exceptionally long life spans, and may thus help to better identify factors that affect aging, particularly when combined with information on temporal patterns in reproduction, strategies to avoid predation, and nutritional ecology. These key traits are readily measurable in butterflies and thus studies on fruit-feeding butterflies have much potential for gaining insight into the evolution of life span and aging, especially given the tradition of field-research on butterflies.

  5. Friendship in childhood and adulthood: lessons across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, A M; de Vries, B; Lansford, J E

    2000-01-01

    Friendship occupies an important place in the growing body of literature in child development and gerontological research. As such, it may be useful for researchers from both fields to consider what can be learned from work carried out in each tradition. Therefore, we present a selected review of topics in friendship research across the life span. Through discussion of the value of friendship, the development of friendship, challenges to friendship, the gendered nature of friendship, and the connection between friends and family, points of commonality and contrast are identified. We conclude by presenting possible avenues for future investigation for researchers interested in friendship at any point in the life span.

  6. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, JoNell; Karns, Tara E.; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2013-01-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases—the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people’s everyday lives. PMID:22023568

  7. Decision-making heuristics and biases across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strough, Jonell; Karns, Tara E; Schlosnagle, Leo

    2011-10-01

    We outline a contextual and motivational model of judgment and decision-making (JDM) biases across the life span. Our model focuses on abilities and skills that correspond to deliberative, experiential, and affective decision-making processes. We review research that addresses links between JDM biases and these processes as represented by individual differences in specific abilities and skills (e.g., fluid and crystallized intelligence, executive functioning, emotion regulation, personality traits). We focus on two JDM biases-the sunk-cost fallacy (SCF) and the framing effect. We trace the developmental trajectory of each bias from preschool through middle childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, and later adulthood. We conclude that life-span developmental trajectories differ depending on the bias investigated. Existing research suggests relative stability in the framing effect across the life span and decreases in the SCF with age, including in later life. We highlight directions for future research on JDM biases across the life span, emphasizing the need for process-oriented research and research that increases our understanding of JDM biases in people's everyday lives. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Autophagy is required for extension of yeast chronological life span by rapamycin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvers, Ashley L.; Wood, Michael S.; Hu, Doreen; Kaywell, Amelia C.; Dunn, William A.; Aris, Jhon P.

    2013-01-01

    Rapamycin is an antibiotic that stimulates autophagy in a wide variety of eukaryotes, including the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Low concentrations of rapamycin extend yeast chronological life span (CLS). We have recently shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in yeast, which is attributable in part to a role for autophagy in amino acid homeostasis. We report herein that low concentrations of rapamycin stimulate macroautophagy during chronological aging and extend CLS. PMID:19458476

  9. Life-Span Differences in the Uses and Gratifications of Tablets: Implications for Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys (N=847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seekin...

  10. Women's Spirituality across the Life Span: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michele Kielty; Dixon, Andrea L.

    2013-01-01

    Women's spirituality has unique characteristics that are often ignored within the spirituality literature. The authors review the literature on women's spirituality to reveal the major themes women have identified as relevant to their spiritual journeys across the life span. Implications for counseling and ideas for practice are included after…

  11. Neuromodulation of Behavioral and Cognitive Development across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Among other mechanisms, behavioral and cognitive development entail, on the one hand, contextual scaffolding and, on the other hand, neuromodulation of adaptive neurocognitive representations across the life span. Key brain networks underlying cognition, emotion, and motivation are innervated by major transmitter systems (e.g., the catecholamines…

  12. Reading through the Life Span: Individual Differences in Psycholinguistic Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Rob A. I.; Arnell, Ruth; Birchenough, Julia M. H.; Grimmond, Debbie; Houlson, Sam

    2017-01-01

    The effects of psycholinguistic variables are critical to the evaluation of theories about the cognitive reading system. However, reading research has tended to focus on the impact of key variables on average performance. We report the first investigation examining variation in psycholinguistic effects across the life span, from childhood into old…

  13. Telomere Length Correlates with Life Span of Dog Breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Fick

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Telomeric DNA repeats are lost as normal somatic cells replicate. When telomeres reach a critically short length, a DNA damage signal is initiated, inducing cell senescence. Some studies have indicated that telomere length correlates with mortality, suggesting that telomere length contributes to human life span; however, other studies report no correlation, and thus the issue remains controversial. Domestic dogs show parallels in telomere biology to humans, with similar telomere length, telomere attrition, and absence of somatic cell telomerase activity. Using this model, we find that peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC telomere length is a strong predictor of average life span among 15 different breeds (p < 0.0001, consistent with telomeres playing a role in life span determination. Dogs lose telomeric DNA ∼10-fold faster than humans, which is similar to the ratio of average life spans between these species. Breeds with shorter mean telomere lengths show an increased probability of death from cardiovascular disease, which was previously correlated with short telomere length in humans.

  14. DIRECT SELECTION ON LIFE-SPAN IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZWAAN, B; BIJLSMA, R; HOEKSTRA, RE

    An important issue in the study of the evolution of aging in Drosophila melanogaster is whether decreased early fecundity is inextricably coupled with increased life span in selection experiments on age at reproduction. Here, this problem has been tackled using an experimental design in which

  15. Homeless Aging Veterans in Transition: A Life-Span Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Carla J.; Bridier, Nancy L.

    2013-01-01

    The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative...

  16. Fundamental frequency changes of Persian speakers across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Majid; Ashayeri, Hasan; Modarresi, Yahya; Salavati, Mahyar; Ghomashchi, Hamed

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to investigate changes in fundamental frequency (F0) across the life span in Persian speakers. Four hundred children and adults were asked to produce a sustained phonation of vowel /a/ and their voice samples were studied in 10 age groups. F0 was analyzed using the software Praat (Version 5.1.17.). The results revealed that (1) the mean F0 in both sexes decreases from childhood to adulthood; (2) significant F0 differences between boys and girls begin at the age of 12 years; and (3) the range of F0 changes in the life span is greater in men (178.38 Hz) than in women (113.57 Hz). These findings provide new data for Persian-speaking children, women, and men and could be beneficial for Iranian speech and language pathologists. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Homeless Aging Veterans in Transition: A Life-Span Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla J. Thompson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for counseling and career/educational services for homeless veterans has captured political and economic venues for more than 25 years. Veterans are three times more likely to become homeless than the general population if veterans live in poverty or are minority veterans. This mixed methods study emphasized a life-span perspective approach for exploring factors influencing normative aging and life-quality of 39 homeless veterans in Alabama and Florida. Seven descriptive quantitative and qualitative research questions framed the investigation. Study participants completed a quantitative survey reflecting their preferences and needs with a subset of the sample (N=12 also participating in individual qualitative interview sessions. Thirty-two service providers and stakeholders completed quantitative surveys. Empirical and qualitative data with appropriate triangulation procedures provided interpretive information relative to a life-span development perspective. Study findings provide evidence of the need for future research efforts to address strategies that focus on the health and economic challenges of veterans before they are threatened with the possibility of homelessness. Implications of the study findings provide important information associated with the premise that human development occurs throughout life with specific characteristics influencing the individual’s passage. Implications for aging/homelessness research are grounded in late-life transitioning and human development intervention considerations.

  18. Extended Attention Span Training System: Video Game Neurotherapy for Attention Deficit Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system for modifying attention deficits, which takes the concept of biofeedback one step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brain waves indicate that attention is waning. Notes contributions of this technology to neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on…

  19. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption......Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...

  20. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    Bridge infrastructure consumes large amount of energy and raw materials, leading to considerable environmental burdens. The traditional infrastructure construction prioritizes its technical and economic viability. In recent years, the society devotes an ever-increased attention to the environmental...... impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  1. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stampfer, Martha R.; Garbe, James C.

    2016-06-28

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  2. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  3. Life span exercise among elite intercollegiate student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C; Romano, Russell; Azen, Stanley P; Schroeder, E Todd; Salem, George J

    2015-01-01

    Despite prominent public attention, data on life span health and exercise outcomes among elite, competitive athletes are sparse and do not reflect the diversity of modern athletes. Life span exercise behavior differs between National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) student athletes and a nonathlete control group. Sustained exercise is associated with improved cardiopulmonary health outcomes. Cross-sectional, descriptive epidemiology study. Level 3. A total of 496 students and alumni (age range, 17-84 year) at a large, NCAA Division I university, including student athletes and an age- and sex-matched nonathlete control group, completed anonymous, self-report health and exercise questionnaires. Age-stratified, cross-sectional analysis evaluated previous week's total exercise volume (ExVol), self-rated exercise importance (ExImp), and compliance with American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) exercise guidelines for healthy adults. The association of ACSM guideline compliance with lifetime cardiopulmonary health outcomes was also assessed. Current student athletes reported significantly greater ExVol (P 99.5%), ExImp (P ACSM guidelines (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] = 30.6, 11.0-84.6) compared with nonathletes. No significant differences were found between alumni student athletes and nonathletes. Alumni student athletes demonstrated substantially lower ExVol (P 99.5%) and guideline compliance (OR = 0.09, 95% CI = 0.05-0.19) compared with current student athletes, whereas nonathletes had similar exercise behavior across the life span. Among alumni, ACSM guideline compliance was associated with significant attenuation of cardiopulmonary health concerns (P = 0.02, d = -0.50, pCID = 14%) independent of intercollegiate athletic participation. Although current NCAA Division I student athletes demonstrated significant, clinically important differences in exercise behavior compared with nonathletes, no group differences were evident later in life

  4. Emotional Egocentricity Bias across the life-span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica eRiva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In our daily lives, we often have to quickly estimate the emotions of our conspecifics in order to have successful social interactions. While this estimation process seems quite easy when we are ourselves in a neutral or equivalent emotional state, it has recently been shown that in case of incongruent emotional states between ourselves and the others, our judgments can be biased. This phenomenon, introduced to the literature with the term Emotional Egocentricity Bias (EEB, has been found to occur in young adults and, to a greater extent, in children. However, how EEB changes across the life-span from adolescence to old age has been largely unexplored. In this study, we recruited 114 female participants subdivided in four cohorts (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, older adults to examine EEB age-related changes. Participants were administered with a paradigm which, by making use of visuo-tactile stimulation that elicits conflicting feelings in paired participants, allows the valid and reliable exploration of EEB. Results highlighted a U-shaped relation between age and EEB, revealing higher emotional egocentricity in adolescents and older adults compared to young and middle-aged adults. These results are in line with the neuroscientific literature which has recently shown that overcoming EEB is associated with a greater activation of a portion of the parietal lobe, namely the right Supramarginal Gyrus (rSMG. This is an area that reaches full maturation only by the end of adolescence, and displays an early decay in older age. Thus, the age-related changes of the EEB could be possibly due to the life-span development of the rSMG. This study is the first one to show the quadratic relation between age and the EEB and set a milestone for further research exploring the neural correlates of the life-span development of the EEB. Future studies are needed in order to generalize these results to the male population and to explore gender

  5. The staggerer gene curtails the reproductive life span of females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastavino, J M; Larsson, K

    1992-01-01

    Three studies were undertaken to investigate some features of the reproductive activity of female staggerer mice of the C57BL/6 strain. It was found that in the staggerer female, (1) vaginal opening and onset of vaginal estrous cycling were delayed; (2) the vaginal estrous cycle was irregular and characterized by abnormally prolonged diestrous and estrous phases, and (3) the reproductive life span of the mutant female was confined to a 3-month period after puberty. The abnormalities observed in sexual functions suggest a specific influence of the staggerer gene on reproductive activity.

  6. The life cycle and life span of Namibian fairy circles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschinkel, Walter R

    2012-01-01

    In Namibia of southwestern Africa, the sparse grasslands that develop on deep sandy soils under rainfall between 50 and 100 mm per annum are punctuated by thousands of quasi-circular bare spots, usually surrounded by a ring of taller grass. The causes of these so-called "fairy circles" are unknown, although a number of hypotheses have been proposed. This paper provides a more complete description of the variation in size, density and attributes of fairy circles in a range of soil types and situations. Circles are not permanent; their vegetative and physical attributes allow them to be arranged into a life history sequence in which circles appear (birth), develop (mature) and become revegetated (die). Occasionally, they also enlarge. The appearance and disappearance of circles was confirmed from satellite images taken 4 years apart (2004, 2008). The frequency of births and deaths as a fraction of the total population of circles allowed the calculation of an approximate turnover rate, and from this, an estimate of circle lifespan. Lifespan appeared to vary with circle size, with small circles averaging about 24 years, and larger ones 43-75 years. Overall lifespan averaged about 41 yr. A second, independent estimate of lifespan was made by revisiting circles 2 to 9 years after their clear status had been confirmed. This resulted in a lifespan estimate of about 60 years. Any causal explanation of fairy circles must include their birth, development and death, their mean lifespan and the variation of their features under different conditions.

  7. Quantifying yeast chronological life span by outgrowth of aged cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Christopher; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2009-05-06

    The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has proven to be an important model organism in the field of aging research. The replicative and chronological life spans are two established paradigms used to study aging in yeast. Replicative aging is defined as the number of daughter cells a single yeast mother cell produces before senescence; chronological aging is defined by the length of time cells can survive in a non-dividing, quiescence-like state. We have developed a high-throughput method for quantitative measurement of chronological life span. This method involves aging the cells in a defined medium under agitation and at constant temperature. At each age-point, a sub-population of cells is removed from the aging culture and inoculated into rich growth medium. A high-resolution growth curve is then obtained for this sub-population of aged cells using a Bioscreen C MBR machine. An algorithm is then applied to determine the relative proportion of viable cells in each sub-population based on the growth kinetics at each age-point. This method requires substantially less time and resources compared to other chronological lifespan assays while maintaining reproducibility and precision. The high-throughput nature of this assay should allow for large-scale genetic and chemical screens to identify novel longevity modifiers for further testing in more complex organisms.

  8. AMPKα1 Deletion Shortens Erythrocyte Life Span in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shaobin; Dale, George L.; Song, Ping; Viollet, Benoit; Zou, Ming-hui

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor essential for maintaining cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report that AMPKα1 is the predominant isoform of AMPK in murine erythrocytes and mice globally deficient in AMPKα1 (AMPKα1−/−), but not in those lacking AMPKα2, and the mice had markedly enlarged spleens with dramatically increased proportions of Ter119-positive erythroid cells. Blood tests revealed significantly decreased erythrocyte and hemoglobin levels with increased reticulocyte counts and elevated plasma erythropoietin concentrations in AMPKα1−/− mice. The life span of erythrocytes from AMPKα1−/− mice was less than that in wild-type littermates, and the levels of reactive oxygen species and oxidized proteins were significantly increased in AMPKα1−/− erythrocytes. In keeping with the elevated oxidative stress, treatment of AMPKα1−/− mice with the antioxidant, tempol, resulted in decreased reticulocyte counts and improved erythrocyte survival. Furthermore, the expression of Foxo3 and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes was significantly decreased in erythroblasts from AMPKα1−/− mice. Collectively, these results establish an essential role for AMPKα1 in regulating oxidative stress and life span in erythrocytes. PMID:20392689

  9. Does dietary restriction reduce life span in male fruit-feeding butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molleman, Freerk; Ding, Jimin; Boggs, Carol L; Carey, James R; Arlet, Małgorzata E

    2009-09-01

    Male life history and resource allocation is not frequently studied in aging and life span research. Here, we verify that males of long-lived fruit-feeding butterfly species have reduced longevity on restricted diets [Beck, J., 2007. The importance of amino acids in the adult diet of male tropical rainforest butterflies. Oecologia 151, 741-747], in contrast to the common finding of longevity extension in dietary restriction experiments in Drosophila and some other organisms. Males of some of the most long-lived species of fruit-feeding butterflies were collected from Kibale Forest, Uganda, and kept on diets of either sugar or mashed banana. Seven out of eight species had non-significantly longer life spans on mashed banana diets. Data analysis using a time-varying Cox-model with species as covariate showed that males had reduced survival on the sugar diet during the first 35 days of captive life, but the effect was absent or reversed at more advanced ages. These results challenge the generality of dietary restriction as a way to extend life span in animals. We argue that such studies on males are promising tools for better understanding life history evolution and aging because males display a wider variety of tactics for obtaining reproductive success than females.

  10. Connecting Life Span Development with the Sociology of the Life Course: A New Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The life course has become a topic of growing interest within the social sciences. Attempts to link this sub-discipline with life span developmental psychology have been called for but with little sign of success. In this paper, we seek to address three interlinked issues concerning the potential for a more productive interchange between life course sociology and life span psychology. The first is to try to account for the failure of these two sub-disciplines to achieve any deepening engagement with each other, despite the long-expressed desirability of that goal; the second is to draw attention to the scope for enriching the sociology of the life course through Erik Erikson's model of life span development; and the last is the potential for linking Eriksonian theory with current debates within mainstream sociology about the processes involved in 'individualisation' and 'self-reflexivity' as an alternative entry point to bring together these two fields of work.

  11. Life-Span Differences in the Uses and Gratifications of Tablets: Implications for Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys (N=847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seeking, 2) Relationship Maintenance, 3) Style, 4) Amusement and Killing time, and added one additional use category 5) Organization. We discovered differences among the five main uses of tablets across the life-span, with older adults using tablets the least overall. Builders, Boomers, GenX and GenY all reported the highest means for information seeking. Finally, we used a structural equation model to examine how uses and gratifications predicts hours of tablet use. The study provides limitations and suggestions for future research and marketers. In particular, this study offers insight to the relevancy of theory as it applies to particular information and communication technologies and consideration of how different periods in the life-span affect tablet motivations. PMID:26113769

  12. Life-Span Differences in the Uses and Gratifications of Tablets: Implications for Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Dowd, John; Abuljadail, Mohammad; Alsulaiman, Saud; Shareefi, Adnan

    2015-11-01

    This study extends Uses and Gratifications theory by examining the uses and gratifications of a new technological device, the tablet computer, and investigating the differential uses and gratifications of tablet computers across the life-span. First, we utilized a six-week tablet training intervention to adapt and extend existing measures to the tablet as a technological device. Next, we used paper-based and online surveys (N=847), we confirmed four main uses of tablets: 1) Information Seeking, 2) Relationship Maintenance, 3) Style, 4) Amusement and Killing time, and added one additional use category 5) Organization. We discovered differences among the five main uses of tablets across the life-span, with older adults using tablets the least overall. Builders, Boomers, GenX and GenY all reported the highest means for information seeking. Finally, we used a structural equation model to examine how uses and gratifications predicts hours of tablet use. The study provides limitations and suggestions for future research and marketers. In particular, this study offers insight to the relevancy of theory as it applies to particular information and communication technologies and consideration of how different periods in the life-span affect tablet motivations.

  13. Emotional Egocentricity Bias Across the Life-Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Federica; Triscoli, Chantal; Lamm, Claus; Carnaghi, Andrea; Silani, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    In our daily lives, we often have to quickly estimate the emotions of our conspecifics in order to have successful social interactions. While this estimation process seems quite easy when we are ourselves in a neutral or equivalent emotional state, it has recently been shown that in case of incongruent emotional states between ourselves and the others, our judgments can be biased. This phenomenon, introduced to the literature with the term Emotional Egocentricity Bias (EEB), has been found to occur in young adults and, to a greater extent, in children. However, how the EEB changes across the life-span from adolescence to old age has been largely unexplored. In this study, we recruited 114 female participants subdivided in four cohorts (adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, older adults) to examine EEB age-related changes. Participants were administered with a recently developed paradigm which, by making use of visuo-tactile stimulation that elicits conflicting feelings in paired participants, allows the valid and reliable exploration of the EEB. Results highlighted a U-shape relation between age and EEB, revealing enhanced emotional egocentricity in adolescents and older adults compared to young and middle-aged adults. These results are in line with the neuroscientific literature which has recently shown that overcoming the EEB is associated with a greater activation of a portion of the parietal lobe, namely the right Supramarginal Gyrus (rSMG). This is an area that reaches full maturation by the end of adolescence and goes through an early decay. Thus, the age-related changes of the EEB could be possibly due to the life-span development of the rSMG. This study is the first one to show the quadratic relation between age and the EEB and set a milestone for further research exploring the neural correlates of the life-span development of the EEB. Future studies are needed in order to generalize these results to the male population and to explore gender

  14. Basic traits predict the prevalence of personality disorder across the life span: the example of psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachon, David D; Lynam, Donald R; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; McCrae, Robert R; Costa, Paul T

    2013-05-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) may be better understood in terms of dimensions of general personality functioning rather than as discrete categorical conditions. Personality-trait descriptions of PDs are robust across methods and settings, and PD assessments based on trait measures show good construct validity. The study reported here extends research showing that basic traits (e.g., impulsiveness, warmth, straightforwardness, modesty, and deliberation) can re-create the epidemiological characteristics associated with PDs. Specifically, we used normative changes in absolute trait levels to simulate age-related differences in the prevalence of psychopathy in a forensic setting. Results demonstrated that trait information predicts the rate of decline for psychopathy over the life span; discriminates the decline of psychopathy from that of a similar disorder, antisocial PD; and accurately predicts the differential decline of subfactors of psychopathy. These findings suggest that basic traits provide a parsimonious account of PD prevalence across the life span.

  15. Links Between Temporal Acuity and Multisensory Integration Across Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Ryan A; Baum, Sarah H; Krueger, Juliane; Newhouse, Paul A; Wallace, Mark T

    2017-04-27

    The temporal relationship between individual pieces of information from the different sensory modalities is one of the stronger cues to integrate such information into a unified perceptual gestalt, conveying numerous perceptual and behavioral advantages. Temporal acuity, however, varies greatly over the life span. It has previously been hypothesized that changes in temporal acuity in both development and healthy aging may thus play a key role in integrative abilities. This study tested the temporal acuity of 138 individuals ranging in age from 5 to 80. Temporal acuity and multisensory integration abilities were tested both within and across modalities (audition and vision) with simultaneity judgment and temporal order judgment tasks. We observed that temporal acuity, both within and across modalities, improved throughout development into adulthood and subsequently declined with healthy aging, as did the ability to integrate multisensory speech information. Of importance, throughout development, temporal acuity of simple stimuli (i.e., flashes and beeps) predicted individuals' abilities to integrate more complex speech information. However, in the aging population, although temporal acuity declined with healthy aging and was accompanied by declines in integrative abilities, temporal acuity was not able to predict integration at the individual level. Together, these results suggest that the impact of temporal acuity on multisensory integration varies throughout the life span. Although the maturation of temporal acuity drives the rise of multisensory integrative abilities during development, it is unable to account for changes in integrative abilities in healthy aging. The differential relationships between age, temporal acuity, and multisensory integration suggest an important role for experience in these processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  17. Heritability analysis of life span in a semi-isolated population followed across four centuries reveals the presence of pleiotropy between life span and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögele, Martin; Pattaro, Cristian; Fuchsberger, Christian; Minelli, Cosetta; Pramstaller, Peter P; Wjst, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Although genetic factors are known to influence the human aging process, the proportion of life span and longevity variation explained by them is still controversial. We evaluated the genetic contribution to life span using historical data from three Alpine communities in South Tyrol, Italy. We estimated the heritability of life span and survival to old age (longevity), and we assessed the hypothesis of a common genetic background between life span and reproduction. The heritability of life span was 0.15 (SE = 0.02), whereas the heritability of longevity increased from 0.20 to 0.35 as the longevity threshold increased. Heritability estimates were little influenced by shared environment, most likely due to the homogeneity of lifestyle and environmental factors in our study population. Life span showed both positive association and genetic correlation with reproductive history factors. Our study demonstrates a general low inheritance of human life span, but which increases substantially when considering long-living individuals, and a common genetic background of life span and reproduction, in agreement with evolutionary theories of aging.

  18. The mitochondrial plasmid pAL2-1 reduces calorie restriction mediated life span extension in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, M.F.P.M.; Boer, de H.J.; Debets, A.J.M.; Hoekstra, R.F.

    2004-01-01

    Calorie restriction is the only life span extending regimen known that applies to all aging organisms. Although most fungi do not appear to senesce, all natural isolates of the modular filamentous fungus Podospora anserina have a limited life span. In this paper, we show that calorie restriction

  19. Personality and obesity across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Ferrucci, Luigi; Zonderman, Alan B; Terracciano, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Personality traits contribute to health outcomes, in part through their association with major controllable risk factors, such as obesity. Body weight, in turn, reflects our behaviors and lifestyle and contributes to the way we perceive ourselves and others. In this study, the authors use data from a large (N = 1,988) longitudinal study that spanned more than 50 years to examine how personality traits are associated with multiple measures of adiposity and with fluctuations in body mass index (BMI). Using 14,531 anthropometric assessments, the authors modeled the trajectory of BMI across adulthood and tested whether personality predicted its rate of change. Measured concurrently, participants higher on Neuroticism or Extraversion or lower on Conscientiousness had higher BMI; these associations replicated across body fat, waist, and hip circumference. The strongest association was found for the impulsivity facet: Participants who scored in the top 10% of impulsivity weighed, on average, 11Kg more than those in the bottom 10%. Longitudinally, high Neuroticism and low Conscientiousness, and the facets of these traits related to difficulty with impulse control, were associated with weight fluctuations, measured as the variability in weight over time. Finally, low Agreeableness and impulsivity-related traits predicted a greater increase in BMI across the adult life span. BMI was mostly unrelated to change in personality traits. Personality traits are defined by cognitive, emotional, and behavioral patterns that likely contribute to unhealthy weight and difficulties with weight management. Such associations may elucidate the role of personality traits in disease progression and may help to design more effective interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. NTRE extended life feasibility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

  1. Two-carbon metabolites, polyphenols and vitamins influence yeast chronological life span in winemaking conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Viability in a non dividing state is referred to as chronological life span (CLS). Most grape juice fermentation happens when Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells have stopped dividing; therefore, CLS is an important factor toward winemaking success. Results We have studied both the physical and chemical determinants influencing yeast CLS. Low pH and heat shorten the maximum wine yeast life span, while hyperosmotic shock extends it. Ethanol plays an important negative role in aging under winemaking conditions, but additional metabolites produced by fermentative metabolism, such as acetaldehyde and acetate, have also a strong impact on longevity. Grape polyphenols quercetin and resveratrol have negative impacts on CLS under winemaking conditions, an unexpected behavior for these potential anti-oxidants. We observed that quercetin inhibits alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, and that resveratrol performs a pro-oxidant role during grape juice fermentation. Vitamins nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are precursors of NAD+, and their addition reduces mean longevity during fermentation, suggesting a metabolic unbalance negative for CLS. Moreover, vitamin mix supplementation at the end of fermentation shortens CLS and enhances cell lysis, while amino acids increase life span. Conclusions Wine S. cerevisiae strains are able to sense changes in the environmental conditions and adapt their longevity to them. Yeast death is influenced by the conditions present at the end of wine fermentation, particularly by the concentration of two-carbon metabolites produced by the fermentative metabolism, such as ethanol, acetic acid and acetaldehyde, and also by the grape juice composition, particularly its vitamin content. PMID:22873488

  2. A Life-Span, Relational, Public Health Model of Self-Regulation: Impact on Individual and Community Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniar, Swapnil; Zaff, Jonathan F.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors extend the ideas around the development of self-regulation and its impact on development by proposing a life-span, relational, public health model. They propose that the role of self-regulation should be understood across transitions from childhood to adulthood and through an individual and community perspective,…

  3. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  4. Oxygen analyzers: failure rates and life spans of galvanic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, R M

    1990-07-01

    Competing technologies exist for measuring oxygen concentrations in breathing circuits. Over a 4-year period, two types of oxygen analyzers were studied prospectively in routine clinical use to determine the incidence and nature of malfunctions. Newer AC-powered galvanic analyzers (North American Dräger O2med) were compared with older, battery-powered polarographic analyzers (Ohmeda 201) by recording all failures and necessary repairs. The AC-powered galvanic analyzer had a significantly lower incidence of failures (0.12 +/- 0.04 failures per machine-month) than the battery-powered polarographic analyzer (4.0 +/- 0.3 failures per machine-month). Disposable capsules containing the active galvanic cells lasted 12 +/- 7 months. Although the galvanic analyzers tended to remain out of service longer, awaiting the arrival of costly parts, the polarographic analyzers were more expensive to keep operating when calculations included the cost of time spent on repairs. Stocking galvanic capsules would have decreased the amount of time the galvanic analyzers were out of service, while increasing costs. In conclusion, galvanic oxygen analyzers appear capable of delivering more reliable service at a lower overall cost. By keeping the galvanic capsules exposed to room air during periods of storage, it should be possible to prolong their life span, further decreasing the cost of using them. In addition, recognizing the aberrations in their performance that warn of the exhaustion of the galvanic cells should permit timely recording and minimize downtime.

  5. Life-span changes in P3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2004-07-01

    The relationship of visual P3a to age was investigated in a life-span sample. The aims of the study were (1) to assess to what extent P3a, relative to P3b, decreases with increasing age; (2) To assess at which recording sites the relationship between P3a and age is strongest; (3) to investigate whether the relationship between P3a and age is best described as linear or nonlinear. One hundred and three well-functioning adults, 20-92 years old, were given a health interview, a battery of neuropsychological tests, and performed a visual three-stimuli oddball ERP task yielding both a P3a and a P3b. P3a and age was moderately correlated, with coefficients reaching.53 (Cz) and -.52 (Pz) for latency and amplitude, respectively. P3b was to a much lesser extent related to age. Generally, the age-P3a relationship was strongest at midline and central electrodes. Finally, the relationship between age and P3a was best described as linear. P3a seems selectively more impaired with age than P3b, but this impairment seems less pronounced at Fz than at Cz and Pz. There is a need for complex theoretical integration of these and previous findings.

  6. Colour constancy across the life span: evidence for compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerger, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185) covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18-75 years of age) was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1) Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens) whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2) Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.

  7. Disentangling rectangularization and life span extension with the moving rectangle method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schalkwijk, Frank H; Koopman, Jacob J E; Ghariq, Eidrees

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The moving rectangle method is used to disentangle the contributions of rectangularization and life span extension to the increase in life expectancy. It requires the choice of an endpoint of the survival curve that approaches the maximum age at death. We examined the effect of choosing...... of rectangularization and life span extension to the increase in life expectancy were calculated using the moving rectangle method. RESULTS: The choice of different survival values as end points profoundly influenced the estimated contributions of rectangularization and life span extension to the increase in life...... expectancy. When choosing 0.001, rectangularization contributed most years, whereas when choosing 0.1, life span extension contributed most years. CONCLUSIONS: When the moving rectangle method is used to estimate the contributions of rectangularization and life span extension to the increase in life...

  8. Cinnamomum cassia bark in two herbal formulas increases life span in Caenorhabditis elegans via insulin signaling and stress response pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Young-Beob; Dosanjh, Laura; Lao, Lixing; Tan, Ming; Shim, Bum Sang; Luo, Yuan

    2010-02-22

    Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models. In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB) and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL) were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN) and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS) significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS) also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (Abeta)-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human Abeta. These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s).

  9. Cinnamomum cassia bark in two herbal formulas increases life span in Caenorhabditis elegans via insulin signaling and stress response pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Beob Yu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Proving the efficacy and corresponding mode of action of herbal supplements is a difficult challenge for evidence-based herbal therapy. A major hurdle is the complexity of herbal preparations, many of which combine multiple herbs, particularly when the combination is assumed to be vitally important to the effectiveness of the herbal therapy. This issue may be addressed through the use of contemporary methodology and validated animal models.In this study, two commonly used traditional herbal formulas, Shi Quan Da Bu Tang (SQDB and Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan (HLXL were evaluated using a survival assay and oxidative stress biomarkers in a well-established C. elegans model of aging. HLXL is an eleven herb formula modified from a top-selling traditional herbal formula for the treatment of arthritic joint pain. SQDB consists of ten herbs often used for fatigue and energy, particularly in the aged. We demonstrate here that SQDB significantly extend life span in a C. elegans model of aging. Among all individual herbs tested, two herbs Cinnamomum cassia bark (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Cinnamomi Cortex, CIN and Panax ginseng root (Chinese pharmaceutical name: Ginseng Radix, GS significantly extended life span in C. elegans. CIN in both SQDB and HLXL formula extended life span via modulation of multiple longevity assurance genes, including genes involved in insulin signaling and stress response pathways. All the life-span-extending herbs (SQDB, CIN and GS also attenuated levels of H2O2 and enhanced small heat shock protein expression. Furthermore, the life span-extending herbs significantly delayed human amyloid beta (Abeta-induced toxicity in transgenic C. elegans expressing human Abeta.These results validate an invertebrate model for rapid, systematic evaluation of commonly used Chinese herbal formulations and may provide insight for designing future evidence-based herbal therapy(s.

  10. Influence of temperature on the inheritance of adult life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, I; Abe, M; Ishidate, R; Ishiyama, T; Motoyama, T; Hasekura, H; Boettcher, B

    1990-01-01

    Mating experiments were performed at 27 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 17 degrees C, to investigate the inheritance of adult life span of highly inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Effects of temperature difference were quantitatively analyzed at the genotypic level. In the temperature range of 17-27 degrees C the autosomal longevity alleles, A1 and A2, exerted major effects. Their effects produced longer life spans as the temperature decreased. The sex-linked longevity alleles, X1 and X2, played a secondary role in influencing life span, and they displayed different effects at different temperatures. Each genotype showed correspondence to the life span expected from the combinations of these longevity genes at the respective temperatures. The genetic loci controlling life span in these inbred strains were named JmA and JmX from "Ju-myo" which means life span or longevity in Japanese.

  11. Colour constancy across the life span: evidence for compensatory mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Wuerger

    Full Text Available It is well known that the peripheral visual system declines with age: the yellowing of the lens causes a selective reduction of short-wavelength light and sensitivity losses occur in the cone receptor mechanisms. At the same time, our subjective experience of colour does not change with age. The main purpose of this large-scale study (n = 185 covering a wide age range of colour-normal observers (18-75 years of age was to assess the extent to which the human visual system is able to compensate for the changes in the optical media and at which level of processing this compensation is likely to occur. We report two main results: (1 Supra-threshold parafoveal colour perception remains largely unaffected by the age-related changes in the optical media (yellowing of the lens whereas our ability to discriminate between small colour differences is compromised with an increase in age. (2 Significant changes in colour appearance are only found for unique green settings under daylight viewing condition which is consistent with the idea that the yellow-blue mechanism is most affected by an increase in age due to selective attenuation of short-wavelength light. The data on the invariance of hue perception, in conjunction with the age-related decline in chromatic sensitivity, provides evidence for compensatory mechanisms that enable colour-normal human observers a large degree of colour constancy across the life span. These compensatory mechanisms are likely to originate at cortical sites.

  12. Free radical theory of aging: an update: increasing the functional life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Denham

    2006-05-01

    Aging is the progressive accumulation of diverse, deleterious changes with time that increase the chance of disease and death. The basic chemical process underlying aging was first advanced by the free radical theory of aging (FRTA) in 1954: the reaction of active free radicals, normally produced in the organisms, with cellular constituents initiates the changes associated with aging. The involvement of free radicals in aging is related to their key role in the origin and evolution of life. Aging changes are commonly attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and an inborn aging process (IAP). The latter produces aging changes at an exponentially increasing rate with age, becoming the major risk factor for disease and death for humans after the age of 28 years in the developed countries. In them the IAP limits human average life expectancy at birth (ALE-B)--a rough measure of the healthy life span--to about 85 years; few reach 100 years and only one is known to have lived to 122 years. In these countries, improvements in living conditions (ILC) have gradually raised ALE-Bs to 76-79 years, 6-9 years less than the limit imposed by aging, with no change in the maximum life span (MLS). The extensive studies based on the FRTA hold promise that ALE-B and the MLS can be extended, the ALE-B possibly by a few years, and the MLS somewhat less.

  13. Differential response to UV stress and DNA damage during the yeast replicative life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, S P; Jazwinski, S M

    1996-01-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is mortal. Before they die, individual yeasts bud repeatedly producing a finite number of progeny, which have the capacity for a full life span. A feature of aging in many species is the waning of resistance to stress. To determine whether this is the case in yeast, we have examined the survival (viability) of age-synchronized populations of yeasts of various ages, spanning youth, midlife, and old age, after irradiation with ultraviolet light (UV). Resistance to UV was biphasic. There was an increase through midlife, followed by a precipitous decline. For comparison, another mutagenic agent, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), was tested in the same way. The response was very different. A uniphase decrease in resistance to this DNA-alkylating agent was found with a plateau later in life. The results argue that the increase in resistance to UV with age is an active process and not simply a monotonic age change. RAS2 is among the genes that determine yeast longevity. This gene is preferentially expressed in young cells and has a life span-extending effect on yeasts. One known function of RAS2 is to mount a protective response to irradiation by UV, which occurs independently of DNA damage. The distinction between UV and EMS found here is consistent with the notion that resistance to UV plays a role in yeast longevity in a manner not related to DNA damage. Furthermore, it suggests that RAS2 may participate in this response. We have found that RAS2 expression and UV resistance coincide in middle-aged yeasts bolstering this possibility. These data and the eclipse in activity of several longevity determining genes at midlife in yeasts also raise the possibility that active life maintenance processes function through this period, after which the organism operates on any remaining reserves until death.

  14. Sex-specific Tradeoffs With Growth and Fitness Following Life-span Extension by Rapamycin in an Outcrossing Nematode, Caenorhabditis remanei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Martin I; Zwoinska, Martyna K; Meurling, Sara; Carlsson, Hanne; Maklakov, Alexei A

    2016-07-01

    Rapamycin inhibits the nutrient-sensing TOR pathway and extends life span in a wide range of organisms. Although life-span extension usually differs between the sexes, the reason for this is poorly understood. Because TOR influences growth, rapamycin likely affects life-history traits such as growth and reproduction. Sexes have different life-history strategies, and theory predicts that they will resolve the tradeoffs between growth, reproduction, and life span differently. Specifically, in taxa with female-biased sexual size dimorphism, reduced growth may have smaller effects on male fitness. We investigated the effects of juvenile, adult, or life-long rapamycin treatment on growth, reproduction, life span, and individual fitness in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei Life-long exposure to rapamycin always resulted in the strongest response, whereas postreproductive exposure did not affect life span. Although rapamycin resulted in longer life span and smaller size in males, male individual fitness was not affected. In contrast, size and fitness were negatively affected in females, whereas life span was only extended under high rapamycin concentrations. Our results support the hypothesis that rapamycin affects key life-history traits in a sex-specific manner. We argue that the fitness cost of life-span extension will be sex specific and propose that the smaller sex generally pay less while enjoying stronger life-span increase. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Mode of inheritance of major genes controlling life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, I; Motoyama, T; Hasekura, H

    1989-01-01

    Although life span is generally considered to be under polygenic control, we obtained experimental evidence of Mendelian genes exerting major effects on life span differences between two inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Our data indicate two loci with major effects, one being autosomal and the other sex-linked. The alleles at the autosomal locus are designated A1 and A2, the latter producing longer life. Heterozygotes, A1A2, exhibit over-dominance. The alleles at the sex-linked locus, designated X1 and X2, produce life-extending effects. X1 revealed a dosage effect, causing homozygous females to live longer than hemizygous males; X2 showed no dosage effect. The identified genes are considered to control the period of activity of many genes maintaining life.

  16. The Rate of Source Memory Decline across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansino, Selene; Estrada-Manilla, Cinthya; Hernandez-Ramos, Evelia; Martinez-Galindo, Joyce Graciela; Torres-Trejo, Frine; Gomez-Fernandez, Tania; Ayala-Hernandez, Mariana; Osorio, David; Cedillo-Tinoco, Melisa; Garces-Flores, Lissete; Gomez-Melgarejo, Sandra; Beltran-Palacios, Karla; Guadalupe Garcia-Lazaro, Haydee; Garcia-Gutierrez, Fabiola; Cadena-Arenas, Yadira; Fernandez-Apan, Luisa; Bartschi, Andrea; Resendiz-Vera, Julieta; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Maria Dolores

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the ability to remember contextual information related to specific episodic experiences declines with advancing age; however, the exact moment in the adult life span when this deficit begins is still controversial. Source memory for spatial information was tested in a life span sample of 1,500 adults between…

  17. Two-carbon metabolites, polyphenols and vitamins influence yeast chronological life span in winemaking conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orozco Helena

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Viability in a non dividing state is referred to as chronological life span (CLS. Most grape juice fermentation happens when Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells have stopped dividing; therefore, CLS is an important factor toward winemaking success. Results We have studied both the physical and chemical determinants influencing yeast CLS. Low pH and heat shorten the maximum wine yeast life span, while hyperosmotic shock extends it. Ethanol plays an important negative role in aging under winemaking conditions, but additional metabolites produced by fermentative metabolism, such as acetaldehyde and acetate, have also a strong impact on longevity. Grape polyphenols quercetin and resveratrol have negative impacts on CLS under winemaking conditions, an unexpected behavior for these potential anti-oxidants. We observed that quercetin inhibits alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, and that resveratrol performs a pro-oxidant role during grape juice fermentation. Vitamins nicotinic acid and nicotinamide are precursors of NAD+, and their addition reduces mean longevity during fermentation, suggesting a metabolic unbalance negative for CLS. Moreover, vitamin mix supplementation at the end of fermentation shortens CLS and enhances cell lysis, while amino acids increase life span. Conclusions Wine S. cerevisiae strains are able to sense changes in the environmental conditions and adapt their longevity to them. Yeast death is influenced by the conditions present at the end of wine fermentation, particularly by the concentration of two-carbon metabolites produced by the fermentative metabolism, such as ethanol, acetic acid and acetaldehyde, and also by the grape juice composition, particularly its vitamin content.

  18. Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Robins, Richard W; Widaman, Keith F

    2012-06-01

    We examined the life-span development of self-esteem and tested whether self-esteem influences the development of important life outcomes, including relationship satisfaction, job satisfaction, occupational status, salary, positive and negative affect, depression, and physical health. Data came from the Longitudinal Study of Generations. Analyses were based on 5 assessments across a 12-year period of a sample of 1,824 individuals ages 16 to 97 years. First, growth curve analyses indicated that self-esteem increases from adolescence to middle adulthood, reaches a peak at about age 50 years, and then decreases in old age. Second, cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that self-esteem is best modeled as a cause rather than a consequence of life outcomes. Third, growth curve analyses, with self-esteem as a time-varying covariate, suggested that self-esteem has medium-sized effects on life-span trajectories of affect and depression, small to medium-sized effects on trajectories of relationship and job satisfaction, a very small effect on the trajectory of health, and no effect on the trajectory of occupational status. These findings replicated across 4 generations of participants--children, parents, grandparents, and their great-grandparents. Together, the results suggest that self-esteem has a significant prospective impact on real-world life experiences and that high and low self-esteem are not mere epiphenomena of success and failure in important life domains. 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Small lymphocytes in peripheral lymphoid tissues of nude mice. Life-span and distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Röpke, C

    1975-01-01

    The distribution of small lymphocytes according to life-span in the peripheral lymphoid tissues of the mouse mutant "nude" has been studied by means of auto-radiography and scintillation counting to evaluate the localization of B lymphocytes with varying life-span. The vast majority...... was not seen in the lymph nodes. While the lymphocytes in the spleen were evenly distributed according to life-span, the paracortical lymphocytes in lymph nodes were found to have a generally shorter life-span than those of the cortex, in opposition to findings in normal mice. The cortical cells which were...... by far the most numerous in the lymph nodes seemed to be more sessile than para-cortical lymphocytes. The life-span of these latter cells are comparable to those of thoracic duct lymphocytes, and the scarcity of cells in the paracortex reflects the small number of recirculating lymphocytes in nude mice....

  20. Optimisation by Selection and Compensation: Balancing Primary and Secondary Control in Life Span Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckhausen, Jutta; Schulz, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Discusses individuals as producers of their life span developments, and examines individuals' selection of their life paths and their proneness to failure. Considers a model that explains individuals' optimization of their life course management in terms of selection of life paths and compensation for age-related losses such that potential for…

  1. Self-Determination across the Life Span: Issues and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Tamar; Schindler, Abigail; Palmer, Susan B.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Parent, Wendy; Jenson, Ronda; Abery, Brian H.; Geringer, Wendy; Bacon, Ansley; O'Hara, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This article synthesizes the literature on self-determination across the lifespan with a focus on identifying gaps that exist between theory, research, and evidence-based practices. Using a life-stages approach, it first examines issues across life phases, and then examines cross-cutting topics (employment, abuse and neglect, and health) that are…

  2. Ageless and Timeless: Perspectives on Giftedness across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    Annemarie Roeper's timeless perspectives were demonstrated throughout her long and productive life. Her prolific writings and speeches continue to influence our understanding of giftedness at all ages and stages of life, and the time I spent with her had a profound and meaningful effect on my work. Annemarie incorporated her inner view of…

  3. Convergent adaptation of cellular machineries in the evolution of large body masses and long life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croco, Eleonora; Marchionni, Silvia; Storci, Gianluca; Bonafè, Massimiliano; Franceschi, Claudio; Stamato, Thomas D; Sell, Christian; Lorenzini, Antonello

    2017-08-01

    In evolutionary terms, life on the planet has taken the form of independently living cells for the majority of time. In comparison, the mammalian radiation is a relatively recent event. The common mammalian ancestor was probably small and short-lived. The "recent" acquisition of an extended longevity and large body mass of some species of mammals present on the earth today suggests the possibility that similar cellular mechanisms have been influenced by the forces of natural selection to create a convergent evolution of longevity. Many cellular mechanisms are potentially relevant for extending longevity; in this assay, we review the literature focusing primarily on two cellular features: (1) the capacity for extensive cellular proliferation of differentiated cells, while maintaining genome stability; and (2) the capacity to detect DNA damage. We have observed that longevity and body mass are both positively linked to these cellular mechanisms and then used statistical tools to evaluate their relative importance. Our analysis suggest that the capacity for extensive cellular proliferation while maintaining sufficient genome stability, correlates to species body mass while the capacity to correctly identify the presence of DNA damage seems more an attribute of long-lived species. Finally, our data are in support of the idea that a slower development, allowing for better DNA damage detection and handling, should associate with longer life span.

  4. Linguistic Evidence for the Failure Mindset as a Predictor of Life Span Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penzel, Ian B; Persich, Michelle R; Boyd, Ryan L; Robinson, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    When people think that their efforts will fail to achieve positive outcomes, they sometimes give up their efforts after control, which can have negative health consequences. Problematic orientations of this type, such as pessimism, helplessness, or fatalism, seem likely to be associated with a cognitive mindset marked by higher levels of accessibility for failure words or concepts. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to determine whether there are individual differences in the frequency with which people think about failure, which in turn are likely to impact health across large spans of time. Following self-regulatory theories of health and the learned helplessness tradition, two archival studies (total n = 197) scored texts (books or speeches) for their use of failure words, a category within the Harvard IV dictionary of the General Inquirer. People who used failure words more frequently exhibited shorter subsequent life spans, and this relationship remained significant when controlling for birth year. Furthermore, study 2 implicated behavioral factors. For example, the failure/longevity relationship was numerically stronger among people whose causes of death appeared to be preventable rather than non-preventable. These results significantly extend our knowledge of the personality/longevity relationship while highlighting the value of individual differences in word usage as predictors of health and mortality.

  5. Sex differences in life span: Females homozygous for the X chromosome do not suffer the shorter life span predicted by the unguarded X hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brengdahl, Martin; Kimber, Christopher M; Maguire-Baxter, Jack; Friberg, Urban

    2018-02-12

    Life span differs between the sexes in many species. Three hypotheses to explain this interesting pattern have been proposed, involving different drivers: sexual selection, asymmetrical inheritance of cytoplasmic genomes, and hemizygosity of the X(Z) chromosome (the unguarded X hypothesis). Of these, the unguarded X has received the least experimental attention. This hypothesis suggests that the heterogametic sex suffers a shortened life span because recessive deleterious alleles on its single X(Z) chromosome are expressed unconditionally. In Drosophila melanogaster, the X chromosome is unusually large (∼20% of the genome), providing a powerful model for evaluating theories involving the X. Here, we test the unguarded X hypothesis by forcing D. melanogaster females from a laboratory population to express recessive X-linked alleles to the same degree as males, using females exclusively made homozygous for the X chromosome. We find no evidence for reduced life span or egg-to-adult viability due to X homozygozity. In contrast, males and females homozygous for an autosome both suffer similar, significant reductions in those traits. The logic of the unguarded X hypothesis is indisputable, but our results suggest that the degree to which recessive deleterious X-linked alleles depress performance in the heterogametic sex appears too small to explain general sex differences in life span. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Families enriched for exceptional longevity also have increased health span: Findings from the Long Life Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eSebastiani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypothesizing that members of families enriched for longevity delay morbidity compared to population controls and approximate the health-span of centenarians, we compared the health spans of older generation subjects of the Long Life Family Study (LLFS to controls without family history of longevity and to centenarians of the New England Centenarian Study (NECS using Bayesian parametric survival analysis. We estimated hazard ratios, the ages at which specific percentiles of subjects had onsets of diseases, and the gain of years of disease-free survival in the different cohorts compared to referent controls. Compared to controls, LLFS subjects had lower hazards for cancer, cardiovascular disease, severe dementia, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis and stroke. The age at which 20% of the LLFS siblings and probands had one or more age-related diseases was approximately 10 years later than NECS controls. While female NECS controls generally delayed the onset of age-related diseases compared with males controls, these gender differences became much less in the older generation of the LLFS and disappeared amongst the centenarians of the NECS. The analyses demonstrate extended health-span in the older subjects of the LLFS and suggest that this aging cohort provides an important resource to discover genetic and environmental factors that promote prolonged health-span in addition to longer life-span.

  7. Autophagy Genes Are Essential for Dauer Development and Life-Span Extension in C. elegans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alicia Meléndez; Zsolt Tallóczy; Matthew Seaman; Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen; David H. Hall; Beth Levine

    2003-01-01

    Both dauer formation (a stage of developmental arrest) and adult life-span in Caenorhabditis elegans are negatively regulated by insulin-like signaling, but little is known about cellular pathways that mediate these processes...

  8. A method for high-throughput quantitative analysis of yeast chronological life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Christopher J; Burtner, Christopher R; Kennedy, Brian K; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2008-02-01

    Chronological aging in yeast has been studied by maintaining cells in a quiescent-like stationary phase culture and monitoring cell survival over time. The composition of the growth medium can have a profound influence on chronological aging. For example, dietary restriction accomplished by lowering the glucose concentration of the medium significantly increases life span. Here we report a novel high-throughput method for measuring yeast chronological life span by monitoring outgrowth of aging cells using a Bioscreen C MBR machine. We show that this method provides survival data comparable to traditional methods, but with decreased variability. In addition to reducing the glucose concentration, we find that elevated amino acid levels or increased osmolarity of the growth medium is sufficient to increase chronological life span. We also report that life-span extension from dietary restriction does not require any of the five yeast sirtuins (Sir2, Hst1, Hst2, Hst3, or Hst4) either alone or in combination.

  9. An exercise for increasing students' understanding of life-span developmental psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F R

    1995-06-01

    During the first week of a class in developmental psychology, students listed 5 to 7 characteristics they believed represent life-span developmental characteristics for the categories of infants, young children, adolescents, middle-aged adults, and older adults. Students retained their lists which were referred to during discussion throughout the course. Students reported this activity increased their understanding of topics central to life-span developmental psychology.

  10. Effect of carnosine and its Trolox-modified derivatives on life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stvolinsky, Sergey; Antipin, Maxim; Meguro, Kanji; Sato, Tatsunori; Abe, Hiroki; Boldyrev, Alexander

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of antioxidants, i.e., carnosine and its Trolox- (water-soluble analog of alpha-tocopherol) acylated derivatives (S,S)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carbonyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine (S,S-Trolox-carnosine, STC) and (R,S)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carbonyl-beta-alanyl-L-histidine (R,S-Trolox-carnosine, RTC) on the life span of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. Adding carnosine to foodstuff was accompanied and followed by a 20% increase in the average life span of males, but it did not influence the average life span of females. At the same time, adding STC to foodstuff prolonged average longevity both in males (by 16%) and females (by 36%), but the addition of RTC to foodstuff had no influence upon the average life span of insects of either gender. The compounds studied have previously been shown to protect neurons of the rat brain from oxidative stress in the descending order of efficiency: RTC > STC > carnosine. The finding obtained in the present study suggests another order of efficacy regarding the effect on life span in male insects: STC > carnosine > RTC (inefficient). No correlation between antioxidant protection of rat neurons and the effect on life span of the fruit fly makes it possible to suppose the presence of additional cellular targets to be acted upon by exposure of D. melanogaster to these compounds.

  11. Life-Span Extension by Caloric Restriction Is Determined by Type and Level of Food Reduction and by Reproductive Mode in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    We measured life span and fecundity of three reproductive modes in a clone of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas subjected to chronic caloric restriction (CCR) over a range of food concentrations or to intermittent fasting (IF). IF increased life span 50%–70% for all three modes, whereas CCR increased life span of asexual females derived from sexually or asexually produced eggs, but not that of sexual females. The main effect of CR on both asexual modes was to delay death at young ages, rather than to prevent death at middle ages or to greatly extend maximum life span; in contrast CR in sexual females greatly increased the life span of a few long-lived individuals. Lifetime fecundity did not decrease with CCR, suggesting a lack of resource allocation trade-off between somatic maintenance and reproduction. Multiple outcomes for a clonal lineage indicate that different responses are established through epigenetic programming, whereas differences in life-span allocations suggest that multiple genetic mechanisms mediate life-span extension. PMID:22904096

  12. Everyday problem solving across the adult life span: solution diversity and efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienaltowski, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Everyday problem solving involves examining the solutions that individuals generate when faced with problems that take place in their everyday experiences. Problems can range from medication adherence and meal preparation to disagreeing with a physician over a recommended medical procedure or compromising with extended family members over where to host Thanksgiving dinner. Across the life span, research has demonstrated divergent patterns of change in performance based on the type of everyday problems used as well as based on the way that problem-solving efficacy is operationally defined. Advancing age is associated with worsening performance when tasks involve single-solution or fluency-based definitions of effectiveness. However, when efficacy is defined in terms of the diversity of strategies used, as well as by the social and emotional impact of solution choice on the individual, performance is remarkably stable and sometimes even improves in the latter half of life. This article discusses how both of these approaches to everyday problem solving inform research on the influence that aging has on everyday functioning. PMID:22023569

  13. Life-span adjustment of children to their parents' divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, P R

    1994-01-01

    Children who experience parental divorce, compared with children in intact two-parent families, exhibit more conduct problems, more symptoms of psychological maladjustment, lower academic achievement, more social difficulties, and poorer self-concepts. Similarly, adults who experienced parental divorce as children, compared with adults raised in continuously intact two-parent families, score lower on a variety of indicators of psychological, interpersonal, and socioeconomic well-being. However, the overall group differences between offspring from divorced and intact families are small, with considerable diversity existing in children's reactions to divorce. Children's adjustment to divorce depends on several factors, including the amount and quality of contact with noncustodial parents, the custodial parents' psychological adjustment and parenting skills, the level of interparental conflict that precedes and follows divorce, the degree of economic hardship to which children are exposed, and the number of stressful life events that accompany and follow divorce. These factors can be used as guides to assess the probable impact of various legal and therapeutic interventions to improve the well-being of children of divorce.

  14. Increased Life Span due to Calorie Restriction in Respiratory-Deficient Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A model for replicative life span extension by calorie restriction (CR in yeast has been proposed whereby reduced glucose in the growth medium leads to activation of the NAD-dependent histone deacetylase Sir2. One mechanism proposed for this putative activation of Sir2 is that CR enhances the rate of respiration, in turn leading to altered levels of NAD or NADH, and ultimately resulting in enhanced Sir2 activity. An alternative mechanism has been proposed in which CR decreases levels of the Sir2 inhibitor nicotinamide through increased expression of the gene coding for nicotinamidase, PNC1. We have previously reported that life span extension by CR is not dependent on Sir2 in the long-lived BY4742 strain background. Here we have determined the requirement for respiration and the effect of nicotinamide levels on life span extension by CR. We find that CR confers robust life span extension in respiratory-deficient cells independent of strain background, and moreover, suppresses the premature mortality associated with loss of mitochondrial DNA in the short-lived PSY316 strain. Addition of nicotinamide to the medium dramatically shortens the life span of wild type cells, due to inhibition of Sir2. However, even in cells lacking both Sir2 and the replication fork block protein Fob1, nicotinamide partially prevents life span extension by CR. These findings (1 demonstrate that respiration is not required for the longevity benefits of CR in yeast, (2 show that nicotinamide inhibits life span extension by CR through a Sir2-independent mechanism, and (3 suggest that CR acts through a conserved, Sir2-independent mechanism in both PSY316 and BY4742.

  15. Acne vulgaris in women: prevalence across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Alexis C; Maglione, Jessica; Hillebrand, Greg G; Miyamoto, Kukizo; Kimball, Alexa B

    2012-02-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common skin disease with a large quality of life impact, characterized by comedones, inflammatory lesions, secondary dyspigmentation, and scarring. Although traditionally considered a disease of adolescence, reports suggest it is also a disease of adults, especially adult women. Our objectives were to determine acne prevalence in a large, diverse group of women and to examine acne by subtype and in relation to other skin findings, measurements, and lifestyle factors. We recruited 2895 women aged 10-70 from the general population. Photographs were graded for acne lesions, scars, and dyspigmentation. Measurements were taken of sebum excretion and pore size, and survey data were collected. Of the women studied, 55% had some form of acne: 28% had mild acne, and 27% had clinical acne, 14% of which was primarily inflammatory and 13% of which was primarily comedonal. Acne peaked in the teenage years, but 45% of women aged 21-30, 26% aged 31-40, and 12% aged 41-50 had clinical acne. Women with inflammatory acne were younger than those with comedonal acne (p≤0.001), and postmenopausal women had less acne than age-matched peers (pAcne was associated with facial hirsutism (p=0.001), large pores (p=0.001), and sebum excretion (p=0.002). Smokers had more, primarily comedonal, acne than nonsmokers. The cross-sectional design precludes conclusions about progression of acne with age. Participation was restricted to women. The photographic nature of the study imposes general limitations. Techniques used in this study were not sufficiently sensitive to identify cases of subclinical acne. More than a quarter of women studied had acne, which peaked in the teens but continued to be prevalent through the fifth decade.

  16. The minimum spanning strong subdigraph problem for extended semicomplete digraphs and semicomplete bipartite digraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Jensen, Jørgen; Yeo, Anders

    2001-01-01

    We consider the problem (minimum spanning strong subdigraph (MSSS)) of finding the minimum number of arcs in a spanning strongly connected subdigraph of a strongly connected digraph. This problem is NP-hard for general digraphs since it generalizes the Hamiltonian cycle problem. We characterize t...... problem is also polynomial for this class of digraphs. [15] J. Bang-Jensen, G. Gutin and A. Yeo, A polynomial algorithm for the Hamiltonian cycle problem in semicomplete multipartite digraphs. J. Graph Theory 29 (1998), pp. 111–132. MathSciNet    ...

  17. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools

  18. Disentangling rectangularization and life span extension with the moving rectangle method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schalkwijk, F.H.; Koopman, J.J.E.; Ghariq, E.; de Beer, J.A.A.; van Bodegom, D.; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The moving rectangle method is used to disentangle the contributions of rectangularization and life span extension to the increase in life expectancy. It requires the choice of an endpoint of the survival curve that approaches the maximum age at death. We examined the effect of choosing

  19. The importance of adult life-span perspective in explaining variations in political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedek, Grzegorz; Kossowska, Malgorzata; Rydzewska, Klara

    2014-06-01

    As a comment on Hibbing et al.'s paper, we discuss the evolution of political and social views from more liberal to more conservative over the span of adulthood. We show that Hibbing et al.'s theoretical model creates a false prediction from this developmental perspective, as increased conservatism in the adult life-span trajectory is accompanied by the avoidance of negative bias.

  20. How long will my mouse live? Machine learning approaches for prediction of mouse life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindell, William R; Harper, James M; Miller, Richard A

    2008-09-01

    Prediction of individual life span based on characteristics evaluated at middle-age represents a challenging objective for aging research. In this study, we used machine learning algorithms to construct models that predict life span in a stock of genetically heterogeneous mice. Life-span prediction accuracy of 22 algorithms was evaluated using a cross-validation approach, in which models were trained and tested with distinct subsets of data. Using a combination of body weight and T-cell subset measures evaluated before 2 years of age, we show that the life-span quartile to which an individual mouse belongs can be predicted with an accuracy of 35.3% (+/-0.10%). This result provides a new benchmark for the development of life-span-predictive models, but improvement can be expected through identification of new predictor variables and development of computational approaches. Future work in this direction can provide tools for aging research and will shed light on associations between phenotypic traits and longevity.

  1. Life-span plasticity of the brain and cognition: from questions to evidence and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Naftali; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-11-01

    Experience-related changes induced by modification of environment, physical exercise, or cognitive training affect brain structure and function. Research on brain plasticity and its relationship to experiential changes gathers momentum and attracts significant public interest. This collection of papers is based on presentation at the First International Conference on Life-Span Plasticity of Brain and Behavior: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective that took place in Detroit, MI, on October 12-14, 2011. The conference honored Margret M. and Paul B. Baltes, the pioneers of life-span developmental psychology who initiated some of the first studies on experience- and training-related changes in cognition across the life span. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased internal and external bacterial load during Drosophila aging without life-span trade-off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Chunli; Webster, Paul; Finkel, Steven E; Tower, John

    2007-08-01

    The role of microbial load during aging of the adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster is incompletely understood. Here we show dramatic increases in aerobic and anaerobic bacterial load during aging, both inside the body and on the surface. Scanning electron microscopy and cell staining analyses of the surface of aged flies detected structures resembling abundant small bacteria and bacterial biofilms. Bacteria cultured from laboratory flies included aerobic species Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter tropicalis, and Acetobacter pasteurianus and anaerobic species Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus sp. MR-2; Lactobacillus homohiochii, Lactobacillus fructivorans, and Lactobacillus brevis were identified by DNA sequencing. Reducing bacterial load and antimicrobial peptide gene expression by axenic culture or antibiotics had no effect on life span. We conclude that Drosophila can tolerate a significant bacterial load and mount a large innate immune response without a detectable trade-off with life span; furthermore, microbes do not seem to limit life span under optimized laboratory conditions.

  3. Protein:carbohydrate ratios explain life span patterns found in Queensland fruit fly on diets varying in yeast:sugar ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanson, Benjamin G; Taylor, Phillip W

    2012-12-01

    Dietary restriction extends life span across a vast diversity of taxa, but significant challenges remain in elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Distinguishing between caloric and nutrient effects is an essential step. Recent studies with Drosophila and tephritid fruit flies have reported increased life span as dietary yeast-to-sugar ratios decreased and these effects have been attributed to changes in protein-to-carbohydrate (P:C) ratios of the diets rather than calories. However, yeast is a complex mix of macronutrients and micronutrients, and hence changes in yeast content of the diet necessarily alters other nutrients in lockstep. To explicitly test whether studies using yeast are justified in attributing results to diet protein content rather than correlated nutrients, we developed a chemically defined diet allowing manipulation of just the ratio of protein (free amino acids) to carbohydrate (sucrose) levels of diets while holding other nutrients constant. Mated, female Queensland fruit flies (Q-flies) were fed 1 of 18 diets varying in P:C ratios and diet concentration. Diet consumption, egg production, and life span were recorded for each fly. In close concordance with recent studies using yeast diets, flies had increased life span as P:C ratios decreased, and caloric restriction did not extend life span. Similarly, egg production was maximized on high P:C ratios, but lifetime egg production was maximized on intermediate P:C ratios, indicating a life history trade-off between life span and egg production rate. Finally, Q-flies adjusted their diet intake in response to P:C ratios and diet concentration. Our results substantiate recent claims that P:C ratios significantly modulate life span in flies.

  4. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  5. A New Twist on Old Questions: A Life Span Approach to the Trait Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Sarah E; Edmonds, Grant W

    2018-02-01

    We examine three cardinal concerns in personality psychology from a life span perspective: trait structure, trait stability, and trait mechanisms that account for the predictive utility of traits. We draw on previously published and new findings from the Hawaii Longitudinal Study of Personality and Health, as well as work by others. The Hawaii study provides a unique opportunity to relate a comprehensive assessment of participants' childhood personality traits (over 2,000 children, mean age 10 years) to their adult personality traits and other self-report outcomes in their 40s, 50s, and 60s, and their clinically assessed health at mean age 51. Our analyses have demonstrated that the Big Five can be used to describe childhood personality in this cohort. The stability of the Big Five from childhood teacher assessments to adult self- or observer reports is modest and varies from Big Five trait to trait. Personality mechanisms of life span health behavior and life span trauma experience explain some of the influence of childhood Conscientiousness on adult health outcomes. A life span approach highlights the dynamic nature of traits and their long-term predictive utility, and it offers numerous directions for future research. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Auditory Environment across the Life Span of Cochlear Implant Users: Insights from Data Logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Tobias; Vanpoucke, Filiep; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the natural auditory environment of people with cochlear implants (CIs), how it changes across the life span, and how it varies between individuals. Method: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of Cochlear Nucleus 6 CI sound-processor data logs. The logs were obtained from 1,501 people with CIs (ages 0-96…

  7. Quantifying the Structure of Free Association Networks across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubossarsky, Haim; De Deyne, Simon; Hills, Thomas T.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate how the mental lexicon changes over the life span using free association data from over 8,000 individuals, ranging from 10 to 84 years of age, with more than 400 cue words per age group. Using network analysis, with words as nodes and edges defined by the strength of shared associations, we find that associative networks evolve in a…

  8. Re-use and life span of gloves | van Palenstein Helderman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Re-use and life span of gloves. WH van Palenstein Helderman. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  9. Flexible pavement rehabilitation design based on pavement service life time span left

    OpenAIRE

    Gamelyak, I.; Shevchuk, V.

    2005-01-01

    The design of flexible pavement rehabilitation is analysed in terms of durability-cost. A notion of the remaining service life span is described. the model of rehabilitation strategy selection is presented for both design project and operation stages. the results can be used in the pavement management system.

  10. Life Span of Positive Solutions for the Cauchy Problem for the Parabolic Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Yamauchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1960's, the blow-up phenomena for the Fujita type parabolic equation have been investigated by many researchers. In this survey paper, we discuss various results on the life span of positive solutions for several superlinear parabolic problems. In the last section, we introduce a recent result by the author.

  11. The Status of Number and Quantity Conservation Concepts Across the Life-span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Diane E.

    Conservation performance during childhood to portions of the life span beyond adolescence is examined, with existing data replicated on subjects ranging from the preschool to middle-childhood years. Age differences in performance are studied for the typical Piagetian paired-stimulus equivalence conservation of number, substance, weight, and volume…

  12. A bodyweight-dependent allometric exponent for scaling clearance across the human life-span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Wang (Chenguang); M.Y. Peeters (Mariska); K.M. Allegaert (Karel); H.J. Blussé van Oud-Alblas (Heleen); E.H.J. Krekels (Elke); D. Tibboel (Dick); M. Danhof (Meindert); C.A.J. Knibbe (Catherijne)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To explore different allometric equations for scaling clearance across the human life-span using propofol as a model drug. Methods: Data from seven previously published propofol studies ((pre)term neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents and adults) were analysed using

  13. Repeated intraspecific divergence in life span and aging of African annual fishes along an aridity gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažek, Radim; Polačik, Matej; Kačer, P.; Cellerino, A.; Řežucha, Radomil; Methling, Caroline; Tomášek, Oldřich; Syslová, K.; Terzibasi Tozzini, E.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Vrtílek, Milan; Reichard, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2017), s. 386-402 ISSN 0014-3820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-05872S; GA ČR(CZ) GA16-00291S Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Intraspecific variation * life span * neoplasia * pace-of-life syndrome * parallel evolution * reproductive senescence Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.201, year: 2016

  14. The linear allometric relationship between total metabolic energy per life span and body mass of mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasov, Atanas Todorov

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to establish and calculate the exact allometric relationship between the total metabolic energy per life span and the body mass in a wide range of mammals with about six orders of magnitude variation of the body mass of animals. The study shows that it exists a linear relationship between the total metabolic energy per life span PT(ls) (kJ) and the body mass M (kg) of 95 mammals (3 monotremes, Subclass Prototheria, 16 marsupialis (Subclass Theria, Infraclass Metatheria) and 76 placentals (Subclass Theria, Infraclass Eutheria)) from type: PT(ls)=A(ls)(+)M(1.0511), where P (kJ/day) is the basal rate of metabolism and T(ls) (days) is the mean life span of animals. The linear coefficient A(ls)(+)=7.158x10(5) kJ/kg is the total metabolic energy, exhausted during the life span per 1 kg body mass of the animals. The mean values of the total metabolic energy per life span, per unit body mass (A(ls)) for orders from Subclass Prototheria and Theria (Infraclass Metatheria) and orders Xenarthra, Pholidota, Soricomorpha, Rodentia (Infraclass Eutheria) varied negligible in interval (4.656-5.80)x10(5) kJ/kg. The coefficient A(ls) grows from (7.68-8.36)x10(5) kJ/kg in Lagomorpha and Artiodactyla (Eutheria) to (10.58-12.64)x10(5) kJ/kg in orders Carnivora, Pinnipeda and Chiroptera (Eutheria). A(ls) grows maximum to 18.5x10(5) kJ/kg in Primates. Thus, the values of coefficient A(ls) differ maximum four-fold in all orders. Across the all species the values of A(ls) are changes about one order of magnitude. Consequently, our survey shows that the changes of the body mass, basal metabolic rate and the life span of animals are three mutually related parameters, so that the product A(ls)=(PT(ls))/M remains relatively constant in comparison to 1 million fold difference in body mass and total metabolic energy per life span between mammals.

  15. ETS-4 is a transcriptional regulator of life span in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargavi Thyagarajan

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex phenotype responsive to a plethora of environmental inputs; yet only a limited number of transcriptional regulators are known to influence life span. How the downstream expression programs mediated by these factors (or others are coordinated into common or distinct set of aging effectors is an addressable question in model organisms, such as C. elegans. Here, we establish the transcription factor ETS-4, an ortholog of vertebrate SPDEF, as a longevity determinant. Adult worms with ets-4 mutations had a significant extension of mean life span. Restoring ETS-4 activity in the intestine, but not neurons, of ets-4 mutant worms rescued life span to wild-type levels. Using RNAi, we demonstrated that ets-4 is required post-developmentally to regulate adult life span; thus uncoupling the role of ETS-4 in aging from potential functions in worm intestinal development. Seventy ETS-4-regulated genes, identified by gene expression profiling of two distinct ets-4 alleles and analyzed by bioinformatics, were enriched for known longevity effectors that function in lipid transport, lipid metabolism, and innate immunity. Putative target genes were enriched for ones that change expression during normal aging, the majority of which are controlled by the GATA factors. Also, some ETS-4-regulated genes function downstream of the FOXO factor, DAF-16 and the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway. However, epistasis and phenotypic analyses indicate that ets-4 functioned in parallel to the insulin/IGF-1 receptor, daf-2 and akt-1/2 kinases. Furthermore, ets-4 required daf-16 to modulate aging, suggesting overlap in function at the level of common targets that affect life span. In conclusion, ETS-4 is a new transcriptional regulator of aging, which shares transcriptional targets with GATA and FOXO factors, suggesting that overlapping pathways direct common sets of lifespan-related genes.

  16. C. elegans VANG-1 modulates life span via insulin/IGF-1-like signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Honnen

    Full Text Available The planar cell polarity (PCP pathway is highly conserved from Drosophila to humans and a PCP-like pathway has recently been described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The developmental function of this pathway is to coordinate the orientation of cells or structures within the plane of an epithelium or to organize cell-cell intercalation required for correct morphogenesis. Here, we describe a novel role of VANG-1, the only C. elegans ortholog of the conserved PCP component Strabismus/Van Gogh. We show that two alleles of vang-1 and depletion of the protein by RNAi cause an increase of mean life span up to 40%. Consistent with the longevity phenotype vang-1 animals also show enhanced resistance to thermal- and oxidative stress and decreased lipofuscin accumulation. In addition, vang-1 mutants show defects like reduced brood size, decreased ovulation rate and prolonged reproductive span, which are also related to gerontogenes. The germline, but not the intestine or neurons, seems to be the primary site of vang-1 function. Life span extension in vang-1 mutants depends on the insulin/IGF-1-like receptor DAF-2 and DAF-16/FoxO transcription factor. RNAi against the phase II detoxification transcription factor SKN-1/Nrf2 also reduced vang-1 life span that might be explained by gradual inhibition of insulin/IGF-1-like signaling in vang-1. This is the first time that a key player of the PCP pathway is shown to be involved in the insulin/IGF-1-like signaling dependent modulation of life span in C. elegans.

  17. Non-linear impact of glutathione depletion on C. elegans life span and stress resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Urban

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The redox environment in cells and organisms is set by low-molecular mass and protein-bound thiols, with glutathione (GSH representing a major intracellular redox buffer. Subtle thiol oxidation elicits signal transduction processes and adaptive responses to cope with stressors, whereas highly oxidizing conditions may provoke cell death. We here tested how thiol depletion affects life span, stress resistance and stress signaling in the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. Diethyl maleate (DEM, an α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compound that conjugates to GSH and other thiols, decreased C. elegans life span at a concentration of 1 mM. In contrast, low and moderate doses of DEM (10–100 µM increased mean and maximum life span and improved resistance against oxidative stress. DEM-induced life span extension was not detectable in worms deficient in either the FoxO orthologue, DAF-16, or the Nrf2 orthologue, SKN-1, pointing to a collaborative role of the two transcription factors in life span extension induced by thiol depletion. Cytoprotective target genes of DAF-16 and SKN-1 were upregulated after at least 3 days of exposure to 100 µM DEM, but not 1 mM DEM, whereas only 1 mM DEM caused upregulation of egl-1, a gene controlled by a p53-orthologue, CEP-1. In order to test whether depletion of GSH may elicit effects similar to DEM, we suppressed GSH biosynthesis in worms by attenuating γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gcs-1 expression through RNAi. The decline in GSH levels elicited by gcs-1 knockdown starting at young adult stage did not impair viability, but increased both stress resistance and life expectancy of the worms. In contrast, gcs-1 knockdown commencing right after hatching impaired nematode stress resistance and rendered young adult worms prone to vulval ruptures during egg-laying. Thus, modest decrease in GSH levels in young adult worms may promote stress resistance and life span, whereas depletion of GSH is detrimental to freshly

  18. From menarche to menopause: the fertile life span of celiac women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santonicola, Antonella; Iovino, Paola; Cappello, Carmelina; Capone, Pietro; Andreozzi, Paolo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated menopause-associated disorders and fertile life span in women with celiac disease (CD) under untreated conditions and after long-term treatment with a gluten-free diet. The participants were 33 women with CD after menopause (untreated CD group), 25 celiac women consuming a gluten-free diet at least 10 years before menopause (treated CD group), and 45 healthy volunteers (control group). The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to gather information on menopause-associated disorders. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to acquire information on physical activity. Untreated celiac women had a shorter duration of fertile life span than did the control women because of an older age of menarche and a younger age of menopause (P celiac women than in the control women (higher by 49.4%, 121.4%, and 58.6%, respectively; P celiac women compared with control women. A gluten-free diet that started at least 10 years before menopause prolongs the fertile life span of celiac women. The perception of intensity of hot flushes and irritability is more severe in untreated celiac women than in controls. Low physical exercise and/or poorer quality of life frequently reported by untreated celiac women might be the cause of reduced discomfort tolerance, thus increasing the subjective perception of menopausal symptoms.

  19. Aging is associated with decreased maximal life span and accelerated senescence of bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokkedahl, Karin Stenderup; Justesen, Jeannette; Clausen, Christian

    2003-01-01

    maximal life span. Cell growth, markers of cellular senescence, and osteogenic and adipogenic potential were determined in early-passage and late-passage cells established from young and old donors. MSC from old donors exhibited a decreased maximal life span compared with cells from young donors (24...... +/- 11 population doublings [PD] vs 41 +/- 10 PD, P cells (0.05 +/- 0.02 PD/day) compared with young donor cells (0.09 +/- 0.02 PD/day) (P senescence-associated beta-galactosidase positive (SA beta......-gal+) cells and mean telomere length in early-passage cells obtained from young and old donors. However, MSC from old donors exhibited accelerated senescence evidenced by increased number of SA beta-gal+ cells per PD as compared with young (4% per PD vs 0.4% per PD, respectively). MSC from young and old...

  20. NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbo; Ryu, Dongryeol; Wu, Yibo; Gariani, Karim; Wang, Xu; Luan, Peiling; D'Amico, Davide; Ropelle, Eduardo R; Lutolf, Matthias P; Aebersold, Ruedi; Schoonjans, Kristina; Menzies, Keir J; Auwerx, Johan

    2016-06-17

    Adult stem cells (SCs) are essential for tissue maintenance and regeneration yet are susceptible to senescence during aging. We demonstrate the importance of the amount of the oxidized form of cellular nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) and its effect on mitochondrial activity as a pivotal switch to modulate muscle SC (MuSC) senescence. Treatment with the NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) induced the mitochondrial unfolded protein response and synthesis of prohibitin proteins, and this rejuvenated MuSCs in aged mice. NR also prevented MuSC senescence in the mdx (C57BL/10ScSn-Dmd(mdx)/J) mouse model of muscular dystrophy. We furthermore demonstrate that NR delays senescence of neural SCs and melanocyte SCs and increases mouse life span. Strategies that conserve cellular NAD(+) may reprogram dysfunctional SCs and improve life span in mammals. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  1. A survey of automatic teller machine usage across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W A; Cabrera, E F; Walker, N; Gilbert, D K; Fisk, A D

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze automatic teller machine (ATM) usage across the adult life span. We conducted an extensive survey of 9000 people in the Memphis and Atlanta metropolitan areas. Approximately 17% of those people responded. The survey assessed detailed demographic information, experience with technology in general, experience specifically related to ATMs, problems and dislikes with ATMs, and reasons that people do not use ATMs. The survey provided a valuable set of data. First, we have detailed information about the demographics and individual characteristics of ATM users and nonusers; importantly, these data are stratified across the adult life span. In addition, we know the likes and dislikes of ATM users and the types of problems they typically have using ATMs. Moreover, we have detailed analysis of why adults of all ages may choose not to use ATMs. Training and design implications of these data are discussed.

  2. "Where are all the lonely people?" A population-based study of high-risk groups across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Friis, Karina; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background. Loneliness is a prevalent and urgent public health issue. Optimal planning of community approaches to loneliness requires a differentiated understanding of loneliness across the life span. We identified groups at high risk of loneliness by exploring the relationship between loneliness...... interventions across the life span....

  3. Life span decrements in fluid intelligence and processing speed predict mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichele, Stephen; Rabbitt, Patrick; Ghisletta, Paolo

    2015-09-01

    We examined life span changes in 5 domains of cognitive performance as predictive of mortality risk. Data came from the Manchester Longitudinal Study of Cognition, a 20-plus-year investigation of 6,203 individuals ages 42-97 years. Cognitive domains were general crystallized intelligence, general fluid intelligence, verbal memory, visuospatial memory, and processing speed. Life span decrements were evident across these domains, controlling for baseline performance at age 70 and adjusting for retest effects. Survival analyses stratified by sex and conducted independently by cognitive domain showed that lower baseline performance levels in all domains-and larger life span decrements in general fluid intelligence and processing speed-were predictive of increased mortality risk for both women and men. Critically, analyses of the combined predictive power of cognitive performance variables showed that baseline levels of processing speed (in women) and general fluid intelligence (in men), and decrements in processing speed (in women and in men) and general fluid intelligence (in women), accounted for most of the explained variation in mortality risk. In light of recent evidence from brain-imaging studies, we speculate that cognitive abilities closely linked to cerebral white matter integrity (such as processing speed and general fluid intelligence) may represent particularly sensitive markers of mortality risk. In addition, we presume that greater complexity in cognition-survival associations observed in women (in analyses incorporating all cognitive predictors) may be a consequence of longer and more variable cognitive declines in women relative to men. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Trade-off between cellular immunity and life span in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrikis KRAMS, Janīna DAUKŠTE, Inese KIVLENIECE, Ants KAASIK, Tatjana KRAMA, Todd M. REEBERG, Markus J. RANTALA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation is a nonspecific, cellular response through which insects defend themselves against multicellular pathogens. During this immune reaction, haemocytes recognize an object as foreign and cause other haemocytes to aggregate and form a capsule around the object, often consisting of melanized cells. The process of melanisation is accompanied by the formation of potentially toxic reactive oxygen species, which can kill not only pathogens but also host cells. In this study we tested whether the encapsulation response is costly in mealworm beetles Tenebrio molitor. We found a negative relationship between the duration of implantation via a nylon monofilament and remaining life span. We also found a negative relationship between the strength of immune response and remaining life span, suggesting that cellular immunity is costly in T. molitor, and that there is a trade-off between immune response and remaining life span. However, this relationship disappeared at 31-32 hours of implantation at 25 ± 2℃. As the disappearance of a relationship between duration of implantation and lifespan coincided with the highest values of encapsulation response, we concluded that the beetles stopped investment in the production of melanotic cells, as the implant, a synthetic parasite, was fully isolated from the host’s tissues [Current Zoology 59 (3: 340–346, 2013].

  5. Genetic relation of life span to metabolic rate for inbred mouse strains and their hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, G.A.; Duffy, P.H.

    1979-02-01

    Average life spans were estimated for the male progeny from 21 of the 25 possible matings of 5 inbred mouse strains. Oxygen consumption was measured in an open system over a 48-hour interval. Resting metabolism, M/sub re/, and average metabolism, M/sub av/, were determined at 6 to 8 months of age, and at 24 to 34 months. Body weight, W, was determined at the time metabolism was measured. Life span, L, is negatively correlated with M/sub re/, and M/sub av/, and positively correlated with W at both ages of measurement. This is in accord with the metabolic wear factor that had previously been established among 85 different species of mammals. A new metabolism variable, the energy partition coefficient, defined as the ratio of average to resting metabolic rate, M/sub av//M/sub re/, has a parabolic relation to body weight, i.e., is maximal at an intermediate body size. The squared body weight deviation in turn has a negative correlation with life span. The correlation of L with M/sub av//M/sub re/ is positive, as expected, but not significant. These data suggest the existence of a longevity factor dependent on the partition of energy between the phasic metabolism of activity and the continuous maintenance metabolism.

  6. The change of lung capacity in elderly women caused by life span

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jaeseok; Kang, Taewook; Yeo, Yundong; Han, Dongwook

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Although lung capacity in the elderly is affected by age, little research has been performed studying decreasing lung capacity in relation to increasing life expectancy. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased life span on the lung capacity of women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 55 healthy elderly women over 60?years of age who were living in Busan. Subjects were classified in the following age categories: 60s, 70s and 80s. For the pul...

  7. Tool Wear and Life Span Variations in Cold Forming Operations and Their Implications in Microforming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders E. W. Jarfors

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The current paper aims to review tooling life span, failure modes and models in cold microforming processes. As there is nearly no information available on tool-life for microforming the starting point was conventional cold forming. In cold forming common failures are (1 over stressing of the tool; (2 abrasive wear; (3 galling or adhesive wear, and (4 fatigue failure. The large variation in tool life observed in production and how to predict this was reviewed as this is important to the viability of microforming based on that the tooling cost takes a higher portion of the part cost. Anisotropic properties of the tool materials affect tool life span and depend on both the as-received and in-service conditions. It was concluded that preconditioning of the tool surface, and coating are important to control wear and fatigue. Properly managed, the detrimental effects from surface particles can be reduced. Under high stress low-cycle fatigue conditions, fatigue failure form internal microstructures and inclusions are common. To improve abrasive wear resistance larger carbides are commonly the solution which will have a negative impact on tooling life as these tend to be the root cause of fatigue failures. This has significant impact on cold microforming.

  8. Life span and reproductive cost explain interspecific variation in the optimal onset of reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourocq, Emeline; Bize, Pierre; Bouwhuis, Sandra; Bradley, Russell; Charmantier, Anne; de la Cruz, Carlos; Drobniak, Szymon M; Espie, Richard H M; Herényi, Márton; Hötker, Hermann; Krüger, Oliver; Marzluff, John; Møller, Anders P; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Phillips, Richard A; Radford, Andrew N; Roulin, Alexandre; Török, János; Valencia, Juliana; van de Pol, Martijn; Warkentin, Ian G; Winney, Isabel S; Wood, Andrew G; Griesser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Fitness can be profoundly influenced by the age at first reproduction (AFR), but to date the AFR-fitness relationship only has been investigated intraspecifically. Here, we investigated the relationship between AFR and average lifetime reproductive success (LRS) across 34 bird species. We assessed differences in the deviation of the Optimal AFR (i.e., the species-specific AFR associated with the highest LRS) from the age at sexual maturity, considering potential effects of life history as well as social and ecological factors. Most individuals adopted the species-specific Optimal AFR and both the mean and Optimal AFR of species correlated positively with life span. Interspecific deviations of the Optimal AFR were associated with indices reflecting a change in LRS or survival as a function of AFR: a delayed AFR was beneficial in species where early AFR was associated with a decrease in subsequent survival or reproductive output. Overall, our results suggest that a delayed onset of reproduction beyond maturity is an optimal strategy explained by a long life span and costs of early reproduction. By providing the first empirical confirmations of key predictions of life-history theory across species, this study contributes to a better understanding of life-history evolution. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  9. Life Satisfaction, Self-Esteem, and Subjective Age in Women across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzumato-Gainey, Christine; Kennedy, Alison; McCabe, Beth; Degges-White, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    A study of 320 women, ages 21 to 69, explored the relations among relationship status, subjective age, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Women in married or partnered relationships had higher levels of life satisfaction than did single women. Women in their 30s and 40s had significantly lower levels of life satisfaction than did other age…

  10. Provenance, life span, and phylogeny do not affect grass species' responses to nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabloom, Eric W; Benfield, Cara D; Borer, Elizabeth T; Stanley, Amanda G; Kaye, Thomas N; Dunwiddie, Peter W

    2011-09-01

    Successful conservation management requires an understanding of how species respond to intervention. Native and exotic species may respond differently to management interventions due to differences arising directly from their origin (i.e., provenance) or indirectly due to biased representations of different life history types (e.g., annual vs. perennial life span) or phylogenetic lineages among provenance (i.e., native or exotic origin) groups. Thus, selection of a successful management regime requires knowledge of the life history and provenance-bias in the local flora and an understanding of the interplay between species characteristics across existing environmental gradients in the landscape. Here we tested whether provenance, phylogeny, and life span interact to determine species distributions along natural gradients of soil chemistry (e.g., soil nitrogen and phosphorus) in 10 upland prairie sites along a 600-km latitudinal transect running from southern Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada, to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, USA. We found that soil nitrate, phosphorus, and pH exerted strong control over community composition. However, species distributions along environmental gradients were unrelated to provenance, life span, or phylogenetic groupings. We then used a greenhouse experiment to more precisely measure the response of common grass species to nitrogen and phosphorus supply. As with the field data, species responses to nutrient additions did not vary as a function of provenance, life span, or phylogeny. Native and exotic species differed strongly in the relationship between greenhouse-measured tolerance of low nutrients and field abundance. Native species with the greatest ability to maintain biomass production at low nutrient supply rates were most abundant in field surveys, as predicted by resource competition theory. In contrast, there was no relationship between exotic-species biomass at low nutrient levels and field abundance. The

  11. Holistic life-span health outcomes among elite intercollegiate student-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M; Martin, Brandon E; Gordon, James E; Azen, Stanley P; Schroeder, E Todd; Salem, George J

    2014-01-01

    Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student-athletes (SAs). Cross-sectional study. A large Division I university. Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17-84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P students (P 99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = -0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs. No differences were observed between SAs and NAs in physical component HRQL. The SAs demonstrated significant, clinically meaningful evidence of greater joint health concerns later in life, comparable

  12. Holistic Life-Span Health Outcomes Among Elite Intercollegiate Student–Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Shawn C.; Romano, Russell; Scholefield, Robin M.; Martin, Brandon E.; Gordon, James E.; Azen, Stanley P.; Schroeder, E. Todd; Salem, George J.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Competitive sports are recognized as having unique health benefits and risks, and the effect of sports on life-span health among elite athletes has received increasing attention. However, supporting scientific data are sparse and do not represent modern athletes. Objective: To assess holistic life-span health and health-related quality-of-life (HRQL) among current and former National Collegiate Athletic Association student–athletes (SAs). Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: A large Division I university. Patients or Other Participants: Population-based sample of 496 university students and alumni (age 17–84 years), including SAs and an age-matched and sex-matched nonathlete (NA) control group. Main Outcome Measure(s): Participants completed anonymous, self-report questionnaires. We measured the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) physical and mental component HRQL scores and cumulative lifetime experience and relative risk of treatment for joint, cardiopulmonary, and psychosocial health concerns. Results: Older alumni (age 43+ years) SAs reported greater joint health concerns than NAs (larger joint summary scores; P = .04; Cohen d = 0.69; probability of clinically important difference [pCID] = 77%; treatment odds ratio [OR] = 14.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6, 126). Joint health for current and younger alumni SAs was similar to that for NAs. Older alumni reported greater cardiopulmonary health concerns than younger alumni (summary score P students (P 99.5%; OR = 7.1, 95% CI = 3.3, 15), but the risk was similar for SAs and NAs. Current SAs demonstrated evidence of better psychosocial health (summary score P = .006; d = −0.52; pCID = 40%) and mental component HRQL (P = .008; d = 0.50; pCID = 48%) versus NAs but similar psychosocial treatment odds (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.39, 1.9). Psychosocial health and mental component HRQL were similar between alumni SAs and NAs. No differences were observed between SAs and NAs in physical component HRQL. Conclusions

  13. How much should we weigh for a long and healthy life span?The need to reconcile caloric restriction versus longevity with body mass index versus mortality data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello eLorenzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Total caloric restriction (CR without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. Although CR in humans is capable of shifting several endocrinological parameters it is not clear where the minimum inflection point of the U shaped curve linking body mass index (BMI with all-cause mortality lies. The exact trend of this curve, when used for planning preventive strategies for public health is of extreme importance. Normal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9; many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between mortality and BMI inside the normal BMI range. Other studies show that the lowest mortality in the entire range of BMI is obtained in the overweight range (25 to 29.9. Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI-mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. In fact, one interpretation is that the CR data are identifying a known: excess fat is deleterious for health; although a second interpretation may be that: additional leanness from a normal body weight may add health and life span delaying the process of aging. This short review hope to start a discussion aimed at finding the widest consensus on which weight range should be consider the healthiest for our species, contributing in this way to the picture of what is the correct life style for a long and healthy life span.

  14. Life Extending Minimum-Time Path Planning for Hexapod Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a minimum-time path planning scheme for life-extending operation of legged robots, illustrated with a six-legged walking robot (hexapod. The focus of this study is on extending the bearing fatigue life for leg joints. As a typical treatment, the minimum-time path planning is performed through a bisecting-plane (BP algorithm with the constraints of maximum joint angular velocity and acceleration. Based on bearing fatigue life theory, its fatigue life increases while the dynamic radial force on the bearing decreases. By imposing more rigorous constraint on the dynamic radial force, the minimum-time path planning algorithm is thus revised by reinforcing the constraint of maximum radial force based on the expectation of life extension. A symmetric hexapod with 18 degree-of-freedom (DOF is adopted as the illustrative example for simulation study. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of possible life extending with moderate compromise in transient performance.

  15. Partner preferences across the life span: online dating by older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alterovitz, Sheyna Sears-Roberts; Mendelsohn, Gerald A

    2009-06-01

    Stereotypes of older adults as withdrawn or asexual fail to recognize that romantic relationships in later life are increasingly common. The authors analyzed 600 Internet personal ads from 4 age groups: 20-34, 40-54, 60-74, and 75+ years. Predictions from evolutionary theory held true in later life, when reproduction is no longer a concern. Across the life span, men sought physical attractiveness and offered status-related information more than women; women were more selective than men and sought status more than men. With age, men desired women increasingly younger than themselves, whereas women desired older men until ages 75 and over, when they sought men younger than themselves. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Causes of decreased life expectancy over the life span in bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vradi, Eleni; McIntyre, Roger S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accelerated aging has been proposed as a mechanism explaining the increased prevalence of comorbid general medical illnesses in bipolar disorder. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that lost life years due to natural causes starts in early and mid-adulthood, supporting the hypothesis...... of accelerated aging. METHODS: Using individual data from nationwide registers of patient with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder we calculated remaining life expectancies before age 90 years for values of age 15, 25, 35…75 years among all individuals alive in year 2000. Further, we estimated the reduction in life......, remaining life expectancy before age 90 years was decreased 12.7 and 8.9 life years, respectively, for men and women with bipolar disorder. For 15-year old boys with bipolar disorder, natural causes accounted for 58% of all lost life years and for 15-year old girls, natural causes accounted for 67...

  17. Extending Life Concepts to Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Le Fur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is still no consensus definition of complex systems. This article explores, as a heuristic approach, the possibility of using notions associated with life as transversal concepts for defining complex systems. This approach is developed within a general classification of systems, with complex systems considered as a general ‘living things’ category and living organisms as a specialised class within this category. Concepts associated with life are first explored in the context of complex systems: birth, death and lifetime, adaptation, ontogeny and growth, reproduction. Thereafter, a refutation approach is used to test the proposed classification against a set of diverse systems, including a reference case, edge cases and immaterial complex systems. The summary of this analysis is then used to generate a definition of complex systems, based on the proposal, and within the background of cybernetics, complex adaptive systems and biology. Using notions such as ‘birth’ or ‘lifespan’ as transversal concepts may be of heuristic value for the generic characterization of complex systems, opening up new lines of research for improving their definition.

  18. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Stability and change in risk-taking propensity across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josef, Anika K; Richter, David; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Wagner, Gert G; Hertwig, Ralph; Mata, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Can risk-taking propensity be thought of as a trait that captures individual differences across domains, measures, and time? Studying stability in risk-taking propensities across the life span can help to answer such questions by uncovering parallel, or divergent, trajectories across domains and measures. We contribute to this effort by using data from respondents aged 18 to 85 in the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP) and by examining (a) differential stability, (b) mean-level differences, and (c) individual-level changes in self-reported general (N = 44,076) and domain-specific (N = 11,903) risk-taking propensities across adulthood. In addition, we investigate (d) the correspondence between cross-sectional trajectories of self-report and behavioral measures of social (trust game; N = 646) and nonsocial (monetary gamble; N = 433) risk taking. The results suggest that risk-taking propensity can be understood as a trait with moderate stability. Results show reliable mean-level differences across the life span, with risk-taking propensities typically decreasing with age, although significant variation emerges across domains and individuals. Interestingly, the mean-level trajectory for behavioral measures of social and nonsocial risk taking was similar to those obtained from self-reported risk, despite small correlations between task behavior and self-reports. Individual-level analyses suggest a link between changes in risk-taking propensities both across domains and in relation to changes in some of the Big Five personality traits. Overall, these results raise important questions concerning the role of common processes or events that shape the life span development of risk-taking across domains as well as other major personality facets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. A major QTL affects temperature sensitive adult lethality and inbreeding depression in life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Bijlsma, R.; Loeschcke, Volker

    2008-01-01

    of inbreeding effects in specific traits, such as age-specific mortality and life span, provide a good starting point, as a limited set of genes is expected to be involved. Results Here we report on a QTL mapping study on inbreeding related and temperature sensitive lethality in male Drosophila melanogaster...... simple, being due mainly to a single recessive QTL on the left arm of chromosome 2. This locus colocalised with a QTL that conditioned variation in female life span, acting as an overdominant locus for this trait. Male life span was additionally affected by variation at the X-chromosome. Conclusion...

  1. Lymphocyte formation, life span, fate, and potential for repopulating hemopoietic tissues of irradiated animals. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-04-15

    Progress is reported on studies of lymphocyte formation, life span, fate, and potential for repopulating hemopoietic tissues of irradiated animals. The labeling of lymphocytes with /sup 3/H-deoxycytidine (/sup 3/H-CdR) gave good results when compared with /sup 3/H-thymidine (/sup 3/H-TdR) labeling. Changes in pyrimidine metabolism during lymphopoiesis were studied by culturing rat thoracic duct lymphocytes on syngeneic fibroblast monolayers in the continued presence of PHA. A list is included of papers published and in print that report the results of studies in detail. (CH)

  2. Life satisfaction, distress, and resiliency across the life span of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Glaesmer, Heide; Decker, Oliver; Fischbeck, Sabine; Brähler, Elmar

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine (1) the relationship between life satisfaction, mental disorders, and aging in the female community and (2) to identify the impact of vulnerability factors, personal (resilience, self-esteem), and social resources on life satisfaction and distress. A stratified random sample of the German female population (N = 2,540) was investigated using standardized questionnaires of life satisfaction (Questions on Life Satisfaction), depression, anxiety (Patient Health Questionnaire), resilience scale (RS-11), and self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale). When participants were divided into six age groups (18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70, and >70 y), we found lower life satisfaction, satisfaction with partnership, and sexuality beyond the age of 50 years. Satisfaction with health was decreased already at early adulthood. Although the importance of partnership/sexuality was reduced around midlife, the importance of health increased. Depression was highest in the oldest group, whereas anxiety remained fairly stable across the cohorts. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with resilience, a good household income, the presence of a partnership, absence of anxiety and depression, lack of unemployment, positive self-esteem, religious affiliation, and-least-age. Personal and social resources and the absence of anxiety and depression are of crucial importance for the maintenance of life satisfaction in aging women.

  3. Life Extending Minimum-Time Path Planning for Hexapod Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a minimum‐time path planning scheme for life‐extending operation of legged robots, illustrated with a six‐legged walking robot (hexapod. The focus of this study is on extending the bearing fatigue life for leg joints. As a typical treatment, the minimum‐time path planning is performed through a bisecting‐plane (BP algorithm with the constraints of maximum joint angular velocity and acceleration. Based on bearing fatigue life theory, its fatigue life increases while the dynamic radial force on the bearing decreases. By imposing more rigorous constraint on the dynamic radial force, the minimum‐time path planning algorithm is thus revised by reinforcing the constraint of maximum radial force based on the expectation of life extension. A symmetric hexapod with 18 degree‐of‐freedom (DOF is adopted as the illustrative example for simulation study. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of possible life extending with moderate compromise in transient performance.

  4. Life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and resilience across the life span of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutel, Manfred E; Glaesmer, Heide; Wiltink, Jörg; Marian, Hanna; Brähler, Elmar

    2010-03-01

    To determine (a) the relationship between life satisfaction, anxiety, depression and ageing in the male community and (b) to identify the impact of vulnerability factors, personal and social resources on life satisfaction and distress. A stratified random sample of the German male population (N = 2144) was investigated by standardized questionnaires of life satisfaction (FLZ(M)), depression, anxiety (PHQ), resilience (RS-11) and self-esteem (RSS). No age-related change was found regarding overall life satisfaction. Satisfaction with health decreased in midlife (51-60 years), while the importance of health increased. Importance of and satisfaction with partnership and sexuality were only reduced in the oldest group (70+). Anxiety was highest around midlife (51-60 years), accompanied by reduced resilience and self-esteem. No clear age-related change was found regarding depression. Life satisfaction was strongly associated with resilience, lack of unemployment, the presence of a partnership, positive self-esteem, a good household income, the absence of anxiety and depression and living in the Eastern states. Personal and social resources and the absence of anxiety and depression are of crucial importance for the maintenance of life satisfaction in ageing men. There is also evidence for a crisis around midlife manifested by health concerns, anxiety and reduced resilience.

  5. Materialism across the life span: An age-period-cohort analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Esther D T; Pieters, Rik G M

    2016-09-01

    This research examined the development of materialism across the life span. Two initial studies revealed that (a) lay beliefs were that materialism declines with age and (b) previous research findings also implied a modest, negative relationship between age and materialism. Yet, previous research has considered age only as a linear control variable, thereby precluding the possibility of more intricate relationships between age and materialism. Moreover, prior studies have relied on cross-sectional data and thus confound age and cohort effects. To improve on this, the main study used longitudinal data from 8 waves spanning 9 years of over 4,200 individuals (16 to 90 years) to examine age effects on materialism while controlling for cohort and period effects. Using a multivariate multilevel latent growth model, it found that materialism followed a curvilinear trajectory across the life span, with the lowest levels at middle age and higher levels before and after that. Thus, in contrast to lay beliefs, materialism increased in older age. Moreover, age effects on materialism differed markedly between 3 core themes of materialism: acquisition centrality, possession-defined success, and acquisition as the pursuit of happiness. In particular, acquisition centrality and possession-defined success were higher at younger and older age. Independent of these age effects, older birth cohorts were oriented more toward possession-defined success, whereas younger birth cohorts were oriented more toward acquisition centrality. The economic downturn since 2008 led to a decrease in acquisition as the pursuit of happiness and in desires for personal growth, but to an increase in desires for achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Studies on the life span, reproduction, tissue biochemistry and diesel oil toxicity in the estuarine cladocera Diaphanosoma celebensis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhuKonkar, S.R.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    , neonate production, tissue biochemistry and toxicity of diesel oil have been described in the paper. Variations were observed in the life span and rate of neonate production between individuals of the 1 st and 2 nd generations. Both were found...

  7. CALHM1 Deletion in Mice Affects Glossopharyngeal Taste Responses, Food Intake, Body Weight, and Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmolling, Jared; Marambaud, Philippe; Rose-Hellekant, Teresa A.

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of Type II taste receptor cells (TRCs) with T1R taste receptors causes sweet or umami taste, whereas T2Rs elicit bitter taste. Type II TRCs contain the calcium channel, calcium homeostasis modulator protein 1 (CALHM1), which releases adenosine triphosphate (ATP) transmitter to taste fibers. We have previously demonstrated with chorda tympani nerve recordings and two-bottle preference (TBP) tests that mice with genetically deleted Calhm1 (knockout [KO]) have severely impaired perception of sweet, bitter, and umami compounds, whereas their sour and salty tasting ability is unaltered. Here, we present data from KO mice of effects on glossopharyngeal (NG) nerve responses, TBP, food intake, body weight, and life span. KO mice have no NG response to sweet and a suppressed response to bitter compared with control (wild-type [WT]) mice. KO mice showed some NG response to umami, suggesting that umami taste involves both CALHM1- and non-CALHM1-modulated signals. NG responses to sour and salty were not significantly different between KO and WT mice. Behavioral data conformed in general with the NG data. Adult KO mice consumed less food, weighed significantly less, and lived almost a year longer than WT mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sweet taste majorly influences food intake, body weight, and life span. PMID:25855639

  8. Genetic Deletion of Nrf2 Promotes Immortalization and Decreases Life Span of Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jódar, Laura; Mercken, Evi M.; Ariza, Julia; Younts, Caitlin; González-Reyes, José A.; Alcaín, Francisco J.; Burón, Isabel; de Cabo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear factor E2–related factor-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor is one of the main regulators of intracellular redox balance and a sensor of oxidative and electrophilic stress. Low Nrf2 activity is usually associated with carcinogenesis, but Nrf2 is also considered as an oncogene because it increases survival of transformed cells. Because intracellular redox balance alterations are involved in both senescence and tumorigenesis, we investigated the impact of Nrf2 genetic deletion on cellular immortalization and life span of murine embryonic fibroblasts. We report that Nrf2 genetic deletion promotes immortalization due to an early loss of p53-dependent gene expression. However, compared with control cells, immortalized Nrf2−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts exhibited decreased growth, lower cyclin E levels, and impaired expression of NQO1 and cytochrome b5 reductase. Moreover, SirT1 was also significantly reduced in immortalized Nrf2−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts, and these cells exhibited shorter life span. Our results underscore the dual role of Nrf2 in protection against carcinogenesis and in the delay of cellular aging. PMID:20974733

  9. Younger and older adults' beliefs about the experience and expression of emotions across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montepare, Joann M; Dobish, Heidi

    2014-11-01

    Although theorists acknowledge that beliefs about emotions may play a role in age-related emotion behavior, no research has explored these beliefs. This research examined beliefs about the experience and expression of emotions across the life span, especially across the adult years. Younger and older adults rated the extent to which infants, children, adolescents, young adults, middle-aged adults, and older adults were likely to experience and express a range of emotions. Younger and older adults held similar beliefs about the course of emotions across the life span. Moreover, these beliefs differed across emotion categories. In particular, although older adults were believed to experience and express fewer highly charged, negative emotions, they were expected to be more likely to experience and express positive, low arousal emotions, as well as negative, low arousal emotions. The experience and expression of positive, high arousal emotions were seen as more characteristic of very young age groups as opposed to older age groups. These findings beg questions about if and how beliefs about emotion may affect age-related emotion regulation strategies and other everyday emotion-focused behaviors, as well as social reactions to older adults observed experiencing and expressing particular types of emotions. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Yeast Endosulfines Control Entry into Quiescence and Chronological Life Span by Inhibiting Protein Phosphatase 2A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Bontron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The TORC1 and PKA protein kinases are central elements of signaling networks that regulate eukaryotic cell proliferation in response to growth factors and/or nutrients. In yeast, attenuation of signaling by these kinases following nitrogen and/or carbon limitation activates the protein kinase Rim15, which orchestrates the initiation of a reversible cellular quiescence program to ensure normal chronological life span. The molecular elements linking Rim15 to distal readouts including the expression of Msn2/4- and Gis1-dependent genes involve the endosulfines Igo1/2. Here, we show that Rim15, analogous to the greatwall kinase in Xenopus, phosphorylates endosulfines to directly inhibit the Cdc55-protein phosphatase 2A (PP2ACdc55. Inhibition of PP2ACdc55 preserves Gis1 in a phosphorylated state and consequently promotes its recruitment to and activation of transcription from promoters of specific nutrient-regulated genes. These results close a gap in our perception of and delineate a role for PP2ACdc55 in TORC1-/PKA-mediated regulation of quiescence and chronological life span.

  11. Rasayana effect of Guduchi Churna on the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Pankaj; Vyas, Mahesh; Vyas, Hitesh; Naria, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most extensively studied animal models for understanding the process of aging and longevity. This fly is being used for genetic studies since almost a century. Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia [Wild.] Miers.) is an Ayurvedic drug used as Rasayana (rejuvenation) due to its antiaging effect. To explore the potential of Guduchi Churna (powder of T. cordifolia) on the life span of D. melanogaster using adult feeding method. For experimental setups, the regular food media were mixed with Guduchi Churna in different concentrations (0.25 g/100 ml, 0.50 g/100 ml, and 0.70 g/100 ml). Flies were exposed to these concentrations for 30 days. Increase in the lifespan was observed in both parent and F-1 generation. Applying of ANOVA revealed significant difference between control and drug groups. The longevity effect, in the drug group was seen even on F-1 generation. Guduchi Churna enhances the life span of D. melanogaster in both parent and F-1 generation.

  12. A bodyweight-dependent allometric exponent for scaling clearance across the human life-span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenguang; Peeters, Mariska Y M; Allegaert, Karel; Blussé van Oud-Alblas, Heleen J; Krekels, Elke H J; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2012-06-01

    To explore different allometric equations for scaling clearance across the human life-span using propofol as a model drug. Data from seven previously published propofol studies ((pre)term neonates, infants, toddlers, children, adolescents and adults) were analysed using NONMEM VI. To scale clearance, a bodyweight-based exponential equation with four different structures for the exponent was used: (I) 3/4 allometric scaling model; (II) mixture model; (III) bodyweight-cut-point separated model; (IV) bodyweight-dependent exponent model. Model I adequately described clearance in adults and older children, but overestimated clearance of neonates and underestimated clearance of infants. Use of two different exponents in Model II and Model III showed significantly improved performance, but yielded ambiguities on the boundaries of the two subpopulations. This discontinuity was overcome in Model IV, in which the exponent changed sigmoidally from 1.35 at a hypothetical bodyweight of 0 kg to a value of 0.56 from 10 kg onwards, thereby describing clearance of all individuals best. A model was developed for scaling clearance over the entire human life-span with a single continuous equation, in which the exponent of the bodyweight-based exponential equation varied with bodyweight.

  13. How to Extend the Life of Die-Casting Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tušek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores some possibilities of extending the life of die-casting tools for non-ferrous metals, particu-larly aluminium, magnesium, and their alloys. In the first part of the paper is shown theoretical background of the problem. The major part treats the tools: tool life, tool manufacture, tool certificate, tool operation and repair of tools by welding. Welding is the only technology fit for repair of tools and thus to extend their service life. In the paper is shown some welding processes, which are suitable for repair welding of tools.

  14. Career Adaptability: An Integrative Construct for Life-Span, Life-Space Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickas, Mark L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the origin and current status of lifespan, life-space theory and proposes one way in which to integrate its three segments. Discusses a functionalist strategy for theory construction and the outcomes and consequences of this strategy. Discusses future directions for theory development, such as career adaptability and planful attitudes.…

  15. Older people with incurable cancer: Existential meaning-making from a life-span perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Sigrid Helene Kjørven; Danbolt, Lars J; Kvigne, Kari; DeMarinis, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    An increasing number of older people in Western countries are living with incurable cancer, receiving palliative care from specialized healthcare contexts. The aim of our article was to understand how they experience the existential meaning-making function in daily living from a life-span perspective. Some 21 participants (12 men and 9 women), aged 70-88, were interviewed in a semistructured framework. They were recruited from somatic hospitals in southeastern Norway. We applied the model of selective optimization with compensation (SOC) from life-span developmental psychology in a deductive manner to explore the participants' life-oriented adaptive strategies. A meaning component was added to the SOC model. The participants experienced the existential meaning-making function on two levels. On a superordinate level, it was an important component for interpreting and coordinating the adaptive strategies of SOC for reaching the most important goals in daily living. The existential meaning-making framework provided for a comprehensive understanding of resilience, allowing for both restoration and growth components to be identified. The second level was related to strategy, in that the existential meaning-making function was involved in a complex interaction with behavioral resources and resilience, leading to continuation of goals and more realistic goal adjustments. A few experienced existential meaning-making dysfunction. The modified SOC model was seen as applicable for palliative care in specialized healthcare contexts. Employing the existential meaning-making framework with its complementary understanding of resilience as growth potential to the SOC model's restoration potential can help older people to identify how they make meaning and how this influences their adaptation process to being incurably sick.

  16. [Psychoneuroimmunology of the life span: impact of childhood stress on immune dysregulation and inflammatory disease in later life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Studies have shown clearly that childhood mistreatment, abuse and neglect are associated with severe inflammatory disease in adulthood (e. g. cancer, heart disease, autoimmune disorder) and shortened life span. This review deals with the psychoneuroimmunological pathways of this connection. It shows that chronic stressors interfere very early in life with those protective mechanisms of the biological stress system that normally down-regulate potentially harmful inflammation. In the long term, serious inflammatory diseases, such as allergic asthma, can result. In this review, the pathogenetic connections between allergic asthma and early stress and stress system dysfunction are discussed. As our understanding of the dysfunctional psychophysiological mechanisms of inflammatory disease increases, psychodiagnostic and psychotherapeutic intervention in the treatment of physical disease will become more specific. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Knock out of the NADPH oxidase Nox4 has no impact on life span in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Rezende

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The free radical theory of aging suggests reactive oxygen species as a main reason for accumulation of damage events eventually leading to aging. Nox4, a member of the family of NADPH oxidases constitutively produces ROS and therefore has the potential to be a main driver of aging. Herein we analyzed the life span of Nox4 deficient mice and found no difference when compared to their wildtype littermates. Accordingly neither Tert expression nor telomere length was different in cells isolated from those animals. In fact, Nox4 mRNA expression in lungs of wildtype mice dropped with age. We conclude that Nox4 has no influence on lifespan of healthy mice.

  18. The impact of invisible illness on identity and contextual age across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrat, Amanda L; Nussbaum, Jon F

    2003-01-01

    This study explored the impact invisible illness has on identity, specifically contextual age, throughout the life span. It was grounded in the assumption that an individual's identity is formed through communicative interaction. Using social identity theory (Tajfel & Turner, 1986) as a framework, individuals' identities after disclosure of invisible illness were explored. Rubin and Rubin's (1986) Contextual Age Questionnaire was used to determine self-perceived as well as other-perceived contextual age. Invisibly ill individuals reported significantly "higher" contextual age scores than did same chronologically aged, matched non-ill individuals. In addition, the friends of invisibly ill individuals reported "higher" contextual age scores for the invisibly ill individuals than the self-reported scores of the same chronologically aged non-ill individuals. Interviews further revealed that illness instilled insight and that disclosure of illness provoked comments from others that led invisibly ill individuals to identify with older individuals. Future directions and limitations of this study are also discussed.

  19. Programmed cell death and apoptosis in aging and life span regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Tower, John

    2009-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests an important role for programmed cell death (PCD) pathways in aging phenotypes across species. PCD is critical to the homeostasis of tissues maintained by cell division, for example, the blood and the lining of the gut. During aging, accumulated cellular damage and non-optimal systemic signaling can cause too little cell death (hyperproliferation and cancer), or too much cell death (tissue atrophy and ectopic cell death), thereby limiting tissue function and life span. For these reasons PCD pathways are promising targets for interventions in aging and aging-related diseases: reactivation of PCD may be beneficial in clearing cancerous and senescent cells, whereas inhibiting PCD may help prevent muscle atrophy and nervous system degeneration.

  20. Significance of Building Maintenance Management on Life-Span of Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The attentions and skills of maintenance are required for the construction of buildings in this twenty-first century. Because much architectural education is still focused on the one-of-a-kind assignment, encouraging the notion of personal fulfillment through leaving a mark for off-springs and obtaining a design award by means of concept drawings. Due to the reason that many building designers (architects, engineers, technicians are not encompassed in the subsequent maintenance of the building, they just regard it as other specialists’ responsibilities. In all likelihood, the building user-to-be has no formal role: the building contractors just fulfill their accountabilities to complete the building in compliance with the contract documents, not to care occupier’s needs and wants. This paper will focus on the important of building maintenance management on the life-span of buildings.

  1. Compassionate Love for a Romantic Partner Across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Félix; Wilks, Daniela C

    2017-11-01

    Compassionate love has received research attention over the last decade, but it is as yet unclear how it is experienced over a lifetime. The purpose of this study was to investigate compassionate love for a romantic partner throughout the adult life span, exploring individual differences in the propensity to experience compassionate love in regard to age, gender, religion, love status, love styles, and subjective well-being. The results showed that religion and love status display significant effects on compassionate love. Believers experienced greater compassionate love than nonbelievers, and individuals in love presented greater compassionate love than those who were not in love. Love styles and subjective well-being were found to be related to compassionate love. These findings corroborate studies that indicate that individuals who experience higher compassionate love for a romantic partner are more likely to report Eros, Agape, and subjective well-being.

  2. Free testosterone and free dihydrotestosterone throughout the life span of men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárka, Luboslav; Pospísilová, Hana; Hill, Martin

    2009-08-01

    The dihydrotestosterone/testosterone ratio seems to be an important factor in the expression of androgenic activity, especially in the prostate and pilosebaceous unit. Whereas the decline of testosterone in aging men is well known, controversial data can be found concerning the age dependence of dihydrotestosterone levels. Hormonal values from our database served for the construction of the life span curve of free dihydrotestosterone/free testosterone ratio. The results of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and SHBG determination obtained by immunoassays from 13,152 male patients were used for the calculation of free steroid content and the construction of the age dependence curves. After initial high free dihydrotestosterone: free testosterone ratio in infancy it decreases at the start of puberty and remains practically without change from approx. 20 years of age till senescence. The course of free dihydrotestosterone/free testosterone ratio demonstrates the role of dihydrotestosterone for androgen functions especially in prepubertal age.

  3. Life Span Studies of ADHD-Conceptual Challenges and Predictors of Persistence and Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caye, Arthur; Swanson, James; Thapar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses the follo......There is a renewed interest in better conceptualizing trajectories of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) from childhood to adulthood, driven by an increased recognition of long-term impairment and potential persistence beyond childhood and adolescence. This review addresses...... in adulthood among children with ADHD. Three recent population studies suggested the existence of a significant proportion of individuals who report onset of ADHD symptoms and impairments after childhood. Finally, we highlight areas for improvement to increase our understanding of ADHD across the life span....

  4. Implications of extreme life span in clonal organisms: millenary clones in meadows of the threatened seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Duarte, Carlos M; Diaz-Almela, Elena; Marbà, Núria; Sintes, Tomas; Serrão, Ester A

    2012-01-01

    The maximum size and age that clonal organisms can reach remains poorly known, although we do know that the largest natural clones can extend over hundreds or thousands of metres and potentially live for centuries. We made a review of findings to date, which reveal that the maximum clone age and size estimates reported in the literature are typically limited by the scale of sampling, and may grossly underestimate the maximum age and size of clonal organisms. A case study presented here shows the occurrence of clones of slow-growing marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica at spatial scales ranging from metres to hundreds of kilometres, using microsatellites on 1544 sampling units from a total of 40 locations across the Mediterranean Sea. This analysis revealed the presence, with a prevalence of 3.5 to 8.9%, of very large clones spreading over one to several (up to 15) kilometres at the different locations. Using estimates from field studies and models of the clonal growth of P. oceanica, we estimated these large clones to be hundreds to thousands of years old, suggesting the evolution of general purpose genotypes with large phenotypic plasticity in this species. These results, obtained combining genetics, demography and model-based calculations, question present knowledge and understanding of the spreading capacity and life span of plant clones. These findings call for further research on these life history traits associated with clonality, considering their possible ecological and evolutionary implications.

  5. Implications of extreme life span in clonal organisms: millenary clones in meadows of the threatened seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Arnaud-Haond

    Full Text Available The maximum size and age that clonal organisms can reach remains poorly known, although we do know that the largest natural clones can extend over hundreds or thousands of metres and potentially live for centuries. We made a review of findings to date, which reveal that the maximum clone age and size estimates reported in the literature are typically limited by the scale of sampling, and may grossly underestimate the maximum age and size of clonal organisms. A case study presented here shows the occurrence of clones of slow-growing marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica at spatial scales ranging from metres to hundreds of kilometres, using microsatellites on 1544 sampling units from a total of 40 locations across the Mediterranean Sea. This analysis revealed the presence, with a prevalence of 3.5 to 8.9%, of very large clones spreading over one to several (up to 15 kilometres at the different locations. Using estimates from field studies and models of the clonal growth of P. oceanica, we estimated these large clones to be hundreds to thousands of years old, suggesting the evolution of general purpose genotypes with large phenotypic plasticity in this species. These results, obtained combining genetics, demography and model-based calculations, question present knowledge and understanding of the spreading capacity and life span of plant clones. These findings call for further research on these life history traits associated with clonality, considering their possible ecological and evolutionary implications.

  6. Virtual navigation strategies from childhood to senescence: evidence for changes across the life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique D Bohbot

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-year old children to 80-year old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM. The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e. hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position. With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p < 0.0001. Our results suggest that while children predominantly use spatial strategies, the proportion of participants using spatial strategies decreases across the life span, in favor of response strategies. Factors promoting response strategies include repetition, reward and stress. Since response strategies can result from successful repetition of a behavioral pattern, we propose that the increase in response strategies is a biological adaptive mechanism that allows for the automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the downside of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and grey matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging.

  7. Virtual navigation strategies from childhood to senescence: evidence for changes across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, Veronique D; McKenzie, Sam; Konishi, Kyoko; Fouquet, Celine; Kurdi, Vanessa; Schachar, Russel; Boivin, Michel; Robaey, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-years old children to 80-years old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM). The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e., hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks) versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position). With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and gray matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest that while children predominantly use spatial strategies, the proportion of participants using spatial strategies decreases across the life span, in favor of response strategies. Factors promoting response strategies include repetition, reward and stress. Since response strategies can result from successful repetition of a behavioral pattern, we propose that the increase in response strategies is a biological adaptive mechanism that allows for the automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the down-side of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and gray matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging.

  8. Biological impact of auditory expertise across the life span: musicians as a model of auditory learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Experience-dependent characteristics of auditory function, especially with regard to speech-evoked auditory neurophysiology, have garnered increasing attention in recent years. This interest stems from both pragmatic and theoretical concerns as it bears implications for the prevention and remediation of language-based learning impairment in addition to providing insight into mechanisms engendering experience-dependent changes in human sensory function. Musicians provide an attractive model for studying the experience-dependency of auditory processing in humans due to their distinctive neural enhancements compared to nonmusicians. We have only recently begun to address whether these enhancements are observable early in life, during the initial years of music training when the auditory system is under rapid development, as well as later in life, after the onset of the aging process. Here we review neural enhancements in musically trained individuals across the life span in the context of cellular mechanisms that underlie learning, identified in animal models. Musicians’ subcortical physiologic enhancements are interpreted according to a cognitive framework for auditory learning, providing a model by which to study mechanisms of experience-dependent changes in auditory function in humans. PMID:23988583

  9. Age- and calorie-independent life span extension from dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Jennifer

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary restriction (DR increases life span and delays age-associated disease in many organisms. The mechanism by which DR enhances longevity is not well understood. Results Using bacterial food deprivation as a means of DR in C. elegans, we show that transient DR confers long-term benefits including stress resistance and increased longevity. Consistent with studies in the fruit fly and in mice, we demonstrate that DR also enhances survival when initiated late in life. DR by bacterial food deprivation significantly increases life span in worms when initiated as late as 24 days of adulthood, an age at which greater than 50% of the cohort have died. These survival benefits are, at least partially, independent of food consumption, as control fed animals are no longer consuming bacterial food at this advanced age. Animals separated from the bacterial lawn by a barrier of solid agar have a life span intermediate between control fed and food restricted animals. Thus, we find that life span extension from bacterial deprivation can be partially suppressed by a diffusible component of the bacterial food source, suggesting a calorie-independent mechanism for life span extension by dietary restriction. Conclusion Based on these findings, we propose that dietary restriction by bacterial deprivation increases longevity in C. elegans by a combination of reduced food consumption and decreased food sensing.

  10. Expressions of ecological identity across the life span of eight environmental exemplars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seydel, Jennifer

    While there is a substantial body of literature looking at various aspects of ecological identity and factors that influence it, there has been less work done on how an individual's ecological identity changes with time. Much of that work is limited to short segments of the life span (e.g. the impact of wilderness experiences). This dissertation attempts to address this perceived gap by investigating how the ecological identity of eight environmental exemplars changed during the course of his or her life. What has emerged from this qualitative grounded theory investigation of the lives and works of Charles Darwin, John Muir, Aldo Leopold, Marjory Stoneman Douglas, Hazel Wolf, Rachel Carson, James Lovelock and E.O. Wilson are five sequential expressions of ecological identity. These 'stages' serve as a framework to explain ecological identity as a developmental process, both fluid and continuous, rather than at) end product. The development of an ecological identity is traced, through the development of five cognitive foundations and their alignment with five emotional foundations that reflect a progression from a sensory interaction and a kinship bond with nature into a deep understanding of the interconnectedness of all aspects of the planet. The findings reveal the evolution of an ecological identity and suggest the importance of looking beyond content knowledge in the nurturing of ecological attitudes, values, and lifestyles.

  11. The change of lung capacity in elderly women caused by life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaeseok; Kang, Taewook; Yeo, Yundong; Han, Dongwook

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] Although lung capacity in the elderly is affected by age, little research has been performed studying decreasing lung capacity in relation to increasing life expectancy. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of increased life span on the lung capacity of women. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 55 healthy elderly women over 60 years of age who were living in Busan. Subjects were classified in the following age categories: 60s, 70s and 80s. For the pulmonary function test, a spirometry (Pony FX, COSMED Inc., Italy) was used. The item for measurement of pulmonary function in elderly women was maximum-effort expiratory spirogram (MES). The pulmonary function test was performed 3 times, and its mean value was used for analysis. [Results] Among items of maximum-effort expiratory spirogram, a significant difference according to age was demonstrated in forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second, peak expiratory flow, maximum expiratory flow 75%, maximum expiratory flow 50%, and inspiratory capacity. [Conclusion] According to this study, lung capacity decreases remarkably as age increases. In conclusion, a continuous exercise program beginning at an early age is essential to prevent decrease in lung capacity as age progresses.

  12. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeb W. Najeeb

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN, one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes’ power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values.

  13. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Najeeb W.; Detweiler, Carrick

    2017-01-01

    When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN), one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes’ power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values. PMID:28714936

  14. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Najeeb W; Detweiler, Carrick

    2017-07-17

    When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN), one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes' power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values.

  15. Extended Music Education Enhances the Quality of School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eerola, Päivi-Sisko; Eerola, Tuomas

    2014-01-01

    The claim of whether music education can create social benefits in the school environment was tested in 10 Finnish schools with an extended music curricular class and control classes. The quality of school life (QSL) was assessed by a representative sample ("N" = 735) of pupils at years 3 and 6 (9- and 12-years-olds). The results showed…

  16. Measuring the genetic influence on human life span: gene-environment interaction and sex-specific genetic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Qihua; De Benedictis, G; Yashin, Annatoli

    2001-01-01

    New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic and demographicinf......New approaches are needed to explore the different ways in which genes affect the human life span. One needs to assess the genetic effects themselves, as well as gene–environment interactions and sex dependency. In this paper, we present a new model that combines both genotypic...... and demographicinformation in the estimation of the geneticinfluence on life spans. Based on Cox'sproportional hazard assumption, the modelmeasures the risks for each gene as well as forgene–environment and gene–sex interactions,while controlling for confounding factors. Atwo-step MLE is introduced to obtain anon...

  17. Investment Policies to Extend the Life of Expressways in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Noda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the macroeconomic effects of investment policies aimed at extending the life of expressways in Japan based on a stochastic Ramsey model. The results of numerical analysis suggest that the benefits of life-extension investment in expressways can be increased by raising the level of maintenance intensity of expressways. The benefits of life-extension investment in expressways can be decomposed into the stock effect and the smoothing effect. Decomposition of life-extension benefits shows that the contribution of the stock effect is more than 90 percent, while that of the smoothing effect is less than 10 percent. The implementation of life-extension investment policies regarding expressways offers advantages in terms of reducing economic fluctuations and user charges. In addition, if relative risk aversion is high, efficiency is low and intergenerational equity is high. Furthermore, a higher level of technology leads to greater efficiency and intergenerational equity.

  18. Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside Elicits Life-span Extension and Stress Resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Yadav, Deepti; Pant, Aakanksha; Yadav, A K; Gupta, M M; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    The advancements in the field of gerontology have unraveled the signaling pathways that regulate life span, suggesting that it might be feasible to modulate aging. To this end, we isolated a novel phytomolecule Acacetin 7-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl (1-2) β-D-xylopyranoside (ARX) from Premna integrifolia and evaluated its antiaging effects in Caenorhabditis elegans The spectral data analysis revealed the occurrence of a new compound ARX. Out of the three tested pharmacological doses of ARX, viz. 5, 25, and 50 µM, the 25-µM dose was able to extend life span in C. elegans by more than 39%. The present study suggests that ARX affects bacterial metabolism, which in turn leads to dietary restriction (DR)-like effects in the worms. The effect of ARX on worms with mutations (mev-1, eat-2, sir-2.1, skn-1, daf-16, and hsf-1) indicates that ARX-mediated life-span extension involves mechanisms associated with DR and maintenance of cellular redox homeostasis. This study is the first time report on longevity-promoting activity of ARX in C. elegans mediated by stress and DR-regulating genes. This novel phytomolecule can contribute in designing therapeutics for managing aging and age-related diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Childhood self-control and unemployment throughout the life span: evidence from two British cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F

    2015-06-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Mixed emotions across the adult life span in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stefan; Stone, Arthur A.

    2015-01-01

    Mixed emotions involve the co-occurrence of positive and negative affect, such that people feel happy and sad at the same time. The purpose of the present study was to investigate age-related differences in the experience of mixed emotions across the adult life span in two nationally representative samples of U.S. residents. Data collected by the Princeton Affect and Time Survey (PATS, n = 3,948) and by the 2010 Wellbeing Module of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS, n = 12,828) were analyzed. In both surveys, respondents (aged 15 years or older) provided a detailed time diary about the preceding day and rated their happiness and sadness for three of the day's episodes. From these reports, three different indices of mixed emotions were derived. Results indicated small, but robust, increases in mixed emotions with age. Linear age increases were consistently evident in both PATS and ATUS, and replicated across the different indices of mixed emotions. There was no significant evidence for curvilinear age trends in either study. Several sociodemographic factors that could plausibly explain age-differences in mixed emotions (e.g., retirement, disability) did not alter the age-effects. The present study adds to the growing literature documenting vital changes in the complexity of emotional experience over the lifespan. PMID:25894487

  1. Estimates for the number of visible galaxy-spanning civilizations and the cosmological expansion of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. Jay

    2017-04-01

    If advanced civilizations appear in the universe with an ability and desire to expand, the entire universe can become saturated with life on a short timescale, even if such expanders appear rarely. Our presence in an apparently untouched Milky Way thus constrains the appearance rate of galaxy-spanning Kardashev type III (K3) civilizations, if it is assumed that some fraction of K3 civilizations will continue their expansion at intergalactic distances. We use this constraint to estimate the appearance rate of K3 civilizations for 81 cosmological scenarios by specifying the extent to which humanity is a statistical outlier. We find that in nearly all plausible scenarios, the distance to the nearest visible K3 is cosmological. In searches for K3 galaxies where the observable range is limited, we also find that the most likely detections tend to be expanding civilizations who have entered the observable range from farther away. An observation of K3 clusters is thus more likely than isolated K3 galaxies.

  2. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilioli, Samuele; Slatcher, Richard B; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-09-01

    Childhood adversity is associated with poor health outcomes in adulthood; the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been proposed as a crucial biological intermediary of these long-term effects. Here, we tested whether childhood adversity was associated with diurnal cortisol parameters and whether this link was partially explained by self-esteem. In both adults and youths, childhood adversity was associated with lower levels of cortisol at awakening, and this association was partially driven by low self-esteem. Further, we found a significant indirect pathway through which greater adversity during childhood was linked to a flatter cortisol slope via self-esteem. Finally, youths who had a caregiver with high self-esteem experienced a steeper decline in cortisol throughout the day compared with youths whose caregiver reported low self-esteem. We conclude that self-esteem is a plausible psychological mechanism through which childhood adversity may get embedded in the activity of the HPA axis across the life span. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Individual Differences in Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures of Binaural Processing Across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roup, Christina M; Leigh, Elizabeth D

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine individual differences in binaural processing across the adult life span. Sixty listeners (aged 23-80 years) with symmetrical hearing were tested. Binaural behavioral processing was measured by the Words-in-Noise Test, the 500-Hz masking level difference, and the Dichotic Digit Test. Electrophysiologic responses were assessed by the auditory middle latency response binaural interaction component. No correlations among binaural measures were found. Age accounted for the greatest amount of variability in speech-in-noise performance. Age was significantly correlated with the Words-in-Noise Test binaural advantage and dichotic ear advantage. Partial correlations, however, revealed that this was an effect of hearing status rather than age per se. Inspection of individual results revealed that 20% of listeners demonstrated reduced binaural performance for at least 2 of the binaural measures. The lack of significant correlations among variables suggests that each is an important measurement of binaural abilities. For some listeners, binaural processing was abnormal, reflecting a binaural processing deficit not identified by monaural audiologic tests. The inclusion of a binaural test battery in the audiologic evaluation is supported given that these listeners may benefit from alternative forms of audiologic rehabilitation.

  4. Life span extension by targeting a link between metabolism and histone acetylation in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Shahaf; Feller, Christian; Forne, Ignasi; Schiller, Evelyn; Sévin, Daniel C; Schauer, Tamas; Regnard, Catherine; Straub, Tobias; Prestel, Matthias; Klima, Caroline; Schmitt Nogueira, Melanie; Becker, Lore; Klopstock, Thomas; Sauer, Uwe; Becker, Peter B; Imhof, Axel; Ladurner, Andreas G

    2016-03-01

    Old age is associated with a progressive decline of mitochondrial function and changes in nuclear chromatin. However, little is known about how metabolic activity and epigenetic modifications change as organisms reach their midlife. Here, we assessed how cellular metabolism and protein acetylation change during early aging in Drosophila melanogaster. Contrary to common assumptions, we find that flies increase oxygen consumption and become less sensitive to histone deacetylase inhibitors as they reach midlife. Further, midlife flies show changes in the metabolome, elevated acetyl-CoA levels, alterations in protein-notably histone-acetylation, as well as associated transcriptome changes. Based on these observations, we decreased the activity of the acetyl-CoA-synthesizing enzyme ATP citrate lyase (ATPCL) or the levels of the histone H4 K12-specific acetyltransferase Chameau. We find that these targeted interventions both alleviate the observed aging-associated changes and promote longevity. Our findings reveal a pathway that couples changes of intermediate metabolism during aging with the chromatin-mediated regulation of transcription and changes in the activity of associated enzymes that modulate organismal life span. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY NC ND 4.0 license.

  5. Virtual navigation strategies from childhood to senescence: evidence for changes across the life span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohbot, Veronique D.; McKenzie, Sam; Konishi, Kyoko; Fouquet, Celine; Kurdi, Vanessa; Schachar, Russel; Boivin, Michel; Robaey, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    This study sought to investigate navigational strategies across the life span, by testing 8-years old children to 80-years old healthy older adults on the 4 on 8 virtual maze (4/8VM). The 4/8VM was previously developed to assess spontaneous navigational strategies, i.e., hippocampal-dependent spatial strategies (navigation by memorizing relationships between landmarks) versus caudate nucleus-dependent response strategies (memorizing a series of left and right turns from a given starting position). With the 4/8VM, we previously demonstrated greater fMRI activity and gray matter in the hippocampus of spatial learners relative to response learners. A sample of 599 healthy participants was tested in the current study. Results showed that 84.4% of children, 46.3% of young adults, and 39.3% of older adults spontaneously used spatial strategies (p automatization of behavior such as walking in order to free up hippocampal-dependent resources. However, the down-side of this shift from spatial to response strategies occurs if people stop building novel relationships, which occurs with repetition and routine, and thereby stop stimulating their hippocampus. Reduced fMRI activity and gray matter in the hippocampus were shown to correlate with cognitive deficits in normal aging. Therefore, these results have important implications regarding factors involved in healthy and successful aging. PMID:23162463

  6. Evaluative ratings and attention across the life span: emotional arousal and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bruno, Nicola; Chattat, Rabih; Codispoti, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the evolution of emotional processing over the whole adult life span as a function of stimulus arousal and participants' gender. To this end, self-reported affective evaluation and attentional capture prompted by pleasant and unpleasant pictures varying in arousal were measured in a large sample of participants (n = 211) balanced by gender and equally spread across seven decades from 20 to 90 years. Results showed age differences only for affective evaluation of pleasant stimuli, with opposite patterns depending on stimulus arousal. As age increased, low-arousing pleasant cues (e.g. images of babies) were experienced as more pleasant and arousing by both males and females, whereas high-arousing stimuli (e.g. erotic images) were experienced as less pleasant only by females. In contrast, emotional pictures (both pleasant and unpleasant) were effective at capturing attention in a similar way across participants, regardless of age and gender. Taken together, these findings suggest that specific emotional cues prompt different subjective responses across different age groups, while basic mechanisms involved in attentional engagement towards both pleasant and unpleasant stimuli are preserved in healthy ageing.

  7. Interference of action perception on action production increases across the adult life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wermelinger, Stephanie; Gampe, Anja; Behr, Jannis; Daum, Moritz M

    2017-12-16

    Action perception and action production are assumed to be based on an internal simulation process that involves the sensorimotor system. This system undergoes changes across the life span and is assumed to become less precise with age. In the current study, we investigated how increasing age affects the magnitude of interference in action production during simultaneous action perception. In a task adapted from Brass et al. (Brain Cogn 44(2):124-143, 2000), we asked participants (aged 20-80 years) to respond to a visually presented finger movement and/or symbolic cue by executing a previously defined finger movement. Action production was assessed via participants' reaction times. Results show that participants were slower in trials in which they were asked to ignore an incongruent finger movement compared to trials in which they had to ignore an incongruent symbolic cue. Moreover, advancing age was shown to accentuate this effect. We suggest that the internal simulation of the action becomes less precise with age making the sensorimotor system more susceptible to perturbations such as the interference of a concurrent action perception.

  8. Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpa Rawal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome and Emblica officinalis (fruit. The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging activities.

  9. Mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency in Caenorhabditis elegans results in developmental arrest and increased life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, W Y; Sayles, L C; Grad, L I; Pilgrim, D B; Lemire, B D

    2001-08-24

    The growth and development of Caenorhabditis elegans are energy-dependent and rely on the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) as the major source of ATP. The MRC is composed of approximately 70 nuclear and 12 mitochondrial gene products. Complexes I and V are multisubunit proteins of the MRC. The nuo-1 gene encodes the NADH- and FMN-binding subunit of complex I, the NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The atp-2 gene encodes the active-site subunit of complex V, the ATP synthase. The nuo-1(ua1) and atp-2(ua2) mutations are both lethal. They result in developmental arrest at the third larval stage (L3), arrest of gonad development at the second larval stage (L2), and impaired mobility, pharyngeal pumping, and defecation. Surprisingly, the nuo-1 and atp-2 mutations significantly lengthen the life spans of the arrested animals. When MRC biogenesis is blocked by chloramphenicol or doxycycline (inhibitors of mitochondrial translation), a quantitative and homogeneous developmental arrest as L3 larvae also results. The common phenotype induced by the mutations and drugs suggests that the L3-to-L4 transition may involve an energy-sensing developmental checkpoint. Since approximately 200 gene products are needed for MRC assembly and mtDNA replication, transcription, and translation, we predict that L3 arrest will be characteristic of mutations in these genes.

  10. Multimodal neuroimaging of male and female brain structure in health and disease across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshad, Neda; Thompson, Paul M

    2017-01-02

    Sex differences in brain development and aging are important to identify, as they may help to understand risk factors and outcomes in brain disorders that are more prevalent in one sex compared with the other. Brain imaging techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years, yielding detailed structural and functional maps of the living brain. Even so, studies are often limited in sample size, and inconsistent findings emerge, one example being varying findings regarding sex differences in the size of the corpus callosum. More recently, large-scale neuroimaging consortia such as the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta Analysis Consortium have formed, pooling together expertise, data, and resources from hundreds of institutions around the world to ensure adequate power and reproducibility. These initiatives are helping us to better understand how brain structure is affected by development, disease, and potential modulators of these effects, including sex. This review highlights some established and disputed sex differences in brain structure across the life span, as well as pitfalls related to interpreting sex differences in health and disease. We also describe sex-related findings from the ENIGMA consortium, and ongoing efforts to better understand sex differences in brain circuitry. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroscience Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Life-span changes of the human brain white matter: diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and volumetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlye, Lars T; Walhovd, Kristine B; Dale, Anders M; Bjørnerud, Atle; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Engvig, Andreas; Grydeland, Håkon; Tamnes, Christian K; Ostby, Ylva; Fjell, Anders M

    2010-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging volumetry studies report inverted U-patterns with increasing white-matter (WM) volume into middle age suggesting protracted WM maturation compared with the cortical gray matter. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is sensitive to degree and direction of water permeability in biological tissues, providing in vivo indices of WM microstructure. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to delineate age trajectories of WM volume and DTI indices in 430 healthy subjects ranging 8-85 years of age. We used automated regional brain volume segmentation and tract-based statistics of fractional anisotropy, mean, and radial diffusivity as markers of WM integrity. Nonparametric regressions were used to fit the age trajectories and to estimate the timing of maximum development and deterioration in aging. Although the volumetric data supported protracted growth into the sixth decade, DTI indices plateaued early in the fourth decade across all tested regions and then declined slowly into late adulthood followed by an accelerating decrease in senescence. Tractwise and voxel-based analyses yielded regional differences in development and aging but did not provide ample evidence in support of a simple last-in-first-out hypothesis of life-span changes.

  12. The life-span trajectory of visual perception of 3D objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freud, Erez; Behrmann, Marlene

    2017-09-08

    Deriving a 3D structural representation of an object from its 2D input is one of the great challenges for the visual system and yet, this type of representation is critical for the successful recognition of and interaction with objects. Perhaps reflecting the importance of this computation, infants have some sensitivity to 3D structural information, and this sensitivity is, at least, partially preserved in the elderly population. To map precisely the life-span trajectory of this key visual computation, in a series of experiments, we compared the performance of observers from ages 4 to 86 years on displays of objects that either obey or violate possible 3D structure. The major findings indicate that the ability to derive fine-grained 3D object representations emerges after a prolonged developmental trajectory and is contingent on the explicit processing of depth information even in late childhood. In contrast, the sensitivity to object 3D structure remains stable even through late adulthood despite the overall reduction in perceptual competence. Together, these results uncover the developmental process of an important perceptual skill, revealing that the initial, coarse sensitivity to 3D information is refined, automatized and retained over the lifespan.

  13. Life-span extension by dietary restriction is mediated by NLP-7 signaling and coelomocyte endocytosis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Kyu; Link, Christopher D; Johnson, Thomas E

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that the rate of aging can be modulated by diverse interventions. Dietary restriction is the most widely used intervention to promote longevity; however, the mechanisms underlying the effect of dietary restriction remain elusive. In a previous study, we identified two novel genes, nlp-7 and cup-4, required for normal longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans. nlp-7 is one of a set of neuropeptide-like protein genes; cup-4 encodes an ion-channel involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes. Here, we assess whether nlp-7 and cup-4 mediate longevity increases by dietary restriction. RNAi of nlp-7 or cup-4 significantly reduces the life span of the eat-2 mutant, a genetic model of dietary restriction, but has no effect on the life span of long-lived mutants resulting from reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling or dysfunction of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. The life-span extension observed in wild-type N2 worms by dietary restriction using bacterial dilution is prevented significantly in nlp-7 and cup-4 mutants. RNAi knockdown of genes encoding candidate receptors of NLP-7 and genes involved in endocytosis by coelomocytes also specifically shorten the life span of the eat-2 mutant. We conclude that two novel pathways, NLP-7 signaling and endocytosis by coelomocytes, are required for life extension under dietary restriction in C. elegans.

  14. Robust branch-cut-and-price for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree problem over a large extended formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uchoa, Eduardo; Fukasawa, Ricardo; Lysgaard, Jens

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a robust branch-cut-and-price algorithm for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (CMST). The variables are associated to q-arbs, a structure that arises from a relaxation of the capacitated prize-collecting arborescence problem in order to make it solvable in pseudo-p...

  15. Biological Aging and Life Span Based on Entropy Stress via Organ and Mitochondrial Metabolic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyan Annamalai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The energy for sustaining life is released through the oxidation of glucose, fats, and proteins. A part of the energy released within each cell is stored as chemical energy of Adenosine Tri-Phosphate molecules, which is essential for performing life-sustaining functions, while the remainder is released as heat in order to maintain isothermal state of the body. Earlier literature introduced the availability concepts from thermodynamics, related the specific irreversibility and entropy generation rates to metabolic efficiency and energy release rate of organ k, computed whole body specific entropy generation rate of whole body at any given age as a sum of entropy generation within four vital organs Brain, Heart, Kidney, Liver (BHKL with 5th organ being the rest of organs (R5 and estimated the life span using an upper limit on lifetime entropy generated per unit mass of body, σM,life. The organ entropy stress expressed in terms of lifetime specific entropy generated per unit mass of body organs (kJ/(K kg of organ k was used to rank organs and heart ranked highest while liver ranked lowest. The present work includes the effects of (1 two additional organs: adipose tissue (AT and skeletal muscles (SM which are of importance to athletes; (2 proportions of nutrients oxidized which affects blood temperature and metabolic efficiencies; (3 conversion of the entropy stress from organ/cellular level to mitochondrial level; and (4 use these parameters as metabolism-based biomarkers for quantifying the biological aging process in reaching the limit of σM,life. Based on the 7-organ model and Elia constants for organ metabolic rates for a male of 84 kg steady mass and using basic and derived allometric constants of organs, the lifetime energy expenditure is estimated to be 2725 MJ/kg body mass while lifetime entropy generated is 6050 kJ/(K kg body mass with contributions of 190; 1835.0; 610; 290; 700; 1470 and 95 kJ/K contributed by AT-BHKL-SM-R7 to 1 kg body

  16. Entropy Stress and Scaling of Vital Organs over Life Span Based on Allometric Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Past theories on total lifetime energy expenditures and entropy generation in biological systems (BS dealt with whole systems, but the recent literature suggests that the total metabolic rate of a BS,q̇body (W is a sum of product of specific metabolic rate q̇k,m (W/kg of organ k of each vital life organ, k {k = brain, heart, kidney and liver, or abbreviated as BHKL, and rest of the organ mass (R} and mass of each organ k (mk. Using this hypothesis, Kleiber’s law on metabolic rate of BS (q̇body for animals of different sizes was validated. In this work, a similar procedure is adopted in estimating total entropy generation rate of whole human body (σ̇body, W/K as a sum of product of specific entropy generation rate for each organ, σ̇k,m (W/{K kg of organ k·} and the organ mass at any given age (t. Further integrating over life span for each organ (tlife, the lifetime specific entropy generated by organ k, σk,m,life (J of organ k/ {K kg organ k} is calculated. Then lifetime entropy generation of unit body mass, σbody,M,life (J/{K kg body mass·} is calculated as a sum of the corresponding values contributed by all vital organs to unit body mass and verified with previously published literature. The higher the σk,m,life , the higher the entropy stress level (which is a measure of energy released by unit organ mass of k as heat and the irreversibility within the organ, resulting in faster degradation of organ and the consequent health problems for the whole BS. In order to estimate σ̇k (W/K of organ k, data on energy release rate (q̇ is needed over lifetime for each organ. While the Adequate Macronutrients Distribution Range (AMDR/Adequate Intake (AI publication can be used in estimating the energy intake of whole body vs. age for the human body, the energy expenditure data is not available at organ level. Hence the σk,m,life was computed using existing allometric laws developed for the metabolism of the organs, the

  17. A Trial of Extending Hemodialysis Hours and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Meg J; Zuo, Li; Gray, Nicholas A; de Zoysa, Janak R; Chan, Christopher T; Gallagher, Martin P; Monaghan, Helen; Grieve, Stuart M; Puranik, Rajesh; Lin, Hongli; Eris, Josette M; Zhang, Ling; Xu, Jinsheng; Howard, Kirsten; Lo, Serigne; Cass, Alan; Perkovic, Vlado

    2017-06-01

    The relationship between increased hemodialysis hours and patient outcomes remains unclear. We randomized (1:1) 200 adult recipients of standard maintenance hemodialysis from in-center and home-based hemodialysis programs to extended weekly (≥24 hours) or standard (target 12-15 hours, maximum 18 hours) hemodialysis hours for 12 months. The primary outcome was change in quality of life from baseline assessed by the EuroQol 5 dimension instrument (3 level) (EQ-5D). Secondary outcomes included medication usage, clinical laboratory values, vascular access events, and change in left ventricular mass index. At 12 months, median weekly hemodialysis hours were 24.0 (interquartile range, 23.6-24.0) and 12.0 (interquartile range, 12.0-16.0) in the extended and standard groups, respectively. Change in EQ-5D score at study end did not differ between groups (mean difference, 0.04 [95% confidence interval, -0.03 to 0.11]; P=0.29). Extended hours were associated with lower phosphate and potassium levels and higher hemoglobin levels. Blood pressure (BP) did not differ between groups at study end. Extended hours were associated with fewer BP-lowering agents and phosphate-binding medications, but were not associated with erythropoietin dosing. In a substudy with 95 patients, we detected no difference between groups in left ventricular mass index (mean difference, -6.0 [95% confidence interval, -14.8 to 2.7] g/m2; P=0.18). Five deaths occurred in the extended group and two in the standard group (P=0.44); two participants in each group withdrew consent. Similar numbers of patients experienced vascular access events in the two groups. Thus, extending weekly hemodialysis hours did not alter overall EQ-5D quality of life score, but was associated with improvement in some laboratory parameters and reductions in medication burden. (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00649298). Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  18. Proteomic profiles reveal age-related changes in coelomic fluid of sea urchin species with different life spans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Andrea

    2013-05-01

    Sea urchins have a different life history from humans and traditional model organisms used to study the process of aging. Sea urchins grow indeterminately, reproduce throughout their life span and some species have been shown to exhibit negligible senescence with no increase in mortality rate at advanced ages. Despite these properties, different species of sea urchins are reported to have very different natural life spans providing a unique model to investigate cellular mechanisms underlying life span determination and negligible senescence. To gain insight into the biological changes that accompany aging in these animals, proteomic profiles were examined in coelomic fluid from young and old sea urchins of three species with different life spans: short-lived Lytechinus variegatus, long-lived Strongylocentrotus franciscanus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus which has an intermediate life span. The proteomic profiles of cell-free coelomic fluid were complex with many proteins exhibiting different forms and extensive post-translational modifications. Approximately 20% of the protein spots on 2-D gels showed more than two-fold change with age in each of the species. Changes that are consistent with age in all three species may prove to be useful biomarkers for age-determination for these commercially fished marine invertebrates and also may provide clues to mechanisms of negligible senescence. Among the proteins that change with age, the ectodomain of low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (LRP4) was significantly increased in the coelomic fluid of all three sea urchin species suggesting that the Wnt signaling pathway should be further investigated for its role in negligible senescence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Curcumin Stimulates Biochemical Mechanisms of Apis Mellifera Resistance and Extends the Apian Life-Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strachecka Aneta J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We examined the influence of curcumin-supplemented feeding on worker lifespan, Nosema resistance, key enzyme activities, metabolic compound concentrations and percentage of the global DNA methylation. Two worker groups (Apis mellifera were set up: 1 control group; workers were fed ad libitum with sucrose syrup; 2 workers were fed with the syrup with the addition of curcumin. Dead workers were removed every two days and the Nosema spp. infection levels were assessed. Hemolymph was taken from living workers for biochemical analyses. The global DNA methylation level was analysed using DNA from worker heads and thoraces. The bees that consumed curcumin lived longer and were less infested with Nosema spp. The curcumin-treated workers had higher concentrations of proteins, non-enzymatic biomarkers (triglycerides, glucose, cholesterol, Mg2+ and Ca2+, uric acid and creatinine, as well as elevated activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD , GPx, CAT , GST , neutral proteases, protease inhibitors, enzymatic biomarkers (AST , ALT , ALP . The concentrations of albumin and urea, and the activities of acidic and alkaline proteases were higher in the control group. Curcumin decreased global DNA methylation levels especially in older bees in which the natural, age-related level increase was observed. Most of the parameters increased over the apian youth and adulthood, and decreased in older bees. The decrease was markedly delayed in the bees fed with curcumin. Curcumin appeared to be an unexpectedly effective natural bio-stimulator, improving apian health and vitality. This multifactorial effect is caused by the activation of many biochemical processes involved in the formation of apian resistance.

  20. Long will they live, work and learn : A scheme for understanding and influencing employability during the life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, Aukje; de Lange, Annet H.; Gortz, Saskia

    2010-01-01

    Long will they live, work and learn. A scheme for understanding and influencing employability during the life span A. Nauta, A. H. de Lange en S. Gortz, Gedrag & Organisatie, volume 23, June 2010, nr. 2, pp. 136-157 To stimulate employees' employability until high age, knowledge is needed about what

  1. Severity of injuries due to accidental fall across the life span : A retrospective hospital-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, J; Ten Duis, HJ

    This retrospective study investigated injuries due to accidental fall across the life span for which 19,593 patients were admitted to the Emergency Unit of the Groningen University Hospital during the period 1990 through 1997. 64% of the accidental falls were found for those in the age rang between

  2. Self-Esteem Development across the Life Span: A Longitudinal Study with a Large Sample from Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Ulrich; Maes, Jürgen; Schmitt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the development of self-esteem across the life span. Data came from a German longitudinal study with 3 assessments across 4 years of a sample of 2,509 individuals ages 14 to 89 years. The self-esteem measure used showed strong measurement invariance across assessments and birth cohorts. Latent growth curve analyses indicated…

  3. Sustained Attention Across the Life Span in a Sample of 10,000: Dissociating Ability and Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Germine, Laura; Wilmer, Jeremy B; Grosso, Mallory; Russo, Kathryn; Esterman, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Normal and abnormal differences in sustained visual attention have long been of interest to scientists, educators, and clinicians. Still lacking, however, is a clear understanding of how sustained visual attention varies across the broad sweep of the human life span. In the present study, we filled this gap in two ways. First, using an unprecedentedly large 10,430-person sample, we modeled age-related differences with substantially greater precision than have prior efforts. Second, using the recently developed gradual-onset continuous performance test (gradCPT), we parsed sustained-attention performance over the life span into its ability and strategy components. We found that after the age of 15 years, the strategy and ability trajectories saliently diverge. Strategy becomes monotonically more conservative with age, whereas ability peaks in the early 40s and is followed by a gradual decline in older adults. These observed life-span trajectories for sustained attention are distinct from results of other life-span studies focusing on fluid and crystallized intelligence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Genetic control of meristem arrest and life span in Arabidopsis by a FRUITFULL-APETALA2 pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balanzà, Vicente; Martínez-Fernández, Irene; Sato, Shusei; Yanofsky, Martin F.; Kaufmann, Kerstin; Angenent, Gerco C.; Bemer, Marian; Ferrándiz, Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Monocarpic plants have a single reproductive cycle in their lives, where life span is determined by the coordinated arrest of all meristems, or global proliferative arrest (GPA). The molecular bases for GPA and the signaling mechanisms involved are poorly understood, other than systemic cues from

  5. Tor1/Sch9-regulated carbon source substitution is as effective as calorie restriction in life span extension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wei

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of calorie restriction (CR on life span extension, demonstrated in organisms ranging from yeast to mice, may involve the down-regulation of pathways, including Tor, Akt, and Ras. Here, we present data suggesting that yeast Tor1 and Sch9 (a homolog of the mammalian kinases Akt and S6K is a central component of a network that controls a common set of genes implicated in a metabolic switch from the TCA cycle and respiration to glycolysis and glycerol biosynthesis. During chronological survival, mutants lacking SCH9 depleted extracellular ethanol and reduced stored lipids, but synthesized and released glycerol. Deletion of the glycerol biosynthesis genes GPD1, GPD2, or RHR2, among the most up-regulated in long-lived sch9Delta, tor1Delta, and ras2Delta mutants, was sufficient to reverse chronological life span extension in sch9Delta mutants, suggesting that glycerol production, in addition to the regulation of stress resistance systems, optimizes life span extension. Glycerol, unlike glucose or ethanol, did not adversely affect the life span extension induced by calorie restriction or starvation, suggesting that carbon source substitution may represent an alternative to calorie restriction as a strategy to delay aging.

  6. Implicit motor sequence learning and working memory performance changes across the adult life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Nadine Meissner

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although implicit motor sequence learning is rather well understood in young adults, effects of aging on this kind of learning are controversial. There is first evidence that working memory (WM might play a role in implicit motor sequence learning in young adults as well as in adults above the age of 65. However the knowledge about the development of these processes across the adult life span is rather limited. As the average age of our population continues to rise, a better understanding of age-related changes in motor sequence learning and potentially mediating cognitive processes takes on increasing significance. Therefore, we investigated aging effects on implicit motor sequence learning and WM. Sixty adults (18-71 years completed verbal and visuospatial n-back tasks and were trained on a serial reaction time task. Randomly varying trials served as control condition. To further assess consolidation indicated by off-line improvement and reduced susceptibility to interference, reaction times (RTs were determined 1 h after initial learning. Young and older but not middle-aged adults showed motor sequence learning. Nine out of 20 older adults (compared to one young/one middle-aged exhibited some evidence of sequence awareness. After 1 h, young and middle-aged adults showed off-line improvement. However, RT facilitation was not specific to sequence trials. Importantly, susceptibility to interference was reduced in young and older adults indicating the occurrence of consolidation. Although WM performance declined in older participants when load was high, it was not significantly related to sequence learning. The data reveal a decline in motor sequence learning in middle-aged but not in older adults. The use of explicit learning strategies in older adults might account for the latter result.

  7. Systematic Review of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder Interventions Across the Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Natasha; Dawe, Sharon; Shelton, Douglas; Harnett, Paul; Warner, Judith; Armstrong, Eleanor; LeGros, Kim; O'Callaghan, Frances

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) can experience profound impairments and long-term adverse outcomes. This systematic review adopts a life span perspective providing an extensive analysis of the available literature. Studies were identified from PsycInfo, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, CINAHL, ERIC, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and gray literature. Two reviewers independently screened the title and abstract of each reference, and the methodological rigor of the included studies was assessed using the Effective Public Health Project assessment tool. Thirty-two studies met the inclusion criteria, of which the vast majority targeted early to middle childhood. Two studies focused on early intervention in the postnatal period, and 6 studies aimed to improve attention and/or self-regulation in childhood. Three of these provided promising evidence on improving self-regulatory difficulties for children with FASDs. Nine studies focused on improving specific areas of dysfunction. Six studies addressed social skills; 3 of these used an adaptation of a well-validated social skills program. Three studies provided promising initial evidence that parents and caregivers could benefit from support with child behavior and a further 4 studies provided education and advocacy for parents/caregivers, teachers, or child welfare workers. The final 2 studies were aimed at supporting parents who were themselves affected by prenatal alcohol exposure. There is growing evidence for interventions that improve outcomes for early to middle childhood. However, a lack of research exists outside of this developmental period. This lack of research is concerning given the potential positive impact of early intervention, for individuals and, financially, for governments. In addition, the lack of interventions for adolescents and adults further highlights the widening developmental gap and the potential influence of secondary disabilities for this at

  8. Attachment and the processing of social information across the life span: theory and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykas, Matthew J; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have used J. Bowlby's (1969/1982, 1973, 1980, 1988) attachment theory frequently as a basis for examining whether experiences in close personal relationships relate to the processing of social information across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. We present an integrative life-span-encompassing theoretical model to explain the patterns of results that have emerged from these studies. The central proposition is that individuals who possess secure experience-based internal working models of attachment will process--in a relatively open manner--a broad range of positive and negative attachment-relevant social information. Moreover, secure individuals will draw on their positive attachment-related knowledge to process this information in a positively biased schematic way. In contrast, individuals who possess insecure internal working models of attachment will process attachment-relevant social information in one of two ways, depending on whether the information could cause the individual psychological pain. If processing the information is likely to lead to psychological pain, insecure individuals will defensively exclude this information from further processing. If, however, the information is unlikely to lead to psychological pain, then insecure individuals will process this information in a negatively biased schematic fashion that is congruent with their negative attachment-related experiences. In a comprehensive literature review, we describe studies that illustrate these patterns of attachment-related information processing from childhood to adulthood. This review focuses on studies that have examined specific components (e.g., attention and memory) and broader aspects (e.g., attributions) of social information processing. We also provide general conclusions and suggestions for future research.

  9. Social Isolation in Later Life: Extending the Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldrick, Rachel; Grenier, Amanda

    2018-03-01

    As Canada's population continues to age, social isolation among older people is a growing concern and national-level priority. Although much is known about individual-level risks and negative health outcomes associated with social isolation in later life, the impact of life course trajectories and the more collective experiences are seldom considered. Current definitions and program responses tend to rely on individualized approaches to social isolation. Here, we argue that the conversation be extended to consider the social and cultural aspects of social isolation among older people. Specifically, we suggest that definitions and approaches consider three particular dimensions: temporal factors, spatial factors, and the relationship between social isolation and exclusion. Doing so, we argue, would result in a more inclusive approach to social isolation in late life, and the development of capacity to address social isolation among a wide range of older people, particularly the needs of vulnerable or marginalized groups.

  10. Body size, growth and life span: implications for the polewards range shift of Octopus tetricus in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jorge E; Pecl, Gretta T; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Strugnell, Jan M; León, Rafael I; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the response of any species to climate change can be challenging. However, in short-lived species the faster turnover of generations may facilitate the examination of responses associated with longer-term environmental change. Octopus tetricus, a commercially important species, has undergone a recent polewards range shift in the coastal waters of south-eastern Australia, thought to be associated with the southerly extension of the warm East Australian Current. At the cooler temperatures of a polewards distribution limit, growth of a species could be slower, potentially leading to a bigger body size and resulting in a slower population turnover, affecting population viability at the extreme of the distribution. Growth rates, body size, and life span of O. tetricus were examined at the leading edge of a polewards range shift in Tasmanian waters (40°S and 147°E) throughout 2011. Octopus tetricus had a relatively small body size and short lifespan of approximately 11 months that, despite cooler temperatures, would allow a high rate of population turnover and may facilitate the population increase necessary for successful establishment in the new extended area of the range. Temperature, food availability and gender appear to influence growth rate. Individuals that hatched during cooler and more productive conditions, but grew during warming conditions, exhibited faster growth rates and reached smaller body sizes than individuals that hatched into warmer waters but grew during cooling conditions. This study suggests that fast growth, small body size and associated rapid population turnover may facilitate the range shift of O. tetricus into Tasmanian waters.

  11. A self-healing polymer composite for extended fatigue life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E. N. (Eric N.); Jones, A. S. (Alan S.); White, S. R. (Scott R.); Sottos, Nancy R.

    2004-01-01

    A novel approach is explored for improving the fatigue life of thermosetting polymers through the addition of self-healing functionality. Thermosetting polymers are used in a wide variety of applications, but are susceptible to the initiation and propagation of small cracks deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is virtually impossible. The material under investigation is an epoxy matrix composite, which utilizes embedded microcapsules to store a healing agent and an embedded catalyst. A propagating crack exposes particles of catalyst and ruptures the microcapsules, which release healing agent into the crack plane. Polymerization of the healing agent is triggered by contact with the catalyst. Fatigue crack retardation and arrest from self-healing functionality result from crack-tip shielding mechanisms, such as hydrodynamic pressure and artificial-crack closure. In situ healing is observed to significantly extended fatigue life or permanently arrested fatigue crack growth over a wide range of loading conditions.

  12. The Structure of Working Memory Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Sandra; Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel; Strube, Michael J; Sommers, Mitchell; Tye-Murray, Nancy; Spehar, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The present study addresses three questions regarding age differences in working memory: (1) whether performance on complex span tasks decreases as a function of age at a faster rate than performance on simple span tasks; (2) whether spatial working memory decreases at a faster rate than verbal working memory; and (3) whether the structure of working memory abilities is different for different age groups. Adults, ages 20–89 (n=388), performed three simple and three complex verbal span tasks and three simple and three complex spatial memory tasks. Performance on the spatial tasks decreased at faster rates as a function of age than performance on the verbal tasks, but within each domain, performance on complex and simple span tasks decreased at the same rates. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that domain-differentiated models yielded better fits than models involving domain-general constructs, providing further evidence of the need to distinguish verbal and spatial working memory abilities. Regardless of which domain-differentiated model was examined, and despite the faster rates of decrease in the spatial domain, age group comparisons revealed that the factor structure of working memory abilities was highly similar in younger and older adults and showed no evidence of age-related dedifferentiation. PMID:21299306

  13. Ageing in a eusocial insect: molecular and physiological characteristics of life span plasticity in the honey bee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, D; Amdam, G V; Wolschin, F

    2008-01-01

    Commonly held views assume that ageing, or senescence, represents an inevitable, passive, and random decline in function that is strongly linked to chronological age. In recent years, genetic intervention of life span regulating pathways, for example, in Drosophila as well as case studies in non-classical animal models, have provided compelling evidence to challenge these views.Rather than comprehensively revisiting studies on the established genetic model systems of ageing, we here focus on an alternative model organism with a wild type (unselected genotype) characterized by a unique diversity in longevity - the honey bee.Honey bee (Apis mellifera) life span varies from a few weeks to more than 2 years. This plasticity is largely controlled by environmental factors. Thereby, although individuals are closely related genetically, distinct life histories can emerge as a function of social environmental change.Another remarkable feature of the honey bee is the occurrence of reverted behavioural ontogeny in the worker (female helper) caste. This behavioural peculiarity is associated with alterations in somatic maintenance functions that are indicative of reverted senescence. Thus, although intraspecific variation in organismal life span is not uncommon, the honey bee holds great promise for gaining insights into regulatory pathways that can shape the time-course of ageing by delaying, halting or even reversing processes of senescence. These aspects provide the setting of our review.We will highlight comparative findings from Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans in particular, and focus on knowledge spanning from molecular- to behavioural-senescence to elucidate how the honey bee can contribute to novel insights into regulatory mechanisms that underlie plasticity and robustness or irreversibility in ageing.

  14. Mean remaining life span: a new clinically relevant parameter to assess the quality of transfused red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Denison J; Nalbant, Demet; Widness, John A; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2014-10-01

    The quality of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) to treat anemia depends on its potential for oxygen delivery, governed by two properties: 1) initial posttransfusion recovery and 2) life span of initially surviving RBCs. The latter property is poorly evaluated by the traditional mean potential life span (MPL) or mean cell age (MA), because these parameters do not evaluate how long transfused RBCs remain in circulation. Furthermore, evaluation of MPL is based on two problematic assumptions regarding transfused RBCs: 1) they were produced at a constant steady-state rate and 2) they have similar storage life spans. This work introduces a new parameter, the mean remaining life span (MRL) to quantify transfused RBC survival (TRCS) and presents a simple algorithm for its evaluation. The MRL was calculated for four adult subjects with sickle cell disease and four adult diabetic and nondiabetic subjects using RBC survival data sets with existing TRCS parameters. The RBC survival curves in the sickle cell subjects were nonlinear with rapid decline in survival within the first 5 days. The MRL was approximately 4.6 days. Thus, the MRL was indicative of the survival of all transfused RBCs. For the diabetic and nondiabetic subjects, the RBC disappearance curves did not deviate substantially from a linear decline. Thus, the estimates for MRL ranging from 39 to 51 days are similar to the MA previously computed. MRL overcomes limitations of previously proposed TRCS parameters, is simpler to calculate, and is physiologically and clinically more appropriate. © 2014 AABB.

  15. Dietary supplementation with Lovaza and krill oil shortens the life span of long-lived F1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M

    2014-06-01

    Marine oils rich in ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been recommended as a preventive treatment for patients at risk for cardiovascular diseases. These oils also are the third most consumed dietary supplement in the USA. However, evidence for their health benefits is equivocal. We tested the daily, isocaloric administration of krill oil (1.17 g oil/kg diet) and Lovaza (Omacor; 4.40 g/kg diet), a pharmaceutical grade fish oil, beginning at 12 months of age, on the life span and mortality-related pathologies of long-lived, male, B6C3F1 mice. The oils were incorporated into the chemically defined American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93 M diet. An equivalent volume of soybean oil was removed. Krill oil was 3 % and Lovaza 11 % of the oil in the diets. When their effects were analyzed together, the marine oils significantly shortened life span by 6.6 % (P = 0.0321; log-rank test) relative to controls. Individually, Lovaza and krill oil non-significantly shortened median life span by 9.8 and 4.7 %, respectively. Lovaza increased the number of enlarged seminal vesicles (7.1-fold). Lovaza and krill oil significantly increased lung tumors (4.1- and 8.2-fold) and hemorrhagic diathesis (3.9- and 3.1-fold). Analysis of serum from treated mice found that Lovaza slightly increased blood urea nitrogen, while krill oil modestly increased bilirubin, triglycerides, and blood glucose levels. Taken together, the results do not support the idea that the consumption of isolated ω-3 fatty acid-rich oils will increase the life span or health of initially healthy individuals.

  16. Dietary Resveratrol Does Not Affect Life Span, Body Composition, Stress Response, and Longevity-Related Gene Expression in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Staats

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we tested the effect of the stilbene resveratrol on life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and the expression of genes encoding proteins centrally involved in ageing pathways in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster. Male and female w1118 D. melanogaster were fed diets based on sucrose, corn meal, and yeast. Flies either received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 500 µmol/L resveratrol. Dietary resveratrol did not affect mean, median, and maximal life span of male and female flies. Furthermore, body composition remained largely unchanged following the resveratrol supplementation. Locomotor activity, as determined by the climbing index, was not significantly different between control and resveratrol-supplemented flies. Resveratrol-fed flies did not exhibit an improved stress response towards hydrogen peroxide as compared to controls. Resveratrol did not change mRNA steady levels of antioxidant (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, NADH dehydrogenase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase 2 and longevity-related genes, including sirtuin 2, spargel, and I’m Not Dead Yet. Collectively, present data suggest that resveratrol does not affect life span, body composition, locomotor activity, stress response, and longevity-associated gene expression in w1118 D. melanogaster.

  17. rBmαTX14 Increases the Life Span and Promotes the Locomotion of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Wan, Lu; Teng, Kaixuan; Xiang, Jin; Zhang, Rui; Huang, Zebo; Liu, Yongmei; Li, Wenhua; Liu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The scorpion has been extensively used in various pharmacological profiles or as food supplies. The exploration of scorpion venom has been reported due to the presence of recombinant peptides. rBmαTX14 is an α-neurotoxin extracted from the venom gland of the East Asian scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch and can affect ion channel conductance. Here, we investigated the functions of rBmαTX14 using the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Using western blot analysis, rBmαTX14 was shown to be expressed both in the cytoplasm and inclusion bodies in the E.coli Rosetta (DE3) strain. Circular dichroism spectroscopy analysis demonstrated that purified rBmαTX14 retained its biological structures. Next, feeding nematodes with E.coli Rosetta (DE3) expressing rBmαTX14 caused extension of the life span and promoted the locomotion of the nematodes. In addition, we identified several genes that play various roles in the life span and locomotion of C. elegans through microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, if the amino acid site H15 of rBmαTX14 was mutated, rBmαTX14 no longer promoted the C. elegans life span. In conclusion, the results not only demonstrated the functions and mechanism of rBmαTX14 in C. elegans, but also provided the new sight in the utility of recombinant peptides from scorpion venom. PMID:27611314

  18. Dietary consumption of monosodium L-glutamate induces adaptive response and reduction in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Olaiya, Charles O; Oluwadahunsi, Oluwagbenga J; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime. Thereafter, the longevity assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species levels were determined. Also, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and total thiol content were evaluated in the flies. We found that MSG reduced the life span of the flies by up to 23% after continuous exposure. Also, MSG increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H2 O2 generations and total thiol content as well as the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in D. melanogaster (P melanogaster induced adaptive response, but long-term exposure reduced life span of flies. This study may therefore have public health significance in humans, and thus, moderate consumption of MSG is advocated by the authors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. How stable is the personal past? Stability of most important autobiographical memories and life narratives across eight years in a life span sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann

    2017-10-01

    Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story. We also explored whether normative age-graded life events form more stable parts of life narratives. In a longitudinal life span study covering up to 3 measurements across 8 years and 6 age groups (N = 164) the stability of important memories and of entire life narratives was measured as the percentage of events and narrative segments which were repeated in later tellings. Stability increased between ages 8 and 24, leveling off in middle adulthood. Beyond age, stability of life narratives was also predicted by proportion of normative age-graded life events and by causal-motivational text coherence in younger participants. Memories of normative developmental and social transitional life events were more stable than other memories. Stability of segments of life narratives exceeded the stability of single most important memories. Findings are discussed in terms of cognitive, personality, and narrative psychology and point to research questions in each of these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Life-Cycle Monitoring of Long-Span PSC Box Girder Bridges through Distributed Sensor Network: Strategies, Methods, and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheheng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural health monitoring (SHM has attracted much attention in recent years, which enables early warnings of structural failure, condition assessments, and rational maintenance/repair strategies. In the context of bridges, many long-span steel bridges in China have been installed with the SHM systems; however, the applications of the SHM in prestressed concrete (PSC bridges are still rather limited. On the other hand, the PSC box girder bridges are extensively used in highway and railway systems and premature damage of these bridges is often reported, resulting in considerable maintenance and/or replacement costs. First, this paper presents a state-of-art review on the SHM of long-span PSC bridges. Monitoring strategies, methods, and previous applications for these bridges are summarized and discussed. In order to well capture the behavior of the bridge during its whole life and to maximize the use of sensors, a life-cycle monitoring strategy is proposed, in which the sensor layout is determined according to requirements for construction monitoring, completion test, and in-service monitoring. A case study is made on a three-span PSC box girder bridge in China. The system configuration, sensor layout, and data communications, and so forth, are presented. The up-to-date monitored structural responses are analyzed and compared with the design values.

  1. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL) Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeth, Hilton

    2017-01-01

    Extended shelf-life (ESL) or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT) sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B* (inactivation of thermophilic spores), of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product. PMID:29156617

  2. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Deeth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extended shelf-life (ESL or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B* (inactivation of thermophilic spores, of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

  3. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, Patricia; Carbonari, Guilherme L.R.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: patponce@iq.usp.br, e-mail: guilacaz@uol.com.br, e-mail: ablugao@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  4. [Analysis of survival and mortality curves with the model of vital receptors. The maximal life span. Effect of temperature on the life span. The mortality probability density function (mortality curve) and its parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltorakov, A P

    2001-01-01

    We have continued an analysis of survival curves by the model of the vital receptors (MVR). The main types survival function (E-, TW- and GM-distributions) have been considered. It was found that the maximal life span depends on the threshold concentration of vital receptors. Equations are obtained for the dependence of the maximal life span on the kinetic parameters in the reactions of inactivation, destruction and inactivation. Dependence of maximal time life on initial size of the population have been considered. The influence of temperature on the survival curves is analysed by E-distribution. Equations are founded for the description of thermosurvival and thermoinactivation curves. Equation are obtained for the dependence of density function and it characteristics (modal and antimodal age, coefficient of asymmetry) on the MVR parameters. It was shown that E-, TW- and GM-distribution has different types of asymmetry. The coefficient of asymmetry of GM-distribution is associated on the MVR parameters. It is assumed that symmetry of the curves of mortality and birth-rate is coordinated by the mechanisms of MVR.

  5. Extension of life span by impaired glucose metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans is accompanied by structural rearrangements of the transcriptomic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Priebe

    Full Text Available Glucose restriction mimicked by feeding the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans with 2-deoxy-D-glucose (DOG - a glucose molecule that lacks the ability to undergo glycolysis - has been found to increase the life span of the nematodes considerably. To facilitate understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind this life extension, we analyzed transcriptomes of DOG-treated and untreated roundworms obtained by RNA-seq at different ages. We found that, depending on age, DOG changes the magnitude of the expression values of about 2 to 24 percent of the genes significantly, although our results reveal that the gross changes introduced by DOG are small compared to the age-induced changes. We found that 27 genes are constantly either up- or down-regulated by DOG over the whole life span, among them several members of the cytochrome P450 family. The monotonic change with age of the temporal expression patterns of the genes was investigated, leading to the result that 21 genes reverse their monotonic behaviour under impaired glycolysis. Put simply, the DOG-treatment reduces the gross transcriptional activity but increases the interconnectedness of gene expression. However, a detailed analysis of network parameters discloses that the introduced changes differ remarkably between individual signalling pathways. We found a reorganization of the hubs of the mTOR pathway when standard diet is replaced by DOG feeding. By constructing correlation based difference networks, we identified those signalling pathways that are most vigorously changed by impaired glycolysis. Taken together, we have found a number of genes and pathways that are potentially involved in the DOG-driven extension of life span of C. elegans. Furthermore, our results demonstrate how the network structure of ageing-relevant signalling pathways is reorganised under impaired glycolysis.

  6. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.207-3 Marking material to show extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as...

  7. Characterization of the dairy farm environment in Great Britain and the effect of the farm environment on cow life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskell, M J; Brotherstone, S; Lawrence, A B; White, I M S

    2007-11-01

    Dairy farms vary a great deal in the feeding and management systems that are used. These differences affect the performance of the cows, and some genotypes may be affected more than others. If effects of such genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) are large, then farmers must be made aware of them to make informed breeding decisions. To investigate GxE, a classification system for farm environments was developed based on national- and fine-level data from dairy herds across the United Kingdom. The national data included herd and yield characteristics and local weather information. The fine-level data included information on feeding and management systems on farms, and was obtained from survey results from 778 farms. A principal components analysis of the surveys identified 2 major dimensions characterizing the data. The first dimension explained 14.6% of the variation and was related to the level of production intensity. The second dimension explained 11.5% of the variation and was related to climate. Information on milk yield, herd characteristics, and climate was then extracted from national databases for the survey farms. A canonical correlation analysis was used to relate the survey data to the variables extracted from the national data set to determine the most relevant variables. The canonical correlation between the chosen sets of national data and survey variables was 0.62. This environmental classification was then used to determine how the farm environment affects the life span of dairy cows. The life span of the daughters of 1,000 sires was related to the type of farm environment. The daughters of a majority of sires showed a "plastic" response, with increased life span in less intensive farms. The daughters of a smaller number of sires showed a more generalized response, with life span being less affected by the environment. This GxE suggested that sires vary in the sensitivity of their daughters to different farm environments. This variation in

  8. Changes in genetic architecture during relaxation in Drosophila melanogaster selected on divergent virgin life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeulen, CJ; Bijlsma, R

    Artificial selection experiments often confer important information on the genetic correlations constraining the evolution of life history. After artificial selection has ceased however, selection pressures in the culture environment can change the correlation matrix again. Here, we reinvestigate

  9. Social relationships and physiological determinants of longevity across the human life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang Claire; Boen, Courtney; Gerken, Karen; Li, Ting; Schorpp, Kristen; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2016-01-19

    Two decades of research indicate causal associations between social relationships and mortality, but important questions remain as to how social relationships affect health, when effects emerge, and how long they last. Drawing on data from four nationally representative longitudinal samples of the US population, we implemented an innovative life course design to assess the prospective association of both structural and functional dimensions of social relationships (social integration, social support, and social strain) with objectively measured biomarkers of physical health (C-reactive protein, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, and body mass index) within each life stage, including adolescence and young, middle, and late adulthood, and compare such associations across life stages. We found that a higher degree of social integration was associated with lower risk of physiological dysregulation in a dose-response manner in both early and later life. Conversely, lack of social connections was associated with vastly elevated risk in specific life stages. For example, social isolation increased the risk of inflammation by the same magnitude as physical inactivity in adolescence, and the effect of social isolation on hypertension exceeded that of clinical risk factors such as diabetes in old age. Analyses of multiple dimensions of social relationships within multiple samples across the life course produced consistent and robust associations with health. Physiological impacts of structural and functional dimensions of social relationships emerge uniquely in adolescence and midlife and persist into old age.

  10. Laboratory Growth, Reproduction and Life Span of the Pacific Pygmy Octopus, Octopus digueti

    OpenAIRE

    DeRusha, Randal H.; Forsythe, John W.; Hanlon, Roger T.

    1987-01-01

    Octopus digueti Perrier and Rochebrune, 1894 was reared through its life cycle at 25°C in a closed seawater system using artificial sea water. Two field-collected females produced 231 hatchlings: 193 hatchlings were groupcultured while 24 were isolated at hatching and grown individually to allow precise analyses of growth in length and weight over the life cycle. All octopuses were fed primarily live shrimps. Maturing adults fed at a rate of 4.7% of body weight per day and had a gros...

  11. Developmental Differentiation and Binding of Mental Processes with g through the Life-Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Demetriou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration/differentiation of mental processes is major mechanism of development. Developmental theories ascribe intellectual development to it. In psychometric theory, Spearman’s law of diminishing returns postulates that increasing g allows increasing differentiation of cognitive abilities, because increased mental power allows variable investment in domain-specific learning. Empirical evidence has been inconsistent so far, with some studies supporting and others contradicting this mechanism. This state of affairs is due to a developmental phenomenon: Both differentiation and strengthening of relations between specific processes and g may happen but these changes are phase-specific and ability-specific, depending upon the developmental priorities in the formation of g in each phase. We present eight studies covering the age span from 4 to 85 years in support of this phenomenon. Using new powerful modeling methods we showed that differentiation and binding of mental processes in g occurs in cycles. Specific processes intertwine with g at the beginning of cycles when they are integrated into it; when well established, these processes may vary with increasing g, reflecting its higher flexibility. Representational knowledge, inductive inference and awareness of it, and grasp of logical constraints framing inference are the major markers of g, first intertwining with in their respective cycles and differentiating later during the periods of 2–6, 7–11, and 11–20 years, respectively. The implications of these findings for an overarching cognitive developmental/differential theory of human mind are discussed.

  12. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-06-19

    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility.

  13. Assimilation of Endogenous Nicotinamide Riboside Is Essential for Calorie Restriction-mediated Life Span Extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-01-01

    NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD+ metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD+ metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD+-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD+ metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD+ precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD+ homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility. PMID:19416965

  14. The impact of medium acidity on the chronological life span of Saccharomyces cerevisiae - lipids, signaling cascades, mitochondrial and vacuolar functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Esra B; Eraslan, Serpil; Ulgen, Kutlu O

    2014-02-01

    Because of its multifactorial nature, aging is one of the most complicated cell phenomena known. A systems biology approach, which aims to understand the organism as a whole rather than concentrate on the behaviors of individual genes, thus comprises a seamless tool for investigating the aging machinery, which arises mainly as a result of degeneration of the collaboration between signaling and regulatory pathways. In the present study, the effects of medium buffering on the chronological life span are investigated via transcriptome analyses and subsequent integration of the data obtained with the chronological aging network of yeast. The comparative inquiry of transcriptome data of young and old cells grown in buffered and unbuffered media reveals new roles for pH control (e.g. the re-organization of lipid metabolism and intracellular signaling cascades) that have beneficial consequences on chronological longevity. Integration of the transcriptome data onto the aging network, as well as validation experiments, suggest that Snf1p is a possible intermediate player in the interjunction of sphingolipid and ergosterol metabolisms with extracellular pH control with respect to regulation of the chronological life span. Consequently, a more detailed insight of the chronological aging mechanism of yeast is obtained. The results of the present study provide a solid basis for further research focusing on uncovering the agents that affect aging and age-related diseases in humans. © 2014 FEBS.

  15. Trade-offs between seed output and life span - a quantitative comparison of traits between annual and perennial congeneric species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vico, Giulia; Manzoni, Stefano; Nkurunziza, Libère; Murphy, Kevin; Weih, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Perennial plants allocate more resources belowground, thus sustaining important ecosystem services. Hence, shifting from annual to perennial crops has been advocated towards a more sustainable agriculture. Nevertheless, wild perennial species have lower seed production than selected annuals, raising the questions of whether there is a fundamental trade-off between reproductive effort and life span, and whether such trade-off can be overcome through selection. In order to address these questions and to isolate life span from phylogenetic and environmental factors, we conducted a meta-analysis encompassing c. 3000 congeneric annual/perennial pairs from 28 genera. This meta-analysis is complemented with a minimalist model of long-term productivity in perennial species. Perennials allocate more resources belowground and less to seeds than congeneric annuals, independently of selection history. However, existing perennial wheat and rice could achieve yields similar to annuals if they survived three years and each year doubled their biomass, as other perennial grasses do. Selected perennial crops maintain the large belowground allocation of wild perennials, and thus can provide desired regulatory ecosystem services. To match the seed yield of annuals, biomass production of perennial grains must be increased to amounts attained by some perennial grasses - if this goal can be met, perennial crops can provide a more sustainable alternative to annuals. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Changes in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) throughout the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, L; Sørensen, K; Boas, M

    2010-01-01

    the ontogeny of AMH secretion through life in healthy males. SETTING: This was a population-based study of healthy volunteers. PARTICIPANTS: PARTICIPANTS included 1027 healthy males from birth (cord blood) to 69 yr. A subgroup was followed up longitudinally through the infantile minipuberty [(in cord blood...

  17. Bile Acid Look-Alike Controls Life Span in C. elegans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, Albert K.; Kuipers, Folkert

    2013-01-01

    Extensive transcriptional networks maintain sterol homeostasis across species, underscoring the importance of sterol balance for healthy life. Magner et al. (2013) now show that, in C. elegans, the nuclear receptor NHR-8 is key in regulation of cholesterol balance and production of dafachronic acid,

  18. Effects of storage media on the green life span and culinary qualities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sawdust (SD) and ricehusk (RH)) used singly or mixed in varying proportions and enclosed in polyethylene were used to study the storage life of mature green plantain fruits. There were two control treatments comprising fruits sealed in polyethylene without plant residue and fruits kept on laboratory shelf. Fruits were sealed ...

  19. Motives in American Men and Women across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroff, Joseph; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigates stability and change in four social motives (achievement, affiliation, fear of weakness, hope of power) over the adult life cycle. Motives were assessed in 1957 and 1976 by coding thematic apperceptive content in stories told about six pictures. Some age differences and cohort stability were evident for both sexes. (Author/CB)

  20. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety

  1. Healthy Aging After Age 65: A Life-Span Health Production Function Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdows, Nasim B; Jensen, Gail A; Tarraf, Wassim

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the determinants of healthy aging using Grossman's framework of a health production function. Healthy aging, sometimes described as successful aging, is produced using a variety of inputs, determined in early life, young adulthood, midlife, and later life. A healthy aging production function is estimated using nationally representative data from the 2010 and 2012 Health and Retirement Study on 7,355 noninstitutionalized seniors. Using a simultaneous equation mediation model, we quantify how childhood factors contribute to healthy aging, both directly and indirectly through their effects on mediating adult outcomes. We find that favorable childhood conditions significantly improve healthy aging scores, both directly and indirectly, mediated through education, income, and wealth. We also find that good health habits have positive effects on healthy aging that are larger in magnitude than the effects of childhood factors. Our findings suggest that exercising, maintaining proper weight, and not smoking are likely to translate into healthier aging.

  2. Cell specific radiation dosimetry in skeleton from life-span carcinogenesis studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, S.S.J.

    1993-04-05

    The osteogenic sarcoma is the dominant life-threatening pathology in lifespan studies of beagles exposed to alpha-emitting bone-seeking radionuclides. It was deduced from these studies that certain skeletal sites are more prone to develop tumors. This project sought to determine the bone cells at risk and their cell-specific radiation dose. The cell-specific radiation dose values are related to loss and high Ra-226 and Pu-239 induced osteogenic sarcoma sites, to test different dose response hypothesis and predict the extent of effects in humans.

  3. New strategies to prolong the in vivo life span of iron-based contrast agents for MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Antonella; Sfara, Carla; Battistelli, Serafina; Canonico, Barbara; Arcangeletti, Marcella; Manuali, Elisabetta; Salamida, Sonia; Papa, Stefano; Magnani, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles have been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Iron oxide nanoparticles, that become superparamagnetic if the core particle diameter is ~ 30 nm or less, present R1 and R2 relaxivities which are much higher than those of conventional paramagnetic gadolinium chelates. Generally, these magnetic particles are coated with biocompatible polymers that prevent the agglomeration of the colloidal suspension and improve their blood distribution profile. In spite of their potential as MRI blood contrast agents, the biomedical application of iron oxide nanoparticles is still limited because of their intravascular half-life of only few hours; such nanoparticles are rapidly cleared from the bloodstream by macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system (RES). To increase the life span of these MRI contrast agents in the bloodstream we proposed the encapsulation of SPIO nanoparticles in red blood cells (RBCs) through the transient opening of cell membrane pores. We have recently reported results obtained by applying our loading procedure to several SPIO nanoparticles with different chemical physical characteristics such as size and coating agent. In the current investigation we showed that the life span of iron-based contrast agents in the mice bloodstream was prolonged to 12 days after the intravenous injection of murine SPIO-loaded RBCs. Furthermore, we developed an animal model that implicates the pretreatment of animals with clodronate to induce a transient suppression of tissue macrophages, followed by the injection of human SPIO-loaded RBCs which make it possible to encapsulate nanoparticle concentrations (5.3-16.7 mM Fe) higher than murine SPIO-loaded RBCs (1.4-3.55 mM Fe). The data showed that, when human RBCs are used as more capable SPIO nanoparticle containers combined with a depletion of tissue macrophages, Fe concentration in animal blood is

  4. Problem-based learning spanning real and virtual words: a case study in Second Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Good

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of immersive virtual environments for educational purposes. However, much of this activity is not yet documented in the public domain, or is descriptive rather than analytical. This paper presents a case study in which university students were tasked with building an interactive learning experience using Second Life as a platform. Both problem-based learning and constructionism acted as framing pedagogies for the task, with students working in teams to design and build a learning experience which could potentially meet the needs of a real client in innovative ways which might not be possible in real life. A process account of the experience is provided, which examines how the pedagogies and contexts (real and virtual influence and enhance each other. The use of a virtual environment, combined with problem-based learning and constructionism, subtly changed the nature of the instructor–student relationship, allowed students to explore ‘problematic problems' in a motivating and relevant manner, provided students with greater ownership over their work, and allowed problems to be set which were flexible, but at the same time allowed for ease of assessment.

  5. A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jason; Harbaugh, William T; Srivastava, Sanjay; Degras, David; Mayr, Ulrich

    2016-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 145(10) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: General (see record 2016-46925-004). In the article, there was an error in the Task, Stimuli, and Procedures section. In the 1st sentence in the 6th paragraph, “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires meant to reflected the Prosocial Disposition construct: the agreeableness scale from the Big F, which includes empathic concern and perspective-taking, and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” should have read: “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires that contained scales to reflect the Prosocial Disposition construct: the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991), from which we used the agreeableness scale to measure prosocial disposition; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980), from which we used the empathic concern and perspective-taking scales; and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).”] Individual and life span differences in charitable giving are an important economic force, yet the underlying motives are not well understood. In an adult, life span sample, we assessed manifestations of prosocial tendencies across 3 different measurement domains: (a) psychological self-report measures, (b) actual giving choices, and (c) fMRI-derived, neural indicators of “pure altruism.” The latter expressed individuals’ activity in neural valuation areas when charities received money compared to when oneself received money and thus reflected an altruistic concern for others. Results based both on structural equation modeling and unit-weighted aggregate scores revealed a strong higher-order General Benevolence dimension that accounted for variability across all measurement domains. The fact that the neural measures

  6. Emotional reactivity across the adult life span: the cognitive pragmatics make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Ute; Richter, David

    2009-12-01

    Previously, we found that during films about age-typical losses, older adults experienced greater sadness than young adults, whereas their physiological responses were just as large. In the present study, our goal was to replicate this finding and extend past work by examining the role of cognitive functioning in age differences in emotional reactivity. We measured the autonomic and subjective responses of 240 adults (age range=20 to 70) while they viewed films about age-typical losses from our previous work. Findings were fully supportive of our past work: The magnitude of subjective reactions to our films increased linearly over the adult years, whereas there were no age differences on the level of physiological reactivity. We also found that the subjective reactions of adults with high pragmatic intelligence were of moderate size independent of their own age or the age relevance of the emotion elicitor. In contrast, the subjective reactions of adults low on pragmatic intelligence were more variable. Together, this evidence suggests that research on age differences in emotional reactivity may benefit from a perspective that considers individual difference variables as well as contextual variations. PsycINFO Database Record Copyright (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Uncoupling of pathways that promote postmitotic life span and apoptosis from replicative immortality of Caenorhabditis elegans germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shawn

    2006-12-01

    A dichotomy exists between germ and somatic cells in most organisms, such that somatic cell lineages proliferate for a single generation, whereas the germ cell lineage has the capacity to proliferate from one generation to the next, indefinitely. Several theories have been proposed to explain the unlimited replicative life span of germ cells, including the elimination of damaged germ cells by apoptosis or expression of high levels of gene products that prevent aging in somatic cells. These theories were tested in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans by examining the consequences of eliminating either apoptosis or the daf-16, daf-18 or sir-2.1 genes that promote longevity of postmitotic somatic cells. However, germ cells of strains deficient for these activities displayed an unlimited proliferative capacity. Thus, C. elegans germ cells retain their youthful character via alternative pathways that prevent or eliminate damage that accumulates as a consequence of cell proliferation.

  8. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Rosselli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability. Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested.

  9. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sparks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn, is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål. Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes.

  10. The size effect in corrosion greatly influences the predicted life span of concrete infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Ueli M; Elsener, Bernhard

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting the life of concrete infrastructures in corrosive environments presents a long-standing and socially relevant challenge in science and engineering. Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is the main cause for premature degradation of concrete infrastructures worldwide. Since the middle of the past century, this challenge has been tackled by using a conceptual approach relying on a threshold chloride concentration for corrosion initiation (Ccrit). All state-of-the-art models for forecasting chloride-induced steel corrosion in concrete are based on this concept. We present an experiment that shows that Ccrit depends strongly on the exposed steel surface area. The smaller the tested specimen is, the higher and the more variable Ccrit becomes. This size effect in the ability of reinforced concrete to withstand corrosion can be explained by the local conditions at the steel-concrete interface, which exhibit pronounced spatial variability. The size effect has major implications for the future use of the common concept of Ccrit. It questions the applicability of laboratory results to engineering structures and the reproducibility of typically small-scale laboratory testing. Finally, we show that the weakest link theory is suitable to transform Ccrit from small to large dimensions, which lays the basis for taking the size effect into account in the science and engineering of forecasting the durability of infrastructures.

  11. Brain Growth Across the Life Span in Autism: Age-Specific Changes in Anatomical Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Eric; Campbell, Kathleen; Solso, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Autism is marked by overgrowth of the brain at the earliest ages but not at older ages when decreases in structural volumes and neuron numbers are observed instead. This has lead to the theory of age-specific anatomic abnormalities in autism. Here we report age-related changes in brain size in autistic and typical subjects from 12 months to 50 years of age based on analyses of 586 longitudinal and cross-sectional MRI scans. This dataset is several times larger than the largest autism study to date. Results demonstrate early brain overgrowth during infancy and the toddler years in autistic boys and girls, followed by an accelerated rate of decline in size and perhaps degeneration from adolescence to late middle age in this disorder. We theorize that underlying these age-specific changes in anatomic abnormalities in autism there may also be age-specific changes in gene expression, molecular, synaptic, cellular and circuit abnormalities. A peak age for detecting and studying the earliest fundamental biological underpinnings of autism is prenatal life and the first three postnatal years. Studies of the older autistic brain may not address original causes but are essential to discovering how best to help the older aging autistic person. Lastly, the theory of age-specific anatomic abnormalities in autism has broad implications for a wide range of work on the disorder including the design, validation and interpretation of animal model, lymphocyte gene expression, brain gene expression, and genotype/CNV-anatomic phenotype studies. PMID:20920490

  12. The size effect in corrosion greatly influences the predicted life span of concrete infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Ueli M.; Elsener, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Forecasting the life of concrete infrastructures in corrosive environments presents a long-standing and socially relevant challenge in science and engineering. Chloride-induced corrosion of reinforcing steel in concrete is the main cause for premature degradation of concrete infrastructures worldwide. Since the middle of the past century, this challenge has been tackled by using a conceptual approach relying on a threshold chloride concentration for corrosion initiation (Ccrit). All state-of-the-art models for forecasting chloride-induced steel corrosion in concrete are based on this concept. We present an experiment that shows that Ccrit depends strongly on the exposed steel surface area. The smaller the tested specimen is, the higher and the more variable Ccrit becomes. This size effect in the ability of reinforced concrete to withstand corrosion can be explained by the local conditions at the steel-concrete interface, which exhibit pronounced spatial variability. The size effect has major implications for the future use of the common concept of Ccrit. It questions the applicability of laboratory results to engineering structures and the reproducibility of typically small-scale laboratory testing. Finally, we show that the weakest link theory is suitable to transform Ccrit from small to large dimensions, which lays the basis for taking the size effect into account in the science and engineering of forecasting the durability of infrastructures. PMID:28782038

  13. A Transcriptome Survey Spanning Life Stages and Sexes of the Harlequin Bug, Murgantia histrionica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Michael E.; Rhoades, Joshua H.; Nelson, David R.; Kuhar, Daniel; Lancaster, Jason; Lehner, Bryan; Tholl, Dorothea; Weber, Donald C.; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E.

    2017-01-01

    The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn), is an agricultural pest in the continental United States, particularly in southern states. Reliable gene sequence data are especially useful to the development of species-specific, environmentally friendly molecular biopesticides and effective biolures for this insect. Here, mRNAs were sampled from whole insects at the 2nd and 4th nymphal instars, as well as sexed adults, and sequenced using Illumina RNA-Seq technology. A global assembly of these data identified 72,540 putative unique transcripts bearing high levels of similarity to transcripts identified in other taxa, with over 99% of conserved single-copy orthologs among insects being detected. Gene ontology and protein family analyses were conducted to explore the functional potential of the harlequin bug’s gene repertoire, and phylogenetic analyses were conducted on gene families germane to xenobiotic detoxification, including glutathione S-transferases, carboxylesterases and cytochrome P450s. Genic content in harlequin bug was compared with that of the closely related invasive pest, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål). Quantitative analyses of harlequin bug gene expression levels, experimentally validated using quantitative real-time PCR, identified genes differentially expressed between life stages and/or sexes. PMID:28587099

  14. Long-term aerobic exercise is associated with greater muscle strength throughout the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Justin D; Macneil, Lauren G; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in muscle strength, muscle mass, and aerobic capacity, which reduces mobility and impairs quality of life in elderly adults. Exercise is commonly employed to improve muscle function in individuals of all ages; however, chronic aerobic exercise is believed to largely impact cardiovascular function and oxidative metabolism, with minimal effects on muscle mass and strength. To study the effects of long-term aerobic exercise on muscle strength, we recruited 74 sedentary (SED) or highly aerobically active (ACT) men and women from within three distinct age groups (young: 20-39 years, middle: 40-64 years, and older: 65-86 years) and tested their aerobic capacity, isometric grip and knee extensor strength, and dynamic 1 repetition maximum knee extension. As expected, ACT subjects had greater maximal oxygen uptake and peak aerobic power output compared with SED subjects (p aerobic exercise appears to attenuate age-related reductions in muscle strength in addition to its cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits.

  15. Language Development across the Life Span: A Neuropsychological/Neuroimaging Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Matute, Esmeralda; Vélez-Uribe, Idaly

    2014-01-01

    Language development has been correlated with specific changes in brain development. The aim of this paper is to analyze the linguistic-brain associations that occur from birth through senescence. Findings from the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature are reviewed, and the relationship of language changes observable in human development and the corresponding brain maturation processes across age groups are examined. Two major dimensions of language development are highlighted: naming (considered a major measure of lexical knowledge) and verbal fluency (regarded as a major measure of language production ability). Developmental changes in the brain lateralization of language are discussed, emphasizing that in early life there is an increase in functional brain asymmetry for language, but that this asymmetry changes over time, and that changes in the volume of gray and white matter are age-sensitive. The effects of certain specific variables, such as gender, level of education, and bilingualism are also analyzed. General conclusions are presented and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:26317109

  16. "Where are all the lonely people?" A population-based study of high-risk groups across the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasgaard, Mathias; Friis, Karina; Shevlin, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Loneliness is a prevalent and urgent public health issue. Optimal planning of community approaches to loneliness requires a differentiated understanding of loneliness across the life span. We identified groups at high risk of loneliness by exploring the relationship between loneliness and socio-demographic and health-related factors across multiple age groups. This was a combined population-based questionnaire survey and register data study based on a representative sample, including 33,285 Danish individuals aged 16-102 years. Loneliness was measured using the Three-Item Loneliness Scale. The relation between loneliness and age took a shallow U-shaped distribution. Ethnic minority status, receiving disability pensions or being unemployed, living alone, prolonged mental disorder, and psychiatric treatment were strongly associated with severe loneliness. Socio-demographic and health-related factors were associated with an increased risk of severe loneliness in specific age groups. Being female, having a low educational level and living in a deprived area were only associated with loneliness in adolescence/emerging adulthood. Receiving disability pensions and living alone (i.e., divorced), on the other hand, were strongly associated with loneliness in early and middle adulthood and young-old age. Ethnic minority status, living alone, and prolonged mental disorder may well be key factors in determining the generic level of loneliness in a given population. Other conditions are associated with an increased risk of severe loneliness in specific age groups and may moderate the age-loneliness relation. These findings may help to identify populations within communities at risk of loneliness and thereby support the implementation of policies and public health interventions across the life span.

  17. Human adipose tissue derived pericytes increase life span in Utrn (tm1Ked) Dmd (mdx) /J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadares, M C; Gomes, J P; Castello, G; Assoni, A; Pellati, M; Bueno, C; Corselli, M; Silva, H; Bartolini, P; Vainzof, M; Margarido, P F; Baracat, E; Péault, B; Zatz, M

    2014-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is still an untreatable lethal X-linked disorder, which affects 1 in 3500 male births. It is caused by the absence of muscle dystrophin due to mutations in the dystrophin gene. The potential regenerative capacity as well as immune privileged properties of mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSC) has been under investigation for many years in an attempt to treat DMD. One of the questions to be addressed is whether stem cells from distinct sources have comparable clinical effects when injected in murine or canine muscular dystrophy animal models. Many studies comparing different stem cells from various sources were reported but these cells were obtained from different donors and thus with different genetic backgrounds. Here we investigated whether human pericytes obtained from 4 different tissues (muscle, adipose tissue, fallopian tube and endometrium) from the same donor have a similar clinical impact when injected in double mutant Utrn (tm1Ked) Dmd (mdx) /J mice, a clinically relevant model for DMD. After a weekly regimen of intraperitoneal injections of 10(6) cells per 8 weeks we evaluated the motor ability as well as the life span of the treated mice as compared to controls. Our experiment showed that only adipose tissue derived pericytes are able to increase significantly (39 days on average) the life span of affected mice. Microarray analysis showed an inhibition of the interferon pathway by adipose derived pericytes. Our results suggest that the clinical benefit associated with intraperitoneal injections of these adult stem cells is related to immune modulation rather than tissue regeneration.

  18. Statistical modeling of biomedical corpora: mining the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center Bibliography for genes related to life span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan MI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical modeling of biomedical corpora could yield integrated, coarse-to-fine views of biological phenomena that complement discoveries made from analysis of molecular sequence and profiling data. Here, the potential of such modeling is demonstrated by examining the 5,225 free-text items in the Caenorhabditis Genetic Center (CGC Bibliography using techniques from statistical information retrieval. Items in the CGC biomedical text corpus were modeled using the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA model. LDA is a hierarchical Bayesian model which represents a document as a random mixture over latent topics; each topic is characterized by a distribution over words. Results An LDA model estimated from CGC items had better predictive performance than two standard models (unigram and mixture of unigrams trained using the same data. To illustrate the practical utility of LDA models of biomedical corpora, a trained CGC LDA model was used for a retrospective study of nematode genes known to be associated with life span modification. Corpus-, document-, and word-level LDA parameters were combined with terms from the Gene Ontology to enhance the explanatory value of the CGC LDA model, and to suggest additional candidates for age-related genes. A novel, pairwise document similarity measure based on the posterior distribution on the topic simplex was formulated and used to search the CGC database for "homologs" of a "query" document discussing the life span-modifying clk-2 gene. Inspection of these document homologs enabled and facilitated the production of hypotheses about the function and role of clk-2. Conclusion Like other graphical models for genetic, genomic and other types of biological data, LDA provides a method for extracting unanticipated insights and generating predictions amenable to subsequent experimental validation.

  19. Brain growth across the life span in autism: age-specific changes in anatomical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchesne, Eric; Campbell, Kathleen; Solso, Stephanie

    2011-03-22

    Autism is marked by overgrowth of the brain at the earliest ages but not at older ages when decreases in structural volumes and neuron numbers are observed instead. This has led to the theory of age-specific anatomic abnormalities in autism. Here we report age-related changes in brain size in autistic and typical subjects from 12 months to 50 years of age based on analyses of 586 longitudinal and cross-sectional MRI scans. This dataset is several times larger than the largest autism study to date. Results demonstrate early brain overgrowth during infancy and the toddler years in autistic boys and girls, followed by an accelerated rate of decline in size and perhaps degeneration from adolescence to late middle age in this disorder. We theorize that underlying these age-specific changes in anatomic abnormalities in autism, there may also be age-specific changes in gene expression, molecular, synaptic, cellular, and circuit abnormalities. A peak age for detecting and studying the earliest fundamental biological underpinnings of autism is prenatal life and the first three postnatal years. Studies of the older autistic brain may not address original causes but are essential to discovering how best to help the older aging autistic person. Lastly, the theory of age-specific anatomic abnormalities in autism has broad implications for a wide range of work on the disorder including the design, validation, and interpretation of animal model, lymphocyte gene expression, brain gene expression, and genotype/CNV-anatomic phenotype studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant vitamins and mineral supplementation, life span expansion and cancer incidence: a critical commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolara, Piero; Bigagli, Elisabetta; Collins, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Experimental evidence indicates a strong connection between oxidative damage, cancer, and aging. Epidemiological observations suggest that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with lower incidence of some cancers and longer life expectancy; since fruits and vegetables contain natural antioxidants, a considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding their effects in experimental studies and in human trials. A: Effects of antioxidant-containing food and supplements on oxidation damage in humans. Intervention trials employing a variety of biomarkers have shown either a slight decrease in oxidation damage or no effect. B: Effects of selected antioxidants on mortality and cancer incidence. β-carotene and α-tocopherol, alone or in combination, increase cardiovascular and all-cause mortality or have no effect. In some studies, β-carotene and retinyl palmitate significantly increase the progression of lung cancer and aggressive prostate cancer. Protection against cardiovascular mortality or no effect of vitamin E has been reported, with an increase of all-cause mortality at dosages greater than 150 IU/day. Selenium showed beneficial effects on gastrointestinal cancer and reduced the risk of lung cancer in populations with lower selenium status. For multivitamin and mineral supplementation, no significant reduction of mortality or cancer incidence was observed, but some reports indicate a possible preventive effect in cervical cancer. The majority of supplementation studies indicate no variation of general mortality and of cancer incidence or a detrimental effect on both. Antioxidant supplements so far tested seem to offer no improvement over a well-balanced diet, possibly because of the choice of the substances tested or of an excessive dosage. However, new natural or synthetic compounds effective in vitro and in experimental studies might still be worth investigating in human trials.

  1. [The course of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) over the life span].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoula, A

    2012-06-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, associated with the maturation of the nervous system and appearing on a standard proceeding with special cognitive impairments. For many years ADHD was concerned as a typical childhood disorder. Long-term studies though, showed that an important percentage of children with ADHD grew as adults with ADHD. The clinical picture varies with the developmental stage. In pre-school years (3-5 years) the clinical picture is characterized by excessive physical activity, difficulty in cooperation with peers and non-compliance to the recommendations of adults. In school age (6-12 years), apart from the nuclear symptoms of the disorder, as described in the classification systems, i.e. inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, oppositional behavior often occurs, conflicts with peers and academic problems. In adolescence hyperactivity lessens, conflicts with parents continue and high risk behaviors often appear. In adults physical activity usually decreases significantly, while inattention and impulsivity still remain. With the passing of time the number of symptoms are usually reduced, however the impact and impairment caused by the disorder remain. The diagnosis of ADHD in adults requires a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD in childhood. Since childhood, comorbid disorders are common, most times continuing until adult life. The Oppositional Defiant Disorder during childhood is related to the presenting of Antisocial Personality Disorder in adults. On the other hand, emotional disorders, which are also rather common in children, adolescents and adults with ADHD, can be due to either common biological mechanisms or the long-standing effect of psychosocial and environmental factors which follow people with ADHD. The relationship between ADHD and substance abuse has been a subject of research, with the view of the existence of Conduct Disorder being necessary for a person to present a Substance Use Disorder

  2. CONSISTEND: A model to calculate the influence of the construction process on the life span of asphalt and its implementation in tenders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, L.M.; Wessels, J.F.M.; Turk, M.; Bailey, H.; Hannah, A.; O'Connor, A.; Leahy, C.

    2017-01-01

    Quality control during the construction process is one of the determining factors that governs the service life of an asphalt road. In CONSISTEND a predictive tool is developed that objectively determines the effect of quality control during the construction processes on the life span of surface

  3. Does extended surgery influence health-related quality of life in patients with rectal cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orsini, R.; Vermeer, T.A.; Traa, M.J.; Nieuwenhuijzen, G.A.P.; de Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Rutten, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In locally advanced rectal cancer, an extended resection peripheral to the mesorectal fascia is needed to achieve a radical resection. The influence of extended resections on health-related quality of life is unclear. OBJECTIVE: Differences in health-related quality of life and sexuality

  4. New strategies to prolong the in vivo life span of iron-based contrast agents for MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Antonelli

    Full Text Available Superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO and ultra small superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO nanoparticles have been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. Iron oxide nanoparticles, that become superparamagnetic if the core particle diameter is ~ 30 nm or less, present R1 and R2 relaxivities which are much higher than those of conventional paramagnetic gadolinium chelates. Generally, these magnetic particles are coated with biocompatible polymers that prevent the agglomeration of the colloidal suspension and improve their blood distribution profile. In spite of their potential as MRI blood contrast agents, the biomedical application of iron oxide nanoparticles is still limited because of their intravascular half-life of only few hours; such nanoparticles are rapidly cleared from the bloodstream by macrophages of the reticulo-endothelial system (RES. To increase the life span of these MRI contrast agents in the bloodstream we proposed the encapsulation of SPIO nanoparticles in red blood cells (RBCs through the transient opening of cell membrane pores. We have recently reported results obtained by applying our loading procedure to several SPIO nanoparticles with different chemical physical characteristics such as size and coating agent. In the current investigation we showed that the life span of iron-based contrast agents in the mice bloodstream was prolonged to 12 days after the intravenous injection of murine SPIO-loaded RBCs. Furthermore, we developed an animal model that implicates the pretreatment of animals with clodronate to induce a transient suppression of tissue macrophages, followed by the injection of human SPIO-loaded RBCs which make it possible to encapsulate nanoparticle concentrations (5.3-16.7 mM Fe higher than murine SPIO-loaded RBCs (1.4-3.55 mM Fe. The data showed that, when human RBCs are used as more capable SPIO nanoparticle containers combined with a depletion of tissue macrophages, Fe concentration in

  5. Diet-derived advanced glycation end products or lipofuscin disrupts proteostasis and reduces life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakiri, Eleni N; Iliaki, Kalliopi K; Höhn, Annika; Grimm, Stefanie; Papassideri, Issidora S; Grune, Tilman; Trougakos, Ioannis P

    2013-12-01

    Advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified proteins are formed by the nonenzymatic glycation of free amino groups of proteins and, along with lipofuscin (a highly oxidized aggregate of covalently cross-linked proteins, sugars, and lipids), have been found to accumulate during aging and in several age-related diseases. As the in vivo effects of diet-derived AGEs or lipofuscin remain elusive, we sought to study the impact of oral administration of glucose-, fructose-, or ribose-modified albumin or of artificial lipofuscin in a genetically tractable model organism. We report herein that continuous feeding of young Drosophila flies with culture medium enriched in AGEs or in lipofuscin resulted in reduced locomotor performance and in accelerated rates of AGE-modified proteins and carbonylated proteins accumulation in the somatic tissues and hemolymph of flies, as well as in a significant reduction of flies health span and life span. These phenotypic effects were accompanied by reduced proteasome peptidase activities in both the hemolymph and the somatic tissues of flies and higher levels of oxidative stress; furthermore, oral administration of AGEs or lipofuscin in flies triggered an upregulation of the lysosomal cathepsin B, L activities. Finally, RNAi-mediated cathepsin D knockdown reduced flies longevity and significantly augmented the deleterious effects of AGEs and lipofuscin, indicating that lysosomal cathepsins reduce the toxicity of diet-derived AGEs or lipofuscin. Our in vivo studies demonstrate that chronic ingestion of AGEs or lipofuscin disrupts proteostasis and accelerates the functional decline that occurs with normal aging. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Life-span retrieval of public events: Reminiscence bump for high-impact events, recency for others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekcan, Ali I; Boduroglu, Aysecan; Mutlutürk, Aysu; Aktan Erciyes, Aslı

    2017-10-01

    Although substantial evidence exists showing a reliable reminiscence bump for personal events, data regarding retrieval distributions for public events have been equivocal. The primary aim of the present study was to address life-span retrieval distributions of different types of public events in comparison to personal events, and to test whether the existing accounts of the bump can explain the distribution of public events. We asked a large national sample to report the most important, happiest, and saddest personal events and the most important, happiest, saddest, most proud, most fearful, and most shameful public events. We found a robust bump corresponding to the third decade of life for the happiest and the most important positive but not for the saddest and most important negative personal events. For the most important public events, a bump emerged only for the two most frequently mentioned events. Distributions of public events cued with emotions were marked by recency. These results point to potential differences in retrieval of important personal and public events. While the life-script framework well accounts for the findings regarding important personal events, a chronologically retroactive search seem to guide retrieval of public events. Reminiscence bump observed for the two public events suggest that age-at-event affects recall of public events to the degree that the events are high-impact ones that dominate nation's collective memory. Results provide further evidence that the bump is not unitary and points to importance of event type and memory elicitation method with regard to competing explanations of the phenomenon.

  7. Parental educational attainment and adult offspring personality: An intergenerational life span approach to the origin of adult personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutin, Angelina R; Luchetti, Martina; Stephan, Yannick; Robins, Richard W; Terracciano, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Why do some individuals have more self-control or are more vulnerable to stress than others? Where do these basic personality traits come from? Although a fundamental question in personality, more is known about how traits are related to important life outcomes than their developmental origins. The present research took an intergenerational life span approach to address whether a significant aspect of the childhood environment-parental educational attainment-was associated with offspring personality traits in adulthood. We tested the association between parents' educational levels and adult offspring personality traits in 7 samples (overall age range 14-95) and meta-analytically combined the results (total N > 60,000). Parents with more years of education had children who were more open, extraverted, and emotionally stable as adults. These associations were small but consistent, of similar modest magnitude to the association between life events and change in personality in adulthood, and were also supported by longitudinal analyses. Contrary to expectations, parental educational attainment was unrelated to offspring Conscientiousness, except for a surprisingly negative association in the younger cohorts. The results were similar in a subsample of participants who were adopted, which suggested that environmental mechanisms were as relevant as shared genetic variants. Participant levels of education were associated with greater conscientiousness, emotional stability, extraversion, and openness and partially mediated the relation between parent education and personality. Child IQ and family income were also partial mediators. The results of this research suggest that parental educational attainment is 1 intergenerational factor associated with offspring personality development in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. "Life-span development of visual working memory: When is feature binding difficult?": Correction to Cowan et al. (2006).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "Life-span development of visual working memory: When is feature binding difficult?" by Nelson Cowan, Moshe Naveh-Benjamin, Angela Kilb and J. Scott Saults (Developmental Psychology, 2006[Nov], Vol 42[6], 1089-1102). In the article, there were two errors in experiment 1a. The mean for color item information in older adults was incorrectly calculated. As a result, Figure 3 shows a mean of over .70. The true mean was .63 (SEM=.04). This change diminishes the magnitude of the aging deficit for associative information, although this deficit still appears to remain, to a smaller extent. (For a conceptual replication see Peterson & Naveh-Benjamin, 2016). There also was an error in the experimental procedure of Experiment 1a. The older adults in that experiment received only half the number of trials specified in the methods section, and half as much as the other groups. For all groups, when there were 4 or 6 items and the probe was a binding change, the probed location was matched by the same color at 1 other location but, when there were 8 or 10 squares, the probed location was matched by the same color at 1, 2, or 3 other locations. For 8 squares the number of trials was identical for these three trial subtypes whereas, for 10 squares, most of the trials had the same color at just 1 other location. These errors suggest that the experiment should be taken as only preliminary evidence that there is an aging deficit in color-location binding in visual working memory when color and binding trials are mixed in the same trial blocks. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2006-20488-009.) We asked whether the ability to keep in working memory the binding between a visual object and its spatial location changes with development across the life span more than memory for item information. Paired arrays of colored squares were identical or differed in the color of one square, and in the latter case, the changed color was unique on

  9. Position and Life Span of Volcanic Arcs - What Link to Present-day Kinematic Parameters in Subduction Zones ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M. W.; Poli, S.

    2003-12-01

    Since slabs can be located at depth by geophysical methods, correlations are sought between the position of volcanic arcs above slabs and kinematic subduction parameters (subduction angle, velocity, burying rate...). However, the only (rough) correlation found so far, is between arc width and subduction angle, reflecting the projection of a slab depth-interval to a surface width. Volcanic arcs result from fluid and/or melt release from the slab (which occurs more or less continuously to >200 km depth), in most cases in combination with mantle wedge melting. Volcanic arcs may simply form above a zone with a sufficient extent of melting in the mantle and thus dominantly reflect the thermal structure in the mantle wedge which in turn mostly depends on mantle wedge convection. We argue that on geological time scales, pathways to actual (observable) subduction zone parameters are not unique as kinematic constraints in nature are fuzzy. Subduction systems do not converge to a steady state, implying that mantle wedge convection, the resulting thermal regime, loci of metamorphic reactions (i.e. fluid/melt release from the slab), and their surface manifestations, evolve continuously. As a consequence, present day kinematic parameters are not simply linked to the geometry of the volcanic arc (e.g. position of the volcanic front). An evolution of kinematic subduction parameters and their volcanic surface expression with time is documented in back arc basins which have an average life span of 11+/-6 Ma. About 48% of present intraoceanic subduction zones have or have had a Neozoic back arc and therefore they are highly dynamic systems strongly diverging from a steady state system with fixed kinematic boundaries. Other geologically short lived phenomena are aseismic ridge, oceanic plateau, and mid-ocean ridge subduction which modify buoyancy forces, slab geometry, and thermal structure within a subduction zone and thus cause changes in volcanic activity and melt type. In some

  10. Duration of Reproductive Life Span, Age at Menarche, and Age at Menopause Are Associated With Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Sylvia H; Li, Yanping; Tobias, Deirdre K; Manson, JoAnn E; Rosner, Bernard; Hu, Frank B; Rexrode, Kathryn M

    2017-11-02

    Although the timing of menarche and menopause may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), the entire reproductive life span has not been considered comprehensively as risk for CVD. We investigate the associations of reproductive life span duration and ages at menarche and menopause, induced by natural means or surgical bilateral oophorectomy, with incident CVD in women. Prospective cohort study of 73 814 Nurses' Health Study following participants without CVD, defined as incident coronary heart disease or stroke, from 1980 through 2012. Duration of reproductive life span was generated by subtracting age at menarche from age at menopause. A shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher risk of incident CVD after multivariable adjustment (relative risk, 1.32 [95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.49] comparing duration <30 with ≥42 years; P trend<0.0001). Early age at menopause was associated with higher multivariable-adjusted CVD risk (1.32 [1.16-1.51] comparing age <40 with 50 to <55 years; P trend<0.0001), with excess risk for both natural and surgical menopause. Compared with women with menarche at 13 years, the multivariable-adjusted CVD risk for early menarche at ≤10 years was 1.22 (1.09-1.36). The association between reproductive life span and CVD remained significant in sensitivity analyses excluding women who experienced extreme early age at menarche or who used hormone therapy. A shorter duration of reproductive life span is associated with a higher risk of CVD, which is likely driven by the timing of menopause induced either naturally or surgically. Extremely early age at menarche is also associated with a higher risk of CVD. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  11. n-butylidenephthalide treatment prolongs life span and attenuates motor neuron loss in SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qin-Ming; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Li, Song; Chen, Sheng; Le, Wei-Dong

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the therapeutic effects of n-butylidenephthalide (BP) in SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and explore the possible mechanisms. The SOD1G93A mice were treated by oral administration of BP (q.d., 400 mg/kg d) starting from 60 days of age and continuing until death. The rotarod test was performed to assess the disease onset. The expression levels of apoptosis-related proteins, inflammatory molecules, and autophagy-associated proteins were determined. The number of apoptotic motor neurons and the extent of microglial and astroglial activation were also assessed in the lumbar spinal cords of BP-treated mice. Grip strength test, hematoxylin-eosin staining, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrogen staining, and malondialdehyde assay were conducted to evaluate the muscle function and pathology. Although BP treatment did not delay the disease onset, it prolonged the life span and thereafter extended the disease duration in SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. BP treatment also reduced the motor neuron loss through inhibiting apoptosis. We further demonstrated that the neuroprotective effects of BP might be resulted from the inhibition of inflammatory, oxidative stress, and autophagy. Our study suggests that BP may be a promising candidate for the treatment of ALS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Boundary Spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zølner, Mette

    The paper explores how locals span boundaries between corporate and local levels. The aim is to better comprehend potentialities and challenges when MNCs draws on locals’ culture specific knowledge. The study is based on an in-depth, interpretive case study of boundary spanning by local actors...... in the period of post-acquisition when their organization is being integrated into the acquiring MNC. The paper contributes to the literature on boundary spanning in three ways: First, by illustrating that boundary spanning is performed by numerous organizational actors in a variety of positions in MNCs......, inclusively by locals in subsidiaries. Second, by showing that boundary spanning is ‘situated’ in the sense that its result depends on the kind of knowledge to be transmitted and the attitude of the receivers. A third contribution is methodological. The study illustrates that combining bottom-up grounded...

  13. Extending Vulnerability Assessment to Include Life Stages Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Emma E; Essington, Timothy E; Kaplan, Isaac C

    2016-01-01

    Species are experiencing a suite of novel stressors from anthropogenic activities that have impacts at multiple scales. Vulnerability assessment is one tool to evaluate the likely impacts that these stressors pose to species so that high-vulnerability cases can be identified and prioritized for monitoring, protection, or mitigation. Commonly used semi-quantitative methods lack a framework to explicitly account for differences in exposure to stressors and organism responses across life stages. Here we propose a modification to commonly used spatial vulnerability assessment methods that includes such an approach, using ocean acidification in the California Current as an illustrative case study. Life stage considerations were included by assessing vulnerability of each life stage to ocean acidification and were used to estimate population vulnerability in two ways. We set population vulnerability equal to: (1) the maximum stage vulnerability and (2) a weighted mean across all stages, with weights calculated using Lefkovitch matrix models. Vulnerability was found to vary across life stages for the six species explored in this case study: two krill-Euphausia pacifica and Thysanoessa spinifera, pteropod-Limacina helicina, pink shrimp-Pandalus jordani, Dungeness crab-Metacarcinus magister and Pacific hake-Merluccius productus. The maximum vulnerability estimates ranged from larval to subadult and adult stages with no consistent stage having maximum vulnerability across species. Similarly, integrated vulnerability metrics varied greatly across species. A comparison showed that some species had vulnerabilities that were similar between the two metrics, while other species' vulnerabilities varied substantially between the two metrics. These differences primarily resulted from cases where the most vulnerable stage had a low relative weight. We compare these methods and explore circumstances where each method may be appropriate.

  14. A new life-span approach to conscientiousness and health: combining the pieces of the causal puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Howard S; Kern, Margaret L; Hampson, Sarah E; Duckworth, Angela Lee

    2014-05-01

    Conscientiousness has been shown to predict healthy behaviors, healthy social relationships, and physical health and longevity. The causal links, however, are complex and not well elaborated. Many extant studies have used comparable measures for conscientiousness, and a systematic endeavor to build cross-study analyses for conscientiousness and health now seems feasible. Of particular interest are efforts to construct new, more comprehensive causal models by linking findings and combining data from existing studies of different cohorts. Although methodological perils can threaten such integration, such efforts offer an early opportunity to enliven a life course perspective on conscientiousness, to see whether component facets of conscientiousness remain related to each other and to relevant mediators across broad spans of time, and to bolster the findings of the few long-term longitudinal studies of the dynamics of personality and health. A promising approach to testing new models involves pooling data from extant studies as an efficient and heuristic prelude to large-scale testing of interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Liver-specific γ-glutamyl carboxylase-deficient mice display bleeding diathesis and short life span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Azuma

    Full Text Available Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays important roles in blood coagulation and bone metabolism. One of its functions is as a co-factor for γ-glutamyl carboxylase (Ggcx. Conventional knockout of Ggcx causes death shortly after birth in homozygous mice. We created Ggcx-floxed mice by inserting loxP sequences at the sites flanking exon 6 of Ggcx. By mating these mice with albumin-Cre mice, we generated Ggcx-deficient mice specifically in hepatocytes (Ggcx(Δliver/Δliver mice. In contrast to conventional Ggcx knockout mice, Ggcx(Δliver/Δliver mice had very low activity of Ggcx in the liver and survived several weeks after birth. Furthermore, compared with heterozygous mice (Ggcx(+/Δliver , Ggcx(Δliver/Δliver mice had shorter life spans. Ggcx(Δliver/Δliver mice displayed bleeding diathesis, which was accompanied by decreased activity of coagulation factors II and IX. Ggcx-floxed mice can prove useful in examining Ggcx functions in vivo.

  16. The Importance of Leisure Activities in the Relationship between Physical Health and Well-Being in a Life Span Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paggi, Michelle E; Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined the relationships between physical health and leisure activities and between leisure activities and well-being, but, to our knowledge, none has examined these relationships simultaneously. This study investigated the relationships between leisure activities, health and well-being considering the role of age, and whether leisure activities mediate the relationship between physical health and well-being. Utilizing a cross-sectional database of 259 adults (ages 18-81 years) who completed several questionnaires, linear regression models and mediation models were tested. Regression analyses indicated that physical health was related to leisure activities and leisure activities were related to well-being. When physical health was measured by subjective ratings, age had a stronger relationship with leisure activities. However, when physical health was indicated by health restrictions, physical health had a stronger relationship with leisure activities than did age. Leisure activities were a partial mediator of the relationship between physical health and well-being. The results demonstrated that the reduction in leisure activities with age has more to do with physical health limitations than with older age itself. In addition, regardless of age, the benefits of physical health for well-being are due in part to the level of leisure activity participation. These results highlight the importance of leisure activities for successful aging throughout the adult life span. Interventions designed to improve well-being through increasing leisure activity participation should take physical health into consideration, particularly for older adults. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Reduced mammalian target of rapamycin activity facilitates mitochondrial retrograde signaling and increases life span in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Chad; Bitto, Alessandro; Pulliam, Daniel; Nacarelli, Timothy; Konigsberg, Mina; Van Remmen, Holly; Torres, Claudio; Sell, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Summary Coordinated expression of mitochondrial and nuclear genes is required to maintain proper mitochondrial function. However, the precise mechanisms that ensure this coordination are not well defined. We find that signaling from mitochondria to the nucleus is influenced by mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity via changes in autophagy and p62/SQSTM1 turnover. Reducing mTOR activity increases autophagic flux, enhances mitochondrial membrane potential, reduces reactive oxygen species within the cell, and increases replicative life span. These effects appear to be mediated in part by an interaction between p62/SQSTM1 and Keap1. This interaction allows nuclear accumulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2, also known as nuclear factor related factor 2 or NRF2), increased expression of the nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF1), and increased expression of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, such as the mitochondrial transcription factor A, and mitochondrial-encoded genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation. These findings reveal a portion of the intracellular signaling network that couples mitochondrial turnover with mitochondrial renewal to maintain homeostasis within the cell and suggest mechanisms whereby a reduction in mTOR activity may enhance longevity. PMID:23795962

  18. The concept of homology as a basis for evaluating developmental mechanisms: exploring selective attention across the life-span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lickliter, Robert; Bahrick, Lorraine E

    2013-01-01

    Research with human infants as well as non-human animal embryos and infants has consistently demonstrated the benefits of intersensory redundancy for perceptual learning and memory for redundantly specified information during early development. Studies of infant affect discrimination, face discrimination, numerical discrimination, sequence detection, abstract rule learning, and word comprehension and segmentation have all shown that intersensory redundancy promotes earlier detection of these properties when compared to unimodal exposure to the same properties. Here we explore the idea that such intersensory facilitation is evident across the life-span and that this continuity is an example of a developmental behavioral homology. We present evidence that intersensory facilitation is most apparent during early phases of learning for a variety of tasks, regardless of developmental level, including domains that are novel or tasks that require discrimination of fine detail or speeded responses. Under these conditions, infants, children, and adults all show intersensory facilitation, suggesting a developmental homology. We discuss the challenge and propose strategies for establishing appropriate guidelines for identifying developmental behavioral homologies. We conclude that evaluating the extent to which continuities observed across development are homologous can contribute to a better understanding of the processes of development. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Inventions in nanotechnological field provide increased strength and life span of the metal, composite and polymer, metallopolymer structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The invention «The method of dispersion of nanoparticles in epoxy resin (RU 2500706» refers to nanotechnological field and it can be applied in different areas of machine industry, transport, construction, power engineering to increase strength and life span of the structures made of metal, composite and polymer, metallopolymer materials, for glue and glue and mechanical joints in different structure elements as well as for compositions which strengthen the stress concentration zones (in the form of holes, cutouts, fillet, thickness differentials in structures, to reform defects, microcracks and other damages occurring in production and performance of structures, to eliminate and encapsulate the gaps in holes and meeting-points of bolted and riveted joints. The invention «The method to produce nanosuspension for manufacturing polymer nanocomposite (RU 2500695» refers to the area of production of polymer nanocomposites based on reactiveplastic binder for space, aircraft, construction and other types of structures (glass-fiber plastic, carbon reinforced plastic, organic plastic, etc.. The method includes preparation of nanosuspension by introducing carbon nanotubes into reactiveplastic binder under ultrasonic treatment with intensity cavity zone 15–25 kW/m². The method makes it possible to optimize the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes in binder and to shorten production time of nanocomposites possessing increased strength due to even distribution of nanoparticles in nanocomposite.

  20. Effects of shortened host life span on the evolution of parasite life history and virulence in a microbial host-parasite system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koella Jacob C

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ecological factors play an important role in the evolution of parasite exploitation strategies. A common prediction is that, as shorter host life span reduces future opportunities of transmission, parasites compensate with an evolutionary shift towards earlier transmission. They may grow more rapidly within the host, have a shorter latency time and, consequently, be more virulent. Thus, increased extrinsic (i.e., not caused by the parasite host mortality leads to the evolution of more virulent parasites. To test these predictions, we performed a serial transfer experiment, using the protozoan Paramecium caudatum and its bacterial parasite Holospora undulata. We simulated variation in host life span by killing hosts after 11 (early killing or 14 (late killing days post inoculation; after killing, parasite transmission stages were collected and used for a new infection cycle. Results After 13 cycles (≈ 300 generations, parasites from the early-killing treatment were less infectious, but had shorter latency time and higher virulence than those from the late-killing treatment. Overall, shorter latency time was associated with higher parasite loads and thus presumably with more rapid within-host replication. Conclusion The analysis of the means of the two treatments is thus consistent with theory, and suggests that evolution is constrained by trade-offs between virulence, transmission and within-host growth. In contrast, we found little evidence for such trade-offs across parasite selection lines within treatments; thus, to some extent, these traits may evolve independently. This study illustrates how environmental variation (experienced by the host can lead to the evolution of distinct parasite strategies.

  1. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-12-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  2. Design and analysis of seals for extended service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1992-01-01

    Space Station Freedom is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools, which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. This research is totally focused on O-rings that are compressed by perpendicular clamping forces. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  3. Relationships of leaf dark respiration to leaf nitrogen, specific leaf area and leaf life-span: a test across biomes and functional groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter B. Reich; Michael B. Walters; David S. Ellsworth; [and others; [Editor’s note: James M.. Vose is the SRS co-author for this publication.

    1998-01-01

    Based on prior evidence of coordinated multiple leaf trait scaling, the authors hypothesized that variation among species in leaf dark respiration rate (Rd) should scale with variation in traits such as leaf nitrogen (N), leaf life-span, specific leaf area (SLA), and net photosynthetic capacity (Amax). However, it is not known whether such scaling, if it exists, is...

  4. dSir2 in the Adult Fat Body, but Not in Muscles, Regulates Life Span in a Diet-Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Kr. Banerjee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Sir2, an evolutionarily conserved NAD+-dependent deacetylase, has been implicated as a key factor in mediating organismal life span. However, recent contradictory findings have brought into question the role of Sir2 and its orthologs in regulating organismal longevity. In this study, we report that Drosophila Sir2 (dSir2 in the adult fat body regulates longevity in a diet-dependent manner. We used inducible Gal4 drivers to knock down and overexpress dSir2 in a tissue-specific manner. A diet-dependent life span phenotype of dSir2 perturbations (both knockdown and overexpression in the fat body, but not muscles, negates the effects of background genetic mutations. In addition to providing clarity to the field, our study contrasts the ability of dSir2 in two metabolic tissues to affect longevity. We also show that dSir2 knockdown abrogates fat-body dFOXO-dependent life span extension. This report highlights the importance of the interplay between genetic factors and dietary inputs in determining organismal life spans.

  5. Decreased deformability of donor red blood cells after intrauterine transfusion in the human fetus: possible reason for their reduced life span?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egberts, J.; Hardeman, M. R.; Luykx, L. M.

    2004-01-01

    The life span of donor red blood cells (RBCs) is reduced in the fetus with Rh hemolytic disease. This may have resulted from donor or recipient factors. Studied in vitro was the effect of gamma irradiation on hemolysis, methemo-globin (metHb), and lipid peroxidation of donor RBCs and the ability of

  6. Pervasive gene expression responses to a fluctuating diet in Drosophila melanogaster: The importance of measuring multiple traits to decouple potential mediators of life span and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandveld, Jelle; van den Heuvel, Joost; Mulder, Maarten; Brakefield, Paul M; Kirkwood, Thomas B L; Shanley, Daryl P; Zwaan, Bas J

    2017-11-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is an important concept in life-history evolution, and most organisms, including Drosophila melanogaster, show a plastic life-history response to diet. However, little is known about how these life-history responses are mediated. In this study, we compared adult female flies fed an alternating diet (yoyo flies) with flies fed a constant low (CL) or high (CH) diet and tested how whole genome expression was affected by these diet regimes and how the transcriptional responses related to different life-history traits. We showed that flies were able to respond quickly to diet fluctuations throughout life span by drastically changing their transcription. Importantly, by measuring the response of multiple life-history traits we were able to decouple groups of genes associated with life span or reproduction, life-history traits that often covary with a diet change. A coexpression network analysis uncovered which genes underpin the separate and shared regulation of these life-history traits. Our study provides essential insights to help unravel the genetic architecture mediating life-history responses to diet, and it shows that the flies' whole genome transcription response is highly plastic. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Viscoelastic analysis of seals for extended service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1993-01-01

    The space station is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program (2) has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. Seals are simple devices, in wide spread use. The most common type of seal is the O-ring. O-ring seals are typically rings of rubber with a circular cross section. The rings are placed between the surfaces to be sealed, usually in a groove of some design. The particular design may differ based on a number of different factors. This research is focused on O-rings that are staticly compressed by perpendicular clamping forces, commonly referred to as face seals. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  8. Viscoelastic analysis of seals for extended service life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.

    1993-11-01

    The space station is being developed for a service life of up to thirty years. As a consequence, the design requirements for the seals to be used are unprecedented. Full scale testing to assure the selected seals can satisfy the design requirements are not feasible. As an alternative, a sub-scale test program (2) has been developed by MSFC to calibrate the analysis tools to be used to certify the proposed design. This research has been conducted in support of the MSFC Integrated Seal Test Program. The ultimate objective of this research is to correlate analysis and test results to qualify the analytical tools which in turn, are to be used to qualify the flight hardware. Seals are simple devices, in wide spread use. The most common type of seal is the O-ring. O-ring seals are typically rings of rubber with a circular cross section. The rings are placed between the surfaces to be sealed, usually in a groove of some design. The particular design may differ based on a number of different factors. This research is focused on O-rings that are staticly compressed by perpendicular clamping forces, commonly referred to as face seals. In this type of seal the O-ring is clamped between the sealing surfaces by loads perpendicular to the circular cross section.

  9. Relationship between leaf life-span and photosynthetic activity of Quercus ilex in polluted urban areas (Rome)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gratani, L.; Crescente, M.F. [University of Rome (Italy). Dept. of Plant Biology; Petruzzi, M. [Ministry of Environment, Rome (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Anatomical, morphological and physiological leaf traits of Quercus ilex in response to different traffic levels (high traffic level, type A sites; average traffic level, type B sites; control sites, type C sites) were analysed in Rome. Superficial leaf deposits were analysed comparing unwashed and washed leaf samples. Washing lowered Pb 61% in A, 54% in B and 27 % in C. Sr, Fe, Cu, Zn and AI showed the same trend as Pb. The higher photosynthetic activity of I-year-old leaves (Pn = 7.0 {+-} 2.9 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, average value) in A sites with respect to B sites (6.7 {+-} 2.4 {mu}mol m{sup -2} S{sup -1}) and C sites (6.7 {+-} 1.8 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}) seems to be related to higher stomatal conductance (g{sub s} = 0.13 {+-} 0.06 mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), higher total chlorophyll content (Chl = 1.57 mg g{sup -1}) and higher leaf thickness (L{tau} 218.9 {mu}m), particularly palisade parenchyma thickness (109.4 {mu}m). Q. ilex showed, on average, 95% of 1-year-old leaves and rarely 2-year-old leaves in A and B sites; 77% I-year leaves, 20% previous-year leaves and sporadic 3-year leaves in C sites. The enhanced leaf senescence in A sites is compensated by a stimulated shoot production (18% higher with respect to C sites); 25% increased specific leaf area seems to be compensatory growth occurring in order to increase the size of the assimilatory area. The inverse trend of leaf life-span and Pn seems to be Q. ilex' adaptive strategy in polluted areas. (author)

  10. Integration-independent Transgenic Huntington Disease Fragment Mouse Models Reveal Distinct Phenotypes and Life Span in Vivo*

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Robert; DeGiacomo, Francesco; Holcomb, Jennifer; Bonner, Akilah; Ring, Karen L.; Zhang, Ningzhe; Zafar, Khan; Weiss, Andreas; Lager, Brenda; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W.; Chen, Sylvia; Kwak, Seung; Ellerby, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    The cascade of events that lead to cognitive decline, motor deficits, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington disease (HD) is triggered by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin (HTT) protein. A significant mechanism in HD is the generation of mutant HTT fragments, which are generally more toxic than the full-length HTT. The protein fragments observed in human HD tissue and mouse models of HD are formed by proteolysis or aberrant splicing of HTT. To systematically investigate the relative contribution of the various HTT protein proteolysis events observed in vivo, we generated transgenic mouse models of HD representing five distinct proteolysis fragments ending at amino acids 171, 463, 536, 552, and 586 with a polyglutamine length of 148. All lines contain a single integration at the ROSA26 locus, with expression of the fragments driven by the chicken β-actin promoter at nearly identical levels. The transgenic mice N171-Q148 and N552-Q148 display significantly accelerated phenotypes and a shortened life span when compared with N463-Q148, N536-Q148, and N586-Q148 transgenic mice. We hypothesized that the accelerated phenotype was due to altered HTT protein interactions/complexes that accumulate with age. We found evidence for altered HTT complexes in caspase-2 fragment transgenic mice (N552-Q148) and a stronger interaction with the endogenous HTT protein. These findings correlate with an altered HTT molecular complex and distinct proteins in the HTT interactome set identified by mass spectrometry. In particular, we identified HSP90AA1 (HSP86) as a potential modulator of the distinct neurotoxicity of the caspase-2 fragment mice (N552-Q148) when compared with the caspase-6 transgenic mice (N586-Q148). PMID:26025364

  11. Changes in behaviors of male C57BL/6J mice across adult life span and effects of dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlström, Andreas; Zeberg, Hugo; Ulfhake, Brun

    2012-12-01

    Behavioral analysis is a high-end read-out of aging impact on an organism, and here, we have analyzed behaviors in 4-, 22-, and 28-month-old male C57BL/6J with a broad range of tests. For comparison, a group of 28-month-old males maintained on dietary restriction (DR) was included. The most conspicuous alteration was the decline in exploration activity with advancing age. Aging also affected other behaviors such as motor skill acquisition and grip strength, in contrast to latency to thermal stimuli and visual placement which were unchanged. Object recognition tests revealed intact working memory at 28 months while memory recollection was impaired already at 22 months. Comparison with female C57BL/6J (Fahlström et al., Neurobiol Aging 32:1868-1880, 2011) revealed that alterations in aged males and females are similar and that several of the behavioral indices correlate with age in both sexes. Moreover, we examined if behavioral indices in 22-month-old males could predict remaining life span as suggested in the study by Ingram and Reynolds (Exp Aging Res 12(3):155-162, 1986) and found that exploratory activity and motor skills accounted for up to 65% of the variance. Consistent with that a high level of exploratory activity and preserved motor capacity indicated a long post-test survival, 28-month-old males maintained on DR were more successful in such tests than ad libitum fed age-matched males. In summary, aged C57BL/6J males are marked by a reduced exploratory activity, an alteration that DR impedes. In light of recently published data, we discuss if a diminishing drive to explore may associate with aging-related impairment of central aminergic pathways.

  12. Integration-independent Transgenic Huntington Disease Fragment Mouse Models Reveal Distinct Phenotypes and Life Span in Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Robert; DeGiacomo, Francesco; Holcomb, Jennifer; Bonner, Akilah; Ring, Karen L; Zhang, Ningzhe; Zafar, Khan; Weiss, Andreas; Lager, Brenda; Schilling, Birgit; Gibson, Bradford W; Chen, Sylvia; Kwak, Seung; Ellerby, Lisa M

    2015-07-31

    The cascade of events that lead to cognitive decline, motor deficits, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with Huntington disease (HD) is triggered by a polyglutamine expansion in the N-terminal region of the huntingtin (HTT) protein. A significant mechanism in HD is the generation of mutant HTT fragments, which are generally more toxic than the full-length HTT. The protein fragments observed in human HD tissue and mouse models of HD are formed by proteolysis or aberrant splicing of HTT. To systematically investigate the relative contribution of the various HTT protein proteolysis events observed in vivo, we generated transgenic mouse models of HD representing five distinct proteolysis fragments ending at amino acids 171, 463, 536, 552, and 586 with a polyglutamine length of 148. All lines contain a single integration at the ROSA26 locus, with expression of the fragments driven by the chicken β-actin promoter at nearly identical levels. The transgenic mice N171-Q148 and N552-Q148 display significantly accelerated phenotypes and a shortened life span when compared with N463-Q148, N536-Q148, and N586-Q148 transgenic mice. We hypothesized that the accelerated phenotype was due to altered HTT protein interactions/complexes that accumulate with age. We found evidence for altered HTT complexes in caspase-2 fragment transgenic mice (N552-Q148) and a stronger interaction with the endogenous HTT protein. These findings correlate with an altered HTT molecular complex and distinct proteins in the HTT interactome set identified by mass spectrometry. In particular, we identified HSP90AA1 (HSP86) as a potential modulator of the distinct neurotoxicity of the caspase-2 fragment mice (N552-Q148) when compared with the caspase-6 transgenic mice (N586-Q148). © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. A cost-benefit analysis of acclimation to low irradiance in tropical rainforest tree seedlings: leaf life span and payback time for leaf deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Sabrina; Roggy, Jean-Christophe; Schimann, Heidy; Epron, Daniel; Dreyer, Erwin

    2011-07-01

    The maintenance in the long run of a positive carbon balance under very low irradiance is a prerequisite for survival of tree seedlings below the canopy or in small gaps in a tropical rainforest. To provide a quantitative basis for this assumption, experiments were carried out to determine whether construction cost (CC) and payback time for leaves and support structures, as well as leaf life span (i) differ among species and (ii) display an irradiance-elicited plasticity. Experiments were also conducted to determine whether leaf life span correlates to CC and payback time and is close to the optimal longevity derived from an optimization model. Saplings from 13 tropical tree species were grown under three levels of irradiance. Specific-CC was computed, as well as CC scaled to leaf area at the metamer level. Photosynthesis was recorded over the leaf life span. Payback time was derived from CC and a simple photosynthesis model. Specific-CC displayed only little interspecific variability and irradiance-elicited plasticity, in contrast to CC scaled to leaf area. Leaf life span ranged from 4 months to >26 months among species, and was longest in seedlings grown under lowest irradiance. It was always much longer than payback time, even under the lowest irradiance. Leaves were shed when their photosynthesis had reached very low values, in contrast to what was predicted by an optimality model. The species ranking for the different traits was stable across irradiance treatments. The two pioneer species always displayed the smallest CC, leaf life span, and payback time. All species displayed a similar large irradiance-elicited plasticity.

  14. A cost–benefit analysis of acclimation to low irradiance in tropical rainforest tree seedlings: leaf life span and payback time for leaf deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coste, Sabrina; Roggy, Jean-Christophe; Schimann, Heidy; Epron, Daniel; Dreyer, Erwin

    2011-01-01

    The maintenance in the long run of a positive carbon balance under very low irradiance is a prerequisite for survival of tree seedlings below the canopy or in small gaps in a tropical rainforest. To provide a quantitative basis for this assumption, experiments were carried out to determine whether construction cost (CC) and payback time for leaves and support structures, as well as leaf life span (i) differ among species and (ii) display an irradiance-elicited plasticity. Experiments were also conducted to determine whether leaf life span correlates to CC and payback time and is close to the optimal longevity derived from an optimization model. Saplings from 13 tropical tree species were grown under three levels of irradiance. Specific-CC was computed, as well as CC scaled to leaf area at the metamer level. Photosynthesis was recorded over the leaf life span. Payback time was derived from CC and a simple photosynthesis model. Specific-CC displayed only little interspecific variability and irradiance-elicited plasticity, in contrast to CC scaled to leaf area. Leaf life span ranged from 4 months to >26 months among species, and was longest in seedlings grown under lowest irradiance. It was always much longer than payback time, even under the lowest irradiance. Leaves were shed when their photosynthesis had reached very low values, in contrast to what was predicted by an optimality model. The species ranking for the different traits was stable across irradiance treatments. The two pioneer species always displayed the smallest CC, leaf life span, and payback time. All species displayed a similar large irradiance-elicited plasticity. PMID:21511904

  15. The aging process and potential interventions to extend life expectancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Tosato

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Tosato1, Valentina Zamboni1, Alessandro Ferrini1, Matteo Cesari1,21Department of Gerontology, Geriatrics and Physiatry; Catholic University of Sacred Heart, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, Institute on Aging, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Aging is commonly defined as the accumulation of diverse deleterious changes occurring in cells and tissues with advancing age that are responsible for the increased risk of disease and death. The major theories of aging are all specific of a particular cause of aging, providing useful and important insights for the understanding of age-related physiological changes. However, a global view of them is needed when debating of a process which is still obscure in some of its aspects. In this context, the search for a single cause of aging has recently been replaced by the view of aging as an extremely complex, multifactorial process. Therefore, the different theories of aging should not be considered as mutually exclusive, but complementary of others in the explanation of some or all the features of the normal aging process. To date, no convincing evidence showing the administration of existing “anti-aging” remedies can slow aging or increase longevity in humans is available. Nevertheless, several studies on animal models have shown that aging rates and life expectancy can be modified. The present review provides an overlook of the most commonly accepted theories of aging, providing current evidence of those interventions aimed at modifying the aging process.Keywords: Aging, anti-aging medicine, caloric restriction, oxidative damage, inflammation, physical exercise

  16. Are life-extending treatments for terminal illnesses a special case? Exploring choices and societal viewpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. McHugh (Neil); van Exel, J. (Job); H. Mason (Helen); Godwin, J. (Jon); M. Collins (Marissa); Donaldson, C. (Cam); R.M. Baker (Rachel)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractCriteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values,

  17. Inducible knockdown of pregnancy?associated plasma protein?A gene expression in adult female mice extends life span

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, Laurie K.; West, Sally A.; Conover, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Pregnancy?associated plasma protein?A (PAPP?A) knockout (KO) mice, generated through homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells, have a significantly increased lifespan compared to wild?type littermates. However, it is unknown whether this longevity advantage would pertain to PAPP?A gene deletion in adult animals. In the present study, we used tamoxifen (Tam)?inducible Cre recombinase?mediated excision of the floxed PAPP?A (fPAPP?A) gene in mice at 5?months of age. fPAPP?A mice,...

  18. Telomerase expression extends the proliferative life-span and maintains the osteogenic potential of human bone marrow stromal cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Janne Lytoft; Rosada, Cecilia; Serakinci, Nedime

    2002-01-01

    . The transduced cells have now undergone more than 260 population doublings (PD) and continue to proliferate, whereas control cells underwent senescence-associated proliferation arrest after 26 PD. The cells maintained production of osteoblastic markers and differentiation potential during continuous subculturing......, did not form tumors, and had a normal karyotype. When implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice, the transduced cells formed more bone than did normal cells. These results suggest that ectopic expression of telomerase in hMSCs prevents senescence-associated impairment of osteoblast functions.......Human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) were stably transduced by a retroviral vector containing the gene for the catalytic subunit of human telomerase (hTERT). Transduced cells (hMSC-TERTs) had telomerase activity, and the mean telomere length was increased as compared with that of control cells...

  19. The Stationary-Phase Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Display Dynamic Actin Filaments Required for Processes Extending Chronological Life Span

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašicová, Pavla; Lejsková, Renata; Malcová, Ivana; Hašek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 22 (2015), s. 3892-3908 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP305/12/0480 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : MITOCHONDRIAL GENE-EXPRESSION * BUDDING YEAST * CALORIE RESTRICTION Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.427, year: 2015

  20. Sex and age differences in the expression of liver microRNAs during the life span of F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwekel, Joshua C; Vijay, Vikrant; Han, Tao; Moland, Carrie L; Desai, Varsha G; Fuscoe, James C

    2017-01-01

    Physiological factors such as age and sex have been shown to be risk factors for adverse effects in the liver, including liver diseases and drug-induced liver injury. Previously, we have reported age- and sex-related significant differences in hepatic basal gene expression in rats during the life span that may be related to susceptibility to such adverse effects. However, the underlying mechanisms of the gene expression changes were not fully understood. In recent years, increasing evidence for epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation has fueled interest in the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in toxicogenomics and biomarker discovery. We therefore proposed that significant age and sex differences exist in baseline liver miRNA expression, and that comprehensive profiling of miRNAs will provide insights into the epigenetic regulation of gene expression in rat liver. To address this, liver tissues from male and female F344 rats were examined at 2, 5, 6, 8, 15, 21, 52, 78, and 104 weeks of age for the expression of 677 unique miRNAs. Following data processing, predictive pathway analysis was performed on selected miRNAs that exhibited prominent age and/or sex differences in expression. Of the 314 miRNAs found to be expressed, 214 were differentially expressed; 65 and 212 miRNAs showed significant (false discovery rate (FDR) sex- and age-related differences in expression, respectively. Thirty-eight miRNAs showed 2-week-specific expression, of which 31 miRNAs were found to be encoded within the Dlk1-Dio3 cluster located on chromosome 6. This cluster has been associated with tissue proliferation and differentiation, and liver energy homeostasis in postnatal development. Predictive pathway analysis linked sex-biased miRNA expression with sexually dimorphic molecular functions and toxicological functions that may reflect sex differences in hepatic physiology and disease. The expression of miRNAs (miR-18a, miR-99a, and miR-203, miR-451) was also found to associate with specific

  1. Prerequisites and driving forces behind an extended working life among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovbrandt, Pia; Håkansson, Carita; Albin, Maria; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2017-11-28

    Reforms are changing pension systems in many European countries, in order to both restrict early retirement and force people to extend their working life. From occupational therapy and occupational science perspectives, studies focusing on aspects of working life that motivate the older worker is urgent. The aim was to describe incentives behind an extended working life among people over age 65. Focus group methodology was used, with participants ages 66-71, from varying work fields: construction and technical companies and the municipal elderly care sector. Work was considered important and valuable to the degree of how challenging work was, the possibilities for inclusion in a team of colleagues and the chances for better personal finances. Amongst all, the participants expressed a feeling of a strengthened identity by being challenged and having the opportunity to manage working tasks. The finding showed the actual reasons behind an extended working life among older workers. However, a risk of rising social inequity may appear with increased working life if older people are forced to extend their working life due to a difficult financial situation as a pensioner. A variety of retirement options and initiatives in order to support older workers are justified.

  2. Differential longitudinal changes in cortical thickness, surface area and volume across the adult life span: regions of accelerating and decelerating change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storsve, Andreas B; Fjell, Anders M; Tamnes, Christian K; Westlye, Lars T; Overbye, Knut; Aasland, Hilde W; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2014-06-18

    Human cortical thickness and surface area are genetically independent, emerge through different neurobiological events during development, and are sensitive to different clinical conditions. However, the relationship between changes in the two over time is unknown. Additionally, longitudinal studies have almost invariably been restricted to older adults, precluding the delineation of adult life span trajectories of change in cortical structure. In this longitudinal study, we investigated changes in cortical thickness, surface area, and volume after an average interval of 3.6 years in 207 well screened healthy adults aged 23-87 years. We hypothesized that the relationships among metrics are dynamic across the life span, that the primary contributor to cortical volume reductions in aging is cortical thinning, and that magnitude of change varies with age and region. Changes over time were seen in cortical area (mean annual percentage change [APC], -0.19), thickness (APC, -0.35), and volume (APC, -0.51) in most regions. Volume changes were primarily explained by changes in thickness rather than area. A negative relationship between change in thickness and surface area was found across several regions, where more thinning was associated with less decrease in area, and vice versa. Accelerating changes with increasing age was seen in temporal and occipital cortices. In contrast, decelerating changes were seen in prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In conclusion, a dynamic relationship between cortical thickness and surface area changes exists throughout the adult life span. The mixture of accelerating and decelerating changes further demonstrates the importance of studying these metrics across the entire adult life span. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/348488-11$15.00/0.

  3. Cross-cultural and cross-temporal explanations of drinking behavior: contributions from epidemiology, life-span developmental psychology and the sociology of aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartka, E; Fillmore, K M

    1989-12-01

    A review is presented of the contributions to understanding historical and cultural variation in drinking practices from three disciplines--epidemiology, life-span developmental psychology and the sociology of aging. It is concluded that while these disciplines have made major methodological contributions to understanding these variations, theory is lacking. Reasons for the paucity of theory and the lack of hypotheses are advanced, as are frameworks in which to test competitive hypotheses across temporal and cultural boundaries.

  4. 'He has a life, a soul, a meaning that extends far deeper than his ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'He has a life, a soul, a meaning that extends far deeper than his medical assessment … .': The role of reflective diaries ... Guided content analysis, using a framework compiled from the literature, was used to code the data. The coding ... Forty-eight portfolios with reflective diaries were available for analysis. Data saturation ...

  5. An extended family suddenly confronted with a life-threatening hereditary arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, K.S.W.H.; Van Langen, I.M.; Van Tintelen, J.P.; Grosfeld, F.J.M.; Wilde, A.A.M.; Ten Kroode, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This exploratory study serves to illustrate the psychological impact on an extended family in the process of genetic counselling and testing for a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia, the long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Method. All members of the third generation and their partners (n=11)

  6. An extended family suddenly confronted with a life-threatening hereditary arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, K. S. W. H.; van Langen, I. M.; van Tintelen, J. P.; Grosfeld, F. J. M.; Wilde, A. A. M.; ten Kroode, H. F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study serves to illustrate the psychological impact on an extended family in the process of genetic counselling and testing for a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia, the long-QT syndrome (LQTS). All members of the third generation and their partners (n=11) were interviewed, the

  7. Extending the economic life of the Ogallala Aquifer with water conservation policies in the Texas panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continued decline in the availability of water from the Ogallala Aquifer in the Texas Panhandle has led to an increased interest in conservation policies designed to extend the life of the aquifer and sustain rural economies. Four counties were chosen for evaluation. This study evaluates the eff...

  8. Life History Traits of an Extended Longevity Phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepashree, S; Shivanandappa, T; Ramesh, S R

    2017-01-01

    Aging or senescence is a complex biological phenomenon. Artificially selected Drosophila for extended longevity is one of the experimental models used to understand the mechanisms involved in aging and to test various theories. To examine the life history traits and biochemical defenses in relation to aging in an extended longevity phenotype of Drosophila melanogaster. Life history traits viz., survivability, fecundity, development time, dry weight, wing size, lipid content, starvation, desiccation and cold resistances, locomotory ability, antioxidant enzyme activities and reactive oxygen species level between control and selected lines of D. melanogaster were investigated. In our model of Drosophila, extended longevity is associated with no trade-off in fecundity and shows variable resistance to environmental stress such as starvation, cold and desiccation. Enhanced biochemical defense involving the antioxidant enzymes was positively correlated with longevity. Extended longevity phenotypes of Drosophila represent genomic plasticity associated with variable life history traits attributed to the genetic background of the progenitor population and the environment of selection. Oxidative stress resistance seems to be a significant factor in longevity. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Antioxidant Capacity of “Mexican Arnica” Heterotheca inuloides Cass Natural Products and Some Derivatives: Their Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation and Effect on C. elegans Life Span

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Rodríguez-Chávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that the accumulation of biomolecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS contributes to aging. The antioxidant activity is related to the ability of certain compounds to protect against the potentially harmful effect of processes or reactions involving ROS. This ability is associated with the termination of free radical propagation in biological systems. From Heterotheca inuloides various compounds which have shown to possess antioxidant capacity and scavenging ROS. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of additional natural components isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives, their anti-inflammatory activity and the effect on Caenorhabditis elegans nematode life span. Compounds showed ability to inhibit various biological processes such as lipid peroxidation, scavenge nonbiological important oxidants such as 1O2, OH∙, H2O2, and HOCl and scavenge non biological stable free radicals (DPPH. Some cadinane type compounds showed possess antioxidant, ROS scavenging capacity, anti-inflammatory activity, and effect on the C. elegans life span. Flavonoid type compounds increased the life of the nematode and quercetin was identified as the compound with the greatest activity. The modification of chemical structure led to a change in the antioxidant capacity, the anti-inflammatory activity, and the survival of the worm.

  10. Antioxidant capacity of "Mexican arnica" Heterotheca inuloides Cass natural products and some derivatives: their anti-inflammatory evaluation and effect on C. elegans life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Chávez, José Luis; Coballase-Urrutia, Elvia; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Delgado-Lamas, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the accumulation of biomolecular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to aging. The antioxidant activity is related to the ability of certain compounds to protect against the potentially harmful effect of processes or reactions involving ROS. This ability is associated with the termination of free radical propagation in biological systems. From Heterotheca inuloides various compounds which have shown to possess antioxidant capacity and scavenging ROS. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant capacity of additional natural components isolated from H. inuloides and some semisynthetic derivatives, their anti-inflammatory activity and the effect on Caenorhabditis elegans nematode life span. Compounds showed ability to inhibit various biological processes such as lipid peroxidation, scavenge nonbiological important oxidants such as (1)O2, OH(∙), H2O2, and HOCl and scavenge non biological stable free radicals (DPPH). Some cadinane type compounds showed possess antioxidant, ROS scavenging capacity, anti-inflammatory activity, and effect on the C. elegans life span. Flavonoid type compounds increased the life of the nematode and quercetin was identified as the compound with the greatest activity. The modification of chemical structure led to a change in the antioxidant capacity, the anti-inflammatory activity, and the survival of the worm.

  11. Caloric Restriction and Healthy Life Span: Frail Phenotype of Nonhuman Primates in the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center Caloric Restriction Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Weindruch, Richard; Anderson, Rozalyn M; Schoeller, Dale A; Colman, Ricki J

    2017-04-08

    Calorie restriction without malnutrition increases longevity and delays the onset of age-associated disorders in multiple species. Recently, greater emphasis has been placed on healthy life span and preventing frailty than on longevity. Here, we show the beneficial effect of long-term calorie restriction on frailty in later life in a nonhuman primate. Frail phenotypes were evaluated using metabolic and physical activity data and defined using the Fried index. Shrinking was defined as unintentional weight loss of greater than 5% of body weight. Weakness was indicated by decline in high intensity spontaneous physical activity. Poor endurance or exhaustion was indicated by a reduction in energy efficiency of movements. Slowness was indicated by physical activity counts in the morning. Low physical activity level was measured by total energy expenditure using doubly labeled water divided by sleeping metabolic rate. Weakness, poor endurance, slowness, and low physical activity level were significantly higher in control compared with calorie restriction (p primates, and using these criteria, showed that calorie restriction reduces the incidence of frailty and increases healthy life span in nonhuman primates. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Adult Exposure to Bt Toxin Cry1Ac Reduces Life Span and Reproduction of Resistant and Susceptible Pink Bollworm (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Wan, Peng; Cong, Shengbo; Wang, Jintao; Huang, Minsong; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Li, Xianchun; Wu, Kongming

    2016-05-01

    Insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used widely in sprays and transgenic plants to control insect pests. Although much research has elucidated the effects of Bt toxins on larvae, relatively little is known about their effects on adults. Here, we evaluated the effects of exposing adults to Bt toxin Cry1Ac on the life span and reproduction of two strains of pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders)). In larval diet bioassays, the concentration of Cry1Ac killing 50% of larvae (LC 50 ) was 640 times higher for the laboratory-selected resistant strain (AZP-R) than the susceptible strain (APHIS-S). In experiments with adults, the highest concentrations of Cry1Ac tested (160 and 640 µg Cry1Ac per ml of 5% honey water) reduced life span for both strains. Treatments with 10, 40, and 160 µg Cry1Ac per ml reduced the duration of the oviposition period as well as the number of eggs laid by both strains, but did not affect the percentage of pairs producing eggs, the duration of the preoviposition period, or the percentage of eggs hatching for either strain. Adult life span did not differ between strains at low to moderate concentrations of Cry1Ac, but it was significantly greater for the resistant strain than the susceptible strain at the two highest concentrations of Cry1Ac tested. The reduced susceptibility to high concentrations of Cry1Ac in adults of the AZP-R strain relative to the APHIS-S strain provides the first evidence of expression of resistance to a Bt toxin in adult Lepidoptera. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Effect of coenzyme Q10 intake on endogenous coenzyme Q content, mitochondrial electron transport chain, antioxidative defenses, and life span of mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohal, Rajindar S.; Kamzalov, Sergey; Sumien, Nathalie; Ferguson, Melissa; Rebrin, Igor; Heinrich, Kevin R.; Forster, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine whether intake of coenzyme Q10, which can potentially act as both an antioxidant and a prooxidant, has an impact on indicators of oxidative stress and the aging process. Mice were fed diets providing daily supplements of 0, 93, or 371 mg CoQ10 /kg body weight, starting at 3.5 months of age. Effects on mitochondrial superoxide generation, activities of oxidoreductases, protein oxidative damage, glutathione redox state, and life span of male mice were determined. Amounts of CoQ9 and CoQ10, measured after 3.5 or 17.5 months of intake, in homogenates and mitochondria of liver, heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and brain increased with the dosage and duration of CoQ10 intake in all the tissues except brain. Activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain oxidoreductases, rates of mitochondrial O2−· generation, state 3 respiration, carbonyl content, glutathione redox state of tissues, and activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, determined at 19 or 25 months of age, were unaffected by CoQ10 administration. Life span studies, conducted on 50 mice in each group, showed that CoQ10 administration had no effect on mortality. Altogether, the results indicated that contrary to the historical view, supplemental intake of CoQ10 elevates the endogenous content of both CoQ9 and CoQ10, but has no discernable effect on the main antioxidant defenses or prooxidant generation in most tissues, and has no impact on the life span of mice. PMID:16443163

  14. Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown and polyphenol gallic acid increase life span and locomotor activity in a Drosophila Parkinson's disease model

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Flavio Ortega-Arellano; Marlene Jimenez-Del-Rio; Carlos Velez-Pardo

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism(s) by which dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons are eroded in Parkinson's disease (PD) is critical for effective therapeutic strategies. By using the binary tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-Gal4/UAS-X RNAi Drosophila melanogaster system, we report that Dmp53, basket and drICE gene knockdown in dopaminergic neurons prolong life span (p < 0.05; log-rank test) and locomotor activity (p < 0.05; χ² test) in D. melanogaster lines chronically exposed to (1 mM) paraquat (PQ, oxid...

  15. "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies": Correction to Hubbard et al. (2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Reports an error in "A general benevolence dimension that links neural, psychological, economic, and life-span data on altruistic tendencies" by Jason Hubbard, William T. Harbaugh, Sanjay Srivastava, David Degras and Ulrich Mayr (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Advanced Online Publication, Aug 11, 2016, np). In the article, there was an error in the Task, Stimuli, and Procedures section. In the 1st sentence in the 6th paragraph, “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires meant to reflected the Prosocial Disposition construct: the agreeableness scale from the Big F, which includes empathic concern and perspective-taking, and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” should have read: “Following the scanning phase, participants completed self-report questionnaires that contained scales to reflect the Prosocial Disposition construct: the Big Five Inventory (BFI; John et al., 1991), from which we used the agreeableness scale to measure prosocial disposition; the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980), from which we used the empathic concern and perspective-taking scales; and a scale of personality descriptive adjectives related to altruistic behavior (Wood, Nye, & Saucier, 2010).” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-39037-001.) Individual and life span differences in charitable giving are an important economic force, yet the underlying motives are not well understood. In an adult, life span sample, we assessed manifestations of prosocial tendencies across 3 different measurement domains: (a) psychological self-report measures, (b) actual giving choices, and (c) fMRI-derived, neural indicators of “pure altruism.” The latter expressed individuals’ activity in neural valuation areas when charities received money compared to when oneself received money and thus reflected an altruistic concern for

  16. Fuzzy Life-Extending Control of Anti-Lock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Garhy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The repeated operation of the Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS causes accumulation of structural damages in its different subsystems leading to reduction in their functional life time. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Logic based Life-Extending Control (FLEC system for increasing the service life of the ABS. FLEC achieves significant improvement in service life by the trade-off between satisfactory dynamic performance and safe operation. The proposed FLEC incorporates structural damage model of the ABS. The model utilizes the dynamic behavior of the ABS and predicts the wear rates of the brake pads/disc. Based on the predicted wear rates, the proposed fuzzy logic controller modifies its control strategy on-line to keep safe operation leading to increase in service time of the ABS. FLEC is fine tuned via genetic algorithm and its effectiveness is verified through simulations of emergency stops of a passenger vehicle model.

  17. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Food Life Extenders and Temperature on the Shelf Life of Ready-Made Dishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun; Maenishi, Takuya; Saito, Yuki; Masuda, Toshiro; Kadotani, Naoki; Kozakai, Hiroshi; Ito, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    The combined effect of several microbial control factors including gas barrier of containers, modified atmosphere packaging, food life extenders and storage temperature was discussed in order to determine the possibility for improving the shelf life for hamburger steak and deepfried chicken, representative ready-made dishes sold at convenience stores in Japan. Multiple measures including cold storage were effective in improving the shelf life of ready-made dishes. It was also suggested that storage tests for ready-made dishes should be conducted at 10℃, a practical temperature, to confirm the storable period, as well as at 15℃, an adequate abuse temperature, to confirm the effects of various microbial control factors. In the present study, the test group 4 (nitrogen + barrier containers + pH modifier) performed most favorably at both temperatures, indicating the efficacy of multiple means including "cold storage" in improving the shelf life (extending the consume-by date) of ready-made dishes. All strains isolated from the tested hamburger steak and deep-fried chicken were common food contaminant bacterial species.

  18. Utilization of electroactive polymer actuators in micromixing and in extended-life biosensor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Vinh; Shimada, Mark; Szeto, David; Casadevall i Solvas, Xavier; Scott, Daniel; Dolci, Luisa Stella; Kulinsky, Lawrence; Daunert, Sylvia; Madou, Marc

    2010-04-01

    Polypyrrole (PPy)-based microactuators hold a promise for a wide variety of engineering applications from robotics and microassembly to biosensors and drug delivery systems. The main advantages of using PPy/Au actuator structures (vs competing solid-state actuator technologies) include ease of fabrication, low actuation energy, and large motion range of microactuators. We present advances in two areas of application - in the extended-life biosensor platform and in micromixers.

  19. Serviceability modeling : predicting and extending the useful service life of FRT-plywood roof sheathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2000-01-01

    One of the most, if not the most, efficient methods of extending our existing forest resource is to prolong the service life of wood currently in-service by using those existing structures to meet our future needs (Hamilton and Winandy 1998). It is currently estimated that over 7 x 109 m3 (3 trillion bd. ft) of wood is currently in service within the United States of...

  20. How a Mutation that Slows Aging Can Also Disproportionately Extend End-of-Life Decrepitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Podshivalova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The goal of aging research is to extend healthy, active life. For decades, C. elegans daf-2 insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 receptor mutants have served as a model for extended lifespan and youthfulness. However, a recent report suggested that their longevity is associated with an undesirable phenotype: a disproportionately long period of decrepitude at the end of life. In the human population, such an outcome would be a burden to society, bringing into question the relevance of daf-2 mutants as a model for life extension. However, here we report that, following an extended period of movement, daf-2 mutants survive longer in a decrepit state because of a beneficial trait: they are resistant to colonization of the digestive tract by dietary bacteria, a condition that leads to premature death in the wild-type and prevents their manifestation of decrepitude. If bacterial colonization is prevented, then daf-2 mutants lead both chronologically and proportionately healthier lives relative to the wild-type.

  1. Direct and Indirect Gene Regulation by a Life-Extending FOXO Protein in C. elegans: Roles for GATA Factors and Lipid Gene Regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peichuan; Judy, Meredith; Lee, Seung-Jae; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In long-lived C. elegans insulin/IGF-1 pathway mutants, the life-extending FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 is present throughout the animal, but we find that its activity in a single tissue can delay the aging of other tissues and extend the animal’s life span. To better understand the topography of DAF-16 action among the tissues, we analyzed a collection of DAF-16-regulated genes. DAF-16 regulated most of these genes in a cell-autonomous fashion, often using tissue-specific GATA factors to direct their expression to specific tissues. DAF-16 could also act cell nonautonomously to influence gene expression. DAF-16 affected gene expression in other cells, at least in part, via the lipid-gene regulator MDT-15. DAF-16, and probably MDT-15, could act cell non-autonomously in the endoderm to ameliorate the paralysis caused by expressing Alzheimer’s Aβ protein in muscles. These findings suggest that MDT-15-dependent intercellular signals, possibly lipid signals, can help to coordinate tissue physiology, enhance proteostasis, and extend life in response to DAF-16/FOXO activity. PMID:23312285

  2. Life span and locomotor activity modification by glucose and polyphenols in Drosophila melanogaster chronically exposed to oxidative stress-stimuli: implications in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Arellano, Hector Flavio; Jimenez-Del-Rio, Marlene; Velez-Pardo, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyphenols might be potent neuroprotective agents in Drosophila melanogaster, a valid model for PD, acutely treated with oxidative stress-stimulants. This study report for the first time that polyphenols exposure prolong life span (P climbing capability, P climbing in Drosophila exposed to iron, PQ or in combination, suggesting that both stimuli enhance a movement disorder in a concentration-dependent and temporal-related fashion. Moreover, chronic exposure of (1 mM) PQ/(0.5 mM) iron synergistically affect both survival and locomotor function independently of the temporal order of the exposure to the toxicants, but the survival is modulated in a concentration and temporal fashion by glucose. This investigation is the first to report that Ddc-GAL4 transgenic flies chronically fed with polyphenols increase life span (P < 0.05 by log-rang test) and enhance movement abilities (P < 0.05 by χ(2) test) compared to untreated Ddc-GAL4 or treated with paraquat in 1% glucose. Our present findings support the notion that Drosophila melanogaster might be a suitable model to study genetic, environmental and nutritional factors as causal and/or modulators in the development of PD. Most importantly, according to our model, we have demonstrated for the first time chronic polyphenols exposure as potential therapeutic compounds in the treatment of PD. These findings altogether open new avenues for the screening, testing and development of novel antioxidant drugs against oxidative stress stimuli.

  3. Adult-specific over-expression of the Drosophila genes magu and hebe increases life span and modulates late-age female fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yishi; Tower, John

    2009-02-01

    During Drosophila aging mortality rate increases exponentially and progeny production per animal declines dramatically, correlating with decreased number and division of somatic and germ-line stem cells in the gonads. To search for genes that might promote both longevity and fecundity, a P element transposon (PdL), containing an outwardly directed, doxycycline-inducible promoter was used to generate conditional mutations. Mutant females were screened for increased fecundity at late ages in the presence of doxycycline. Two genes were identified, named hebe (CG1623) and magu (CG2264), that when over-expressed in adult flies could increase life span by approximately 5-30% in both sexes and increase female fecundity at late ages. Transcripts for magu are enriched in the Drosophila stem cell niche region, and magu encodes a protein related to the human SMOC2 regulator of angiogenesis. While moderate over-expression of magu in adult females increased fecundity at late ages, high-level over-expression of magu was maternal-effect lethal. The data demonstrate that adult-specific over-expression of hebe and magu can increase life span and modulate female fecundity, and provide further evidence against obligatory trade-offs between reproduction and longevity.

  4. Booster immunizations with DNA plasmids encoding HER-2/neu prevent spontaneous mammary cancer in HER-2/neu transgenic mice over life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provinciali, Mauro; Barucca, Alessandra; Orlando, Fiorenza; Pierpaoli, Elisa

    2017-06-08

    Cancer vaccines are less effective at old than at young age because of immunosenescence. Besides, in preliminary observations we showed that the immunization with HER-2/neu DNA plasmid in transgenic young mice (standard immunization, SI) delays but not abrogate spontaneous mammary tumours progressively appearing during aging. In this study we evaluated whether booster immunizations (BI) of HER-2/neu transgenic mice with HER-2/neu DNA plasmids every 6 (ECD6), 3 (ECD3), or 1.5 (ECD1.5) months after SI induce a protective immunity that could be maintained over life span. The long term BI significantly improved the effect of SI increasing the number of tumour free mice at 110 weeks of age from 13% (SI) to 58% (BI). Both the number and the volume of tumour masses were reduced in BI than in SI groups. The protective effect of BI was associated with increased antibody production with isotype switching to IgG2a, augmented CD4 T cells, and increased in vivo cytotoxicity of HER-2/neu specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, mainly in ECD1.5 and ECD3 groups. The transfer of sera from ECD1.5 mice to untreated HER-2/neu mice highly protected against tumour development than sera from SI mice. We conclude that BI induce a protective immunity effective over life span.

  5. Preserving syntactic processing across the adult life span: the modulation of the frontotemporal language system in the context of age-related atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Shafto, Meredith A; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-02-01

    Although widespread neural atrophy is an inevitable consequence of normal aging, not all cognitive abilities decline as we age. For example, spoken language comprehension tends to be preserved, despite atrophy in neural regions involved in language function. Here, we combined measures of behavior, functional activation, and gray matter (GM) change in a younger (19-34 years) and older group (49-86 years) of participants to identify the mechanisms leading to preserved language comprehension across the adult life span. We focussed primarily on syntactic functions because these are strongly left lateralized, providing the potential for contralateral recruitment. In an functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we used a word-monitoring task to minimize working memory demands, manipulating the availability of semantics and syntax to ask whether syntax is preserved in aging because of the functional recruitment of other brain regions, which successfully compensate for neural atrophy. Performance in the older group was preserved despite GM loss. This preservation was related to increased activity in right hemisphere frontotemporal regions, which was associated with age-related atrophy in the left hemisphere frontotemporal network activated in the young. We argue that preserved syntactic processing across the life span is due to the shift from a primarily left hemisphere frontotemporal system to a bilateral functional language network.

  6. Changing Paradigm of Hemophilia Management: Extended Half-Life Factor Concentrates and Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Riten; Dunn, Amy; Carcao, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    Management of hemophilia has evolved significantly in the last century-from recognition of the causative mechanism in the 1950s to commercially available clotting factor concentrates in the 1960s. Availability of lyophilized concentrates in the 1970s set the stage for home-based therapy, followed by introduction of virally attenuated plasma-derived, and then recombinant factor concentrates in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. The subsequent years saw a paradigm shift in treatment goals from on-demand therapy to prophylactic factor replacement starting at an early age, to prevent hemarthrosis becoming the standard of care for patients with severe hemophilia. In the developed world, the increasing use of home-based prophylactic regimens has significantly improved the quality of life, and life expectancy of patients with severe hemophilia. Seminal developments in the past 5 years, including the commercial availability of extended half-life factor concentrates and the publication of successful results of gene therapy for patients with hemophilia B, promise to further revolutionize hemophilia care over the next few decades. In this review, we summarize the evolution of management for hemophilia, with a focus on extended half-life factor concentrates and gene therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgaard, P; Garcia Munoz, L; Mejlholm, O

    1998-09-01

    Inhibition of the specific spoilage organism, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied in model substrates and in modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets. The objective was to determine how inhibition of this organism influenced spoilage. The spoilage reactions limiting shelf life were studied rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na2CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degree C. In aerobically stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions limited shelf life. These results confirmed P. phosphoreum as the specific spoilage organism in modified-atmosphere-packed cod and showed the organism to have an extensive spoilage domain. Consequently, any preservation procedure able to reduce growth of P. phosphoreum is likely to extend shelf life of packed cod. However, the effect of different inhibitory compounds in model systems as well as results from packed cod indicated the need to include product studies in the screening of antimicrobials and in the development of preservation procedures.

  8. Sex, age, and cognitive correlates of asymmetries in thickness of the cortical mantle across the life span

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plessen, Kerstin J; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Bansal, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    lateral, dorsal, and mesial surfaces of the frontal lobe, extending into primary sensory, superior parietal, and anterior superior temporal cortices. A right > left asymmetry was present in the lateral, mesial, and dorsal surfaces of the posterior temporal, parietal, and occipital cortices, as well...... scattered along the mesial surface of the brain. Age significantly moderated asymmetry measures in the inferior sensorimotor, inferior parietal, posterior temporal, and inferior occipital cortices. The age × asymmetry interaction derived from a steeper decline in cortical thickness with age in the right......We assessed the correlations of age, sex, and cognitive performance with measures of asymmetry in cortical thickness on high-resolution MRIs in 215 healthy human children and adults, 7-59 years of age. A left > right asymmetry in thickness of the cortical mantle was present throughout the entire...

  9. Quality of life factors and survival after total or extended maxillectomy for sinonasal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James; Isaiah, Amal; Wolf, Jeffrey S; Lubek, Joshua E

    2015-04-01

    Total and extended maxillectomy results in significant morbidity that can have an effect on quality of life factors. Modern reconstructive techniques have ameliorated this effect, but they have not been quantified. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of life factors and survival of patients undergoing total or extended maxillectomy for malignant disease. A retrospective study was performed of all patients who had undergone total or extended maxillectomy at a tertiary care cancer center from January 2008 to May 2013. The minimum follow-up period was 6 months. The quality of life factors analyzed included swallowing function and diet consistency, pain control, and postoperative complications. A total of 25 patients (13 women and 12 men) met the inclusion criteria. Using the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, 76% of the patients had stage IV disease. Of the 25 patients, 13 received a free tissue transfer, 11 an obturator flap, and 1 a regional flap. None of the patients with a free tissue transfer experienced failure. The tumor size had no systemic influence on the reconstructive method chosen (P = .32 to P = .98). The median follow-up period was 41 weeks (range 24 to 252). One death was recorded, and 10 patients were lost to follow-up. Eleven patients progressed to a regular diet. Fifteen patients required a tracheostomy, and all were decannulated at a mean of 14 days postoperatively. One patient had dental implants placed. The type of reconstruction did not influence swallowing function (P = .49) or long-term pain (P = .38). The mean pain score was 4.9 ± 2.7. Pain management proved difficult in 7 patients. Also, 6 patients developed a surgical site infection, 3 of whom required a return to the operating room. Seven patients were readmitted to the hospital for complications; however, the reconstructive method did not influence the incidence of complications (P = .64). The inevitable morbidity, with respect to quality

  10. Ethylene Control Technologies in Extending Postharvest Shelf Life of Climacteric Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Cheng, Dong; Wang, Baobin; Khan, Iqbal; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-08-30

    Fresh fruit is important for a healthy diet. However, because of their seasonal production, regional specific cultivation, and perishable nature, it is essential to develop preservation technologies to extend the postharvest shelf life of fresh fruits. Climacteric fruit adopt spoilage because of ethylene, a key hormone associated with the ripening process. Therefore, controlling ethylene activity by following safe and effective approaches is a key to extend the postharvest shelf life of fruit. In this review, ethylene control technologies will be discussed aiming for the need of developing more innovative and effective approaches. The biosynthesis pathway will be given first. Then, the technologies determining the postharvest shelf life of climacteric fruit will be described with special attention to the latest and significant published works in this field. Special attention is given to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which is effective in fruit preservation technologies. Finally, the encapsulation technology to improve the stability of 1-MCP will be proposed, using a potential encapsulation agent of 1-MCP, calixarene.

  11. Mice Deficient in the Putative Phospholipid Flippase ATP11C Exhibit Altered Erythrocyte Shape, Anemia, and Reduced Erythrocyte Life Span*♦

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabas, Mehmet; Coupland, Lucy A.; Cromer, Deborah; Winterberg, Markus; Teoh, Narci C.; D'Rozario, James; Kirk, Kiaran; Bröer, Stefan; Parish, Christopher R.; Enders, Anselm

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane lipid transporters are believed to establish and maintain phospholipid asymmetry in biological membranes; however, little is known about the in vivo function of the specific transporters involved. Here, we report that developing erythrocytes from mice lacking the putative phosphatidylserine flippase ATP11C showed a lower rate of PS translocation in vitro compared with erythrocytes from wild-type littermates. Furthermore, the mutant mice had an elevated percentage of phosphatidylserine-exposing mature erythrocytes in the periphery. Although erythrocyte development in ATP11C-deficient mice was normal, the mature erythrocytes had an abnormal shape (stomatocytosis), and the life span of mature erythrocytes was shortened relative to that in control littermates, resulting in anemia in the mutant mice. Thus, our findings uncover an essential role for ATP11C in erythrocyte morphology and survival and provide a new candidate for the rare inherited blood disorder stomatocytosis with uncompensated anemia. PMID:24898253

  12. Performance Characterization of a Microchannel Liquid/Liquid Heat Exchanger Throughout an Extended Duration Life Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Rubik B.; Stephan, Ryan A.; Hawkins-Reynolds Ebony

    2011-01-01

    Liquid/Liquid Heat Exchangers (L/L HX) are an integral portion of any spacecraft active thermal control system. For this study the X-38 L/L HX was used as a baseline. As detailed in a previous ICES manuscript, NASA paired with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop a Microchannel L/L HX (MHX). This microchannel HX was designed to meet the same performance characteristics as the aforementioned X-38 HX. The as designed Microchannel HX has a 26% and 60% reduction in mass and volume, respectively. Due to the inherently smaller flow passages the design team was concerned about fouling affecting performance during extended missions. To address this concern, NASA has developed a test stand and is currently performing an 18 month life test on the MHX. This report will detail the up-to-date performance of the MHX during life testing.

  13. Microbial biodiversity, quality and shelf life of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk from Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Verena S J; Kaufmann, Veronika; Kulozik, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2012-03-01

    Information on factors limiting the shelf life of extended shelf life (ESL) milk produced by microfiltration and subsequent pasteurization is very limited. In this study, three different batches of ESL milk were analyzed at different stages of the production process and during storage at 4 °C, 8 °C and 10 °C in order to evaluate the changes in bacterial cell counts, microbial diversity and enzymatic quality. Additionally, detailed biodiversity analyses of 250 retail ESL milk packages produced by five manufacturers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were performed at the end of shelf life. It was observed that microfiltration decreased the microbial loads by 5-6 log₁₀ units to lower than 1 CFU/mL. However, bacterial counts at the end of shelf life were extremely variable and ranged between microbial counts were well below 6 log₁₀ CFU/mL. Thirteen B. cereus isolates were characterized for their toxin profiles and psychrotolerance. Hbl, nhe, and cytK toxin genes were detected in ten, thirteen, and four isolates, respectively, whereas the ces gene was always absent. Interestingly, only three of the thirteen isolates could be allocated to psychrotolerant genotypes, as indicated by the major cold shock cspA gene signature. Generally, large discrepancies in microbial loads and biodiversity were observed at the end of shelf life, even among packages of the same production batch. We suggest that such unexpected differences may be due to very low cell counts after ESL treatment, causing stochastic variations of initial species distributions in individual packages. This would result in the development of significantly different bacterial populations during cold storage, including the occasional development of high numbers of pathogenic species such as B. cereus or Acinetobacter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  15. Age, Sex, and APOE ε4 Effects on Memory, Brain Structure, and β-Amyloid Across the Adult Life Span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Clifford R; Wiste, Heather J; Weigand, Stephen D; Knopman, David S; Vemuri, Prashanthi; Mielke, Michelle M; Lowe, Val; Senjem, Matthew L; Gunter, Jeffrey L; Machulda, Mary M; Gregg, Brian E; Pankratz, V Shane; Rocca, Walter A; Petersen, Ronald C

    2015-05-01

    Typical cognitive aging may be defined as age-associated changes in cognitive performance in individuals who remain free of dementia. Ideally, the full adult age spectrum should be included to assess brain imaging findings associated with typical aging. To compare age, sex, and APOE ε4 effects on memory, brain structure (adjusted hippocampal volume [HVa]), and amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) in cognitively normal individuals aged 30 to 95 years old. Cross-sectional observational study (March 2006 to October 2014) at an academic medical center. We studied 1246 cognitively normal individuals, including 1209 participants aged 50 to 95 years old enrolled in a population-based study of cognitive aging and 37 self-selected volunteers aged 30 to 49 years old. Memory, HVa, and amyloid PET. Overall, memory worsened from age 30 years through the 90s. The HVa worsened gradually from age 30 years to the mid-60s and more steeply beyond that age. The median amyloid PET was low until age 70 years and increased thereafter. Memory was worse in men than in women overall (P memory performance and HVa were not different by APOE ε4 status at any age. From age 70 years onward, APOE ε4 carriers had significantly greater median amyloid PET than noncarriers. However, the ages at which 10% of the population were amyloid PET positive were 57 years for APOE ε4 carriers and 64 years for noncarriers. Male sex is associated with worse memory and HVa among cognitively normal individuals, while APOE ε4 is not. In contrast, APOE ε4 is associated with greater amyloid PET (from age 70 years onward), while sex is not. Worsening memory and HVa occur at earlier ages than abnormal amyloid PET. Therefore, neuropathological processes other than β-amyloidosis must underlie declines in brain structure and memory function in middle age. Our findings are consistent with a model of late-onset Alzheimer disease in which β-amyloidosis arises in later life on a background of preexisting

  16. Quality of sexual life of women using the contraceptive vaginal ring in extended cycles: preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Salvatore; Cianci, Stefano; Malandrino, Chiara; Cicero, Carla; Lo Presti, Lucia; Cianci, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the quality of the sexual life of healthy women who are using a contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) in extended cycles. Fifty-two women (18 to 32 years old) seeking hormonal contraception were enrolled in this prospective study. Women were to use a CVR releasing daily 15 μg of ethinylestradiol (EE) and 120 μg of etonogestrel (ENG) for 63 days, followed by a four-day hormone-free interval, for two such extended cycles. At baseline and at the first (day 63-73) and second (day 126-134) follow-ups the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were administered to investigate, respectively, sexual behaviour and the quality of life (QoL). The Female Sexual Distress Scale (FSDS) was used to verify whether sexual dysfunction caused significant personal distress to the woman. The FSFI and FSDS scores obtained at the first and second follow-up appointments detected an improvement with respect to the baseline score (p sexual function and the QoL of women.

  17. Are life-extending treatments for terminal illnesses a special case? Exploring choices and societal viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Neil; van Exel, Job; Mason, Helen; Godwin, Jon; Collins, Marissa; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel

    2017-12-16

    Criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values, evidence from preference elicitation studies is mixed and in-depth research has shown there are different societal viewpoints. Few studies elicit preferences for policies directly or combine different approaches to understand preferences. Survey questions were designed to investigate support for NICE EoL guidance at national and regional levels. These 'Decision Rule' and 'Treatment Choice' questions were administered to an online sample of 1496 UK respondents in May 2014. The same respondents answered questions designed to elicit their agreement with three viewpoints (previously identified and described) in relation to provision of EoL treatments for terminally ill patients. We report the findings of these choice questions and examine how they relate to each other and respondents' viewpoints. The Decision Rule questions described three policies: DA - a standard 'value for money' test, applied to all health technologies; DB - giving special consideration to all treatments for terminal illnesses; and DC - giving special consideration to specific categories of treatments for terminal illnesses e.g. life extension (as in NICE EoL guidance) or those that improve quality-of-life (QoL). Three Treatment Choices were presented: TA - improving QoL for patients with a non-terminal illness; TB - extending life for EoL patients; and TC - improving QoL at the EoL. DC received most support (45%) with most respondents giving special consideration to EoL only when treatments improved QoL. The most commonly preferred treatment choices were TA (51%) and TC (43%). Overall, this study challenges claims about public support for NICE's EoL guidance and the focus on life extension at EoL and substantiates

  18. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martí, María L; Ruch, Willibald

    2014-01-01

    Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27-36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37-46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47-57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span.

  19. Character strengths and well-being across the life span: Data from a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa eMartínez Martí

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945. We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27-36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37-46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47-57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span.

  20. Extending the life-cycle of reverse osmosis membranes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho de Paula, Eduardo; Amaral, Míriam Cristina Santos

    2017-05-01

    The reverse osmosis (RO) technology for desalination and demineralization serves the global water crisis context, both technically and economically, and its market is growing. However, RO membranes have a limited life-cycle and are often disposed of in landfills. The impacts caused by the disposal of thousands of tonnes per annum of RO membranes have grown dramatically around the world. Waste prevention should have a high priority and take effect before the end-of-life phase of a product is reached. In this review, a summary is presented of the main advances in the performance of the RO technology and the membrane lifespan. Afterwards, this paper reviews the most important relevant literature and summarizes the key findings of the research on reusing and recycling the discarded modules for the purpose of extending the life-cycle of the RO membranes. In addtion, there are some recent researches that indicated recycling RO membranes for use by the microfiltration or ultrafiltration separation processes is a promising solution to the disposal problem. However, there are many gaps and differences in procedures and results. This article also discusses and brings to light key parameters involved and controversies about oxidative treatment of discarded RO membranes.

  1. Cryonics suspension – debating life finitude, extending time capital and cancelling death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mara Stan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the anti-death movement inside the life extension paradigm and its social implications in terms of enhanced permeability of life-death boundaries, by reconciling mysticism, theology, technology and scientific innovation. It analyses current debates, the transmission of polemic information over extreme life extension by cryogenic suspension through vernacular knowledge. Ethical, scientific, financial and spiritual controversies come into consideration, as pro and counter-arguments emerge from ongoing debates investigated by netnography of themed blogs and forums. Digital platforms facilitate in-depth access to beliefs and attitudes expressed in relationship to continuity of stream of consciousness across the projected post-self project. The study calls for the questioning of agency and performativity in the context of transcending time dynamics and achieving biological and chronological time suspension. Solutions for extending longevity are explored in terms of critical reflection as to providers’ market, financial impact (e.g. creation of new niche products such as afterlife insurance to cover expenses of cryogenic suspension or fundraising for cryo-preserving young persons who died tragically and relocating the burden of proof in arguing whether human cryonics is potentially viable in the future. It brings a new perspective on the traceability and sustainability of time capital (Preda, 2013, while discussing the impact of the belief that death is ultimately curable and avoidable, by future medical progress and overall scientific and technological advancement.

  2. Life span in online communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users’ activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users’ lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation.

  3. Effects of Grape Skin Extract on Age-Related Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Memory and Life Span in C57BL/6J Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asseburg, Heike; Schäfer, Carmina; Müller, Madeleine; Hagl, Stephanie; Pohland, Maximilian; Berressem, Dirk; Borchiellini, Marta; Plank, Christina; Eckert, Gunter P

    2016-09-01

    Dementia contributes substantially to the burden of disability experienced at old age, and mitochondrial dysfunction (MD) was identified as common final pathway in brain aging and Alzheimer's disease. Due to its early appearance, MD is a promising target for nutritional prevention strategies and polyphenols as potential neurohormetic inducers may be strong neuroprotective candidates. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a polyphenol-rich grape skin extract (PGE) on age-related dysfunctions of brain mitochondria, memory, life span and potential hormetic pathways in C57BL/6J mice. PGE was administered at a dose of 200 mg/kg body weight/d in a 3-week short-term, 6-month long-term and life-long study. MD in the brains of aged mice (19-22 months old) compared to young mice (3 months old) was demonstrated by lower ATP levels and by impaired mitochondrial respiratory complex activity (except for mice treated with antioxidant-depleted food pellets). Long-term PGE feeding partly enhanced brain mitochondrial respiration with only minor beneficial effect on brain ATP levels and memory of aged mice. Life-long PGE feeding led to a transient but significant shift of survival curve toward higher survival rates but without effect on the overall survival. The moderate effects of PGE were associated with elevated SIRT1 but not SIRT3 mRNA expressions in brain and liver tissue. The beneficial effects of the grape extract may have been influenced by the profile of bioavailable polyphenols and the starting point of interventions.

  4. How add-on solutions can extend the life of static OADMs and protect carrier investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queller, Abe; Kronenthal, Guy

    2004-10-01

    While most OADM systems deployed today are static, carriers offering new wavelength services, are looking for ways to migrate towards reconfigurable OADM and dynamically reconfigurable OADM. ROADMs allow carriers to automate service provisioning, wavelength management and failsafe mechanisms, thereby eliminating slow, costly and error-prone manual network configuration. And although next-generation systems offer this flexibility as an integral part of their architecture, carriers must protect their existing investment, extending the life of their existing networks. This article examines the use of add-on optical switching systems, as a cost- and time-effective means for upgrading legacy networks. Two examples are given. In the first, a static OADM is upgraded into a reconfigurable system. The second example shows how existing OADM systems can be upgraded to support dynamic reconfigurability. The article examines also particular advantages of Planar Lightwave Circuits (PLC) for these applications.

  5. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  6. Coevolution of cultural intelligence, extended life history, sociality, and brain size in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Sally E.; Navarrete, Ana F.; Laland, Kevin N.

    2017-01-01

    Explanations for primate brain expansion and the evolution of human cognition and culture remain contentious despite extensive research. While multiple comparative analyses have investigated variation in brain size across primate species, very few have addressed why primates vary in how much they use social learning. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis that the enhanced reliance on socially transmitted behavior observed in some primates has coevolved with enlarged brains, complex sociality, and extended lifespans. Using recently developed phylogenetic comparative methods we show that, across primate species, a measure of social learning proclivity increases with absolute and relative brain volume, longevity (specifically reproductive lifespan), and social group size, correcting for research effort. We also confirm relationships of absolute and relative brain volume with longevity (both juvenile period and reproductive lifespan) and social group size, although longevity is generally the stronger predictor. Relationships between social learning, brain volume, and longevity remain when controlling for maternal investment and are therefore not simply explained as a by-product of the generally slower life history expected for larger brained species. Our findings suggest that both brain expansion and high reliance on culturally transmitted behavior coevolved with sociality and extended lifespan in primates. This coevolution is consistent with the hypothesis that the evolution of large brains, sociality, and long lifespans has promoted reliance on culture, with reliance on culture in turn driving further increases in brain volume, cognitive abilities, and lifespans in some primate lineages. PMID:28739950

  7. Extending ideas about animal welfare assessment to include 'quality of life' and related concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Mellor, D J

    2011-11-01

    , application of the recently introduced concepts of 'a life not worth living', 'a life worth avoiding', 'a life worth living' and 'a good life' is problematical, because extending the assessment time scale to the whole of life is attended by a number of as yet unresolved difficulties. Accordingly, their value in the practical management of animals is limited so that, at present, reliance on the minimum standards and recommendations for best practice outlined in codes of practice or welfare will continue to be necessary and worthwhile. Nevertheless, these concepts have value in providing a contextual theme that strongly focuses attention on the promotion of a lifelong QoL with an overall balance that is positive.

  8. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modelling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, I. S.; Gowanlock, M. G.

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies of the Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favour the emergence of "complex life" - typically defined to be land-based life. A planet is deemed "habitable" if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. The notion of the GHZ, and the premise that sufficient chemical evolution is required for planet formation, was quantified by Gonzalez et al. (2001). This work was later broadened to include dangers to the formation and habitability of terrestrial planets by Lineweaver et al. (2004) and then studied using a Monte Carlo simulation on the resolution of individual stars in the previous work of Gowanlock et al. (2011). The model developed in the latter work considers the stellar number density distribution and formation history of the Galaxy, planet formation mechanisms and the hazards to planetary biospheres as a result of supernova sterilization events that take place in the vicinity of the planets. Based on timescales taken from the origin and evolution of complex life on Earth, the model suggests large numbers of potentially habitable planets exist in our Galaxy, with the greatest concentration likely being towards the inner Galaxy. In this work we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve on habitable planets to the point of intelligence - which we term the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life. We assume the propensity is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the "resetting" effect of nearby supernovae. The model of Gowanlock et al. (2011) is used to produce a representative population of habitable planets by matching major observable properties of the Milky Way. Account is taken of the birth and death dates of each habitable planet and the timing of supernova events in each planet's vicinity. The times between

  9. Interrupt-Based Step-Counting to Extend Battery Life in an Activity Monitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Young Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most activity monitors use an accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to characterize the wearer’s physical activity. The monitor measures the motion by polling an accelerometer or gyroscope sensor or both every 20–30 ms and frequent polling affects the battery life of a wearable device. One of the key features of a commercial daily-activity monitoring device is longer battery life so that the user can keep track of his or her activity for a week or so without recharging the battery of the monitoring device. Many low-power approaches for a step-counting system use either a polling-based algorithm or an interrupt-based algorithm. In this paper, we propose a novel approach that uses the tap interrupt of an accelerometer to count steps while consuming low power. We compared the accuracy of step counting and measured system-level power consumption to a periodic sensor-reading algorithm. Our tap interrupt approach shows a battery lifetime that is 175% longer than that of a 30 ms polling method without gyroscope. The battery lifetime can be extended up to 863% with a gyroscope by putting both the processor and the gyroscope into sleep state during the majority of operation time.

  10. Loss of Trabid, a new negative regulator of the drosophila immune-deficiency pathway at the level of TAK1, reduces life span.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merennege Dilan Anush Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A relatively unexplored nexus in Drosophila Immune deficiency (IMD pathway is TGF-beta Activating Kinase 1 (TAK1, which triggers both immunity and apoptosis. In a cell culture screen, we identified that Lysine at position 142 was a K63-linked Ubiquitin acceptor site for TAK1, required for signalling. Moreover, Lysine at position 156 functioned as a K48-linked Ubiquitin acceptor site, also necessary for TAK1 activity. The deubiquitinase Trabid interacted with TAK1, reducing immune signalling output and K63-linked ubiquitination. The three tandem Npl4 Zinc Fingers and the catalytic Cysteine at position 518 were required for Trabid activity. Flies deficient for Trabid had a reduced life span due to chronic activation of IMD both systemically as well as in their gut where homeostasis was disrupted. The TAK1-associated Binding Protein 2 (TAB2 was linked with the TAK1-Trabid interaction through its Zinc finger domain that pacified the TAK1 signal. These results indicate an elaborate and multi-tiered mechanism for regulating TAK1 activity and modulating its immune signal.

  11. Neuron-specific knockdown of the Drosophila fat induces reduction of life span, deficient locomotive ability, shortening of motoneuron terminal branches and defects in axonal targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Aya; Tanaka, Ryo; Morishita, Kazushige; Yoshida, Hideki; Higuchi, Yujiro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2017-07-01

    Mutations in FAT4 gene, one of the human FAT family genes, have been identified in Van Maldergem syndrome (VMS) and Hennekam lymphangiectasia-lymphedema syndrome (HS). The FAT4 gene encodes a large protein with extracellular cadherin repeats, EGF-like domains and Laminin G-like domains. FAT4 plays a role in tumor suppression and planar cell polarity. Drosophila contains a human FAT4 homologue, fat. Drosophila fat has been mainly studied with Drosophila eye and wing systems. Here, we specially knocked down Drosophila fat in nerve system. Neuron-specific knockdown of fat shortened the life span and induced the defect in locomotive abilities of adult flies. In consistent with these phenotypes, defects in synapse structure at neuromuscular junction were observed in neuron-specific fat-knockdown flies. In addition, aberrations in axonal targeting of photoreceptor neuron in third-instar larvae were also observed, suggesting that fat involves in axonal targeting. Taken together, the results indicate that Drosophila fat plays an essential role in formation and/or maintenance of neuron. Both VMS and HS show mental retardation and neuronal defects. We therefore consider that these two rare human diseases could possibly be caused by the defect in FAT4 function in neuronal cells. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Recruitment and retention strategies for minority or poor clinical research participants: lessons from the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiogu, Ngozi; Norbeck, Jennifer H; Mason, Marc A; Cromwell, Bridget C; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K

    2011-06-01

    Investigating health disparities requires studies designed to recruit and retain racially and socioeconomically diverse cohorts. It is critical to address the barriers that disproportionately affect participation in clinical research by minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. This study sought to identify and rectify these barriers to recruit and retain a biracial (African American and non-Hispanic White) and socioeconomically diverse cohort for a longitudinal study. The Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study is a 20-year longitudinal examination of how race and socioeconomic status influence the development of age-related health disparities. One goal was to create a multifactorial recruitment and retention strategy. The recruitment paradigm targeted known barriers and identified those unique to the study's urban environment. The retention paradigm mirrored the recruitment plan but was based on specifically developed approaches. This cohort recruitment required attention to developing community partnerships, designing the research study to meet the study hypotheses and to provide benefit to participants, providing a safe community-based site for the research and creating didactics to develop staff cultural proficiency. These efforts facilitated study implementation and enhanced recruitment resulting in accrual of a biracial and socioeconomically diverse cohort of 3,722 participants. Recruiting and retaining minority or poor research participants is challenging but possible. The essential facets include clear communication of the research hypothesis, focus on providing a direct benefit for participants, and selection of a hypothesis that is directly relevant to the community studied.

  13. Infantile onset Vanishing White Matter disease associated with a novel EIF2B5 variant, remarkably long life span, severe epilepsy, and hypopituitarism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, April L; Hsieh, David T; McIver, Harkirtin K; Thomas, Linda P; Rohena, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Vanishing White Matter disease (VWM) is an inherited progressive leukoencephalopathy caused by mutations in the genes EIF2B1-5, which encode for the 5 subunits of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2B (eIF2B), a regulator of protein synthesis. VWM typically presents with acute neurological decline following febrile infections or minor head trauma, and subsequent progressive neurological and cognitive regression. There is a varied clinical spectrum of VWM, with earlier onset associated with more severe phenotypes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is usually diagnostic with diffusely abnormal white matter, progressing over time to cystic degeneration. We are reporting on a patient with infantile onset VWM associated with three heterozygous missense variants in EIF2B5, including a novel missense variant on exon 6 of EIF2B5 (D262N), as well as an interstitial duplication at 7q21.12. In addition, our case is unusual because of a severe epilepsy course, a novel clinical finding of hypopituitarism manifested by hypothyroidism and adrenal insufficiency, and a prolonged life span with current age of survival of 4 years and 11 months. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Little evidence for intralocus sexual conflict over the optimal intake of nutrients for life span and reproduction in the black field cricket Teleogryllus commodus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapkin, James; Archer, C Ruth; Grant, Charles E; Jensen, Kim; House, Clarissa M; Wilson, Alastair J; Hunt, John

    2017-09-01

    There is often large divergence in the effects of key nutrients on life span (LS) and reproduction in the sexes, yet nutrient intake is regulated in the same way in males and females given dietary choice. This suggests that the sexes are constrained from feeding to their sex-specific nutritional optima for these traits. Here, we examine the potential for intralocus sexual conflict (IASC) over optimal protein and carbohydrate intake for LS and reproduction to constrain the evolution of sex-specific nutrient regulation in the field cricket, Teleogryllus commodus. We show clear sex differences in the effects of protein and carbohydrate intake on LS and reproduction and strong positive genetic correlations between the sexes for the regulated intake of these nutrients. However, the between-sex additive genetic covariance matrix had very little effect on the predicted evolutionary response of nutrient regulation in the sexes. Thus, IASC appears unlikely to act as an evolutionary constraint on sex-specific nutrient regulation in T. commodus. This finding is supported by clear sexual dimorphism in the regulated intake of these nutrients under dietary choice. However, nutrient regulation did not coincide with the nutritional optima for LS or reproduction in either sex, suggesting that IASC is not completely resolved in T. commodus. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. The control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers: Evidence of convergence with and divergence from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Chi eWong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An analytical review of the motivational theory of life-span development reveals that this theory has undergone a series of elegant theoretical integrations. Its claim to universality nonetheless brings forth unresolved controversies. With the purpose of scrutinizing the key propositions of this theory, an empirical study was designed to examine the control processes and subjective well-being of Chinese teachers (N = 637. The OPS-Scales (Optimization in Primary and Secondary Control Scales for the Domain of Teaching were constructed to assess patterns of control processes. Three facets of subjective well-being were investigated with the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Life Satisfaction Scale, and the Subjective Vitality Scale. The results revealed certain aspects of alignment with and certain divergences from the key propositions of the motivational theory of life-span development. Neither primacy of primary control nor primacy of secondary control was clearly supported. Notably, using different criteria for subjective well-being yielded different subtypes of primary and secondary control as predictors. The hypothesized life-span trajectories of primary and secondary control received limited support. To advance the theory in this area, we recommend incorporating Lakatos’ ideas about sophisticated falsification by specifying the hard core of the motivational theory of life-span development and articulating new auxiliary hypotheses.

  16. How voluntary is the active ageing life? A life-course study on the determinants of extending careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madero-Cabib, Ignacio; Kaeser, Laure

    2016-03-01

    In Switzerland, as in many other European states, there is an increasing emphasis in public policy on promoting later retirement from the labour market. But this accelerating drive in Swiss policy-making to extend occupational activity does not mean that every worker is currently likely to retire late, nor does it imply that all those who do retire late do so voluntarily. This article uses a life-course approach, first to study the determinants of late retirement, and secondly to analyse whether the decision to postpone retirement is made voluntarily or involuntarily. Both objectives are addressed on the basis of data from the Swiss survey Vivre/Leben/Vivere. The results of logistic regression modelling indicate that, whereas self-employed and more highly educated individuals are more likely to retire late, people with access to private pension funds and workers who have benefited from periods of economic growth have a lower tendency to retire late. Regarding voluntariness, those who are more likely to opt for voluntary late retirement tend to be Swiss citizens, more highly educated, and also benefited from periods of economic expansion, while the self-employed, men and widowed individuals leaving the labour market late tend to do so involuntarily. In conclusion, the article discusses the absence of a social inequality debate in the design of active ageing policies.

  17. Extreme depletion of PIP3 accompanies the increased life span and stress tolerance of PI3K-null C. elegans mutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet eBharill

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of animal longevity shows remarkable plasticity, in that a variety of genetic lesions are able to extend lifespan by as much as tenfold. Such studies have implicated several key signaling pathways that must normally limit longevity, since their disruption prolongs life. Little is known, however, about the proximal effectors of aging on which these pathways are presumed to converge, and to date, no pharmacologic agents even approach the life-extending effects of genetic mutation. In the present study, we have sought to define the downstream consequences of age-1 nonsense mutations, which confer 10-fold life extension to the nematode C. elegans ― the largest effect documented for any single mutation. Such mutations insert a premature stop codon upstream of the catalytic domain of the AGE-1/ p110α subunit of class-I PI3K. As expected, we do not detect class-I PI3K (and based on our sensitivity, it constitutes <14% of wild-type levels, nor do we find any PI3K activity as judged by immunodetection of phosphorylated AKT, which strongly requires PIP3 for activation by upstream kinases, or immunodetection of its product, PIP3. In the latter case, the upper 95%-confidence limit for PIP3 is 1.4% of the wild-type level. We tested a variety of commercially available PI3K inhibitors, as well as three phosphatidylinositol analogues (PIAs that are most active in inhibiting AKT activation, for effects on longevity and survival of oxidative stress. Of these, GDC-0941, PIA6 and PIA24 (each at 1 or 10 μM extended lifespan by 7–14%, while PIAs 6, 12 and 24 (at 1 or 10 μM increased survival time in 5-mM peroxide by 12–52%.These effects may have been conferred by insulinlike signaling, since a reporter regulated by the DAF-16/FOXO transcription factor, SOD3::GFP, was stimulated by these PIAs in the same rank order (PIA24>PIA6>PIA12 as lifespan. A second reporter, PEPCK::GFP, was equally activated (~40% by all three.

  18. PASylation of Murine Leptin Leads to Extended Plasma Half-Life and Enhanced in Vivo Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morath, Volker; Bolze, Florian; Schlapschy, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Seyfarth, Katrin; Klingenspor, Martin; Skerra, Arne

    2015-05-04

    Leptin plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis and appetite and, thus, has attracted attention for therapeutic approaches in spite of its limited pharmacological activity owing to the very short circulation in the body. To improve drug delivery and prolong plasma half-life, we have fused murine leptin with Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) polypeptides of up to 600 residues, which adopt random coil conformation with expanded hydrodynamic volume in solution and, consequently, retard kidney filtration in a similar manner as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Relative to unmodified leptin, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering revealed an approximately 21-fold increase in apparent size and a much larger molecular diameter of around 18 nm for PAS(600)-leptin. High receptor-binding activity for all PASylated leptin versions was confirmed in BIAcore measurements and cell-based dual-luciferase assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed a much extended plasma half-life after ip injection, from 26 min for the unmodified leptin to 19.6 h for the PAS(600) fusion. In vivo activity was investigated after single ip injection of equimolar doses of each leptin version. Strongly increased and prolonged hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation was detected for PAS(600)-leptin. Also, a reduction in daily food intake by up to 60% as well as loss in body weight of >10% lasting for >5 days was observed, whereas unmodified leptin was merely effective for 1 day. Notably, application of a PASylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (SMLA) led to the opposite effects. Thus, PASylated leptin not only provides a promising reagent to study its physiological role in vivo but also may offer a superior drug candidate for clinical therapy.

  19. Relating Life-Span Research to the Development of Gifted and Talented Children. Abstracts of Selected Papers [from] The Annual Esther Katz Rosen Symposium on the Psychological Development of Gifted Children (3rd, Lawrence, Kansas, February 19-20, 1993).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas Univ., Lawrence.

    This monograph presents abstracts of 29 papers that relate life-span research to the development of gifted and talented children. Sample topics include: attitudes about rural schools and programs for the gifted; social competence, self-esteem, and parent-child time and interaction in an advantaged subculture; helping families of gifted children…

  20. [Parallelism and paradoxes on viability and the life span of two loss-of-function mutations: heat shock protein transcriptional regulator hsf(1) and l(2)gl tumor suppressor in D. melanogaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaĭsman, N Ia; Evgen'ev, M B; Golubovskiĭ, M D

    2012-01-01

    In this study we analyzed how a dosage decrease in mono- and diheterozygotes on both lethal alleles of the lgl-gene and hsfheat shock regulator influences viability and life span at optimal and high temperature 29 degrees C conditions. We found that hsf(1) (1 dosage of active hsf-factor) heterozygote animals had significantly increased viability (up to 30-39%) in case of its development from egg to imago under the stress of 29 degrees C. However, this stress-protective effect of a decreased dosage of HSF1 was suppressed in diheterozygotes, while the dosage of tumor suppressor lgl was simultaneously decreased. Under stress temperature conditions, a decrease in dosage of one of the alleles also increased the average life span and delayed aging, especially in the case of maternal inheritance of each of the loss-of-function mutations. In diheterozygotes the average life span had intermediate meanings. However, in diheterozygote males under stress conditions the positive longevity effect of hsf was suppressed in the presence of the lgl-mutation. Paradoxically, that decrease of expression of each of the studied vital genes provided a positive effect on both viability and life span under stress conditions. However, a simultaneous dosage decrease of two loss-of-function alleles in diheterozygotes resulted in disbalanced effects on the organism level. The received data indicate interaction between HSF1 and LGL gene products during ontogenesis and stress-defending processes.

  1. Use of edible films and coatings to extend the shelf life of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maftoonazad, Neda; Badii, Fojan

    2009-06-01

    The increased consumer demand for high quality, extended shelf life, ready to eat foods has initiated the development of several innovative techniques to keep their natural and fresh appearance as long as possible and at the same time render them safe. Packaging has been an important element in these preservation concepts for providing the appropriate (mechanical and functional) protection to the commodity. Since synthetic packaging materials contribute to the environmental pollution, edible coatings and packages have been proposed to replace or complement conventional packaging. Biodegradable and edible films and coatings are made from naturally occurring polymers and functional ingredients, and formed on the surface of food products. Edible films and coating have long been known to protect perishable food products from deterioration and reduce quality loss. These films should have acceptable sensory characteristics, appropriate barrier properties (CO(2), O(2), water, oil), microbial, biochemical and physicochemical stability, they should be safe, and be produced by simple technology in low cost. Also they can act as effective carrier for antioxidant, flavor, color, nutritional or anti-microbial additives. Patents on edible films and food products are also discussed in this article.

  2. Retaining the wisdom: Academic nurse leaders' reflections on extending the working life of aging nurse faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Nancy L

    2014-01-01

    Aging nurse faculty members are vital human resources who serve as educators, researchers, and leaders within baccalaureate nursing (BSN) programs. On average, aging nurse faculty members are over 50 years of age and face key retirement decisions over the next decade. The purpose of this study was to begin to build substantive theory about academic nurse leaders' perceptions of extending the academic working life of aging nurse faculty members. Nine academic nurse leaders from BSN programs nationwide were interviewed in this grounded theory study. Data were analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Four categories emerged: valuing aging nurse faculty, enduring environmental challenges, recognizing stakeholder incongruence, and readjusting. Findings reveal that aging nurse faculty members are highly valued by academic nurse leaders, bringing wisdom, experience, and institutional, historical, and cultural awareness to their many roles. Yet, some aging nurse faculty fail to keep knowledge, skills, and teaching modes current, which is problematic given the multiple environmental challenges that academic nurse leaders face. Stakeholder incongruence arises as a mismatch between the needs of the BSN program and the skills and contributions of aging nurse faculty members. BSN programs, program leaders, and aging nurse faculty members can lessen incongruence by readjusting to address the pressures, tensions, and ongoing change. © 2013.

  3. Extending the shelf life of kohlrabi stems by modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona, V H; Aguayo, E; Artés, F

    2007-06-01

    Kohlrabi stems (without leaves) were stored under modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for 60 d at 0 degrees C. An additional retail sale period of 3 d at 12 degrees C after each cold storage evaluation (30 and 60 d) was applied. Under high relative humidity (RH) and 0 degrees C, the stems showed low metabolic activity, as no changes in sugars and organic acids were found. From day 21 at 0 degrees C, air-stored stems showed a yellowing of stalks and later they fell down. This disorder severely affected the appearance of stems. A gas composition of 4.5 to 5.5 kPa O(2) plus 11 to 12 kPa CO(2) was reached using antimist oriented polypropylene plastic bags of 20-mum thicknesses. The stems in MAP conditions kept a high sensorial quality. It was enough for commercial purpose of 2 mo. The storage of kohlrabi stems in plastic bags, either MA or in perforated (control) packages, provided an additional protection reducing physical damage. The MAP conditions delayed the weight loss and development of bacterial soft and black rot, extending the shelf life of kohlrabi stems to 60 d at 0 degrees C plus 3 d at 12 degrees C. Stems are not chilling injury sensitive.

  4. Psychological Well-Being in Italian Families: An Exploratory Approach to the Study of Mental Health Across the Adult Life Span in the Blue Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kenneth Hitchcott

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Self-reported measures of psychological well-being and depressive symptoms were examined across differently aged family members, while controlling for the impact of marital status and personal satisfaction about family and non-family relations. Twenty-one grandchildren (i.e., ages 21-36 years were recruited with their parents (i.e., 48-66 years old and grandparents (i.e., 75-101 years of age in the ‘blue zone’ of Ogliastra, an Italian area known for the longevity of its inhabitants. Each participant was individually presented a battery of questionnaires assessing their lifestyle and several perceived mental health indices, including the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (WEMWBS, Tennant et al., 2007, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (i.e., CES-D, Radloff, 1977. After assessing the level of concordance among adults sharing the same context, the Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM approach was used to assess the nested dataset. It was found that family membership (i.e., grandchildren versus parents and grandparents predicted the WEMWBS score but not the CES-D when the impact of marital status and personal satisfaction about social (i.e., family and non-family ties was controlled for. Moreover, two separate repeated-measure Analyses of Variance (ANOVAs documented similar level of personal satisfaction about social relationships across the three family groups. In conclusions, satisfying social ties with friends and family members together with an active socially oriented life style seems to contribute to the promotion of mental health in adult span.

  5. Genetic Dissection of Nutrition-Induced Plasticity in Insulin/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling and Median Life Span in aDrosophilaMultiparent Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Patrick D; Ng'oma, Enoch; O'Day, Siri; King, Elizabeth G

    2017-06-01

    The nutritional environments that organisms experience are inherently variable, requiring tight coordination of how resources are allocated to different functions relative to the total amount of resources available. A growing body of evidence supports the hypothesis that key endocrine pathways play a fundamental role in this coordination. In particular, the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) and target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways have been implicated in nutrition-dependent changes in metabolism and nutrient allocation. However, little is known about the genetic basis of standing variation in IIS/TOR or how diet-dependent changes in expression in this pathway influence phenotypes related to resource allocation. To characterize natural genetic variation in the IIS/TOR pathway, we used >250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a multiparental mapping population, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, to map transcript-level QTL of genes encoding 52 core IIS/TOR components in three different nutritional environments [dietary restriction (DR), control (C), and high sugar (HS)]. Nearly all genes, 87%, were significantly differentially expressed between diets, though not always in ways predicted by loss-of-function mutants. We identified cis ( i.e. , local) expression QTL (eQTL) for six genes, all of which are significant in multiple nutrient environments. Further, we identified trans ( i.e. , distant) eQTL for two genes, specific to a single nutrient environment. Our results are consistent with many small changes in the IIS/TOR pathways. A discriminant function analysis for the C and DR treatments identified a pattern of gene expression associated with the diet treatment. Mapping the composite discriminant function scores revealed a significant global eQTL within the DR diet. A correlation between the discriminant function scores and the median life span ( r = 0.46) provides evidence that gene expression changes in response to diet are

  6. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  7. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  8. Spanning Tree Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen Hung Chen

    2012-01-01

    minimum cost spanning tree T in G such that the total weight in T is at most a given bound B. In this paper, we present two polynomial time approximation schemes (PTASs for the constrained minimum spanning tree problem.

  9. Extended-life nuclear air cleaning filters via dynamic exclusion prefilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, S.R.; Crouch, H.S.; Bond, J.H. [Micro Composite Materials Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to ascertain if a dynamic, self-cleaning particulate exclusion precleaner, designed for relatively large dust removal (2 to 100+ {mu}m diameter particles) from helicopter turbine inlets, could be extended to submicron filtration. The improved device could be used as a prefilter for HEPA filtration systems, significantly increasing service life. In nuclear air cleaning, its use would reduce the amount of nuclear particulate matter that would otherwise be entrapped in the HEPA filter cartridge/panel, causing fouling and increased back pressure, as well as requiring subsequent disposal of the contaminated media at considerable expense. A unique (patent-pending) mechanical separation device has recently been developed to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams based on a proprietary concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT). The device creates multiple boundary layers that actively exclude particles from entering the perimeter of the device, while allowing air to traverse the boundaries relatively unimpeded. A modified two-dimensional (2-D) computerized flow simulation model was used to assist in the prototype design. Empirical results are presented from particle breakthrough and AP experiments obtained from a reduced-scale prototype filter. Particles larger than 0.23 {mu}m were actively excluded by the prototype, but at a higher pressure drop than anticipated. Experimental data collected indicates that the filter housing and the inlet flow configuration may contribute significantly to improvements in device particle separation capabilities. Furthermore, preliminary experiments have shown that other downstream pressure drop considerations (besides those just across the spinning filtration disks) must be included to accurately portray the AP across the device. Further detailed quantitative investigations on a larger scale (1,000 CFM) prototype are warranted. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Quality of Life Indicators for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities: Extending Current Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ivan; Hatton, Chris; Emerson, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Quality of life is a social construct that is measured by what are considered to be its most appropriate indicators. Quality of life measurement in intellectual disability reflects a variety of indicators, often grouped under life domains. Subjective and objective methods of measuring indicators each have strengths and drawbacks, but it is…

  11. Ozonated water extends the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, David; Selma, María V; Marín, Alicia; Gil, María I

    2005-07-13

    The use of ozonated water as a sanitizer to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut lettuce and the effect on the antioxidant constituents (polyphenols and vitamin C) were investigated. Fresh-cut iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) was washed at 4 degrees C using three different ozonated water dips [10, 20, and 10 activated by ultraviolet C (UV-C) light mg L(-1) min total ozone dose], and the dips were compared with water and chlorine rinses. Treated lettuce was packaged in air or active modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) (4 kPa of O2 + 12 kPa of CO2 balanced with N2) and stored for 13 days at 4 degrees C. Despite its strong oxidizing activity, ozonated water did not stimulate the respiratory activity of fresh-cut lettuce. Moreover, ozonated water maintained the initial visual appearance of fresh-cut lettuce and controlled browning during storage in air. Initially, ozonated water and chlorine reduced the total mesophilic population by 1.6 and 2.1 log, respectively, when compared with water. Active MAP was effective in controlling total microbial growth, achieving 2.0 log reduction in relation to samples stored in air at the end of storage. On the other hand, active MAP caused a 2.0-3.5 reduction of coliforms on sanitized samples compared with water-washed samples. The most efficient treatments were ozone 20 and ozone 10 activated by UV-C, which were as effective as chlorine. Changes in individual phenolic compounds were independent of the washing treatments. In air, chlorogenic and isochlorogenic acid contents increased noticeably after 13 days while monocaffeoyltartaric and dicaffeoyltartaric acids remained unchanged. MAP effectively suppressed accumulation of caffeoylquinic derivatives, whereas caffeoyltartaric derivatives decreased during MAP storage to reach similar levels. The content of vitamin C (ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid) decreased during storage, particularly under MAP. Ozonated water could be an alternative sanitizer to chlorine for fresh

  12. TSG (2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside from the Chinese Herb Polygonum multiflorum Increases Life Span and Stress Resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Büchter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG was isolated from Polygonum multiflorum, a plant which is traditionally used as an anti-ageing drug. We have analysed ageing-related effects of TSG in the model organism C. elegans in comparison to resveratrol. TSG exerted a high antioxidative capacity both in a cell-free assay and in the nematode. The antioxidative capacity was even higher compared to resveratrol. Presumably due to its antioxidative effects, treatment with TSG decreased the juglone-mediated induction of the antioxidative enzyme SOD-3; the induction of the GST-4 by juglone was diminished slightly. TSG increased the resistance of C. elegans against lethal thermal stress more prominently than resveratrol (50 μM TSG increased mean survival by 22.2%. The level of the ageing pigment lipofuscin was decreased after incubation with the compound. TSG prolongs the mean, median, and maximum adult life span of C. elegans by 23.5%, 29.4%, and 7.2%, respectively, comparable to the effects of resveratrol. TSG-mediated extension of life span was not abolished in a DAF-16 loss-of-function mutant strain showing that this ageing-related transcription factor is not involved in the effects of TSG. Our data show that TSG possesses a potent antioxidative capacity, enhances the stress resistance, and increases the life span of the nematode C. elegans.

  13. TSG (2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside) from the Chinese Herb Polygonum multiflorum Increases Life Span and Stress Resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchter, Christian; Zhao, Liang; Fritz, Gerhard; Proksch, Peter

    2015-01-01

    2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG) was isolated from Polygonum multiflorum, a plant which is traditionally used as an anti-ageing drug. We have analysed ageing-related effects of TSG in the model organism C. elegans in comparison to resveratrol. TSG exerted a high antioxidative capacity both in a cell-free assay and in the nematode. The antioxidative capacity was even higher compared to resveratrol. Presumably due to its antioxidative effects, treatment with TSG decreased the juglone-mediated induction of the antioxidative enzyme SOD-3; the induction of the GST-4 by juglone was diminished slightly. TSG increased the resistance of C. elegans against lethal thermal stress more prominently than resveratrol (50 μM TSG increased mean survival by 22.2%). The level of the ageing pigment lipofuscin was decreased after incubation with the compound. TSG prolongs the mean, median, and maximum adult life span of C. elegans by 23.5%, 29.4%, and 7.2%, respectively, comparable to the effects of resveratrol. TSG-mediated extension of life span was not abolished in a DAF-16 loss-of-function mutant strain showing that this ageing-related transcription factor is not involved in the effects of TSG. Our data show that TSG possesses a potent antioxidative capacity, enhances the stress resistance, and increases the life span of the nematode C. elegans. PMID:26075030

  14. Cryonics suspension – debating life finitude, extending time capital and cancelling death

    OpenAIRE

    Oana Mara Stan

    2016-01-01

    The study discusses the anti-death movement inside the life extension paradigm and its social implications in terms of enhanced permeability of life-death boundaries, by reconciling mysticism, theology, technology and scientific innovation. It analyses current debates, the transmission of polemic information over extreme life extension by cryogenic suspension through vernacular knowledge. Ethical, scientific, financial and spiritual controversies come into consideration, as pro and counter-ar...

  15. A study on the functional assessment of the prestressed system and main structural elements in life extended containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, C. H.; Kim, S. W.; Choi, J. G. [DAEWOO E and C Institute of Costruction Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-10-15

    The design life of KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) containment buildings is extended from 40 years to 60 years. However, nuclear reactor buildings are passive structures that are impossible to be exchanged in the case of degradation by the deterioration and so on when extending the design life of structures. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the long-term safety endurance in the design and construction of KNGR. Also, ti is judged that choice of the material and various test methods should be prescribed clearly. In this study, the reduction schemes of deterioration and the safety-ensuring schemes are drawn for the expected performance to be maintained from the beginning of the service to the required period together with ensuring the safety and serviceability of KNGR which will be constructed with the design life of 60 years, taking into account the dimensions, selection of material and construction methods in the design and construction stages. Also, the validity is to be examined for the estimation method of long-term losses of stress introduced to KNGR whose design life is increased to 60 years. The durability enhancement scheme on the design and construction for the design life extension of nuclear containment buildings is to be drawn through these studies. These results are utilized as the basic data for the safety inspection and examination guides of KNGR and finally the additional investigations are proposed for the items which require long-term studies.

  16. Extending conceptual frameworks: life course epidemiology for the study of back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Kate M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have identified important causal and prognostic factors for back pain, but these frequently only identify a proportion of the variance, and new factors add little to these models. Recently, interest has increased in studying diseases over the life course, stimulated by the 1997 book by Kuh and Ben-Shlomo, a move accompanied by important conceptual and methodological developments. This has resulted in improvements in the understanding of other conditions like cardiovascular and respiratory disease. This paper aims to examine how conceptual frameworks from life course epidemiology could enhance back pain research. Discussion Life course concepts can be divided into three categories. Concept 1: patterns over time, risk chains and accumulation. Simple 'chains of risk' have been studied - e.g. depression leading to back pain - but studies involving more risk factors in the chain are infrequent. Also, we have not examined how risk accumulation influences outcome, e.g. whether multiple episodes or duration of depression, throughout the life course, better predicts back pain. One-year back pain trajectories have been described, and show advantages for studying back pain, but there are few descriptions of longer-term patterns with associated transitions and turning points. Concept 2: influences and determinants of pathways. Analyses in back pain studies commonly adjust associations for potential confounders, but specific analysis of factors modifying risk, or related to the resilience or susceptibility to back pain, are rarely studied. Concept 3: timing of risk. Studies of critical or sensitive periods - crucial times of life which influence health later in life - are scarce in back pain research. Such analyses could help identify factors that influence the experience of pain throughout the life course. Summary Back pain researchers could usefully develop hypotheses and models of how risks from different stages

  17. Extending the Serum Half-Life of G-CSF via Fusion with the Domain III of Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein fusion technology is one of the most commonly used methods to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins. In this study, in order to prolong the half-life of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the domain III of human serum albumin (3DHSA was genetically fused to the N-terminal of G-CSF. The 3DHSA-G-CSF fusion gene was cloned into pPICZαA along with the open reading frame of the α-factor signal under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant expression vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115, and the recombinant strains were screened by SDS-PAGE. As expected, the 3DHSA-G-CSF showed high binding affinity with HSA antibody and G-CSF antibody, and the natural N-terminal of 3DHSA was detected by N-terminal sequencing. The bioactivity and pharmacokinetic studies of 3DHSA-G-CSF were respectively determined using neutropenia model mice and human G-CSF ELISA kit. The results demonstrated that 3DHSA-G-CSF has the ability to increase the peripheral white blood cell (WBC counts of neutropenia model mice, and the half-life of 3DHSA-G-CSF is longer than that of native G-CSF. In conclusion, 3DHSA can be used to extend the half-life of G-CSF.

  18. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Munoz, L.G.; Mejlholm, Ole

    1998-01-01

    Inhibition of the specific spoilage organism, Photobacterium phosphoreum, was studied in model substrates and in modified- atmosphere-packed cod fillets. The objective was to determine how inhibition of this organism influenced spoilage. The spoilage reactions limiting shelf life were studied...... rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na(2)CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degrees C. In aerobically...... stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf Life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions...

  19. The impact of Hipparcos star-fixing extends to life's evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    "ESA's Hipparcos brings the greatest step forward in star measurements since Tycho Brahe," Bonnet says. "When the Danish astronomer died in 1601, the German astronomer Johannes Kepler inherited his careful observations. Kepler used them to discover the laws of the motions of planets, and paved the way for Isaac Newton's gravitational theory. Now we have another multinational success story from European astronomy". "Hipparcos began as an imaginative French concept to chart the stars by satellite," Bonnet continues. "ESA adopted the idea and many astronomers in our member states collaborated in the mission. A hundred-fold improvement in the accuracy of star positions may already alter the size of the Universe and the ages of stars. So don't be surprised if the results from Hipparcos are as revolutionary as Tycho Brahe's, in their impact on our knowledge of the cosmos." The study of the Earth itself will benefit from the new star data. Wobbles of the Earth and variations in its rate of rotation can now be measured far more accurately. The ozone layer will be monitored by ESA's Envisat environmental mission, by looking for chemical alterations in the light from 1000 Hipparcos stars, when seen on lines of sight slanting through the atmosphere. Even the erratic evolution of life on Earth may make more sense, as Hipparcos picks out stars that passed close enough to cause trouble here. Reliable identifications of stars heading towards or away from our vicinity were impossible before Hipparcos. The satellite measured shifts in the directions of stars in the sky with such high precision that astronomers can now pick out those few stars that scarcely change their bearings. Such stars are probably moving almost directly towards or away from us. A US-European team, led by Robert Preston at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in California, used Hipparcos to search for nearby stars with very small shifts in position. They were, or will be, passers-by. Gliese 710, an inconspicuous star

  20. TO THE ISSUE OF EXTENDING THE SERVICE LIFE OF CARS FOR TRANSPORTATION OF PELLETS

    OpenAIRE

    V. H. Anofriev; O. H. Reidemeister; V. A. Kalashnyk; V. P. Kulieshov

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Freight rolling stock of «Ukrzaliznytsia» primarily has cars that are overaged. The same situation is observed in the park of specialized cars. So the car fleet for the transport of pellets consists of about 50% of cars that served one-and-a-half and more lifetimes. However, the volume of shipments of iron ore is constant for a number of years. In this regard, there is a need to find methods to justify continuing useful life of cars and to assess the conformity of residual life of th...

  1. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been used. However, new frontiers have been recently explored. Sourdough turned out an ancient but novel technology to preserve standard and gluten-free bread. Promising results have also been obtained by application of alternative bio-preservation techniques, including antifungal peptides and plant extracts. Active packaging, with absorbing and/or releasing compounds effective against bread staling and/or with antimicrobials preventing growth of undesirable microorganisms, showed up an emerging area of food technology which can confer many preservation benefits. Nanotechnologies are also opening up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry and the consumers. This work thus aims to provide an overview of opportunities and challenges that traditional and innovative anti-staling and anti-spoilage methods can offer to extend bread shelf-life and to provide a basis for driving further research on nanotechnology applications into the bakery industry.

  2. More Education May Limit Disability and Extend Life For People With Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2014-08-01

    Education is associated with longer life and less disability. Living longer increases risks of cognitive impairment, often producing disability. We examined associations among education, disability, and life expectancy for people with cognitive impairment, following a 1992 cohort ages 55+ for 23 063 person-years (Panel Study of Income Dynamics, n = 2165). We estimated monthly probabilities of disability and death for 7 education levels, adjusting for age, gender, ethnicity, and cognitive status. We used the probabilities to simulate populations with age-specific cognitive impairment incidence and monthly disability status through death. For those with cognitive impairment, education was associated with longer life and less disability. Among them, college-educated white women lived 3.2 more years than those with education, disabled 24.4% of life from age 55 compared with 36.7% (Peducation will lengthen lives. Living longer, more people will have cognitive impairment. Education may limit their risk of disability and its duration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A well-conceived vision for extending professional life of seniors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afsarmanesh, H.; Camarinha-Matos, L.M.; Msanjila, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental challenge related to enhancing the active life of senior professionals is to identify ways to assist promoting the role of elder people within the continuously ageing European society. One approach to achieve this purpose is to establish a support environment which shall provide

  4. The life of a dead ant -the expression of an adaptive extended phenotype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sandra Breum; Gerritsma, Sylvia; Yusah, Kalsum M.

    2009-01-01

    to make hosts bite onto vegetation prior to killing them. We show that this represents a fine-tuned fungal adaptation: an extended phenotype. Dead ants were found under leaves, attached by their mandibles, on the northern side of saplings ca. 25 cm above the soil, where temperature and humidity conditions...... were optimal for fungal growth. Experimental relocation confirmed that parasite fitness was lower outside this manipulative zone. Host resources were rapidly colonized and further secured by extensive internal structuring. Nutritional composition analysis indicated that such structuring allows...

  5. Radium-223 chloride: Extending life in prostate cancer patients by treating bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissing, Michel D; van Leeuwen, Fijs W B; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Gelderblom, Hans

    2013-11-01

    The treatment scope for patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is rapidly expanding. On May 15, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved radium-223 chloride ((223)RaCl2) for the treatment of mCRPC patients whose metastases are limited to the bones. Radium-223 is an α-emitting alkaline earth metal ion, which, similar to calcium ions, accumulates in the bone. In a phase III study (ALSYMPCA), mCRPC patients with bone metastases received best standard-of-care treatment with placebo or (223)RaCl2. At a prespecified interim analysis, the primary endpoint of median overall survival was significantly extended by 3.6 months in patients treated with radium-223 compared with placebo (P < 0.001). The radioisotope was well tolerated and gave limited bone marrow suppression. (223)RaCl2 is the first bone-targeting antitumor therapy that received FDA approval based on a significant extended median overall survival. Further studies are required to optimize its dosing and to confirm its efficacy and safety in cancer patients.

  6. Optimization of radioembolic effect with extended-shelf-life yttrium-90 microspheres: results from a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Robert J; Riaz, Ahsun; Ryu, Robert K; Mulcahy, Mary F; Sato, Kent T; Kulik, Laura M; Gates, Vanessa L; Baker, Talia; Omary, Reed; Salem, Riad

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of yttrium-90 ((90)Y) radioembolization with extended-shelf-life glass microspheres. We postulated that this approach, for the same planned tissue dose of 120 Gy, would increase the embolic load, improve distribution, and result in enhanced tumor response without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and September 2008, 50 patients with extensive tumor burden and/or markedly hypervascular tumors (13 hepatocellular carcinomas, and 37 liver metastases) underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life microspheres at a planned dose of 120 Gy. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained. Response in the target lesion was assessed with cross-sectional imaging by using World Health Organization (WHO) and European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 126 Gy. The mean increase in embolic load with this approach was 111%, corresponding to an increase from 3.6 to 7.3 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (28 patients, 56%), abdominal pain (19 patients, 38%), and nausea/vomiting (six patients, 12%). Grade 3-4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in one patient. Two gastroduodenal ulcers were observed. With cross-sectional imaging, response rates according to WHO and EASL guidelines were 51% and 69%, respectively. The results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life (90)Y glass microspheres. The increased embolic load and lowered activity per microsphere theoretically resulted in better tumor coverage and, hence, improved response rates. This standardizable treatment paradigm provides a minimally embolic therapy for liver tumors.

  7. Effects of quetiapine extended release on sleep and quality of life in midlife women with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Benicio N; Haber, Erika; Mendes, Gustavo C D; Steiner, Meir; Soares, Claudio N

    2013-02-01

    Depression during midlife years may lead to significant sleep disturbances and adversely impact quality of life (QOL). In this report, we examined the effects of treatment with quetiapine extended release (XR), 150-300 mg/day, on sleep and QOL in 23 midlife women with major depressive disorder (MDD). Quetiapine XR improved subjective sleep distress, overall sleep parameters, and sleep-related QOL, ultimately leading to significant improvement in menopause-related QOL. While larger, controlled trials are still awaited, these preliminary results are encouraging and suggest that quetiapine XR may be a useful tool in treating symptomatic midlife women with MDD.

  8. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Emamifar, Aryou; Mohammadizadeh, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content a...

  9. Potential of Nitrogen Gas (N2 Flushing to Extend the Shelf Life of Cold Stored Pasteurised Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Alatossava

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available For different reasons, the amount of food loss for developing and developed countries is approximately equivalent. Altogether, these losses represent approximately 1/3 of the global food production. Significant amounts of pasteurised milk are lost due to bad smell and unpleasant taste. Currently, even under the best cold chain conditions, psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria, some of which also harbour virulent factors, limit the shelf life of pasteurised milk. N2 gas-based flushing has recently been of interest for improving the quality of raw milk. Here, we evaluated the possibility of addressing bacterial growth in pasteurised milk during cold storage at 6 °C and 8 °C. Clearly, the treatments hindered bacterial growth, in a laboratory setting, when N2-treated milk were compared to the corresponding controls, which suggests that N2-flushing treatment constitutes a promising option to extend the shelf life of pasteurised milk.

  10. Potential of nitrogen gas (n2) flushing to extend the shelf life of cold stored pasteurised milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munsch-Alatossava, Patricia; Ghafar, Abdul; Alatossava, Tapani

    2013-03-11

    For different reasons, the amount of food loss for developing and developed countries is approximately equivalent. Altogether, these losses represent approximately 1/3 of the global food production. Significant amounts of pasteurised milk are lost due to bad smell and unpleasant taste. Currently, even under the best cold chain conditions, psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria, some of which also harbour virulent factors, limit the shelf life of pasteurised milk. N2 gas-based flushing has recently been of interest for improving the quality of raw milk. Here, we evaluated the possibility of addressing bacterial growth in pasteurised milk during cold storage at 6 °C and 8 °C. Clearly, the treatments hindered bacterial growth, in a laboratory setting, when N2-treated milk were compared to the corresponding controls, which suggests that N2-flushing treatment constitutes a promising option to extend the shelf life of pasteurised milk.

  11. Deficiency of Toll-like receptors 2, 3 or 4 extends life expectancy in Huntington’s disease mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathleen Griffioen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD, an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive striatal and cortical atrophy, has been strongly linked with neuroinflammation. Toll-like receptors, a family of innate immune receptors, are a major pathway for neuroinflammation with pleiotropic effects on neuronal plasticity and neurodevelopment. We assessed whether deficiency for TLRs 2, 3 or 4 affects life expectancy in the N171-82Q mouse model of HD. Our data indicate that homozygous TLRs 2 and 3 as well as heterozygous TLR4 deficiency significantly extends the life expectancy of HD mice. Our data suggest that multiple TLR pathways may be involved in the neuroinflammatory and degenerative processes during HD.

  12. Concise and informative title: evaluation of selected spices in extending shelf life of paneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eresam, E Krishna Kumari; Pinto, Suneeta; Aparnathi, K D

    2015-04-01

    Black pepper, cardamom, cinnamon and clove were tested for their relative efficacy in improving shelf life of paneer. All the spices were incorporated in paneer @ 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. Addition of black pepper, cardamom or clove at the rate of 0.6 % by weight or cinnamon at the rate of 0.4 % by weight was found to be acceptable. Therefore, paneer was prepared by incorporating black pepper, cardamom and clove i.e. Bp, Ca and Cl @ 0.6 % and cinnamon (Ci) @ 0.4 % by wt. of expected yield of paneer. All the paneer samples viz. Bp, Ca, Cl and Ci were subjected to sensory evaluation when fresh and after interval of 7 days during storage at 7 ± 1 °C up to 28 days. Results indicated that control remained acceptable up to 7 days, Bp up to 14 days of storage and Cl up to 21st day of storage. The overall acceptability score of Ca remained well above the acceptable level even on 28th day of the storage. Results of changes in chemical characteristics indicate that amongst all the spices studied, cardamom had maximum ability to control the rate of increase in acidity, free fatty acids content and soluble nitrogen content in paneer during storage. The order of the relative effectiveness in enhancing shelf life of paneer was cardamom > cinnamon > clove > black pepper. The effect of cardamom on microbial counts of paneer viz. standard plate counts (SPC), yeast and mould count and coliform count were evaluated. Among the spices studied, cardamom was found to be the best spice to improve shelf life of paneer up to 28 days of storage at 7 ± 1 °C.

  13. Combined application of modified atmosphere packaging and superchilled storage to extend the shelf life of fresh cod (Gadus morhua) loins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T; Sveinsdóttir, K; Magnússon, H; Martinsdóttir, E

    2008-01-01

    Development of new technologies and preservation methods to offer conveniently packed fish with sufficient keeping quality is important to meet increasing demand for value-added fresh fish products on the market. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of combined application of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) and superchilled storage on the shelf life of fresh cod loins. Fresh cod loins were packed in polystyrene boxes and in MA (CO(2)/N(2)/O(2): 50%/45%/5%) on day 3 postcatch and stored at chilled (1.5 degrees C) and superchilled (-0.9 degrees C) temperatures. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and physical, chemical, and microbial analyses were carried out during the 21 d of storage. Superchilled storage alone compared with traditional chilled storage in polystyrene boxes increased the total shelf life (days from catch) of cod loins from 9 to 16 or 17 d. Chilled MA packaging increased the shelf life from 9 to 14 d and when MAP and superchilled storage were combined, a synergistic effect was observed and the shelf life was further extended to at least 21 d. It is noteworthy that the characteristic fresh and sweet taste can be maintained longer under such conditions. This could contribute to enhanced eating quality of fresh cod fillets for consumers in distant markets. However, MAP combined with superchilled storage resulted in different textural properties. Superchilled MA packed cod loins had more meaty texture compared to other sample groups after 7-d storage.

  14. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamifar, Aryou; Mohammadizadeh, Mehri

    2015-12-01

    Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were evaluated after 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage. Microbial growth rate was significantly reduced up to 16 days as a result of the use of nanocomposite packaging material containing ZnO nanoparticles. By increasing the ZnO nanoparticle mass fraction to 5%, the antimicrobial activity of the film increased. All packages containing the ZnO nanoparticles kept the microbial load of fresh strawberries below the level that affects shelf life (5 log CFU/g) up to 16 days. The lowest degradation of ascorbic acid content (6.55 mg per 100 g), and loss of acidity (0.68%) were observed in packages containing 3% of ZnO nanoparticles with 10% polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride.

  15. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mohammadizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were evaluated after 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage. Microbial growth rate was significantly reduced up to 16 days as a result of the use of nanocomposite packaging material containing ZnO nanoparticles. By increasing the ZnO nanoparticle mass fraction to 5 %, the antimicrobial activity of the film increased. All packages containing the ZnO nanoparticles kept the microbial load of fresh strawberries below the level that affects shelf life (5 log CFU/g up to 16 days. The lowest degradation of ascorbic acid content (6.55 mg per 100 g, and loss of acidity (0.68 % were observed in packages containing 3 % of ZnO nanoparticles with 10 % polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride.

  16. Hydrogen sulfide extends the postharvest life and enhances antioxidant activity of kiwifruit during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqin; Wang, Wei; Shi, Jingying; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Yonggen; Du, Huaying; Wu, Shaofu

    2014-10-01

    Exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) treatment can prolong the postharvest life of cut flowers and strawberries. Little work has been done to explore the effects of H₂S on respiratory climacteric fruits such as kiwifruits during storage. Therefore the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of H₂S treatment at concentrations of 15–1000 µmol L⁻¹ on the postharvest life of kiwifruit during 25 °C storage and the role of H₂S in regulating the antioxidant defensive system of kiwifruit. Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S significantly inhibited the increase in soluble sugar content and the decrease in vitamin C (Vit C), chlorophyll content and firmness, inhibited ethylene production and both superoxide production rate (O(·2)⁻) and hydrogen peroxide content. Kiwifruits with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S exhibited significantly higher activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and peroxidase. Treatment with 180 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S promoted the ripening of kiwifruits. Treatments with 45 and 90 µmol L⁻¹ H₂S could delay the maturation and senescence of kiwifruits and maintain higher titratable acid (TA) and Vit C during eating-ripe storage by inhibiting ethylene production, improving protective enzyme activities and decreasing the accumulation of reactive oxygen species to protect the cell membrane during storage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Extended interface layer concept for higher stability and improvement of life time in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farman Ali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Power conversion efficiency (PCE of bulk heterojunction (BHJ organic solar cells has reached above ∼10%. These BHJ cells have potential for flexible thin films at low processing temperatures using roll to roll printing on flexible substrates. Further, the basic materials properties can be tailored through organic synthetic routes. However, the issues related to its durability should be addressed before its commercialization. Hence, a conventional solar cell of the poly (3-hexylthiophene (P3HT :(6, 6-phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM blend on ITO substrates was fabricated, and investigated, which shows improved life time by using a combinational Ca/Al cathode, wherein the deposition of calcium layer is extended beyond the aluminum layer. The extended deposition of calcium layer beyond aluminum prevents the edge degradation by its oxidation and hence protecting the active pixel area of the device, resulting in the improvement of life time of device from ∼80 hours to ∼ 400 hrs.

  18. The influence of the hot water extract from shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes (higher Basidiomycetes) on the food intake, life span, and age-related locomotor activity of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjuskova, Natalya; Azena, Elena; Serstnova, Ksenija; Muiznieks, Indrikis

    2014-01-01

    Shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, is among the most widely cultivated edible mushrooms in the world and is a well-studied source of nutrients and biologically active compounds. We have studied the influence of the dietary supplement of the polysaccharides containing a hot water extract of the mushroom L. edodes on the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster in terms of food intake, body weight, life span, and age-related locomotor activity. L. edodes extract, when added to the D. melanogaster feeding substrate at a 0.003-0.030% concentration (calculated for the dry weight of the polysaccharide fraction) did not influence food intake or body weight of the flies. It increased the life span and locomotor activities of male flies but was associated with early mortality and decreased locomotor activity of female flies. We conclude that the observed anti-aging effects of L. edodes extracts in the male D. melanogaster are not the result of dietary restriction. We propose that D. melanogaster is a suitable model organism for researching the molecular basis of the anti-aging effect of the shiitake mushroom extracts and sex linkage of these effects.

  19. Communicating employability enchancement throughout the life-span: a national intervention program aimed at combating age-related stereotypes at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Selm, M.; van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of lifelong employability of employees is one of today's challenges in all sectors of the Dutch society. In this article, we will outline the historical context of the life-long employability issue in the Netherlands, and provide an overview of current business responses to the

  20. Communicating Employability Enhancement throughout the Life-Span: A National Intervention Program Aimed at Combating Age-Related Stereotypes at the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Selm, Martine; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    The stimulation of lifelong employability of employees is one of today's challenges in all sectors of the Dutch society. In this article, we will outline the historical context of the life-long employability issue in the Netherlands, and provide an overview of current business responses to the issue. We will discuss key obstacles for improving…

  1. Damage-mitigating control of a reusable rocket engine for high performance and extended life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Asok; Dai, Xiaowen

    1995-01-01

    The goal of damage mitigating control in reusable rocket engines is to achieve high performance with increased durability of mechanical structures such that functional lives of the critical components are increased. The major benefit is an increase in structural durability with no significant loss of performance. This report investigates the feasibility of damage mitigating control of reusable rocket engines. Phenomenological models of creep and thermo-mechanical fatigue damage have been formulated in the state-variable setting such that these models can be combined with the plant model of a reusable rocket engine, such as the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME), for synthesizing an optimal control policy. Specifically, a creep damage model of the main thrust chamber wall is analytically derived based on the theories of sandwich beam and viscoplasticity. This model characterizes progressive bulging-out and incremental thinning of the coolant channel ligament leading to its eventual failure by tensile rupture. The objective is to generate a closed form solution of the wall thin-out phenomenon in real time where the ligament geometry is continuously updated to account for the resulting deformation. The results are in agreement with those obtained from the finite element analyses and experimental observation for both Oxygen Free High Conductivity (OFHC) copper and a copper-zerconium-silver alloy called NARloy-Z. Due to its computational efficiency, this damage model is suitable for on-line applications of life prediction and damage mitigating control, and also permits parametric studies for off-line synthesis of damage mitigating control systems. The results are presented to demonstrate the potential of life extension of reusable rocket engines via damage mitigating control. The control system has also been simulated on a testbed to observe how the damage at different critical points can be traded off without any significant loss of engine performance. The research work

  2. Dual boundary spanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li-Ying, Jason

    2016-01-01

    The extant literature runs short in understanding openness of innovation regarding and the different pathways along which internal and external knowledge resources can be combined. This study proposes a unique typology for outside-in innovations based on two distinct ways of boundary spanning...

  3. Extending field life in offshore Gulf of Mexico using 3-D seismic survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulling, T.P.; Olsen, R.S. (ARCO Oil and Gas Co., Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Discovered by ARCO in 1967, the High Island 24L field (lower Miocene) is located in the Texas state waters of the Gulf of Mexico. By 1986, the field had produced 320 billion ft{sup 3} of gas and 3.0 million bbl of oil. An engineering field study completed in 1986 showed the field was declining and would be unprofitable within 3 yr. Study of reservoir maps revealed three basin problems: volumetric reserve calculations were less than reserves produced, hydrocarbon-water contacts were inconsistent between wells thought to be in communication, and ultimate recoveries could not be accurately calculated. Attempts to remap the field with the existing two-dimensional seismic data base and well data proved unsuccessful. In 1986, a three-dimensional seismic survey was acquired in an effort to evaluate the true present worth and potential of the field. Remapping of 30 reservoir horizons began in 1987. The integration of detailed well log correlations tied to the dense grid of quality three dimensional seismic data improved the reservoir maps. These maps helped resolve engineering problems by defining the configuration of the reservoirs more accurately. Reservoir maps now closely match volumetrics, fluid contacts within reservoir units are consistent, and a better definition of extension well opportunities exists. The authors study resulted in six additional wells. These wells along with engineering modifications and operations cost containment resulted in the extension of the economic life of the High Island 24-L field by at least 8 yr.

  4. Extending the shelf life of edible flowers with controlled release of 1-methylcyclopropene and modified atmosphere packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Liping; Turner, Ellen R; Luo, Yaguang

    2012-05-01

    Edible flowers have great sensory appeal, but their extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. Postharvest 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment is used to counter ethylene activity and delay senescence in fresh produce; however, its potential application in edible flowers has not been tested. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of 1-MCP treatment with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf life of edible flowers. Freshly harvested carnations and snapdragons were packaged in trays with or without 0.5 μL/L of 1-MCP, sealed with a gas permeable film, and stored at 5 °C. Package atmospheres, tissue electrolyte leakage, and flower quality were evaluated on days 0, 7, and 14. Treatment with 1-MCP resulted in significantly slower changes in package headspace O(2), CO(2), and C(2)H(4) partial pressures, maintained higher overall quality of both flower species and reduced electrolyte leakage and abscission in snapdragon. All samples prepared with MAP had significantly reduced dehydration and higher overall quality compared to flowers packaged commercially in plastic clamshell containers. Treatments with controlled release of 1-MCP and MAP significantly extended storage life of edible carnation and snapdragon flowers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Performance, Career Dynamics, and Span of Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Waldman, Michael; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    . In this paper we first extend the theoretical literature on the scale-of-operations effect to allow firms’ beliefs concerning a manager’s ability to evolve over the manager’s career, where much of our focus is the determinants of span of control. We then empirically investigate testable predictions from...

  6. Modified atmosphere packaging extending the storage life of 'douradão' peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Regina Radomille de Santana

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available 'Douradão' peach is a perishable product and when cold stored is subject to chilling injury. The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP and cold storage on quality and storage life of these peaches. Fruits were packed in polypropylene (PP trays and placed inside low density polyethylene (LDPE bags (30, 50, 60, 75 μm thickness with active modified atmosphere (10 kPa CO2 + 1.5kPa O2, balance N2. The control was made with peaches held in nonwrapped PP trays. Fruits were kept at 1 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH for 28 days and CO2 and O2 within packages was monitored every two days. After 14, 21 and 28 days, samples were withdrawn from MAP and kept in air at 25 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% RH for ripening. On the day of removal from the cold storage and after 4 days, peaches were evaluated for weight loss, decay incidence, flesh firmness, woolliness incidence, soluble solids content (SSC, titratable acidity (TA and juice content. The results showed that MAP had influence on reducing weight loss and prevented postharvest decay. MAP of 1-2 kPa O2 and 3-6 kPa CO2 at 1 °C (from 50 and 60 μm LDPE films were effective for keeping good quality of 'Douradão' peaches during 28 days of storage, the ripe fruits showed reduced incidence of woolliness, adequate juiciness and flesh firmness. Packages of 30 and 75 μm LDPE films were ineffective for reducing woolliness during cold storage. MAP fruits showed lower SSC and no relevant effect on TA. Control fruits did not present marketable conditions after 14 days of cold storage.

  7. L70 life prediction for solid state lighting using Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filter based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep; Wei, Junchao; Davis, Lynn

    2013-08-08

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of LEDs from LM-80 test data. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a LED at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, Kalman Filter (KF) and Extended Kalman Filters (EKF) have been used to develop a 70-percent Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for LEDs used in SSL luminaires. Ten-thousand hour LM-80 test data for various LEDs have been used for model development. System state at each future time has been computed based on the state space at preceding time step, system dynamics matrix, control vector, control matrix, measurement matrix, measured vector, process noise and measurement noise. The future state of the lumen depreciation has been estimated based on a second order Kalman Filter model and a Bayesian Framework. The measured state variable has been related to the underlying damage using physics-based models. Life

  8. Deep sea minerals prolong life span of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by compensatory augmentation of the IGF-I-survival signaling and inhibition of apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hung-En; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Pai, Pei-Ying; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lin, Jing-Ying; Wen, Su-Ying; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-07-01

    Consumption of deep sea minerals (DSM), such as magnesium, calcium, and potassium, is known to reduce hypercholesterolemia-induced myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac-apoptosis and provide protection against cardiovascular diseases. Heart diseases develop as a lethal complication among diabetic patients usually due to hyperglycemia-induced cardiac-apoptosis that causes severe cardiac-damages, heart failure, and reduced life expectancy. In this study, we investigated the potential of DSM and its related cardio-protection to increase the life expectancy in diabetic rats. In this study, a heart failure rat model was developed by using streptozotocin (65 mg kg(-1) ) IP injection. Different doses of DSM-1× (37 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), 2× (74 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ) and 3× (111 mg kg(-1) day(-1) ), were administered to the rats through gavages for 4 weeks. The positive effects of DSM on the survival rate of diabetes rats were determined with respect to the corresponding effects of MgSO4 . Further, to understand the mechanism by which DSM enhances the survival of diabetic rats, their potential to regulate cardiac-apoptosis and control cardiac-dysfunction were examined. Echocardiogram, tissue staining, TUNEL assay, and Western blotting assay were used to investigate modulations in the myocardial contractile function and related signaling protein expression. The results showed that DSM regulate apoptosis and complement the cardiomyocyte proliferation by enhancing survival mechanisms. Moreover DSM significantly reduced the mortality rate and enhanced the survival rate of diabetic rats. Experimental results show that DSM administration can be an effective strategy to improve the life expectancy of diabetic subjects by improving cardiac-cell proliferation and by controlling cardiac-apoptosis and associated cardiac-dysfunction. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 769-781, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment Using Near-Field Human Exposure Modeling and High-Throughput Tools for Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include n...

  10. An "Fc-Silenced" IgG1 Format With Extended Half-Life Designed for Improved Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrok, M Jack; Mody, Neil; Lu, Xiaojun; Kuhn, Megan L; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F; Tsui, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Multiple mutation combinations in the IgG Fc have been characterized to tailor immune effector function or IgG serum persistence to fit desired biological outcomes for monoclonal antibody therapeutics. An unintended consequence of introducing mutations in the Fc (particularly the C H 2 domain) can be a reduction in biophysical stability which can correlate with increased aggregation propensity, poor manufacturability, and lower solubility. Herein, we characterize the changes in IgG conformational and colloidal stability when 2 sets of C H 2 mutations "TM" (L234F/L235E/P331S) and "YTE" (M252Y/S254T/T256E) are combined to generate an antibody format lacking immune receptor binding and exhibiting extended half-life. In addition to significantly lowered thermostability, we observe greater conformational flexibility for TM-YTE in C H 2, increased self-association, and poorer solubility and aggregation profiles. To improve these properties, we dissected the contributions of individual mutations within TM-YTE on thermostability and substituted destabilizing mutations with new mutations that raise thermostability. One novel combination, FQQ-YTE (L234F/L235Q/K322Q/M252Y/S254T/T256E), had significantly improved conformational and colloidal stability, and was found to retain the same biological activities as TM-YTE (extended half-life and lack of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and complement-dependent cytotoxicity activity). Our engineering approach offers a way to improve the developability of antibodies containing Fc mutations while retaining tailored biological activity. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Span efficiency in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2013-07-06

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects.

  12. Effects of extended pleurectomy and decortication on quality of life and pulmonary function in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, David; Hadi, Duraid; Kunnavakkam, Rangesh; Kindler, Hedy; Todd, Kristy; Celauro, Amy Durkin; Vigneswaran, Wickii T

    2015-05-01

    Maximal cytoreductive surgeries--extrapleural pneumonectomy and extended pleurectomy and decortication (EPD)--are effective surgical treatments in selected patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Extended pleurectomy and decortication results in equivalent survival yet better health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were studied for the effects of EPD on HRQoL and pulmonary function. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionaire-C30 was used to evaluate HRQoL before operation, and at 4 to 5 and 7 to 8 months postoperatively. Pulmonary function tests were measured immediately before and 5 to 7 months after the operation. Patients were compared according to World Health Organization baseline performance status (PS). Of the 36 patients enrolled, 17 were PS 0 and 19 were PS 1 or PS 2 at baseline. Patients in groups PS 1 and PS 2 had significantly worse global health, functional, and symptoms scores. After EPD, PS 0 patients had no change in global health or function and symptoms scores except for emotional function, whereas PS 1 or PS 2 patients showed improvements at 4 to 5 months with further improvements at 7 to 8 months. The PS 0 patients demonstrated a significant decrease in forced vital capacity (p = 0.001), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (p = 0.002), total lung capacity (p = 0.0006) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (p = 0.003) after EPD, whereas no change was observed in PS 1 and PS 2 patients. Extended pleurectomy and decortication did not improve overall HRQoL and had a negative impact in pulmonary function in minimally symptomatic patients. In symptomatic patients, a significant improvement in HRQoL was observed after EPD, which continued at late follow-up, although the pulmonary function was not affected. As changes in HRQoL are multidimensional, the preservation of the pulmonary function may have contributed to the net benefit

  13. 'The brain is the organ of longevity': Introduction to G. A. Sacher's free-energy hypothesis of life-span enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    No experiment reported to date constitutes an adequate test in the sense of supplying comprehensive information on survival time, metabolic rate, food consumption and utilization, body mass, anatomical integrity (especially that of the skeletal and nervous systems), status of the immune and endocrine systems, and physiological and behavioral competence in the wake of chronic exposure to a moderately thermalizing radio field. Some reports do provide data on one or more of the important end points, usually in association with a single exposure or a limited number of brief exposures. One must distinguish between prolongation of life in senescence and enhancement of longevity based on actual retardation of the rate of aging. More, retardation of aging, if sorely taxed at the expense of quality of living, is no bargain. Some hibernators live relatively long lives, but the torpor of hibernation--a prolonged period of somnolence and greatly reduced metabolic activity--is hardly the stuff of a vibrant psychological existence.

  14. Red fresh vegetables smoothies with extended shelf life as an innovative source of health-promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Noelia; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Two fresh red vegetables smoothies based on tomato, carrots, pepper and broccoli and rich in health-promoting compounds were developed. The smoothies showed a viscoelastic behaviour. According to sensory analyses, a shelf life of 28 days at 5 °C for fresh blended smoothies was established while thermally-treated ones (3 min, 80 °C) reached up to 40 days at 20 °C and 58 days at 5 °C. For those mild heat treated smoothies, total vitamin C degradation was 2-fold reduced during storage at 5 °C compared to samples stored at 20 °C while the initial total carotenoids, lycopene and total chlorophylls contents were not greatly affected. A 250-g portion of such smoothies covers in a great extend the established recommended daily nutrient intakes for dietary fibre, minerals and vitamin C of different population groups. As main conclusion, a mild thermal treatment and low temperature storage greatly increased the shelf life of red fresh vegetables smoothies and reduced total vitamin C degradation.

  15. Health-related quality of life in a multicenter randomized controlled comparison of telephonic disease management and automated home monitoring in patients recently hospitalized with heart failure: SPAN-CHF II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstam, Varda; Gregory, Douglas; Chen, Jie; Weintraub, Andrew; Patel, Ayan; Levine, Daniel; Venesy, David; Perry, Kathleen; Delano, Christine; Konstam, Marvin A

    2011-02-01

    Although disease management programs have been shown to provide a number of clinical benefits to patients with heart failure (HF), the incremental impact of an automated home monitoring (AHM) system on health-related quality of life (HRQL) is unknown. We performed a prospective randomized investigation, examining the additive value of AHM to a previously described nurse-directed HF disease management program (SPAN-CHF), with attention to HRQL, in patients with a recent history of decompensated HF. A total of 188 patients were randomized to receive the SPAN-CHF intervention for 90 days, either with (AHM group) or without (NAHM, standard-care group) AHM, with a 1:1 randomization ratio after HF-related hospitalization. HRQL, measured by the Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) (Physical, Emotional, and Total scores on MLHFQ) was assessed at 3 time points: baseline, 45 days, and 90 days. Although both treatments (AHM and NAHM) improved HRQL at 45 and 90 days compared with baseline with respect to Physical, Emotional, and Total domain scales, no significant difference emerged between AHM and NAHM groups. AHM and NAHM treatments demonstrated improved HRQL scores at 45 and 90 days after baseline assessment. When comparing 2 state-of the-art disease management programs regarding HRQL outcomes, our results did not support the added value of AHM. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Study on Renal Anemia: A Double Tracer Study on Metabolism and Red Cell Life Span in Chronic Renal Diseases using Radioactive Iron ({sup 59}Fe) and Chromium ({sup 51}Cr)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1968-03-15

    The ferrokinetics and red cell life spans of the patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were investigated by the double tracing method using radioactive iron ({sup 59}Fe) and chromium ({sup 51}Cr). According to the serum NPN levels, the patients were subdivided into 3 groups: Group 1. 6 patients, had the levels below 40 mg/dl. Group 2. 6 patients, had the levels between 41 mg/dl to 80 mg/dl. Group 3. 10 patients had the levels above 80 mg/dl. The results were as follows: 1) Red blood cell, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were moderately reduced in patients with normal serum NPN levels, while markedly reduced in patients with elevated serum NPN levels. 2) The plasma volume was increased, while the red cell volume was decreased in patients with elevated serum NPN levels, hence, total blood volume was unchanged. 3) The serum iron level was slightly reduced in patients of groups 1 and 2, while was within the normal ranges in patients of group 3. 4) i) In patients with normal serum NPN levels, the plasma iron disappearance rate, red cell iron utilization rate, red cell iron turnover rate, daily red cell iron renewal rate, circulating red cell iron and red cell iron concentration were within the normal ranges, while the plasma iron turnover rate was slightly reduced. ii) In patients with elevated serum NPN levels, the plasma iron disappearance rate was delayed, while the plasma iron turnover rate was within the normal ranges. The red cell iron utilization rate, red cell iron turnover rate and circulating red cell iron were decreased and the period in which the red cell iron utilization rate reached its peak was delayed in Group 3 patients. The daily red cell iron renewal rate and the red cell iron concentration were unchanged. iii) The mean red cell life span was within the normal ranges in patients with normal serum NPN levels, while was shortened in patients with elevated serum NPN levels.

  17. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    commercial company, product, process, or service by trade name, trademark , manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its...improper Army association or emblem usage considerations. All other legal considerations are the responsibility of the author and his/her/their...1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no

  18. Leaf life spans of some conifers of the temperate forests of South America Longevidad foliar de algunas coníferas de los bosques templados de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHRISTOPHER H. LUSK

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific variation in leaf life span has wide-ranging implications for plant species sorting on resource availability gradients, and for ecosystem processes such as nutrient cycling. Very little is known about leaf life spans of evergreen trees in the temperate forests of South America. Leaf life spans were estimated by static demographic methods, and associated leaf traits measured, for four conifers of this region. It was expected that leaf life span variation would correlate negatively with soil fertility of habitats normally occupied by each species. This prediction was upheld by the data. The mean leaf life span determined for Araucaria araucana (24 years is among the highest figures reported for any plant species. This extreme leaf longevity was associated with very robust construction (high leaf mass per unit area and very low nitrogen content. These aspects of the ecology of A. araucana may affect its fitness in two ways. Firstly, slow foliage turnover will reduce its annual nutrient requirements for crown maintenance, a trait that is thought to be crucial for survival on nutrient-poor sites. Secondly, the low decomposability of A. araucana leaf litter is likely to cause nutrient immobilisation, possibly favouring site retention by A. araucana in the face of competition from faster-growing but more nutrient-demanding species. Interspecific variation in leaf life span appeared to be systematically related to variation in leaf mass per unit area (LMA and leaf nitrogen, in agreement with a large body of evidence that leaf evolution is constrained by a trade-off between trait combinations which optimise carbon gain and growth in resource-rich habitats, and those which favour persistence in chronically adverse environmentsLas diferencias específicas en longevidad foliar tienen importantes implicancias para la distribución de las plantas en relación con gradientes de recursos, y en procesos ecosistémicos tales como el ciclaje de

  19. Extending the Life Time of a Nuclear Power Plant: Impact on Nuclear Liabilities in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Havlíček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear power plant (NPP operators have several basic long-term liabilities. Such liabilities include storage, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste generated at the operators’ NPP, storage and management of nuclear fuel irradiated in the reactor of the operator’s NPP (“spent fuel”, disposal of the spent fuel (SF or residues resulting from spent fuel reprocessing. Last but not least, the operator is liable for decommissioning its nuclear facilities. If the operator considers extending the life time of its NPP or if the construction of a new NPP is being evaluated by an investor, an integral part of the economic evaluation must be a comprehensive assessment of future incremental costs related to the above-mentioned long-term liabilities. An economic evaluation performed by standard methods (usually NPV, alternatively real options leads to a decision either to proceed with the project or to shelve it. If the investor decides to go ahead with the project there can be an immediate impact on nuclear liabilities. The impact is not the same for all operator liabilities. Depending on the valid legislation and the nature of the liability, in some cases the extent of the liability must be immediately recalculated when a decision is made to proceed with the project, and the annual accrual of accumulated reserves / funds must be adjusted. In other cases, the change in liability is linked to the generation of additional radioactive waste or spent fuel. In the Czech Republic, responsibility for each of the nuclear liabilities is defined, as is the form in which the financial means are to be accumulated. This paper deals with the impact of NPP life time extension (alternatively NPP power up-rate or construction of a new NPP on individual nuclear liabilities in the conditions of the Czech Republic. 

  20. Life-span effects of ionizing radiation in the beagle dog: A summary account of four decades of research funded by the US Department of Energy and its predecessor agencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    Nearly 40 years ago, the US Atomic Energy Commission made a far- reaching commitment to the support of life-span radiation-effects studies in a relatively long-lived animal, the beagle dog. Something in the range of 200 million dollars has already been spent on a group of closely related experiments, many of which are only now coming to fruition. Responsible fiscal management of these studies, directed toward securing an optimum return from past investments, and toward creative planning of future directions, requires a comprehensive view of this total effort. This report is designed to provide that comprehensive view. This is primarily intended as a research management document. Evaluation and interpretation are tasks for those directly involved in conducting these experiments. The limited objective of the present document is to describe what has been done, to give some of the background for why it was done, to describe results already realized and applications that have been made of these results -- all in a manner designed to display the total effort rather than piecemeal details. While proposing no specific answers to the questions ''Where do we go from here.''it is hoped that the document will provide a basis for approaching that question in an informed manner. The maintenance of a continuity of scientific understanding and direction in these experiments, which often continue beyond the initiating investigators' working life, is no small part of the problem involved in conducting these experiments.

  1. Autobiographical memory from a life span perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroots, J.J.F.; Dijkum, van C.; Assink, M.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    This comparative study (i.e., three age groups, three measures) explores the distribution of retrospective and prospective autobiographical memory data across the lifespan, in particular the bump pattern of disproportionally higher recall of memories from the ages 10 to 30, as generally observed in

  2. Life-span of leadwood trees

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available dead tree near Letaba rest camp, collected in 1980 and submitted by C.F. Garbers. The radiocar- bon content of the sample was 21.8% above the standard for modern carbon, indicating that the wood was formed after the pollution by nuclear weapon tests... bythecombustionoffossilfuelsthatdonotcontaintheradioactive isotope. After AD 1954, the testing of nuclear fusion bombs dramaticallyincreasedthe14Ccontentintheatmosphere,sothat material dating to after this date shows an elevated 14C level and can be pinpointed precisely to ?1 year.4 Materials and method...

  3. Life Span Personality Stability in Sibling Statuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, B. G.

    Personality stability and change in sibling status in the one- and two-child-family are examined in this Study. Q-sort data were analyzed for the same 33 male and 34 female subjects during four periods of their lives-- early and late adolescence and early and middle adulthood. Results indicate that stability of personality was greatest during…

  4. The life span of the biosphere revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, K; Kasting, J F

    A decade ago, Lovelock and Whitfield raised the question of how much longer the biosphere can survive on Earth. They pointed out that, despite the current fossil-fuel induced increase in the atmospheric CO2 concentration, the long-term trend should be in the opposite direction: as increased solar luminosity warms the Earth, silicate rocks should weather more readily, causing atmospheric CO2 to decrease. In their model, atmospheric CO2 falls below the critical level for C3 photosynthesis, 150 parts per million (p.p.m.), in only 100 Myr, and this is assumed to mark the demise of the biosphere as a whole. Here, we re-examine this problem using a more elaborate model that includes a more accurate treatment of the greenhouse effect of CO2, a biologically mediated weathering parameterization, and the realization that C4 photosynthesis can persist to much lower concentrations of atmospheric CO2(Earth may lose its water to space, thereby following the path of its sister planet, Venus.

  5. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volitilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll weevil extended-life pheromone lures, impregnated with 25 mg grandlure and 30 mg eugenol, are replacing standard pheromone lures (10 mg grandlure) in boll weevil eradication programs, to increase the changing interval from 2 weeks, to 3 or 4 weeks, which reduces labor and material costs. The a...

  6. Extending Cassava Root Shelf Life via Reduction of Reactive Oxygen Species Production1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidenga, Tawanda; Leyva-Guerrero, Elisa; Moon, Hangsik; Siritunga, Dimuth; Sayre, Richard

    2012-01-01

    One of the major constraints facing the large-scale production of cassava (Manihot esculenta) roots is the rapid postharvest physiological deterioration (PPD) that occurs within 72 h following harvest. One of the earliest recognized biochemical events during the initiation of PPD is a rapid burst of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation. We have investigated the source of this oxidative burst to identify possible strategies to limit its extent and to extend cassava root shelf life. We provide evidence for a causal link between cyanogenesis and the onset of the oxidative burst that triggers PPD. By measuring ROS accumulation in transgenic low-cyanogen plants with and without cyanide complementation, we show that PPD is cyanide dependent, presumably resulting from a cyanide-dependent inhibition of respiration. To reduce cyanide-dependent ROS production in cassava root mitochondria, we generated transgenic plants expressing a codon-optimized Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mitochondrial alternative oxidase gene (AOX1A). Unlike cytochrome c oxidase, AOX is cyanide insensitive. Transgenic plants overexpressing AOX exhibited over a 10-fold reduction in ROS accumulation compared with wild-type plants. The reduction in ROS accumulation was associated with a delayed onset of PPD by 14 to 21 d after harvest of greenhouse-grown plants. The delay in PPD in transgenic plants was also observed under field conditions, but with a root biomass yield loss in the highest AOX-expressing lines. These data reveal a mechanism for PPD in cassava based on cyanide-induced oxidative stress as well as PPD control strategies involving inhibition of ROS production or its sequestration. PMID:22711743

  7. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: surgical, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes upon extended follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilter Alkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the long-term surgical, functional, and quality-of-life (QoL outcomes after Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed recorded data on patients who underwent HoLEP between June 2002 and February 2005. Ninety-six patients were enrolled. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative data were recorded. On follow-up, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSSs, prostate-specific antigen (PSA levels, QoL scores, peak uroflowmetric data (Qmax values, and post-voiding residual urine volumes (PVR volumes, were recorded. Complications were scored using the Clavien system. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The mean follow-up time was 41.8±34.6 months and the mean patient age 73.2±8.7 years. The mean prostate volume was 74.6±34.3mL. Significant improvements in Qmax values, QoL, and IPSSs and decreases in PSA levels and PVR volumes were noted during follow-up (all p values=0.001. The most common complication was a requirement for re-catheterisation because of urinary retention. Two patients had concomitant bladder tumours that did not invade the muscles. Eight patients (8.3% required re-operations; three had residual adenoma, three urethral strictures, and two residual prostate tissue in the bladder. Stress incontinence occurred in one patient (1%. All complications were of Clavien Grade 3a. We noted no Clavien 3b, 4, or 5 complications during follow-up. Conclusions: HoLEP improved IPSSs, Qmax values, PVR volumes, and QoL and was associated with a low complication rate, during extended follow-up. Thus, HoLEP can be a viable option to transurethral resection of the prostate.

  8. Effect of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) on quality of life in alcohol-dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettinati, Helen M; Gastfriend, David R; Dong, Qunming; Kranzler, Henry R; O'Malley, Stephanie S

    2009-02-01

    Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) is a once-a-month injectable formulation for the treatment of alcohol dependence previously shown to reduce drinking and heavy drinking relative to placebo (Garbutt et al., 2005). A 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study established the efficacy and safety of XR-NTX in this patient population. In this report, the effect of XR-NTX on quality of life (QOL) was examined. Alcohol-dependent patients were randomly assigned to receive XR-NTX 380 mg (N = 205), XR-NTX 190 mg (N = 210), or placebo (N = 209), combined with a standardized psychosocial intervention. QOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey, administered at baseline and at 4-week intervals during 24 weeks of treatment. Compared with U.S. population norms, patients showed initial impairment in the health-related QOL domains of mental health, social functioning, and problems with work or other daily activities due to emotional problems. Adherence to all 6 injections was 65% for XR-NTX 190 mg, 63% for XR-NTX 380 mg, and 64% for placebo. Generalized estimating equations analyses using an intention-to-treat sample revealed that XR-NTX 380 mg was associated with significantly greater improvements from baseline in mental health (p = 0.0496), social functioning (p = 0.010), general health (p = 0.048), and physical functioning (p = 0.028), compared with placebo. Linear regression analyses revealed that reductions from baseline in drinking (percentage of drinking days and percentage of heavy drinking days in the last 30 days) were significantly (p mental health, social functioning, general health, and physical functioning.

  9. Span of management: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Raquel M

    2008-07-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of span of management. Span of management is an important structural variable in evaluating the contributions of nursing managers to healthcare systems. Span of management is typically measured as a ratio. A wide variety of operational definitions have been applied and these differences have not been reconciled. A search of CINAHL, PsychINFO and Business Source Premier was completed in 2007 using the terms span of management, span of control, organizational structure, hierarchy, supervisory ratio and work group size. Key publications (1975-2007) and seminal works were included. Review methods. Morse's concept analysis approach was used to determine the pragmatic utility of the concept. A critical appraisal of the literature assessed the use of the concept across disciplines, identified inconsistencies within the concept, and uncovered assumptions and conceptual gaps. At the organizational level, span represents supervisory capability. At the level of the manager, span may reflect reporting structure, closeness of contact, or scope of the role. At the work group level, span quantifies work group size. At the employee level, span represents employee support. These measures are influenced by units of measurement and by context. A systematic understanding of span of management concepts, measures and determinants will assist nurse executives in selecting parameters to quantify the allocation of managerial resources. Researchers can incorporate these parameters in comparisons across studies and in advancing the science of nursing management.

  10. Activation of the AMPK/Sirt1 pathway by a leucine-metformin combination increases insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, and stimulates glucose and lipid metabolism and increases life span in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Jheelam; Bruckbauer, Antje; Zemel, Michael B

    2016-11-01

    We have previously shown leucine (Leu) to activate Sirt1 by lowering its KM for NAD+, thereby amplifying the effects of other sirtuin activators and improving insulin sensitivity. Metformin (Met) converges on this pathway both indirectly (via AMPK) and by direct activation of Sirt1, and we recently found Leu to synergize with Met to improve insulin sensitivity and glycemic control while achieving ~80% dose-reduction in diet-induced obese mice. Accordingly, we sought here to define the mechanism of this interaction. Muscle cells C2C12 and liver cells HepG2 were used to test the effect of Met-Leu on Sirt1 activation. Caenorhabditis elegans was used for glucose utilization and life span studies. Leu (0.5mmol/L)+Met (50-100μmol/L) synergistically activated Sirt1 (pmetformin exerted no independent effect at any concentration (0.1-0.5mmol/L). Thus, Leu and Met synergize to enable Sirt1 activation at low NAD+ concentrations (typical of energy replete states). Sirt1 and AMPK activations are required for Met-Leu's full action, which result in improvements in energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characteristics of an infinite life span diploid human fibroblast cell strain and a near-diploid strain arising from a clone of cells expressing a transfected v-myc oncogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, T.L.; Dajun Yang; Fry, D.G.; Hurlin, P.J.; Kohler, S.K.; Maher, V.M.; McCormick, J.J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1991-11-01

    Diploid human fibroblasts were transfected with a plasmid carrying a v-myc oncogene linked to the neo gene or with a vector control carrying a neo gene. Drug-resistant clones were isolated and subcultured as needed. All populations went into crisis and eventually senesced. But while they were senescing, viable-appearing clones were noted among the progeny of a transfected population that expressed the v-myc oncogene. After several months, these cells began replicating more rapidly. Karyotype analysis indicated that they were clonally derived since all of them had 45 chromosomes, including 2 marker chromosomes. This cell strain was designated MSU-1.1. Similar analysis showed that cells from an earlier passage were diploid. These cells were designated MSU-1.0. The expression of v-myc is probably required for acquisition of an infinite life span, since this phenotype did not develop in populations not expressing this oncogene. However, expression of v-myc is clearly not sufficient, since all of the progeny of the clone that gave rise to the MSU-1.0 cells expressed this oncogene, but the vast majority of them senesced.

  12. Nisin A extends the shelf life of high-fat chilled dairy dessert, a milk-based pudding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, S; Hirano, A; Kamikado, H; Nishimura, J; Kawai, Y; Saito, T

    2014-05-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of nisin A to control the growth of spore-forming bacteria, Bacillus and Paenibacillus, in chilled high-fat, milk pudding and to reduce heat treatment to improve aroma and flavour. Nisin A was added to milk pudding containing 5·0 and 7·5% fat to final concentrations of 40, 80, 120 and 240 IU ml(-1). Spores from Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and Paenibacillus jamilae were inoculated into samples at 10 spores ml(-1) prior to pasteurization at 130°C for 2 s. Milk pudding without inoculation was pasteurized using less heat condition (100, 110 and 120°C for 2 s) to measure the effect of adjusting the ingredients to prevent naturally occurring bacteria. The viable cells during storage at 15, 20 and 30°C showed nisin A inhibited spiked bacteria to varying degrees depending on species, sensitivities to nisin A concentration and fat content, and inhibited natural populations at 80 IU g(-1) nisin A in 5·0% fat and at 120 IU g(-1) in 7·5% fat milk pudding. An aroma compound analysis and organoleptic assessment showed processing at 110 and 120°C decreased the temperature-dependent unpleasant odours, for example, reduced dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide by 1·2-1·5 times and increased rankings in taste tests compared with 130°C treated pudding. Nisin A was found to be effective as a natural preservative to control spoilage bacteria in high-fat milk pudding and extend its shelf life, when using reduced heat treatments to improve the flavour and aroma without compromising food safety. This is the first report showing nisin A is effective in reducing spoilage bacteria in high-fat, chilled dessert, milk pudding. Therefore, nisin A can be used to improve milk puddings to satisfy both industry and consumer demand for food quality and safety. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Chain-Constrained Spanning Trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olver, N.K.; Zenklusen, R.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the problem of finding a spanning tree satisfying a family of additional constraints. Several settings have been considered previously, the most famous being the problem of finding a spanning tree with degree constraints. Since the problem is hard, the goal is typically to find a

  14. What prolongs a butterfly's life?: Trade-offs between dormancy, fecundity and body size.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Haeler

    Full Text Available In butterflies, life span often increases only at the expense of fecundity. Prolonged life span, on the other hand, provides more opportunities for oviposition. Here, we studied the association between life span and summer dormancy in two closely related species of Palearctic Meadow Brown butterflies, the endemic Maniola nurag and the widespread M. jurtina, from two climatic provenances, a Mediterranean and a Central European site, and tested the relationships between longevity, body size and fecundity. We experimentally induced summer dormancy and hence prolonged the butterflies' life in order to study the effects of such a prolonged life. We were able to modulate longevity only in Mediterranean females by rearing them under summer photoperiodic conditions (light 16 h : dark 8 h, thereby more than doubling their natural life span, to up to 246 days. Central European individuals kept their natural average live span under all treatments, as did Mediterranean individuals under autumn treatment (light 11: dark 13. Body size only had a significant effect in the smaller species, M. nurag, where it affected the duration of dormancy and lifetime fecundity. In the larger species, M. jurtina, a prolonged adult life span did, surprisingly, not convey any fecundity loss. In M. nurag, which generally deposited fewer eggs, extended life had a fecundity cost. We conclude that Mediterranen M. jurtina butterflies have an extraordinary plasticity in aging which allows them to extend life span in response to adverse environmental conditions and relieve the time limitation on egg-laying while maintaining egg production at equal levels.

  15. Eight Nucleotide Substitutions Inhibit Splicing to HPV-16 3′-Splice Site SA3358 and Reduce the Efficiency by which HPV-16 Increases the Life Span of Primary Human Keratinocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoze; Johansson, Cecilia; Cardoso Palacios, Carlos; Mossberg, Anki; Dhanjal, Soniya; Bergvall, Monika; Schwartz, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The most commonly used 3′-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16. PMID:24039800

  16. Eight nucleotide substitutions inhibit splicing to HPV-16 3'-splice site SA3358 and reduce the efficiency by which HPV-16 increases the life span of primary human keratinocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoze Li

    Full Text Available The most commonly used 3'-splice site on the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16 genome named SA3358 is used to produce HPV-16 early mRNAs encoding E4, E5, E6 and E7, and late mRNAs encoding L1 and L2. We have previously shown that SA3358 is suboptimal and is totally dependent on a downstream splicing enhancer containingmultiple potential ASF/SF2 binding sites. Here weshow that only one of the predicted ASF/SF2 sites accounts for the majority of the enhancer activity. We demonstrate that single nucleotide substitutions in this predicted ASF/SF2 site impair enhancer function and that this correlates with less efficient binding to ASF/SF2 in vitro. We provide evidence that HPV-16 mRNAs that arespliced to SA3358 interact with ASF/SF2 in living cells. In addition,mutational inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site weakened the enhancer at SA3358 in episomal forms of the HPV-16 genome, indicating that the enhancer is active in the context of the full HPV-16 genome.This resulted in induction of HPV-16 late gene expression as a result of competition from late splice site SA5639. Furthermore, inactivation of the ASF/SF2 site of the SA3358 splicing enhancer reduced the ability of E6- and E7-encoding HPV-16 plasmids to increase the life span of primary keratinocytes in vitro, demonstrating arequirement for an intact splicing enhancer of SA3358 forefficient production of the E6 and E7 mRNAs. These results link the strength of the HPV-16 SA3358 splicing enhancer to expression of E6 and E7 and to the pathogenic properties of HPV-16.

  17. The role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib (traditional Ethiopian spiced fermented cottage cheese)

    OpenAIRE

    Geremew, Tsehayneh; Kebede, Ameha; Andualem, Berhanu

    2015-01-01

    Spices and lactic acid bacteria have natural antimicrobial substances and organic compounds having antagonistic activity against microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib. Antimicrobial activities of spices and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) filtrates were determined by agar well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. flexneri and S. peumoniae. Aantimicrobial ac...

  18. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Properties of Flavonoids Determine Their Abilities to Extend the Shelf Life of Tomato1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; De Stefano, Rosalba; Robine, Marie; Butelli, Eugenio; Bulling, Katharina; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Martin, Cathie; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan

    2015-01-01

    The shelf life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is determined by the processes of overripening and susceptibility to pathogens. Postharvest shelf life is one of the most important traits for commercially grown tomatoes. We compared the shelf life of tomato fruit that accumulate different flavonoids and found that delayed overripening is associated with increased total antioxidant capacity caused by the accumulation of flavonoids in the fruit. However, reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen of tomato, is conferred by specific flavonoids only. We demonstrate an association between flavonoid structure, selective scavenging ability for different free radicals, and reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how flavonoids influence the shelf life, information that could be used to improve the shelf life of tomato and, potentially, other soft fruit. PMID:26082399

  19. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Properties of Flavonoids Determine Their Abilities to Extend the Shelf Life of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; De Stefano, Rosalba; Robine, Marie; Butelli, Eugenio; Bulling, Katharina; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Martin, Cathie; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan

    2015-11-01

    The shelf life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is determined by the processes of overripening and susceptibility to pathogens. Postharvest shelf life is one of the most important traits for commercially grown tomatoes. We compared the shelf life of tomato fruit that accumulate different flavonoids and found that delayed overripening is associated with increased total antioxidant capacity caused by the accumulation of flavonoids in the fruit. However, reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen of tomato, is conferred by specific flavonoids only. We demonstrate an association between flavonoid structure, selective scavenging ability for different free radicals, and reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how flavonoids influence the shelf life, information that could be used to improve the shelf life of tomato and, potentially, other soft fruit. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Extending Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...... and the impacts of setting up, crossing and breaking the boundaries of game and non-game. Part three, Interfaces of Play, looks at games as technological and historical artefacts and commodities. The fourth part, Beyond Design, introduces new models for the practical and theoretical dimensions of game design....

  1. Alternative strategies to improve the beneficial effects of exercise throughout life : dietary and physiological aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.T. Mankowski (Robert Tomasz)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract It is certain that the aging process leads to death, but decreasing the levels of pathology throughout life improves the quality of life and extends life span. Therefore, this dissertation focuses on alternative strategies that may contribute to improving the aging

  2. Spanning Tree Based Attribute Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yifeng; Jorge, Cordero Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    inconsistent edges from a maximum spanning tree by starting appropriate initial modes, therefore generating stable clusters. It discovers sound clusters through simple graph operations and achieves significant computational savings. We compare the Star Discovery algorithm against earlier attribute clustering...

  3. Conelike soap films spanning tetrahedra

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Robert

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we provide the first examples of non-flat soap films proven to span tetrahedra. These are members of a continuous two parameter family of soap films with tetrahedral boundaries. Of particular interest is a two parameter subfamily where each spanning soap film has the property that two minimal surfaces meet along an edge of the boundary at an angle greater than 120 degrees.

  4. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  5. Sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: long-term follow-up in a 134-patient cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Robert J.; Minocha, Jeet; Memon, Khairuddin; Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed; Salem, Riad [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    To validate our initial pilot study and confirm sustained safety and tumor response of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres. We hypothesized that for the same planned tissue dose, the increase in number of glass microspheres (decayed to the second week of their allowable shelf-life) administered for the same absorbed dose would result in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and January 2010, 134 patients underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres; data from 84 new patients were combined with data from our 50-patient pilot study cohort. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained 1 and 3 months after therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were prospectively captured and categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria. Response in the index lesion was assessed using WHO and EASL guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 123 Gy to the target liver tissue. The mean increase in number of microspheres with this approach compared to standard {sup 90}Y glass microsphere dosimetry was 103 %, corresponding to an increase from 3.84 to 7.78 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (89 patients, 66 %), abdominal pain (49 patients, 36.6 %), and nausea/vomiting (25 patients, 18.7 %). Grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in three patients (2 %). Two (1 %) of the initial 50-patient cohort showed gastroduodenal ulcers; gastroduodenal ulcers were not seen in any of the subsequent 84 patients. According to WHO and EASL guidelines, response rates were 48 % and 57 %, respectively, and 21 % demonstrated a complete EASL response. This study showed sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres in a larger, 134-patient cohort. The increase in number of microspheres administered theoretically resulted in better tumor distribution of the

  6. Supporting high-technology systems during periods of extended life-cycles by means of integrated logistics support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert, K. R.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The business environment is constantly changing. For organisations to gain competitive advantage, they require innovative methods to achieve future business goals. The capital assets of an organisation, such as its high-technology, complex systems, typically have long life-cycles, and are susceptible to obsolescence, requiring multifaceted support. Implementing integrated logistic support principles in supporting such systems improves the organisation’s bottom line and reduces the total ownership and life-cycle costs. The research consists of a literature review, a case study analysis, and a questionnaire.

  7. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

  8. Use of lycopene as a natural antioxidant in extending the shelf-life of anhydrous cow milk fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwach, Ruby; Tokas, Jayanti; Seth, Raman

    2016-05-15

    Oxidative rancidity in anhydrous cow milk fat leads to reduction in its shelf life. Use of synthetic antioxidants is prevalent in dairy industry to prevent the development of rancidity. Keeping in view the increasing demand for natural additives, the present study was carried out to explore the potential of lycopene as a natural antioxidant in anhydrous cow milk fat. Lycopene at five different levels (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm) and butylated hydroxyl anisole (200 ppm), were incorporated in anhydrous cow milk fat. Potential of lycopene extract to enhance the shelf life of anhydrous cow milk fat was evaluated by measuring Free Fatty Acids, peroxide value, Thiobarbituric Acid value and color value during 12 months of storage at ambient conditions (30°C). Lycopene significantly (pLycopene containing samples scored significantly higher in terms of sensory attributes as compared to control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spanning quadrangulations of triangulated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kündgen, André; Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study alternating cycles in graphs embedded in a surface. We observe that 4-vertex-colorability of a triangulation on a surface can be expressed in terms of spanninq quadrangulations, and we establish connections between spanning quadrangulations and cycles in the dual graph which...... are noncontractible and alternating with respect to a perfect matching. We show that the dual graph of an Eulerian triangulation of an orientable surface other than the sphere has a perfect matching M and an M-alternating noncontractible cycle. As a consequence, every Eulerian triangulation of the torus has...... a nonbipartite spanning quadrangulation. For an Eulerian triangulation G of the projective plane the situation is different: If the dual graph G∗ is nonbipartite, then G∗ has no noncontractible alternating cycle, and all spanning quadrangulations of G are bipartite. If the dual graph G∗ is bipartite, then it has...

  10. Potential of nitrogen gas (N2) flushing to extend the shelf life of cold stored pasteurized milk

    OpenAIRE

    Tapani Alatossava; Abdul Ghafar; Patricia Munsch-Alatossava

    2013-01-01

    For different reasons, the amount of food loss for developing and developed countries is approximately equivalent. Altogether, these losses represent approximately 1/3 of the global food production. Significant amounts of pasteurised milk are lost due to bad smell and unpleasant taste. Currently, even under the best cold chain conditions, psychrotolerant spore-forming bacteria, some of which also harbour virulent factors, limit the shelf life of pasteurised milk. N2 gas-based flushing has rec...

  11. Extending life for people with a terminal illness: a moral right and an expensive death? Exploring societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Neil; Baker, Rachel M; Mason, Helen; Williamson, Laura; van Exel, Job; Deogaonkar, Rohan; Collins, Marissa; Donaldson, Cam

    2015-03-07

    Many publicly-funded health systems apply cost-benefit frameworks in response to the moral dilemma of how best to allocate scarce healthcare resources. However, implementation of recommendations based on costs and benefit calculations and subsequent challenges have led to 'special cases' with certain types of health benefits considered more valuable than others. Recent debate and research has focused on the relative value of life extensions for people with terminal illnesses. This research investigates societal perspectives in relation to this issue, in the UK. Q methodology was used to elicit societal perspectives from a purposively selected sample of data-rich respondents. Participants ranked 49 statements of opinion (developed for this study), onto a grid, according to level of agreement. These 'Q sorts' were followed by brief interviews. Factor analysis was used to identify shared points of view (patterns of similarity between individuals' Q sorts). Analysis produced a three factor solution. These rich, shared accounts can be broadly summarised as: i) 'A population perspective - value for money, no special cases', ii) 'Life is precious - valuing life-extension and patient choice', iii) 'Valuing wider benefits and opportunity cost - the quality of life and death'. From the factor descriptions it is clear that the main philosophical positions that have long dominated debates on the just allocation of resources have a basis in public opinion. The existence of certain moral positions in the views of society does not ethically imply, and pragmatically cannot mean, that all are translated into policy. Our findings highlight normative tensions and the importance of critically engaging with these normative issues (in addition to the current focus on a procedural justice approach to health policy). Future research should focus on i) the extent to which these perspectives are supported in society, ii) how respondents' perspectives relate to specific resource allocation

  12. The Life Cycle Completed. Extended Version with New Chapters on the Ninth Stage of Development by Joan M. Erikson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Erik H.

    This expanded edition of a 1982 book by Erik Erikson summarizes his work on the stages of the human life cycle, including chapters on psychosexuality and the cycle of generations, major stages in psychosocial development, and ego and ethos. An additional chapter on the ninth stage sets forth his philosophy on old age--i.e. the 80s and 90s--and how…

  13. Extending the Life-Course Interdependence Model: Life Transitions and the Enduring Consequences of Early Self-Derogation for Young Adult Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, David; Taylor, John; Pih, Kay Kei-ho

    2010-01-01

    Few studies exploring the association between adolescent self-esteem and crime have considered whether the early adolescent self-esteem has any enduring consequences for young adult crime. Inspired by the life course and developmental criminology approaches, Arnett's notion of emerging adulthood, and Kaplan's self-derogation theory, this article…

  14. The effects of dopamine on digit span in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warden, Clara; Hwang, Jaclyn; Marshall, Anisa; Fenesy, Michelle; Poston, Kathleen L

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease patients are at an elevated risk of developing cognitive impairment. Although cognitive impairment is one of the strongest predictors of quality of life, dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications are designed to target motor symptoms. However, there is substantial evidence that dopamine also impacts cognition, in particular working memory. It is therefore critical for movement disorders physicians to understand the potential dopaminergic effects on working memory when prescribing these medications. Verbal digit span tasks offer a potentially straightforward and quick assessment of baseline working memory. Moreover, Digit Span Backward was recently validated as a screening tool for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease when participants were medicated. Research indicates that the interaction between dopamine and working memory follows an Inverted-U shaped curve, but the effect of dopamine on Digit Span has not been well studied. Our study seeks to: (1) determine the validity of verbal Digit Spans for detecting cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease patients both ON and OFF medications; and (2) ascertain the effects of dopaminergic medications on verbal Digit Span. We recruited 64 Parkinson's disease patients and 22 age-and education-matched controls. Parkinson's patients completed Digit Span Backward and Digit Span Forward ON and OFF medications, while healthy controls completed them once. All participants were categorized by cognitive diagnosis using level-II consensus criteria. Digit Span Backward successfully identified mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease, both ON and OFF medications. Combining patients with and without cognitive impairment, we found that dopamine significantly improved performance on Digit Span Backward, but not Forward. In a secondary analysis, we found this dopaminergic improvement was restricted to the Low baseline working memory group; the High baseline working memory group was unaffected

  15. Effect of Mentha pulegium extract and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate to extend the quality and vase life of rose (Rosa hybrid) cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Bagherzadeh, Maryam; Rezaalipour, Mohaddeseh; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rose is an ornamental plant which contains one of the world's top cut flowers. Vase life of cut rose flower is short. Extracts of Mentha pulegium and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate (8-HQS) were used as two preservative solutions, aiming to extend the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrid L.) flowers. Rose flowers were treated with a vase solution containing the extract of M. pulegium, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in combination with 8-HQS at concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1). Longevity of cut roses flowers was determined on the basis of wilting and chlorophyll retention. Cut roses flowers were kept at room temperature (20 ± 2 degrees C) under normal day light and natural ventilation. The vase life of cut flowers studied was prolonged by all 8-HQS and extract treatments. The best concentration of 8-HQS and extractwere 400 mg l(-1) and 10%, respectively. Our results indicated that the flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had longer vase life, higher rate of solution uptake and lower SPAD value (total chlorophyll) compared to the control. Also, cut flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had least bacterial colonies. The greatest longevity of vase life by 11.20 and 10.25 days was related to 400 mg I(-1) 8-HQS and 10% of extract, respectively. These treatments improved cut vase life more than the control treatment. The maximum solution uptake (1.85 ml g(-1) f.wt.) and minimum SPAD value (2.19) were calculated in 30% extract along with 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, and 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, respectively. The lowest number of bacterial colonies (55.75) was obtained in treatment of 600 mg l(-1) 8-HQS. Flower quality of specimens treated with extract and 8-HQS was better than those of the control. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The present study concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions containing extract of M. pulegium L. and 8-HQS to extend vase

  16. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lin; Meng, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Dou, Guifang, E-mail: douguifang@vip.163.com

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy.

  17. Clinical utility and patient perspectives on the use of extended half-life rFIXFc in the management of hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelino MG

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maricel G Miguelino, Jerry S Powell Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA Abstract: Hemophilia B is an X-linked genetic disease caused by mutation of the gene for coagulation protein factor IX (FIX, with an incidence of approximately once every 30,000 male births in all populations and ethnic groups. When severe, the disease leads to spontaneous life threatening bleeding episodes. When untreated, most patients die from bleeding complications before 25 years of age. Current therapy requires frequent intravenous infusions of therapeutic recombinant or plasma-derived protein concentrates containing FIX. Most patients administer the infusions at home every few days, and must limit their physical activities to avoid abnormal bleeding when the FIX activity levels are below normal. After completing the pivotal Phase III clinical trial, a new therapeutic FIX preparation that has been engineered for an extended half-life in circulation, received regulatory approval in March 2014 in Canada and the US. This new FIX represents a major therapeutic advance for patients with hemophilia B. The half-life is prolonged due to fusion of the native FIX molecule with the normal constant region of immunoglobulin G. This fusion molecule then follows the normal immunoglobulin recirculation pathways through endothelial cells, resulting in prolonged times in circulation. In the clinical trials, over 150 patients successfully used eftrenonacog alfa regularly for more than 1 year to prevent spontaneous bleeding, to successfully treat any bleeding episodes, and to provide effective coagulation for major surgery. All infusions were well tolerated and effective, with no inhibitors detected and no safety concerns. This promising therapy should allow patients to use fewer infusions to maintain appropriate FIX activity levels in all clinical settings. Keywords: factor IX, hemophilia B, prophylaxis, genetic

  18. Red fresh vegetables smoothies with extended shelf life as an innovative source of health-promoting compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Castillejo Montoya, Noelia; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Gómez di Marco, Perla Azucena; Artés Calero, Francisco; Artés Hernández, Francisco de Asís

    2015-01-01

    Two fresh red vegetables smoothies based on tomato, carrots, pepper and broccoli and rich in health-promoting compounds were developed. The smoothies showed a viscoelastic behaviour. According to sensory analyses, a shelf life of 28?days at 5??C for fresh blended smoothies was established while thermally-treated ones (3?min, 80??C) reached up to 40?days at 20??C and 58?days at 5??C. For those mild heat treated smoothies, total vitamin C degradation was 2-fold reduced during storage at 5??C co...

  19. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  20. Exploring boundary-spanning practices among creativity managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Kragh, Hanne

    2015-01-01

    /implications – The analysis focuses on boundary spanning as a management process rather than a capability for organisations to self-organise. It extends the “boundary spanning as practice” literature by focusing on boundary spanning as a managerial practice and brings the problems related to resource mobilisation across both......Purpose – External inputs are critical for organisational creativity. In order to bridge different thought worlds and cross-organisational barriers, managers must initiate and motivate boundary spanning processes. The purpose of this paper is to explore how boundary spanners manage creativity...... projects across organisational boundaries. Design/methodology/approach – The authors link to previous literature and present findings from a comparative case study of managerial practices for managing creativity projects. Data were collected through interviews, secondary materials, site visits...

  1. Spanning quadrangulations of triangulated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kündgen, André; Thomassen, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we study alternating cycles in graphs embedded in a surface. We observe that 4-vertex-colorability of a triangulation on a surface can be expressed in terms of spanninq quadrangulations, and we establish connections between spanning quadrangulations and cycles in the dual graph whic...

  2. A distributed spanning tree algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Svend Hauge

    1988-01-01

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...

  3. A Distributed Spanning Tree Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Karl Erik; Jørgensen, Ulla Lundin; Nielsen, Sven Hauge

    We present a distributed algorithm for constructing a spanning tree for connected undirected graphs. Nodes correspond to processors and edges correspond to two-way channels. Each processor has initially a distinct identity and all processors perform the same algorithm. Computation as well...

  4. Effect of nano-silver and boric acid on extending the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrida L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood; Liavali, Mahbanoo Hoseinzadeh; Kaviani, Behzad; Mousavi, Meysam; Keyghobadi, Saghi; Zahiri, Samaneh

    2014-09-01

    Silver nano-particles (2-5 nm diam.), as antimicrobial agent and boric acid, as ethylene production inhibitor are used for enhancing the quality and vase life of cut flowers. In the present study the effects of a preservative solution containing nano-silver and boric acid on some traits of cut rose (Rosa hybrida L. cv. Yellow Island) including vase life, ethylene production, dry weight percentage, chlorophyll content, flower opening index, beta-carotene of petals and the number of basal stem end bacteria were investigated. The results showed that the effect of nano-silver and boric acid as either solitary or in combination with each other were significant (p cut flower longevity (9.69 day) was obtained in pulse-treated flowers with 100 mg l(-1) boric acid. The least ethylene production (0.59 nl(-1) g(-1) h(-1)) was observed in cut rose treated with 100 mg l(-1) boric acid along with 5 mg l(-1) nano-silver. The lowest number of bacteria in the end of stem was calculated in cut flowers treated with the highest concentrations of boric acid (300 mg l(-1)) and nano-silver (20 mg l(-1)).

  5. Active coating and modified-atmosphere packaging to extend the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, A; Gammariello, D; Di Giulio, S; Attanasio, M; Del Nobile, M A

    2009-03-01

    In this work the combination of active coating and modified-atmosphere packaging (MAP) was used to prolong the shelf life of Fior di Latte cheese. The active coating was based on sodium alginate (8% wt/vol) containing lysozyme (0.25 mg/mL) and EDTA, disodium salt (Na(2)-EDTA, 50 mM). The MAP was made up of 30% CO(2), 5% O(2), and 65% N(2). The speed of quality loss for the Fior di Latte cheese, stored at 10 degrees C, was assessed by monitoring pH and weight loss, as well as microbiological and sensorial changes. Results showed that the combination of active coating and MAP improved Fior di Latte cheese preservation, increasing the shelf life to more than 3 d. In addition, the substitution of brine with coating could allow us to gain a double advantage: both preserving the product quality and reducing the cost of its distribution, due to the lower weight of the package.

  6. Development of PF-06671008, a Highly Potent Anti-P-cadherin/Anti-CD3 Bispecific DART Molecule with Extended Half-Life for the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Root

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bispecific antibodies offer a promising approach for the treatment of cancer but can be challenging to engineer and manufacture. Here we report the development of PF-06671008, an extended-half-life dual-affinity re-targeting (DART® bispecific molecule against P-cadherin and CD3 that demonstrates antibody-like properties. Using phage display, we identified anti-P-cadherin single chain Fv (scFv that were subsequently affinity-optimized to picomolar affinity using stringent phage selection strategies, resulting in low picomolar potency in cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL killing assays in the DART format. The crystal structure of this disulfide-constrained diabody shows that it forms a novel compact structure with the two antigen binding sites separated from each other by approximately 30 Å and facing approximately 90° apart. We show here that introduction of the human Fc domain in PF-06671008 has produced a molecule with an extended half-life (-4.4 days in human FcRn knock-in mice, high stability (Tm1 > 68 °C, high expression (>1 g/L, and robust purification properties (highly pure heterodimer, all with minimal impact on potency. Finally, we demonstrate in vivo anti-tumor efficacy in a human colorectal/human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC co-mix xenograft mouse model. These results suggest PF-06671008 is a promising new bispecific for the treatment of patients with solid tumors expressing P-cadherin.

  7. EXTENDING THE LIFE TIME OF POLYMER INCLUSION MEMBRANE CONTAINING COPOLY(EUGENOL-DVB AS CARRIER FOR PHENOL TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Abadi Kiswandono

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of phenol transport was conducted in correlation to the evaluation of copoly(eugenol-divinylbenzene, DVB as carrier using polymer inclusion membrane (PIM method. The performance of copoly(eugenol-DVB was observed based on the parameters of Membrane Liquid (ML loss. Some variations, including the effect of plasticizer concentration, stirring speed, and measurement of lifetime of the membrane, were studied. Related to the lifetime, the effect of the concentration of NaNO3 salt was also studied. The tensile strength of membrane before and after the transport was measured and their morphology was characterized using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Results of the study indicate that the value of the tensile strength of the membrane after the transport was lower than that before the transport. The lifetime of the membrane was not only depending on the capacity of the membrane in restraining ML loss, but also on the concentration of salt that was added to the solution of source phase. In addition, the lifetime of the membrane had correlation to the number of ML loss, i.e. the addition of salt lead to lower amount of ML loss and gave longer lifetime. With the addition of 0.1 M NaNO3, the lifetime of the membrane extended to 62 days, which is longer than the lifetime without the addition of NaO3 which was only 7 days.

  8. Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate: surgical, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes upon extended follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ilter; Ozveri, Hakan; Akin, Yigit; Ipekci, Tumay; Alican, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To evaluate the long-term surgical, functional, and quality-of-life (QoL) outcomes after Holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP) in patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed recorded data on patients who underwent HoLEP between June 2002 and February 2005. Ninety-six patients were enrolled. Demographic, perioperative, and postoperative data were recorded. On follow-up, International Prostate Symptom Scores (IPSSs), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, QoL scores, peak uroflowmetric data (Qmax values), and post-voiding residual urine volumes (PVR volumes), were recorded. Complications were scored using the Clavien system. Statistical significance was set at ptransurethral resection of the prostate. PMID:27256184

  9. PASylation: a biological alternative to PEGylation for extending the plasma half-life of pharmaceutically active proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapschy, Martin; Binder, Uli; Börger, Claudia; Theobald, Ina; Wachinger, Klaus; Kisling, Sigrid; Haller, Dirk; Skerra, Arne

    2013-01-01

    A major limitation of biopharmaceutical proteins is their fast clearance from circulation via kidney filtration, which strongly hampers efficacy both in animal studies and in human therapy. We have developed conformationally disordered polypeptide chains with expanded hydrodynamic volume comprising the small residues Pro, Ala and Ser (PAS). PAS sequences are hydrophilic, uncharged biological polymers with biophysical properties very similar to poly-ethylene glycol (PEG), whose chemical conjugation to drugs is an established method for plasma half-life extension. In contrast, PAS polypeptides offer fusion to a therapeutic protein on the genetic level, permitting Escherichia coli production of fully active proteins and obviating in vitro coupling or modification steps. Furthermore, they are biodegradable, thus avoiding organ accumulation, while showing stability in serum and lacking toxicity or immunogenicity in mice. We demonstrate that PASylation bestows typical biologics, such as interferon, growth hormone or Fab fragments, with considerably prolonged circulation and boosts bioactivity in vivo. PMID:23754528

  10. An analysis of 72% chromated glycerin used for sclerotherapy: sterility, potency, and cost after extended shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaznavi, Amir M; Nakamura, Mio; Tepper, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Sclerotherapy is the treatment of reticular veins and telangiectasias of the lower extremities. Sclerosants destroy endothelial tissue and expose subendothelial collagen fibers, which lead to subsequent fibrosis of vessels, thus preventing recanalization. There are several available sclerosants including sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS), polidocanol (POL), and chromated glycerin (CG) with varying efficacy, potency, side effect profile, and cost. To identify the possible bacterial contamination and potency of CG beyond the current recommended shelf life of 3 months and to prove if CG is as cost effective as other available sclerosants. Samples of 72% CG underwent bacterial endotoxin, sterility, and potency analysis at Days 0, 24, and 183. In addition, cost comparison was performed with other commercially available sclerosants including STS and POL. No samples of CG showed any bacterial contamination. All aliquots of glycerin remained sterile at Day 14. Potency at Day 24 was 99.2%, which was the same at Day 183. Cost comparison with other sclerosants revealed that CG is lower cost per milliliter than STS and POL. Seventy-two percent CG has no contamination and maintains its reported potency up to 6 months while comparable with the cost of other commercially available sclerosants.

  11. Radiation processing: An effective quality control tool for hygienization and extending shelf life of a herbal formulation, Amritamehari churnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandra Chatterjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amritamehari churnam (AC is an antidiabetic polyherbal formulation constituting of four herbal medicinal plants namely Phyllanthus emblica, Salacia reticulata, Tinospora cordifolia and Curcuma longa. The feasibility of using gamma irradiation at doses between 2.5 and 10 kGy to reduce microbial load and enhance shelf life of this formulation was investigated. The irradiated and non-irradiated products were stored at room temperature (25–32 °C and 50–85% R.H., 1.5 years. Acceptability of the irradiated product was assessed based on sensory, microbial, physical and chemical attributes as well as their antioxidant status. A dose 7.5 kGy was sufficient to maintain microbial quality within acceptable limit up to 18 months of storage. No significant differences in sensory properties were observed between the non-irradiated and irradiated sample. The applied dose did not cause any significant qualitative and quantitative changes in the chemical constituents, antioxidant activities as well as physical properties when measured by EPR spectroscopy.

  12. Effects of once-daily extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) on quality of life and sleep in elderly patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locklear, Julie C; Svedsäter, Henrik; Datto, Catherine; Endicott, Jean

    2013-07-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is frequently associated with reduced quality of life (QoL) and sleep disturbance. We investigated the effects of once-daily extended release quetiapine fumarate (quetiapine XR) monotherapy on QoL and sleep in elderly patients with MDD. Prospectively planned analysis of patient-reported data from an 11-week (9-week randomized; 2-week post-treatment), double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III study. Elderly patients (≥66 years; DSM-IV MDD; Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression [HAM-D] total score ≥22, HAM-D Item 1 score ≥2) were randomized to quetiapine XR (flexible dosing 50-300 mg/day) or placebo. MADRS total score change from randomization at Week 9. Patient-reported outcomes: Quality of Life, Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF) % of maximum total score (Items 1-14), Q-LES-Q-SF Item 15 ('satisfaction with medication'), Q-LES-Q-SF Item 16 ('overall life satisfaction'), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score. In total, 338 patients were randomized (166 quetiapine XR; 172 placebo). At Week 9, quetiapine XR significantly reduced MADRS total score (-16.33; difference: -7.54; 95% CI: -9.23, -5.85; psleep in elderly patients with MDD. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Predicting quality of life in adults with severe mental illness: Extending the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jennifer; Rosenthal, David A; Tansey, Timothy N; Frain, Michael P; Bezyak, Jill L

    2016-02-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework was used to investigate person-environment contextual factors, mental functioning, activity limitations, and participation as predictors of quality of life (QoL) in adults with severe mental illness (SMI). A quantitative descriptive design using multiple regression and correlational analyses was used. One hundred ninety-four individuals with SMI from 4 community-based mental health agencies in 2 states from Southern and Midwestern regions of the United States participated in the study. The criterion variable was QoL. Predictor variables comprised the ICF constructs: (a) demographics, (b) personal factors, (c) environmental factors, (d) mental functioning, (e) activity limitations, and (f) participation. A majority of participants were White (60.3%) and not employed (59.8%). Half of them received Social Security Disability Income and/or Supplemental Security Income (50.0%). Correlations between QoL and the predictor variables ranged from small to large (r = .01 to .63, respectively). The final regression model accounted for 58% of the variance in QoL. After controlling for other factors, social competency, social support, societal stigma, psychological distress, cognitive dysfunction, activity limitations, and participation were found to be significant predictors of QoL in adults with SMI. The study supports the use of the ICF to predict QoL for adults with SMI. Evidence-based treatments focused on increasing social competence, social support, and participation should be developed to promote rehabilitation outcomes and overall QoL. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. PEGylation of a High-Affinity Anti-(+)Methamphetamine Single Chain Antibody Fragment Extends Functional Half-Life by Reducing Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Emily E; Nanaware-Kharade, Nisha; Gonzalez, Guillermo A; Thakkar, Shraddha; Owens, S Michael; Peterson, Eric C

    2016-12-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is a worldwide drug problem, yet no FDA-approved pharmacological treatments are available for METH abuse. Therefore, we produced an anti-METH single chain antibody fragment (scFv7F9Cys) as a pharmacological treatment for METH abuse. ScFv's have a short half-life due to their small size, limiting their clinical use. Thus, we examined the pharmacokinetic effects of conjugating poly(ethylene) glycol (-PEG) to scFv7F9Cys to extend its functional half-life. The affinity of scFv7F9Cys and PEG conjugates to METH was determined in vitro via equilibrium dialysis saturation binding. Pharmacokinetic and parameters of scFv7F9Cys and scFv7F9Cys-PEG20K (30 mg/kg i.v. each) and their ability to bind METH in vivo were determined in male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving a subcutaneous infusion of METH (3.2 mg/kg/day). Of three PEGylated conjugates, scFv7F9Cys-PEG20K was determined the most viable therapeutic candidate. PEGylation of scFv7F9Cys did not alter METH binding functionality in vitro, and produced a 27-fold increase in the in vivo half-life of the antibody fragment. Furthermore, total METH serum concentrations increased following scFv7F9Cys or scFv7F9Cys-PEG20K administration, with scFv7F9Cys-PEG20K producing significantly longer changes in METH distribution than scFv7F9Cys. PEGylation of scFv7F9Cys significantly increase the functional half-life of scFv7F9Cys, suggesting it may be a long-lasting pharmacological treatment option for METH abuse.

  15. The role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib (traditional Ethiopian spiced fermented cottage cheese).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremew, Tsehayneh; Kebede, Ameha; Andualem, Berhanu

    2015-09-01

    Spices and lactic acid bacteria have natural antimicrobial substances and organic compounds having antagonistic activity against microorganisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of spices and lactic acid bacteria as antimicrobial agent to extend the shelf life of metata ayib. Antimicrobial activities of spices and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) filtrates were determined by agar well diffusion method against E. coli, S. aureus, S. flexneri and S. peumoniae. Aantimicrobial activity of garlic was found to be the most effective against all the tested pathogens. Inhibition zones of garlic extract against all pathogens was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining spice extracts. Inhibition zones (12.50 ± 1.00 to 15.50 ± 1.00 mm) of ginger and R. graveolens ethanol extracts against all tested pathogens were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) greater than the remaining solvent extracts. Inhibition zone of O. basilicum ethanol extract against all pathogenic bacteria was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) greater than hexane and acetone extracts. Lactobacillus isolates were shown the highest antimicrobial activity than the other LAB isolates against all pathogens. The synergistic effect of spices together with LAB might be contributed a lot to preserve and extend shelf life of metata ayib. Their antimicrobial activity can reduce the risk of spoilage and pathogenesis. The possible reason of LAB isolates was may be due to production of lactic acid, acetic acid and secondary metabolites like bacteriocins. Aseptic processing of traditional cottage cheese (ayib) is by far needed to minimize risks associated during consumption of metata ayib.

  16. "Women and active life": An extended TPB-based multimedia software to boost and sustain physical activity and fitness of Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamnia-Shirvani, Zeinab; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2017-07-06

    Inactivity is prevalent in women, although regular physical activity (PA) has significant health benefits. Health education interventions based on multimedia software and the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) with planning may be efficacious in promoting PA. This randomized controlled trial, conducted in 2014, aimed to evaluate theory-based multimedia for increasing and maintaining PA and fitness of 130 military personnel's wives in Tehran, Iran. We randomly selected respondents by multistage cluster sampling. We designed a "Women and Active Life" self-taught DVD-Rom, based on the extended TPB model with action and coping planning. We analyzed theoretical constructs and health-related physical fitness at baseline and 3 and 6 months post-education. Administering educational software raised average developed TPB constructs, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscular fitness (strength, endurance, and flexibility) in women in the intervention group, which was sustained at follow-up (p change was found in these variables in the control group (p > .05). Using a new communication technology in TPB-directed multimedia led to improved and maintained PA, aerobic and musculoskeletal fitness, and body composition of women.

  17. Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil combined with different packaging conditions to extend the shelf life of refrigerated beef meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Devlieghere, Frank; Peelman, Nanou; Sagratini, Gianni; Maggi, Filippo; Vittori, Sauro; Ragaert, Peter

    2017-04-15

    Rosemary essential oil (REO) contains bioactives having antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. This work investigated the effect of REO combined with modified atmosphere packaging conditions (MAP), in our case, aerobic, vacuum or high O2, to extend the shelf life of beef. Beef slices were wrapped in special three-layer sheets of packaging material, some with a coating of REO (active packaging, AP), and some without REO (non active packaging, NAP), and stored at 4°C for 20days. The use of REO proved efficacious in every storage condition, as seen in the lower counts of psychrotrophics, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas spp., and Enterobacteriaceae in AP meat compared to NAP meat. Sensory and colourimetric analyses showed that the best packaging conditions were high-O2 atmosphere in combination with REO. Based on microbiological data, shelf life of beef was 5-6days for AP samples packaged under aerobic conditions and 14-15days for AP samples in high-O2 conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. What is important in the surroundings in order to extend the healthy life period? A regional study of 19 older women in a northern part of Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunn-Tove Minde

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Participating in a community with other retired individuals to increase life quaøity can be possible for the older persons. Cultural and ethnical background is important for their social identity. Objective . To identify what the informants think is important in their surroundings in order to extend their healthy life period. Study design . A structured questionnaire developed by the OCIN network. Methods . Nineteen elderly women aged 75 years or more were interviewed. This regional survey is a pilot study in Norway. The data were collected during 2 periods, in 2009 and 2010. The data are analyzed using a result scheme prepared by the network OCIN. Results . Our findings show that this is a group of elderly women that are concerned with promoting their own health. The participants wish to take care of themselves, so they do not become a burden for society and the local authorities. Conclusions . The findings of this study suggest that participation in the local context is important for promoting health and well-being among elderly in all ethnicities. For the Sami elderly, this is particularly important because meeting equal-minded people helps them maintain their Sami identity. In the Sami culture and among the Sami elderly, it is important to be “strong” and “healthy”. Due to these norms, the elderly Sami women try to live with their illnesses and are less eager to go to the doctor when they are seriously ill.

  19. Leaf life span and nitrogen content in semideciduous forest tree species (Croton priscus and Hymenaea courbaril Duração da vida da folha e conteúdo de nitrogênio em espécies arbóreas (Croton priscus e Hymenaea courbaril de floresta semidecídua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Regina Baptista Haddad

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In comparison to deciduous species, evergreen plants have lower leaf nutrient contents and higher leaf life span, important mechanisms for nutrient economy, allowing the colonization of low fertility soils. Strategies to conserve nitrogen in two semideciduous tropical forest tree species, with different leaf life spans were analyzed. The hypothesis was the fact that the two species would present different nitrogen conservation mechanisms in relation to chemical (total nitrogen, protein, chlorophyll, and proteolytic activity, functional (leaf life span, N-use efficiency, and N-resorption efficiency, morphological (specific leaf mass leaf characteristics, and total nitrogen in the soil. Hymenaea courbaril L. presented lower nitrogen compounds in leaves, longer leaf life span, higher N-use efficiency, and higher specific leaf mass, while absorbing proportionally less nitrogen from the soil than Croton priscus Croizat. These characteristics can contribute for a better nitrogen economy strategy of H. courbaril. No relationship was found between leaf life span and N resorption efficiency, nor between leaf life span, protease activity and nitrogen mobilization. The electrophoretic profiles of proteolytic enzymes in young leaves of the two species presented more bands with enzymatic activity than other kinds of leaves.Comparadas a espécies decíduas, as sempre-verdes têm menos nutrientes nas folhas, que também são mais longevas. Estes mecanismos são importantes para economia de nutrientes, e permitem a colonização de solos com baixa fertilidade. Foram analisadas estratégias de conservação de nitrogênio em duas espécies de floresta semidecídua, que aparentemente apresentavam longevidades foliares diferentes. Para isto foram comparados mecanismos químicos (concentrações de nitrogênio total, de proteína e clorofila e atividade proteolítica, funcionais (duração de vida das folhas, eficiência do uso de nitrogênio e eficiência de

  20. Extended Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article...