WorldWideScience

Sample records for extending plant life

  1. Planning study and economic feasibility for extended life operation of light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Goudarzi, L.A.; Kenworthy, L.U.; Lapides, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this planning study was to perform an assessment of the engineering and economic feasibility of extended life operation of present nuclear power plant units and to recommend future programs that may be warranted by the feasibility assessments. This effort concludes, essentially, that there is sufficient economic motivation for refurbishment to warrant more extensive examination for present plants and to identify possible design modifications that would facilitate extended service life in future plants. The costs of replacing the deterioration-prone equipment in a nuclear power plant appear to represent a small portion of the total plant costs, provided downtime is not excessive. A refurbishment and economic analysis is presented

  2. Remaining life assessment and plant life extension in high temperature components of power and petrochemical plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper explains the reasons why plant life can so easily be extended beyond the original design life. It details the means by which plant life extension is normally achieved, a structured plan for achieving such plant life extension at reasonable cost and some of the key techniques used in assessing the remaining life and discusses the simple repair options available. (author)

  3. Cost savings from extended life nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, L.R. Jr.; Deutsch, T.R.; Schenler, W.W.

    1988-09-01

    This study assesses the costs and benefits of nuclear power plant life extension (NUPLEX) for the overall US under widely varying economic assumptions and compares these with alternative new coal- fired plants (NEWCOAL). It is found that NUPLEX saves future electricity consumers more than 3 cents/-kwh compared with NEWCOAL. The NUPLEX costs and benefits for existing individual US nuclear power plants under base-line, or most likely, assumptions are assessed to determine the effects of the basic plant design and plant age. While benefits vary widely, virtually all units would have a positive benefit from NUPLEX. The study also presents a cost-benefit analysis of the nuclear industry's planned advanced light water reactor (ALWR). It is concluded that ALWR offers electrical power at a substantially lower cost than NEWCOAL. 9 refs., 6 figs

  4. Managing BWR plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianni, P.W.; Kiss, E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent studies have confirmed that extending the useful life of a large nuclear plant can be justified with very high cost benefit ratio. In turn, experience with large power plant systems and equipment has shown that a well-integrated and -managed plan is essential in order to achieve potential economic benefits. Consequently, General Electric's efforts have been directed at establishing a life extension plan that considers alternative options and cost-effective steps that can be taken in early life, those appropriate during middle life, and those required in late life. This paper briefly describes an approach designed to provide the plant owner a maximum of flexibility in developing a life extension plan

  5. NDE and plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.N.; Ammirato, F.V.; Nottingham, L.D.

    1991-01-01

    Component life extension is the process of making run-repair-replace decisions for plant components and includes a thorough analysis of the capability of the component to perform throughout the projected lifetime. For many critical plant components, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is essential in determining whether the component can be operated safely and economically in the extended life period and to help utilities determine safe and economic inspection intervals. NDE technology is required for not only detecting defects that could grow to a size of concern during extended lifetimes, but also will be called upon to measure and monitor accumulating material degradation that strongly affects component reliability. This paper discusses the role of NDE in life extension by reviewing three examples--a reactor pressure vessel, steam turbine-generator rotors, and generator retaining rings. In each example, the contribution of NDE to life extension decisions is described. (author)

  6. Collaborative machining solution extends the operating life of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilmore, Geoff; Becker, Andrew; Vandenberg, James

    2007-01-01

    Examination of a CANDU 6 nuclear power plant's steam generators during a scheduled maintenance outage revealed that the manway ports, part of the ASME Section III, Class 1 pressure boundary, needed repair. The port's inner cover gasket was not seating properly. Integrity was at risk. It was determined that this operation would required a specialized machine to successfully repair the manway port. The solution included the modification of a standard portable boring machine with a custom mounting option to enlarge the counterbore in the primary head shell from a round shape to an obround shape (76 mm of shell thickness, 16 mm radially). The shape change was needed to accommodate the new obround cover and gasket seal design. Once the new major shape was machined, the repair was finished with a Computer Numerically Controlled (CNC) machine developed by the service team to achieve the necessary gasket face location and sizing. The final result met all of the plant's expectations and was completed well within the time allotted during the maintenance shut down. This success was due to the positive partnership and collaboration of the service team and the machine tool manufacture working together to successfully extend the operating life of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  7. Integrated Life Cycle Management: A Strategy for Plants to Extend Operating Lifetimes Safely with High Operational Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas; Bruck, Paul; Mengers, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear plant operators are studying the possibility of extending their existing generating facilities operating lifetime to 60 years and beyond. Many nuclear plants have been granted licenses to operate their facilities beyond the original 40 year term; however, in order to optimize the long term operating strategies, plant decision-makers need a consistent approach to support their options. This paper proposes a standard methodology to support effective decision-making for the long-term management of selected station assets. Methods detailed are intended to be used by nuclear plant site management, equipment reliability personnel, long term planners, capital asset planners, license renewal staff, and others that intend to look at operation between the current time and the end of operation. This methodology, named Integrated Life Cycle Management (ILCM), will provide a technical basis to assist decision makers regarding the timing of large capital investments required to get to the end of operation safely and with high plant reliability. ILCM seeks to identify end of life cycle failure probabilities for individual plant large capital assets and attendant costs associated with their refurbishment or replacement. It will provide a standard basis for evaluation of replacement and refurbishment options for these components. ILCM will also develop methods to integrate the individual assets over the entire plant thus assisting nuclear plant decision-makers in their facility long term operating strategies. (author)

  8. Regulatory considerations for extending the life of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feinroth, H.; Rowden, M.

    1987-01-01

    This study provides the nuclear industry with its first systematic evaluation of the regulatory implications of nuclear plant life extension. The report recommends courses of action that might be followed by the industry and its regulators to ensure the development of a process that is both reasonable and predictable. The study holds that ''license renewal should be a reaffirmation of the ongoing and continuous process of hardware renewal that is already an integral part of every nuclear power plant's operating program.'' The report's findings can be used by the new AIF Subcommittee on License Renewal, by other industry groups, and by individual licensees in making constructive recommendations to NRC for the development of a workable license renewal policy. No such policy now exists, and the establishment of one is preferable to allowing the consideration of life extension matters on a case-by-case basis

  9. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems.

  10. International symposium on nuclear power plant life management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A number of nuclear power plants in operation are meeting the problems of aging. Besides maintaining safety and reliability many NPP owners are concerned with service life extension, life management policy, and reactor maintenance procedures. The topics covered in this report are devoted to: NPP life management, economics and technical aspects of service life extension, reactor licensing procedures; aging of reactor components; physical radiation effects on reactor materials; corrosion; mechanical properties of reactor materials; reactor control systems; reactor safety systems

  11. Economics and policies of nuclear plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagata, H.

    1998-01-01

    NEA provides an opportunity for international exchange of information on the economics and policies of nuclear plant life management for governments and plant owners. The NEA Secretariat is finalising the 'state-of-the-art report' on the economics and policies of nuclear plant life management, including the model approach and national summaries. In order to meet power supply obligations in the early 2000, taking into account energy security, environmental impact, and the economics of nuclear power plants whose lives have been extended, initiatives at national level must be taken to monitor, co-ordinate, and support the various industry programmes of nuclear plant life management by integrated and consistent policies, public acceptance, R and D, and international co-operation. Nuclear power owners should establish an organisation and objectives to carry nuclear plant life management in the most economic and smoothest way taking into consideration internal and external influences. The organisation must identify the critical item and the ageing processes, and optimise equipment reliability and maintenance workload. (author)

  12. Nuclear power plant life management and longer-term operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This book, prepared by NEA member country experts, contains data and analyses relevant to nuclear power plant life management and the plants' extended, longer-term operation (LTO). It addresses technical, economic and environmental aspects and provides insights into the benefits and challenges of plant life management and LTO. It will be of interest to policy makers and senior managers in the nuclear power sector and governmental bodies involved in nuclear power programme design and management. The data and information on current trends in nuclear power plant life management will be useful to researchers and analysts working in the field of nuclear energy system assessment. (authors)

  13. Life Limiting Issues for Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esselman, Thomas; Gaertner, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a study which identified and characterized life limiting issues for consideration by nuclear plant owners in their decision to extend plant life or seek subsequent license renewal. As nuclear plants operate for longer periods, the risk that a condition in the plant or an event that occurs, at the plant or elsewhere, will cause a plant owner not to extend plant life increases. The Fukushima accident has made this concept concrete. This paper defines 'Life Limiting' concepts for nuclear plants. It identifies the highest risk conditions and events that may limit duration of continued operation in nuclear plants and employs a survey to prioritize these concerns. Methods for evaluating these risks and changing the capability of systems, structures, and components (SSC) to reduce and manage this risk in long term operation are presented. Integrated obsolescence -the existence of an accumulation of events or condition that can threaten long term operation- is discussed. Many of the life limiting conditions or events may be controllable by early identification, recognition, and mitigation of the potential threat. The recognition of conditions may allow measures to be taken to mitigate the condition. Recognition of the potential for events that may be life limiting may allow actions to be taken that will minimize the likelihood or consequences of the event. These actions may include enhanced research on the expected behavior of the SSC, risk assessment and management, and enhanced monitoring and aging management at the plant. (author)

  14. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  15. Reliability and extended-life potential of EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Although the longlife potential of liquid-metal-cooled reactors (LMRs) has been only partially demonstrated, many factors point to the potential for exceptionally long life. EBR-II has the opportunity to become the first LMR to achieve an operational lifetime of 30 years or more. In 1984 a study of the extended-life potential of EBR-II identified the factors that contribute to the continued successful operation of EBR-II as a power reactor and experimental facility. Also identified were factors that could cause disruptions in the useful life of the facility. Although no factors were found that would inherently limit the life of EBR-II, measures were identified that could help ensure continued plant availability. These measures include the implementation of more effective surveillance, diagnostic, and control systems to complement the inherent safety and reliability features of EBR-II. An operating lifetime of well beyond 30 years is certainly feasible

  16. Plant Betterment as Anticipated Measure For Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louvat, J. P.

    1991-01-01

    A lot of modifications have been made since critically on each of the 28 standardized 900 MW class PWR units in France. Most of this technical upgrading was accomplished to facilitate operation, improve availability, or bring the unit design in line with evolving regulatory requirements, but a substantial part of the modifications was dedicated to Plant Life Management. As part of the program launched by EDF for plant life management, this paper introduces the Frustum's contribution for plant betterment and enhancement of reactor operation concurrently to ensure or extend plant service life. The solutions contemplated in this field are provided to reduce the frequency of unexpected reactor trip occurrences, to mitigate their negative effects or to smooth off the reactor operation and thus the magnitude of associated transients. The lifetime evaluation of NPP is basically an economical exercise, which tries to determine how long the operation of the plant will remain competitive, taking into account the long term perspective maintenance costs. There cannot be any conflict between lifetime and safety considerations, based upon the pituitary requisite that the safety requirement must be met at any time of the operation. Plant life management needs a consistent approach that can not be improvised on a case by case basis. Instead, it must be kept in mind from the very beginning of unit operation. This is the sense of the backfitting and technical upgrading carried out in France for the PWRs of the 900 MW class. It is thanks to this necessary anticipation that plant life will be actually managed, giving benefit both from the standpoint of availability and from that of the service lives of sensitive components. Substantial savings will thus be obtained

  17. Extending mine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining

  18. Oconee: Is life extension in the cards for plants of this vintage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, D.E.; Moore, K.E.; Tally, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent nuclear-industry interest in plant life extension is prompted by the realization that the economics of plant life extension are clearly favorable. Studies sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) show that replacing even the most costly nuclear components can easily be justified, if the life of the plant can be extended just a few years. This may not be apparent for the early, small plants, but its applicability to the larger plants that started to appear in the early 70s-such as the three 860-MW Oconee units-is hard to dispute. The large capital investment in the typical nuclear station and extensive decommissioning costs add impetus to life-extension efforts. The same is true for fossil plants, and they are being successfully refurbished to extend their operating lives. Refurbishment of a fossil plant is comparatively simple, however, especially with regard to licensing and environmental qualifications where recognized standards are already in place. In the case of nuclear plants, much work must be done before all the pertinent issues and alternatives are identified. Potentially conflicting objectives may require resolution before a utility makes long-term decisions about life extension. For example, a utility may decide to designate a plant to accommodate grid load swings. In the near term, this may be a logical choice. However, the long-term negative aspects of component thermal cycling should be considered, especially if plant life extension is deemed important

  19. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 06-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED ... Corrosion Testing of Traditional and Extended Life Coolants 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hansen, Gregory A. T...providing vehicle specific coolants. Several laboratory corrosion tests were performed according to ASTM D1384 and D2570, but with a 2.5x extended time

  20. Pattern-recognition system application to EBR-II plant-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Radtke, W.H.; Mott, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    A computer-based pattern-recognition system, the System State Analyzer (SSA), is being used as part of the EBR-II plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. The SSA is used for surveillance of the EBR-II primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps, and plant heat balances. Early results of this surveillance indicate that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals, and can provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed critical sensors. These results are being used in planning for extended-life operation of EBR-II

  1. Actions concerning nuclear power plant life evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, M.; Fabbri, S.; Mizrahi, R.; Savino, E.J.; Versaci, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    One of the main activities to be undertaken by CNEA will be to provide technological assistance to NASA in problems concerning NPP operation. Works on life extensions of NPP are included in these activities. To fulfill these requirements the Atomic Energy National Commission (CNEA) has constituted a technical committee for Nuclear Power Plants Support (CAPCEN). CAPCEN should be the knowledge reservoir of those issues concerning the performance, safety and life extension of Nuclear Power Plants. One of CAPCEN's most important activities is to promote research work connected with such issues. The main technical areas are: Pressure Vessel and Piping, Heat Exchanges and Fuel Channels and Reactor Inner Components. Efforts are focused on the identification of the main components susceptible of ageing, the study of their ageing mechanisms, the follow-up of their behaviour during operation, and the measures taken to extend their life. (author)

  2. EPRI/DOE nuclear plant life extension overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, J.J.; Lapides, M.E.; Harrison, D.; Ducharme, A.

    1987-01-01

    Recognizing the major investment in current U.S. nuclear capacity and the excellent prospects that these units have a useful life substantially in excess of their 40 year license term, EPRI and DOE have jointly undertaken a comprehensive, multiyear, nuclear plant life extension program. The program, which has its antecedents in EPRI studies of 1978-9, aims to support U.S. utilities, first in verifying the requirements of extended operation and then in implementing a plan for achieving extended service and license renewal. The effort, begun in 1985, has already yielded numerous benefits and is expected to further aid in improving near-term performance of nuclear units. A utility LWR Plant Life Extension Committee has been established to provide overview and guidance to the DOE/EPRI research and development activities and also to develop and integrate utility responses to licensing and codes and standards issues. Pilot study projects, performed by Virginia Power and Northern States Power, were the initial EPRI/DOE focus. This base has gradually expanded to incorporate other utilities and generating units, as well as a broad base of technology support. The latter includes: a) economic and financial analysis methods applicable at the unit, region and national level, b) long-term materials deterioration analysis and sampling, c) component life prediction methods and d) refurbishment and repair evaluations. This paper presents the history and status of the overall EPRI/DOE program

  3. Materials for Nuclear Plants From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffelner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    The clamor for non-carbon dioxide emitting energy production has directly  impacted on the development of nuclear energy. As new nuclear plants are built, plans and designs are continually being developed to manage the range of challenging requirement and problems that nuclear plants face especially when managing the greatly increased operating temperatures, irradiation doses and extended design life spans. Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments  provides a comprehensive treatment of the structural materials for nuclear power plants with emphasis on advanced design concepts.   Materials for Nuclear Plants: From Safe Design to Residual Life Assessments approaches structural materials with a systemic approach. Important components and materials currently in use as well as those which can be considered in future designs are detailed, whilst the damage mechanisms responsible for plant ageing are discussed and explained. Methodologies for materials characterization, material...

  4. Brain surgery breathes new life into aging plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makansi, J. [Pearl Street Inc. (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Unlike managing the human aging process, extending the life of a power plant often includes brain surgery, modernizing its control and automation system. Lately, such retrofits range from wholesale replacing of existing controls to the addition of specific control elements that help optimize performance. Pending revisions to safety codes and cybersecurity issues also need to be considered. 4 figs.

  5. Japan's policy on the nuclear power plant life management, life management for nuclear power plants and measures to cope with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takuma, Masao

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear Plant is born after a lengthy, multi-year construction period, and ends its life decades later, having generated a vast amount of electricity. Its period of operation is, far longer than its period of construction. 'Construction' is the process of 'creating something of value', a new nuclear plant, using technology. 'Operation' is the process of 'raising the child with care' so that its potential can be realized to the fullest over the course of its life. From the view point of plant life management, it is appropriate to divide the life of a power plant into three stages, 'fostering, mature and aging', from the start of operation to the end of its operation. It is important to manage a plant accordingly. It is recently become important to the Utility companies under the competitive power market to manage aging plants effectively, in order to extend its life with sustained high level of performances, with plant safety in the first place. Whether this is, in fact, possible or not, depends upon how the plant was operated in the prior stages, that means, depends upon how it was 'brought up'. This report briefly shows what are important points of management in these 3 stages, and also describes general significances of plant maintenance and inspection, with the practices applied to the plants in Japan. Currently 52 plants Light Water Reactor Nuclear Plants are in operation in Japan, and 13 plants within next 5 years and 23 plants within 10 years are regarded as aged plants. So the contents of periodic inspections by the government and maintenance requirements on the Utilities will be modified to keep and enhance safe and stable operations of the aged plants. In the year 1994, Japanese Government released the report 'Basic Concepts on the Nuclear Power Plant Aging', the objectives of which was the evaluation of the soundness of major equipment and to establish the concepts of aging measures, assuming the plant to be operated 60 years. Utilities, in

  6. Plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, S.; Framatome, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Plant life assessment and extension studies have been performed by numerous companies all over the world. Critical equipment has been identified as well as various degradation mechanisms involved in the plant aging process. Nowadays one has to think what to implement to improve the existing situation in the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). FRAMATOME has undertaken this thought process in order to find the right answers and bring them to utilities facing either critical concern for plant life extension or the problem of management of power plant potential longevity. This is why we prepared a Plant Life Improvement Action Plan, comprising 10 (ten) major items described hereafter using examples of work performed by FRAMATOME for its utility customers desiring to manage the lives of their plants, both in France with EDF and abroad

  7. Low-level radioactive waste associated with plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Zigler, G.; Walsh, R.

    1992-01-01

    Many utilities operating nuclear power plants are expected to seek to extend the useful life of their plants through license renewal. These US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are expected to implement enhanced inspection, surveillance, testing, and monitoring (ISTM) as needed to detect and mitigate age-related degradation of important structures, systems, and components (SSCs). In addition, utilities may undertake various refurbishment and upgrade activities at these plants to better assure economic and reliable power generation. These activities performed for safety and/or economic reasons can result in radioactive waste generation, which is incremental to that generated in the original licensing term. Work was performed for the NRC to help define and characterize potential environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal and plant life extension. As part of this work, projections were made of the types and quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) likely to be generated by licensee programs. These projections were needed to estimate environmental impacts related to the disposal of such wastes

  8. Life Cycle Management Managing the Aging of Critical Nuclear Plant Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Theodore A.; Elder, G. Gary; Llovet, Ricardo

    2002-01-01

    Life Cycle Management is a structured process to manage equipment aging and long-term equipment reliability for nuclear plant Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs). The process enables the identification of effective repair, replace, inspect, test and maintenance activities and the optimal timing of the activities to maximize the economic value to the nuclear plant. This paper will provide an overview of the process and some of the tools that can be used to implement the process for the SSCs deemed critical to plant safety and performance objectives. As nuclear plants strive to reduce costs, extend life and maximize revenue, the LCM process and the supporting tools summarized in this paper can enable development of a long term, cost efficient plan to manage the aging of the plant SSCs. (authors)

  9. Nuclear power plants life extension and decommissioning its economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    1994-06-01

    In USA where the development of nuclear power was started early, the life of nuclear power plants expires successively around the turn of century, and the serious hindrance to electric power supply is feared. Therefore, the research for extending 40 year approved period of operation is in progress. By the extension of life of nuclear power plants, huge cost reduction is estimated as compared with the construction of new plants. However, due to the rise of the cost for the life extension, there were the cases of forced decommissioning. In this book, the present state of the life extension of nuclear power stations, the economical assessment and analysis of the life extension by DOE, the economical assessment by MIDAS method of Electric Power Research Institute, the economical assessment by cost-benefit method of Northern States Power Co., the assessment of the long term operation possibility of nuclear power stations, the economical assessment system for the life extension in Japan, the present state of the decommissioning of nuclear power stations and that in USA, Canada and Europe, the assessment of the decommissioning cost by OECD/NEA, and the decommissioning cost for thermal power stations are described. (K.I.)

  10. Life extension for German nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2005-01-01

    The Federation of German Industries (BDI) commissioned a study of the ''Economic Effects of Alternative Lifetimes of Nuclear Power Plants in Germany.'' The expert organizations invited as authors were the Power Economy Institute of the University of Cologne (EWI) and Energy Environment Forecast Analysis GmbH (EEFA), Berlin. The reasons for commissioning the Study include the changed framework conditions (deregulation, CO 2 emission certificate trading, worldwide competition for resources), which have altered the energy supply situation in Europe. The findings of the Study were presented to the public by the BDI on October 26, 2005. The study deals with two scenarios of extended lifetimes for German nuclear power plants of 40 and 60 years as against the existing regulations with plant lifetimes limited to approx. 32 years. The longer service lives of plants are reflected in reduced electricity generation costs and thus may have a positive influence on electricity prices. Moreover, there would be additional growth of production together with additional jobs, all of which would add up to nearly 42,000 persons for all sectors of the economy as compared to the basic scenario. Also, CO 2 emissions could be curbed by up to 50 million tons of carbon dioxide. The Study offers ample and valid reasons in favor of extending the lifetimes of nuclear power plants. In the interest of general welfare, politics would be well advised to relax the restrictions on plant life in the course of this legislative term. (orig.)

  11. Motor life management at Gentilly 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazic, L.; Renaud, P.; Marcotte, P.

    2002-01-01

    problems, this traditional type of maintenance is often time-based and reaction oriented. Motors are taken off-line at set interval for maintenance. The test and maintenance performed are routine, often based on tradition and not on the condition of the machine. Most maintenance done in this manner is costly and unneeded. Also, an extended plant outage due to unexpected motor problems discovered during maintenance is the worst type of experience for any plant and is to be avoided if at all possible. A motor maintenance program has been determined by the authors from available information in order to establish a basis for plant motor life management and life extension. For certain motors, the alternative of a true condition based maintenance program which analyzes all available information and calls for test and maintenance when the condition warrants it, provides significant cost saving and motor life extension. The idea is to pre-plan maintenance and testing; to reduce outage time; to discover potential problems before unforeseen failures actually occur; and to find problems due to thermal or mechanical stresses. Ultimately, the objective is to keep the motor running longer with economical testing and maintenance and enable additional testing to be focused on motors that need the most attention. This paper will cover the analysis needed to implement motor life management strategy at G2 and will describe and prioritize measures available to determine the best approach for motor life management, which will contribute to plant life management at Gentilly 2 NPP

  12. Plant life management at Loviisa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hytoenen, Y.; Savikoski, A.

    1998-01-01

    IVO, Power Engineering Ltd. has developed a company-wide approach to plant life management. The first stage of plant life management comprises operational and maintenance histories, design and plant inspection data using advanced computer systems. The life of the plant can be controlled by maintenance, refurbishment and inspection programs, and by varying the method of plant operation. On-line monitoring is needed, and cost control and training must be taken into account if the life of the plant is to be managed efficiently. Identifying the life-limiting factors is essential at Loviisa. It has been concentrated on the aging in the form of materials degradation due to fatigue, erosion, corrosion, radiation and thermal effects. Certain other life-limiting factors are also mentioned

  13. Extending Pickering Fuel Channel Life to 247,000 EFPH (2020)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malek, I.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation is about extending the life of PNGS Pressure tubes from 210,000 EFPH (Effective Full Power Hours) to 247,000 EFPH. The l license renewal is in 2013 (R & D defined in 2009). The unknowns are the extent of degradation in some key areas. There are regulatory requirements for fuel channel extended life. It is necessary to integrate inspection capability and do-ability in outages. This would result in safe operation and demonstrated margin to extend life with operation to 2020.

  14. Life extension for fossil power plants: The EPRI [Electric Power Research Institute] strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byron, J.; Dooley, B.

    1988-01-01

    Fossil fuel-fired generating plants have traditionally been built under the assumption of an economic life of 20-30 years. Due to low load growth, escalating interest rates and costs of construction, and increasing regulation, great interest is expressed in retaining these units in service for 50-60 years or longer. Life extension activities are part of an ongoing process that continues throughout the extended lives of a utility's units. The process begins with an initial evaluation of life extension as a generation alternative, resulting in a ranking of units for life extension and a prioritization of components for evaluation. As the process continues, more detailed inspection data are created by a three-level approach, as well as a means for collecting, organizing and scheduling the information. This is implemented through the Integrated Life Extension Management (ILEM) model. This model provides information needed for management decision making such as component performance on unit power rating, availability of components on unit availability, component performance on unit availability and overall costs of the life extension tasks. Risks involved in life extension include the initial unavailability of capacity credits, uncertainty as to the level of availability that can be achieved by the life-extended plant, and uncertainties in environmental compliance. 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Replacement of major nuclear power plant components for service life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, S.

    1987-01-01

    Problems are discussed associated with replacement of nuclear power plant components with the aim to extend their original scheduled life. The existing foreign experience shows that it is technically feasible to replace practically all basic components for which the necessity of replacement is established. Data is summed up on the replacement of steam generators in US and West German nuclear power plants showing the duration of the job, the total consumption of manhours, the collective dose equivalent and the cost. Attention is also focused on implemented and projected replacements of circulation pipes in nuclear power plants abroad. Based on these figures, the cost is estimated of the replacement of the reactor vessel and the steam generators for WWER-440 nuclear power plants. The conclusion is arrived at that even based on a conservative estimate, the extension by 20 years of the service life of a nuclear power plant is economically more effective than the construction of a new plant. (Z.M.) 2 tabs., 15 refs., 3 figs

  16. Use of Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Materials for Extended Life Evaluations Using Power and Test Reactor Irradiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Server, W.L.; Nanstad, R.K.; Odette, G.R.

    2012-01-01

    The most important component in assuring safety of the nuclear power plant is the reactor pressure (RPV). Surveillance programs have been designed to cover the licensed life of operating nuclear RPVs. The original surveillance programs were designed when the licensed life was 40 years. More than one-half of the operating nuclear plants in the USA have an extended license out to 60 years, and there are plans to continue to operate many plants out to 80 years. Therefore, the surveillance programs have had to be adjusted or enhanced to generate key data for 60 years, and now consideration must be given for 80 or more years. To generate the necessary data to assure safe operation out to these extended license lives, test reactor irradiations have been initiated with key RPV and model alloy steels, which include several steels irradiated in the current power reactor surveillance programs out to relatively high fluence levels. These data are crucial in understanding the radiation embrittlement mechanisms and to enable extrapolation of the irradiation effects on mechanical properties for these extended time periods. This paper describes the potential radiation embrittlement mechanisms and effects when assessing much longer operating times and higher neutron fluence levels. Potential methods for adjusting higher neutron flux test reactor data for use in predicting power reactor vessel conditions are discussed. (author)

  17. Nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorive, P.; Berthe, J.; Lafaille, J.P.; Eussen, G.

    1998-01-01

    Several definitions can be given to the design life of a nuclear power plant just as they can be attributed to the design life of an industrial installation: the book-keeping life which is the duration of the provision for depreciation of the plant, the licensed life which corresponds to the duration for which the plant license has been granted and beyond which a new license should be granted by the safety authorities, the design life which corresponds to the duration specified for ageing and fatigue calculations in the design of some selected components during the plant design phase, the technical life which is the duration of effective technical operation and finally the economic life corresponding to the duration of profitable operation of the plant compared with other means of electricity production. Plant life management refers to the measures taken to cope with the combination of licensed, design, technical and economical life. They can include repairs and replacements of components which have arrived to the end of their life due to known degradation processes such as fatigue, embrittlement, corrosion, wear, erosion, thermal ageing. In all cases however, it is of great importance to plan the intervention so as to minimise the economic impact. Predictive maintenance is used together with in-service inspection programs to fulfil this goal. The paper will go over the methodologies adopted in Belgium in all aspects of electrical, mechanical and civil equipment for managing plant life. (author)

  18. Considerations related to plant life management for Cernavoda-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojan, Mihail

    2002-01-01

    Cernavoda-1 NPP, the first CANDU 6 Unit in Eastern Europe, is one of the original five CANDU 6 plants and the first CANDU 6 producing over 700 MWe. CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) continues to play a significant role in electricity supply both in Canada and some offshore countries (Korea, Argentina, Romania). The commercial versions of CANDU reactors were put into service more than 30 years ago. While the first series of CANDU 6 plants (which entered service in the early 1980's) have now reached the middle portion of their 30 years design life, the Cernavoda-1 was put into service on 2 December 1996. However, the Cernavoda-1 Plant Life Management should be an increasingly important program to Utility ('CNE-Prod') in order to protect the investment and the continued success of plant operation. Over the past three years, INR (Institute for Nuclear Research - Romania) has been working with AECL-Canada on R and D Programs to support a comprehensive and integrated Cernavoda-1 Plant Life Management (PLiM) program that will see the Cernavoda-1 NPP successfully and reliably through to design life and beyond. The PLiM program has a focus on critical systems, structures, and components (CSSCs) and will be applied in three phases: Phase 1 - Planning (assessment and recommendations); Phase 2 - Life attainment implementation, and; Phase 3 - Plant Life Extension (PLEx), also known as plant extended operation. The key activities during each phase are shown. The schedule of each Phase are shown using the in service date of 1983 as the basis. This schedule applies to three original CANDU 6 plants with an in-service date of 1983: Point Lepreau, Gentilly-2, Wolsong-1 and shortly thereafter (1984) the 4th original CANDU 6 Embalse NPP was declared in service. Cernavoda-1 is the 5th original CANDU 6 plant and was put into service on 2 December 1996 (on site activities were started in 1980). The paper will describe the elements of an integrated program, the multiphase

  19. Integrated plant life management (PLiM)-the IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.-S.; Clark, C.R.; Omoto, A.; )

    2005-01-01

    For the past couple of decades there has been a change of emphasis in the world nuclear power from that of building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to that of taking measures to optimize the life cycle of operational plants. National approaches in many countries showed an increase of interest in Plant Life Management (PLiM), both in terms of plant service life assurance and in optimizing the service or operational life of NPP. A strong convergence of views is emerging from different National approaches, particularly in the area of the economic aspects of NPP operation and in the evolution in the scope of NPP PLIM. The latter can directly affect the cost of electricity from NPP in an increasingly competitive environment. The safety considerations of a NPP are paramount and those requirements have to be met to obtain and to extend/renew the operating license. To achieve the goal of the long term safe, economic and reliable operation of the plant an integrated Plant Life Management Programme (PLiM) is necessary. Some countries already have advanced PLiM Programmes while others still have none. The PLiM objective is to identify all that factors and requirements for the overall plant life cycle. The optimization of these requirements would allow for the minimum period of the investment return and maximum of the revenue from the sell of the produced electricity. Recognizing the importance of this issue and in response to the requests of the Member States the IAEA Division of Nuclear Power implements the Sub-programme on 'Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power'. Four projects within this sub-programme deal with different aspects of the NPP life cycle management with the aim to increase the capabilities of interested Member States in implementing and maintenance of the competitive and sustainable nuclear power. Although all four projects contain certain issues of PLiM there is one specific project on guidance on engineering and management practices

  20. Discussion on life extension of nuclear power plant around the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ming; Zhang Yuansi

    2010-01-01

    The very Paper introduces the concept, basic working flow and fundamental elements of the life extension of nuclear power plant (NPP) around the world; and it generally collects and summarizes the status datum of life extension of NPPs. Afterwards, the Paper analyses the present status of life extension of NPP in various countries with strong nuclear power industry, i.e. the United States, France, Germany, Russia Federation, Japan, South Korea and Canada. At the end, the Paper make a conclusion that whether an operating NPP will adopt life extension at the end of its design life, this issue depends on the factor of economy, safety and technical feasibility of life extension on the NPP. According to latest datum collected in 2009, the nuclear power units around the world, which have exceeded the design lives or are close to design life ends, most of them (about 64%) have selected to extend their service lives; based on this statistical data, we concludes that when an operating nuclear unit is facing with the issue of to extend life or to retire itself, it will be apt to make life extension. (authors)

  1. Extending Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Network Life without Full Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najeeb, Najeeb W; Detweiler, Carrick

    2017-07-17

    When extending the life of Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks (WRSN), one challenge is charging networks as they grow larger. Overcoming this limitation will render a WRSN more practical and highly adaptable to growth in the real world. Most charging algorithms require a priori full knowledge of sensor nodes' power levels in order to determine the nodes that require charging. In this work, we present a probabilistic algorithm that extends the life of scalable WRSN without a priori power knowledge and without full network exploration. We develop a probability bound on the power level of the sensor nodes and utilize this bound to make decisions while exploring a WRSN. We verify the algorithm by simulating a wireless power transfer unmanned aerial vehicle, and charging a WRSN to extend its life. Our results show that, without knowledge, our proposed algorithm extends the life of a WRSN on average 90% of what an optimal full knowledge algorithm can achieve. This means that the charging robot does not need to explore the whole network, which enables the scaling of WRSN. We analyze the impact of network parameters on our algorithm and show that it is insensitive to a large range of parameter values.

  2. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-01-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  3. Non-destructive testing for plant life assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is promoting industrial applications of nondestructive testing (NDT) technology, which includes radiography testing (RT) and related methods, to assure safety and reliability of operation of industrial facilities and processes. NDT technology is essentially needed for improvement of the quality of industrial products, safe performance of equipment and plants, including safety of metallic and concrete structures and constructions. The IAEA is playing an important role in promoting the NDT use and technology support to Member States, in harmonisation for training and certification of NDT personnel, and in establishing national accreditation and certifying bodies. All these efforts have led to a stage of maturity and self sufficiency in numerous countries especially in the field of training and certification of personnel, and in provision of services to industries. This has had a positive impact on the improvement of the quality of industrial goods and services. NDT methods are primarily used for detection, location and sizing of surface and internal defects (in welds, castings, forging, composite materials, concrete and many more). Various NDT methods are applied for preventive maintenance (aircraft, bridge), for the inspection of raw materials, half-finished and finished products, for in-service-inspection and for plant life assessment studies. NDT is essential for quality control of the facilities and products, and for fitness - for purpose assessment (so-called plant life assessment). NDT evaluates remaining operation life of plant components (processing lines, pipes, vessels) providing an accurate diagnosis that allows predicting extended life operation beyond design life. Status and trends on the NDT for plant life assessment have been discussed in many IAEA meetings related with NDT development, training and education. Experts have largely demonstrated that, using NDT methods, a comprehensive assessment of the life

  4. Life extension, power upgrade, and return to service work for Pickering NGS and other PWR and CANDU plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millman, J.; Idvorian, N.; Schneider, W.

    2002-01-01

    Work on life extension, power upgrade and return to service has been performed and is in progress for a number of PWR and CANDU plants. For PWR plants, power upgrade work has been done for the new replacement steam generators in several cases. This work consists of redoing the formal equipment qualification analysis and reports for the uprated operating conditions to support the application for license adjustment. Life extension assessments have been performed for several CANDU plants. These are highly detailed assessments in which the particular steam generator is reassessed part by part as to the ability of each to sustain full life operation and also extended life operation. Return to service work for Pickering NGSA specifically has included this type of assessment and also specific repair, cleaning and retrofit activities including secondary side inspection, waterlancing, divider plate repair, eddy current inspection, etc. Steam generator modifications and retrofit work have been performed in a number of cases. The paper discusses various life extension, power upgrade, equipment modification and return to service activities all of which are part of the renewed drive in the industry to realise the full potential of nuclear plants by getting more and better performance from the extended service of existing plants. (author)

  5. Engineering support for plant life management: the IAEA contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.; Hezoucky, F.; Clark, R. C.; )

    2007-01-01

    For the past couple of decades there has been a change of emphasis in the world nuclear power from that of building new Nuclear Power Plants (NPP) to that of taking measures to optimize the life cycle of operational plants. National approaches in many countries showed an increase of interest in Plant Life Management (PLiM), both in terms of plant service life assurance and in optimizing the service or operational life of NPP. The safety considerations of a NPP are paramount and those requirements have to be met to obtain and to extend/renew the operating license. To achieve the goal of the long term safe, economic and reliable operation of the plant, PLiM programme is essential. Some countries already have advanced PLiM programmes while others still have none. The PLiM objective is to identify all that factors and requirements for the overall plant life cycle. The optimization of these requirements would allow for the minimum period of the investment return and maximum of the revenue from the sell of the produced electricity. Recognizing the importance of this issue and in response to the requests of the Member States the IAEA Division of Nuclear Power implements the Sub-programme on 'Engineering and Management Support for Competitive Nuclear Power'. Three projects within this sub-programme deal with different aspects of the NPP life cycle management with the aim to increase the capabilities of interested Member States in implementing and maintenance of the competitive and sustainable nuclear power. Although all three projects contain certain issues of PLiM, there is one specific project on guidance on engineering and management practices for optimization of NPP service life. This particular project deals with different specific issues of PLiM including aspects of ageing phenomena and their monitoring, issues of control and instrumentation, maintenance and operation issues, economic evaluation of PLiM including guidance on its earlier shut down and decommissioning

  6. Nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    The nuclear power industry's addressing of life extension is a natural trend in the maturation of this technology after 20 years of commercial operation. With increasing emphasis on how plants are operated, and less on how to build them, attention is turning on to maximizing the use of these substantial investments. The first studies of life extension were conducted in the period from 1978 and 1982. These were motivated by the initiation, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), of studies to support decommissioning rulemaking. The basic conclusions of those early studies that life extension is feasible and worth pursuing have not been changed by the much more extensive investigations that have since been conducted. From an engineering perspective, life extension for nuclear plants is fundamentally the same as for fossil plants

  7. Complex investigations for the technical diagnosis and constructive optimization of the pipe systems from Rovinari power plant to extend their remaining life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delamarian, C. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Sueddeutschland (TUeV), Muenchen (Germany); Lupescu, L.; Nicolescu, N. [Institutul de Studii si Proiectari Energetice, Bucharest (Romania); Pisc, I.; Botis, A. [ISIM, Timisoara (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The remnant life assessment of power plant components is an issue of a high importance all over the Europe and not only. The need of power products, the environmental-related restrictions within this field as well as the task of lowering the fabrication costs led to and increased importance of maintenance and retrofit activities of old power equipment during the last decade. Replacement of pipe lines exceeding their designed life is no longer regarded as an option for power plant managers. Instead, life assessment techniques combined with state of the art design and fabrication methods focusing on the replacement of damaged components as well as redesign of pipe line systems in order to eliminate overloading and/or secondary stresses that usually lead to premature life exhaustion are only some of the issues discussed within this paper. It deals with the retrofit of a conventional power plant (Group no. 3 of Rovinari Power Plant) which reached its designed life after about 110.000 operating hours. The need of improvement of the boiler efficiency as well as the extension of the plant life, maintaining in the same time old, but still good components determined the three companies (ISPE, ISIM and TUeV) to gather their skills in order to reach this task. (orig.)

  8. The significance of plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrddin Davies, L.

    2000-01-01

    The paper carries a definition and describes Plant life and plant life management. It also describes the procedures and defines the categorisation of components giving examples and referring to key components. Examples of 'good practice and guidance' are given for the establishment and implementation of plant life management programmes. A description is given of recent and current IAEA activities under the aegis of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (IWG-LMNPP). Some of the future activities in this field are described. (author)

  9. EPRI research on component aging and nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.; Carey, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper first describes several research efforts sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) that examine the aging degradation of organic materials and the nuclear plant equipment in which they appear. This research includes a compendium of material properties characterizing the effects of thermal and radiation aging, shake table testing to evaluate the effects of aging on the seismic performance of electrical components, and a review of condition monitoring techniques applicable to electrical equipment. Also described is a long-term investigation of natural versus artificial aging using reactor buildings as test beds. The paper then describes how the equipment aging research fits into a broad-scoped EPRI program on nuclear plant life extension. The objective of this program is to provide required information, technology, and guidelines to enable utilities to significantly extend operating life beyond the current 40-year licensed term

  10. Plant life management for long term operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The world's fleet of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is approximately 20 years old on average, and most plants are believed to be able to operate for 60 years or more. The design life of a NPP is typically 30 to 40 years. This may be extended by 10 to 20 years, or more, provided that the plant can demonstrate by analysis, trending, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing, ageing management, and other means that license renewal presents no threat to public health and safety. The basic goal of Plant Life Management (PLiM) is to satisfy requirements for safe long-term supplies of electricity in an economically competitive way. The basic goal of the operating company and the owners to operate as long as economically reasonable and possible from safety point of view. PLiM is a management tool for doing that. PLiM is a system of programmes and procedures to satisfy safety requirements for safe operation and for power production in a competitive way and for time which is rational from technical and economical point of view. PLiM is not only a technical system, it is also an attitude of the operational company to keep the plant in operation as long as possible from safety and business point of view. The common objectives of PLiM assessment is to help and review the pre-conditions for PLiM and long-term operation approaches. PLiM should not be associated with extension of operational life-time of the NPP only. It is an owner's attitude and rational approach of the operating company to run the business economically and safely. The effectiveness of PLiM Programme can be assessed by three complementary kinds of assessment: self-assessment, peer review and comprehensive programme review by the plant owner/ operator. IAEA will provide the assessment service for peer review of PLiM. Preparation for a PLiM Assessment service will be initiated only after the IAEA has been formally approached by a MS and funding (e.g. an existing Technical cooperation project) has

  11. Current status of technology for plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, B.

    2000-01-01

    In most developed countries of the world, deregulation of electricity markets has been established: competition is fierce, and utilities have to improve the competitiveness of their plants. It is an important challenge for nuclear power plants: a smart way to deal with this problem is life extension of existing units. The financial stakes associated with maintaining or extending the lifetime of nuclear power stations are very high; thus, if their lifetime is shortened by about ten years, dismantling and renewal would be brought forward which would increase their costs by several tens of billions of French francs. Furthermore, every extra year of operation of a 900 MWe unit should save about 500 million French francs per year on financial charges that would be necessary for a new investment, provided that maintenance costs do not become excessive. In order to succeed, utilities must improve their knowledge of ageing mechanisms, demonstrate to safety authorities the feasibility of life extension (especially taking into account critical components), operate existing units in an exemplary way, manage and master the long-term evolution of the safety reference state. (author)

  12. Profiling the extended phenotype of plant pathogens: Challenges in Bacterial Molecular Plant Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Gail M

    2017-04-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in plant pathology is what determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? This question is frequently studied in terms of the role of elicitors and pathogenicity factors in the triggering or overcoming of host defences. However, this focus fails to address the basic question of how the environment in host tissues acts to support or restrict pathogen growth. Efforts to understand this aspect of host-pathogen interactions are commonly confounded by several issues, including the complexity of the plant environment, the artificial nature of many experimental infection systems and the fact that the physiological properties of a pathogen growing in association with a plant can be very different from the properties of the pathogen in culture. It is also important to recognize that the phenotype and evolution of pathogen and host are inextricably linked through their interactions, such that the environment experienced by a pathogen within a host, and its phenotype within the host, is a product of both its interaction with its host and its evolutionary history, including its co-evolution with host plants. As the phenotypic properties of a pathogen within a host cannot be defined in isolation from the host, it may be appropriate to think of pathogens as having an 'extended phenotype' that is the product of their genotype, host interactions and population structure within the host environment. This article reflects on the challenge of defining and studying this extended phenotype, in relation to the questions posed below, and considers how knowledge of the phenotype of pathogens in the host environment could be used to improve disease control. What determines whether a pathogen grows within a plant? What aspects of pathogen biology should be considered in describing the extended phenotype of a pathogen within a host? How can we study the extended phenotype in ways that provide insights into the phenotypic properties of pathogens

  13. Need for consent of a law extending the operating life of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degenhart, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    The article deals with the question whether a law extending nuclear power plant life beyond the residual periods of time laid down in the law of April 22, 2002 requires consent of the Federal Council. The Atomic Energy Act needed the consent of the Federal Council pursuant to Article 87c, Basic Law, as its Section 24 determines that central functions of licensing and supervision be exercised by the federal states on behalf of the Federal Government. This has not changed after the current version of the norm. Increasing the residual quotas of electricity by amending Annex 3 of Sec.7, Para.1a, Atomic Energy Act, per se does not require consent. This is a substantive provision. Sec.24, Atomic Energy Act, does not need to be amended. The Federal Council, which consented to the original legislation, thus does not bear continued responsibility for the law. Every law must be treated as a separate entity in terms of legislative method. The Federal Council, with its first consent to the piece of legislation, ''approves'' this systemic shift. Renewed consent is required only in case of another systemic shift. This is the case when the provision about administrative responsibility takes on a very different meaning and impact no longer supported by the earlier consent. According to decisions by the Federal Constitutional Court, this expressly applies also to administration by commission. What is required is a comparison of administrative duties before and after entry into force of the amending law; mere quantitative shifts of administrative burdens do not cause a systemic shift. Whether the inclusion of backfitting obligations would be associated with regulations in administrative procedures has not been decided. In its ruling of May 4, 2010, the Federal Constitutional Court confirms that these do not require consent within the framework of Art.85 Para.1, Basic Law. (orig.)

  14. Should the service life of nuclear power plants be limited for technical reasons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomer, E.

    1995-01-01

    German nuclear power plant operating licenses take into account the fact that the design lifetime of the facilities is 40 years. The technological lifetime, however, is governed by actual ageing processes and operational burden. The service life of nuclear power plants can be extended by replacement of the steam generator and by repair or replacement of the reactor pressure vessel or parts thereof. Attention is also paid to the reactor protection systems. (J.B.). 8 figs

  15. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.207-3 Marking material to show extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as...

  16. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Determining the inventory impact of extended-shelf-life platelets with a network simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, John T

    2017-12-01

    The regulatory shelf life for platelets (PLTs) in many jurisdictions is 5 days. PLT shelf life can be extended to 7 days with an enhanced bacterial detection algorithm. Enhanced testing, however, comes at a cost, which may be offset by reductions in wastage due to longer shelf life. This article describes a method for estimating systemwide reductions in PLT outdates after PLT shelf life is extended. A simulation was used to evaluate the impact of an extended PLT shelf life within a national blood network. A network model of the Canadian Blood Services PLT supply chain was built and validated. PLT shelf life was extended from 5 days to 6, 7, and 8 days and runs were completed to determine the impact on outdates. Results suggest that, in general, a 16.3% reduction in PLT wastage can be expected with each additional day that PLT shelf life is extended. Both suppliers and hospitals will experience fewer outdating units, but wastage will decrease at a faster rate at hospitals. No effect was seen by blood group, but there was some evidence that supplier site characteristics influences both the number of units wasted and the site's ability to benefit from extended-shelf-life PLTs. Extended-shelf-life PLTs will reduce wastage within a blood supply chain. At 7 days, an improvement of 38% reduction in wastage can be expected with outdates being equally distributed between suppliers and hospital customers. © 2017 AABB.

  18. Prerequisites and driving forces behind an extended working life among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovbrandt, Pia; Håkansson, Carita; Albin, Maria; Carlsson, Gunilla; Nilsson, Kerstin

    2017-11-28

    Reforms are changing pension systems in many European countries, in order to both restrict early retirement and force people to extend their working life. From occupational therapy and occupational science perspectives, studies focusing on aspects of working life that motivate the older worker is urgent. The aim was to describe incentives behind an extended working life among people over age 65. Focus group methodology was used, with participants ages 66-71, from varying work fields: construction and technical companies and the municipal elderly care sector. Work was considered important and valuable to the degree of how challenging work was, the possibilities for inclusion in a team of colleagues and the chances for better personal finances. Amongst all, the participants expressed a feeling of a strengthened identity by being challenged and having the opportunity to manage working tasks. The finding showed the actual reasons behind an extended working life among older workers. However, a risk of rising social inequity may appear with increased working life if older people are forced to extend their working life due to a difficult financial situation as a pensioner. A variety of retirement options and initiatives in order to support older workers are justified.

  19. Nuclear power plant life management in a changing business world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    At the end of 1999, there were 348 nuclear power plants connected to the grid in OECD Member countries, representing a total capacity of 296 GWe and generating some 24% of their electricity. One third of these nuclear power plants had been in operation for over 20 years. The demand for electricity throughout OECD countries is increasing steadily but the construction of new nuclear power plants has become increasingly difficult. Many utilities would like to keep existing nuclear power plants operating for as long as they can continue to function safely and economically because. extending the lifetime of nuclear power plants is a substitute to constructing new plants. Therefore, nuclear plant life management (PLIM) has been carried out in many OECD Member countries and has played a very important role in the nuclear generation field. Nuclear power plant owners seek to economically optimise the output from their plants, taking into consideration internal and external influences, as well as equipment reliability and maintenance workload. Nuclear power plant life management and extension is generally an attractive option for utilities supplying electricity because of its low marginal cost and low investment risk. PLIM has become an important issue in the context of changing business circumstances caused by regulatory reform of the electricity market. Specifically, the economic aspect of PLIM has become an important focus in the competitive electricity market. The international workshop on 'Plant Life Management in a Changing Business World' was hosted by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) in co-operation with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) in Washington, DC, on 26-27 June 2000. Some 50 senior utility executives and policy makers from 12 Member countries, the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the European Commission (EC) attended the meeting. The objective of the workshop was to examine the status of

  20. Long-term capital planning considering nuclear plant life-cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negin, C.A.; Simpson, J.M.; Hostetler, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    The creation of a Life Cycle Management (LCM) group at utilities to evaluate the long term capital refurbishment needs is gaining favor. Among the functions of such groups can be the responsibility for recommending long term capital planning projects based on results of evaluations of systems, structures, and components that are not only essential to achieving the full current license term of operation, but also to extend the service life of the plant. Making such recommendations, in content and timing, requires the ability to view all recommendations in the context of an overall capital budget and long range outage impacts. This report illustrates an approach for creating a Long-Term Capital Plan with methods for deciding on, compiling, integrating, and presenting projects from the perspective of an LCM program for a nuclear power plant. It also addresses a rationale for capitalization of LCM program activities that would not be allowed under current accounting treatment

  1. Plant life management optimized utilization of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watzinger, H.; Erve, M.

    1999-01-01

    For safe, reliable and economical nuclear power generation it is of central importance to understand, analyze and manage aging-related phenomena and to apply this information in the systematic utilization and as-necessary extension of the service life of components and systems. An operator's overall approach to aging and plant life management which also improves performance characteristics can help to optimize plant operating economy. In view of the deregulation of the power generation industry with its increased competition, nuclear power plants must today also increasingly provide for or maintain a high level of plant availability and low power generating costs. This is a difficult challenge even for the newest, most modern plants, and as plants age they can only remain competitive if a plant operator adopts a strategic approach which takes into account the various aging-related effects on a plant-wide basis. The significance of aging and plant life management for nuclear power plants becomes apparent when looking at their age: By the year 2000 roughly fifty of the world's 434 commercial nuclear power plants will have been in operation for thirty years or more. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency, as many as 110 plants will have reached the thirty-year service mark by the year 2005. In many countries human society does not push the construction of new nuclear power plants and presumably will not change mind within the next ten years. New construction licenses cannot be expected so that for economical and ecological reasons existing plants have to be operated unchallengeably. On the other hand the deregulation of the power production market is asking just now for analysis of plant life time to operate the plants at a high technical and economical level until new nuclear power plants can be licensed and constructed. (author)

  2. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tsukasa; Aoki, Masataka; Shimura, Takao; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Koike, Masahiro

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  3. Extended Life Testing of Duplex Ball Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Jeffrey; Robertson, Michael; Hodges, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Space Systems performed bearing life testing for the Scan Mirror Motor/Encoder Assembly (SMMA), part of the Scan Mirror Assembly on-board the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) on the NASA Glory Spacecraft. The baseline bearing life test duration extended beyond the launch date for the Glory Spacecraft; a risk that the program was willing to undertake with the understanding that if any anomalies or failures occurred before the required life was achieved, then the mission objectives or operating profile could be modified on orbit to take those results into account. Even though the Glory Spacecraft failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011, the bearing life testing was continued through a mutual understanding of value between Sierra Nevada Corporation and our customer; with a revised goal of testing to failure rather than completing a required number of life cycles. Life testing thus far has not only exceeded the original mission required life, but has also exceeded the published test data for Cumulative Degradation Factor (CDF) from NASA/CR-2009-215681. Many lessons were learned along the way regarding long life testing. The bearing life test has been temporarily suspended due to test support equipment issues.

  4. PLEXFIN a computer model for the economic assessment of nuclear power plant life extension. User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The IAEA developed PLEXFIN, a computer model analysis tool aimed to assist decision makers in the assessment of the economic viability of a nuclear power plant life/licence extension. This user's manual was produced to facilitate the application of the PLEXFIN computer model. It is widely accepted in the industry that the operational life of a nuclear power plant is not limited to a pre-determined number of years, sometimes established on non-technical grounds, but by the capability of the plant to comply with the nuclear safety and technical requirements in a cost effective manner. The decision to extend the license/life of a nuclear power plant involves a number of political, technical and economic issues. The economic viability is a cornerstone of the decision-making process. In a liberalized electricity market, the economics to justify a nuclear power plant life/license extension decision requires a more complex evaluation. This user's manual was elaborated in the framework of the IAEA's programmes on Continuous process improvement of NPP operating performance, and on Models for analysis and capacity building for sustainable energy development, with the support of four consultants meetings

  5. Extending The Useful Life Of Older Mass Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.; Cordaro, J.; Holland, M.; Jones, V.

    2010-01-01

    Thermal ionization and gas mass spectrometers are widely used across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex and contractor laboratories. These instruments support critical missions, where high reliability and low measurement uncertainty are essential. A growing number of these mass spectrometers are significantly older than their original design life. The reality is that manufacturers have declared many of the instrument models obsolete, with direct replacement parts and service no longer available. Some of these obsolete models do not have a next generation, commercially available replacement. Today's budget conscious economy demands for the use of creative funds management. Therefore, the ability to refurbish (or upgrade) these valuable analytical tools and extending their useful life is a cost effective option. The Savannah River Site (SRS) has the proven expertise to breathe new life into older mass spectrometers, at a significant cost savings compared to the purchase and installation of new instruments. A twenty-seven year old Finnigan MAT-261(trademark) Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS), located at the SRS F/H Area Production Support Laboratory, has been successfully refurbished. Engineers from the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) fabricated and installed the new electronics. These engineers also provide continued instrument maintenance services. With electronic component drawings being DOE Property, other DOE Complex laboratories have the option to extend the life of their aged Mass Spectrometers.

  6. Extending Working Life: Which Competencies are Crucial in Near-Retirement Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowicz, Justyna

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, one of the most important economic and social phenomena is population ageing. Due to the low activity rate of older people, one of the most important challenges is to take various actions involving active ageing, which is supposed to extending working life, and along with it-improve the competencies of older people. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the relevance of different competencies for extending working life, with limiting the analysis for Poland. The paper also assesses the competencies of mature Polish people (aged 50+, but still in working age). In the statistical analysis, I used logistic regression, as well as descriptive statistics and appropriate statistical tests. The results show that among the actions aimed at extending working life, the most important are those related to lifelong learning, targeted at improving the competencies of the older generation. The competencies (both soft and hard) of people aged 50+ are more important than their formal education.

  7. Advanced condition monitoring techniques and plant life extension studies at EBR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, R.M.; Gross, K.C.; Perry, W.H.; King, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Numerous advanced techniques have been evaluated and tested at EBR-2 as part of a plant-life extension program for detection of degradation and other abnormalities in plant systems. Two techniques have been determined to be of considerable assistance in planning for the extended-life operation of EBR-2. The first, a computer-based pattern-recognition system (System State Analyzer or SSA) is used for surveillance of the primary system instrumentation, primary sodium pumps and plant heat balances. This surveillance has indicated that the SSA can detect instrumentation degradation and system performance degradation over varying time intervals and can be used to provide derived signal values to replace signals from failed sensors. The second technique, also a computer-based pattern-recognition system (Sequential Probability Ratio Test or SPRT) is used to validate signals and to detect incipient failures in sensors and components or systems. It is being used on the failed fuel detection system and is experimentally used on the primary coolant pumps. Both techniques are described and experience with their operation presented

  8. Countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants out of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some investigations on countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants were begun since beginning of 1990s under cooperation with Ministry of International Trade and Industry and all electric power companies under consideration of recent state on abroad and at concept of preventive conservation implementation against the plant life management. As a result, the Tokyo Electric Power Company, the Kansai Electric Power Company and the Japan Atomic Power Company settled each program on countermeasure to plant life management of the Fukushima-1 Power Plant, the Mihama-1 Power Plant and the Tsuruga-1 Power Plant, respectively, which were reported to the Atomic Energy Safety Commission to issue on February, 1999, after deliberation in the Adviser Group of Ministry of International Trade and Industry. Such investigations on countermeasure to the plant life management are also conducted out of Japan in parallel to those in Japan, which contain programs reflecting states of operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants and atmosphere around atomic energy in each country. Here were described on some present states of the countermeasures to plant life management in U.S.A., France, Germany, Sweden, England and so forth. (G.K.)

  9. The impact of extended half-life versus conventional factor product on hemophilia caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Carolyn E; Powell, Victoria E; Su, Jun; Zhang, Jie; Eldar-Lissai, Adi

    2018-05-01

    Extended half-life factor products have reduced annualized bleeding rates in hemophilia patients. The impact of extended half-life versus conventional factor products on hemophilia caregiver burden has not been investigated. This study aimed to evaluate caregiver burden in extended half-life versus conventional factor products for hemophilia A and B. This cross-sectional web-based study of caregivers of people with hemophilia A or B was recruited from a panel research company and by word of mouth. Participants completed the Hemophilia Caregiver Impact measure, the PedsQL Family Impact Module (PedsQL), and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI). We also collected demographic, insurance coverage, and medical information related to the hemophilia patient(s). Burden differences were assessed using linear regression and matched cohort analyses. The sample (n = 448) included 49 people who were caring for people on extended half-life factor products. Worse caregiver burden was associated with more infusions per week and more bleeds in the past 6 months. Regression analyses suggested that caring for someone who is on a extended half-life factor product is associated with lower emotional impact (β = - 0.11, p factor product had lower Emotional Impact and Practical Impact scores (t = - 2.95 and - 2.94, respectively, p factor product infusions of extended half-life factor products appears to reduce the emotional distress and practical burden of caregiving. Future work should evaluate the longitudinal impact.

  10. An integrated approach to plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredlund, L.

    1998-01-01

    Plant life is no longer determined by components, almost everything can be replaced. A plant life management program should aim at actions and replacements being performed at the right time. In order to manage this there is need for experience feedback systems, a plant specific risk study and safety upgrades. (author)

  11. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, Patricia; Carbonari, Guilherme L.R.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: patponce@iq.usp.br, e-mail: guilacaz@uol.com.br, e-mail: ablugao@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  12. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Patricia; Carbonari, Guilherme L.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  13. R and D in support of CANDU plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Holt, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    One of the keys to the long-term success of CANDUs is a high capacity factor over the station design life. Considerable R and D in underway at AECL to develop technologies for assessing, monitoring and mitigating the effect of plant ageing and for improving plant performance and extending plant life. To achieve longer service life and to realize high capacity factor from CANDU stations, AECL is developing new technologies to enhance fuel channel and steam generator inspection capabilities, to monitor system health, and to allow preventive maintenance and cleaning (e.g., on-line chemical cleaning processes that produce small volumes of wastes). The life management strategy for fuel channels and steam generators requires a program to inspect components on a routine basis to identify mechanisms that could potentially affect fitness-for-service. In the case of fuel channels, the strategy includes inspections for dimensional changes, flaw detection, and deuterium concentration. New techniques are been developed to enhance these inspection capabilities; examples include accurate measurement of the gap between a pressure tube and its calandria tube and rapid full-length inspections of steam generator tubes for all known flaw types. Central to life management of components are Fitness-for-Service Guidelines (FFSG) that have been developed with the CANDU Owners Group (COG) that provide a standardized method to assess the potential for propagation of flaws detected during in-service inspections, and assessment of any change in fracture characteristics of the material. FFSG continue to be improved with the development of new technologies such as the capability to credit relaxation of stresses due to creep and non-rejectable flaws in pressure tubes. Effective management of plant systems throughout their lifetime requires much more than data acquisition and display - it requires that system health is continually monitored and managed. AECL has developed a system Health Monitor

  14. BALTICA III. Plant condition and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P.

    1995-01-01

    The BALTICA III, International Conference on Plant Condition and Life Management was held on June 6 - 8, 1995 on board Silja Serenade on its cruise between Helsinki - Stockholm and at the Forest Lake Hotel Korpilampi in Espoo. BALTICA III provides forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practise. This is the second volume of the publications, which contain the presentations given at the BALTICA III, Plant Condition and Life Management. A total of 45 articles report recent experience in plant condition and life management. The conference focuses on recent applications that have been demonstrated for the benefit of safe and economical operation of power plants. Practical approach is emphasised, including the presentations that aim to provide insight into new techniques, improvements in assessment methodologies as well as maintenance strategies. Compared to earlier occasions in the BALTICA series, a new aspect is in the applications of knowledge-based systems in the service of power plant life management. (orig.)

  15. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Melini

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been used. However, new frontiers have been recently explored. Sourdough turned out an ancient but novel technology to preserve standard and gluten-free bread. Promising results have also been obtained by application of alternative bio-preservation techniques, including antifungal peptides and plant extracts. Active packaging, with absorbing and/or releasing compounds effective against bread staling and/or with antimicrobials preventing growth of undesirable microorganisms, showed up an emerging area of food technology which can confer many preservation benefits. Nanotechnologies are also opening up a whole universe of new possibilities for the food industry and the consumers. This work thus aims to provide an overview of opportunities and challenges that traditional and innovative anti-staling and anti-spoilage methods can offer to extend bread shelf-life and to provide a basis for driving further research on nanotechnology applications into the bakery industry.

  16. Extending shelf life of poultry and red meat by irradiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that ionizing radiation can inactivate parasites, eliminate or greatly reduce the populations of microbial pathogens, and extend the shelf life while preserving the desired nutritional and sensory properties of refrigerated poultry and red meats. Foodborne pathogens can be greatly reduced in population and sometimes completely eliminated from foods by low doses of ionizing radiation. The shelf life of poultry, pork, and beef can be significantly extended by treatment with ionizing radiation. Combination treatments with vacuum packaging or modified atmosphere packaging and ionizing radiation have produced better than predicted results. Additional research is needed on the combined processes

  17. Similarities and differences among fluid milk products: traditionally produced, extended shelf life and ultrahigh-temperature processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, N T; Ahlfeld, B; Brix, A; Hagemann, A; von Münchhausen, C; Klein, G

    2013-06-01

    Extended shelf life milk is a relatively new kind of fluid milk, generally manufactured by high-temperature treatment and/or micro-filtration. Being advertised as 'pasteurized milk with an extended shelf life', its flavour, compositional quality and labelling was questioned. Extended shelf life (high-temperature treatment), pasteurized ('traditionally produced') and ultrahigh-temperature milk were, therefore, compared at the beginning and end of shelf life. In triangle tests, panellists distinguished clearly between all products. High-temperature treatment milk's flavour was closer to ultrahigh-temperature and traditionally produced milk in the beginning and at the end of shelf life, respectively. Physicochemically and bacteriologically, all three types could be distinguished. Since 'extended shelf life' comprises many process varieties (each affecting flavour differently), consumer information and appropriate package labelling beyond 'long-lasting' is necessary, e.g. by mentioning the heat treatment applied.

  18. CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlebois, P.; Hart, R.S.; Hopkins, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Commercial versions of CANDU reactors were put into service starting more than 25 years ago. The first unit of Ontario Hydro's Pickering A station was put into service in 1971, and Bruce A in 1977. Most CANDU reactors, however, are only now approaching their mid-life of 15 to 20 years of operation. In particular, the first series of CANDU 6 plants which entered service in the early 1980's were designed for a 30 year life and are now approaching mid life. The current CANDU 6 design is based on a 40 year life as a result of advancement in design and materials through research and development. In order to assure safe and economic operation of these reactors, a comprehensive CANDU Plant Life Management (PLIM) program is being developed from the knowledge gained during the operation of Ontario Hydro's Pickering, Bruce, and Darlington stations, worldwide information from CANDU 6 stations, CANDU research and development programs, and other national and international sources. This integration began its first phase in 1994, with the identification of most of the critical systems structures and components in these stations, and a preliminary assessment of degradation and mechanisms that could affect their fitness for service for their planned life. Most of these preliminary assessments are now complete, together with the production of the first iteration of Life Management Plans for several of the systems and components. The Generic CANDU 6 PLIM program is now reaching its maturity, with formal processes to systematically identify and evaluate the major CSSCs in the station, and a plan to ensure that the plant surveillance, operation, and maintenance programs monitor and control component degradation well within the original design specifications essential for the plant life attainment. A Technology Watch program is being established to ensure that degradation mechanisms which could impact on plant life are promptly investigated and mitigating programs established. The

  19. Life extending control: An interdisciplinary engineering thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Merrill, Walter C.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of Life Extending Control (LEC) is introduced. Possible extensions to the cyclic damage prediction approach are presented based on the identification of a model from elementary forms. Several candidate elementary forms are presented. These extensions will result in a continuous or differential form of the damage prediction model. Two possible approaches to the LEC based on the existing cyclic damage prediction method, the measured variables LEC and the estimated variables LEC, are defined. Here, damage estimates or measurements would be used directly in the LEC. A simple hydraulic actuator driven position control system example is used to illustrate the main ideas behind LEC. Results from a simple hydraulic actuator example demonstrate that overall system performance (dynamic plus life) can be maximized by accounting for component damage in the control design.

  20. Update on the status of life extension in U.S. Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia Ruperez, F.; Lehnert, D.F.; Gregor, F.E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the status of key activities that may affect the plant life extension option for U.S. nuclear power plants and to explain how the progress on the regulatory and technical developments may affect the world-wide nuclear industry. Establishing a predictable and stable regulatory process is the final piece that is needed by U.S. utilities to confidently consider the plant life extension option in their strategic planning. Certain technical issues were also identified in the previous studies where additional investigation would benedict the U.S. nuclear power industry's understanding of an aging effect and/or capability to demonstrate that the aging effect can be effectively managed. It is concluded that the lessons learned from the U.S. industry activities and the associated interactions with the NRC are leading to a positive indication that U.S. utilities believe the differences between the NRC and industry on the implementation of the amended license renewal rule can be successfully resolved and the that many utilities generally are interested in pursuing the life extension option as part of their strategic planning. The methodology and guidance developed in the U.S. for performing integrated plant assessments and evaluating time-limited aging analyses will be of significant interest to utilities and regulators in other countries. They will undoubtedly lay the foundation for an acceptable approach for demonstrating that aging processes are being processes are being effectively managed by plant programs and that safety margins or bases will be maintained during an extended operating period. (Author)

  1. Cost drivers for the assessment of nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    In the period of the nineteen-sixties to eighties, nuclear power had rapidly expanded in many countries of the world. The nuclear power plants built in this period, will reach the end of their planned life in the near future. Statistics drawn from IAEA's Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) indicate that, by the end of 2001, there were 175 nuclear power units (NPPs) with about 122 GWe of net electrical capacity, having 21 to 45 years of operation. This represents about 34% of the total installed nuclear capacity in the world. Since these plants were initially designed for 30-40 years of operation, utilities operating such NPPs will now have to consider whether they will shutdown, decommission, and replace the plants reaching the end of their planned life, or refurbish the plants and extend their original design life. This decision is quite complex, involving a number of political, technical and economic issues. Finally, the utilities involved should manage their assets in a manner that is as close as practicable to the best possible economic optimum scenario. Well before the end of the plant life, NPP operators must evaluate the technical and economic feasibility for PLEX options, seek and obtain regulatory approvals, and implement PLEX schemes that are justified. Often they also have to substantiate the planned life extension, including the economic viability to the relevant governmental bodies, as well as to assure the general public acceptance. Economic feasibility analysis requires cost data that are not readily available. A recent IAEA review of published information on costs of PLEX revealed the scarcity of published information, while the estimated costs of NPP decommissioning are widely available. This is due in part to the reluctance by NPP operators to divulge the cost data that are considered commercial/confidential, as more plant operators are being privatised, and in part to the absence of a common framework and methodology to account for the

  2. Plant control system upgrades in the context of industry trends towards plant life-extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grosbois, J.; Basso, R.; Hepburn, A.; Kumar, V.

    2002-01-01

    Domestic CANDU nuclear plants were brought online between 1972 and 1986. Over the next decade, most of these stations will be nearing the end of their designed operating life. Effort has traditionally been placed on ensuring that the existing installed plant control system equipment could operate reliably until the end of this design life. Until recently, little attention has been given to plant control system upgrades or replacements to meet the expected requirement for 30+ years of additional plant operation following potential plant refurbishments. Industry developments are changing this thinking. The combination of expected increases in electricity demand (and prices), and the many recent successful turnaround stories of U.S. nuclear power plants has resulted in new interest in plant life improvement and plant life extension programs. Plant control system upgrade decisions are now being driven by the need to replace or upgrade these systems to support plant life extension. This article is the first of several that investigate aspects of plant control system upgrades or replacement, specifically in the context of the CANDU station digital control computers (DCCs). It sets the context for the discussion in the subsequent articles by providing a brief review of industry trends favouring plant refurbishment, by outlining the basic issues of aging and obsolescence of control system equipment, by establishing the need for upgrades and replacements, and by introducing some of the basic challenges to be addressed by the industry as it moves forward. (author)

  3. Dewaterability of sludge digested in extended aeration plants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dewaterability of unconditioned sludge digested in full scale and lab scale experiments using either extended aeration (EA) or anaerobic digestion were compared on full and lab scale sand drying beds. Sludge digested in EA plants resulted in improvement in sludge dewaterability compared to sludge digested ...

  4. Economic analysis of extended cycles in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez N, H.; Hernandez M, J.L.; Francois L, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    The present work presents a preliminary analysis of economic type of extended cycles of operation of the Unit One in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. It is analysed an equilibrium cycle of 18 months firstly, with base to the Plan of Use of Energy of the Federal Commission of Electricity, being evaluated the cost of the energy until the end of the useful life of the plant. Later on an alternative recharge scenario is presented with base to an equilibrium cycle of 24 months, implemented to the beginning of the cycle 11, without considering transition cycles. It is added in both cycles the cost of the substitution energy, considering the unitary cost of the fuel of a dual thermoelectric power station of 350 M We and evaluating in each operation cycle, in both scenarios, the value of the substitution energy. The results show that a reduction of the days of recharge in the cycle of 24 months could make this option but favorable economically. The duration of the period of recharge rebounds in considerable grade in the cost of energy generation for concept of fuel. (Author)

  5. Analysis of Piping Systems for Life Extension of Heavy Water Plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh K.; Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Raj, V. Venkat

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. Two of the successfully running heavy water plants are on the verge of completion of their design life in the near future. One of these two plants, situated at Kota, is a hydrogen sulfide based plant and the other one at Tuticorin is an ammonia-based plant. Various exercises have been planned with an aim to assess the fatigue usage for the various components of these plants in order to extend their life. Considering the process parameters and the past history of the plant performance, critical piping systems and equipment are identified. Analyses have been carried out for these critical piping systems for mainly two kinds of loading, viz. sustained loads and the expansion loads. Static analysis has been carried out to find the induced stress levels due to sustained as well as thermal expansion loading as per the design code ANSI B31.3. Due consideration has been given to the design corrosion allowance while evaluating the stresses due to sustained loads. At the locations where the induced stresses (S L ) due to the sustained loads are exceeding the allowable limits (S h ), exercises have been carried out considering the reduced corrosion allowance value. This strategy is adopted in view of the fact that the thickness measurements carried out at site at various critical locations show a very low rate of corrosion. It has been possible to qualify the system with reduced corrosion allowance values however, it is recommended to keep that location under periodic monitoring. The strategy adopted for carrying out analysis for thermal expansion loading is to qualify the system as per the code allowable value (S a ). If the stresses are more than the allowable value, credit of liberal allowable value as suggested in the code i.e., with the addition of the term (S h -S L ) to the term 0.25 S h , has been taken. However, if at any location, it is found that thermal stress is high, fatigue analysis has

  6. Overview of plant life extension technology development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, T.; Arai, H.; Akiyama, M.; Mishima, Y.; Okubo, T.

    1993-01-01

    In Japan, it is expected that the nuclear power will continue to play an important role in electric power supply. Since it is expected that the fast breeder reactor (FBR) will be introduced sometime during the first half of the 21st century, light water reactors (LWRs) will continue to play a key role some 30 to 40 years to come. For this reason, technology development projects are being implemented to further enhance light water reactor technology and thereby improve the reliability of LWRs. From this point, the Plant Life Extension (PLEX) technology development program [1-4] is entrusted by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to the Japan Power Engineering and Inspection Corporation (JAPEIC). This program is an 11-year plan which started in 1985. The objectives are to extend the service lives of existing LWRs to increase the energy generated by these plants during their lifetime, and to reduce the lifetime generating costs. In this report, we will present our project overview and recent activities with respect to extensive verification tests on component material behavior. The JAPEIC PLEX project is divided into 3 phases. Phase I is the feasibility study. Phase 2 involves the verification tests and the evaluation of life extension technologies. The overall evaluation of the project will be conducted in Phase 3. The feasibility study of Phase I has been completed in fiscal year 1985 and 1986. In Phase I, the important components (the components and structures that are likely to govern the lives of nuclear power plants) have been selected. (author)

  7. OL1/OL2 License renewal for extended life-time: Class 1 piping load and strength analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemettinen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) operates two NPP units Olkiluoto 1 (OL1) and Olkiluoto 2 (OL2), that are identical 880 MWe BWRs. The units were originally designed for 40 years life-time. TVO is applying license renewal for extended life-time for 60 years plant life. Part of the license renewal project is to evaluate and update all Class 1 piping load and strength analyses. These analyses are done with the help of TVO's in-house Piping and Component Analysis and Monitoring System (PAMS). PAMS is basically a database system, consisting of separate geometry, material, loading, result and document databases. The thermo hydraulic analysis program RELAP5 is used to obtain temperature, pressure and mass flow for the piping loading areas. The piping strength analysis are carried out mainly with the Finnish FPIPE FEA program for all related thermal transient and dynamic load cases. The slides of the presentation have been added to the paper

  8. Structural considerations in nuclear life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodson, W.B.; McHale, P.F.

    1986-01-01

    The ability to extend the licensed life of a nuclear power plant requires that technical, economic, and regulatory criteria be satisfied. Two ongoing Electric Power Research Institute/US Department of Energy funded pilot studies are looking at the technical and economic aspects from a plant wide viewpoint to life extension. In each, structures have been identified to have a potentially strong effect on the viability for extended life because of the possible major cost, schedule, and person-rem factors should major refurbishment, modifications, or replacement be required. This paper reviews the degradation mechanisms and counterbalancing design features for one of these pilot plants in the studies. It further reviews the recommended ongoing practices to be followed to better ensure that life extension for the structures remains a future option

  9. Spoilage of Microfiltered and Pasteurized Extended Shelf Life Milk Is Mainly Induced by Psychrotolerant Spore-Forming Bacteria that often Originate from Recontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Etienne V; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-01-01

    Premature spoilage and varying product quality due to microbial contamination still constitute major problems in the production of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk. Spoilage-associated bacteria may enter the product either as part of the raw milk microbiota or as recontaminants in the dairy plant. To identify spoilage-inducing bacteria and their routes of entry, we analyzed end products for their predominant microbiota as well as the prevalence and biodiversity of psychrotolerant spores in bulk tank milk. Process analyses were performed to determine the removal of psychrotolerant spores at each production step. To detect transmission and recontamination events, strain typing was conducted with isolates obtained from all process stages. Microbial counts in 287 ESL milk packages at the end of shelf life were highly diverse ranging from shelf life is influenced only to a minor extent by raw-milk-associated factors. In contrast, recontamination with spores, particularly from the B. cereus complex, seems to occur. To enhance milk quality throughout the entire shelf life, improved plant sanitation and disinfection that target the elimination of spores are necessary.

  10. Nuclear plant life - A business decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosten, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Regarding the future of the nuclear power option, many scenarios have been put forth over the years. The most commonly accepted projections for installed nuclear capacity show it growing at a rate of about 2% per year throughout the next few decades. These projections appear modes on the surface. However, underlying the projections are critical assumptions and sometimes misconceptions about the lifetimes of existing reactors and how they are determined. The notion of a 40 year plant life is very common. Consequently, many projections start either with the assumption that no plants will be retired in the near terms or with the assumption that each retired plant will be replaced by another nuclear plant after 40 years. Effectively, these assumptions yield future projections for installed capacity that might be characterized as low growth, medium growth and high growth scenarios - or grow, grow, grow. The question remains as to whether or not these assumptions accurately model the driving forces and constraints to nuclear development. After all, there is no scientific basis for believing that all plants, PWRs BWRs, RBMKs, etc., should have the same 40 year life. Most power plant owners purchase the plant for the main reason of supplying electrical power to their consumer. For these owners, electricity production is a day to day commercial activity with various alternatives on how to achieve the prime objective. The decision of which electricity generation alternative to select (gas, coal, nuclear or renewable energy) and how long to operate the plant before replacing it with a new one is essentially a business decision. The paper discusses ageing, the nuclear plant life decision process, the factors which influence the decision and their ramifications regarding the near term growth of nuclear power capacity. The modelling of nuclear plant lifetimes is also discussed. (author). 5 refs, 10 figs, 1 tab

  11. Social Isolation in Later Life: Extending the Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldrick, Rachel; Grenier, Amanda

    2018-03-01

    As Canada's population continues to age, social isolation among older people is a growing concern and national-level priority. Although much is known about individual-level risks and negative health outcomes associated with social isolation in later life, the impact of life course trajectories and the more collective experiences are seldom considered. Current definitions and program responses tend to rely on individualized approaches to social isolation. Here, we argue that the conversation be extended to consider the social and cultural aspects of social isolation among older people. Specifically, we suggest that definitions and approaches consider three particular dimensions: temporal factors, spatial factors, and the relationship between social isolation and exclusion. Doing so, we argue, would result in a more inclusive approach to social isolation in late life, and the development of capacity to address social isolation among a wide range of older people, particularly the needs of vulnerable or marginalized groups.

  12. Ethylene Control Technologies in Extending Postharvest Shelf Life of Climacteric Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhua; Cheng, Dong; Wang, Baobin; Khan, Iqbal; Ni, Yonghao

    2017-08-30

    Fresh fruit is important for a healthy diet. However, because of their seasonal production, regional specific cultivation, and perishable nature, it is essential to develop preservation technologies to extend the postharvest shelf life of fresh fruits. Climacteric fruit adopt spoilage because of ethylene, a key hormone associated with the ripening process. Therefore, controlling ethylene activity by following safe and effective approaches is a key to extend the postharvest shelf life of fruit. In this review, ethylene control technologies will be discussed aiming for the need of developing more innovative and effective approaches. The biosynthesis pathway will be given first. Then, the technologies determining the postharvest shelf life of climacteric fruit will be described with special attention to the latest and significant published works in this field. Special attention is given to 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), which is effective in fruit preservation technologies. Finally, the encapsulation technology to improve the stability of 1-MCP will be proposed, using a potential encapsulation agent of 1-MCP, calixarene.

  13. Regulatory issues for nuclear power plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roe, J.

    2000-01-01

    The workshop of 26-27 june 2000, on nuclear power Plant LIfe Management (PLIM), also included working groups in which major issues facing PLIM activities for nuclear power plants were identified and discussed. The second group was on Regulation. The Regulatory Working Group will attempt to identify some of the more pertinent issues affecting nuclear plant regulation in a changing PLIM environment, to identify some possible actions to be taken to address these issues, and to identify some of the parties responsible for taking these actions. Some preliminary regulatory issues are noted below. This is not intended to be a comprehensive list of such issues but rather is intended to stimulate discussion among the experts attending this Workshop. One of the concerns in the regulatory arena is how the structural integrity of the plants can be assured for an extended lifetime. Technological advances directed toward the following are likely to be important factors in the regulatory process of life extension. - Preventive and corrective maintenance (e.g., water chemistry control, pressure vessel annealing, and replacement of core internals). - Ageing and degradation mechanisms and evaluation (e.g., embrittlement, wear, corrosion/erosion, fatigue, and stress corrosion). - Monitoring, surveillance, and inspection (e.g., fatigue monitoring and non-destructive testing). - Optimisation of maintenance (e.g., using risk-based analysis). On the business side, there is concern about technical support by manufacturers, fuel companies, and construction companies. Maintaining a strong technical base and skilled workers in a potentially declining environment is another concern in the regulatory community. Waste management and decommissioning remain significant issue regarding PLIM. These issues affect all three areas of concern - technology, business, and regulation. It is against this background, that the issues put forth in this paper are presented. The objective of presenting these

  14. Fuzzy Life-Extending Control of Anti-Lock Braking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. El-Garhy

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The repeated operation of the Anti-Lock Braking System (ABS causes accumulation of structural damages in its different subsystems leading to reduction in their functional life time. This paper proposes a Fuzzy Logic based Life-Extending Control (FLEC system for increasing the service life of the ABS. FLEC achieves significant improvement in service life by the trade-off between satisfactory dynamic performance and safe operation. The proposed FLEC incorporates structural damage model of the ABS. The model utilizes the dynamic behavior of the ABS and predicts the wear rates of the brake pads/disc. Based on the predicted wear rates, the proposed fuzzy logic controller modifies its control strategy on-line to keep safe operation leading to increase in service time of the ABS. FLEC is fine tuned via genetic algorithm and its effectiveness is verified through simulations of emergency stops of a passenger vehicle model.

  15. Plant life management in Hungary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillemot, F.

    1998-01-01

    The life management in Hungary is in an early stage. The preparation of a suitable database, development of maintenance systems and education of the plant and consultant staff is essential. The Act of Nuclear Safety, the introduction of the 10 years periodic safety review system (periodic licence extension) is a good basis for life management. At the same time the economic changes in the country make the life management difficult. Presently most important task is to prepare the technical environment and the methodology for NPP Life management, and within a few years, when the economy would be consolidated, a real life management will be performed

  16. Extended teamwork: team performance in highly automated nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended

  17. Extended teamwork: team performance in highly automated nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjerve, Ann Britt; Strand, Stine; Skraaning, Gyrd Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) operation is in essence a teamwork task. The central control-room (CCR) operators are required to co-operate to achieve the operational goals, and they further depend on the assistance of the field operators and, at least in modern plants, on the assistance of the high-level automatic system. Future NPPs (e.g., advanced reactors) are foreseen to contain substantially higher automation levels, reduced staffing, and redefined roles of the remaining staff, as compared to the present situation. This paper suggests that in future plants, in which the autonomy and authority of the automatic system and of the field operators are increased, the transactions between the CCR operators and automatic system/field operators might most efficiently be conceptualized within the framework of co-operation, and thus teamwork. This framework has typically been restricted to conceptualizations of the transactions between the CCR operators, but in future settings, co-ordination, communication and mutual support between the CCR operators and the field operators/automatic system may be of increased importance for sustaining plant safety, as compared to the present situation. The paper further argues that human-system interfaces in future NPPs should be designed to support the activities of the extended team consisting of the CCR operators, the field operators, and the automatic system. The paper outlines an exploratory study aimed at generating ideas on how extended teamwork quality may be promoted. The study is currently foreseen to comprise two exemplary design solutions: a state-of-the art screen-based control-room (baseline condition) and a possible future control-room in which the activities of the field operators and the automatic system are explicitly represented on the human-system interface, where the authority and autonomy of these are increased, and the staffing level reduced, as compared to the baseline condition. The study will explore extended

  18. Piping analysis for the life extension of Heavy Water Plant, Kota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Rajesh; Soni, R.S.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Venkat Raj, V.

    2001-02-01

    Heavy water production in India has achieved many milestones in the past. One of the most successfully running heavy water plant situated at Kota (Rajasthan) is on the verge of completion of its design life in near future. Heavy Water Plant, Kota is hydrogen sulfide based plant. Various exercises have been planned with an aim to assess the fatigue usage for the various components of these plants in order to extend their life. Considering the process parameters and past history of the plant performance, 25 process critical nozzle locations and connected piping systems are identified. Analyses have been carried out for these critical piping systems for mainly two kinds of loading, viz. sustained loads and the expansion loads. The static analysis has been carried out to find the induced stress levels due to sustained as well as thermal expansion loading as per the design code ANSI B31.3. Due consideration is given to the design corrosion allowance while evaluating the stresses due to sustained loads. At the locations where induced stresses (S 1 ) due to the sustained loads are exceeding the allowable limits (S h ), exercises have been carried out considering the reduced corrosion allowance value. This strategy is adopted due to the fact that the corrosion measurements carried out at site at various critical locations show a very low rate of corrosion. Where it is found that system is getting qualified with reduced corrosion allowance values, it is recommended to keep that location under periodic monitoring. The strategy adopted for carrying out the analysis for thermal expansion loading is to qualify the system as per the code allowable value (S a ). Where it is found that the stresses are more than the allowable value, credit of liberal allowable value as suggested in the code i.e., with the addition of the term (S h -S 1 ) to the allowable stress (S a ) value, has been taken. If at any location, it is found that the problem of high thermal stress still persists, the

  19. Herbal supplement extends life span under some environmental conditions and boosts stress resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Villeponteau

    Full Text Available Genetic studies indicate that aging is modulated by a great number of genetic pathways. We have used Drosophila longevity and stress assays to test a multipath intervention strategy. To carry out this strategy, we supplemented the flies with herbal extracts (SC100 that are predicted to modulate the expression of many genes involved in aging and stress resistance, such as mTOR, NOS, NF-KappaB, and VEGF. When flies were housed in large cages with SC100 added, daily mortality rates of both male and female flies were greatly diminished in mid to late life. Surprisingly, SC100 also stabilized midlife mortality rate increases so as to extend the maximum life span substantially beyond the limits previously reported for D. melanogaster. Under these conditions, SC100 also promoted robust resistance to partial starvation stress and to heat stress. Fertility was the same initially in both treated and control flies, but it became significantly higher in treated flies at older ages as the fertility of control flies declined. Mean and maximum life spans of flies in vials at the same test site were also extended by SC100, but the life spans were short in absolute terms. In contrast, at an independent test site where stress was minimized, the flies exhibited much longer mean life spans, but the survival curves became highly rectangular and the effects of SC100 on both mean and maximum life spans declined greatly or were abolished. The data indicate that SC100 is a novel herbal mix with striking effects on enhancing Drosophila stress resistance and life span in some environments, while minimizing mid to late life mortality rates. They also show that the environment and other factors can have transformative effects on both the length and distribution of survivorship, and on the ability of SC100 to extend the life span.

  20. How a Mutation that Slows Aging Can Also Disproportionately Extend End-of-Life Decrepitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Podshivalova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The goal of aging research is to extend healthy, active life. For decades, C. elegans daf-2 insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 receptor mutants have served as a model for extended lifespan and youthfulness. However, a recent report suggested that their longevity is associated with an undesirable phenotype: a disproportionately long period of decrepitude at the end of life. In the human population, such an outcome would be a burden to society, bringing into question the relevance of daf-2 mutants as a model for life extension. However, here we report that, following an extended period of movement, daf-2 mutants survive longer in a decrepit state because of a beneficial trait: they are resistant to colonization of the digestive tract by dietary bacteria, a condition that leads to premature death in the wild-type and prevents their manifestation of decrepitude. If bacterial colonization is prevented, then daf-2 mutants lead both chronologically and proportionately healthier lives relative to the wild-type. : Podshivalova et al. show that long-lived C. elegans insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants remain active longer but then resist bacterially induced mortality, allowing them to survive into a state of end-of-life decrepitude. Thus, changes that slow aging and also prevent an age-associated catastrophe can extend both the youthful and infirm periods of life. Keywords: aging, lifespan, healthspan, daf-2, mortality, IGF-1, pathogenesis

  1. Electricity supply. Older plants' impact on reliability and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy A.; Adams, Charles M.; Wood, David G.; Feehan, Daniel J.; Veal, Howard F.; Skeen, John H. III; Koenigs, Melvin J.; Lichtenfeld, David I.; Seretakis, Pauline J.

    1990-09-01

    Life extension of fossil fuel plants is a relatively recent phenomenon; thus, utilities have little experience to demonstrate the longer-term operating reliability of plants with an extended service life. While utility industry officials and government and industry studies express optimism that these plants will continue to operate reliably, the officials and the studies also caution that it is too soon to determine how pursuing life extension will affect the reliability of the nation's electricity supply. According to DOE, the number of fossil fuel generating units' 30 years old or older is expected to increase from about 2,500 in 1989 to roughly 3,700 in 1998, increasing such plants' share of overall generating capacity from 13 percent in 1989 to 27 percent in 1998. EPA estimates that with existing air quality requirements, fossil fuel plant emissions will increase steadily during the coming decade. Proposed acid rain control legislation, which would affect many plants that may have their service life extended, would require utilities to significantly reduce emissions by the year 2000 but would allow utilities flexibility in deciding how and where to achieve the reductions. If such legislation is enacted, utilities generally are expected to find reducing emissions from existing plants more cost-effective than replacing them and to continue extending plants' service life. Officials of DOE and utility organizations expressed concern, however, that EPA could decide, as it did for one plant in 1988, that alterations made in extending the service life of plants exempted from the Clean Air Act would result in increased emissions and thus cause the altered plants to lose their exemption. According to the officials, the additional costs of achieving the Clean Air Act's standards could discourage some life extension projects. However, such decisions by EPA could also reduce the nation's total power plant emissions by eliminating an existing incentive to retain exempt

  2. Considering plant life management influences on new plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, R.F.; Choy, E.; Soulard, M.; Nickerson, J.H.; Hopwood, J.

    2003-01-01

    After operating successfully for more than half their design life, owners of CANDU reactors are now engaging in Plant Life Management (PLiM) activities to ensure not only life attainment, but also life extension. For several years, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) has been working with domestic and offshore CANDU utilities on a comprehensive and integrated CANDU PLiM program that will see existing CANDU plants successfully and reliably operate through their design life and beyond. To support the PLiM program development, a significant level of infrastructure has been, and continues to be, developed at AECL. This includes the development of databases that document relevant knowledge and background to allow for a more accessible and complete understanding of degradation issues and the strategies needed to deal with these issues. As the level of integration with various project, services and R and D activities in AECL increases, this infrastructure is growing to encompass a wider range of design, operations and maintenance details to support comprehensive and quantitative assessment of CANDU stations. With the maturation of the PLiM program, these processes were adapted for application to newer plants. In particular, a fully integrated program was developed that interrelates the design basis, operations, safety, and reliability and maintenance strategies, as applied to meet plant design goals. This has led to the development of the maintenance-based design concept. The various PLiM technologies, developed and applied in the above programs with operating stations, are being modified and tailored to assist with the new plant design processes to assure that ACR- Advanced CANDU Reactor meets its targets for operation, maintenance, and lifetime performance. Currently, the ACR, developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL), is being designed with features to increase capacity factors, to reduce the risk of major equipment failures, to improve access to key components

  3. Remanent life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, J.; Gomez Santamaria, J.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of life in the nuclear power plants is very special. The main aceptions are: design life, economic life and useful life. The good management of NPP will do the prolongation of the life in the NPP. The remanent of management life summarizes certain activities in order to prolong the lifetime of the NPP. This article presents the activities of the RML program, the technological program and its benefits

  4. Risk informed life cycle plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Ralph S. III; Nutt, Mark M.

    2003-01-01

    Many facility life cycle activities including design, construction, fabrication, inspection and maintenance are evolving from a deterministic to a risk-informed basis. The risk informed approach uses probabilistic methods to evaluate the contribution of individual system components to total system performance. Total system performance considers both safety and cost considerations including system failure, reliability, and availability. By necessity, a risk-informed approach considers both the component's life cycle and the life cycle of the system. In the nuclear industry, risk-informed approaches, namely probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) or probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), have become a standard tool used to evaluate the safety of nuclear power plants. Recent studies pertaining to advanced reactor development have indicated that these new power plants must provide enhanced safety over existing nuclear facilities and be cost-competitive with other energy sources. Risk-informed approaches, beyond traditional PRA, offer the opportunity to optimize design while considering the total life cycle of the plant in order to realize these goals. The use of risk-informed design approaches in the nuclear industry is only beginning, with recent promulgation of risk-informed regulations and proposals for risk-informed codes. This paper briefly summarizes the current state of affairs regarding the use of risk-informed approaches in design. Key points to fully realize the benefit of applying a risk-informed approach to nuclear power plant design are then presented. These points are equally applicable to non-nuclear facilities where optimization for cost competitiveness and/or safety is desired. (author)

  5. U.S. National and regional impacts nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovick, L.; Fletcher, T.; Harrison, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic impacts of nuclear plant life extension on a national and regional level. Nuclear generating capacity is expected to reach 104 Gigawatts (119 units) in the 1994-1995 period. Nuclear units of the 1970 to 1980 vintage are expected to account for 96% of nuclear capacity. As operating licenses expire, a precipitous decline in nuclear capacity results, with an average of 5 gigawatts of capacity lost each year from 2010 to 2030. Without life extension, 95% of all nuclear capacity is retired between the years 2010 and 2030. Even with historically slow growth in electric demand and extensive fossil plant life extension, the need for new generating capacity in the 2010-2030 time period is eight times greater than installed nuclear capacity. Nuclear plant life extension costs and benefits were quantified under numerous scenarios using the DRI Electricity Market Model. Under a wide range of economic assumptions and investment requirements, nuclear plant life extension resulted in a net benefit to electricity consumers. The major source of net benefits from nuclear plant life extension results from the displacement of fossil-fired generating sources. In the most likely case, nuclear plant life extension provides a dollar 200 billion net savings through the year 2030. Regions with a large nuclear capacity share, newer nuclear units and relatively higher costs of alternative fuels benefit the most from life extension. This paper also discusses the importance of regulatory policies on nuclear plant life extension

  6. LMFBR Ultra Long Life Cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.E.; Doncals, R.A.; Porter, C.A.; Gundy, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    The Ultra Long Life Core is an attractive and innovative design approach with several extremely beneficial attributes. Long Life cores are applicable to the full range of LMR plant sizes resulting in lifetimes up to 30 years. Core life is somewhat limited for smaller plant sizes, however significant benefits of this approach still exist for all plant sizes. The union of long life cores and the complementary inherent safety technology offer a means of utilizing the well-proven oxide fuel in a system with unsurpassed safety capability. A further benefit is that the uranium fuel cycle can be used in long life cores, especially for initial LMR plant deployment, thereby eliminating the need for reprocessing prior to starting LMR plant construction in the U.S. Finally the long life core significantly reduces power costs. With inherent safety capability designed into an LMR and with the ULLC fuel cycle, power costs competitive with light water plants are achievable while offering improved operational flexibility derived through extending refueling intervals

  7. Plant life extension program for Indian PHWR power plants - Actual experience and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, M.B.; Ghoshal, B.; Shirolkar, K.M.; Ahmad, S.N.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) is responsible for design, construction and operation for all nuclear power plants in India. Currently, it has fourteen (14) reactor units under operation and another eight units are under various stages of planning and construction. India has adopted Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) for the initial phase of its nuclear power program. In the earlier PHWRs zircaloy-2 has been used as coolant tube material. Subsequent studies and experience have shown their life to be considerably lower (about 10 full power years) than originally estimated. This meant that reactors at Rajasthan - 1 and 2 Madras - 1 and 2 Narora - 1 and 2 and Kakrapara-1 would require en-masse coolant channel replacement at least once in their lifetime. Subsequent reactors from Kakrapara-2 onwards would not need this en-masse coolant channel replacement as the coolant tube material has been upgraded to Zr 2.5% Nb. En-masse coolant channel replacement and other life extension work have been carried out successfully in Rajasthan Unit-2 (RAPS-2). Madras unit-2 (MAPS-2) has been shutdown since January 2002 and preparatory work for en-masse coolant channel replacement and plant life extension is in progress. This paper discusses in brief the experience of RAPS-2 in carrying out the above jobs as well as the strategies being adopted for MAPS-2. Since the coolant channel replacement work requires a plant outage of about 18 months, this opportunity is used to extend life of existing systems as well as upgradation work. This life extension and upgradation program is based on the results of detailed in service inspection, evaluation of performance of critical equipment, obsolescence and other strategic reasons. This paper discusses in detail some of the major areas of work done, for example introduction of supplementary control room, process control, computer based plant information and event analysis systems, provision of enhanced

  8. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-01

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  9. How a mutation that slows aging can also disproportionately extend end-of-life decrepitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podshivalova, Katie; Kerr, Rex A.; Kenyon, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Summary The goal of aging research is to extend healthy, active life. For decades, C. elegans daf-2 insulin/IGF-1 receptor mutants have served as a model for extended lifespan and youthfulness. However, a recent report suggested that their longevity is associated with an undesirable phenotype: a disproportionately long period of decrepitude at the end of life. In a human population, such an outcome would be a burden to society, bringing into question the relevance of daf-2 mutants as a model for life extension. However, here we report that, following an extended period of movement, daf-2 mutants survive longer in a decrepit state because of a beneficial trait: they are resistant to colonization of the digestive tract by dietary bacteria, a condition that leads to premature death in wild type and prevents their manifestation of decrepitude. If bacterial colonization is prevented, daf-2 mutants lead chronologically and proportionately healthier lives relative to wild type. PMID:28423308

  10. Study on the correlation of PSR with extended operation of NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, T. M.; Kim, H. K.; Cho, J. C.; Kim, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    For developed countries, which had already experienced the end of nuclear plant design life, it has been a trend to allow extended operation of plant in case that safety during the period of extended operation is ensured through safety assessment. Periodic Safety Review and License Renewal are the widely used system for safety assessment of extended operation. The PSR has been already adopted in our country and actively carried out one by one for each operating plant by the owner and its committed technical experts. In the paper, the interfaces between PSR and extended operation are reviewed in the regulatory viewpoint in recognition that various safety reviews are performed in PSR for the safety confirmation and enhancement, and that PSR can be effectively utilized for the review of extended operation. However, this study has been performed only on the research purpose and thus the final decision is up to the policy of government

  11. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, Tae Ho

    2012-01-01

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  12. Dynamic assessment for life extension of nuclear power plants (NPPs) using system dynamics (SD) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Tae Ho [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2012-12-15

    It has been proposed to extend the life of nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the economic purpose. Especially, the primary systems in reactor are considered in the thermohydraulic and neutronic aspect, which is related to the safety system. The electric power and the lifespan of components are expressed as economic situation. In addition, political considerations are given by the presidential change and the nuclear non-proliferation characteristics. The dynamical investigation using system dynamics (SD) shows the effective time for the life extension of the NPPs by Monte-Carlo simulations. This non-linear algorithm is incorporated with the feedback loop of the event sequences. The expected event is related to the past event, which affects to the dynamical simulations of lifetime in the NPPs. In the conclusions, the safety guarantee as well as the economic profit in the re-use of long term operated power plants is presented, which is mentioned as the transient time between 2019 and 2021 in this paper. (orig.)

  13. Analysis of integrated plant upgrading/life extension programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutchan, D.A.; Massie, H.W. Jr.; McFetridge, R.H.

    1988-01-01

    A present-worth generating cost model has been developed and used to evaluate the economic value of integrated plant upgrading life extension project in nuclear power plants. This paper shows that integrated plant upgrading programs can be developed in which a mix of near-term availability, power rating, and heat rate improvements can be obtained in combination with life extension. All significant benefits and costs are evaluated from the viewpoint of the utility, as measured in discounted revenue requirement differentials between alternative plans which are equivalent in system generating capacity. The near-term upgrading benefits are shown to enhance the benefit picture substantially. In some cases the net benefit is positive, even if the actual life extension proves to be less than expected

  14. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools

  15. Nuclear plant life cycle management implementation guide. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sliter, G.E.; Negin, C.A.

    1998-11-01

    Nuclear power plants, as baseload suppliers of electricity, are major corporate assets. As the nuclear industry enters its fourth decade as a major producer of clean electricity, the structure of the utility industry is undergoing a historical landmark transition from economic deregulation to a competitive, market-driven industry. An integral part of competition is to manage the operation of the key asset, the plant, in the long term, thereby enhancing its long-term profitability. Life cycle management (LCM) is a well-known technical-economic decision-making process for any large industrial facility. LCM optimizes the service life of a facility and maximizes its life-cycle asset value. LCM integrates aging management (maintaining the availability of costly-to-replace components and structures) with asset management (plant valuation and investment strategies that account for economic, performance, regulatory, and environmental uncertainties). LCM involves predicting maintenance, repair, and other capital costs for a nuclear unit far into the future, as well as planning and managing strategic issues such as waste disposal, fuel storage, decommissioning, and public acceptance. This Life Cycle Management Implementation Guide introduces the reader to the LCM concept and its benefits, describes the elements and activities associated with an LCM program (most of which already exist in all plants), gives an overview of asset and aging management, and provides key references related to life cycle management for nuclear power plants. It also summarizes the major elements of life cycle management required for license renewal or, for newer plants, keeping open the option of license renewal

  16. An extended family suddenly confronted with a life-threatening hereditary arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, K.S.W.H.; Van Langen, I.M.; Van Tintelen, J.P.; Grosfeld, F.J.M.; Wilde, A.A.M.; Ten Kroode, H.F.J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. This exploratory study serves to illustrate the psychological impact on an extended family in the process of genetic counselling and testing for a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia, the long-QT syndrome (LQTS). Method. All members of the third generation and their partners (n=11)

  17. Application of plant life management program and experience at NRU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickerson, J.; Dam, R.; Arnold, J.; See Hoye, D.

    2004-01-01

    The National Research Universal (NRU) reactor has seen extensive and excellent service since going into operation in 1957. During that time, significant investments in upgrading and improving the facility have been implemented. Recently, as part of the NRU Licenseability Extension (LE) program, AECL has developed a Plant Life Management (PLiM) program to support planned operation to at least 2012. The objective of the PLiM program is to systematically assess the various aging related degradation mechanisms in order to evaluate both current condition and the potential for further extending service life. Another objective is to identify the associated maintenance, surveillance and inspection strategy for service life extension of important Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs). The strategy uses approaches that build on AECL's PLiM/PLEx experience at CANDU plants, but also utilizes previous Age Management and refurbishment work performed at NRU. The program is multi-faceted, systematic and integrated, and involves the facility operations organization in the assessment process. The PLiM program has used a number of pilot studies in the initial stages to test out PLiM procedures, gain experience with the various aging assessment techniques and enhance effectiveness of interfaces between the aging assessment team and the facility staff. The aging assessment process begins with the screening and prioritization of the facility SSCs. Selection of the appropriate assessment technique is based on priority and component type. Life and condition assessment techniques used at other plants have been adapted to NRU and performed on important components and structures. For important systems, a combination of condition assessment and systematic maintenance assessment techniques are being used. Detailed PLiM procedures have been developed and are in trial use in pilot studies. These procedures are currently being updated with the experience gained during the pilot studies. In

  18. Proceedings of the topical meeting on nuclear power plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the topical meeting on nuclear power plant life extension. The sessions are organized under the following headings: Perspectives on nuclear power plant life extension, the potential for additional years of power production, NRC and industry life extension initiatives, concrete and structures degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life, plant life extension programs, Reactor pressure vessel and intervals degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life, life extension decision making issues and institutions, systems degradation and evaluation of remaining life, monitoring and repair, design records and maintenance activities for life extension, Mechanical and electrical component degradation and evaluation of remaining life, expert systems and other techniques for enhanced and continued operation, life extension aspect of codes, standards, and related technologies, piping and valve degradation and evaluation of useful remaining life

  19. An extended family suddenly confronted with a life-threatening hereditary arrhythmia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, K. S. W. H.; van Langen, I. M.; van Tintelen, J. P.; Grosfeld, F. J. M.; Wilde, A. A. M.; ten Kroode, H. F. J.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study serves to illustrate the psychological impact on an extended family in the process of genetic counselling and testing for a potentially life-threatening arrhythmia, the long-QT syndrome (LQTS). All members of the third generation and their partners (n=11) were interviewed, the

  20. Plant life history and above–belowground interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deyn, de Gerlinde

    2017-01-01

    The importance of above–belowground interactions for plant growth and community dynamics became clear in the last decades, whereas the numerous studies on plant life history improved our knowledge on eco-evolutionary dynamics. However, surprisingly few studies have linked both research fields

  1. Using Plants to Explore the Nature & Structural Complexity of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Ava R.

    2014-01-01

    Use of real specimens brings the study of biology to life. This activity brings easily acquired plant specimens into the classroom to tackle common alternative conceptions regarding life, size, complexity, the nature of science, and plants as multicellular organisms. The activity occurs after a discussion of the characteristics of life and engages…

  2. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S; Auerkari, P [eds.; VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1999-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  3. BALTICA IV. Plant maintenance for managing life and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hietanen, S.; Auerkari, P. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland). Operational Reliability

    1998-12-31

    BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and performance held on September 7-9, 1998 on board M/S Silja Symphony on its cruise between Helsinki-Stockholm and at Aavaranta in Kirkkonummi. The BALTICA IV conference provides a forum for the transfer of technology from applied research to practice. This is one of the two volumes of the proceedings of the BALTICA IV International Conference on Plant Maintenance Managing Life and Performance. The BALTICA IV conference focuses on new technology, recent experience and applications of condition and life management, and on improvements in maintenance strategies for safe and economical operation of power plants. (orig.)

  4. [The evolution of plant life span: facts and hypotheses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    There are two different views on the evolution of life forms in Cormophyta: from woody plants to herbaceous ones or in opposite direction - from herbs to trees. In accordance with these views it is supposed that life span in plants changed in the course of evolution from many years (perennials) to few years (annuals, biennials), or went in reverse - from few years to many years. The author discusses the problems of senescence and longevity in Cormophyta in the context of various hypotheses of ageing (programmed death theory, mutation accumulation, antagonistic pleiotropy, disposable soma, genes of ageing, genes of longevity). Special attention is given to bio-morphological aspects of longevity and cases of non-ageing plants ("negative senescence", "potential immortality"). It is proposed to distinguish seven models of simple ontogenesis in Cormophyta that can exemplify the diversity of mechanisms of ageing and longevity. The evolution of life span in plants is considered as an indirect result of natural selection of other characteristics of organisms or as a consequence of fixation of modifications (episelectional evolution). It seems that short life span could emerge several times during evolution of one group of plants, thus favoring its adaptive radiation.

  5. Inservice inspection of heavy water plants - a tool in assessing damage to components and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Thavasimuthu, M.; Bhattacharys, D.K.; Baldev Raj

    1994-01-01

    Any system and its components are expected to give trouble free service over a certain period of time known as life time. The life time is estimated during the design stage. To achieve the design life, certain level of quality are to be defined and this quality has to be worked into the components by proper fabrication processes and their compliance with quality are to be checked. In addition, one has to guard against initiation or propagation of defects which may occur due to normal and abnormal service conditions. Non-destructive test (NDT) techniques are widely used for finding the health of the component. The role of NDT extends from the production stage to the entire life period of the system. This paper highlights the periodic in-service inspection (ISI) carried out on various components of the Heavy Water Plants (HWP) in India in assessing the integrity of the components and predicting the life of the components. (author). 3 refs., 4 figs

  6. FANP concept for plant life management and recent experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Waas, U.

    2002-01-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meet this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach. The PLIM strategy addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms, the safety concept and the plant component documentation. In addition, it affects the management of plant personnel, consumables, operations management systems and administrative control procedures. Framatome ANP GmbH has developed an integrated PLIM concept and associated software tools applicable for both new and operating plants. The concept includes procedures and strategies regarding mechanical, electrical and I and C components as well as civil structures. The majority of e.g. mechanical components in a well-kept power plant will experience a technical service life, which is far above the intended design life. In most cases, only a small percentage of mechanical components is subject to significant degradation which may effect the integrity or the function of the component. The intention of an effective PLIM concept is to select safety and availability relevant components, were relevant degradation can not be ruled out. The PLIM concept utilizes a combination of strategies to identify components in a power plant: which are relevant to life management. An integrated safety review identifies components essential to safety, providing a classification of the associated safety levels. Assessment concerning the availability relevance of components is conduced. Components identified to be important to safety and availability are subject to a screening process for further grouping with respect to degradation potential. The selection process provides reasonable prioritisation of ageing relevant components and ensures that efforts are devoted to elements, where ageing is a relevant concern

  7. Life management plants at nuclear power plants PWR; Planes de gestion de vida en centrales nucleares PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteban, G.

    2014-10-01

    Since in 2009 the CSN published the Safety Instruction IS-22 (1) which established the regulatory framework the Spanish nuclear power plants must meet in regard to Life Management, most of Spanish nuclear plants began a process of convergence of their Life Management Plants to practice 10 CFR 54 (2), which is the current standard of Spanish nuclear industry for Ageing Management, either during the design lifetime of the plant, as well as for Long-Term Operation. This article describe how Life Management Plans are being implemented in Spanish PWR NPP. (Author)

  8. Framatome ANP worldwide experience in ageing and plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, B.; Nopper, H.

    2004-01-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meet this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach which addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms regarding the safety concept, plant components and documentation, plant personnel, consumables, operations management system and administrative controls. For this reason, Framatome ANP has developed an integrated PLIM concept focussing on the safety concept, plant components and documentation. Representative examples for plant wide analyses are described in the following. The results of the analyses support the plant owner for taking the strategic decisions, involved in plant life extension (PLEX). (orig.)

  9. Extended Station Blackout Analyses of an APR1400 with MARS-KS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, WoongBae; Jang, HyungWook; Oh, Seungjong; Lee, Sangyong

    2016-01-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident shows that natural disasters such as earthquakes and the subsequent tsunamis can cause station blackout for several days. The electricity required for essential systems during a station blackout is provided from the emergency backup batteries installed at the nuclear power plant. In South Korea, in the event of an extended station blackout, the life of these emergency backup batteries has recently been extended from 8 hours to 24 hours at Shin-Kori 5, 6 and APR1400 for design certification. For a battery life of 24 hours, available safety means system, equipment and procedures are studied and analyzed in their ability to cope with an extended station blackout. A sensitivity study of reactor coolant pump seal leakage is performed to verify how different seal leakages could affect the system. For simulating of extended station blackout scenarios, the best estimate MARS-KS was used. In this paper, an APR1400 RELAP5 input deck was developed for station blackout scenario to analyze operation strategy by manually depressurizing the reactor coolant system through the steam generator's secondary side. Additionally, a sensitivity study was performed on reactor coolant pump seal leakage

  10. Extended Station Blackout Analyses of an APR1400 with MARS-KS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, WoongBae; Jang, HyungWook; Oh, Seungjong; Lee, Sangyong [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident shows that natural disasters such as earthquakes and the subsequent tsunamis can cause station blackout for several days. The electricity required for essential systems during a station blackout is provided from the emergency backup batteries installed at the nuclear power plant. In South Korea, in the event of an extended station blackout, the life of these emergency backup batteries has recently been extended from 8 hours to 24 hours at Shin-Kori 5, 6 and APR1400 for design certification. For a battery life of 24 hours, available safety means system, equipment and procedures are studied and analyzed in their ability to cope with an extended station blackout. A sensitivity study of reactor coolant pump seal leakage is performed to verify how different seal leakages could affect the system. For simulating of extended station blackout scenarios, the best estimate MARS-KS was used. In this paper, an APR1400 RELAP5 input deck was developed for station blackout scenario to analyze operation strategy by manually depressurizing the reactor coolant system through the steam generator's secondary side. Additionally, a sensitivity study was performed on reactor coolant pump seal leakage.

  11. The ASME Section 11 Special Working Group On Plant Life Extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    The codes and standards applicable to plant life extension have not been identified in the U.S. at this time. However, several initiatives have been taken to establish specific codes and standards pertaining to nuclear plant life extension (PLEX). One of these initiatives, sponsored by ASME, is the Section XI Special Working Group on Plant Life Extension (SWG-PLEX). The SWG-PLEX reports to the ASME Section XI Subcommittee and is responsible for recommending or drafting rules and requirements for modifying Section XI to accommodate age-related degradation to support nuclear plant life extension. This paper summarizes the results and reports the activities of the SWG-PLEX during the 1989/1990 period

  12. Pre-Clinical Intravenous Serum Pharmacokinetics of Albumin Binding and Non-Half-Life Extended Nanobodies®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoefman

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nanobodies are antigen-binding, single variable domain proteins derived from naturally-occurring, heavy chain only antibodies. They are highly soluble, stable, and can be linked to build multi-specific formats. Several Nanobodies are currently in clinical development in different therapeutic areas, for both chronic and acute applications. For the former, prolonged exposure is achieved by half-life extending moieties that target endogenous albumin, while for the latter, non-half-life extended constructs are preferable. To demonstrate the general pharmacokinetic behavior of both formats, serum levels of seven intravenously administered Nanobodies were analyzed in cynomolgus monkeys, mice or rabbits. In monkeys, the total clearance of a monomeric irrelevant Nanobody was rapid (2.0 mL/(min*kg and approximated the species glomerular filtration rate, indirectly suggesting that the Nanobody was mainly eliminated via the kidneys. When linked to an anti-albumin Nanobody, a 376-fold decrease in clearance was observed, resulting in a terminal half-life of 4.9 days, corresponding to the expected species albumin half-life. Similar conclusions were drawn for (non- half-life extended mono-, bi- and trimeric Nanobodies in mice or rabbits, suggesting that these kinetic principles apply across species. Applying this knowledge to species translation and study design is crucial for successful pre-clinical development of novel therapeutic Nanobody candidates.

  13. Life management of SG for WWER plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trunov, N. B.; Dragunov, Yu. G.; Banyuk, G. F.

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, 252 steam generators (SG) of horizontal type are in operation at WWER plants constructed by the Russian designs. In connection with end of the specified service life of the reactor plant equal to 30 years the activities are performed on service life extension of the main equipment including the SG. At some Units, throughout the design service life of SG there were problems resulting in necessity of SG replacement. At the same time the SGs at some Units are in successful operation above the design service life. This report deals with the peculiarities of operation of the horizontal SGs and the problems to be highlighted as the most important for service life extension. The main component to determine possibility for SG service life extension is the SG tubing. As the operating experience shows it is water chemistry of the secondary circuit that is the main factor influencing operability of the SG tubing. Therefore, differences in water chemistry organization leads to significant differences in operability of the SG tubing at various Units and in some cases within one Unit. Owing to the fact that the cases of water chemistry disturbance and the process of tubes fouling with the corrosion products of the main condensate system are not excluded, the damages continue to occur. Tube integrity shall be inspected by eddy current method using the various instrument complexes. This method has certain disadvantages but allows to estimate the degree and direction of degradation processes. The results of eddy current test (ECT) can be used to determine the plugging criterion for defective tubes. The significant number of defective tubes at some Units makes a choice of the plugging criterion to be an important problem, on which solution the SG safety, reliability and service life depends. The report deals with directions of activities in service life management for the SG at WWER plants. Main activities are improvement of water chemistry and non-destructive tests.(author)

  14. Plant specific PTS analysis of Kori Unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung-Yull, Hong; Changheui, Jang; Ill-Seok, Jeong [Korea Eletric Power Research Inst., Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Tae-Eun, Jin [Korea Power Engineering Company, Yonging (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Currently, a nuclear PLIM (Plant Lifetime Management) program is underway in Korea to extend the operation life of Kori-1 which was originally licensed for 30 years. For the life extension of nuclear power plants, the residual lives of major components should be evaluated for the extended operation period. According to the residual life evaluation of reactor pressure vessel, which was classified as one of the major components crucial to life extension, it was found by screening analysis that reference PTS temperature would exceed screening criteria before the target extended operation years. In order to deal with this problem, a plant-specific PTS analysis for Kori-1 RPV has been initiated. In this paper, the relationship between PTS analysis and Kori-1 PLIM program is briefly described. The plant-specific PTS analysis covers system transient analysis, downcomer mixing analysis, and probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to check the integrity or RPV during various PTS transients. The step-by-step procedure of the analysis will be described in detail. Finally, various issues regarding RPV materials and its integrity will be briefly mentioned, and their implications on Kori-1 PTS analysis will be discussed. Despite of the screening analysis result concern, it is now expected that Kori-1 PTS issues can be handled through the plant-specific PTS analysis. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs, 2 tabs.

  15. Characterization of in-containment cables for nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Bustard, L.D.

    1988-01-01

    Electrical cable is made by a large number of manufacturers and used for a variety of applications in nuclear plants. cables have been identified in the Monticello and Surry Pilot Plant life extension studies and the NRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program as components important to the economic and safety aspects of life extension. Currently, fitness for service is largely determined by preoperational testing. The US Department of Energy is supporting work at Sandia National Laboratories to assess the technical basis for the life extension of cables found inside containment at US nuclear plants. The work is being performed in coordination with the Nuclear Management and Resource Council's (NUMARC) NUPLEX Working Group. The initial task of this effort is to characterize the design attributes of in-containment cables. This has been completed via development of a data base depicting the manufacturer, type, material composition, use, qualification, and relative popularity of cables installed in containment. Other ongoing work is focused on a review of cable operational experience and assessment of the issues affecting cable life extension. In the long term, the work aims to identify the technical criteria and life extension strategies needed to support continued cable qualification by nuclear plant owner/operators. 7 refs., 4 tabs

  16. Evaluation of cable aging degradation based on plant operating condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Seog

    2005-01-01

    Extending the lifetime of nuclear power plant [(hereafter referred simply as ''NPP'')] is one of the most important concerns in the world nuclear industry. Cables are one of the long live items which have not been considered to be replaced during the design life of NPP. To extend the cable life beyond the design life, we need to prove that the design life is too conservative compared with the actual aging. Condition monitoring is one of the useful ways for evaluating the aging condition of cable. In order to simulate the natural aging in nuclear power plant, a study on accelerated aging needs to be conducted first. In this paper, evaluations of mechanical aging degradation for cable jacket were performed after accelerated aging under the continuous heating and intermittent heating. Contrary to general expectation, the intermittent heating to cable jacket showed low aging degradation, 50% break-elongation and 60% indenter modulus, compared with continuous heating. With the plant maintenance period of 1 month after every 12 or 18 months operation, we can easily deduce that the life time of cable jacket can be extended much longer than estimated through the general EQ (Environmental Qualification) test, which adopts continuous accelerated aging for determining cable life. Therefore, a systematic approach which considers the actual environment condition of nuclear power plant is required for determining the life of cables. (author)

  17. Interrelationships of food safety and plant pathology: the life cycle of human pathogens on plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Jeri D; Schroeder, Brenda K

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial food-borne pathogens use plants as vectors between animal hosts, all the while following the life cycle script of plant-associated bacteria. Similar to phytobacteria, Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, and cross-domain pathogens have a foothold in agricultural production areas. The commonality of environmental contamination translates to contact with plants. Because of the chronic absence of kill steps against human pathogens for fresh produce, arrival on plants leads to persistence and the risk of human illness. Significant research progress is revealing mechanisms used by human pathogens to colonize plants and important biological interactions between and among bacteria in planta. These findings articulate the difficulty of eliminating or reducing the pathogen from plants. The plant itself may be an untapped key to clean produce. This review highlights the life of human pathogens outside an animal host, focusing on the role of plants, and illustrates areas that are ripe for future investigation.

  18. Role of organizational leadership in plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohindra, R.K.; Chou, Q.B.

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear power plant (NPP) operational trend shows that the plants of the same design and brought to service about the same time demonstrate a wide range of life time operational performance. Based on years of performance assessment experience from various types of industry audits, it can be seen that there is a strong relationship between organizational leadership and the good performing plants. A review based on this relationship is provided to suggest important characteristics needed in management and leadership team for an organization to have a successful life management program in a NPP. The required characteristics and attributes are discussed in the following three important organizational elements: Environment, People and Process

  19. Enhanced design, operation and maintenance practices for a longer plant service life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, E.; Courcoux, A.

    2004-01-01

    Plant service life problems have been under detailed investigation in France and the experience acquired by our company over the past 25 years in the design, construction and maintenance of Pressurized Water Reactors has contributed to develop skills, equipment and capabilities available for efficient plant aging management and component service life extension. The service life of a nuclear power plant is deeply dependant of the provisions made during the design stage, directly linked to good operating conditions and adequate maintenance practices. This paper presents the importance of these three steps (design, operation and maintenance) for plant service life concern. (author)

  20. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon P; Hodgson, David J; Mbeau-Ache, Cyril; Zuidema, Pieter A; de Kroon, Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M

    2016-01-05

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population performance. We show that 55% of the variation in plant life-history strategies is adequately characterized using two independent axes: the fast-slow continuum, including fast-growing, short-lived plant species at one end and slow-growing, long-lived species at the other, and a reproductive strategy axis, with highly reproductive, iteroparous species at one extreme and poorly reproductive, semelparous plants with frequent shrinkage at the other. Our findings remain consistent across major habitats and are minimally affected by plant growth form and phylogenetic ancestry, suggesting that the relative independence of the fast-slow and reproduction strategy axes is general in the plant kingdom. Our findings have similarities with how life-history strategies are structured in mammals, birds, and reptiles. The position of plant species populations in the 2D space produced by both axes predicts their rate of recovery from disturbances and population growth rate. This life-history framework may complement trait-based frameworks on leaf and wood economics; together these frameworks may allow prediction of responses of plants to anthropogenic disturbances and changing environments.

  1. Effect of decontamination on aging processes and considerations for life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diercks, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    The basis for a recently initiated program on the chemical decontamination of nuclear reactor components and the possible impact of decontamination on extended-life service is described. The incentives for extending plant life beyond the present 40-year limit are discussed, and the possible aging degradation processes that may be accentuated in extended-life service are described. Chemical decontamination processes for nuclear plant primary systems are summarized with respect to their corrosive effects on structural alloys, particularly those in the aged condition. Available experience with chemical cleaning processes for the secondary side of PWR steam generators is also briefly considered. Overall, no severe materials corrosion problems have been found that would preclude the use of these chemical processes, but concerns have been raised in several areas, particularly with respect to corrosion-related problems that may develop during extended service

  2. Nuclear power plant life management. Proceedings of a symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Presently, an area of major interest of the IAEA is the management of the nuclear power plant (NPP) life cycle from concept development to decommissioning and disposal, with the primary objective of maximising the return on investment in nuclear facilities through efficient operation of NPPs. 441 NPPs, with a capacity of about 350GW(e) supplied 16% of global electricity in 2002. Of these, about 300 NPPs have been in operation for 15 years or more and these older units with partially or fully amortized capital costs have proven to be the most profitable. Moreover, there are no significant safety or economic reasons not to continue the operation of well managed NPPs over a longer period and consequently the issues of plant life management and license extension are receiving increasing emphasis in many countries. Forecasts of nuclear power growth over the next two decades range from 350GW(e) in the worst case to 500GW(e) in the best case. This will need additional personnel and expansion of the infrastructure in the developing countries, particularly as much of the new demand growth is forecast to take place outside the countries where most of the existing infrastructure resides. All aspects of NPP life cycle management are addressed by the IAEA and are briefly described in these proceedings. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (TWG-LMNPP) recommended, during its regular meeting in February 1999, that the IAEA should consider holding a symposium on this subject area in 2002. This TWG-LMNPP Proposal was approved and, this symposium was held, attended by 138 participants from 32 Member States and 2 international organizations. The objectives of the symposium were as follows: Emphasise the role of NPP life management programmes in assuring a safe and reliable NPP operating cycle; Identify progress in methodological and technological developments for managing ageing processes and understanding ageing mechanisms; Provide a forum for

  3. UNIRAM modeling for increased nuclear-plant availability and life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mara, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    At the start of a nuclear-power plant's design life of 40 years, most parts of the plant are effectively brand new, but some subcomponents have already experienced significant wear and aging effects. In short, the spectrum of where each component is in its life cycle at any time is quite broad, and this makes the prediction of the future availability of the plant a complex issue. Predictive models that account for the differential effects of aging, wear, and functional failure on the plant are desirable as a means to represent this complex behavior. This paper addresses the task of using a computer model to account for the relationships between components, systems, and plant availability, in the context of current and future needs, including eventual life extension. The computer model is based on the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) code, UNIRAM, which has a large and growing user base among utilities

  4. Plant/life form considerations in the rangeland hydrology and erosion model (RHEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resilience of rangeland to erosion has largely been attributed to adequate plant cover; however, plant life/growth form, and individual species presence can have a dramatic effect on hydrologic and erosion dynamics on rangelands. Plant life/growth form refers to genetic tendency of a plant to grow i...

  5. Demagnetization monitoring and life extending control for permanent magnet-driven traction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Gang; Liu, Senyi

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme of demagnetization monitoring and life extending control for traction systems driven by permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Firstly, the offline training is carried to evaluate fatigue damage of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) under different flux loss based on first-principle modeling. Then an optimal control law can be extracted by turning down the power distribution factor of the demagnetizing PMSM until all damages of IGBTs turn to balance. Next, the similarity-based empirical modeling is employed to online estimate remaining flux of PMSMs, which is used to update the power distribution factor by referring the optimal control law for the health-oriented autonomous control. The proposed strategy can be demonstrated by a case study of traction drive system coupled with dual-PMSMs. Compared with traditional control strategy, the results show that the novel scheme can not only guarantee traction performance but also extend remaining useful life (RUL) of the system after suffering demagnetization fault.

  6. Advanced maintenance strategies for power plant operators--introducing inter-plant life cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeber, Ulrich

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important goals of competing power plant operators is to ensure safe operation of their plants, characterized by maximum availability throughout the entire life cycle and minimized specific generating costs. One parameter crucial to the total price of electricity--and one that can be actively influenced by the power plant operators--is maintenance. Up to 30% of all electricity generating costs accrue from maintenance. In the past years maintenance measures have been optimized particularly by the application and continuing development of testing and diagnostic techniques, by the increased level of system and component automation as well as more efficient organization structures. Despite the considerable success of these efforts, the potential for further cost reductions is still far from exhausted. But the risks connected to reliability, availability and safety need to be analyzed in greater detail in order to ensure the sustainability of the savings already achieved as well as those yet to be realized. The systematic application of condition-based maintenance and the implementation of structured life cycle management are essential requirements. An inter-plant approach is recommended to make a quick implementation of maintenance optimization potentials possible. Plant-specific improvement potentials can be established with the help of a best-practice comparison, and measures and priorities can be defined for realizing them. Creating an inter-plant database will allow experience and findings to be analyzed quickly and efficiently by experts and made available to all participants on a neutral platform. Despite--or maybe owing to--the increasingly competitive marketplace, a sustained reduction in the maintenance costs of power plant operators can only be achieved through a structured, inter-plant exchange of experience. The ZES offers the industry a suitable platform for cooperation with its 'Condition-Based Maintenance' research focus. The introduction

  7. Why are women more likely than men to extend paid work? The impact of work-family life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Naomi

    2014-03-01

    Extending working life beyond the state pension age is a key European Union policy. In the UK, women are more likely to extend paid work than men, indicating that factors other than the state pension age play a role in working longer. Women are less able to build pension income due to their role as carer within the family. It, therefore, follows that gender inequalities over the life course continue into older age to influence need, capacity and desire to undertake paid work after state pension age. This paper explores how work, marital and fertility history impact upon the likelihood of extending employment. It uses the British Household Panel Survey's retrospective data from the first 14 waves to summarise work-family histories, and logistic regression to understand the impact of work and family histories on extending paid work. Findings show that, on the one hand, women are extending paid work for financial reasons to make up for 'opportunity costs' as a result of their caring role within the family, with short breaks due to caring, lengthy marriages, divorcing and remaining single with children all being important. Yet, there is also evidence of 'status maintenance' from working life, with the women most likely to extend paid work, also those with the highest work orientation, prior to state pension age. But lengthy dis-attachment (due to caring) from the labour market makes extending working life more difficult. This has implications for policy strategies to entice women into paid work to make up for low independent financial resources.

  8. Near-term benefits of life extension planning for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, T.; Gregor, F.E.

    1988-01-01

    Life Extension of Nuclear Power Plants is now viewed as a realistic alternative to construction of new generating facilities. The subject has been under intensive study since 1984 and two comprehensive pilot plant programs have been completed under EPRI, U.S. Department of Energy and utility sponsorship. A major lesson learned from these studies is that planning for life extension must start early and that many activities must be implemented as early in life as possible to enhance the option for life extension through mitigate and preventive actions. It was also determined that achievement of a 40-year licensed life is by no means guaranteed without substantial effort during the remaining plant life. In examining these recommended actions, it becomes obvious that conscientious implementation also leads to realization of significant short-term benefits in the form of availability improvement, outage reduction, maintenance optimization and longer term planning decisions. In addition to the economic benefits, plant safety is also enhanced by reducing challenges to the safety systems and slowly switching from a corrective maintenance to a preventive maintenance program

  9. Are life-extending treatments for terminal illnesses a special case? Exploring choices and societal viewpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. McHugh (Neil); van Exel, J. (Job); H. Mason (Helen); Godwin, J. (Jon); M. Collins (Marissa); Donaldson, C. (Cam); R.M. Baker (Rachel)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractCriteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values,

  10. Brilliant simplicity - power plant portal allows more economical operation of power plants; Kraftwerksportal ermoeglicht wirtschaftlicheren Betrieb in der Stromerzeugung. Einfachheit ist Trumpf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, J. [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Bereich Energietechnik

    2005-10-31

    Today's power generation markets are largely characterized by a small number of new thermal power plants, but a large number of highly aged plants. Plant owners are primarily interested in extending the service life of their existing facilities. In the current competitive scenario, they prefer modular and scalable I and C solutions that will allow them to keep the current equipment to a large extend. (orig.)

  11. Plant life management of the ACR-1000 Concrete containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrishami, H.H.; Ricciuti, R.; Elgohary, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Ageing of reinforced concrete structures due to service conditions, aggressive environments, or accidents may cause their strength, serviceability and durability to decrease over time. For a new plant, a Plant Life Management (PLiM) program should start in the design process and then continues through the plant operation and decommissioning. Hence, PLiM must provide not only Ageing Management program (AMP) but also provide requirements on material characteristic and design criteria as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the Plant Life Management (PLiM) strategy for the concrete containment structure of the ACR-10001 (Advanced CANDU Reactor) designed by AECL. The ACR-1000 is designed for a 100-year plant life including 60-year operating life and an additional 40-year decommissioning period. The approach adopted for the PLiM strategy of the concrete containment structure is a preventive one, key areas being: 1) design methodology, 2) material performance and 3) ageing management program. During the design phase, in addition to strength and serviceability, durability, throughout the service life and decommissioning phase of the ACR-1000 structure, is a major consideration. Factors affecting durability design include: a) concrete performance, b) structural application, and c) consideration of environmental conditions. In addition to addressing the design methodology and material performance requirements, a systematic approach for the ageing management program for the concrete containment structure is presented. (authors)

  12. Plant life management study of Japanese nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Toshihiko

    1999-01-01

    Already more than twenty-five years have passed since the first commercial LWR plant went into operation in Japan. In this situation, MITI and 3 electric utilities (Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc, Japan Atomic Power Company) have started a plant life management (PLM) study from 1994 to evaluate the long-term integrity of major systems, structures and components of aged LWR plants and ensure the safe, steady and highly reliable long-term operation. It consists of two phases: part 1 study and part 2 study. The part 1 study started in 1994 and focused on seven typical safety-related components. The part 1 study reports were made public in 1996. The part 2 study started in 1997. In this study we reviewed not only safety-related components but also plant reliability related components. The part 2 study reports were opened to the public in February 1999. This paper shows a summary of the part 2 study and our future PLM program. (author)

  13. Irradiation of mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) to extend their shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1990-01-01

    Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris L) were irradiated with 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 kGy, being then stored either at 10 deg C ± 1 deg C or at room temperature (20 deg C ± 2 deg C), with the purpose of determining the most convenient condition to extend their shelf-life. It is concluded that 3.0 kGy and 10 deg C are the most suitable for that, leading to the inhibition of cap opening and stem elongation, less darkening and no evidence of fungal development until 17th day. Subsequentely almost a duplication of their shelf-life was obtained. (Author) [es

  14. Extended fuel cycle operation for pressurized water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestri, G.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear steam turbine power plant system having an arrangement therein for extended fuel cycle operation is described. The power plant includes a turbine connected at its inlet to a source of motive fluid having a predetermined pressure associated therewith. The turbine has also connected thereto an extraction conduit which extracts steam from a predetermined location therein for use in an associated apparatus. A bypass conduit is provided between a point upstream of the inlet and the extraction conduit. A flow control device is provided within the bypass conduit and opens when the pressure of the motive steam supply drops beneath the predetermined pressure as a result of reactivity loss within the nuclear reactor. Opening of the bypass conduit provides flow to the associated apparatus and at the same time provides an increased flow orifice to maintain fluid flow rate at a predetermined level

  15. Wear life of sputtered MoSx films extended by high energy ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Yasufumi; Fujiura, Hideo; Nishimura, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The tribological characteristics of sputtered MoSx films have been reportedly improved by inert gas ion implantation. We tried to extend their wear life by introducing indium, carbon and gallium ion implantation. Pin-on-disk testers were used to measure friction coefficient and wear life in a vacuum, dry and humid air. Comparing with the unimplanted films, we found that the indium ion implanted films showed marked improvement in wear life in a vacuum. Carbon ion implanted films showed improvement in wear life in high humid air. Implantation was effective when it was conducted with maximum concentration at the interface between film and substrate rather than at the neighborhood of the interface inside a film. (author)

  16. Extended station blackout analyses of an APR1400 with MARS-KS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Woongbae

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident shows that natural disasters such as earthquakes and the subsequent tsunamis can cause station blackout for several days. The electric energy required for essential systems during a station blackout is provided from emergency backup batteries installed at the nuclear power plant. In South Korea, in the event of an extended station blackout, the life of these emergency backup batteries has recently been extended from 8 hours to 24 hours at Shin-Kori 5, 6, and APR1400 for design certification. For a battery life of 24 hours, available safety means system, equipment and procedures are studied and analyzed in their ability to cope with an extended station blackout. A sensitivity study of reactor coolant pump seal leakage is performed to verify how different seal leakages could affect the system. For simulating extended station blackout scenarios, the best estimate MARS-KS computer code was used. In this paper, an APR1400 RELAP5 input deck was developed for station blackout scenario to analyze operation strategy by manually depressurizing the reactor coolant system through the steam generator's secondary side. Additionally, a sensitivity study on reactor coolant pump seal leakage was carried out.

  17. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongxiao; Chen, Feiran; Wang, Yiping; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP) game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i) The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii) Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker’s parameters) are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii) Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker’s observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants. PMID:29584679

  18. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengqiu; Chen, Bin; Qiu, Sihang; Wang, Rongxiao; Chen, Feiran; Wang, Yiping; Qiu, Xiaogang

    2018-03-27

    Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP) game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i) The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii) Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker's parameters) are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii) Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker's observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants.

  19. An Extended Chemical Plant Environmental Protection Game on Addressing Uncertainties of Human Adversaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqiu Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemical production activities in industrial districts pose great threats to the surrounding atmospheric environment and human health. Therefore, developing appropriate and intelligent pollution controlling strategies for the management team to monitor chemical production processes is significantly essential in a chemical industrial district. The literature shows that playing a chemical plant environmental protection (CPEP game can force the chemical plants to be more compliant with environmental protection authorities and reduce the potential risks of hazardous gas dispersion accidents. However, results of the current literature strictly rely on several perfect assumptions which rarely hold in real-world domains, especially when dealing with human adversaries. To address bounded rationality and limited observability in human cognition, the CPEP game is extended to generate robust schedules of inspection resources for inspection agencies. The present paper is innovative on the following contributions: (i The CPEP model is extended by taking observation frequency and observation cost of adversaries into account, and thus better reflects the industrial reality; (ii Uncertainties such as attackers with bounded rationality, attackers with limited observation and incomplete information (i.e., the attacker’s parameters are integrated into the extended CPEP model; (iii Learning curve theory is employed to determine the attacker’s observability in the game solver. Results in the case study imply that this work improves the decision-making process for environmental protection authorities in practical fields by bringing more rewards to the inspection agencies and by acquiring more compliance from chemical plants.

  20. Plant Life Management of the EC6 Concrete Containment Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrishami, Homayoun; Ricciuti, Rick; Khan, Azhar [CANDU Energy Inc., Mississauga (Canada)

    2012-03-15

    Aging of reinforced concrete structures due to service conditions, aggressive environments, or accidents may cause their strength, serviceability and durability to decrease over time. Due to the complex nature of safety-related structures in nuclear power plants in comparison to other structures, they possess a number of characteristics that make them comparison to other structures, they possess a number of characteristics that make them unique. These characteristics are: thick concrete cross-sections, heavy reinforcement, often one-side access only, subjected to such ageing stresses as irradiation and elevated temperature, in addition to other typical ageing mechanisms (i. e., exposure to freeze/thaw cycles, aggressive chemicals, etc.) that typically affects other types of non-nuclear structures. For a new plant, the Plant Life Management Program (PLiM) should start in the design process and then continues through construction, plant operation and decommissioning. Hence PLiM must provide not only Ageing Management program (AMP) but also provide requirements on material characteristic and the design criteria as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the Plant Life Management (PLiM) strategy for the concrete containment structure of EC6 (Enhanced CANDU 6) Nuclear Power Plant designed by CANDU Energy Inc. The EC6 is designed for 100-year plant life including a 60-year operating life and an additional 40-year decommissioning period of time. The approach adopted for the PLiM strategy of the concrete containment structure is a preventive one, key areas being: 1) design methodology, 2) material performance and 3) life cycle management and ageing management program. In addition to strength and serviceability, durability is a major consideration during the design phase, service life and up to the completion of decommissioning. Factors affecting durability design include: a) concrete performance, b) structural application, and c) consideration of environmental

  1. Plant Life Management of the EC6 Concrete Containment Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrishami, Homayoun; Ricciuti, Rick; Khan, Azhar

    2012-01-01

    Aging of reinforced concrete structures due to service conditions, aggressive environments, or accidents may cause their strength, serviceability and durability to decrease over time. Due to the complex nature of safety-related structures in nuclear power plants in comparison to other structures, they possess a number of characteristics that make them comparison to other structures, they possess a number of characteristics that make them unique. These characteristics are: thick concrete cross-sections, heavy reinforcement, often one-side access only, subjected to such ageing stresses as irradiation and elevated temperature, in addition to other typical ageing mechanisms (i. e., exposure to freeze/thaw cycles, aggressive chemicals, etc.) that typically affects other types of non-nuclear structures. For a new plant, the Plant Life Management Program (PLiM) should start in the design process and then continues through construction, plant operation and decommissioning. Hence PLiM must provide not only Ageing Management program (AMP) but also provide requirements on material characteristic and the design criteria as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the Plant Life Management (PLiM) strategy for the concrete containment structure of EC6 (Enhanced CANDU 6) Nuclear Power Plant designed by CANDU Energy Inc. The EC6 is designed for 100-year plant life including a 60-year operating life and an additional 40-year decommissioning period of time. The approach adopted for the PLiM strategy of the concrete containment structure is a preventive one, key areas being: 1) design methodology, 2) material performance and 3) life cycle management and ageing management program. In addition to strength and serviceability, durability is a major consideration during the design phase, service life and up to the completion of decommissioning. Factors affecting durability design include: a) concrete performance, b) structural application, and c) consideration of environmental

  2. The year 2000 power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.

    1989-01-01

    Every utility seeks extended service life from its existing power plants before building new ones. It is not easy to justify a new power plant. The licensing and cost of new plants have become uncertain. In response to these conditions, electric utilities are undertaking plant life-extension studies and, in some cases, reconditioning/upgrading old power plants to significantly increase useful service life. Other technologies like robotics and artificial intelligence/expert systems are also being developed to reduce operating and maintenance (O and M) expenses, to remove workers from potentially hazardous environments, and to reduce plant downtime. Together, these steps represent an interim solution, perhaps providing some relief for the next few decades. However, there are serious physical and economic limits to retrofitting new technology into existing power plants. Some old plants will simply be beyond their useful life and require retirement. In nuclear plants, for instance, retrofit may raise important and time-consuming licensing/safety issues. Based on their robotics and artificial intelligence experience, the authors of this article speculate bout the design of the year 2000 power plant - a power plant they feel will naturally incorporate liberal amounts of robotic and artificial intelligence technologies

  3. Fast-slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R; Jongejans, Eelke

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous...... variation in life history are poorly understood. We use demographic data from 418 plant species in the wild, from annual herbs to supercentennial trees, to examine how growth form, habitat, and phylogenetic relationships structure plant life histories and to develop a framework to predict population...

  4. Aging management review for license renewal and plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinckel, M.A.; Young, G.G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: United States nuclear power plants are initially licensed for a period of 40-years. The 40-year term, which was established by the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s, is believed to be based on engineering judgement and is consistent with the typical amortization schedule for purchasing fossil power plants. Under 10 CFR Part 54, the license renewal rule, additional terms of 20-years may be obtained through the preparation of a license renewal application that must be reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The license renewal rule requires that applicants perform ageing management reviews on passive long-lived structures and components to demonstrate that ageing will be managed during the period of extended operation (i.e., additional 20 years of operation). ageing of active components, which are excluded from 10 CFR Part 54, is accomplished through the Maintenance Rule, 10 CFR Part 65, using performance-based monitoring. The license renewal rule, 10 CFR Part 54, was initially published in 1991. After significant interaction with the nuclear industry from 1991 through 1994, the NRC revised the rule in 1995 to focus on passive long-lived structures and components. In 1998, the first two applications for license renewal were submitted to the NRC by Baltimore Gas and Electric for the two-unit Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant and by Duke Energy for the three-unit Oconee nuclear power plant. In March 2000, the NRC approved the application for the two-unit Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant for an additional 20 years. Two months later, the NRC approved the renewal of the operating licenses for the three-unit Oconee nuclear station. The NRC completed these reviews in a timely, predictable, and stable manner. As of February 2002, the NRC has approved renewal of operating licenses for eight nuclear units and has applications under review for 15 more units. Twelve additional companies have notified the NRC of their intention to seek

  5. Should the service life of nuclear power plants be limited for technical reasons?; Mela by byt provozni zivotnost jaderne elektrarny z technickych duvodu omezena?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomer, E

    1995-03-01

    German nuclear power plant operating licenses take into account the fact that the design lifetime of the facilities is 40 years. The technological lifetime, however, is governed by actual ageing processes and operational burden. The service life of nuclear power plants can be extended by replacement of the steam generator and by repair or replacement of the reactor pressure vessel or parts thereof. Attention is also paid to the reactor protection systems. (J.B.). 8 figs.

  6. Report on countermeasure to plant life management of the nuclear power plants at three electric power companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Three nuclear power reactors of the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant, the Mihama-1 power plant and the Tsuruga-1 power plant were investigated according to the estimation plan shown in the Fundamental Concept on Plant Life Management of Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of International Trade and Industry on April, 1996. Their reports contained the technical evaluation against, the responsive items to and the future examinations of the plant life management. In special, in the responsive items, some items to be added to the present maintenance process and some technical developmental problems are described in details and concretely. (G.K.)

  7. Conceptualisation of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore and understand the complexity of ageing in relation to factors of importance for extending working life. Discourse analysis of documents was used in an integrative review including 128 articles. Four different conceptualisation of ageing are shown to affect older workers' ability to extend their working life: (a) biological ageing people's health in relation to their physical and mental work environment, their pace of work and recuperation needs; (b) chronological ageing statutory retirement age and policies and economic incentives devised for older workers by society, unions and organisations/enterprises; (c) social ageing inclusion in different social groups, the attitude of managers, organisations and family members, the leisure activities and surrounding environment; and (d) mental/cognitive ageing self-crediting, motivating and meaningful activities, competence and skills in working life. CONCLUSIONS SOCIETIES TODAY FOCUS MOSTLY ON CHRONOLOGICAL AGEING AND ARE LOOKING TO INCREASE THE RETIREMENT AGE WITH REGARD TO STATUTORY PENSION SYSTEMS, EG BEYOND 65 YEARS OF AGE THE INTER-RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CHRONOLOGICAL, MENTAL, BIOLOGICAL AND SOCIAL AGEING AND THE NINE AREAS IDENTIFIED AS BEING IMPORTANT TO OLDER WORKERS IN THESE RESPECTS NEED TO BE CONSIDERED WHEN AIMING TO PROVIDE A SUSTAINABLE WORKING LIFE FOR THE INCREASING NUMBERS OF OLDER WORKERS IN MODERN SOCIETY THE THEORETICAL MODEL DEVELOPED IS A CONTRIBUTION TO THE CRITICAL DEBATE THAT CAN BE APPLIED BY SOCIETIES, EMPLOYERS AND MANAGERS IN ORDER TO PROVIDE OLDER WORKERS WITH AN INCLUSIVE AND SUSTAINABLE EXTENDED WORKING LIFE. © 2016 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  8. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  9. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Youngblood

    2011-02-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development (R&D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  10. Objective 1: Extend Life, Improve Performance, and Maintain Safety of the Current Fleet; Implementation Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngblood, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power has reliably and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. By the year 2030, domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow to levels of 16 to 36% higher than 2007 levels. At the same time, most currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their 60 year operating licenses. Figure E 1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development (R and D) Roadmap has organized its activities in accordance with four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document describes how Objective 1 and the LWRS Program will be implemented. The existing U.S. nuclear fleet has a remarkable safety and performance record and today accounts for 70% of the low greenhouse

  11. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J. D. [Yeungnam Univ., Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kang, K. J. [Chonnam National Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-03-15

    This research focuses on development of reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) components, and is divided into two parts, development of life evaluation systems for pressurized components and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered: development of expert systems for integrity assessment of pressurized components, development of integrity evaluation systems of steam generator tubes, prediction of failure probability for NPP components based on probabilistic fracture mechanics, development of fatigue damage evaluation technique for plant life extension, domestic round robin analysis for pressurized thermal shock of reactor vessels, domestic round robin analysis of constructing P--T limit curves for reactor vessels, and development of data base for integrity assessment. For evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants, on the other hand, the following eight topics are covered: applicability of the Leak-Before-Break analysis to Cast S/S piping, collection of aged material tensile and toughness data for aged Cast S/S piping, finite element analyses for load carrying capacity of corroded pipes, development of Risk-based ISI methodology for nuclear piping, collection of toughness data for integrity assessment of bi-metallic joints, applicability of the Master curve concept to reactor vessel integrity assessment, measurement of dynamic fracture toughness, and provision of information related to regulation and plant life extension issues.

  12. 'He has a life, a soul, a meaning that extends far deeper than his ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'He has a life, a soul, a meaning that extends far deeper than his medical assessment … .': The role of reflective diaries in enhancing reflective practice during a rural community physiotherapy placement.

  13. Safe and effective nuclear power plant life cycle management towards decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-08-01

    The objective of this publication is to promote and communicate the need for a longer-term perspective among senior managers and policy or strategy makers for decisions that have the potential to affect the life cycle management of a nuclear power plant including decommissioning. The following sections provide practical guidance in the subject areas that might have the potential to have such an impact. The publication should be used as an aid to help strategic planning take place in an informed way through the proper consideration of any longer-term decisions to enforce recognition of the point that decommissioning is a part of the whole life cycle of a nuclear power plant. The guidance contained in this publication is relevant to all life cycle stages of a nuclear power plant, with particular emphasis on how these decisions have the potential to impact effective decommissioning. The intended users of this publication are: Strategic decision makers within a Utility through all the various life cycle stages; The senior representatives of the owners of a nuclear power plant. This publication is divided into two basic sections. Section 2 provides guidance on the topics considered generic inputs to plant life cycle management and Section 3 provides guidance on the topics that contribute to effective decommissioning

  14. Technology and testing for the extension of plant life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumer, U.R.; Edelmann, X.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes selected portions of a recommended program for the application of equipment-manufacturing-related technology and testing for the extension of life for operating nuclear power plants. It is appropriate to mention that the Swiss nuclear plants, their staffs, and the supporting Swiss nuclear industry are rightfully proud of their record of performance. Plant staffs have been intimately involved in system and equipment design and engineering from the very beginnings of their plants. Maintenance of the plant systems and equipment is referred to as engineering rather than maintenance, because it is viewed as a technical effort and an extension of the original plant and equipment design and construction effort. Care, competence, cleanliness, and attention to detail have been bywords for the Swiss plants. Success has been demonstrated through enviable availability performance. With operation and availability capability already demonstrated, the Swiss are now turning their attention to the extension of plant life. This summary describes some aspects of this work, which is fundamentally based on the application of technology and testing skills developed for equipment manufacture and the original installation of this equipment in the plants, but has been enhanced by research and development (R and D) and an ongoing effort to serve utilities in their maintenance activities

  15. Computational models for residual creep life prediction of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewal, G.S.; Singh, A.K.; Ramamoortry, M.

    2006-01-01

    All high temperature - high pressure power plant components are prone to irreversible visco-plastic deformation by the phenomenon of creep. The steady state creep response as well as the total creep life of a material is related to the operational component temperature through, respectively, the exponential and inverse exponential relationships. Minor increases in the component temperature can thus have serious consequences as far as the creep life and dimensional stability of a plant component are concerned. In high temperature steam tubing in power plants, one mechanism by which a significant temperature rise can occur is by the growth of a thermally insulating oxide film on its steam side surface. In the present paper, an elegantly simple and computationally efficient technique is presented for predicting the residual creep life of steel components subjected to continual steam side oxide film growth. Similarly, fabrication of high temperature power plant components involves extensive use of welding as the fabrication process of choice. Naturally, issues related to the creep life of weldments have to be seriously addressed for safe and continual operation of the welded plant component. Unfortunately, a typical weldment in an engineering structure is a zone of complex microstructural gradation comprising of a number of distinct sub-zones with distinct meso-scale and micro-scale morphology of the phases and (even) chemistry and its creep life prediction presents considerable challenges. The present paper presents a stochastic algorithm, which can be' used for developing experimental creep-cavitation intensity versus residual life correlations for welded structures. Apart from estimates of the residual life in a mean field sense, the model can be used for predicting the reliability of the plant component in a rigorous probabilistic setting. (author)

  16. Fracture mechanics based life assessment in petrochemical plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasiah Ab Kasim; Abd Nassir Ibrahim; Ab Razak Hamzah; Shukri Mohd

    2004-01-01

    The increasing use of thick walled pressure vessels in petrochemical plants operating at high pressure under severe service conditions could lead to catastrophic failure. In the Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), initial efforts are underway to apply fracture mechanics approach for assessment of significance of defects detected during periodic in service inspection (ISI) of industrial plants. This paper outlines the integrity management strategy based on fracture mechanics and proposes a new procedure for life assessment of petrochemical plants based on ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI, BSI PD 6493:1991, BSI 6539:1994, BSI Standard 7910:1999 and API 579:2000. Essential relevant data required for the assessment is listed. Several methods available for determination of fracture toughness are reviewed with limitations in their application to petrochemical plants. A new non destructive method for determination of fracture toughness based on hardness testing and normalized key roughness curve is given. Results of fracture mechanics based life assessment conducted for 100 mm thick ammonia converter of Ni r o steel and 70 mm thick plat forming reactor vessel of ASTM A 38 7 grade B steel in operational fertilizer and petroleum refining plants are presented. (Author)

  17. Operational data collection and analysis for nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuCharme, A.R.; Berg, R.M.; Bailey, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes initial work undertaken by the US Department of Energy, through Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to define the operational data necessary for support of nuclear plant life extension (PLEX) programs. This work is being performed in coordination with the Working Group on Plant Life Extension of the US Nuclear Management and Resources Council. The intent of the effort is to use results gained initially from pilot PLEX programs a US BWR and a US PWR to build towards the use of ''PLEX indicators'' by which a plant's readiness for successful life extension can be measured. Another objective of the study was to examine chemistry data in detail to determine how well US plants are collecting, preserving, and trending the chemistry data that is important to PLEX. The methods used to disseminate this data to outside agencies and other utilities were studied. Finally, an analysis was made to determine additional chemistry data needed to support PLEX

  18. Life cycle analysis of photovoltaic cell and wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Yohji

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents life cycle analyses of net energy and CO 2 emissions on photovoltaic cell and wind power generation plants. Energy requirements associated with a plant are estimated for producing materials, manufacturing equipment, constructing facilities, acid operating plants. Energy ratio and net supplied energy are calculated by the process energy analysis that examines the entire energy inventory of input and output during life time of a plant. Life cycle CO 2 emission can also be calculated from the energy requirements obtained by the net energy analysis. The emission also includes greenhouse effect equivalent to CO 2 emission of methane gas leakage at a mining as well as CO 2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion during generating electricity, natural gas treatment at an extracting well and cement production in industry. The commercially available and future-commercial technologies are dealt with in the study. Regarding PV technologies, two different kinds of installation are investigated; roof-top typed installation of residential houses and ground installation of electric utilities. (author)

  19. Edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on shelf-life of fresh-cut 'Fuji' apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropyl...

  20. Plant condition assessments as a requirement before major investment in life extension for a CANDU nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubray, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Since, to extend the life of a CANDU-6 reactor beyond its original design life requires the replacement of reactor components (380 pressure and calandria tubes), a major investment will have to be done. After a preliminary technical and economical feasibility study, Hydro- Quebec, owner of the Gentilly-2 NPP, has decided to perform a more detailed assessment to: 1. Get assurance that it is technically and economically viable to extend Gentilly-2 for another 20 years beyond the original design life; 2. Identify the detailed work to be done during the refurbishment period planned in 2008-2009; 3. Define the overall cost and the general schedule of the refurbishment phase; 4. Ensure an adequate licensing strategy to restart after refurbishment; 5. Complete all the Environmental Impact Studies required to obtain the government authorizations. The business case to support the refurbishment of Gentilly-2 has to take in consideration the reactor core components, which will be the major work to be completed during refurbishment. In summary the following main component will have to be changed or refreshed: The pressure and calandria tubes and the feeders (partial replacement only) (ageing mechanisms); The control computers (obsolescence); The condenser tubes (tubes plugging); The turbine control and electric-governor (obsolescence). An extensive campaign is under way to assess the 'health' of the station systems, structures and components (SSC). Two processes have been used for this assessment: Plant Life Management Studies (PLIM) for approximately 10 critical SSC or families of SSC (PLIM Studies); Condition Assessment Studies for other SSC with a lower impact on the Plant production or safety). The PLIM Studies are done on SSC's, which were judged critical because they are not replaceable (Reactor Building, Calandria), or that their failure could have a significant impact on safety or production (electrical motors, majors pumps, heat exchangers and pressure

  1. Comparison of Plant Life Management Approaches for Long Term Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Kisig

    2012-01-01

    Plant life management can be defined as the integration of ageing and economic planning to maintain a high level of safety and optimize operations. Many Member States have given high priority to long term operation of nuclear power plants beyond the time frame originally anticipated (e. g. 30 or 40 years). Out of a total of 445 (369 GWe) operating nuclear power plants, 349 units (297 GWe) have been in operation for more than 20 years (as of November 2011). The need for engineering support to operation, maintenance, safety review and life management for long term operation as well as education and training in the field is increasingly evident. In addition the Fukushima accident has rendered all stake holders even more attentive to safety concerns and to the provision of beyond safety measures in the preparation and scrutiny of applications for operational design life extensions. In many countries, the safety performance of NPPs is periodically followed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) approach. The regulatory The regulatory review and acceptance of the PSR gives the licensee the permission to operate the plant for up to the end of the next PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and other countries operating US designed plants, the license renewal application is based on the five pre-requisite requirements and ageing management programme for passive long life system structure and components(SSCs) and active systems is adequately addressed by the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. Other Member States have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both PSR and additional LRA specific requirements primarily focused on time limited ageing analysis. Taking into account this variety of approaches, the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) initiated work for collecting and sharing information among Member States about good practices on plant life management for long term operation in

  2. Evaluation of the integrity and duration of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant life- Plant Life Management program (PLIM). TC MEX 04/53 Technical Cooperation Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Diaz S, A.; Aguilar T, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the IAEA TC MEX 04/53 Project 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Handling Program of plant' whose objective is the one of beginning the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of plant life in the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central for to obtain the Renovation of License in 2020 the ININ, through the Department of Synthesis and Characterization of materials has carried out more of 20 analysis of susceptibility to the intergranular cracking for corrosion under effort in interns so much of the reactor of the unit 1 like of the unit 2 documenting the current state of components based on the type or types of materials that conform them, to it thermomechanical history, operational and of production, as well as of the particularities associated to its use and operation. For the application of the methodology of life handling of plant 5 structure systems or pilot components were selected, to carry out the programs of handling of the aging and handling of plant life: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the reactor pressure vessel (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the primary container (Primary Containment), the recirculation system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables. (Author)

  3. Life styles of Colletotrichum species and implications for plant biosecurity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, Dilani D. De; Crous, Pedro W.; Ades, Peter Kevin; Hyde, Kevin D.; Taylor, Paul W. J.

    Colletotrichum is a genus of major plant pathogens causing anthracnose diseases in many plant crops worldwide. The genus comprises a highly diverse group of pathogens that infect a wide range of plant hosts. The life styles of Colletotrichum species can be broadly categorised as necrotrophic,

  4. Nuclear power plant ageing management programmes in foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.; Laakso, K.; Pekkonen, A.

    1992-09-01

    The report describes ageing studies of nuclear power plants and research programmes on plant life extension in foreign countries. Ageing studies are aimed to ascertain that the availability and safety of components and structures can be maintained throughout the plant lifetime. In life extension programmes the purpose is to evaluate the technical and economical possibilities to extend the plant lifetime beyond the originally planned operation period, without reducing the plant safety. The main emphasis of the report is put on the ageing and life extension programmes in the United States. Besides the U.S. studies, research on plant life extension possibilities conducted in France and Japan are also described. Examples of studies performed in other nuclear energy producing countries are given. These examples are mainly related to the development of maintenance programmes and techniques

  5. Quality of life factors and survival after total or extended maxillectomy for sinonasal malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James; Isaiah, Amal; Wolf, Jeffrey S; Lubek, Joshua E

    2015-04-01

    Total and extended maxillectomy results in significant morbidity that can have an effect on quality of life factors. Modern reconstructive techniques have ameliorated this effect, but they have not been quantified. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of life factors and survival of patients undergoing total or extended maxillectomy for malignant disease. A retrospective study was performed of all patients who had undergone total or extended maxillectomy at a tertiary care cancer center from January 2008 to May 2013. The minimum follow-up period was 6 months. The quality of life factors analyzed included swallowing function and diet consistency, pain control, and postoperative complications. A total of 25 patients (13 women and 12 men) met the inclusion criteria. Using the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system, 76% of the patients had stage IV disease. Of the 25 patients, 13 received a free tissue transfer, 11 an obturator flap, and 1 a regional flap. None of the patients with a free tissue transfer experienced failure. The tumor size had no systemic influence on the reconstructive method chosen (P = .32 to P = .98). The median follow-up period was 41 weeks (range 24 to 252). One death was recorded, and 10 patients were lost to follow-up. Eleven patients progressed to a regular diet. Fifteen patients required a tracheostomy, and all were decannulated at a mean of 14 days postoperatively. One patient had dental implants placed. The type of reconstruction did not influence swallowing function (P = .49) or long-term pain (P = .38). The mean pain score was 4.9 ± 2.7. Pain management proved difficult in 7 patients. Also, 6 patients developed a surgical site infection, 3 of whom required a return to the operating room. Seven patients were readmitted to the hospital for complications; however, the reconstructive method did not influence the incidence of complications (P = .64). The inevitable morbidity, with respect to quality

  6. Analysis on regulation strategies for extending service life of hydropower turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Norrlund, P.; Yang, J.

    2016-11-01

    Since a few years, there has been a tendency that hydropower turbines experience fatigue to a greater extent, due to increasingly more regulation movements of governor actuators. The aim of this paper is to extend the service life of hydropower turbines, by reasonably decreasing the guide vane (GV) movements with appropriate regulation strategies, e.g. settings of PI (proportional-integral) governor parameters and controller filters. The accumulated distance and number of GV movements are the two main indicators of this study. The core method is to simulate the long-term GV opening of Francis turbines with MATLAB/Simulink, based on a sequence of one-month measurements of the Nordic grid frequency. Basic theoretical formulas are also discussed and compared to the simulation results, showing reasonable correspondence. Firstly, a model of a turbine governor is discussed and verified, based on on-site measurements of a Swedish hydropower plant. Then, the influence of governor parameters is discussed. Effects of different settings of controller filters (e.g. dead zone, floating dead zone and linear filter) are also examined. Moreover, a change in GV movement might affect the quality of the frequency control. This is also monitored via frequency deviation characteristics, determined by elementary simulations of the Nordic power system. The results show how the regulation settings affect the GV movements and frequency quality, supplying suggestions for optimizing the hydropower turbine operation for decreasing the wear and tear.

  7. Identification and management of plant aging and life extension issues for a liquid-metal-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.W.; Perry, W.H.

    1991-06-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) is a pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor that supports extensive experimental, test and demonstration programs while providing electrical power to the local grid. EBR-2 is a US Department of Energy Facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The current mission of EBR-2 is to serve as the operational prototype for the Integral Fast Reactor demonstration program. This mission and other programs require EBR-2 to operate reliability to a 40-year lifetime, a significant extension beyond the five to ten year life originally planned for the facility. The benefits of operating EBR-2 in the extended-life mode are important for providing long-term operational performance data for a sodium-cooled fast reactor that is not available elsewhere. Identification and preliminary assessment of potential life-limiting factors indicate that, with appropriate consideration given in the design phase, the sodium-cooled plant has potential for a very long operational lifetime. Achievement of a 40-year lifetime with high reliability is important not only for achieving the near-term goals of the EBR-2/IFR programs, but for the advancement of the liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept to the demonstration/commercialization phase. Key features make extended-life operation feasible based on the use of sodium as the primary coolant: low-pressure, high thermal capacity primary system and a low-pressure secondary system requiring no active valves; and limited corrosion of components. 2 refs

  8. Plant upgrading and backfitting in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxley, Nigel; Raimondo, Emile

    1992-01-01

    The service life of a nuclear power plant is linked to good operating and maintenance practices and effective management which should begin when the plant starts operating. In France the construction of two series of virtually identical reactors has enabled Framatome to use feedback from early units to modify and improve later ones. The intention is to keep the plants safe and to extend life as far into the next century as is feasible. Remedial measures that can be applied include improvements to plant operation itself, plant modifications and the implementation of effective preventive and corrective maintenance operations which may cover planned provision for the replacement of obsolete or susceptible components. (author)

  9. Economic evaluation of Kori and Wolsong Unit 1 plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, T. H.; Jeong, I. S.

    2002-01-01

    24 years have been passed since Kori Unit 1 began its commercial operation, and 19 years have been passed since Wolsong Unit 1 began its commercial operation. As the end point of design life become closer, plant life extension and periodic safety assessment is paid more and more attention to by the utility company. In this paper, the methodologies and results of plant lifetime management economic evaluations of both units have been presented in comparison with Korean standard nuclear power plant 10, 20 and 30 year life extension cases respectively. In addition to that, sensitivity analysis and break even point analysis results are presented with the variables of capacity factor, operation and maintenance cost, and discount rate

  10. Risk assessment considerations for plant protection products and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltje, Lennart; Ufer, Andreas; Hamer, Mick; Sowig, Peter; Demmig, Sandra; Dechet, Friedrich

    2018-04-28

    Some amphibians occur in agricultural landscapes during certain periods of their life cycle and consequently might be exposed to plant protection products (PPPs). While the sensitivity of aquatic life-stages is considered to be covered by the standard assessment for aquatic organisms (especially fish), the situation is less clear for terrestrial amphibian life-stages. In this paper, considerations are presented on how a risk assessment for PPPs and terrestrial life-stages of amphibians could be conducted. It discusses available information concerning the toxicity of PPPs to terrestrial amphibians, and their potential exposure to PPPs in consideration of aspects of amphibian biology. The emphasis is on avoiding additional vertebrate testing as much as possible by using exposure-driven approaches and by making use of existing vertebrate toxicity data, where appropriate. Options for toxicity testing and risk assessment are presented in a flowchart as a tiered approach, progressing from a non-testing approach, to simple worst-case laboratory testing, to extended laboratory testing, to semi-field enclosure tests and ultimately to full-scale field testing and monitoring. Suggestions are made for triggers to progress to higher tiers. Also, mitigation options to reduce the potential for exposure of terrestrial life-stages of amphibians to PPPs, if a risk were identified, are discussed. Finally, remaining uncertainties and research needs are considered by proposing a way forward (road map) for generating additional information to inform terrestrial amphibian risk assessment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Plant life management in Belgium: an integrated project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wacquier, W.; Smet, M. de; Hennart, J.C.; Greer, J.L.; Breesch, Ch.; Havard, P.

    2001-01-01

    In Belgium, a specific plant life management project, named ''Continuous Operation of Belgian NPPs'' is currently developing. Its final objective is to centralize all safety and economic aspects of plant life management in order to determine, for each NPP unit, the optimal actions required to maintain their safe and reliable operation. As the lifetime of safety-related active components is permanently controlled by the current maintenance programs, the project focuses only on passive safety-related components and on non-safety components important for the availability of the plants. These structures and components were evaluated and compared on the basis of a set of weighted criteria in order to measure their criticality and to identify those which must be considered in the project. The selection and the ranking of those components is based on the KBM TM methodology (Knowledge Based Maintenance). This methodology facilitates the collection, formalization and exchange of know-how and gives immediate results thanks to a sequential and systematic step by step analysis. (author)

  12. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.; Beach, R.; Blink, J.; Caird, J.; Erlandson, A.; Farmer, J.; Halsey, W.; Ladran, T.; Latkowski, J.; MacIntyre, A.; Miles, R.; Storm, E.

    2008-01-01

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R and D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost

  13. Online condition monitoring to enable extended operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, Ryan Michael; Bond, Leonard John; Ramuhalli, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    Safe, secure, and economic operation of nuclear power plants will remain of strategic significance. New and improved monitoring will likely have increased significance in the post-Fukushima world. Prior to Fukushima, many activities were already underway globally to facilitate operation of nuclear power plants beyond their initial licensing periods. Decisions to shut down a nuclear power plant are mostly driven by economic considerations. Online condition monitoring is a means to improve both the safety and economics of extending the operating lifetimes of nuclear power plants, enabling adoption of proactive aging management. With regard to active components (e.g., pumps, valves, motors, etc.), significant experience in other industries has been leveraged to build the science base to support adoption of online condition-based maintenance and proactive aging management in the nuclear industry. Many of the research needs are associated with enabling proactive management of aging in passive components (e.g., pipes, vessels, cables, containment structures, etc.). This paper provides an overview of online condition monitoring for the nuclear power industry with an emphasis on passive components. Following the overview, several technology/knowledge gaps are identified, which require addressing to facilitate widespread online condition monitoring of passive components. (author)

  14. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  15. Managing ageing of Karachi nuclear power plant (KANUPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoda, M. Qamrul; Jamal-ur-Rahman

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Karachi Nuclear power Plant (KANUPP), a 137 MWe CANDU plant, was built on a turn-key basis by the Canadian General Electric (CGE) in the late sixties. The plant with a design life of thirty years went into commercial operation in October, 1972. After nearly three decades of operation, KANUPP like all other plants has faced the problem of equipment ageing and obsolescence. KANUPP has been striving hard to combat these problems with the assistance from IAEA, COG and WANO. During early eighties IAEA expert missions were called at KANUPP on various safety issues and on their recommendations various projects such as Safe Operation of KANUPP, Technical Upgradation Project, Balancing, Modernization and Rehabilitation project were initiated to combat equipment ageing and obsolescence. KANUPP has made substantial progress in the implementation of the tasks under these projects and the operating life of the plant is expected to be extended by 15 years. Three IAEA expert missions were invited at KANUPP during 1999-2000 to carry out assessment of the ongoing activities related to plant ageing management. On the basis of their recommendations an ageing Management Programme has been formally established at KANUPP to manage age-related degradation of plant systems, structures and components important to safety and to ensure that the required safety functions are available for the extended life of the plant. Being close to completion of its nominal design life in October 2002, KANUPP has already applied to Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority for renewal of operating license. This paper briefly describes the activities related to ageing management of KANUPP to fulfil the requirement for its continued operation beyond its design life. (author)

  16. Aging and Plant Life Management with the Software Tool COMSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, Helmut; Rossner, Roland; Zander, Andre

    2006-01-01

    Within the scope of PLEX, a systematic and efficient ageing and plant life management system is becoming more and more important to ensure a safe and economical power plant operation in spite of continuous plant ageing. For the methodical implementation of PLIM and PLEX strategies, AREVA NP has developed the software tool COMSY. This knowledge-based program integrates degradation analysis tools with an inspection data management system. COMSY provides the capability to establish a program guided technical documentation by utilizing a virtual plant model which includes information regarding thermal hydraulic operation, water chemical conditions and materials applied for mechanical components. It provides the option to perform a plant-wide screening for identifying system areas, which are sensitive for degradation mechanisms typically experienced in nuclear power plants (FAC, corrosion fatigue, IGSCC, Pitting, etc.). If a system area is identified as being susceptible to degradation, a detailed analysis function enables the condition-oriented service life evaluation of vessels and piping systems in order to localize and conservatively quantify the effect of degradation. Based on these forecasts with COMSY, specific strategies can be developed to mitigate the effect of degradation and inspection activities can be focused on degradation sensitive areas. In addition, a risk-informed assessment tool serves to optimize inspection activities in respect to degradation potential and the associated damage consequence. After an in-service inspection is performed for a distinct location, the inspection data is to be evaluated according to generally accepted procedures. For this purpose an integrated inspection data management system module provides standardized, interactively operated evaluation functions. The key inspection results are transmitted as feedback in respect to the as-is condition of the component. Subsequently, all further life evaluations of the associated

  17. Predicting the residual life of plant equipment - Why worry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaske, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    Predicting the residual life of plant equipment that has been in service for 20 to 30 years or more is a major concern of many industries. This paper reviews the reasons for increased concern for residual-life assessment and the general procedures used in performing such assessments. Some examples and case histories illustrating procedures for assessing remaining service life are discussed. Areas where developments are needed to improve the technology for remaining-life estimation are pointed out. Then, some of the critical issues involved in residual-life assessment are identified. Finally, the future role of residual-life prediction is addressed

  18. International symposium on nuclear techniques in integrated plant nutrient, water and soil management. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-10-01

    This document contains extended synopsis of 92 papers presented at the International Symposium on Nuclear Techniques in Integrated Plant Nutrient, Water, and Soil Management held in Vienna, Austria, 16-20 October 2000. The efficient use of plant nutrient and fertilizer using carbon 13 and nitrogen 15 tracers; plant water use using oxygen 18 and moisture gauges, as well as soil and plant radioactivity monitoring, are some of the major subjects covered by these papers

  19. 3. International Conference on Nuclear Power Plant Life Management (PLiM) for Long Term Operations (LTO). Keynotes, papers, presentations, posters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The world's fleet of nuclear power plants is, on average, more than 20 years old. Even though the design life of a nuclear power plant is typically 30-40 years, many plants will operate in excess of their design lives, provided that nuclear power plant engineers demonstrate by analysis, equipment and system upgrades, increased vigilance, testing and ageing management that the plant will operate safely. In the operation of nuclear power plants, safety should always be the prime consideration. Plant operators and regulators must always ensure that plant safety is maintained and, where possible, enhanced during its operating lifetime. Nuclear power plant life management (PLiM) has gained increased attention over the past decade, and effective ageing management of systems, structures and components (SSCs) is a key element in PLiM for the safe and reliable long term operation of nuclear power plants. A PLiM programme is an effective tool that allows an operator to safely and cost effectively manage ageing effects in SSCs for long term operation (LTO). A PLiM programme helps facilitate decisions concerning when and how to repair, replace or modify SSCs in an economically optimized way, while assuring that a high level of safety is maintained. The option for extended nuclear power plant operation has been recognized by operators and regulators alike, as evidenced in the number of licence renewal programmes that are being developed by Member States. After the severe accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the safe operation of nuclear power plants has become even more important; not only in terms of technical or ageing issues, but also in terms of management system and qualified workforce related issues. Application of an integrated management system and structured workforce planning are needed throughout the plant life in order to ensure effective plant organization and management. The IAEA organized the first and second International Conference on Nuclear

  20. Nuclear power plant life extension in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodison, D.; Seddon, J.W.; Pape, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    The safety cases for the United Kingdom's older nuclear power plant have been reviewed by their utilities in order to justify continued operation of the reactors up to an age of at least 30 year. These 'long term safety reviews' have identified worthwhile plant modifications and aspects where further studies or plant inspections are required. As the plants approach the age of 30 years, 'life extension reviews' are now being undertaken, concentrating on management of ageing, to support operation to at least 40 years. (author)

  1. Environmentally Clean Mitigation of Undesirable Plant Life Using Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubenchik, A M; McGrann, T J; Yamamoto, R M; Parker, J M

    2009-07-01

    This concept comprises a method for environmentally clean destruction of undesirable plant life using visible or infrared radiation. We believe that during the blossom stage, plant life is very sensitive to electromagnetic radiation, with an enhanced sensitivity to specific spectral ranges. Small doses of irradiation can arrest further plant growth, cause flower destruction or promote plant death. Surrounding plants, which are not in the blossoming stage, should not be affected. Our proposed mechanism to initiate this effect is radiation produced by a laser. Tender parts of the blossom possess enhanced absorptivity in some spectral ranges. This absorption can increase the local tissue temperature by several degrees, which is sufficient to induce bio-tissue damage. In some instances, the radiation may actually stimulate plant growth, as an alternative for use in increased crop production. This would be dependent on factors such as plant type, the wavelength of the laser radiation being used and the amount of the radiation dose. Practical, economically viable realization of this concept is possible today with the advent of high efficiency, compact and powerful laser diodes. The laser diodes provide an efficient, environmentally clean source of radiation at a variety of power levels and radiation wavelengths. Figure 1 shows the overall concept, with the laser diodes mounted on a movable platform, traversing and directing the laser radiation over a field of opium poppies.

  2. Practical standard for nuclear power plant life management programs: 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    The standard specifies the method of implementing nuclear power plant life management programs. The plant life management programs evaluate the integrity of the plant structures, systems and components, assessing if appropriate measures are taken against existing aging phenomena, if there are possibilities of occurrence and development of aging phenomena and if a sufficient level of margin is maintained to assure the integrity throughout the future operating period. The programs also assess the validity of the current maintenance activities, such as trend monitoring, walkdowns, periodic tests and inspections, repair and replacement work for the purpose of preventive maintenance, and utilization of lessons learned from past trouble experience, in order to newly identify maintenance measures. The technical evaluation on aging phenomena is conducted to establish the 10 year maintenance program for nuclear power plants until the plant reaches 30 years of service. The standard was established and issued by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) through the discussion of experts in the associated fields. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Plant maintenance and plant life extension issue, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnihotri, Newal

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the March-April issue is on plant maintenance and plant life extension. Major articles include the following: Exciting time to be at the U.S. NRC, by Dale Klein, Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Extraordinary steps to ensure a minimal environmental impact, by George Vanderheyden, UniStar Nuclear Energy, LLC.; Focused on consistent reduction of outages, by Kevin Walsh, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; On the path towards operational excellence, by Ricardo Perez, Westinghouse Electric Company; Ability to be refuelled on-line, by Ian Trotman, CANDU Services, Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd.; ASCA Application for maintenance of SG secondary side, by Patrick Wagner, Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation, Phillip Battaglia and David Selfridge, Westinghouse Electric Company; and, An integral part of the landscape and lives, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovation article is titled Steam generator bowl drain repairs, by John Makar and Richard Gimple, Wolf Creek Nuclear Operating Corporation

  4. COMSY - A Software Tool for Aging and Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zander, Andre; Nopper, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    A Plant-wide and systematic Aging and Plant Life Management is essential for the safe operation and/or availability of nuclear power plants. The Aging Management (AM) has the objective to monitor and control degradation effects for safety relevant Systems, Structures and Components (SSCs) which may compromise safety functions of the plant. The Plant Life Management (PLM) methodology also includes aging surveillance for availability relevant SSCs. AM and PLM cover mechanical components, electrical and I and C systems and civil structures All Aging and Plant Life Management rules call for a comprehensive approach, requiring the systematic collection of various aging and safety relevant data on a plant-wide basis. This data needs to be serviced and periodically evaluated. Due to the complexity of the process, this activity needs to be supported by a qualified software tool for the management of aging relevant data and associated documents (approx. 30 000 SSCs). In order to support the power plant operators AREVA NP has developed the software tool COMSY. The COMSY software with its integrated AM modules enables the design and setup of a knowledge-based power plant model compatible to the requirements of international and national rules (e.g. IAEA Safety Guide NS-G-2.12, KTA 1403). In this process, a key task is to identify and monitor degradation mechanisms. For this purpose the COMSY tool provides prognosis and trending functions, which are based on more than 30 years of experience in the evaluation of degradation effects and numerous experimental studies. Since 1998 COMSY has been applied successfully in more than fifty reactor units in this field. The current version 3.0 was revised completely and offers additional AM functions. All aging-relevant component data are compiled and allocated via an integrated power plant model. Owing to existing interfaces to other software solutions and flexible import functions, COMSY is highly compatible with already existing data

  5. Overview of United States Department of Energy activities to support life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Today, 109 nuclear power plants provide over 20 percent of the electrical energy generated in the US The operating license of the first of these plants will expire in the year 2000; one-third of the operating licenses will expire by 2010 and the remaining plant licenses are scheduled to expire by 2033. The National Energy Strategy assumes that 70 percent of these plants will continue to operate beyond their current license expiration to assist in ensuring an adequate, diverse, and environmentally acceptable energy supply for economic growth. In order to preserve this energy resource in the US three major tasks must be successfully completed: establishment of regulations, technical standards, and procedures for the preparation and review of a license renewal application; development, verification, and validation of technical criteria and bases for monitoring, refurbishing, and/or replacing plant equipment; and demonstration of the regulatory process. Since 1985, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE's Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues in the principal areas of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity, fatigue, and environmental qualification (EQ)

  6. Development of life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Yun Jae; Choi, Jae Boong [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2002-03-15

    This project focuses on developing reliable life evaluation technology for nuclear power plant components, and is divided into two parts, development of a life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels and evaluation of applicability of emerging technology to operating plants. For the development of life evaluation system for nuclear pressure vessels, the following seven topics are covered in this project: defect assessment method for steam generator tubes, development of fatigue monitoring system, assessment of corroded pipes, domestic round robin analysis for constructing P-T limit curve for RPV, development of probabilistic integrity assessment technique, effect of aging on strength of dissimilar welds, applicability of LBB to cast stainless steel, and development of probabilistic piping fracture mechanics.

  7. Integration of plant life management in operation and maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutin, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    Full text: 1 - INTRODUCTION. Electricite de France is now operating 58 PWR nuclear power plants which produce 75% of french electricity. Besides maintaining safety and availability on a routine basis, it is outmost important to protect the investment. Indeed, such an asset is a tremendous advantage just as the company is going to face the new european electricity market. That is the reason why EDF is devoting important effort to implement ageing management as an integral part of operation and maintenance programs. But it must be recognized that NPP lifetime is not threatened only by component-related problems: other less technical issues must be seriously considered like industrial support, information system, skilled people, public acceptance, etc. 2 - LIFE MANAGEMENT POLICY. In France, there is no limited licensing period for NPPs. The life management policy of nuclear power plants is based on three principles: - safe and cost-effective operation, looking for excellence in daily activities, with an effective experience feedback organisation taking advantage of the high level of standardization of the units, - every ten years, a new set of safety standards, a complete review of each facility and an upgrading of its safety level through appropriate modifications while maintaining unit standardization in all the fleet, - a Life Management Program, at corporate level, which permanently scrutinizes operation and maintenance activities to identify decisions which could impair plant lifetime and which surveys research and development programs related to ageing phenomenon understanding. 3 - INTEGRATION OF LIFETIME CONCERN IN O and M ACTIVITIES. It is outmost important to take in account lifetime concern in daily operation and maintenance activities and this must be done as early as possible in plant life. Even though sophisticated assessments require engineering capacity, many good ideas may arise from plant staff. For that reason, increasing lifetime awareness of plant

  8. Nuclear power plant life management. An overview of identification of key components in relation with degradation mechanism - IAEA guidelines presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, Georges

    2005-01-01

    need to address all threats to plant lifetime in the analyses for guidance on maintenance and component replacement strategies. However the need to ensure that safety related equipment will continue to function in the event of a major fault or transient, requires that equipment has to be qualified for operation during and after such incidents. While there is the need to exchange information in these areas there is also the need to establish methodologies for unqualified equipment/ There is therefore a growing need to exchange information and data in areas of plant life management. The sharing of information can be of mutual national benefit and the role of the International Organisation such as the IAEA and the OECD to act as a focus for these activities is of particular long term importance. The paper has the following contents: 1. Introduction; 2. Nuclear power plant lifetime; 2.1. Plant life management process; 2.1.1. Data; 2.1.2. Categorization of components; 2.1.3. Examples of description of components for plant life management; 3. Plant life management - Overall review between different countries approaches; 3.1. Case of countries needing licence renewal; 3.2. Case of countries needing periodic safety review for plant life management; 3.3. Case of countries needing licence renewal procedures after original and basic design lifetime to extend lifetime and needing periodic safety review for plant life extension; 3.3.1. Case of Japan - Korea; 3.3.2. Case of Russian Federation; 4. Matrix of maintenance contribution to ageing management between components degradation mode versus different levels of maintenance; 5. Survey of ageing mechanisms related to nuclear power plants; 5.1. Physical ageing phenomena; 5.2. Manufacturing aspects of ageing; 5.3. Operational (service) conditions of NPPs; 5.4. Some examples on the importance of databases reactor pressure vessel and steam generator; 5.4.1. Reactor pressure vessel; 5.4.2. Steam generators; 5.4.2.1. Main degradation

  9. The BWR owners' group planning guide for life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.K.; Lehnert, D.F.; Locke, R.K.

    1991-01-01

    Extending the operating life of a commercial nuclear power plant has been shown to be economically beneficial to both the utility and the electric customer. As such, many utilities are planning and implementing plant life extension (PLEX) programs. A document has been developed which provides guidance to utilities in formulating a PLEX program plant for one or more boiling water reactor (BWR) plants. The guide has been developed by the BWR Owners' Group Plant Life Extension Committee. The principal bases for this guide were the BWR Pilot and Lead Plant Programs. These programs were used as models to develop the 'base plan' described in this guide. By formulating their program plant utilizing the base plan, utilities will be able to maximize the use of existing evaluations and results. The utility planner will build upon the base plan by adding any tasks or features that are unique to their programs. (author)

  10. NASA Life Sciences Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This Life Science Program video examines the variety of projects that study both the physiological and psychological impacts on astronauts due to extended space missions. The hazards of space radiation and microgravity effects on the human body are described, along with these effects on plant growth, and the performance of medical procedures in space. One research technique, which is hoped to provide help for future space travel, is the study of aquanauts and their life habits underwater.

  11. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Ready Mix Concrete Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topkar, V. M.; Duggar, A. R.; Kumar, A.; Bonde, P. P.; Girwalkar, R. S.; Gade, S. B.

    2013-11-01

    India, being a developing nation is experiencing major growth in its infrastructural sector. Concrete is the major component in construction. The requirement of good quality of concrete in large quantities can be fulfilled by ready mix concrete batching and mixing plants. The paper presents a technique of applying the value engineering tool life cycle cost analysis to a ready mix concrete plant. This will help an investor or an organization to take investment decisions regarding a ready mix concrete facility. No economic alternatives are compared in this study. A cost breakdown structure is prepared for the ready mix concrete plant. A market survey has been conducted to collect realistic costs for the ready mix concrete facility. The study establishes the cash flow for the ready mix concrete facility helpful in investment and capital generation related decisions. Transit mixers form an important component of the facility and are included in the calculations. A fleet size for transit mixers has been assumed for this purpose. The life cycle cost has been calculated for the system of the ready mix concrete plant and transit mixers.

  12. Chitosan extends the shelf-life of filleted tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Yin, Bangzhong; Wu, Biao

    2012-09-01

    Shelf-life extension of aquatic products is of significant economical importance. To determine the potential effect of chitosan on the shelf-life of filleted tilapia, this study analyzed the bacterial community diversity in fresh and spoiled tilapia fillets stored at (4 ± 1)°C and examined the antimicrobial activity of chitosan against relevant bacteria isolates. Results showed that Pseudomonas (20%) and Aeromonas (16%) were abundant in fresh tilapia fillets, whereas Pseudomonas (52%), Aeromonas (32%) and Staphylococcus (12%) were dominant in the spoiled samples. Chitosan showed wide-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from tilapia and 5.0 g L-1 chitosan was selected for application in preservation. We further determined the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia stored at (4 ± 1)°C based on microbiological, biochemical and sensory analyses. Results showed that the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia was extended to 12 d, whereas that of untreated, control samples was 6 d. These indicate that chitosan, as a natural preservative, has great application potential in the shelf-life extension of tilapia fillets.

  13. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion on potential electricity price effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthes, Felix C.; Hermann, Hauke

    2009-06-01

    The discussions on electricity price effects in case of the plant life extension of German nuclear power plants covers the following topics: (1) Introduction and methodology. (2) Electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity price based on an empirical view: electricity generation in nuclear power plants and final consumption price for households and industry in the European Union; electricity generation in nuclear power plants and electricity wholesale price in case of low availability of nuclear power plants in Germany; comparison of electricity wholesale prices in Germany and France. (3) Model considerations in relation to electricity prices and nuclear phase-out. (4) Concluding considerations.

  14. Current activities in support of CANDU plant life management: an industry perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalaby, B.A.; Price, E.G.; Hopkins, J.; Charlebois, P.

    1998-01-01

    The current focus of the CANDU industry is to position the nuclear option as a cost competitive, safe and reliable means of electricity production. To achieve its goal the CANDU industry as a whole is undertaking steps to improve further its performance and safety of its nuclear power plants. A number of programs have been planned and implemented particularly for plants in the mid-life range. Some of these programs include life assessment studies of critical systems, Structures and Components (SSCS), refurbishment and upgrading programs and monitoring and periodic inspection programs. Some elements of the programs have been in place from station start up and some are being instituted as part of the aging management and performance improvement program. The industry recognizes that the key to sustaining high performance over the life of the plant is the implementation of an integrated aging management program that encompasses all elements of plant operation and maintenance. A systematically implemented program on optimized maintenance and inspection strategy, standardized work processes, component rehabilitation programs, and applying lessons learned are some of the elements of a sustainable high performance and an effective plant life assurance program. The paper will describe the elements of an integrated program, the multiphase approach defined for CANDU PLIM and some of the activities undertaken by the industry to further improve and sustain plant safety, reliability and performance. (author)

  15. An approach to nuclear-power-plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojvodic Tuma, J.; Celin, R.; Udovc, M.; Bundara, B.; Zabric, I.

    2007-01-01

    The plant life of a nuclear power plant (NPP) depends on degradation processes and ageing. Degradation is a deterioration phenomenon that can lead to component failure or limit the life of a component or the NPP itself. Ageing describes a continuous time or operational degradation of materials due to operational conditions, which include both normal and operating conditions. As a result of ageing degradation the state of the NPP or component can vary throughout the operating life. The degradation mechanisms for metallic components are general and local corrosion, erosion/corrosion, fatigue, corrosion fatigue, material changes due to irradiation and temperature, creep and wear. All the components of an NPP are subject to ageing, which may lead to the degradation of the physical barriers and redundant components, resulting in an increased probability of common-cause failures. The aims of NPP ageing management are to ensure that the necessary safety margins, adequate reliability and unforeseen and uncontrolled ageing of critical components do not shorten the NPP's lifetime. For the reasons stated above, plans are necessary to maintain the NPP in a state of high reliability. These are plans for an assessment of the life of the components that cannot be readily replaced, plans for operating life assessment or the planned replacement of major components where economic considerations will largely condition whether replacement or decommissioning should be pursued and plans for maintenance and replacements so that outages and delays can be minimised. In this paper some aspects of the process of NPP life management will be presented. (author)

  16. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Lundholm

    Full Text Available Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that

  17. Leaf and life history traits predict plant growth in a green roof ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundholm, Jeremy; Heim, Amy; Tran, Stephanie; Smith, Tyler

    2014-01-01

    Green roof ecosystems are constructed to provide services such as stormwater retention and urban temperature reductions. Green roofs with shallow growing media represent stressful conditions for plant survival, thus plants that survive and grow are important for maximizing economic and ecological benefits. While field trials are essential for selecting appropriate green roof plants, we wanted to determine whether plant leaf traits could predict changes in abundance (growth) to provide a more general framework for plant selection. We quantified leaf traits and derived life-history traits (Grime's C-S-R strategies) for 13 species used in a four-year green roof experiment involving five plant life forms. Changes in canopy density in monocultures and mixtures containing one to five life forms were determined and related to plant traits using multiple regression. We expected traits related to stress-tolerance would characterize the species that best grew in this relatively harsh setting. While all species survived to the end of the experiment, canopy species diversity in mixture treatments was usually much lower than originally planted. Most species grew slower in mixture compared to monoculture, suggesting that interspecific competition reduced canopy diversity. Species dominant in mixture treatments tended to be fast-growing ruderals and included both native and non-native species. Specific leaf area was a consistently strong predictor of final biomass and the change in abundance in both monoculture and mixture treatments. Some species in contrasting life-form groups showed compensatory dynamics, suggesting that life-form mixtures can maximize resilience of cover and biomass in the face of environmental fluctuations. This study confirms that plant traits can be used to predict growth performance in green roof ecosystems. While rapid canopy growth is desirable for green roofs, maintenance of species diversity may require engineering of conditions that favor less

  18. On-Board Real-Time Optimization Control for Turbo-Fan Engine Life Extending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiangang; Zhang, Haibo; Miao, Lizhen; Sun, Fengyong

    2017-11-01

    A real-time optimization control method is proposed to extend turbo-fan engine service life. This real-time optimization control is based on an on-board engine mode, which is devised by a MRR-LSSVR (multi-input multi-output recursive reduced least squares support vector regression method). To solve the optimization problem, a FSQP (feasible sequential quadratic programming) algorithm is utilized. The thermal mechanical fatigue is taken into account during the optimization process. Furthermore, to describe the engine life decaying, a thermal mechanical fatigue model of engine acceleration process is established. The optimization objective function not only contains the sub-item which can get fast response of the engine, but also concludes the sub-item of the total mechanical strain range which has positive relationship to engine fatigue life. Finally, the simulations of the conventional optimization control which just consider engine acceleration performance or the proposed optimization method have been conducted. The simulations demonstrate that the time of the two control methods from idle to 99.5 % of the maximum power are equal. However, the engine life using the proposed optimization method could be surprisingly increased by 36.17 % compared with that using conventional optimization control.

  19. Framatome ANP GmbH concept of Plant Life Management (PLIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeuwel, W.; Biemann, W.; Danisch, R.; Kastner, B.; Meyer, W.; Nopper, H.; Waas, U.; Warnken, L.

    2002-01-01

    The deregulation of the power generation industry has resulted in increased competitive pressure and is forcing operators to improve plant operating economy while maintaining high levels of plant safety. A key factor to meeting this challenge is to apply a comprehensive plant life management (PLIM) approach which addresses all relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms regarding the safety concept, plant component structures and documentation, plant personnel, consumables, operations management system and administrative controls. For this reason, Framatome ANP GmbH has developed an integrated PLIM concept applicable for both new and operating plants and focusing on the safety concept, plant component structures and documentation. (orig.)

  20. Pythium invasion of plant-based life support systems: biological control and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, D. G.; Cook, K. L.; Garland, J. L.; Board, K. F.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Invasion of plant-based life support systems by plant pathogens could cause plant disease and disruption of life support capability. Root rot caused by the fungus, Pythium, was observed during tests of prototype plant growth systems containing wheat at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). We conducted experiments to determine if the presence of complex microbial communities in the plant root zone (rhizosphere) resisted invasion by the Pythium species isolated from the wheat root. Rhizosphere inocula of different complexity (as assayed by community-level physiological profile: CLPP) were developed using a dilution/extinction approach, followed by growth in hydroponic rhizosphere. Pythium growth on wheat roots and concomitant decreases in plant growth were inversely related to the complexity of the inocula during 20-day experiments in static hydroponic systems. Pythium was found on the seeds of several different wheat cultivars used in controlled environmental studies, but it is unclear if the seed-borne fungal strain(s) were identical to the pathogenic strain recovered from the KSC studies. Attempts to control pathogens and their effects in hydroponic life support systems should include early inoculation with complex microbial communities, which is consistent with ecological theory.

  1. N Reactor Production Assurance Program blance of plant evaluation: report of findings and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurd, E.N.; Bitten, E.J.

    1985-03-01

    Fourteen tasks were identified by UNC Nuclear Industries for evaluating the life expectancy of N Reactor structures, systems and components in the Balance of Plant portion of the Production Assurance Program. A Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) evaluation team was assigned to each of these fourteen tasks. A uniform set of criteria was used by all teams in evaluating the problems that may be encountered during the extended plant operating lifetime. The overall conclusion is that extended life to those Balance of Plant components and systems studied can be achieved. Problems with the potential for compromising that conclusion are identified, and feasible solutions are provided

  2. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2000-01-01

    Fundamentals on the plan, the national policy, the safety securities for the life extension of the nuclear power plant was established from the domestic/abroad documents and case studies in relation with the life extension and decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the domestic/abroad standard of the decommissioning (decontamination. dismantling) technology and regulation. Moreover, the study on the cost estimation method has been carried out for the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. (author)

  3. Plant life management for long term operation of light water reactors. Principles and guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The subject of this report was originally suggested by the IAEA Technical Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants. It was then approved by the IAEA for work to begin in 2004. The participants in the group felt that it was time to address plant life management and ageing issues from the point of view of long term operation and licence renewal. It is believed that the nuclear power industry will only be able to survive if plant economics are favourable and safety is maintained. Therefore, the issue of ageing and obsolescence has to be addressed from an operational and safety standpoint, but also in the context of plant economics in terms of the cost of electricity production, including initial and recurring capital costs. Use of new technologies, such as advanced in-service inspection and condition based maintenance, should be considered, not only to predict the consequences of ageing and guard against them, but also to monitor equipment performance throughout the lifetime of the plant and to help establish replacement schedules for critical systems, structures and components, and to better estimate the optimum end of the operating licence, which means the end of the nuclear power plant's lifetime. The importance of nuclear power plant life management in facilitating the technical and economic goals of long term operation is presented in this report in terms of the requirement to ensure safe long term supplies of electricity in the most economically competitive way. Safe and reliable operation is discussed in terms of the overall economic benefits when plant life management is implemented. Preconditions for plant life management for long term operation are identified and approaches are reviewed. Plant life management should not be associated only with the extension of the operational lifetime of the nuclear power plant, but with an owner's attitude and a rational approach of the operating company towards running the business economically and safely

  4. Management of life cycle and ageing at nuclear power plants: Improved I and C maintenance. Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    operated in harsh environments in NPPs, and important in plant life management, not only for normal operation but also, and more importantly, for post-accident service. In reaching this goal, this TECDOC identifies the key I and C components of interest that are expected to function well throughout the life of a plant including the extended life. This TECDOC discusses the effects of ageing and obsolescence of this equipment, and describes state of the art techniques and new procedures that can be implemented remotely, while the plant is on-line, to verify the performance, adequacy, and availability. This TECDOC follows an earlier one (IAEA-TECDOC-1147) that was published on related subjects in June 2000

  5. The use of probabilistic safety assessment in the relicensing of nuclear power plants for extended lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-02-01

    This document gives guidance in the major ways PSAs can be used for NPP life extension applications utilizing given PSA criteria. It also covers the specific steps for using presently available PSA models, data and criteria to assist life extension decision making and the research that could be carried out to extend the applicability of PSAs in this field. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Effect of Ethanol and Essential Oils on Extending Vase-life of Carnation Cut Flower (Dianthus caryophyllus cv. �Yellow Candy�

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BAYAT

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol and essential oils of three medicinal plants namely Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., Summer savory (Satureja hortensis L. and Ajwain (Carum copticum L. on extending carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus vase-life. For this purpose three individual trials were conducted using a completely randomized block design with three replications. In the first trial, the effect of 4% ethanol (v/v as a continuous or pulse treatment was determined. The results showed that although both application methods increased vase-life and marketability of carnation, it was statistically non significant. In the second trial, the effects of selected essential oils at the concentration of 100, 150 and 200 ppm were investigated. All essential oils prolonged carnation vase-life. Summer savory essential oil (100 ppm showed the highest effect (increasing 4.4 days in comparison to the control. In the third trial, the interaction between ethanol and the essential oils was studied. Results showed there is no significant difference between application of essential oils alone and in combination with ethanol. The highest fresh weight was observed in cut flowers treated with Summer savory essential oil at 100 ppm after 6 days which was double compared to the control. According to the results of this research it is concluded that essential oils, (natural, safe and biodegradable compounds as novel alternative materials are suitable for prolongation of carnation vase-life.

  7. Cold shock treatment extends shelf life of naturally ripened or ethylene-ripened avocado fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiao; Liu, Xixia; Li, Fenfang; Li, Yixing; Yuan, Debao

    2017-01-01

    Avocado is an important tropical fruit with high commercial value, but has a relatively short storage life. In this study, the effects of cold shock treatment (CST) on shelf life of naturally ripened and ethylene-ripened avocado fruits were investigated. Fruits were immersed in ice water for 30 min, then subjected to natural or ethylene-induced ripening. Fruit color; firmness; respiration rate; ethylene production; and the activities of polygalacturonase (PG), pectin methylesterase (PME), and endo-β-1,4-glucanase were measured. Immersion in ice water for 30 min effectively delayed ripening-associated processes, including peel discoloration, pulp softening, respiration rate, and ethylene production during shelf life. The delay in fruit softening by CST was associated with decreased PG and endo-β-1,4-glucanase activities, but not PME activity. This method could potentially be a useful postharvest technology to extend shelf life of avocado fruits.

  8. Social security wealth and aggregate consumption : An extended life-cycle model estimated for The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    In this paper a method is developed to calculate a wealth variable accounting for the existence of the basic old-age provisions in The Netherlands (AOW). In line with Feldstein's extended life-cycle model, consumption functions with (gross) social security wealth are estimated for The Netherlands

  9. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO 2 emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO 2 emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  10. Life extension of nuclear power plants. World situation and the USA case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Pablo T.; Cuesta, Loreto; Serra, Eduardo; Yaguee, Luis [Endesa. C/ Ribera del Loira, No.60, 28042 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    Life extension of Nuclear Power Plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO{sub 2} emissions, the security of supply, the costs and predictability of renewable energy, etc., are putting nuclear energy in the agenda of many countries all around the world. The delay, due to the economic crisis, of the new nuclear projects in many countries, push governments to continue operation of nuclear plants above the 40 years design life. This is the case in the USA, where 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently have 19 units are in the reviewing process. The life extension of these plants permits savings in CO{sub 2} emissions and in the consumption of additional amounts of fossil fuels. In this paper, the position of the different nuclear countries about the Extension of Life will be reviewed, with a special emphasis on the situation in the USA. In this last case, the NRC approach for operation licenses above 40 years will be explained, and actions taken by nuclear companies in the country will be reviewed. In this country, the debate about life extension over 40 years has been surpassed, and the new technical discussion focuses on the operation of nuclear power plants above 60 years. (authors)

  11. Strategies and policies for nuclear power plant life management. Proceedings of the IAEA specialists meeting. Working document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the Specialists Meeting organized by the IAEA was to provide an international forum for discussing of recent results in national and utility experience in development of nuclear power plant life management programmes and their technical, regulatory and economic assessments. Plant life management requires detailed knowledge of ageing degradation of the components and the results of mitigation technologies. The basic conclusion includes the need of Guide on NPP Life management which should encompass: plant safety; plant availability; plant operating life extension; human resources policy; research and development needs

  12. Deleting the 14-3-3 protein Bmh1 extends life span in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by increasing stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Skinner, Craig; Easlon, Erin; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-12-01

    Enhanced stress response has been suggested to promote longevity in many species. Calorie restriction (CR) and conserved nutrient-sensing target of rapamycin (TOR) and protein kinase A (PKA) pathways have also been suggested to extend life span by increasing stress response, which protects cells from age-dependent accumulation of oxidative damages. Here we show that deleting the yeast 14-3-3 protein, Bmh1, extends chronological life span (CLS) by activating the stress response. 14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved chaperone-like proteins that play important roles in many cellular processes. bmh1Delta-induced heat resistance and CLS extension require the general stress-response transcription factors Msn2, Msn4, and Rim15. The bmh1Delta mutant also displays a decreased reactive oxygen species level and increased heat-shock-element-driven transcription activity. We also show that BMH1 genetically interacts with CR and conserved nutrient-sensing TOR- and PKA-signaling pathways to regulate life span. Interestingly, the level of phosphorylated Ser238 on Bmh1 increases during chronological aging, which is delayed by CR or by reduced TOR activities. In addition, we demonstrate that PKA can directly phosphorylate Ser238 on Bmh1. The status of Bmh1 phosphorylation is therefore likely to play important roles in life-span regulation. Together, our studies suggest that phosphorylated Bmh1 may cause inhibitory effects on downstream longevity factors, including stress-response proteins. Deleting Bmh1 may eliminate the inhibitory effects of Bmh1 on these longevity factors and therefore extends life span.

  13. Reliability Centered Maintenance as a tool for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.O.; Mulay, J.N.; Nakahara, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Currently in the nuclear industry there is a growing interest in lowering the cost and complexity of maintenance activities while at the same time improving plant reliability and safety in an effort to prepare for the technical and regulatory challenges of life extension. This seemingly difficult task is being aided by the introduction of a maintenance philosophy developed originally by the airline industry and subsequently applied with great success both in that industry and the U.S. military services. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM), in its basic form, may be described as a consideration of reliability and maintenance problems from a systems level approach, allowing a focus on preservation of system function as the aim of a maintenance program optimized for both safety and economics. It is this systematic view of plant maintenance, with the emphasis on overall functions rather than individual parts and components which sets RCM apart from past nuclear plant maintenance philosophies. It is also the factor which makes application of RCM an ideal first step in development of strategies for life extension, both for aging plants, and for plants just beginning their first license term. (J.P.N.)

  14. Modular Extended-Stay HyperGravity Facility Design Concept: An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    This document defines the design concept for a ground-based, extended-stay hypergravity facility as a precursor for space-based artificial-gravity facilities that extend the permanent presence of both human and non-human life beyond Earth in artificial-gravity settlements. Since the Earth's current human population is stressing the environment and the resources off-Earth are relatively unlimited, by as soon as 2040 more than one thousand people could be living in Earthorbiting artificial-gravity habitats. Eventually, the majority of humanity may live in artificialgravity habitats throughout this solar system as well as others, but little is known about the longterm (multi-generational) effects of artificial-gravity habitats on people, animals, and plants. In order to extend life permanently beyond Earth, it would be useful to create an orbiting space facility that generates 1g as well as other gravity levels to rigorously address the numerous challenges of such an endeavor. Before doing so, developing a ground-based artificial-gravity facility is a reasonable next step. Just as the International Space Station is a microgravity research facility, at a small fraction of the cost and risk a ground-based artificial-gravity facility can begin to address a wide-variety of the artificial-gravity life-science questions and engineering challenges requiring long-term research to enable people, animals, and plants to live off-Earth indefinitely.

  15. Japanese plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitsugu, M.

    1988-01-01

    As one of the main items of up-grading light water reactor program in Japan, plant life extension has been recommended by Advisory Committee of Ministry of International trade and Industry and the practical work has begun to be carried out. It is overviewed here. After preliminary works, including investigation on the state of the arts through a entrusted survey work, participation in international meetings and exchange of informations with related organizations, actual work has just started. So-called critical components based on our experience during the past 17 years have been listed up and some experimental works inaugurated as from 1987

  16. Life prediction study of reactor pressure vessel as essential technical foundation for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H.; Nakajima, N.; Kondo, T.

    1987-01-01

    The life of a LWR plant is determined essentially by the limit of reliable performance of the components which are difficult to replace without high economic and/or safety risks. Typical of such a component is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The engineering life of a RPV of a given quality of steel is considered to be a complex function of factors such as the resistance to fracture, which has deteriorated due to neutron irradiation and thermal aging, and generation of surface flaws by environmental effects such as corrosion and their growth under operational load that varies during steady state operation and transients. In an attempt to evaluate the engineering life of a RPV of a LWR, a preliminary survey was made by applying a set of knowledge accumulated primarily in the field of subcritical crack growth behavior of RPV steels in reactor water environments. The major conclusions drawn are: (1) the life of a RPV is dependent on the quality of steel used, particularly with respect to any minor impurities it contains. (2) The issue of plant life extension in RPV aspect is found to be optimistic for cases where the steels used satisfy a reasonable level of quality control. (3) The importance of providing sound scientific foundation is stressed for the implementation of a practicable life extension scheme: this can be established through intensified studies of flaw growth and fracture behaviours in well defined testings under reasonably simulated service conditions

  17. Use of irradiation in combination with preservation techniques to extend the shelf-life of tropical fruits and their products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Ilangantileke, S.G.; Upadhyay, I.P.; Karki, D.B.; Apintanapong, M.

    1998-01-01

    Gamma irradiation in combination with other treatment processes was investigated with a view to extending the shelf-life of some tropical fruits in fresh and processed conditions. A low dose of irradiation (0.6 kGy) combined with hot water treatment (at 55 deg. C for 20 min) extended the shelf-life of fresh mangoes from 15 to 32 days at 20 deg. C storage. The shelf-life of fresh lychees was extended to 16 days by irradiation (1 kGy) and storage at 5 deg. C through reducing the rotting and preserving the fruit colour. A shelf-life of up to 30 days was obtained by a combination of hot benomyl dipping of the lychess (at 55 deg. C for 2 min) and polyethylene packaging, whereas modified atmosphere storage in CO 2 did not control pericarp browning. Irradiation as a means of preservation was investigated in processed fruits such as semi-dried mangoes and longans, and mango puree. A minimum dose of 2 kGy extended the shelf-life of the semi-dried mangoes and longans for up to 75 days when stored at 14 deg. C, without mould growth, whereas these fruits deteriorated at 30 deg. C storage, as indicated by discoloration and a deterioration in the flavour. On the other hand, doses of up to 4 kGy and storage at a low temperature (5 deg. C) were necessary to maintain microorganism growth (as determined by the aerobic plate count) at the lowest level; no microorganisms were observed at 6 kGy and higher. The chemical attributes of the puree tended to remain unaffected by the irradiation treatment but were more sensitive to the storage duration and conditions. The puree was preserved for as long as 60 days at 5 deg. C, without compromising the keeping quality. (author)

  18. Extension of life of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hideaki

    1991-01-01

    At the time of designing nuclear power stations, as their service life, generally 40 years are taken, and the basic design specifications of machinery and equipment are determined. In USA where atomic energy has been developed, the new construction of nuclear power stations is cased for a while, however, if this situation continues as it is, since old power stations reach the service life of 40 years and are retired in near future, it is feared that the circumstance of the total amount of power generation becoming short will occur. As one of the countermeasures to this, the research on the extension of life of nuclear power stations has been carried out in many fields in USA, and it is expected that the application for extending the life for the power stations constructed in the initial period of development is submitted in 1991. The researches that have been carried out for solving the technical problems in this extension of life and the situation in Japan are reported. The NEC of USA decided that the operation period of nuclear power stations in USA, which is considered to be 40 years so far, can be extended up to the limit of 20 years. The background and circumstances of this problem in USA, Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, Plant Life Extension Program and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  19. Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment Using Near-Field Human Exposure Modeling and High-Throughput Tools for Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include n...

  20. Life extension of low and medium voltage equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharteey, B.M.; Hart, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension is becoming a very important issue with the passing of each day. Within 3 to 10 years after the turn of the century, licenses of a number of nuclear power plants in the United States will expire. For the near future, new construction of nuclear power plants in the United States is expected to be inhibited, if the current economic and regulatory environment continues to persist. This situation, coupled with aging of utility equipment and the high cost of financing new construction is resulting in a growing emphasis on preserving and extending the capability of existing power plants. Until now, the utilities have placed more emphasis on high cost items, but experience shows that extending life of low cost of device/components in items like Motor Control Center Centers and switchgear pays big dividends. According to the current practice, devices of these items are replaced at the end of their assigned qualified life or attended to when there is a problem resulting in an unplanned outage. In this paper based on extensive experience in the field of motor control centers and medium switchgear, the authors proposed a cookbook methodology to determine the extent or absence of degradation and establish trends of the pertinent operational properties of devices of this type of equipment. The test results also provide satisfactory evidence of class 1E nuclear safety-related function

  1. Effect of Mentha pulegium extract and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate to extend the quality and vase life of rose (Rosa hybrid) cut flower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemabadi, Davood; Torkashvand, Ali Mohammadi; Kaviani, Behzad; Bagherzadeh, Maryam; Rezaalipour, Mohaddeseh; Zarchini, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Rose is an ornamental plant which contains one of the world's top cut flowers. Vase life of cut rose flower is short. Extracts of Mentha pulegium and 8-hydroxy quinoline sulphate (8-HQS) were used as two preservative solutions, aiming to extend the vase life of cut rose (Rosa hybrid L.) flowers. Rose flowers were treated with a vase solution containing the extract of M. pulegium, at concentrations of 0, 10, 20 and 30%, in combination with 8-HQS at concentrations of 0, 200, 400 and 600 mg l(-1). Longevity of cut roses flowers was determined on the basis of wilting and chlorophyll retention. Cut roses flowers were kept at room temperature (20 ± 2 degrees C) under normal day light and natural ventilation. The vase life of cut flowers studied was prolonged by all 8-HQS and extract treatments. The best concentration of 8-HQS and extractwere 400 mg l(-1) and 10%, respectively. Our results indicated that the flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had longer vase life, higher rate of solution uptake and lower SPAD value (total chlorophyll) compared to the control. Also, cut flowers treated with the extract and 8-HQS had least bacterial colonies. The greatest longevity of vase life by 11.20 and 10.25 days was related to 400 mg I(-1) 8-HQS and 10% of extract, respectively. These treatments improved cut vase life more than the control treatment. The maximum solution uptake (1.85 ml g(-1) f.wt.) and minimum SPAD value (2.19) were calculated in 30% extract along with 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, and 200 mg l(-1) 8-HQS, respectively. The lowest number of bacterial colonies (55.75) was obtained in treatment of 600 mg l(-1) 8-HQS. Flower quality of specimens treated with extract and 8-HQS was better than those of the control. The experiments were repeated three times with three replicates and a completely randomized design had been used. The present study concludes that it would be possible to use preservative solutions containing extract of M. pulegium L. and 8-HQS to extend vase

  2. Ageing and plant life management software Comsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, W. [Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH (SNP), Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cost-effective power generation is becoming more important as the prices charged by power producers in the energy market continue to fall. To ease the cost situation there is a growing demand for innovative maintenance management methods which allow power plants to be economically operated over their entire lifetime. The purpose of a systematic ageing and plant life management program is to allow the lifetime of plant components to be planned, and to indicate when a component has reached the end of its effective lifetime before it fails. Another important function of such programs is to increase the availability of power plants as they age, and to enable implementation of a targeted maintenance strategy in terms of its economic and technical effect. Implementation of such programs requires the existence of detailed information concerning the status of the components as well as their operating conditions. Based on this information, an understanding of how the relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms work enables a prediction to be made concerning component lifetime. Advanced software programs provide such predictions at reasonable cost across all systems. (author)

  3. Ageing and plant life management software Comsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nopper, H.; Daeuwel, W.; Kastner, W.

    2001-01-01

    Cost-effective power generation is becoming more important as the prices charged by power producers in the energy market continue to fall. To ease the cost situation there is a growing demand for innovative maintenance management methods which allow power plants to be economically operated over their entire lifetime. The purpose of a systematic ageing and plant life management program is to allow the lifetime of plant components to be planned, and to indicate when a component has reached the end of its effective lifetime before it fails. Another important function of such programs is to increase the availability of power plants as they age, and to enable implementation of a targeted maintenance strategy in terms of its economic and technical effect. Implementation of such programs requires the existence of detailed information concerning the status of the components as well as their operating conditions. Based on this information, an understanding of how the relevant ageing and degradation mechanisms work enables a prediction to be made concerning component lifetime. Advanced software programs provide such predictions at reasonable cost across all systems. (author)

  4. Solid-state lighting life prediction using extended Kalman filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lall, Pradeep [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Wei, Junchao [Auburn Univ., AL (United States); Davis, Lynn [RTI International, Durham, NC (United States)

    2013-07-16

    Solid-state lighting (SSL) luminaires containing light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the potential of seeing excessive temperatures when being transported across country or being stored in non-climate controlled warehouses. They are also being used in outdoor applications in desert environments that see little or no humidity but will experience extremely high temperatures during the day. This makes it important to increase our understanding of what effects high temperature exposure for a prolonged period of time will have on the usability and survivability of these devices. The U.S. Department of Energy has made a long term commitment to advance the efficiency, understanding and development of solid-state lighting (SSL) and is making a strong push for the acceptance and use of SSL products to reduce overall energy consumption attributable to lighting. Traditional light sources “burn out” at end-of-life. For an incandescent bulb, the lamp life is defined by B50 life. However, the LEDs have no filament to “burn”. The LEDs continually degrade and the light output decreases eventually below useful levels causing failure. Presently, the TM-21 test standard is used to predict the L70 life of SSL Luminaires from LM-80 test data. The TM-21 model uses an Arrhenius Equation with an Activation Energy, Pre-decay factor and Decay Rates. Several failure mechanisms may be active in a luminaire at a single time causing lumen depreciation. The underlying TM-21 Arrhenius Model may not capture the failure physics in presence of multiple failure mechanisms. Correlation of lumen maintenance with underlying physics of degradation at system-level is needed. In this paper, a Kalman Filter and Extended Kalman Filters have been used to develop a 70% Lumen Maintenance Life Prediction Model for a LEDs used in SSL luminaires. This model can be used to calculate acceleration factors, evaluate failure-probability and identify ALT methodologies for reducing test time. Ten-thousand hour LM

  5. Life cycle evaluation of an intercooled gas turbine plant used in conjunction with renewable energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thank-God Isaiah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The life cycle estimation of power plants is important for gas turbine operators. With the introduction of wind energy into the grid, gas turbine operators now operate their plants in Load–Following modes as back-ups to the renewable energy sources which include wind, solar, etc. The motive behind this study is to look at how much life is consumed when an intercooled power plant with 100 MW power output is used in conjunction with wind energy. This operation causes fluctuations because the wind energy is unpredictable and overtime causes adverse effects on the life of the plant – The High Pressure Turbine Blades. Such fluctuations give rise to low cycle fatigue and creep failure of the blades depending on the operating regime used. A performance based model that is capable of estimating the life consumed of an intercooled power plant has been developed. The model has the capability of estimating the life consumed based on seasonal power demands and operations. An in-depth comparison was undertaken on the life consumed during the seasons of operation and arrives at the conclusion that during summer, the creep and low cycle life is consumed higher than the rest periods. A comparison was also made to determine the life consumed between Load–Following and stop/start operating scenarios. It was also observed that daily creep life consumption in summer was higher than the winter period in-spite of having lower average daily operating hours in a Start–Stop operating scenario.

  6. Strategies to Extend Bread and GF Bread Shelf-Life: From Sourdough to Antimicrobial Active Packaging and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Melini; Francesca Melini

    2018-01-01

    Bread is a staple food worldwide. It commonly undergoes physico-chemical and microbiological changes which impair its quality and shelf-life. Staling determines organoleptic impairment, whereas microbiological spoilage causes visible mould growth and invisible production of mycotoxins. To tackle this economic and safety issue, the bakery industry has been working to identify treatments which allow bread safety and extended shelf-life. Physical methods and chemical preservatives have long been...

  7. A methodology for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushawaha, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most important aging effects of nuclear power plant components. Information about accumulation of fatigue helps in assessing structural degradation of the components. This assists in-service inspection and maintenance and may also support future life extension program of a plant. In the present report a methodology is being proposed for monitoring on line fatigue life of nuclear power plant components using available plant instrumentations. Major factors affecting fatigue life of a nuclear power plant components are the fluctuations of temperature, pressure and flow rate. Green's function technique is used in on line fatigue monitoring as computation time is much less than finite element method. A code has been developed which computes temperature and stress Green's functions in 2-D and axisymmetric structure by finite element method due to unit change in various fluid parameters. A post processor has also been developed which computes the temperature and stress responses using corresponding Green's functions and actual fluctuation in fluid parameters. In this post processor, the multiple site problem is solved by superimposing single site Green's function technique. It is also shown that Green's function technique is best suited for on line fatigue life monitoring of nuclear power plant components. (author). 6 refs., 43 figs

  8. Serviceability modeling : predicting and extending the useful service life of FRT-plywood roof sheathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrold E. Winandy

    2000-01-01

    One of the most, if not the most, efficient methods of extending our existing forest resource is to prolong the service life of wood currently in-service by using those existing structures to meet our future needs (Hamilton and Winandy 1998). It is currently estimated that over 7 x 109 m3 (3 trillion bd. ft) of wood is currently in service within the United States of...

  9. PSAD-a monitoring and aid to diagnosis system participating in saving on maintenance and operation costs and for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasseur, S.; Morel, J.; Joussellin, A.

    1997-01-01

    Monitoring nuclear plants components enable to save on operation and maintenance costs by reducing incidents gravity and casual plant stoppages thank to early detection and fast diagnosis. Improving the knowledge of the behaviour of the plant will also allow to optimize maintenance and to increase plant life. In order to improve monitoring and diagnosis capabilities in nuclear power plants. Electricite de France (EDF) is extending the existing data processing chains towards automatic aided interpretation and diagnosis. Therefore, EDF has designed an integrated monitoring and diagnosis assistance system: PSAD-Poste de Surveillance et d'Aide au Diagnostic, including several monitoring functions of the main components. It integrates on-line monitoring, off-line diagnosis and knowledge based systems. PSAD stations provide homogeneous aids to diagnosis which enable plant personnel to pinpoint the mechanical behaviour of plant equipment. The objective of PSAD is to provide them with high-efficiency and user-friendly tools which can considerabily free them from routine tasks. The first version of the prototype is working on a French Plant. This version includes the software host structure and two monitoring functions: the Reactor Coolant Pumps and the Turbo-generator Monitoring functions. Internal Structures Monitoring function and Loose Parts Detection are still under development and should be integrated into PSAD prototype in 1998

  10. Bridging Redox Species-Coated Graphene Oxide Sheets to Electrode for Extending Battery Life Using Nanocomposite Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi Fu; Ruan, Wen Hong; Lin, Dong Ling; Zhang, Ming Qiu

    2017-01-11

    Substituting conventional electrolyte for redox electrolyte has provided a new intriguing method for extending battery life. The efficiency of utilizing the contained redox species (RS) in the redox electrolyte can benefit from increasing the specific surface area of battery electrodes from the electrode side of the electrode-electrolyte interface, but is not limited to that. Herein, a new strategy using nanocomposite electrolyte is proposed to enlarge the interface with the aid of nanoinclusions from the electrolyte side. To do this, graphene oxide (GO) sheets are first dispersed in the electrolyte solution of tungstosilicic salt/lithium sulfate/poly(vinyl alcohol) (SiWLi/Li 2 SO 4 /PVA), and then the sheets are bridged to electrode, after casting and evaporating the solution on the electrode surface. By applying in situ conductive atomic force microscopy and Raman spectra, it is confirmed that the GO sheets doped with RS of SiWLi/Li 2 SO 4 can be bridged and electrically reduced as an extended electrode-electrolyte interface. As a result, the RS-coated GO sheets bridged to LiTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 //LiMn 2 O 4 battery electrodes are found to deliver extra energy capacity (∼30 mAh/g) with excellent electrochemical cycling stability, which successfully extends the battery life by over 50%.

  11. A Reliability-Based Determination of Economic Life of Marine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atua, K.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability-based life approach is utilized. Selective failure modes of marine power plants are used for illustration. A case study of the Egyptian Commercial Fleet owned by the Public Sector Company was analyzed and used to establish a demonstration of the expected economic life based on local operating and maintenance conditions. The data acquired is analyzed and failure trend is derived for each failure mode. Probabilistic techniques are used to randomly generate numbers and times of occurrence of different failure modes. The reliability analysis is performed on the life span expected by the manufacture to predict the total number of failures, dependent failures, and cost of failures. Total expenditure due to random failure and cost of scheduled maintenance together with the annual income are utilized (using the time value of money) to determine the economic life of the plant. Conclusions are derived and recommendations for the enhancement of this work in the future are made

  12. Analysis of environmental impact phase in the life cycle of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez del M, C.

    2015-01-01

    The life-cycle analysis covers the environmental aspects of a product throughout its life cycle. The focus of this study was to apply a methodology of life-cycle analysis for the environmental impact assessment of a nuclear power plant by analyzing international standards ISO 14040 and 14044. The methodology of life-cycle analysis established by the ISO 14044 standard was analyzed, as well as the different impact assessment methodologies of life cycle in order to choose the most appropriate for a nuclear power plant; various tools for the life-cycle analysis were also evaluated, as is the use of software and the use of databases to feed the life cycle inventory. The functional unit chosen was 1 KWh of electricity, the scope of analysis ranging from the construction and maintenance, disposal of spent fuel to the decommissioning of the plant, the manufacturing steps of the fuel were excluded because in Mexico is not done this stage. For environmental impact assessment was chosen the Recipe methodology which evaluates up to 18 impact categories depending on the project. In the case of a nuclear power plant were considered only categories of depletion of the ozone layer, climate change, ionizing radiation and formation of particulate matter. The different tools for life-cycle analysis as the methodologies of impact assessment of life cycle, different databases or use of software have been taken according to the modeling of environmental sensitivities of different regions, because in Mexico the methodology for life-cycle analysis has not been studied and still do not have all the tools necessary for the evaluation, so the uncertainty of the data supplied and results could be higher. (Author)

  13. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Wu, Xiao; Ouyang, Liming; Zhang, Yian Biao; Stadler, Andrea; McCorkle, Sean; Zhu, Wei; Maslov, Sergei; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis) and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  14. Transcriptional responses to sucrose mimic the plant-associated life style of the plant growth promoting endophyte Enterobacter sp. 638.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiyh Taghavi

    Full Text Available Growth in sucrose medium was previously found to trigger the expression of functions involved in the plant associated life style of the endophytic bacterium Enterobacter sp. 638. Therefore, comparative transcriptome analysis between cultures grown in sucrose or lactate medium was used to gain insights in the expression levels of bacterial functions involved in the endophytic life style of strain 638. Growth on sucrose as a carbon source resulted in major changes in cell physiology, including a shift from a planktonic life style to the formation of bacterial aggregates. This shift was accompanied by a decrease in transcription of genes involved in motility (e.g., flagella biosynthesis and an increase in the transcription of genes involved in colonization, adhesion and biofilm formation. The transcription levels of functions previously suggested as being involved in endophytic behavior and functions responsible for plant growth promoting properties, including the synthesis of indole-acetic acid, acetoin and 2,3-butanediol, also increased significantly for cultures grown in sucrose medium. Interestingly, despite an abundance of essential nutrients transcription levels of functions related to uptake and processing of nitrogen and iron became increased for cultures grown on sucrose as sole carbon source. Transcriptome data were also used to analyze putative regulatory relationships. In addition to the small RNA csrABCD regulon, which seems to play a role in the physiological adaptation and possibly the shift between free-living and plant-associated endophytic life style of Enterobacter sp. 638, our results also pointed to the involvement of rcsAB in controlling responses by Enterobacter sp. 638 to a plant-associated life style. Targeted mutagenesis was used to confirm this role and showed that compared to wild-type Enterobacter sp. 638 a ΔrcsB mutant was affected in its plant growth promoting ability.

  15. Competences and life management programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunatti, S.; Bergara, A.; Ranalli, J.; Versaci, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry is, at present, at a crucial juncture, where it has to decide about the future of the first generation of nuclear plants, which are approaching the end of their licensed service life. At the same time, long term experience and new advances have established that it is possible to extend the life of nuclear plants beyond their initially licensed life by another 20-30 years. Extending the operating life of existing nuclear plants will help to reduce the short term need for new generating capacity - without new capital costs. However, these extensions must take place in the context of careful safety analysis and monitoring of equipment ageing concerns. A nuclear power plant must be managed in a safe and efficient manner throughout all the life cycle stages from design through decommissioning. The consequences of management decisions about nuclear power plants can have profound economic impacts for the nuclear power plant owner, and possibly for the national economy. In addition, the consequence of a major failure or accident can have catastrophic national socio-economic effects that may be felt internationally. The safe and effective management of a nuclear power plant therefore requires dramatically different perspectives in time from the majority of other industries. The impact of some decisions extends beyond the normal strategic perspective of both owners and governments. The integration of activities for ageing management, safety management and business management of a nuclear power plant are an essential element of 'life cycle management'. The loss of information at any stage of a nuclear power plants life deprives people, at later stages, of knowledge that could be important to safe, economic completion of work or which could aid the analysis of problems and options. It is costly to go through the learning process again, with a risk of potential events or incidents, programme delays, physical injury and increased regulatory

  16. Gas fired combined cycle plant in Singapore: energy use, GWP and cost-a life cycle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Leong, K.C.; Osman, Ramli; Ho, H.K.; Tso, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    A life cycle assessment was performed to quantify the non-renewable (fossil) energy use and global warming potential (GWP) in electricity generation from a typical gas fired combined cycle power plant in Singapore. The cost of electricity generation was estimated using a life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) tool. The life cycle assessment (LCA) of a 367.5 MW gas fired combined cycle power plant operating in Singapore revealed that hidden processes consume about 8% additional energy in addition to the fuel embedded energy, and the hidden GWP is about 18%. The natural gas consumed during the operational phase accounted for 82% of the life cycle cost of electricity generation. An empirical relation between plant efficiency and life cycle energy use and GWP in addition to a scenario for electricity cost with varying gas prices and plant efficiency have been established

  17. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL) Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeth, Hilton

    2017-11-20

    Extended shelf-life (ESL) or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT) sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B * (inactivation of thermophilic spores), of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

  18. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Deeth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extended shelf-life (ESL or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B* (inactivation of thermophilic spores, of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

  19. CANDU steam generator life management: laboratory data and plant experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tapping, R.L.; Nickerson, J.H.; Subash, N.; Wright, M.D.

    2001-10-01

    As CANDU reactors enter middle age, and the potential value of the plants in a deregulated market is realized, life management and life extension issues become increasingly important. An accurate assessment of critical components, such as the CANDU 6 steam generators (SGs), is crucial for successful life extension, and in this context, material issues are a key factor. For example, service experience with Alloy 900 tubing indicates very low levels of degradation within CANDU SGs; the same is also noted worldwide. With little field data for extrapolation, life management and life extension decisions for the tube bundles rely heavily on laboratory data. Similarly, other components of the SGs, in particular the secondary side internals, have only limited inspection data upon which to base a condition assessment. However, in this case there are also relatively little laboratory data. Decisions on life management and life extension are further complicated--not only is inspection access often restricted, but repair or replacement options for internal components are, by definition, also limited. The application of CANDU SG life management and life extension requires a judicious blend of in-service data, laboratory research and development (R and D) and materials and engineering judgment. For instance, the available laboratory corrosion and fretting wear data for Alloy 800 SG tubing have been compared with plant experience (with all types of tubing), and with crevice chemistry simulations, in order to provide an appropriate inspection guide for a 50-year SG life. A similar approach has been taken with other SG components, where the emphasis has been on known degradation mechanisms worldwide. This paper provides an outline of the CANDU SG life management program, including the results to date, a summary of the supporting R and D program showing the integration with condition assessment and life management activities, and the approach taken to life extension for a typical

  20. SNEV overexpression extends the life span of human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voglauer, Regina; Chang, Martina Wei-Fen; Dampier, Brigitta; Wieser, Matthias; Baumann, Kristin; Sterovsky, Thomas; Schreiber, Martin; Katinger, Hermann; Grillari, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    In a recent screening for genes downregulated in replicatively senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we have isolated the novel protein SNEV. Since then SNEV has proven as a multifaceted protein playing a role in pre-mRNA splicing, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin/proteosome system. Here, we report that SNEV mRNA decreases in various cell types during replicative senescence, and that it is increased in various immortalized cell lines, as well as in breast tumors, where SNEV transcript levels also correlate with the survival of breast cancer patients. Since these mRNA profiles suggested a role of SNEV in the regulation of cell proliferation, the effect of its overexpression was tested. Thereby, a significant extension of the cellular life span was observed, which was not caused by altered telomerase activity or telomere dynamics but rather by enhanced stress resistance. When SNEV overexpressing cells were treated with bleomycin or bleomycin combined with BSO, inducing DNA damage as well as reactive oxygen species, a significantly lower fraction of apoptotic cells was found in comparison to vector control cells. These data suggest that high levels of SNEV might extend the cellular life span by increasing the resistance to stress or by improving the DNA repair capacity of the cells

  1. CANDU plant life management - An integrated approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    An integrated approach to plant life management has been developed for CANDU reactors. Strategies, methods, and procedures have been developed for assessment of critical systems structures and components and for implementing a reliability centred maintenance program. A Technology Watch program is being implemented to eliminate 'surprises'. Specific work has been identified for 1998. AECL is working on the integrated program with CANDU owners and seeks participation from other CANDU owners

  2. Life Cycle Assessment to Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J. s.; Herrera, I.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The evaluation was done at a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP), through the application of the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) performed by using a commercial tool called SIMAPRO. The objective of this study was to apply Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) in two systems: municipal wastewater effluent without treatment and Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that is operating in poor condition and has a direct discharge to a natural body, which is a threat to the environment. A LCA was done using SIMAPRO 7, in order to determine the environmental impact in each scenery was assessed, a comparison of the impacts and propose improvements to decrease, following the steps this methodology and according to the respective standardized normative (ISO 14040/ ISO 14044). In this study, most of used data have been reported by the plant from early 2010 and some data from literature. We identified the environmental impacts generated by the treatment, making emphasis on those related to the subsequent use of the water body receiving the discharge, such as eutrophication (near to 15% reduction). Likewise, a comparative analysis between the impacts in the two systems, with and without treatment by analyzing the variation in the impact categories studied. Finally within this work, alternatives of improvements, in order to reduce the identified and quantified impacts are proposed. (Author) 33 refs.

  3. Trend in foreign countries of life extension for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusanagi, Hideo

    1992-01-01

    When the nuclear power generation in the world is converted to oil burning thermal power generation, the required quantity of oil is twice as much as the oil production in Saudi Arabia. This represents the size of the role that nuclear power generation plays. More than 30 years have already elapsed since the start of nuclear power generation, and the number of nuclear power plants in operation in the world was 426 as of the end of 1990, and their capacity of about 344 million kW is about 17% of the total generated electric power in the world. Though circumstances are different in respective countries, the construction of new nuclear power plants is not always advancing smoothly, and the possibility of operating existing nuclear power plants as long as possible has been investigated. In USA, the approved term of operation of nuclear power plants is 40 years, and the trend of the research and development of the plant life extension is described. In France, the life of nuclear power plants is not stipulated by the law. In U.K., also it is not stipulated by the law. The trend in these countries is reported. IAEA also has carried out the activities on this problem. (K.I.)

  4. Are life-extending treatments for terminal illnesses a special case? Exploring choices and societal viewpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Neil; van Exel, Job; Mason, Helen; Godwin, Jon; Collins, Marissa; Donaldson, Cam; Baker, Rachel

    2018-02-01

    Criteria used by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) to assess life-extending, end-of-life (EoL) treatments imply that health gains from such treatments are valued more than other health gains. Despite claims that the policy is supported by societal values, evidence from preference elicitation studies is mixed and in-depth research has shown there are different societal viewpoints. Few studies elicit preferences for policies directly or combine different approaches to understand preferences. Survey questions were designed to investigate support for NICE EoL guidance at national and regional levels. These 'Decision Rule' and 'Treatment Choice' questions were administered to an online sample of 1496 UK respondents in May 2014. The same respondents answered questions designed to elicit their agreement with three viewpoints (previously identified and described) in relation to provision of EoL treatments for terminally ill patients. We report the findings of these choice questions and examine how they relate to each other and respondents' viewpoints. The Decision Rule questions described three policies: DA - a standard 'value for money' test, applied to all health technologies; DB - giving special consideration to all treatments for terminal illnesses; and DC - giving special consideration to specific categories of treatments for terminal illnesses e.g. life extension (as in NICE EoL guidance) or those that improve quality-of-life (QoL). Three Treatment Choices were presented: TA - improving QoL for patients with a non-terminal illness; TB - extending life for EoL patients; and TC - improving QoL at the EoL. DC received most support (45%) with most respondents giving special consideration to EoL only when treatments improved QoL. The most commonly preferred treatment choices were TA (51%) and TC (43%). Overall, this study challenges claims about public support for NICE's EoL guidance and the focus on life extension at EoL and substantiates

  5. Extending the economic life of the Ogallala Aquifer with water conservation policies in the Texas panhandle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The continued decline in the availability of water from the Ogallala Aquifer in the Texas Panhandle has led to an increased interest in conservation policies designed to extend the life of the aquifer and sustain rural economies. Four counties were chosen for evaluation. This study evaluates the eff...

  6. Metabotypes with properly functioning mitochondria and anti-inflammation predict extended productive life span in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, K.; Dänicke, S.; Rehage, J.; Sauerwein, H.; Otto, W.; Rolle-Kampczyk, U.; von Bergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The failure to adapt metabolism to the homeorhetic demands of lactation is considered as a main factor in reducing the productive life span of dairy cows. The so far defined markers of production performance and metabolic health in dairy cows do not predict the length of productive life span satisfyingly. This study aimed to identify novel pathways and biomarkers related to productive life in dairy cows by means of (targeted) metabolomics. In a longitudinal study from 42 days before up to 100 days after parturition, we identified metabolites such as long-chain acylcarnitines and biogenic amines associated with extended productive life spans. These metabolites are mainly secreted by the liver and depend on the functionality of hepatic mitochondria. The concentrations of biogenic amines and some acylcarnitines differed already before the onset of lactation thus indicating their predictive potential for continuation or early ending of productive life. PMID:27089826

  7. Closing the loops between plant design and operator-An automatic logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tally, C.

    1985-01-01

    The close relationship between plant owner and NSSS designer frequently ceases after the plant is through startup testing. Thus, there is no continuous feedback between the operations staff and the designer. As a result, there is no assurance that the plant is being operated within the design envelope defined by the NSSS component stress reports. The link between plant operation and the plant design basis is vital to ensure that the plant can be safely operated for its full licensed life. This link is also a key to extending the life of the plant since the fatigue history of critical components is an important element of any justification for extended component life. An allowable Operating Transient Cycles Program established by Duke Power and Babcock and Wilcox successfully closed the operator-designer loop at the Oconee Nuclear Station. This paper describes that program, some of its conclusions, and also describes the next logical step in its development...automation of the transient logging process. A transient monitoring program must satisfy many requirements ranging from sensing the onset of a transient or slow power maneuver to recording sufficient data to provide for human checking of all computerized conclusions and results. Although not yet available to the industry, this type of program will ultimately be a virtual necessity for all nuclear stations

  8. A Feasibility Study of Life-Extending Controls for Aircraft Turbine Engines Using a Generic Air Force Model (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behbahani, Al; Jordan, Eric A; Millar, Richard

    2006-01-01

    ... the stress of the material used in their construction and thus a negative effect in their life spans. Therefore, the control strategy needs to be re-evaluated to include operating cost, and extending...

  9. Microbial biodiversity, quality and shelf life of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk from Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Verena S J; Kaufmann, Veronika; Kulozik, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2012-03-01

    Information on factors limiting the shelf life of extended shelf life (ESL) milk produced by microfiltration and subsequent pasteurization is very limited. In this study, three different batches of ESL milk were analyzed at different stages of the production process and during storage at 4 °C, 8 °C and 10 °C in order to evaluate the changes in bacterial cell counts, microbial diversity and enzymatic quality. Additionally, detailed biodiversity analyses of 250 retail ESL milk packages produced by five manufacturers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were performed at the end of shelf life. It was observed that microfiltration decreased the microbial loads by 5-6 log₁₀ units to lower than 1 CFU/mL. However, bacterial counts at the end of shelf life were extremely variable and ranged between ESL treatment, causing stochastic variations of initial species distributions in individual packages. This would result in the development of significantly different bacterial populations during cold storage, including the occasional development of high numbers of pathogenic species such as B. cereus or Acinetobacter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear plant life cycle costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durante, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Life cycle costs of nuclear power plants in the United States are discussed. The author argues that these costs have been mishandled or neglected. Decommissioning costs have escalated, e.g. from $328 per unit in 1991 to $370 in 1993 for the Sacramento Municipal Utility District, though they still only amount to less than 0.1 cent per kWh. Waste management has been complicated in the U.S. by the decision to abandon civilian reprocessing; by the year 2000, roughly 30 U.S. nuclear power units will have filled their storage pools; dry storage has been delayed, and will be an expense not originally envisaged. Some examples of costs of major component replacement are provided. No single component has caused as much operational disruption and financial penalties as the steam generator. Operation and maintenance costs have increased steadily, and now amount to more than 70% of production costs. A strategic plan by the Nuclear Power Oversight Committee (of U.S. utilities) will ensure that the ability to correctly operate and maintain a nuclear power plant is built into the original design. 6 figs

  11. Herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction shape the life history of an iteroparous plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Tom E X; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2008-02-01

    Plant reproduction yields immediate fitness benefits but can be costly in terms of survival, growth, and future fecundity. Life-history theory posits that reproductive strategies are shaped by trade-offs between current and future fitness that result from these direct costs of reproduction. Plant reproduction may also incur indirect ecological costs if it increases susceptibility to herbivores. Yet ecological costs of reproduction have received little empirical attention and remain poorly integrated into life-history theory. Here, we provide evidence for herbivore-mediated ecological costs of reproduction, and we develop theory to examine how these costs influence plant life-history strategies. Field experiments with an iteroparous cactus (Opuntia imbricata) indicated that greater reproductive effort (proportion of meristems allocated to reproduction) led to greater attack by a cactus-feeding insect (Narnia pallidicornis) and that damage by this herbivore reduced reproductive success. A dynamic programming model predicted strongly divergent optimal reproductive strategies when ecological costs were included, compared with when these costs were ignored. Meristem allocation by cacti in the field matched the optimal strategy expected under ecological costs of reproduction. The results indicate that plant reproductive allocation can strongly influence the intensity of interactions with herbivores and that associated ecological costs can play an important selective role in the evolution of plant life histories.

  12. Habitat Fragmentation Drives Plant Community Assembly Processes across Life Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang; Feeley, Kenneth J.; Yu, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is one of the principal causes of biodiversity loss and hence understanding its impacts on community assembly and disassembly is an important topic in ecology. We studied the relationships between fragmentation and community assembly processes in the land-bridge island system of Thousand Island Lake in East China. We focused on the changes in species diversity and phylogenetic diversity that occurred between life stages of woody plants growing on these islands. The observed diversities were compared with the expected diversities from random null models to characterize assembly processes. Regression tree analysis was used to illustrate the relationships between island attributes and community assembly processes. We found that different assembly processes predominate in the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition (SS) vs. the saplings-to-trees transition (ST). Island area was the main attribute driving the assembly process in SS. In ST, island isolation was more important. Within a fragmented landscape, the factors driving community assembly processes were found to differ between life stage transitions. Environmental filtering had a strong effect on the seedlings-to-saplings life-stage transition. Habitat isolation and dispersal limitation influenced all plant life stages, but had a weaker effect on communities than area. These findings add to our understanding of the processes driving community assembly and species coexistence in the context of pervasive and widespread habitat loss and fragmentation. PMID:27427960

  13. Overview of plant life management for long term operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.S.; Vincze, P.; Bychkov, A.

    2014-01-01

    Many IAEA member states have given high priority to licensing their nuclear power plants to operate for terms longer than the time frame originally anticipated (generally 40 years). The task of managing plant ageing is assigned in most member states to an engineering specialty called 'plant life management' (PLiM) applying a systematic analysis methodology to System Structure Components (SSCs) ageing. In many countries, the safety performance of nuclear power plants is periodically assessed and characterized via the periodic safety review (PSR) process. Regulatory review and acceptance of PSRs constitutes for these countries the licensing requirement for continued operation of the plant to the following PSR cycle (usually 10 years). In the USA and in other countries operating US designed plants, instead of PSR process, a license renewal application (LRA) process is followed, which requires certain prerequisites such as ageing management programs, particularly for passive irreplaceable SSCs. Active components are normally addressed via the maintenance rule (MR) requirements and other established regulatory processes. A third group of member states have adopted a combined approach that incorporates elements of both the PSR process and selected LRA specific requirements, such as time limited ageing analysis. The article ends with some IAEA recommendations for the implementation of national PLiM programs

  14. NULIFE - the European NoE 'Nuclear Plant Life Prediction'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojan, Mihail

    2008-01-01

    INR Pitesti become on the 29th September 2006 a partner in the European Network of Excellence Nuclear Plant Life Prediction (NULIFE) coordinated by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). The EU's Network of Excellence NULIFE has been launched under the EURATOM FP6 Program with a clear focus on integrating safety-oriented research on materials, structures and systems and exploiting the results of this integration through the production of harmonized lifetime assessment methods. NULIFE will help provide a better common understanding of, and information on, the factors affecting the lifetime of nuclear power plants which, together with associated management methods, will help facilitate extensions to the safe and economic lifetime of existing nuclear power plants. (author)

  15. Plant life management processes and practices for heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K.-S.; Cleveland, J.; Clark, C.R.

    2006-01-01

    In general, heavy water reactor (HWR) nuclear power plant (NPP) owners would like to keep their NPPs in service as long as they can be operated safely and economically. Their decisions are depending on essentially business model. They involve the consideration of a number of factors, such as the material condition of the plant, comparison with current safety standards, the socio-political climate and asset management/ business planning considerations. Continued plant operation, including operation beyond design life, called 'long term operation, depends, among other things, on the material condition of the plant. This is influenced significantly by the effectiveness of ageing management. Key attributes of an effective plant life management program include a focus on important systems, structure and components (SSCs) which are susceptible to ageing degradation, a balance of proactive and reactive ageing management programmes, and a team approach that ensures the co-ordination of and communication between all relevant nuclear power plant and external programmes. Most HWR NPP owners/operators use a mix of maintenance, surveillance and inspection (MSI) programs as the primary means of managing ageing. Often these programs are experienced-based and/or time-based and may not be optimised for detecting and/or managing ageing effects. From time-to-time, operational history has shown that this practice can be too reactive, as it leads to dealing with ageing effects (degradation of SSCs) after they have been detected. In many cases premature and/or undetected ageing cannot be traced back to one specific reason or an explicit error. The root cause is often a lack of communication, documentation and/or co-ordination between design, commissioning, operation or maintenance organizations. This lack of effective communication and interfacing frequently arises because, with the exception of major SSCs, such as the fuel channels or steam generators, there is a lack of explicit

  16. Fast–slow continuum and reproductive strategies structure plant life-history variation worldwide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salguero-Gómez, Roberto; Jones, Owen R.; Jongejans, Eelke; Blomberg, Simon; Hodgson, D.; Zuidema, P.A.; Kroon, de Hans; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of patterns in life-history strategies across the tree of life is essential to our prediction of population persistence, extinction, and diversification. Plants exhibit a wide range of patterns of longevity, growth, and reproduction, but the general determinants of this enormous

  17. A Technique to Perfuse Cadavers that Extends the Useful Life of Fresh Tissues: The Duke Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, Caroline; Kellogg, Ryan T.; Zhang, Yixin; Baiak, Andresa; Leiweke, Clinton; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Levin, L. Scott; Zenn, Michael R.; Erdmann, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    The demand for laboratory-based teaching and training is increasing worldwide as medical training and education confront the pressures of shorter training time and rising costs. This article presents a cost-effective perfusion technique that extends the useful life of fresh tissue. Refrigerated cadavers are preserved in their natural state for up…

  18. Plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants? Controversial discussion profit taking of nuclear power plant operators; Laufzeitverlaengerungen fuer die deutschen Kernkaftwerke? Kurzanalyse zu den Gewinnmitnahmen der KKW-Betreiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2009-10-15

    The discussion on the plant life extensions for German nuclear power plants beyond the residual quantity of electricity particularly focus on three aspects: Effects for the emission of carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas; Development of the electricity price for which a reduction or attenuation is postulated due to a plant life extension; Skimming of additional profits at operating companies and their use in the safeguarding of the future (development of renewable energies, support of energy efficiency, promotion of the research, consolidation of the public budget, and so on). Under this aspect, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on the profit taking of nuclear power plant operators. The presented analysis considers three aspects: (a) Specification of the quantity structures for the investigated model of plant life extension; (b) The decisive parameter is the revenue situation and thus the price development for electricity at wholesale markets; (c) Determination and evaluation of the course in time of the profit taking.

  19. The thematic plant life assessment network (PLAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R C; McGarry, D [EC/JRC Institute for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands); Pedersen, H H [Brite Euram DG XII, Brussels (Belgium)

    1999-12-31

    The Plant Life Assessment Network (PLAN) is a Brite Euram Type II Thematic Network, initiated by the European Commission to facilitate structured co-operation between all cost shared action projects already funded by the Commission which fall under this common technical theme. The projects involved address a multiplicity of problems associated with plant life assessment and are drawn from Brite-Euram, Standards, Measurement and Testing, Nuclear Fission Safety and Esprit EC programmes. The main aim of the Network is to initiate, maintain and monitor a fruitful co-operation process between completed, ongoing and future EC R and D projects, thereby promoting improved cross fertilization and enhanced industrial exploitation of R and D results. As the project is in its infancy, this presentation covers the background to the initiative in some detail. In particular two key aspects are highlighted, namely, the requirement of the EC to launch such a network in the area of plant life assessment including its evolution from two small Thematic Research Actions and, secondly, the mechanism for structuring the Network in an ordered and proven way along the lines of the EC/JRC European Networks, PISC, NESC, AMES, ENIQ, ENAIS and EPERC. The operating and financial structure of the Network is detailed with reference made to the role of the executive Steering Committee, The Network Project Leader and the Network Financial Co-ordinator. Each of the 58 projects involved in the Network, representing a wide range of industrial sectors and disciplines, is distributed in terms of their efforts between 4 disciplinary Clusters covering Inspection, Instrumentation and Monitoring, Structural Mechanics and Maintenance. For each of these Clusters, an expert has been appointed as a Project Technical Auditor to support the elected Cluster Co-ordinator to define Cluster Tasks, which contribute to the overall objectives of the project. From the Project Representatives, Cluster Task Leaders and

  20. The thematic plant life assessment network (PLAN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.C.; McGarry, D. [EC/JRC Institute for Advanced Materials, Petten (Netherlands); Pedersen, H.H. [Brite Euram DG XII, Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-12-31

    The Plant Life Assessment Network (PLAN) is a Brite Euram Type II Thematic Network, initiated by the European Commission to facilitate structured co-operation between all cost shared action projects already funded by the Commission which fall under this common technical theme. The projects involved address a multiplicity of problems associated with plant life assessment and are drawn from Brite-Euram, Standards, Measurement and Testing, Nuclear Fission Safety and Esprit EC programmes. The main aim of the Network is to initiate, maintain and monitor a fruitful co-operation process between completed, ongoing and future EC R and D projects, thereby promoting improved cross fertilization and enhanced industrial exploitation of R and D results. As the project is in its infancy, this presentation covers the background to the initiative in some detail. In particular two key aspects are highlighted, namely, the requirement of the EC to launch such a network in the area of plant life assessment including its evolution from two small Thematic Research Actions and, secondly, the mechanism for structuring the Network in an ordered and proven way along the lines of the EC/JRC European Networks, PISC, NESC, AMES, ENIQ, ENAIS and EPERC. The operating and financial structure of the Network is detailed with reference made to the role of the executive Steering Committee, The Network Project Leader and the Network Financial Co-ordinator. Each of the 58 projects involved in the Network, representing a wide range of industrial sectors and disciplines, is distributed in terms of their efforts between 4 disciplinary Clusters covering Inspection, Instrumentation and Monitoring, Structural Mechanics and Maintenance. For each of these Clusters, an expert has been appointed as a Project Technical Auditor to support the elected Cluster Co-ordinator to define Cluster Tasks, which contribute to the overall objectives of the project. From the Project Representatives, Cluster Task Leaders and

  1. Combination of potassium sorbate and irradiation treatments to extend the shelf-life cured fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.; Sudarman, H.; Chosdu, R.; Siagian, E.G.; Nasran, S.

    1981-01-01

    Studies on shelf-life extension of three kinds of cured fish product, i.e. salted chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus), boiled chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) and smoked milkfish (Chanos chanos) have been done using a combined potassium sorbate and irradiation treatment. An integrated process for the preparation of each cured product provided with the combined treatment is described. Total bacterial count, total volatile base nitrogen, content of volatile reducing substances and mould growth were used as objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation to determine the shelf-life of the products held at ambient conditions. It was found that potassium sorbate residue of 0.1% level followed by irradiation up to 4 kGy could retard mould growth on the products and extend the shelf-life considerably in comparison with the commercially prepared products. (author)

  2. An optical imaging chamber for viewing living plant cells and tissues at high resolution for extended periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Grant; Hindle, Chris; Chan, Jordi; Shaw, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in both microscopy and fluorescent protein technologies have made live imaging a powerful tool for the study of plant cells. However, the complications of keeping plant material alive during a long duration experiment while maintaining maximum resolution has limited the use of these methods. Here, we describe an imaging chamber designed to overcome these limitations, which is flexible enough to support a range of sizes of plant materials. We were able use confocal microscopy to follow growth and development of plant cells and tissues over several days. The chamber design is based on a perfusion system, so that the addition of drugs and other experimental treatments are also possible. In this article we present a design of imaging chamber that makes it possible to image plant material with high resolution for extended periods of time.

  3. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L.; Conley, J.

    1996-02-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities

  4. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - tanks and pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocker, E.; Smith, S.; Philpot, L.; Conley, J.

    1996-02-01

    Continued operation of nuclear power plants for periods that extend beyond their original 40-year license period is a desirable option for many U.S. utilities. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approval of operating license renewals is necessary before continued operation becomes a reality. Effective aging management for plant components is important to reliability and safety, regardless of current plant age or extended life expectations. However, the NRC requires that aging evaluations be performed and the effectiveness of aging management programs be demonstrated for components considered within the scope of license renewal before granting approval for operation beyond 40 years. Both the NRC and the utility want assurance that plant components will be highly reliable during both the current license term and throughout the extended operating period. In addition, effective aging management must be demonstrated to support Maintenance Rule (10 CFR 50.65) activities.

  5. Determination of the remaining operational life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiden, H.; Vorwerk, K.; Graeff, D.; Hoff, E.

    1983-01-01

    The proceedings volume presents, in full wording, eight papers read at a TUEV Rheinland meeting in Johannesburg, South Africa, in August 1982. Subjects: Layout, quality assurance, service life analysis etc. of power plant components. (RW) [de

  6. Declaration of the rights of animal and plant life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.

    1977-01-01

    i Each living creature on earth has the right to exist, independent of its usefulness to humans. ii Every effort should be made to preserve all species of animal and plant life from premature extinction. Special protection should be afforded to those species whose survival is already threatened.

  7. Economic evaluation of extending shelf-life of mangoes by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present study reviews the status of cultivation, annual production, local consumption and export volume of mangoes in Egypt. The data presented reflect the magnitude of annual losses due to fungal attack, insect infestation and chemical changes. Attempts have been made to ensure longer and better keeping quality of mangoes through many conventional treatments, e.g. refrigeration and chemical treatment. However, the percentage of annual loss of mangoes in Egypt is still far from being acceptable. Irradiation processing of mangoes for extending shelf-life has been considered a feasible technology in Egypt. Studies have been carried out in Egypt since 1970 to investigate the technological and nutritional status of irradiated mangoes. Nevertheless not enough comprehensive studies have been undertaken to evaluate the economic feasibility of such a technology as calculated under local environmental conditions. In this study the 'Egypt's Mega Gamma I' Irradiator (with cobalt-60 source) was used. (author)

  8. Environmental life cycle assessment of high temperature nuclear fission and fusion biomass gasification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shutaro; Sakurai, Shigeki; Kasada, Ryuta; Konishi, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    The authors propose nuclear biomass gasification plant as an advancement of conventional gasification plants. Environmental impacts of both fission and fusion plants were assessed through life cycle assessment. The result suggested the reduction of green-house gas emissions would be as large as 85.9% from conventional plants, showing a potential for the sustainable future for both fission and fusion plants. (author)

  9. South African Regulatory Framework for Nuclear Power Plant Life Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbebe, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the regulatory approach to plant life management (PLiM) adopted by the National Nuclear Regulator (NNR) in South Africa, the licensing basis and regulatory requirements for Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS),operational programmes ensuring continued safe operation, issues related to the ageing of the plant, and the requirements for spent fuel as well as radioactive waste management. The paper will further present insights from the Periodic Safety Review (PSR) and Long Term Asset Management. (author)

  10. International requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernicke, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Lifetime extension or long-term operation of nuclear facilities are topics of great international significance against the backdrop of a fleet of nuclear power plants of which many have reached 2/3 of their planned life. The article deals with the conditions for, and the specific requirements of, seeking long-term operation of nuclear power plants as established internationally and on the basis of IAEA collections. Technically, long-term operation is possible for many of the nuclear power plants in the world because, normally, they were built on the basis of conservative rules and regulations and, as a consequence, incorporate significant additional safety. Application of requirements to specific plants implies assessments of technical safety which show that conservative design philosophies created reserves and, as a consequence, there is an adequate level of safety also in long-term plant operation. For this purpose, the technical specifications must be revised, necessary additions made, and (international) operating experience taken into account and management of aging established. Two examples are presented to show how the approach to long-term plant operation is put into practice on a national level. (orig.)

  11. Extending Galactic Habitable Zone Modeling to Include the Emergence of Intelligent Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian S; Gowanlock, Michael G

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies of the galactic habitable zone have been concerned with identifying those regions of the Galaxy that may favor the emergence of complex life. A planet is deemed habitable if it meets a set of assumed criteria for supporting the emergence of such complex life. In this work, we extend the assessment of habitability to consider the potential for life to further evolve to the point of intelligence--termed the propensity for the emergence of intelligent life, φI. We assume φI is strongly influenced by the time durations available for evolutionary processes to proceed undisturbed by the sterilizing effects of nearby supernovae. The times between supernova events provide windows of opportunity for the evolution of intelligence. We developed a model that allows us to analyze these window times to generate a metric for φI, and we examine here the spatial and temporal variation of this metric. Even under the assumption that long time durations are required between sterilizations to allow for the emergence of intelligence, our model suggests that the inner Galaxy provides the greatest number of opportunities for intelligence to arise. This is due to the substantially higher number density of habitable planets in this region, which outweighs the effects of a higher supernova rate in the region. Our model also shows that φI is increasing with time. Intelligent life emerged at approximately the present time at Earth's galactocentric radius, but a similar level of evolutionary opportunity was available in the inner Galaxy more than 2 Gyr ago. Our findings suggest that the inner Galaxy should logically be a prime target region for searches for extraterrestrial intelligence and that any civilizations that may have emerged there are potentially much older than our own.

  12. Overview of German R and D activities relevant to life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillot, R.

    1998-01-01

    Life management issues of German NPPs include measures for qualifying continuous operation of NPPs and research activities related to materials behaviour under operating conditions. Plant management for life extension demand use of on-line monitoring systems for load (mechanical and thermal); vibration; leakage; water chemistry; neutron irradiation as well as replacement of systems, structures and components. The main goals to be achieved under international cooperation are increased safety, increased plant availability, extension of operating lifetime and improvement of plant economics

  13. Cryonics suspension – debating life finitude, extending time capital and cancelling death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mara Stan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses the anti-death movement inside the life extension paradigm and its social implications in terms of enhanced permeability of life-death boundaries, by reconciling mysticism, theology, technology and scientific innovation. It analyses current debates, the transmission of polemic information over extreme life extension by cryogenic suspension through vernacular knowledge. Ethical, scientific, financial and spiritual controversies come into consideration, as pro and counter-arguments emerge from ongoing debates investigated by netnography of themed blogs and forums. Digital platforms facilitate in-depth access to beliefs and attitudes expressed in relationship to continuity of stream of consciousness across the projected post-self project. The study calls for the questioning of agency and performativity in the context of transcending time dynamics and achieving biological and chronological time suspension. Solutions for extending longevity are explored in terms of critical reflection as to providers’ market, financial impact (e.g. creation of new niche products such as afterlife insurance to cover expenses of cryogenic suspension or fundraising for cryo-preserving young persons who died tragically and relocating the burden of proof in arguing whether human cryonics is potentially viable in the future. It brings a new perspective on the traceability and sustainability of time capital (Preda, 2013, while discussing the impact of the belief that death is ultimately curable and avoidable, by future medical progress and overall scientific and technological advancement.

  14. Use of Irradiation to Extend the Shelf Life of Dried White Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idrus Kadir

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation is an alternative technology to extend the shelf life of food-stuffs. White oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) which is a perishable food stuff having a short shelf life. Effects of gamma irradiation at the dose of 5 kGy on the quality of dried white oyster mushroom during storage was observed. The objective of the experiment was to improve the hygienic quality and to extend the shelf life of dried white oyster mushroom using irradiation technology. Fresh mushroom was cleaned, sorted, washed, and drained. The mushroom was then dried in two ways, namely: sun drying method and electrical oven drying method. Dried mushroom was vacuum packed in polypropylene (PP) pouch then irradiated at a of dose 5 kGy and an unirradiated control was also applied. The vacuum packed samples was stored at low temperature (18-20 o C) with a relative humidity (RH) of 65-70% and observed periodically every month up to 3 months of storage. The samples were analyzed according to the following parameters i.e, : total bacterial count, total mould and yeast count, moisture content, pH, a w , contents of protein, fat, carbohydrate, carotenoid and organoleptic properties, respectively. The results showed that irradiation at the dose of 5 kGy could eliminate significantly microbial growth 2 log cycle in the samples, while there were no changes in physico-chemical and organoleptic properties up to 3 months of storage, while control samples were still acceptable only up to 2 months of storage. (author)

  15. Controlled ecological life support systems: Development of a plant growth module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averner, Mel M.; Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    An effort was made to begin defining the scientific and technical requirements for the design and construction of a ground-based plant growth facility. In particular, science design criteria for the Plant Growth Module (PGM) of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) were determined in the following areas: (1) irradiation parameters and associated equipment affecting plant growth; (2) air flow; (3) planting, culture, and harvest techniques; (4) carbon dioxide; (5) temperature and relative humidity; (6) oxygen; (7) construction materials and access; (8) volatile compounds; (9) bacteria, sterilization, and filtration; (10) nutrient application systems; (11) nutrient monitoring; and (12) nutrient pH and conductivity.

  16. Computer simulation to predict energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs for production of extended shelf-life (ESL) milk using microfiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extended shelf-life (ESL) milk has a shelf life between that of high-temperature short-time (HTST) and ultrahigh temperature (UHT) pasteurized milk. ESL milk is usually pasteurized at temperatures exceeding 125 deg C which may give the milk a cooked taste. ESL milk produced using crossflow microfilt...

  17. Physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood as determinants of retirement and extended working life in a British cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, M.; Cooper, R.; Cadar, D.; Carr, E.; Murray, E.; Richards, M.; Stansfeld, S.; Zaninotto, P.; Head, J.; Kuh, D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Policy in many industrialized countries increasingly emphasizes extended working life. We examined associations between physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood and work in late adulthood. Methods Using self-reported physical limitations and performance-based physical and cognitive capability at age 53, assessed by trained nurses from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development, we examined prospective associations with extended working (ca...

  18. Physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood as determinants of retirement and extended working life in a British cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, M.; Cooper, R.; Cadar, D.; Carr, E.; Murray, E.; Richards, M.; Stansfeld, S.; Zaninotto, P.; Head, J.; Kuh, D.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Policy in many industrialized countries increasingly emphasizes extended working life. We examined associations between physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood and work in late adulthood. METHODS: Using self-reported physical limitations and performance-based physical and cognitive capability at age 53, assessed by trained nurses from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development, we examined prospective associations with extended working (...

  19. Near-term benefits of the plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushansky, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The aging process can be expected to reduce the availability and increase the production costs of nuclear power plants over time. To mitigate this process and recover or enhance plant availability, capacity, thermal efficiency, and maintenance expenditures, the utility must dedicate increased attention and commitment to a comprehensive plant life extension (PLEX) program. Improvements must be justified by balancing the cost of the recommended modifications with the economic value of benefits obtained from its implementation. It is often extremely difficult for utility management to make an optimal selection from among hundreds of proposed projects, most of which are cost-effective. A properly structured PLEX program with an emphasis on near-term benefits should provide the utility with a means of evaluating proposed projects, thus determining the optimum combination for authorization and implementation

  20. An Extended VIKOR-Based Approach for Pumped Hydro Energy Storage Plant Site Selection with Heterogeneous Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The selection of a desirable site for constructing a pumped hydro energy storage plant (PHESP plays a vital important role in the whole life cycle. However, little research has been done on the site selection of PHESP, which affects the rapid development of PHESP. Therefore, this paper aims to select the most ideal PHESP site from numerous candidate alternatives using the multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM technique. Firstly, a comprehensive evaluation criteria system is established for the first time. Then, considering quantitative and qualitative criteria coexist in this system, multiple types of representations, including crisp numerical values (CNVs, triangular intuitionistic fuzzy numbers (TIFNs, and 2-dimension uncertain linguistic variables (2DULVs, are employed to deal with heterogeneous criteria information. To determine the weight of criteria and fully take the preference of the decision makers (DMs into account, the analytic hierarchy process (AHP method is applied for criteria weighting. After that, an extended Vlsekriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR method is utilized to provide compromise solutions for the PHESP site considering such heterogeneous information. At last, the proposed model is then applied in a case study of Zhejiang province, China to illustrate its practicality and efficiency. The result shows the Changlongshan should be selected as the optimal PHESP.

  1. System, structure, and component evaluation for life-cycle management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanley, N.E.; Banerjee, A.K.; Woods, P.B.; Perrin, J.S.; Marian, F.A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, many nuclear organizations and utilities have studied the possibility of extending the service life of nuclear power plants beyond the original license period. From these studies, recommendations have resulted for maintaining the option of future decisions concerning operating license renewal. Several of the recommendations are considered beneficial to the management and operation of nuclear plants in meeting many of their near-term goals. In 1986, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE and G) concluded that a full-scale nuclear plant license renewal program for their Salem 1 and 2 and Hope Creek nuclear stations was not cost-effective at that time. Rather, it would be better served if the nuclear plant life extension (PLEX) option were maintained for future consideration. To help plan for the life extension option, a strategic 5-yr life cycle management (LCM) program was begun. In support of the LCM program, evaluations for the following Salem structures and components were performed: (1) intake structures, (2) reactor vessel support, (3) containment liner, and (4) containment structure (below grade). This paper discusses the systems, structures, and components (SSC) evaluation methodology and, as an example, discusses the evaluation performed for reactor vessel support

  2. Butterfly Larval Host Plant use in a Tropical Urban Context: Life History Associations, Herbivory, and Landscape Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiple, Ashish D.; Khurad, Arun M.; Dennis, Roger L. H.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines butterfly larval host plants, herbivory and related life history attributes within Nagpur City, India. The larval host plants of 120 butterfly species are identified and their host specificity, life form, biotope, abundance and perennation recorded; of the 126 larval host plants, most are trees (49), with fewer herbs (43), shrubs (22), climbers (7) and stem parasites (2). They include 89 wild, 23 cultivated, 11 wild/cultivated and 3 exotic plant species; 78 are perennials, 43 annuals and 5 biannuals. Plants belonging to Poaceae and Fabaceae are most widely used by butterfly larvae. In addition to distinctions in host plant family affiliation, a number of significant differences between butterfly families have been identified in host use patterns: for life forms, biotopes, landforms, perennation, host specificity, egg batch size and ant associations. These differences arising from the development of a butterfly resource database have important implications for conserving butterfly species within the city area. Differences in overall butterfly population sizes within the city relate mainly to the number of host plants used, but other influences, including egg batch size and host specificity are identified. Much of the variation in population size is unaccounted for and points to the need to investigate larval host plant life history and strategies as population size is not simply dependent on host plant abundance. PMID:21864159

  3. Life cycle inventories for bioenergy and fossil-fuel fired cogeneration plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braennstroem-Norberg, B.M.; Dethlefsen, U.

    1998-06-01

    Life-cycle inventories for heat production from forest fuel, Salix, coal and oil are presented. Data from the Oerebro cogeneration plant are used for the bioenergy and coal cycles, whereas the oil-fired cycle is based on a fictive plant producing 53 MW electricity and 106 MW heat, also located in the town of Oerebro. This life cycle analysis only covers the inventory stage. A complete life cycle analysis also includes an environmental impact assessment. The methods for assessing environmental impact are still being developed and thus this phase has been omitted here. The intention is, instead, to provide an overall perspective of where in the chain the greatest environmental load for each fuel can be found. Production and energy conversion of fuel requires energy, which is often obtained from fossil fuel. This input energy corresponds to about 11% of the extracted amount of energy for oil, 9% for coal, 6% for Salix, whereas it is about 4% for forest fuel. Utilization of fossil fuel in the coal cycle amounts to production of electricity using coal condensation intended for train transports within Poland. In a life cycle perspective, biofuels show 20-30 times lower emissions of greenhouse gases in comparison with fossil fuels. The chains for biofuels also give considerably lower SO 2 emissions than the chains for coal and oil. The coal chain shows about 50% higher NO x emission than the other fuels. Finally, the study illustrates that emission of particles are similar for all sources of energy. The biofuel cycle is assessed to be generally applicable to plants of similar type and size and with similar transport distances. The oil cycle is probably applicable to small-scale cogeneration plants. However, at present there are no cogeneration plants in Sweden that are solely fired with oil. In the case of the coal cycle, deep mining and a relatively long transport distance within Poland have been assumed. If the coal mining had been from open-cast mines, and if the

  4. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machiba, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Norio

    1990-01-01

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  5. Plant life management and modernisation: Research challenges in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    2010-01-01

    The NULIFE (Nuclear plant life prediction) European network of excellence is described in detail. The following topics are highlighted: Vision; Consortium; Organization and working methods; Research and development planning; Research project portfolio (pilot projects, umbrella projects); Strategic research planning; and Conclusions. (P.A.)

  6. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Ji Hwan [Baekseok College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Keun Sun [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Chul Hoon [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Hong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts.

  7. Development of procedural requirements for life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Son, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Chang, Keun Sun; Ham, Chul Hoon; Chang, Soon Hong

    2002-03-01

    Technical issues relevant to life extension of NPP were investigated. The GALL report, domestic PSR and periodic inspection rules were reviewed. Technical issues appearing in the safety evaluation reports related to license renewal of Calvert Ciffs 1 and 2 and Qconee 1,2 and 3 NPPs were reviewed. Preliminary study on PSA usage in NPP life extension assessment was performed and further works were suggested. The environment of rules and regulations was analyzed from the viewpoint of plant life extension. Two alternatives are suggested to revise the current domestic nuclear acts

  8. Specification of life cycle assessment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbaspour, M.; Kargari, N.; Mastouri, R.

    2008-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment is an environmental management tool for assessing the environmental impacts of a product of a process. life cycle assessment involves the evaluation of environmental impacts through all stages of life cycle of a product or process. In other words life cycle assessment has a c radle to grave a pproach. Some results of life cycle assessment consist of pollution prevention, energy efficient system, material conservation, economic system and sustainable development. All power generation technologies affect the environment in one way or another. The main environmental impact does not always occur during operation of power plant. The life cycle assessment of nuclear power has entailed studying the entire fuel cycle from mine to deep repository, as well as the construction, operation and demolition of the power station. Nuclear power plays an important role in electricity production for several countries. even though the use of nuclear power remains controversial. But due to the shortage of fossil fuel energy resources many countries have started to try more alternation to their sources of energy production. A life cycle assessment could detect all environmental impacts of nuclear power from extracting resources, building facilities and transporting material through the final conversion to useful energy services

  9. Preliminary results of Physiological plant growth modelling for human life support in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles; Hezard, Pauline

    2012-07-01

    Human life support is fundamental and crucial in any kind of space explorations. MELiSSA project of European Space Agency aims at developing a closed, artificial ecological life support system involving human, plants and micro organisms. Consuming carbon dioxide and water from the life support system, plants grow in one of the chambers and convert it into food and oxygen along with potable water. The environmental conditions, nutrient availability and its consumption of plants should be studied and necessarily modeled to predict the amount of food, oxygen and water with respect to the environmental changes and limitations. The reliability of a completely closed system mainly depends on the control laws and strategies used. An efficient control can occur, only if the system to control is itself well known, described and ideally if the responses of the system to environmental changes are predictable. In this aspect, the general structure of plant growth model has been designed together with physiological modelling.The physiological model consists of metabolic models of leaves, stem and roots, of which concern specific metabolisms of the associated plant parts. On the basis of the carbon source transport (eg. sucrose) through stem, the metabolic models (leaf and root) can be interconnected to each other and finally coupled to obtain the entire plant model. For the first step, leaf metabolic model network was built using stoichiometric, mass and energy balanced metabolic equations under steady state approach considering all necessary plant pathways for growth and maintenance of leaves. As the experimental data for lettuce plants grown in closed and controlled environmental chambers were available, the leaf metabolic model has been established for lettuce leaves. The constructed metabolic network is analyzed using known stoichiometric metabolic technique called metabolic flux analysis (MFA). Though, the leaf metabolic model alone is not sufficient to achieve the

  10. Tools for in service monitoring and testing of riser to prevent failure and extend service life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Haakon; Bondevik, Jon Olav; Skjerve, Haavard; Tveit, Oeyvind [SeaFlex AS, Asker (Norway)

    2005-07-01

    Exploration and development of new oil and gas fields is heavily dependant on use of flexible pipes and many field developments would not have been possible without them. The number of flexible risers in service is constantly increasing since relatively few offshore projects have reached the estimated operational life and the operational lifetime of several fields in-service has been extended due to new and improved technology. Many risers have been in service over a large number of years. Some risers have been operated under demanding conditions such as severe dynamic loads, high pressure and temperatures. One may in some cases find that risers actually have shorter service life than estimated in the design phase due to the severe operational conditions. In order to extend the use of the riser, some risers may have to be modified and re-terminated and prepared for a new and less demanding application. In order to operate risers safely, it is important to re-assess the fatigue life in order to prevent potential riser failure. The operator should implement methods and tools for in-service monitoring and testing. This paper addresses efficient and reliable methods and tools for monitoring of critical operational parameters as well as in-service riser testing. A brief description of structural failure modes will also be given in order to understand how to interpret test results in view of potential failure modes. (author)

  11. Life form succession in plant communities on colliery waste tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Down, C G

    1973-01-01

    Five disused colliery waste tips in the Somerset Coalfield, 12, 15, 21, 55 and 98 years old, respectively, were examined to determine the life forms of the naturally-occurring vascular plant species. Hemicryptophytes comprised between 68 and 79% of the number of species on each tip. Rosette hemicryptophytes comprised 31.8% of the species on the 12-year tip, declining to 11.8% on the 98-year tip. It is suggested that artificial planting of rosette hemicryptophytes may be beneficial in reclamation schemes. 3 tables.

  12. Extending the operating lifetime of the nuclear power plants in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.

    2015-01-01

    In France 58 reactors were deployed between 1977 and 2000, they are from only 3 standardized series: 900 MWe (34 units), 1300 MWe (20 units) and 1500 MWe (4 units). The average age of the reactor fleet is 29 years. This series of slides details the EDF's strategy for extending plant lifetime significantly beyond 40 years. An important point is the management and anticipation of the ageing of equipment through the distinction between replaceable components and non-replaceable components (mainly pressure vessel and containment building) and by listing all the deterioration ways possible. A second important point is a large scale research program to demonstrate the fitness for service of non-replaceable equipment after 40 years. This program focuses on physical modelling, computerized simulations and improving non-destructive techniques. (A.C.)

  13. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzullo, William G.; McManus, Marcelle C.; Hammond, Geoff P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Emissions from plant manufacture contributed little towards the lifecycle impacts. ► The use phase of the AD plant could have significant impacts. ► Production of biogas and fertiliser created significant impacts. ► The consequential displacement of kerosene showed a net-benefit. ► The study concluded that it is essential to cover the digestate storage tank. -- Abstract: This paper outlines the results of a comprehensive life cycle study of the production of energy, in the form of biogas, using a small scale farm based cattle waste fed anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The life cycle assessment (LCA) shows that in terms of environmental and energy impact the plant manufacture contributes very little to the whole life cycle impacts. The results show that compared with alternative energy supply the production and use of biogas is beneficial in terms of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel use. This is mainly due to the replacement of the alternative, kerosene, and from fertiliser production from the AD process. However, these benefits come at a cost to ecosystem health and the production of respiratory inorganics. These were found to be a result of ammonia emissions during the production phase of the biogas. These damages can be significantly reduced if further emission control measures are undertaken.

  14. Combination of potassium sorbate and irradiation treatments to extend the shelf life of cured fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maha, M.; Sudarman, H.; Chosdu, R.; Siagian, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    Studies on shelf life extension of three kinds of cured fish products, i.e. salted chub mackeral (Rastrelliger neglectus), boiled chub mackerel (Rastrelliger neglectus) and smoked milkfish (Chanos chanos) have been made using a combined potassium sorbate and irradiation treatment. An integrated process for the preparation of each cured product provided with the combination treatment is described. Total bacterial count, total volatile base nitrogen, volatile reducing substances, and mould growth were used as objective indices of quality in comparison with sensory evaluation to determine the shelf life of the products held at ambient conditions. It was found that 0.1% potassium sorbate followed by irradiation up to 4 kGy retards mould growth on the products and extends the shelf life to a considerable length of time in comparison with the commercially prepared products. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  15. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  16. Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions, water and land use for concentrated solar power plants with different energy backup systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Sharon J.W.; Rubin, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) is unique among intermittent renewable energy options because for the past four years, utility-scale plants have been using an energy storage technology that could allow a CSP plant to operate as a baseload renewable energy generator in the future. No study to-date has directly compared the environmental implications of this technology with more conventional CSP backup energy options. This study compares the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, water consumption, and direct, onsite land use associated with one MW h of electricity production from CSP plants with wet and dry cooling and with three energy backup systems: (1) minimal backup (MB), (2) molten salt thermal energy storage (TES), and (3) a natural gas-fired heat transfer fluid heater (NG). Plants with NG had 4–9 times more life cycle GHG emissions than plants with TES. Plants with TES generally had twice as many life cycle GHG emissions as the MB plants. Dry cooling reduced life cycle water consumption by 71–78% compared to wet cooling. Plants with larger backup capacities had greater life cycle water consumption than plants with smaller backup capacities, and plants with NG had lower direct, onsite life cycle land use than plants with MB or TES. - highlights: • We assess life cycle environmental effects of concentrated solar power (CSP). • We compare CSP with three energy backup technologies and two cooling technologies. • We selected solar field area to minimize energy cost for plants with minimal backup and salt storage. • Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions were 4–9 times lower with thermal energy storage than with fossil fuel backup. • Dry cooling reduced life cycle water use by 71–78% compared to wet cooling

  17. Field dodder life cycle and interaction with host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarić-Krsmanović Marija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Field dodder is a parasitic plant that attaches to stems and leaves of broadleaf plants, including weeds, field crops, vegetables and ornamentals, across most agricultural regions of the world. Effective field dodder control is extremely difficult to achieve due to the nature of attachment and close association between the host and the parasite, which require a highly effective and selective herbicide to destroy the parasite without damaging its host. To establish a strategy for controlling parasite growth and restricting the spread of field dodder in crop fields, it is important to learn more about this weed, its life cycle and development.

  18. It is never too early to start planning for plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neils, G.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the reasons why the subject of plant life extension (PLEX) deserves the attention it is receiving and describes some of the work that is currently being conducted in order to make PLEX a reality for U.S. nuclear power plants. One such major effort is a pilot program at the Monticello Nuclear Generating plant. This program, as well as other programs, have already produced some valuable lessons from which other plant owners can benefit. The Monticelle pilot program and the lessons learned thereof are described in some detail in this paper. (Liu)

  19. Plant life management and modernisation: Research challenges in the EU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    2011-01-01

    The European network of excellence NULIFE (nuclear plant life prediction) has been launched with a clear focus on integrating safety-oriented research on materials, structures and systems and exploiting the results of this integration through the production of harmonised lifetime assessment methods. NULIFE will help provide a better common understanding of the factors affecting the lifetime of nuclear power plants which, together with associated management methods, will help facilitate safe and economic long-term operation of existing nuclear power plants. In addition, NULIFE will help in the development of design criteria for future generations of nuclear power plant. NULIFE was kicked-off in October 2006 and will work over a 5-year period to create a single organization structure, capable of providing harmonised research and development (R and D) at European level to the nuclear power industry and the related safety authorities. Led by VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), the project has a total budget in excess of 8 million euros, with over 40 partners drawn from leading research institutions, technical support organizations, electric power utilities and manufacturers throughout Europe. NULIFE also involves many industrial organizations and, in addition to their R and D contributions, these take part in a dedicated End User Group. Over the last 15 years the European Commission has sponsored a significant number of R and D projects under the Euratom Framework Programme and its Joint Research Centre has developed co-operative European Networks for mutual benefits on specific topics related to plant life management. However, their overall impact has been reduced due to fragmentation. These networks are considered forerunners to NULIFE. The importance of the long-term operation of the plants has been recognized at European level, in the strategic research agenda of SNETP (Sustainable Nuclear Energy Technology Platform). In NULIFE, the joint EU

  20. Nuclear power plant life management: flow accelerated corrosion and chemical control. Application to Embalse Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chocron, Mauricio; Saucedo, Ramona E.; Sainz, Ricardo A.; Ovando, Luis E.

    2006-01-01

    The chemistry of a water-steam cycle is one of the main aspects of the Plant Life Management of a Nuclear Power Plant and it is important for the preservation, efficiency and availability of the whole system. In that sense this aspect has to be prioritized in any study whose aim is the life extension of the plant. In particular, the flow-assisted -corrosion or FAC is a problem that worldwide has been considered important due to the piping wall thinning that in some occasions has led to severe accidents. The FAC phenomena is not easy to be interpreted and addressed although nowadays there are some accepted models to understand and predict sensitive areas of the cycle. The objectives of the present paper have been: a) The construction of an integrated code that involves all the aspects that have influence on FAC, i.e., materials, composition, geometry, temperature and flow rate, quality, chemistry, etc.; b) Establish or adapting current models to the circuit of Embalse PHWR NPP; c) Identify new locations for inspection and wall thickness measurement in order to predict residual life; d) Compare different chemistries and e) handle large sets of inspection data. Among the results, new lines have been incorporated to the inspection schedule of the 2005' programmed outage. Also, the evaluation is part of the PLIM-PLEX programme at Embalse-N.A.S.A. in collaboration with C.N.E.A. is being carried out. (author)

  1. Nuclear power plant maintenance optimisation SENUF network activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrand, R.; Bieth, M.; Pla, P.; Rieg, C.; Trampus, P.

    2004-01-01

    During providing scientific and technical support to TACIS and PHARE nuclear safety programs a large amount of knowledge related to Russian design reactor systems has accumulated and led to creation of a new Network concerning Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe called ''Safety of Eastern European type Nuclear Facilities'' (SENUF). SENUF contributes to bring together all stakeholders of TACIS and PHARE: beneficiaries, end users, Eastern und Western nuclear industries, and thus, to favour fruitful technical exchanges and feedback of experience. At present the main focus of SENUF is the nuclear power plant maintenance as substantial element of plant operational safety as well as life management. A Working Group has been established on plant maintenance. One of its major tasks in 2004 is to prepare a status report on advanced strategies to optimise maintenance. Optimisation projects have an interface with the plant's overall life management program. Today, almost all plants involved in SENUF network have an explicit policy to extend their service life, thus, component ageing management, modernization and refurbishment actions became much more important. A database is also under development, which intends to help sharing the available knowledge and specific equipment and tools. (orig.)

  2. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for enabling data to discovery for the life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    The iPlant Collaborative provides life science research communities access to comprehensive, scalable, and cohesive computational infrastructure for data management; identify management; collaboration tools; and cloud, high-performance, high-throughput computing. iPlant provides training, learning m...

  3. A study on the functional assessment of the prestressed system and main structural elements in life extended containment building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, C. H.; Kim, S. W.; Choi, J. G. [DAEWOO E and C Institute of Costruction Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-10-15

    The design life of KNGR (Korean Next Generation Reactor) containment buildings is extended from 40 years to 60 years. However, nuclear reactor buildings are passive structures that are impossible to be exchanged in the case of degradation by the deterioration and so on when extending the design life of structures. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the long-term safety endurance in the design and construction of KNGR. Also, ti is judged that choice of the material and various test methods should be prescribed clearly. In this study, the reduction schemes of deterioration and the safety-ensuring schemes are drawn for the expected performance to be maintained from the beginning of the service to the required period together with ensuring the safety and serviceability of KNGR which will be constructed with the design life of 60 years, taking into account the dimensions, selection of material and construction methods in the design and construction stages. Also, the validity is to be examined for the estimation method of long-term losses of stress introduced to KNGR whose design life is increased to 60 years. The durability enhancement scheme on the design and construction for the design life extension of nuclear containment buildings is to be drawn through these studies. These results are utilized as the basic data for the safety inspection and examination guides of KNGR and finally the additional investigations are proposed for the items which require long-term studies.

  4. Reactor pressure vessel life cycle management at the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshuk, B.W.; Bowman, M.E.; Henry, S.A.; Pavinich, W.A.; Lapides, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Life Cycle Management (LCM) seeks to manage the aging process of important systems, structures, and components during licensed operation. The goal of Baltimore Gas and Electric Company's (BG and E) Life Cycle Management Program is to assure attainment of 40 years of operation and to preserve the option of an additional 20 years of operation for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP). Since the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) has been identified as one of the most critical components with regard to long-term operation of a nuclear power plant, BG and E initiated actions to manage life limiting or aging issues for the CCNPP RPVs. To achieve long-term operation, technical RPV issues must be effectively managed. This paper describes methods BG and E uses for managing RPV age-related degradation. (author)

  5. Feasibility of extending storage life of sheep-milk cheese using ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krcal, Z; Prekoppova, J; Slottova, A [Vyskumny Ustav Mliekarensky, Zilina (Czechoslovakia)

    1978-12-01

    3 types of winter full-fat sheep cheese were /sup 60/Co gamma irradiated with doses of 75, 100, 200, and 500 krads, this 48 hours after production. Within a week-long storage the organoleptic properties of the cheeses were repeatedly evaluated. The irradiation was found to significantly reduce all microorganism groups. Doses above 100 krads were found to be unsuitable; cheese taste deteriorated and was defined as ''scorched, strange, impure''. Although during storage these defects disappear, the individual main components of proteins and lipids decompose due to enzyme activity, which results in a rapid deterioration of the product. The dose of 75 krads did not cause any taste defects and storage life was extended by four days as against the stated guarantee period.

  6. Feasibility of extending storage life of sheep-milk cheese using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcal, Z.; Prekoppova, J.; Slottova, A.

    1978-01-01

    3 types of winter full-fat sheep cheese were 60 Co gamma irradiated with doses of 75, 100, 200, and 500 krads, this 48 hours after production. Within a week-long storage the organoleptic properties of the cheeses were repeatedly evaluated. The irradiation was found to significantly reduce all microorganism groups. Doses above 100 krads were found to be unsuitable; cheese taste deteriorated and was defined as ''scorched, strange, impure''. Although during storage these defects disappear, the individual main components of proteins and lipids decompose due to enzyme activity, which results in a rapid deterioration of the product. The dose of 75 krads did not cause any taste defects and storage life was extended by four days as against the stated guarantee period. (B.S.)

  7. Life extension of nuclear power plants: world situation and the Usa case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, P.T.; Cuesta, L.; Serra, E.; Yague, L.

    2010-01-01

    Life extension of nuclear power plants above 40 years of operation is an important issue in many countries. The Kyoto limits for CO 2 emissions, the security of supply, the costs of renewable energies and the economic crisis have pushed governments to continue operation of nuclear plants over the 40 years design life. In the Usa 59 units have obtained the extension of operation license from 40 to 60 years, and currently 19 units are in the reviewing process. The situation in the rest of the world is different. A list of countries, where nuclear units with a service life over 30 years, are still operating has been drawn up. A few countries like Belgium, Germany, Spain and Sweden are opposed to life extension. Some countries like Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, India, Japan and Usa, have adopted a life extension policy for their nuclear fleet. Other countries like France, Russia, United-Kingdom, Pakistan, South-Korea and Argentina have not yet taken any final decision. United-Kingdom and France have a case by case policy. In some countries like Japan, Indian or Pakistan, the legislation makes no reference to a maximum operating time but the reactors are allowed to continue operating as long as they comply with established safety conditions. (A.C.)

  8. Presentation plan of the reconstruction and upgrade hydroelectric power plant 'Zvornik'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Dušan B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available By the basic project of the energy utilization of the middle part of the river Drina (from Višegrad to Zvornik building of five large hydroelectric power plants was planned. Hydroelectric power plant near Zvornik had the greatest advantage, and it is the first built. Hydroelectric power plant 'Zvornik' separates the river Drina, about 1 km upstream from Mali Zvornik in Serbia and Zvornik in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In order to extend the work life, by the urban development project was planned modernization of production aggregates and associated equipment, the upgrade of annexes above the aggregate siphons A1 and A2, as well as the upgrade of the annexes of the powerhouse on the right bank of the river in the function of accommodation of electrical equipment. By replacing of the vital parts of turbines with increasing diameter with an increase of efficiency, Bow and power, as well as replacing generators with new generator of higher power with excitation and all the necessary auxiliary equipment, will ensure reliable operation of the hydroelectric power plant and will extend the working life of the next 40 years, creating opportunities for retrofitting additional fifth unit.

  9. Efficacy of Various Preservatives on Extending Shelf Life of Vacuum-Packaged Raw Pork during 4°C Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Qi, Yan; Zheng, Jiayi; Fan, X U; Liang, Peixin; Song, Cunjiang

    2018-04-01

    Uncontrolled bacterial growth and metabolic activities are responsible for the short shelf life of raw pork. Culture-independent analysis by 16S ribosome cDNA could reveal viable bacteria in raw pork. This study investigated microbial growth and volatile organic compounds of raw pork supplemented with various preservatives. Vacuum-packaged raw pork was stored at 4°C, after soaking in solutions of potassium sorbate, ε-poly-l-lysine, kojic acid (KA), or sodium diacetate, individually. Spoilage of raw pork was monitored by determining pH and total volatile basic nitrogen, whereas bacterial growth was determined by culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses. Data indicated that all the preservatives were able to inhibit bacterial growth and extend the shelf life of pork. High-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosome cDNA indicated that Pseudomonas was inhibited under vacuum conditions, whereas facultative anaerobes ( Acinetobacter, Photobacterium, Brochothrix, and Myroides) were the most active genera in the spoiled pork. Photobacterium was further inhibited by each preservative. The inhibition of Acinetobacter, Photobacterium, and Myroides could be responsible for the extended shelf life of vacuum-packaged pork; they were effectively inhibited by KA, which also induced the longest shelf life. Moreover, 19 types of volatile organic compounds were detected. 3-Methylbutanol, 3-methylbutanol acetate, 2-butanone, toluene, benzeneacetaldehyde, dimethyl trisulfide, and acetoin were associated with spoilage. Furthermore, KA is a potential preservative in raw pork; because no phenol was detectable within 35 days, excessive intake of phenol induced by preservatives was avoided.

  10. Introduction of fuel GE14 in the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde for the extended increase of power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez M, N.; Vargas A, A. F.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Contreras C, P.

    2008-01-01

    The project of extended increase of power responds to a necessity of electrical energy in the country, increasing the thermal exit of the reactors of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde of 2027 MWt to 2317 MWt. In order to support this transition, changes will make in the configuration of the reactor core and in the operation strategies of the cycle, also they will take initiatives to optimize the economy in fuel cycle. At present in both reactors of the nuclear plant of Laguna Verde fuel GE12 is used. The fuel GE14 presents displays with respect to the GE12, some improvements in the mechanical design and consequently in its performance generally. Between these improvements we can mention: 1. Spacers of high performance. 2. Shielding with barrier. 3. Filter for sweepings d ebris a nd 4. Fuel rods of minor partial length. The management of nuclear power plants has decided to introduce the use of fuel GE14 in Laguna Verde in the reload 14 for Unit 1 and of the reload 10 for Unit 2. The process of new introduction fuel GE14 consists of two stages, first consists on subjecting the one new design of fuel to the regulator organism in the USA: Nuclear Regulatory Commission, in Mexico the design must be analyzed and authorized by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards, for its approval of generic form, by means of the demonstration of the fulfillment with the amendment 22 of GESTAR II, the second stage includes the specific analyses of plant to justify the use of the new fuel design in a reload core. The nuclear plant of Laguna Verde would use some of the results of the security analyses that have been realized for the project of extended increase of power with fuel GE14, to document the specific analyses of plant with the new fuel design. The result of the analyses indicates that the reload lots are increased of 116-120 assemblies in present conditions (2027 MWt) to 140-148 assemblies in conditions of extended increase of power (2317 MWt). (Author)

  11. A review of assessment and retrofitting of structures for plant life extension (PLEX) programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samota, A.; Verma, U.S.P.; Tilak, M.M.

    1994-01-01

    Assessment of the life of existing civil engineering structures for the plant life extension programme has to be made considering various factors such as strength, deterioration, environmental impact particularly with regard to radiation field, etc. which need to be evaluated very carefully. Generally, it is considered that initial design usually caters for a period of around 40 years, though structural failures have been reported even at a much younger stage due to deficiency in design and construction. In the context of nuclear power plant when the initial license is given for a period 30-40 years, it becomes necessary to evaluate the health of the various structures particularly while applying for a license for the extension of plant life. The present paper discuss the various issues connected with the evaluation of the future life of an existing structure in terms of strength and change in its property particularly when the structure is exposed to radiation. The various effects with regard to ageing and radiation exposure and the destructive and non-destructive tests which need to be carried out are discussed in detail. (author). 8 refs., 4 figs

  12. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  13. Environmental sustainability assessment of hydropower plant in Europe using life cycle assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, M. A. P.; Huda, N.; Farjana, S. H.; Lang, C.

    2018-05-01

    Hydropower is the oldest and most common type of renewable source of electricity available on this planet. The end of life process of hydropower plant have significant environmental impacts, which needs to be identified and minimized to ensure an environment friendly power generation. However, identifying the environmental impacts and health hazards are very little explored in the hydropower processing routes despite a significant quantity of production worldwide. This paper highlight the life-cycle environmental impact assessment of the reservoir based hydropower generation system located in alpine and non-alpine region of Europe, addressing their ecological effects by the ReCiPe and CML methods under several impact-assessment categories such as human health, ecosystems, global warming potential, acidification potential, etc. The Australasian life-cycle inventory database and SimaPro software are utilized to accumulate life-cycle inventory dataset and to evaluate the impacts. The results reveal that plants of alpine region offer superior environmental performance for couple of considered categories: global warming and photochemical oxidation, whilst in the other cases the outcomes are almost similar. Results obtained from this study will take part an important role in promoting sustainable generation of hydropower, and thus towards environment friendly energy production.

  14. Vasoprotective effects of life span-extending peripubertal GH replacement in Lewis dwarf rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungvari, Zoltan; Gautam, Tripti; Koncz, Peter; Henthorn, Jim C; Pinto, John T; Ballabh, Praveen; Yan, Han; Mitschelen, Matthew; Farley, Julie; Sonntag, William E; Csiszar, Anna

    2010-11-01

    In humans, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) significantly increase the risk for cerebrovascular disease. Genetic growth hormone (GH)/IGF-1 deficiency in Lewis dwarf rats significantly increases the incidence of late-life strokes, similar to the effects of GHD in elderly humans. Peripubertal treatment of Lewis dwarf rats with GH delays the occurrence of late-life stroke, which results in a significant extension of life span. The present study was designed to characterize the vascular effects of life span-extending peripubertal GH replacement in Lewis dwarf rats. Here, we report, based on measurements of dihydroethidium fluorescence, tissue isoprostane, GSH, and ascorbate content, that peripubertal GH/IGF-1 deficiency in Lewis dwarf rats increases vascular oxidative stress, which is prevented by GH replacement. Peripubertal GHD did not alter superoxide dismutase or catalase activities in the aorta nor the expression of Cu-Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and catalase in the cerebral arteries of dwarf rats. In contrast, cerebrovascular expression of glutathione peroxidase 1 was significantly decreased in dwarf vessels, and this effect was reversed by GH treatment. Peripubertal GHD significantly decreases expression of the Nrf2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC in the cerebral arteries, whereas it does not affect expression and activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and vascular expression of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins, and inflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interluekin-6, interluekin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, intercellular adhesion molecule 1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1). In conclusion, peripubertal GH/IGF-1 deficiency confers pro-oxidative cellular effects, which likely promote an adverse functional and structural phenotype in the vasculature, and results in accelerated vascular impairments later in life.

  15. Economic analysis of extended cycles in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant; Analisis economico de ciclos de extendidos en la Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez N, H.; Hernandez M, J.L.; Francois L, J.L. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: hermilo@correo.unam.mx

    2004-07-01

    The present work presents a preliminary analysis of economic type of extended cycles of operation of the Unit One in the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. It is analysed an equilibrium cycle of 18 months firstly, with base to the Plan of Use of Energy of the Federal Commission of Electricity, being evaluated the cost of the energy until the end of the useful life of the plant. Later on an alternative recharge scenario is presented with base to an equilibrium cycle of 24 months, implemented to the beginning of the cycle 11, without considering transition cycles. It is added in both cycles the cost of the substitution energy, considering the unitary cost of the fuel of a dual thermoelectric power station of 350 M We and evaluating in each operation cycle, in both scenarios, the value of the substitution energy. The results show that a reduction of the days of recharge in the cycle of 24 months could make this option but favorable economically. The duration of the period of recharge rebounds in considerable grade in the cost of energy generation for concept of fuel. (Author)

  16. Results of extended plant tests using more realistic exposure scenarios for improving environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Elisabeth; Berkner, Silvia; Ebert, Ina; Förster, Bernhard; Graf, Nadin; Herrchen, Monika; Kühnen, Ute; Römbke, Jörg; Simon, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with a more realistic exposure scenario via manure application is needed. This paper presents an extended plant test and its experimental verification with the veterinary antibiotics florfenicol and tylosin tartrate. With each substance, plant tests with four different types of application were conducted: standard tests according to OECD 208 and three tests with application of test substance via spiked manure either without storage, aerobically incubated, or anaerobically incubated for different time periods. In standard tests, the lowest NOEC was tylosin tartrate. Pre-tests showed that plant growth was not impaired at 22-g fresh manure/kg dry soil, which therefore was used for the final tests. The application of the test substances via freshly spiked as well as via aerobically incubated manure had no significant influence on the test results. Application of florfenicol via anaerobically incubated manure increased the EC10 by a factor up to 282 and 540 for half-maximum and for maximum incubation period, respectively. For tylosin tartrate, this factor amounted to 64 at half-maximum and 61 at maximum incubation period. The reduction of phytotoxicity was generally stronger when using cattle manure than pig manure and particularly in tests with cattle manure phytotoxicity decreased over the incubation period. The verification of the extended plant test showed that seedling emergence and growth are comparable to a standard OECD 208 test and reliable effect concentrations could be established. As

  17. A study on the optimization of plant life extension and decommissioning for the improvement of economy in nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae In; Jung, K. J.; Chung, U. S.; Baik, S. T.; Park, S. K.; Lee, D. G.; Kim, H. R.; Park, B. Y

    2001-01-01

    Fundamental concepts on the life extension of the nuclear power plant and decommissioning optimization were established from the domestic abroad information and case analyses. Concerning the decommissioning of the nuclear power plant, the management according to decommissioning stages was analyzed by the investigation of the standard of the decommissioning(decontamination dismantling) regulation. Moreover, basics were set for the decommissioning of domestic nuclear power plants and research reactors from the analyses on the decommissioning technology and precedence.

  18. Environmental burdens over the entire life cycle of a biomass CHP plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungmeier, G.; Spitzer, J.; Resch, G.

    1998-01-01

    To increase the use of biomass for energy production it is important to know the possible and significant environmental effects. A life cycle inventory (LCI) was made on a 1.3 MW el biomass CHP plant located in Reuthe/Vorarlberg/Austria with the purpose of analysing the different environmental burdens over the entire life cycle. The plant is fired with coarse and small fuelwood (10,000 t/yr) from industrial waste and forest residues. The boiler for the steam process has a moving grate burner and a muffle burner. The annual production is 4700 MWh of electricity and 29,000 MWh of district heat. The methodology of the analysis is orientated on the ISO Committee Draft of the Series 13,600. The analysis was carried out for the different sections of the biomass plant over their entire life cycle-construction (1 yr), operation (20 yrs) and dismantling (1 yr). The plant in Reuthe, which is the first cogeneration system of this kind in Austria, is a model for other similar projects. The results are shown as environmental burdens of one year and of the entire life cycle. Some results of the life cycle inventory, like the mass and energy balances, selected emissions to air, allocation results and effects on carbon storage pools are given. The results demonstrate that depending on the stage and the period of life, different environmental burdens become significant, i.e. CO 2 emissions of fossil fuels during construction. NO x emission during operation, emissions to soil during dismantling. The different options for allocation the environmental burdens to electricity and heat show a wide range of possible results, depending on the choice of allocation parameters (energy, exergy, credits for heat or electricity, price) i.e. for the particles emissions: 161 mg/kWh el to minus 566 mg/kWh el , 0 mg/kWh th to 118 mg/kWh th . With the results of the analysis it is thus possible for future similar projects to know when and where significant environmental burdens might be further

  19. Assessing elements of an extended evolutionary synthesis for plant domestication and agricultural origin research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperno, Dolores R.

    2017-01-01

    The development of agricultural societies, one of the most transformative events in human and ecological history, was made possible by plant and animal domestication. Plant domestication began 12,000–10,000 y ago in a number of major world areas, including the New World tropics, Southwest Asia, and China, during a period of profound global environmental perturbations as the Pleistocene epoch ended and transitioned into the Holocene. Domestication is at its heart an evolutionary process, and for many prehistorians evolutionary theory has been foundational in investigating agricultural origins. Similarly, geneticists working largely with modern crops and their living wild progenitors have documented some of the mechanisms that underwrote phenotypic transformations from wild to domesticated species. Ever-improving analytic methods for retrieval of empirical data from archaeological sites, together with advances in genetic, genomic, epigenetic, and experimental research on living crop plants and wild progenitors, suggest that three fields of study currently little applied to plant domestication processes may be necessary to understand these transformations across a range of species important in early prehistoric agriculture. These fields are phenotypic (developmental) plasticity, niche construction theory, and epigenetics with transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. All are central in a controversy about whether an Extended Evolutionary Synthesis is needed to reconceptualize how evolutionary change occurs. An exploration of their present and potential utility in domestication study shows that all three fields have considerable promise in elucidating important issues in plant domestication and in agricultural origin and dispersal research and should be increasingly applied to these issues. PMID:28576881

  20. Reactor plant for Belene NPP completion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragunov, Yu. G.; Ryzhov, S. B.; Ermakov, D. N.; Repin, A. I.

    2004-01-01

    Construction of 'Belene' NPP was started at the end of 80-ties using project U-87 with V-320 reactor plant, general designer of this plant is OKB 'Gidropress'. At the beginning of 90-ties, on completing the considerable number of deliveries and performance of civil engineering work at the site the NPP construction was suspended. Nowadays, considering the state of affairs at the site and the work performed by Bulgarian Party on preservation of the equipment delivered, the most perspective is supposed to be implementation of the following versions in completing 'Belene' NPP: for completion of Unit 1 - reactor plant VVER-1000 on the basis of V-320 reactor with the maximum use of the delivered equipment (V-320M) having the extended service life and safety improvement; for Unit 2 - advanced reactor plant VVER-1000. For the upgraded reactor plant V-230M the basic solutions and characteristics are presented, as well as the calculated justification of strength and safety analyses, design of the reactor core and fuel cycle, instrumentation and control systems, application of the 'leak-before break' in the project and implementation of safety measures. For the modernised reactor plant V-392M the main characteristics and basic changes are presented, concerning reactor pressure vessel, steam generator, reactor coolant pump set. Design of NPP with the modernized reactor plant V-320M meets the up-to-date requirements and can be licensed for completion and operation. In the design of NPP with the advanced reactor plant the basic solutions and the equipment are used that are similar to those used in standard reactor plant V-320 and new one with VVER-1000 under construction and completion in Russia, and abroad. Compliance of reactor design with the up-to-date international requirements, considering the extended service life of the main equipment, shows its rather high potential for implementation during completion of 'Belene' NPP

  1. Evaluation and measures of the life extension of TVO I and TVO II power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakala, J.

    1994-01-01

    A continuous and wide preventive maintenance and renovation is chosen to the life extension strategy at TVO I and II units. This requires extensive concentration on all ageing phenomena on theoretical level as well as on following their development at the power plant. The work related to ageing is partly performed by persons who are responsible for systems and components in the power plant organization, partly by the working groups, which are organized for those purposes. The evaluation of the ageing phenomenon of the power plant systems, of large components and of different technical fields has revealed several needs for measures. Partly those are already performed. However the evaluation has not revealed any such ageing phenomena, which would limit the power plant life time to originally planned 40 years. (orig.)

  2. An integrated approach to extend the shelf life of a composite pastry product (cannoli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Nobile, M A; Muratore, G; Conte, A; Incoronato, A L; Panza, O

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a combined approach is proposed to extend the shelf life of a composite pastry product (cannoli). In particular, to delay moisture migration, one, two, or three layers of a zein-based coating were studied. A three-layer coating represented the most effective solution to prevent rapid pastry softening. A subsequent experimental trial was aimed to prolong the shelf life of the ricotta-based stuffing. To this aim, two different antimicrobial compounds (lysozyme and lemon extract) at three concentrations (2,000, 3,000, and 4,000 ppm) were investigated separately from a microbiological and a sensorial point of view. Lemon extract was the active compound that received a better score, thus suggesting using 2,000 ppm of citrus extract in the last step. In the final experimental trial, cannoli were coated with three layers of zein, stuffed with ricotta containing the selected active agent, and packaged in two microperforated films. The use of zein-based coating and the lemon extract in the ricotta stuffing, combined with the barrier properties of the selected packaging materials, allowed a significant prolongation of cannoli shelf life, regardless of the type of film: a shelf life of more than 3 days was recorded, compared with the control samples, which were acceptable for less than 2 days. It is reasonable to assume that the proposed integrated approach could boost the distribution of the investigated typical pastry beyond local borders.

  3. On economic efficiency of nuclear power unit life extension using steam-gas topping plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Y.N.; Lisitsa, F.D.; Smirnov, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    The different options for life extension of the operating nuclear power units have been analyzed in the report with regard for their economic efficiency. A particular attention is given to the option envisaging the reduction of reactor power output and its subsequent compensation with a steam-gas topping plant. Steam generated at its heat-recovery boilers is proposed to be used for the additional loading of the nuclear plant turbine so as to reach its nominal output. It would be demonstrated that the implementation of this option allows to reduce total costs in the period of power plant life extension by 24-29% as compared with the alternative use of the replacing steam-gas unit and the saved resources could be directed, for instance, for decommissioning of a reactor facility. (authors)

  4. Aging of concrete components and its significance relative to life extension of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power currently supplies about 16% of the US electricity requirements, with the percentage expected to rise to 20% by 1990. Despite the increasing role of nuclear power in energy production, cessation of orders for new nuclear plants in combination with expiration of operating licenses for several plants in the next 15 to 20 years results in a potential loss of electrical generating capacity of 50 to 60 gigawatts during the time period 2005 to 2020. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to the problem of meeting future energy demand is available through extension of the service life of existing nuclear plants. Any consideration of plant life extension, however, must consider the concrete components in these plants, since they play a vital safety role. Under the USNRC Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) Program, a study was conducted to review operating experience and to provide background that will lead to subsequent development of a methodology for assessing and predicting the effects of aging on the performance of concrete-based structures. The approach followed was in conformance with the NPAR strategy

  5. Nuclear power plant maintenance optimisation SENUF network activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstrand, R.; Bieth, M.; Pla, P.; Rieg, C.; Trampus, P. [Inst. for Energy, EC DG Joint Research Centre, Petten (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    During providing scientific and technical support to TACIS and PHARE nuclear safety programs a large amount of knowledge related to Russian design reactor systems has accumulated and led to creation of a new Network concerning Nuclear Safety in Central and Eastern Europe called ''Safety of Eastern European type Nuclear Facilities'' (SENUF). SENUF contributes to bring together all stakeholders of TACIS and PHARE: beneficiaries, end users, Eastern und Western nuclear industries, and thus, to favour fruitful technical exchanges and feedback of experience. At present the main focus of SENUF is the nuclear power plant maintenance as substantial element of plant operational safety as well as life management. A Working Group has been established on plant maintenance. One of its major tasks in 2004 is to prepare a status report on advanced strategies to optimise maintenance. Optimisation projects have an interface with the plant's overall life management program. Today, almost all plants involved in SENUF network have an explicit policy to extend their service life, thus, component ageing management, modernization and refurbishment actions became much more important. A database is also under development, which intends to help sharing the available knowledge and specific equipment and tools. (orig.)

  6. The life prediction study of Rokkasho reprocessing plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Yano, M.; Takizawa, M.; Shibata, S.

    1998-01-01

    The life prediction study of major equipment materials used in heavily corrosive nitric acid solutions of the RRP was carried out. The nitric acid recovery made of type 304ULC austenitic steel and the dissolver made of type 705 metallic zirconium are selected on the present study. This study is composed of major three programs, namely, the mock-up tests by small-sized equipments simulated to the practical design, laboratory tests for examining corrosion controlling factors by small specimens and to establish the data base system for the life prediction. Important parameters on this study was extracted with analyzing the past data of the life prediction on the Tokai reprocessing equipments. The mock-ups design was made by considering the quantitative evaluation of the most important parts on objective equipments, namely, heat conducting tubes in an acid recovery evaporator and a thermal jacket in a dissolver. From pre-examinations, the effects of radioactive species, nitric acid solution chemistry, the corrosion mechanisms were elucidated. Mock-up testing conditions corrosion monitoring methods and a data base concept for the the life prediction were selected from pre-examination data by referencing the plant operation planning. (author)

  7. Development of overall evaluation system for nuclear plant life extension, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soneda, Naoki; Takao, Takeshi

    1990-01-01

    Life and integrity assessment of structural components is essential for the nuclear plant life evaluation. Many works have been done on the life and integrity assessment methods up to date. However, there are few methods for the reliability evaluation of analysis results obtained by those methods. This report presents a reliability evaluation method of analysis results based on knowledge base and its application to the integrity assessment of PWR reactor pressure vessel against PTS event. Probabilistic fracture mechanics method is used to obtain the sensitivity of failure probability to analysis inputs. Knowledge base of fuzzy rules is constructed using the sensitivity analysis results. This method makes it possible to set reasonable safety margins to the analysis results. (author)

  8. Geographic proximity to coal plants and U.S. public support for extending the Production Tax Credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfarb, Jillian L.; Buessing, Marric; Kriner, Douglas L.

    2016-01-01

    The Production Tax Credit (PTC) is an important policy instrument through which the federal government promotes renewable energy development in the United States. However, the efficacy of the PTC is hampered by repeated expirations and short-term extensions, and by the general uncertainty surrounding its future status. We examine the factors driving variation in public support for the extension of the PTC using a nationally representative, internet-based survey. Americans living near a coal-fired power plant are significantly more likely to support extending the PTC than are their peers who are more insulated from the externalities of burning coal. The evidence for this dynamic was strongest and most statistically significant among subjects experimentally primed to think about the adverse health effects of burning coal. Raising awareness of the public health ramifications of generating electricity from fossil fuels holds the potential to increase support for renewable energy policies among those living in proximity to coal plants, even in a highly politicized policy debate. - Highlights: • Proximity to coal power plant increases support for Production Tax Credit. • Attitudes toward global warming influence support for PTC. • Raising awareness of health threat increases PTC support if living near coal plant.

  9. Analyses of operating license renewal for nuclear power plants in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Goro

    2007-01-01

    Although the originally-approved operating period for nuclear power plants in the U.S. is 40 years, the operating periods of many plants have been extended by license renewal for another 20 years. On the other hand, in Japan, plant life management is carried out assuming long-term operation of the plant, and the electric power company submits reports, such as aging technology assessment, and receives evaluation by the authorities. In this paper, the situation regarding plant life management was investigated and a Japan-U.S. comparison was made. As a result, differences were found in the procedure, the background, the manpower, the review period, etc. in Japan and the U.S. but there is no difference between Japan and the U.S. in aiming for a check of the integrity of components, assuming long-term operation for 60 years. Moreover, trend analysis using the overseas fault database of INSS examined the effect on the preservation activities of a license renewal. As a result, there is a tendency for license renewal not to be applied for in units in which the number of aging faults increases with the increase in elapsed years. The U.S. license renewal system was considered to be effective in plant life management, and suggested the validity of plant life management in Japan which is employing the equivalent system to the U.S. (author)

  10. Life Cycle Assessment of Daugavgriva Waste Water Treatment Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Romagnoli, F; Fraga Sampaio, F; Blumberga, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the assessment of the environmental impacts caused by the treatment of Riga’s waste water in the Daugavgriva plant with biogas energy cogeneration through the life cycle assessment (LCA). The LCA seems to be a good tool to assess and evaluate the most serious environmental impacts of a facility The results showed clearly that the impact category contributing the most to the total impact –eutrophicationcomes from the wastewater treatment stage. Cl...

  11. Physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood as determinants of retirement and extended working life in a British cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Cooper, Rachel; Cadar, Dorina; Carr, Ewan; Murray, Emily; Richards, Marcus; Stansfeld, Stephen; Zaninotto, Paola; Head, Jenny; Kuh, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Objective Policy in many industrialized countries increasingly emphasizes extended working life. We examined associations between physical and cognitive capability in mid-adulthood and work in late adulthood. Methods Using self-reported physical limitations and performance-based physical and cognitive capability at age 53, assessed by trained nurses from the Medical Research Council (MRC) National Survey of Health and Development, we examined prospective associations with extended working (captured by age at and reason for retirement from main occupation, bridge employment in paid work after retirement from the main occupation, and voluntary work participation) up to age 68 among >2000 men and women. Results Number of reported physical limitations at age 53 was associated with higher likelihood of retiring for negative reasons and lower likelihood of participating in bridge employment, adjusted for occupational class, education, partner's employment, work disability at age 53, and gender. Better performance on physical and cognitive tests was associated with greater likelihood of participating in bridge or voluntary work. Cognitive capability in the top 10% compared with the middle 80% of the distribution was associated with an odds ratio of bridge employment of 1.71 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.21-2.42]. Conclusions The possibility for an extending working life is less likely to be realized by those with poorer midlife physical or cognitive capability, independently of education, and social class. Interventions to promote capability, starting in mid-adulthood or earlier, could have long-term consequences for extending working.

  12. Russian conceptions of plant life management and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaenko, S.E.; Butorin, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Plant life management (PLIM) of nuclear power plant is the concept and practice to provide profitability of safe operation of nuclear electricity-generating installations. Therefore, application of the PLIM technology is a unique possibility for the nuclear power not only to preserve its presence at the generated electricity market but also to enlarge it there at the first quarter of the third millennium. PLIM is considered as the concept and procedure covering the whole life cycle of NPP, consisting of three main phases: pre-operation, operation, post-operation. When considering the list of the main standard works for PLIM, one can notice that the structure of a full volume of works can be presented as the sum of two constituents: specific for a particular power unit and universal one. A specific constituent implies realising the PLIM process at a particular power unit, and universal one implies development scientific-methodological, technological and normative basis supporting PLIM process. The concept of decommissioning NPP power units was developed and adopted in 1991, and nowadays is renewed. Its main principles and provisions correspond to a general approach to decommissioning nuclear power plants which was adopted in international practice and recommended in the IAEA documents. Elimination of NPP power unit is adopted in it as the basic option

  13. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  14. NTRE extended life feasibility assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Results of a feasibility analysis of a long life, reusable nuclear thermal rocket engine are presented in text and graph form. Two engine/reactor concepts are addressed: the Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) design and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) concept. Engine design, integration, reliability, and safety are addressed by various members of the NTRE team from Aerojet Propulsion Division, Energopool (Russia), and Babcock & Wilcox.

  15. Control oriented concentrating solar power (CSP) plant model and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qi

    Solar receivers in concentrating solar thermal power plants (CSP) undergo over 10,000 start-ups and shutdowns, and over 25,000 rapid rate of change in temperature on receivers due to cloud transients resulting in performance degradation and material fatigue in their expected lifetime of over 30 years. The research proposes to develop a three-level controller that uses multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control technology to minimize the effect of these disturbances, improve plant performance, and extend plant life. The controller can be readily installed on any vendor supplied state-of-the-art control hardware. We propose a three-level controller architecture using multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) control for CSP plants that can be implemented on existing plants to improve performance, reliability, and extend the life of the plant. This architecture optimizes the performance on multiple time scalesreactive level (regulation to temperature set points), tactical level (adaptation of temperature set points), and strategic level (trading off fatigue life due to thermal cycling and current production). This controller unique to CSP plants operating at temperatures greater than 550 °C, will make CSPs competitive with conventional power plants and contribute significantly towards the Sunshot goal of 0.06/kWh(e), while responding with agility to both market dynamics and changes in solar irradiance such as due to passing clouds. Moreover, our development of control software with performance guarantees will avoid early stage failures and permit smooth grid integration of the CSP power plants. The proposed controller can be implemented with existing control hardware infrastructure with little or no additional equipment. In the thesis, we demonstrate a dynamics model of CSP, of which different components are modelled with different time scales. We also show a real time control strategy of CSP control oriented model in steady state. Furthermore, we shown different controllers

  16. Production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Sogo Begoña

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pelargonium is one of the most popular garden plants in the world. Moreover, it has a considerable economic importance in the ornamental plant market. Conventional cross-breeding strategies have generated a range of cultivars with excellent traits. However, gene transfer via Agrobacterium tumefaciens could be a helpful tool to further improve Pelargonium by enabling the introduction of new genes/traits. We report a simple and reliable protocol for the genetic transformation of Pelargonium spp. and the production of engineered long-life and male sterile Pelargonium zonale plants, using the pSAG12::ipt and PsEND1::barnase chimaeric genes respectively. Results The pSAG12::ipt transgenic plants showed delayed leaf senescence, increased branching and reduced internodal length, as compared to control plants. Leaves and flowers of the pSAG12::ipt plants were reduced in size and displayed a more intense coloration. In the transgenic lines carrying the PsEND1::barnase construct no pollen grains were observed in the modified anther structures, which developed instead of normal anthers. The locules of sterile anthers collapsed 3–4 days prior to floral anthesis and, in most cases, the undeveloped anther tissues underwent necrosis. Conclusion The chimaeric construct pSAG12::ipt can be useful in Pelargonium spp. to delay the senescence process and to modify plant architecture. In addition, the use of engineered male sterile plants would be especially useful to produce environmentally friendly transgenic plants carrying new traits by preventing gene flow between the genetically modified ornamentals and related plant species. These characteristics could be of interest, from a commercial point of view, both for pelargonium producers and consumers.

  17. Design and fabrication of stainless steel components for long life of spent fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natarajan, R.; Ramkumar, P.; Sundararaman, V.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Baldev Raj; Shanmugam, K.

    2010-01-01

    Reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels based on the PUREX process is the proven process with many commercial plants operating satisfactorily worldwide. The process medium being nitric acid, austenitic stainless steel is the material of construction as it is the best commercially available material for meeting the conditions in the reprocessing plants. Because of the high radiation fields, contact maintenance of equipment and systems of these plants are very time consuming and costly unlike other chemical process plants. Though the plants constructed in the early years required extensive shut downs for replacement of equipment and systems within the first fifteen years of operation itself, development in the field of stainless steel metallurgy and fabrication techniques have made it possible to design the present day plants for an operating life period of forty years. A review of the operational experience of the PUREX process based aqueous reprocessing plants has been made in this paper and reveals that life limiting failures of equipment and systems are mainly due to corrosion while a few are due to stresses. Presently there are no standards for design specification of materials and fabrication of reprocessing plants like the nuclear power plants, where well laid down ASTM and ASME codes and standards are available which are based on the large scale operational feedbacks on pressure vessels for conventional and nuclear industries. (author)

  18. Unit availability not affected by extending outage cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.J.

    2003-03-01

    To improve their economic dispatch position, more and more plant owners are extending the intervals between major outages for boilers from one year to 18-24 months and for steam turbine up to 12 years. In many instances, extended outage cycles have resulted in no loss in availability or increases in forced outages. The article discusses outage scheduling at Tucson Electric Power's Springville coal-fired plant, the Panther Creek Energy Facility in Pennsylvania, and at Tennessee Valley Authority's coal-fired power plants. 1 fig.

  19. Maximum utilization of primary reformer catalyst tubes careful assessment of remaining life-An experience at an ammonia plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Condition evaluation and residual life assessment of Reformer Catalyst Tubes has always been a point of concern for Ammonia and Methanol Plant operators. Failure of catalyst tubes results in total plant shutdown and consequent production loss. On the other hand, replacement of these tubes entails major cost impact on the company's budget, being a capital expenditure. A careful Residual Life Assessment of the tubes is therefore of utmost importance for maximum utilization of these tubes without jeopardizing plant operational reliability. This paper presents an experience of extracting maximum service life from the catalyst tubes of Primary Reformer of an Ammonia Plant. Fauji Fertilizer Company (FFC) has been operating the plant since 1982, having a designed capacity of 1100 MTPD. Its Primary Reformer has 288 catalyst tubes of IN-519 material (24Cr-24Ni-Nb). The design temperature and pressures are 925 degree C and 38kg/Cm respectively. Thanks to the optimum operating conditions, regular inspections and careful assessment of the residual life, the tubes have achieved more than double of the designed life and are still operating reliably. To evaluate the tube's health, Ultrasonic Inspection (UT) was carried out in 1987 and 1994 using attenuation technique. The tubes with maximum attenuation were marked for further evaluation. Accelerated Creep Rupture Test was carried out on sample tubes periodically (1996, 2001 and 2004). Tubes were selected on the basis of UT results, TMT (Tube Metal Temperature) monitoring and Inspection findings. Based on the combined results of DT, NDT, equipment history and foreseen operational parameters, the life of these tubes was carefully assessed periodically. The tubes have been in service for more than 23 years (design life: 11 years) and a further life of 04 years has been predicted as per last assessment.The experience of successful health evaluation and residual life assessment has saved substantial cost involved in tubes replacement

  20. The AP1000R nuclear power plant innovative features for extended station blackout mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vereb, F.; Winters, J.; Schulz, T.; Cummins, E.; Oriani, L.

    2012-01-01

    Station Blackout (SBO) is defined as 'a condition wherein a nuclear power plant sustains a loss of all offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of all onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system. Station blackout does not include the loss of available AC power to buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources as defined in this section, nor does it assume a concurrent single failure or design basis accident...' in accordance with Reference 1. In this paper, the innovative features of the AP1000 plant design are described with their operation in the scenario of an extended station blackout event. General operation of the passive safety systems are described as well as the unique features which allow the AP1000 plant to cope for at least 7 days during station blackout. Points of emphasis will include: - Passive safety system operation during SBO - 'Fail-safe' nature of key passive safety system valves; automatically places the valve in a conservatively safe alignment even in case of multiple failures in all power supply systems, including normal AC and battery backup - Passive Spent Fuel Pool cooling and makeup water supply during SBO - Robustness of AP1000 plant due to the location of key systems, structures and components required for Safe Shutdown - Diverse means of supplying makeup water to the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) and the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) through use of an engineered, safety-related piping interface and portable equipment, as well as with permanently installed onsite ancillary equipment. (authors)

  1. The integrity of NSSS and containment during extended station blackout for Kuosheng BWR plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Keng-Hsien; Yuann, Yng-Ruey; Lin, Ansheng [Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research

    2017-11-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi accident occurring on March 11, 2011, reveals that Station Blackout (SBO) may last longer than 8 h. However, the original design may not have sufficient capacity to cope with a SBO for more than 8 h. In view of this, Taiwan Power Company has initiated several enhancements to mitigate the severity of the extended SBO. Based on the improved plant configuration, a SBO coping analysis is performed in this study to assess whether the Kuosheng BWR plant has sufficient capability to cope with SBO for 24 h with respect to maintaining the integrity of the reactor core and containment. The analyses in the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) and the containment are based on the RETRAN-3D and GOTHIC models, respectively. The flow conditions calculated by RETRAN-3D during the event are retrieved and input to the GOTHIC containment model to determine the containment pressure and temperature response. These boundary conditions include SRV flow rate, SRV flow enthalpy, and total reactor coolant system leakage flow rate.

  2. The integrity of NSSS and containment during extended station blackout for Kuosheng BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Keng-Hsien; Yuann, Yng-Ruey; Lin, Ansheng

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi accident occurring on March 11, 2011, reveals that Station Blackout (SBO) may last longer than 8 h. However, the original design may not have sufficient capacity to cope with a SBO for more than 8 h. In view of this, Taiwan Power Company has initiated several enhancements to mitigate the severity of the extended SBO. Based on the improved plant configuration, a SBO coping analysis is performed in this study to assess whether the Kuosheng BWR plant has sufficient capability to cope with SBO for 24 h with respect to maintaining the integrity of the reactor core and containment. The analyses in the Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) and the containment are based on the RETRAN-3D and GOTHIC models, respectively. The flow conditions calculated by RETRAN-3D during the event are retrieved and input to the GOTHIC containment model to determine the containment pressure and temperature response. These boundary conditions include SRV flow rate, SRV flow enthalpy, and total reactor coolant system leakage flow rate.

  3. Planting Season for Cottonwood Can Be Extended

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey E. Kennedy

    1979-01-01

    Cottonwood cuttings planted as early as November and as late as May survive and grow well if sufficient soil moisture is available and cuttings are properly handled. About 6 inches or more of well distributed rainfall is needed in September and October to recharge Commerce soil. If these two months are dry, planting should be delayed. In March or later, cuttings should...

  4. A Comparison Study: The New Extended Shelf Life Isopropyl Ester PMR Technology versus The Traditional Methyl Ester PMR Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, William B.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; Sivko, Gloria S.

    2005-01-01

    Polymerization of Monomeric Reactants (PMR) monomer solutions and carbon cloth prepregs of PMR II-50 and VCAP-75 were prepared using both the traditional limited shelf life methanol based PMR approach and a novel extended shelf life isopropanol based PMR approach. The methyl ester and isopropyl ester based PMR monomer solutions and PMR prepregs were aged for up to four years at freezer and room temperatures. The aging products formed were monitored using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composite processing flow characteristics and volatile contents of the aged prepregs were also correlated versus room temperature storage time. Composite processing cycles were developed and six ply cloth laminates were fabricated with prepregs after various extended room temperature storage times. The composites were then evaluated for glass transition temperature (Tg), thermal decomposition temperature (Td), initial flexural strength (FS) and modulus (FM), long term (1000 hours at 316 C) thermal oxidative stability (TOS), and retention of FS and FM after 1000 hours aging at 316 C. The results for each ester system were comparable. Freezer storage was found to prevent the formation of aging products for both ester systems. Room temperature storage of the novel isopropyl ester system increased PMR monomer solution and PMR prepreg shelf life by at least an order of magnitude while maintaining composite properties.

  5. Experiences with the technical cooperation project TC MEX 04/53. Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant. Management program of the plant life (PLIM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arganis J, C.R.; Aguilar T, J.A.; Guevara M, A.; Garcia M, C.; Martinez G, R.R.; Griz C, M.M.; Sanchez M, M.A.; Diaz O, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the biennium 2005-2006 the project of technical cooperation with the International Atomic Energy Agency OIEA TC MEX 04/53 'Evaluation of the integrity and extension of life of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant Plant life handling program (PLIM)' was approved, which has as objective the one to begin the actions to apply the methodology of Handling of life of Plant (PLIM) in the Unit I (Ul) of the Laguna Verde Nucleo electric Central (CNLV), in order to obtain the Renovation of License (LR), in a long term (2020). To apply this methodology 5 systems they were selected, structures or components (SEC) to carry out the handling programs of the one aging (AMP), and PLIM which are: The encircling of the reactor core (Core Shroud), the pressure vessel of the reactor (Reactor Pressure Vessel), the one primary container (Primary Containment), the system of feeding water (Reactor Feed Water) and cables, which were not in this work to be of another nature. The report presents the more important aspects considered in these systems for their programs of AMP and PLIM, as like a revision of those selection processes and evaluation (screening and scoping) for the application of PLIM in the systems of the Ul of the CNLV. (Author)

  6. Development of a support system to make economic and technical assessments for the issues relating to plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, T.; Soneda, N.; Sakai, T.

    1994-01-01

    To realize the life extension of nuclear power plants, overall evaluation for the plant is required, which covers technology, economy such as cost of repair or/and replacement of components, and regal regulations for licensing. A prototype of integrated assessment support system for life extension ''INPLEX'' have developed in order to evaluate the technical and economic issues relating to the plant life extension and to make a life extension scenario. Analysis procedure of INPLEX is as follows. A comparison of the cost between the life extension and the reconstruction is made to see whether the life extension is cost effective or not. Next, components required detailed assessments are selected, and the residual life assessment of these components are made. After those procedures life extension measures are selected and the implementation time schedule is set on the basis of the formulas for predicting the degradation of the components and the component reliability data. Finally the implementation time schedule is optimized from the viewpoint of economy, and the life extension scenario is proposed. INPLEX also has the data base ''PRINS'', in which information and data related to life extension are registered, such as component degradation experiences, degradation management methodologies, degradation mitigation measures, and so on. PRINS can be referred at any time during the operation of INPLEX

  7. Different Reactive Oxygen Species Scavenging Properties of Flavonoids Determine Their Abilities to Extend the Shelf Life of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; De Stefano, Rosalba; Robine, Marie; Butelli, Eugenio; Bulling, Katharina; Hill, Lionel; Rejzek, Martin; Martin, Cathie; Schoonbeek, Henk-jan

    2015-11-01

    The shelf life of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit is determined by the processes of overripening and susceptibility to pathogens. Postharvest shelf life is one of the most important traits for commercially grown tomatoes. We compared the shelf life of tomato fruit that accumulate different flavonoids and found that delayed overripening is associated with increased total antioxidant capacity caused by the accumulation of flavonoids in the fruit. However, reduced susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea, a major postharvest fungal pathogen of tomato, is conferred by specific flavonoids only. We demonstrate an association between flavonoid structure, selective scavenging ability for different free radicals, and reduced susceptibility to B. cinerea. Our study provides mechanistic insight into how flavonoids influence the shelf life, information that could be used to improve the shelf life of tomato and, potentially, other soft fruit. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Bowel function and quality of life after superior mesenteric nerve plexus transection in right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Y; Stimec, B; Andersen, S N; Lindstrom, J C; Pfeffer, F; Oresland, T; Ignjatovic, D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the impact of injury to the superior mesenteric nerve plexus caused by right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy as performed in the prospective multicenter trial: "Safe Radical D3 Right Hemicolectomy for Cancer through Preoperative Biphasic Multi-detector Computed Tomography" in which all soft tissue surrounding the superior mesenteric vessels from the level of the middle colic artery to that of the ileocolic artery was removed. Bowel function and gastrointestinal quality of life in two consecutive cohorts that underwent right colectomy with and without D3 extended mesenterectomy were compared. Main outcome measures were the Diarrhea Assessment Scale (DAS) and Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI). The data were collected prospectively through telephone interviews. Forty-nine patients per group, comparable for age, sex, length of bowel resected but with significantly shorter follow-up time in the experimental group, were included. There was no difference in total DAS scores, subscores or additional questions except for higher bowel frequency scores in the D3 group (p = 0.02). Comparison of total GIQLI scores and subscales showed no difference between groups. Regression analysis with correction for confounding factors showed 0.48 lower bowel frequency scores in the D2 group (p = 0.022). Within the D3 group presence of jejunal arteries cranial to the D3 dissection area showed 1.78 lower DAS scores and 0.7 lower bowel frequency scores. Small bowel denervation after right colectomy with D3 extended mesenterectomy leads to increased bowel frequency but does not impact gastrointestinal quality of life. Individual anatomical variants can affect postoperative bowel function differently despite standardized surgery.

  9. Combined cycle power plants: A comparison between two different dynamic models to evaluate transient behaviour and residual life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benato, Alberto; Stoppato, Anna; Bracco, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Two procedures aimed at simulating the dynamic behaviour of power plants are compared. • They both are aimed at predicting the residual life of plant devices. • A single pressure gas-steam combined plant has been modelled. • A good correspondence has been found despite the different approaches used. - Abstract: The deregulated energy market and the increasing quota of electrical capacity covered by non-predictable renewable sources require strongly irregular and discontinuous operation of thermoelectric plants to satisfy users demand and compensate the variability of renewable sources. As a consequence, due to thermo-mechanical fatigue, creep and corrosion, a lifetime reduction of the most critical components occurs. The availability of a procedure able to predict the residual life of plant devices is necessary to assist the management decisions about power plants’ operation and maintenance scheduling. The first step of this procedure is the capability of simulating the plant behaviour versus time by evaluating the trends of the main thermodynamic parameters that describe the plant operation during different transient periods. In this context, the main contribution of the present paper is to propose a complete procedure able to simulate the plant dynamic behaviour and estimate the residual life reduction of some components. Indeed, two different models, developed by two different research groups, of the same single pressure heat recovery steam generator unit are presented and utilized to characterize the dynamic behaviour of the above mentioned power plant. The main thermodynamic variables during different transient operation conditions are predicted and good correspondence between the two methods is obtained. It can be also noted that, when the geometry and size of the devices are considered, the thermal inertia related to heat exchangers tubes, pipes and other physical masses causes a delay in the system response. Moreover, a residual life

  10. Design of reactor components (non replaceable) of 500 MWe PHWR for enhanced life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, K.P.; Seth, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear power station is characterised by large initial cost and low operating cost. So a plant which is capable of operating for a longer period of time will be economically more attractive. In the past approach had been to design a nuclear power plant for 30 to 40 years of life time. However, with the improvement in technology and incorporation of redundant and diverse safety features it is now possible to design a nuclear power plant for longer life. Now internationally it is being realised that without sacrificing safety features, plant life should be extended till the cost of maintenance or refurbishment is larger than the cost of the replacement capacity. In order to meet the objective of long life, for the components which cannot be easily replaced the life time of about 100 years is being considered as the design objective. For other items replacement, layout space, shielding, access route and lifting capacity and component design are receiving additional emphasis so as to provide a long total station life time. With the above background, design improvements to enhance the life of reactor components for 500 MWe PHWR namely calandria, end shields and calandria vault liners which cannot be replaced and on which any repair is extremely difficult, have been made. This paper deals with design life of these components and the modifications incorporated in the design. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  11. NDT methods for life-time assessment of high temperature plant; Ofoerstoerande provning foer livslaengdsbedoemning av hoegtemperaturanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, J [Swedish Inst. for Metals Research, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-10-01

    A comprehensive literature study of NDT and analysis methods for residual life-time assessment of high temperature plant has been made. The study has been concentrated on components in boilers, steam piping and turbines in fossil fired power plant. Most types of components are exposed to creep which is also the life-time limiting mechanism in many cases. In addition to creep, other stresses and damages which appear in plant are described for each type of component. Thermal fatigue, corrosion and embrittlement as well as combined damage mechanisms are also life-time limiting in many cases. The literature shows a large number of NDT methods developed and under development in purpose to identify and measure the size and extent of damage in the components. The methods and their limitations are described in relation to the experience and understanding of character, distribution and development of damage in different situations. 83 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  12. MAI: the institute is dedicated for long-term operating of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    The MAI (Materials Ageing Institute) was founded in 2008 by the most important nuclear power plant operators in the world with the aim of sharing resources and expertise for proving that nuclear power plant service life can be extended without jeopardizing safety. Most of MAI's work has focused on the ageing of stainless steels, alloys, polymers and concretes that are used in light water cooled reactors. (A.C.)

  13. Microgravity effects on different stages of higher plant life cycle and completion of the seed-to-seed cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micco, V; De Pascale, S; Paradiso, R; Aronne, G

    2014-01-01

    Human inhabitation of Space requires the efficient realisation of crop cultivation in bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). It is well known that plants can grow under Space conditions; however, perturbations of many biological phenomena have been highlighted due to the effect of altered gravity and its possible interactions with other factors. The mechanisms priming plant responses to Space factors, as well as the consequences of such alterations on crop productivity, have not been completely elucidated. These perturbations can occur at different stages of plant life and are potentially responsible for failure of the completion of the seed-to-seed cycle. After brief consideration of the main constraints found in the most recent experiments aiming to produce seeds in Space, we focus on two developmental phases in which the plant life cycle can be interrupted more easily than in others also on Earth. The first regards seedling development and establishment; we discuss reasons for slow development at the seedling stage that often occurs under microgravity conditions and can reduce successful establishment. The second stage comprises gametogenesis and pollination; we focus on male gamete formation, also identifying potential constraints to subsequent fertilisation. We finally highlight how similar alterations at cytological level can not only be common to different processes occurring at different life stages, but can be primed by different stress factors; such alterations can be interpreted within the model of 'stress-induced morphogenic response' (SIMR). We conclude by suggesting that a systematic analysis of all growth and reproductive phases during the plant life cycle is needed to optimise resource use in plant-based BLSS. © 2013 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  14. An evaluation of information sources and requirements for nuclear plant-aging research with life-extension implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, P.T.

    1986-01-01

    Information requirements for plant-aging and life-extension research are discussed. Various information sources that have been used in plant-aging studies and reliability assessments are described. Data-base searches and analyses were performed for a specific system using several data bases and plant sources. Comments are provided on the results using the various information sources

  15. Extended Power Up-rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jon Ball

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Nuclear energy is a reliable and cost-competitive global source of power. With rising oil and gas prices, nuclear continues to provide economic and environmental benefits. Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) provides a means for existing nuclear assets to generate increased power and substantially reduce electrical generation costs. GE Energy's Nuclear Business is the global leader in boiling water reactor (BWR) technology. The experience-base of plants that have successfully achieved EPU includes Spain, Switzerland, Sweden, Germany and the United States. The GE experience-base includes fourteen BWRs with over fifty-eight reactor-years of operating experience at EPU conditions. Other than the expected plant modifications needed to accommodate higher steam flows, flow-induced vibration (FIV) has been identified as the major area of concern when up-rating. Two plants have experienced damage to their steam dryers that has lead to an extensive program to improve the understanding of the effects of up-rates. This program includes extensive in-plant data collection, the development of a scale model test facility to study components susceptible to FIV and improvements in analytical techniques for evaluating loading on reactor internals. As global energy demands increase, oil and gas prices escalate, and environmental concerns over greenhouse effects challenge us to find environmentally friendly sources of energy, Nuclear is the most viable and economical source of power in the world. With a focused effort on plant reliability, existing plants can undergo Extended Power Up-rate, and continue to meet the ever-increasing energy demands in the world. (author)

  16. Russian normative approach to the question of management of NPP life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpunin, N.I.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In Russia, the designated service life of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is 30 years. During the period 2001-2010, 15 Russian NPP units will reach the end of their service life. The 'Basic Provisions of NPP Safety Assurance', OPB-88/97, Item 5.1.14, provide for a possible extension of NPP operation beyond the designated service life. For such an extension, the NPP operating organization must apply for a license renewal to Gosatomnadzor, which needs to specify the relevant requirements. GAN is developing regulatory documents to provide a basis for NPP license renewal/extension of NPP operation, which would benefit from international experience. In accordance with 'The program of Atomic Energy Development in the Russian Federation for 1998-2005 and up to 2010' adopted by Decree No. 815 of the Government of the Russian Federation on 21 July 1998, priority is placed on the preparation of NPPs for extension of service life and on ensuring safety in the extended operating period. The length of the extension beyond the designated service life is to be determined on the basis of a range of technical and economic considerations, including: The ability to ensure and maintain operational safety; Sufficient residual service life of the unit's non-repairable components; The availability of temporary storage facilities for the additional spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste, or the possibility of its transport off-site; The ability to ensure safe handling of the radioactive waste generated during the extension period; To extend the lifetime of an NPP unit, the plant Operator is required to perform the following tasks: Carry out a comprehensive survey of the NPP unit; Draw up a programme of preparation for lifetime extension; Prepare the NPP unit for operation in the extended period; Carry out the necessary tests. There are also some normative documents, which regulate management of NPP life time. (author)

  17. Study on reactor vessel replacement (RVR) for 1100 MW class BWR plants in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizutani, J.; Kawamura, S.; Aoki, M.; Mori, T.

    2001-01-01

    Plant Life Management (PLM) is being studied in Japan, and reactor vessel replacement (RVR) is being considered as one option. Since reactor internals, except for reusable parts, and the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) are replaced, the RVR provides an effective technology for extending the service life of nuclear power plants substantially. At ICONE 7, we reported on the technical viability of the RVR for BWR4-type 800 MWe class plants. This time, we rationalized the RVR method through a study for BWR5-type 1100 MWe class plants to reduce the RVR duration and evaluated the technical viability and the economic efficiency of the method. In addition, we discuss how to dispose of the RPV to complete a scenario of the process from the RVR to its final disposal. (author)

  18. Concept design of overall evaluation system for nuclear plant life extension, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takao, Takeshi

    1989-01-01

    In this report the frameworks of the plans for the Overall Evaluation System and the 8 systems concerning the plant Life extension are discussed. Main results are as follows. 1) The extension period decision subsystem supported by the AI techniques and Fuzzy theory will be added to the Overall Evaluation System. By using this subsystem the plant lives will be overall evaluated. 2) The range of the data collection for constructing the plant operation and maintenance data base is covered by, i) Operation data in the typical plant start/stop cycling, ii) Operation data at the representative point of the period, iii) All data of the repair and replacement. 3) The degradation monitoring and diagnosing system will be constructed for the expert system based on the knowledge base using the elastic wave theorem. (author) 74 refs

  19. Only in dying, life: programmed cell death during plant development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hautegem, Tom; Waters, Andrew J; Goodrich, Justin; Nowack, Moritz K

    2015-02-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a fundamental process of life. During the evolution of multicellular organisms, the actively controlled demise of cells has been recruited to fulfil a multitude of functions in development, differentiation, tissue homeostasis, and immune systems. In this review we discuss some of the multiple cases of PCD that occur as integral parts of plant development in a remarkable variety of cell types, tissues, and organs. Although research in the last decade has discovered a number of PCD regulators, mediators, and executers, we are still only beginning to understand the mechanistic complexity that tightly controls preparation, initiation, and execution of PCD as a process that is indispensable for successful vegetative and reproductive development of plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An overview of actions concerning life management of nuclear power plants in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochettino, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview of actions concerning life management of nuclear power plants in Argentina is presented including the following issues: reorganization of nuclear activities in Argentina; life extension actions; main specific research and development actions (reactor pressure vessel integrity assessment project; reactor internal components project; heat exchanges project); other research and development actions (non-destructive testing developments; eddy current techniques; acoustic emission applications; materials; vibrations and fretting wear; reactor chemistry; control and instrumentation; probabilistic safety assessment)

  1. PMR Extended Shelf Life Technology Given 2000 R and D 100 Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    An approach developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for extending the shelf life of PMR polyimide solutions and prepregs received an R&D 100 Award this year. PMR polyimides, in particular PMR-15, have become attractive materials for a variety of aerospace applications because of their outstanding high-temperature stability and performance. PMR-15 can be used in components with exposures to temperatures as high as 290 C, which leads to substantial reductions in weight, as much as 30 percent over metal components. PMR-15 composites are used widely in aerospace applications ranging from ducts and external components in aircraft engines to an engine access door for the Space Shuttle Main Engine. A major barrier to more widespread use of these materials is high component costs. Recent efforts at Glenn have addressed the various factors that contribute to these costs in an attempt to more fully utilize these lightweight, high-temperature materials.

  2. An extended risk assessment approach for chemical plants applied to a study related to pipe ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milazzo, Maria Francesca; Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Risk assessments and Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) in particular have been used in the chemical industry for many years to support decision-making on the choice of arrangements and measures associated with chemical processes, transportation and storage of dangerous substances. The assessments have been founded on a risk perspective seeing risk as a function of frequency of events (probability) and associated consequences. In this paper we point to the need for extending this approach to place a stronger emphasis on uncertainties. A recently developed risk framework designed to better reflect such uncertainties is presented and applied to a chemical plant and specifically the analysis of accidental events related to the rupture of pipes. Two different ways of implementing the framework are presented, one based on the introduction of probability models and one without. The differences between the standard approach and the extended approaches are discussed from a theoretical point of view as well as from a practical risk analyst perspective.

  3. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    extension to the concept of IPDs discussed. Due to extended product responsibility, the concept of PSSs will offer new possibilities of planning and pre-defining life cycles of IPDs more precisely than for regular building components. Reducing or eliminating point-of-sales will induce producers to optimize...

  4. Aging management and life assessment of buried commodities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. H.; Jung, I. S.; Jo, H. S.; Kim, M. G.; Kim, S. T.; Lee, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    General field survey, inspection and life assessment were performed to establish effective aging management program of buried commodities in nuclear power plant. Basic informations on material characteristics, aging degradation experiences and maintenance history were gathered. Considering their degradation effects on power operation or safety, buried commodities were screened for the aging management priority. Various inspection techniques were applied in field survey and inspection, and their results were incorporated in the life assessment of buried commodities. In the aspect of aging degradation, general status of buried commodities were considered still sound while some revealed local degradation

  5. Life cycle GHG assessment of fossil fuel power plants with carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odeh, Naser A.; Cockerill, Timothy T.

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of life cycle greenhouse gas emissions from power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a critical factor in energy and policy analysis. The current paper examines life cycle emissions from three types of fossil-fuel-based power plants, namely supercritical pulverized coal (super-PC), natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), with and without CCS. Results show that, for a 90% CO 2 capture efficiency, life cycle GHG emissions are reduced by 75-84% depending on what technology is used. With GHG emissions less than 170 g/kWh, IGCC technology is found to be favorable to NGCC with CCS. Sensitivity analysis reveals that, for coal power plants, varying the CO 2 capture efficiency and the coal transport distance has a more pronounced effect on life cycle GHG emissions than changing the length of CO 2 transport pipeline. Finally, it is concluded from the current study that while the global warming potential is reduced when MEA-based CO 2 capture is employed, the increase in other air pollutants such as NO x and NH 3 leads to higher eutrophication and acidification potentials

  6. Reactor Dosimetry Aspects of the Service Life Extension of the Hungarian Paks NPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolnay Eva M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The service life of the Hungarian Paks Nuclear Power Plant (NPP will be extended from the originally planned 30 years to 50 years. To improve the reliability of the results obtained in frame of the old reactor pressure vessel (RPV surveillance programme, new methods have been developed, and based on them, the old exposition data have been re-evaluated for all the four reactor units. At the same time, a new RPV surveillance programme has been developed and introduced, and long term irradiations have been performed to determine the radiation damage of the surveillance specimens due to the high fast neutron exposition. Neutron transport calculations have been performed with a validated neutron transport code system to determine the fast neutron exposition of the RPVs during the extended service life. The cavity dosimetry is in the introductory phase. This paper presents the new developments in the field of the RPV surveillance dosimetry and summarises the results obtained. According to the results the service life of the NPP can safely be extended for the planned 50 years.

  7. Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard J. Bond; Pradeep Ramuhalli; Magdy S. Tawfik; Nancy J. Lybeck

    2011-06-01

    Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems: there is growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to and prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.

  8. Estimating residual life of alloy 600 RPV penetrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, E.S.; White, G.A.; Pathania, R.; Arey, M.L.; Whitaker, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) of Alloy 600 penetrations PWR in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) heads has become a significant economic concern worldwide. PWSCC of these penetrations has led to extended maintenance outages, expensive inspections and repairs, and in some cases, replacement of the entire vessel head. This paper describes methodology developed to predict the remaining life of Alloy 600 penetrations in reactor vessel heads. Predictions of remaining life are an important input to planning models used by utilities to select a strategy for responding to the PWSCC issue at the lowest life cycle cost with an acceptably low risk of leakage. The remaining life of RPV penetrations is determined using the results of inspections of penetrations and statistical methods to predict future degradation. The analysis takes into account the effects of material properties, welding residual stresses, and operating temperature on PWSCC initiation and growth. The probability of developing cracks of various depths is assessed using Monte Carlo methods which provide for uncertainties in the input assumptions. For plants which have not yet performed inspections, remaining life predictions are based on inspection results from similar plants which have performed inspections with corrections made for known differences in design details, material properties and operating conditions

  9. Nuclear Power Plant Life Management - Challenges and Proposal for a Unified Model Integrating Safety and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contri, Paolo; Elsing, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    In recent years many electric utilities and nuclear power plants adopted policies for improved coordination of both safety and non-safety programs, called plant life management (PLIM), also in view on plant life extension programs, but mainly for an optimisation of operating costs. The implementation of PLIM programs has followed many different approaches, being intrinsically dependent on the national regulatory framework and technical traditions. In Countries with some experience, the PLIM program proved very convenient, especially when coupled with Maintenance, Surveillance an Inspection (MS and I) optimization: average savings are reported in the range of 20-30% of total (maintenance) costs. A unified European model for PLIM was developed at the JRC-Institute for Energy with the support of a network of stakeholders (SENUF), and validated at some EU nuclear plants. This paper provides a summary of the model features, the result of its validation at some plants and summarises the perceived scientific/technological challenges on which JRC proposes to focus, based upon its competencies and skills, having in mind both the European and world-wide context and its potential evolution. (author)

  10. Service life monitoring of the main components at the Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, J.; Vincour, D.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge and experience gained from the introduction and periodical implementation of life assessment of the major components of the Temelin nuclear power plant is summarized. The initial Soviet technical design of the plant did not incorporate lifetime monitoring and evaluation, therefore it was completed with demonstrative strength and lifetime calculations from Czech companies. Moreover, a Westinghouse primary circuit diagnosis and monitoring system, including the monitoring of temperature and pressure cycles for low-cycle fatigue evaluation, was installed at the plant. The DIALIFE code for the calculation of mainly the low-cycle fatigue of the key pressure components, was developed and installed subsequently as a superstructure to the monitoring system. (author)

  11. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Metallurgy and Materials Group

    1999-08-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  12. Status of NDE research and applications for life management of nuclear power plants in india

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj, B.; Shyamsunder, M.T.; Jayakumar, T.

    1999-01-01

    The development and application of various nondestructive evaluation techniques and methodologies for the life management of nuclear power plants in India are described. The indigenous development carried out to meet the stringent quality requirements in evaluation of fabricated components and innovative methodologies using multidisciplinary approaches and advances for assessment of inservice performance of plants are highlighted. (orig.)

  13. R and D status for NPP life management in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ryong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    The economical benefits may be achieved by the plant life management (PLiM) as well as structural integrity of the critical components of NPP. Systems, structures and components (SSC) of NPP are designed to have safety margins in design stage, and being operated with operational margins. As the plant gets older and older, however, aging of SSC occurs and some of SSC may be sometimes failed due to the unexpected aging mechanisms in design stage. Most countries which have operated NPP have their own R and D programs to establish proper countermeasures against the aging and degradation of SSC, The well known program are materials reliability program (MRP) and steam generator management program (SGMP) of EPRI. In Korea, we also have our own R and D programs for the plant life management. In this paper, the present status of the R and D programs will be introduced. Long term operation of a nuclear power plant is one of the goals that the plant wants to achieve, which may be possible as long as the plant safety is maintained and the economical benefits is expected. The economical benefits may be achieved by the plant life management (PLiM) activities. Many R and D activities related to PLiM have been carried out and implemented to Korean NPP, Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1 in particular, for the long term operation beyond their original design lives. Those activities include PLiM study, PSR, SGMP, MRP, thinned pipe management program, study on dissimilar metal welds, aging monitor etc. With the results of R and D activities, continued operation of Kori Unit 1 was successfully started from January 17, 2008 for next 10 years beyond its design life. It must be a landmark of 30 years history of nuclear power generation in Korea. Subsequently Wolsong Unit 1 is also expected to start its continued operation when the replacement of pressure tubes and feeders are completed in 2009. Many countries have plans to build new reactors or to extend the life of operating plants.

  14. R and D status for NPP life management in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Ryong

    2009-01-01

    The economical benefits may be achieved by the plant life management (PLiM) as well as structural integrity of the critical components of NPP. Systems, structures and components (SSC) of NPP are designed to have safety margins in design stage, and being operated with operational margins. As the plant gets older and older, however, aging of SSC occurs and some of SSC may be sometimes failed due to the unexpected aging mechanisms in design stage. Most countries which have operated NPP have their own R and D programs to establish proper countermeasures against the aging and degradation of SSC, The well known program are materials reliability program (MRP) and steam generator management program (SGMP) of EPRI. In Korea, we also have our own R and D programs for the plant life management. In this paper, the present status of the R and D programs will be introduced. Long term operation of a nuclear power plant is one of the goals that the plant wants to achieve, which may be possible as long as the plant safety is maintained and the economical benefits is expected. The economical benefits may be achieved by the plant life management (PLiM) activities. Many R and D activities related to PLiM have been carried out and implemented to Korean NPP, Kori Unit 1 and Wolsong Unit 1 in particular, for the long term operation beyond their original design lives. Those activities include PLiM study, PSR, SGMP, MRP, thinned pipe management program, study on dissimilar metal welds, aging monitor etc. With the results of R and D activities, continued operation of Kori Unit 1 was successfully started from January 17, 2008 for next 10 years beyond its design life. It must be a landmark of 30 years history of nuclear power generation in Korea. Subsequently Wolsong Unit 1 is also expected to start its continued operation when the replacement of pressure tubes and feeders are completed in 2009. Many countries have plans to build new reactors or to extend the life of operating plants.

  15. Review of nuclear power plant safety cable aging studies with recommendations for improved approaches and for future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillen, Kenneth Todd; Bernstein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Many U. S. nuclear power plants are approaching 40 years of age and there is a desire to extend their life for up to 100 total years. Safety-related cables were originally qualified for nuclear power plant applications based on IEEE Standards that were published in 1974. The qualifications involved procedures to simulate 40 years of life under ambient power plant aging conditions followed by simulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA). Over the past 35 years or so, substantial efforts were devoted to determining whether the aging assumptions allowed by the original IEEE Standards could be improved upon. These studies led to better accelerated aging methods so that more confident 40-year lifetime predictions became available. Since there is now a desire to potentially extend the life of nuclear power plants way beyond the original 40 year life, there is an interest in reviewing and critiquing the current state-of-the-art in simulating cable aging. These are two of the goals of this report where the discussion is concentrated on the progress made over the past 15 years or so and highlights the most thorough and careful published studies. An additional goal of the report is to suggest work that might prove helpful in answering some of the questions and dealing with some of the issues that still remain with respect to simulating the aging and predicting the lifetimes of safety-related cable materials.

  16. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal of this paper is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort

  17. Surveillance strategy for an extended operating cycle in commercial nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHenry, R.S.; Moore, T.J.; Maurer, J.H.; Todreas, N.E.

    1997-01-01

    The impetus for improved economic performance of commercial nuclear power plants can be partially satisfied by increasing plant capacity factors through operating cycle extension. One aspect of an operating cycle extension effort is the modification of plant surveillance programs to complete required regulatory and investment protection surveillance activities within the extended planned outage schedule. The goal is to introduce a general strategy for existing power plants to transition their surveillance programs to an extended operating cycle up to 48 months in length, and to test the feasibility of this strategy through the complete analysis of the surveillance programs at operating BWR and PWR case study plants. The reconciliation of surveillances at these plants demonstrates that surveillance performance will not preclude 48 month operating cycles. Those surveillance activities that could not be resolved to an extended cycle are identified for further study. Finally, a number of general issues are presented that should be considered before implementing a cycle extension effort

  18. Functional traits and root morphology of alpine plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Mandy; Stroude, Raphaël; Buttler, Alexandre; Rixen, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Vegetation has long been recognized to protect the soil from erosion. Understanding species differences in root morphology and functional traits is an important step to assess which species and species mixtures may provide erosion control. Furthermore, extending classification of plant functional types towards root traits may be a useful procedure in understanding important root functions. In this study, pioneer data on traits of alpine plant species, i.e. plant height and shoot biomass, root depth, horizontal root spreading, root length, diameter, tensile strength, plant age and root biomass, from a disturbed site in the Swiss Alps are presented. The applicability of three classifications of plant functional types (PFTs), i.e. life form, growth form and root type, was examined for above- and below-ground plant traits. Plant traits differed considerably among species even of the same life form, e.g. in the case of total root length by more than two orders of magnitude. Within the same root diameter, species differed significantly in tensile strength: some species (Geum reptans and Luzula spicata) had roots more than twice as strong as those of other species. Species of different life forms provided different root functions (e.g. root depth and horizontal root spreading) that may be important for soil physical processes. All classifications of PFTs were helpful to categorize plant traits; however, the PFTs according to root type explained total root length far better than the other PFTs. The results of the study illustrate the remarkable differences between root traits of alpine plants, some of which cannot be assessed from simple morphological inspection, e.g. tensile strength. PFT classification based on root traits seems useful to categorize plant traits, even though some patterns are better explained at the individual species level.

  19. Application of extended statistical combination of uncertainties methodology for digital nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    In, Wang Ki; Uh, Keun Sun; Chul, Kim Heui [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    A technically more direct statistical combinations of uncertainties methodology, extended SCU (XSCU), was applied to statistically combine the uncertainties associated with the DNBR alarm setpoint and the DNBR trip setpoint of digital nuclear power plants. The modified SCU (MSCU) methodology is currently used as the USNRC approved design methodology to perform the same function. In this report, the MSCU and XSCU methodologies were compared in terms of the total uncertainties and the net margins to the DNBR alarm and trip setpoints. The MSCU methodology resulted in the small total penalties due to a significantly negative bias which are quite large. However the XSCU methodology gave the virtually unbiased total uncertainties. The net margins to the DNBR alarm and trip setpoints by the MSCU methodology agree with those by the XSCU methodology within statistical variations. (Author) 12 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. The AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant innovative features for extended station blackout mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vereb, F.; Winters, J.; Schulz, T.; Cummins, E.; Oriani, L. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Station Blackout (SBO) is defined as 'a condition wherein a nuclear power plant sustains a loss of all offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of all onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system. Station blackout does not include the loss of available AC power to buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources as defined in this section, nor does it assume a concurrent single failure or design basis accident...' in accordance with Reference 1. In this paper, the innovative features of the AP1000 plant design are described with their operation in the scenario of an extended station blackout event. General operation of the passive safety systems are described as well as the unique features which allow the AP1000 plant to cope for at least 7 days during station blackout. Points of emphasis will include: - Passive safety system operation during SBO - 'Fail-safe' nature of key passive safety system valves; automatically places the valve in a conservatively safe alignment even in case of multiple failures in all power supply systems, including normal AC and battery backup - Passive Spent Fuel Pool cooling and makeup water supply during SBO - Robustness of AP1000 plant due to the location of key systems, structures and components required for Safe Shutdown - Diverse means of supplying makeup water to the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) and the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) through use of an engineered, safety-related piping interface and portable equipment, as well as with permanently installed onsite ancillary equipment. (authors)

  1. Extending the life of thermal power plants components by using the triad: checking - diagnosis - restoring; Extinderea duratei de viata a componentelor termoenergetice utilizand Triada: expertiza - diagnoza - remediere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupescue, L.; Nicolescu, N.; Delamarian, C.

    2004-12-01

    The current state of thermal power plants components requires a clear cut definition of how to apply the concept of 'Assessing the state and lifetime' to them. The application of the concept of prolonging the life of thermal power plants components represents a practical alternative to the activity of preventive maintenance, by using 'the component oriented maintenance'. A feasibility study gives results that are a covering prediction for the level of technical risk characterizing the operation of technological equipment. There are many methods of analysing the dangers and assessing the risk, as two basic types can be established: a deductive one, in which the final event is presupposed and the events that might cause this final event are searched, and an inductive one, in which the failure of a component is presupposed, and the analysis is to identify the events that led to failure. In compliance with the worldwide trends the authors of the present paper make efforts to apply the methods specific of the probability analyses, efficiently and harmoniously supplementing the concerns and results of the activities based on deterministic methods and models. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    extension to the concept of IPDs discussed. Due to extended product responsibility, the concept of PSSs will offer new possibilities of planning and pre-defining life cycles of IPDs more precisely than for regular building components. Reducing or eliminating point-of-sales will induce producers to optimize...... on renovation projects from Denmark, using different forms of IPDs for façade renovation and discusses the different stakeholder’s perspectives on life cycle thinking and their interests and values regarding sustainable building. Furthermore is the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a valuable...

  3. Extending Life Concepts to Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Le Fur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is still no consensus definition of complex systems. This article explores, as a heuristic approach, the possibility of using notions associated with life as transversal concepts for defining complex systems. This approach is developed within a general classification of systems, with complex systems considered as a general ‘living things’ category and living organisms as a specialised class within this category. Concepts associated with life are first explored in the context of complex systems: birth, death and lifetime, adaptation, ontogeny and growth, reproduction. Thereafter, a refutation approach is used to test the proposed classification against a set of diverse systems, including a reference case, edge cases and immaterial complex systems. The summary of this analysis is then used to generate a definition of complex systems, based on the proposal, and within the background of cybernetics, complex adaptive systems and biology. Using notions such as ‘birth’ or ‘lifespan’ as transversal concepts may be of heuristic value for the generic characterization of complex systems, opening up new lines of research for improving their definition.

  4. Galactose-extended glycans of antibodies produced by transgenic plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, H.; Bardor, M.; Molthoff, J.W.; Gomord, V.; Elbers, I.; Stevens, L.H.; Jordi, W.; Lommen, A.; Faye, L.; Lerouge, P.; Bosch, D.

    2001-01-01

    Plant-specific N-glycosylation can represent an important limitation for the use of recombinant glycoproteins of mammalian origin produced by transgenic plants. Comparison of plant and mammalian N-glycan biosynthesis indicates that β1,4-galactosyltransferase is the most important enzyme that is

  5. Investigation on the geographical distribution and life form of plant species in sub alpine zone Karsanak region, Shahrekord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahanbakhsh Pairanj

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in rangelands of Karsanak, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, which is regarded as one of the rich rangelands. Phytogeographically, this region is located in Irano-Turanian (zone of sub alpine. Endemic and rare plants were identified and geographical distribution and life form of identified plant species were investigated as well. Overall, 100 species from 17 families were identified from which 20 percent of identified species was endemic element of Irano-Turanian region. Results indicated that 75.7 percent of identified plants belonged to the Irano-Turanian and only 3 and 2 percent belonged to Euro-Siberian and Mediterranean regions respectively. The reason of high percentage of Irano-Turanian elements is probably the long distance of this region from other regions. Similarities of Irano-Turanian and Mediterranean were included 6.1 percent of identified plants and Irano-Turanian and Euro-Siberian included 2 percent. Results of life forms showed hemichryptophytes including 60 percent of life forms which indicate the cold and mountainous weather.

  6. Life history strategies and biomass allocation : the population dynamics of perennial plants in a regional perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejans, E.

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to the knowledge of how plants respond to adverse influences of intensified land use. In particular, attention was paid to the ways in which life history strategies change in order to buffer environmental variation, and which important parts of the life cycle are

  7. Suppression of Plant Defenses by Herbivorous Mites Is Not Associated with Adaptation to Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica T. Paulo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Some herbivores suppress plant defenses, which may be viewed as a result of the coevolutionary arms race between plants and herbivores. However, this ability is usually studied in a one-herbivore-one-plant system, which hampers comparative studies that could corroborate this hypothesis. Here, we extend this paradigm and ask whether the herbivorous spider-mite Tetranychus evansi, which suppresses the jasmonic-acid pathway in tomato plants, is also able to suppress defenses in other host plants at different phylogenetic distances from tomatoes. We test this using different plants from the Solanales order, namely tomato, jimsonweed, tobacco, and morning glory (three Solanaceae and one Convolvulaceae, and bean plants (Fabales. First, we compare the performance of T. evansi to that of the other two most-commonly found species of the same genus, T. urticae and T. ludeni, on several plants. We found that the performance of T. evansi is higher than that of the other species only on tomato plants. We then showed, by measuring trypsin inhibitor activity and life history traits of conspecific mites on either clean or pre-infested plants, that T. evansi can suppress plant defenses on all plants except tobacco. This study suggests that the suppression of plant defenses may occur on host plants other than those to which herbivores are adapted.

  8. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Enabling Data to Discovery for the Life Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Nirav; Lyons, Eric; Goff, Stephen; Vaughn, Matthew; Ware, Doreen; Micklos, David; Antin, Parker

    2016-01-01

    The iPlant Collaborative provides life science research communities access to comprehensive, scalable, and cohesive computational infrastructure for data management; identity management; collaboration tools; and cloud, high-performance, high-throughput computing. iPlant provides training, learning material, and best practice resources to help all researchers make the best use of their data, expand their computational skill set, and effectively manage their data and computation when working as distributed teams. iPlant's platform permits researchers to easily deposit and share their data and deploy new computational tools and analysis workflows, allowing the broader community to easily use and reuse those data and computational analyses.

  9. Extending the product variety at ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preda, M.; Patrascu, M.; Achimescu, D.; Stroia, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Having in mind that the prospects of operating the ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant are conditioned by both the heavy water market demand and the wear of the equipment which is exposed to hydrogen sulfide-induced corrosion, some possibilities were considered to extend the assortment of products, the production of which could ensure the plant's operation on long term. The proposals here refer to promoting the efficient production of oxygen-isotope-based products which would optimize maximally the exploit of available raw materials, supply and utilities of the ROMAG compound. The market manifests a significant demand of water enriched in the 18 O isotope up to 95-97% purity that is used in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). This oxygen isotope is also used as a labelling agent in studies of reaction mechanisms and paleo-climatologic studies as well. Some research evidenced the superconducting properties of some oxygen compounds containing the 18 O isotope. The isotope 17 O has applications in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) as being the sole oxygen isotope endowed with a nuclear magnetic moment. On the other hand, it was found that although the 16 O isotope has a natural abundance of 99.8%, applications exist that require the absolute purity of this isotope i.e. the elimination of the other oxygen isotopes as is the case of fission reactors with Plutonium dioxide as nuclear fuel. The methods applied on industrial scale for enriching the oxygen isotopes are based on distillation of some oxygen compounds such as water and nitrogen monoxide. The possibility of a supplementary distillation of the heavy water at a distillation line of ROMAG-PROD Heavy Water Plant was considered in order to enrich the heavy water in the 17 O and 18 O isotopes up to an upper limit of 2-5% for 18 O. Obtaining the heavy isotopes of oxygen by distillation of heavy water is characterized by several aspects as the following ones: a high specific consumption of steam due to both the low

  10. The response of different plant life forms to natural environment changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Svetlana

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains test results revealing norm and stress reactions of various life-form plants: trees — Betula pendula Roth, Tilia platyphyllos Scop., Pinus sylvetris L; water-plant -Galium palustre L.; grass — Solidago Canadensis; cereal — Secale cereal L. Collection and processing of the material was made in the area of Berlin/Brandenburg, Germany. Clark sensor-based method made it possible to determine the amount and rate of the oxygen evolution by plants in the dark and light phase. Under the reaction norm the average amount of the oxygen evolved and the average rate of metabolism processes during dark and light phases are changing simultaneously. Parabolic and periodic dependences of these changes during the vegetation period has been found. Under the stress reaction (drought, illness the rate of metabolism dark reactions is increased by 2—3 times as compared with light reactions. The obtained results may be use for bioindication of the climate change in the Baltic Region.

  11. Extending The Shelf Life Of Blood Platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgenor, Douglas M.

    1988-01-01

    New method of storing human blood platelets extends vitality for transfusions. Packaged as suspension in sterile liquid in plastic blood bags. Each bag placed between pair of plastic grids, and rubberbands placed around sandwich thus formed to hold together. Stored upright in open air or in container through which air pumped at rate of at least 45 L/min. Ensures that platelets receive ample oxygen and expiratory carbon dioxide form platelets removed before pH drops to harmful levels.

  12. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H; Klevtsov, I [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  13. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V. [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  14. Ectopic hTERT expression extends the life span of human CD4(+) helper and regulatory T-cell clones and confers resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Rosalie M.; Péne, Jérome; Yssel, Hans; Spits, Hergen

    2003-01-01

    Human somatic cells have a limited life span in vitro. Upon aging and with each cell division, shortening of telomeres occurs, which eventually will lead to cell cycle arrest. Ectopic hTERT expression has been shown to extend the life span of human T cells by preventing this telomere erosion. In the

  15. 9. Nuclear power plant service life prolongation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evropin, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    The problem of prolongation of nuclear power plant service life duration is discussed. A schematic diagram of the program developed in the course of activities dealing with NPP service time prolongation is shown and analyzed in details. It is shown that the basic moment when determining the strategy for NPP service time prolongation is the positive confirmation of the agreement between the NPP safety provisions and modern safety requirements. The other very important aspect of the problem is engineering substantiation of the measures assuring the reactor operation prolongation. The conclusion is made that available methods of recovering reactor materials properties, main components repair and replacement, the modern techniques for nondestructive testing of metals and NPP pipelines, as well as the developed approaches to reactor facility safety improvements make the prolongation of the Russian NPP service lifetimes possible from engineering viewpoint and economically desirable

  16. Plant identification based on noisy web data: the amazing performance of deep learning (LifeCLEF 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Goeau, Herve; Bonnet, Pierre; Joly, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    International audience; The 2017-th edition of the LifeCLEF plant identification challenge is an important milestone towards automated plant identification systems working at the scale of continental floras with 10.000 plant species living mainly in Europe and North America illustrated by a total of 1.1M images. Nowadays, such ambitious systems are enabled thanks to the conjunction of the dazzling recent progress in image classification with deep learning and several outstanding international...

  17. Considerations in the evaluation of concrete structures for continued service in aged Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.; Marchbanks, M.; Oland, B.; Arndt, G.; Brown, T.

    1989-01-01

    Currently, there are /approximately/119 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the US either under construction, operating at low-to-full power, or awaiting an operating license. Together, these units have a net generating capacity of /approximately/110 GW(e). Assuming no life extension of present facilities, the operating licenses for these plants will start to expire in the middle of the next decade with Yankee Rowe being the first plant to attain this status. Where it is noted that with no life extension of facilities, a potential loss of electrical generating capacity in excess of 75 GW(e) could occur during the time period 2006 to 2020 when the operating licenses of 80 to 90 NPPs are scheduled to expire. A potential timely and cost-effective solution to meeting future electricity demand, which has worked well for non-nuclear generating plants, is to extend the service life (operating licenses) of existing NPPs. Since the concrete components in these plants provide a vital safety function, any continued service considerations must include an in-depth assessment of the safety-related concrete structures. 7 refs

  18. Chemical genetic screen identifies lithocholic acid as an anti-aging compound that extends yeast chronological life span in a TOR-independent manner, by modulating housekeeping longevity assurance processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Alexander A; Richard, Vincent R; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Bourque, Simon D; Beach, Adam; Burstein, Michelle T; Glebov, Anastasia; Koupaki, Olivia; Boukh-Viner, Tatiana; Gregg, Christopher; Juneau, Mylène; English, Ann M; Thomas, David Y; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2010-07-01

    In chronologically aging yeast, longevity can be extended by administering a caloric restriction (CR) diet or some small molecules. These life-extending interventions target the adaptable target of rapamycin (TOR) and cAMP/protein kinase A (cAMP/PKA) signaling pathways that are under the stringent control of calorie availability. We designed a chemical genetic screen for small molecules that increase the chronological life span of yeast under CR by targeting lipid metabolism and modulating housekeeping longevity pathways that regulate longevity irrespective of the number of available calories. Our screen identifies lithocholic acid (LCA) as one of such molecules. We reveal two mechanisms underlying the life-extending effect of LCA in chronologically aging yeast. One mechanism operates in a calorie availability-independent fashion and involves the LCA-governed modulation of housekeeping longevity assurance pathways that do not overlap with the adaptable TOR and cAMP/PKA pathways. The other mechanism extends yeast longevity under non-CR conditions and consists in LCA-driven unmasking of the previously unknown anti-aging potential of PKA. We provide evidence that LCA modulates housekeeping longevity assurance pathways by suppressing lipid-induced necrosis, attenuating mitochondrial fragmentation, altering oxidation-reduction processes in mitochondria, enhancing resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses, suppressing mitochondria-controlled apoptosis, and enhancing stability of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA.

  19. How does react power price on a possible lifetime extension for power plants? Nuclear power, power prices and power market models; Wie reagiert der Strompreis auf eine moegliche Verlaengerung der Laufzeiten fuer Kernkraftwerke? Kernkraft, Strompreis und Strommarktmodelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nestle, Uwe [Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen, Berlin (Germany). Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft Energie

    2010-08-23

    Extending the life of the nuclear power plants currently operated in Germany is being discussed in the light of a more likely change in government for a Christian Democrat/Liberal coalition. The reason cited most frequently is the impossibility to meet the objectives of climate protection without raising further the price of electricity if the life of nuclear power plants cannot be extended. The question to be looked into is that of the legal pre-requisites to be established in Germany in order for the existing nuclear power plants to be operated for longer periods of time. So in this contribution some discussion is done wether a possible lifetime extension of nuclear power plants will react on power prices.(GL)

  20. Extracellular nucleotide signaling in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stacey, Gary [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-09-08

    Over the life of this funded project, our research group identified and characterized two key receptor proteins in plants; one mediating the innate immunity response to chitin and the other elucidating the key receptor for extracellular ATP. In the case of chitin recognition, we recently described the quaternary structure of this receptor, shedding light on how the receptor functions. Perhaps more importantly, we demonstrated that all plants have the ability to recognize both chitin oligomers and lipochitooligosacchardes, fundamentally changing how the community views the evolution of these systems and strategies that might be used, for example, to extend symbiotic nitrogen fixation to non-legumes. Our discovery of DORN1 opens a new chapter in plant physiology documenting conclusively that eATP is an important extracellular signal in plants, as it is in animals. At this point, we cannot predict just how far reaching this discovery may prove to be but we are convinced that eATP signaling is fundamental to plant growth and development and, hence, we believe that the future will be very exciting for the study of DORN1 and its overall function in plants.

  1. Life time of nuclear power plants and new types of reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    This report, realized by the Evaluation Parliamentary Office of scientific and technological choices, aims to answer simple but fundamental questions for the french electric power production. What are the phenomena which may limit the exploitation time of nuclear power plants? How can we fight against the aging, at which cost and with which safety? The first chapter presents the management of the nuclear power plants life time, an essential element of the park optimization but not a sufficient element. The second chapter details the EPR and the other reactors for 2015 as a bond between the today and tomorrow parks. The last chapter deals with the necessity of efforts in the research and development to succeed in 2035 and presents other reactors in project. (A.L.B.)

  2. Towards a more consolidated approach to material data management in life assessment of power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A; Maile, K [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1999-12-31

    The presentation discusses the necessity of having a more consolidated (unified, possibly `European`) framework for all (not only pure experimental) material data needed for optimized life management and assessment of high-temperature and other components in power and process plants. After setting the main requirements for such a system, a description of efforts done in this direction at MPA Stuttgart in the area of high-temperature components in power plants is given. Furthermore, a reference to other relevant efforts elsewhere is made and an example of practical application of the proposed solution described (optimized material selection and life assessment of high-temperature piping). (orig.) 10 refs.

  3. Towards a more consolidated approach to material data management in life assessment of power plant components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanovic, A.; Maile, K. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The presentation discusses the necessity of having a more consolidated (unified, possibly `European`) framework for all (not only pure experimental) material data needed for optimized life management and assessment of high-temperature and other components in power and process plants. After setting the main requirements for such a system, a description of efforts done in this direction at MPA Stuttgart in the area of high-temperature components in power plants is given. Furthermore, a reference to other relevant efforts elsewhere is made and an example of practical application of the proposed solution described (optimized material selection and life assessment of high-temperature piping). (orig.) 10 refs.

  4. Service life prediction. Development of models for predicting the service life of power plant components subject to thermomechanical creep fatigue; Lebensdauervorhersage. Entwicklung von Modellen zur Lebensdauervorhersage von Kraftwerksbauteilen unter thermisch-mechanischer Kriechermuedungsbeanspruchung. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, L.; Scholz, A. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Werkstoffkunde; Hartrott, P. von; Schlesinger, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Extensive use is made of massive components of heat resistant and highly heat resistant materials in installations of the power and heating industry. These components are exposed to varying thermomechanical stress as a result of ramping-up and down processes. In this research project two computer-assisted methods of predicting service life until crack initiation were extended to include cases of thermomechanical multi-axis stress conducive to creep fatigue and of superposition of high-cycle stress on power plant components. Investigations were limited to rotor steel of type X12CrMoWVNbN10-1-1. Complex thermomechanical multi-axis experiments were performed on round, notched and cruciform test specimens of close-to-life dimensions in order to demonstrate by experiment the validity of these models. The results of these calculations showed an acceptable degree of agreement between experiment and simulation for both models. Calculations on earlier TMF experiments performed at IfW on hollow specimens of 1%CrMoNiV showed good predictability for both the SARA and the ThoMat programme. Calculations on experiments performed at MPA Stuttgart on model bodies consisting of the same 1%CrMoNiV showed a predictability of acceptable variability considering the complexity of the stresses involved. A further outcome of this project is that the use of SARA appears universally suitable for the construction of new plants and in the service area, while the use of ThoMat appears suited for detail optimisation in the development process.

  5. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bücker-Neto, Lauro; Paiva, Ana Luiza Sobral; Machado, Ronei Dorneles; Arenhart, Rafael Augusto; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia

    2017-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity. Recent research has extended our view of how plant hormones can regulate and integrate growth responses to various environmental cues in order to sustain life. In the present review we discuss current knowledge about the role of the plant growth hormones abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene in signaling pathways, defense mechanisms and alleviation of heavy metal toxicity.

  6. The iPlant Collaborative: Cyberinfrastructure for Enabling Data to Discovery for the Life Sciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Merchant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The iPlant Collaborative provides life science research communities access to comprehensive, scalable, and cohesive computational infrastructure for data management; identity management; collaboration tools; and cloud, high-performance, high-throughput computing. iPlant provides training, learning material, and best practice resources to help all researchers make the best use of their data, expand their computational skill set, and effectively manage their data and computation when working as distributed teams. iPlant's platform permits researchers to easily deposit and share their data and deploy new computational tools and analysis workflows, allowing the broader community to easily use and reuse those data and computational analyses.

  7. Sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres: long-term follow-up in a 134-patient cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewandowski, Robert J.; Minocha, Jeet; Memon, Khairuddin; Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T.; Omary, Reed; Salem, Riad [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    To validate our initial pilot study and confirm sustained safety and tumor response of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres. We hypothesized that for the same planned tissue dose, the increase in number of glass microspheres (decayed to the second week of their allowable shelf-life) administered for the same absorbed dose would result in better tumor distribution of the microspheres without causing additional adverse events. Between June 2007 and January 2010, 134 patients underwent radioembolization with extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres; data from 84 new patients were combined with data from our 50-patient pilot study cohort. Baseline and follow-up imaging and laboratory data were obtained 1 and 3 months after therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Clinical and biochemical toxicities were prospectively captured and categorized according to the Common Terminology Criteria. Response in the index lesion was assessed using WHO and EASL guidelines. The mean delivered radiation dose was 123 Gy to the target liver tissue. The mean increase in number of microspheres with this approach compared to standard {sup 90}Y glass microsphere dosimetry was 103 %, corresponding to an increase from 3.84 to 7.78 million microspheres. Clinical toxicities included fatigue (89 patients, 66 %), abdominal pain (49 patients, 36.6 %), and nausea/vomiting (25 patients, 18.7 %). Grade 3/4 bilirubin toxicity was seen in three patients (2 %). Two (1 %) of the initial 50-patient cohort showed gastroduodenal ulcers; gastroduodenal ulcers were not seen in any of the subsequent 84 patients. According to WHO and EASL guidelines, response rates were 48 % and 57 %, respectively, and 21 % demonstrated a complete EASL response. This study showed sustained safety and efficacy of extended-shelf-life {sup 90}Y glass microspheres in a larger, 134-patient cohort. The increase in number of microspheres administered theoretically resulted in better tumor distribution of the

  8. Contributions of dynamic environmental signals during life-cycle transitions to early life-history traits in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Tongli; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-05-01

    Environmental signals are important triggers in the life-cycle transitions and play a crucial role in the life-history evolution. Yet very little is known about the leading ecological factors contributing to the variations of life-history traits in perennial plants. This paper explores both the causes and consequences for the evolution of life-history traits (i.e., seed dormancy and size) in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl.) across British Columbia (B.C.), Canada. We selected 83 logepole pine populations covering 22 ecosystem zones of B.C. and through their geographic coordinate, 197 climatic variables were generated accordingly for the reference (1961-1990) and future (2041-2070) periods. We found that dynamic climatic variables rather than constant geographic variables are the true environmental driving forces in seed dormancy and size variations and thus provide reliable predictors in response to global climate change. Evapotranspiration and precipitation in the plant-to-seed chronology are the most critical climate variables for seed dormancy and size variations, respectively. Hence, we predicted that levels of seed dormancy in lodgepole pine would increase across large tracts of B.C. in 2050s. Winter-chilling is able to increase the magnitude of life-history plasticity and lower the bet-hedge strategy in the seed-to-plant transition; however, winter-chilling is likely to be insufficient in the north of 49° N in 2050s, which may delay germination while unfavorable conditions during dry summers may result in adverse consequences in the survival of seedlings owing to extended germination span. These findings provide useful information to studies related to assessments of seed transfer and tree adaptation.

  9. Timing of seasonal migration in mule deer: effects of climate, plant phenology, and life-history characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteith, Kevin L.; Bleich, Vernon C.; Stephenson, Thomas R.; Pierce, Beck M.; Conner, Mary M.; Klaver, Robert W.; Bowyer, R. Terry

    2011-01-01

    Phenological events of plants and animals are sensitive to climatic processes. Migration is a life-history event exhibited by most large herbivores living in seasonal environments, and is thought to occur in response to dynamics of forage and weather. Decisions regarding when to migrate, however, may be affected by differences in life-history characteristics of individuals. Long-term and intensive study of a population of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, allowed us to document patterns of migration during 11 years that encompassed a wide array of environmental conditions. We used two new techniques to properly account for interval-censored data and disentangle effects of broad-scale climate, local weather patterns, and plant phenology on seasonal patterns of migration, while incorporating effects of individual life-history characteristics. Timing of autumn migration varied substantially among individual deer, but was associated with the severity of winter weather, and in particular, snow depth and cold temperatures. Migratory responses to winter weather, however, were affected by age, nutritional condition, and summer residency of individual females. Old females and those in good nutritional condition risked encountering severe weather by delaying autumn migration, and were thus risk-prone with respect to the potential loss of foraging opportunities in deep snow compared with young females and those in poor nutritional condition. Females that summered on the west side of the crest of the Sierra Nevada delayed autumn migration relative to east-side females, which supports the influence of the local environment on timing of migration. In contrast, timing of spring migration was unrelated to individual life-history characteristics, was nearly twice as synchronous as autumn migration, differed among years, was related to the southern oscillation index, and was influenced by absolute snow depth and advancing phenology of plants

  10. Life cycle management at nuclear power plants; La gestion de la vida util de las centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, R.I.

    2010-07-01

    The Life Management Plan (PGV) consists in a series of actions aimed at improving the reliability and availability of a plant by guaranteeing its operation in safe conditions during its design life while keeping open the option of renewing the operating license in the long term. (Author).

  11. Evaluation of effectiveness of inservice inspection in aging PWR plants based on PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanafusa, Hidemitsu; Irie, Takashi; Suyama, Takeshi [Institute of Nuclear Safety Systems Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Morota, Hidetsugu [Computer Software Development Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    By making use of a probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) code which had been improved to be able to evaluate the influence of thermal aging embrittlement of cast stainless steel, we evaluated the fracture probability of welding parts of the piping of the pressurized water reactor plants in Japan and the core damage frequency by the fracture. In addition, we ranked the welding parts by the safety significance and evaluated the effectiveness of inservice inspection (ISI). As a result, it is seen that the risk increases about 25% for extending the plant life from 40 to 60 years without ISI. However, the influence of the risk on the plant life becomes negligible, when the ISI is performed adequately. This assessment is useful to plan efficient inspection and test programs of a plant under limited resources, because it is available to rank piping segments by the safety significance and to evaluate the effectiveness of inspection and test quantitatively. (author)

  12. Red fresh vegetables smoothies with extended shelf life as an innovative source of health-promoting compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillejo, Noelia; Martínez-Hernández, Ginés Benito; Gómez, Perla A; Artés, Francisco; Artés-Hernández, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Two fresh red vegetables smoothies based on tomato, carrots, pepper and broccoli and rich in health-promoting compounds were developed. The smoothies showed a viscoelastic behaviour. According to sensory analyses, a shelf life of 28 days at 5 °C for fresh blended smoothies was established while thermally-treated ones (3 min, 80 °C) reached up to 40 days at 20 °C and 58 days at 5 °C. For those mild heat treated smoothies, total vitamin C degradation was 2-fold reduced during storage at 5 °C compared to samples stored at 20 °C while the initial total carotenoids, lycopene and total chlorophylls contents were not greatly affected. A 250-g portion of such smoothies covers in a great extend the established recommended daily nutrient intakes for dietary fibre, minerals and vitamin C of different population groups. As main conclusion, a mild thermal treatment and low temperature storage greatly increased the shelf life of red fresh vegetables smoothies and reduced total vitamin C degradation.

  13. Integrated online condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemian, Hashem M.

    2010-01-01

    Online condition monitoring or online monitoring (OLM) uses data acquired while a nuclear power is operating to continuously assess the health of the plant's sensors, processes, and equipment; to measure the dynamic performance of the plant's process instrumentation; to verify in-situ the calibration of the process instrumentation; to detect blockages, voids, and leaks in the pressure sensing lines; to identify core flow anomalies; to extend the life of neutron detectors and other sensors; and to measure the vibration of reactor internals. Both the steady-state or DC output of plant sensors and their AC signal or noise output can be used to assess sensor health, depending on whether the application is monitoring a rapidly changing (e.g., core barrel motion) or a slowly changing (e.g., sensor calibration) process. The author has designed, developed, installed, and tested OLM systems (comprised of software/hardware-based data acquisition and data processing modules) that integrate low-frequency (1 mHz to 1 Hz) techniques such as RTD cross-calibration, pressure transmitter calibration monitoring, and equipment condition monitoring and high-frequency (1 Hz to 1 kHz) techniques such as the noise analysis technique. The author has demonstrated the noise analysis technique's effectiveness for measuring the dynamic response-time of pressure transmitters and their sensing lines; for performing predictive maintenance on reactor internals; for detecting core flow anomalies; and for extending neutron detector life. Integrated online condition monitoring systems can combine AC and DC data acquisition and signal processing techniques, can use data from existing process sensors during all modes of plant operation, including startup, normal operation, and shutdown; can be retrofitted into existing PWRs, BWRs, and other reactor types and will be integrated into next-generation plants. (orig.)

  14. Integrated online condition monitoring system for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashemian, Hashem M. [Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation, Knoxville, TN (United States). AMS Technology Center

    2010-09-15

    Online condition monitoring or online monitoring (OLM) uses data acquired while a nuclear power is operating to continuously assess the health of the plant's sensors, processes, and equipment; to measure the dynamic performance of the plant's process instrumentation; to verify in-situ the calibration of the process instrumentation; to detect blockages, voids, and leaks in the pressure sensing lines; to identify core flow anomalies; to extend the life of neutron detectors and other sensors; and to measure the vibration of reactor internals. Both the steady-state or DC output of plant sensors and their AC signal or noise output can be used to assess sensor health, depending on whether the application is monitoring a rapidly changing (e.g., core barrel motion) or a slowly changing (e.g., sensor calibration) process. The author has designed, developed, installed, and tested OLM systems (comprised of software/hardware-based data acquisition and data processing modules) that integrate low-frequency (1 mHz to 1 Hz) techniques such as RTD cross-calibration, pressure transmitter calibration monitoring, and equipment condition monitoring and high-frequency (1 Hz to 1 kHz) techniques such as the noise analysis technique. The author has demonstrated the noise analysis technique's effectiveness for measuring the dynamic response-time of pressure transmitters and their sensing lines; for performing predictive maintenance on reactor internals; for detecting core flow anomalies; and for extending neutron detector life. Integrated online condition monitoring systems can combine AC and DC data acquisition and signal processing techniques, can use data from existing process sensors during all modes of plant operation, including startup, normal operation, and shutdown; can be retrofitted into existing PWRs, BWRs, and other reactor types and will be integrated into next-generation plants. (orig.)

  15. Extending nuclear energy to non-electrical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingersoll, D.; Houghton, Z. [NuScale Power, LLC, Corvallis, Oregon (United States); Bromm, R. [Fluor Corp., Greenville, SC (United States); Desportes, C. [Aquatech International, Canonsburg, PA (United States); McKellar, M.; Boardman, R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these nontraditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers. (author)

  16. EXTENDING NUCLEAR ENERGY TO NON-ELECTRICAL APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Boardman; M. McKellar; D. Ingersoll; Z. Houghton; , R. Bromm; C. Desportes

    2014-09-01

    Electricity represents less than half of all energy consumed in the United States and globally. Although a few commercial nuclear power plants world-wide provide energy to non-electrical applications such as district heating and water desalination, nuclear energy has been largely relegated to base-load electricity production. A new generation of smaller-sized nuclear power plants offers significant promise for extending nuclear energy to many non-electrical applications. The NuScale small modular reactor design is especially well suited for these non-traditional customers due to its small unit size, very robust reactor protection features and a highly flexible and scalable plant design. A series of technical and economic evaluation studies have been conducted to assess the practicality of using a NuScale plant to provide electricity and heat to a variety of non-electrical applications, including water desalination, oil refining, and hydrogen production. The studies serve to highlight the unique design features of the NuScale plant for these applications and provide encouraging conclusions regarding the technical and economic viability of extending clean nuclear energy to a broad range of non-electrical energy consumers.

  17. Development and application of the methodology to establish life extension and modernization plan of aged hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kwon, Hyuck Cheon; Song, Byung Hun; Kwon, Chang Seop

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides how to establish an integrated plan for LE (Life Extension) and MD (MoDernization) of aged hydropower plants. The methodology is developed through review of overseas/domestic LE/MD histories, investigation of the previous overseas methodologies and consideration of domestic practices. The methodology includes reviews of the various factors such as condition, operation and maintenance history, up-to-date technology, and economic benefit. In order to establish the life extension/modernization plan, the methodology is applied to the domestic aged hydropower plants. Finally, priority rankings and draft practice plans for LE/MD are derived.

  18. Life Cycle Thinking and Integrated Product Deliveries in renovation projects: Extending the concept of Integrated Product Deliveries with Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipull Kauschen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    on renovation projects from Denmark, using different forms of IPDs for façade renovation and discusses the different stakeholder’s perspectives on life cycle thinking and their interests and values regarding sustainable building. Furthermore is the concept of Product Service Systems (PSS) as a valuable...... IPDs with regard to longevity and adaptability. CONCLUSION The new type of service-focused IPD and the related life-cycle responsibility (development, building phase, maintenance and dismantling/adaption/recycling) creates incentive to integrate life cycle thinking into the development process of IPDs......, resulting in more sustainable building solutions with a greater extend of positive environmental, economical and social impacts. The research presented will also show the importance of adaption and configuration of these complex building components by architects and planners, as they will have a great...

  19. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, Mark W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-01-01

    Method using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4.degree. C. storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4.degree. C. for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen therefrom at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate.

  20. Zirconium-made equipment for the new La Hague reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decours, J.; Demay, R.; Bernard, C.; Mouroux, J.P.; Simonnet, J.

    1991-01-01

    The use of zirconium was developed to solve some problems of severe corrosion in boiling nitric medium, and to guarantee the service life of the equipment concerned. The paper presents the experience gained since the early 1970s, when the first units made of zirconium were used in French reprocessing plants. For the new La Hague UP3 and UP2 800 plants, it was decided to extend the use of zirconium to make large-scale equipment and, to do so, a major R and D program was implemented, of which the main results are presented

  1. The effect of a novel low temperature-short time (LTST) process to extend the shelf-life of fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Phillip R; Parker, Kyle R; Kanach, Andrew T; Zhu, Tengliang; Morgan, Mark T; Applegate, Bruce M

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurization has long been the standard method to extend the shelf-life of dairy products, as well as a means to reduce microbial load and the risk of food-borne pathogens. However, the process has limitations, which include cost effectiveness, high energy input, and reduction of product quality/organoleptic characteristics. In an effort to reduce these limitations and extend shelf-life, this study examined a novel low temperature, short time (LTST) method in which dispersed milk in the form of droplets was treated with low heat/pressure variation over a short treatment time, in conjunction with pasteurization. Lactobacillus fermentum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula were exposed to conventional pasteurization treatments with and without LTST. Using these organisms, the LTST addition was able to reduce microbial load below detection limits; 1.0 × 10(1) cfu/mL, from approximately 1.2 × 10(8) and 1.0 × 10(7) cfu/mL for L. fermentum and P. fluorescens Migula, respectively. In addition, the shelf-life of the treated, raw, and uninoculated product was prolonged from 14 to 35 days, compared with standard pasteurization, to as long as 63 days with the LTST amendment. Sensory analysis of samples also demonstrated equal or greater preference for LTST + pasteurization treated milk when compared to pasteurization alone (α = 0.05). Conventional pasteurization was effective at reducing the above mentioned microorganisms by as much as 5.0 log10 cfu/mL. However, LTST was able to achieve 7.0-8.0 log10 cfu/mL reduction of the same microorganisms. In addition, BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology detected and identified microorganisms isolated both pre- and post-treatment, of which the only organisms surviving LTST were Bacillus spp. Increased lethality, improved shelf-life, and equal or better organoleptic characteristics without increased energy consumption demonstrate the effectiveness of the incorporation of LTST. The improved

  2. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alley, T [Duke Power Co., Charlotte, NC (United States); Stone, R [Electric Power Research Inst., Charlotte, NC (United States). Nondestructive Evaluation Center

    1988-12-31

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center`s transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author).

  3. Use of NDE and FM for the assessment of remaining life of steam turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alley, T.; Stone, R.

    1988-01-01

    Catastrophic failures of rotating turbine components, such as the Gallatin rotor burst in 1974 and the shrunk-on disk rupture at Hinkley Point in 1969, alerted the utility industry to the failure potential of these components. Such failures can cause severe financial loss; endanger personnel; and, in nuclear plants, damage safety related equipment. To adequately predict the remaining life of a turbine rotor requires accurate information about component flaws, material properties, future operating loads, relevant failure mechanisms, and an approach to combine this information to make an assessment of remaining life. EPRI has supported the development of improved ultrasonic test equipment for use from the rotor bore (bore-sonic examination) and a fracture mechanics based life assessment code called SAFER (Stress and Fracture Evaluation of Rotors). The EPRI NDE Center has supported the transfer of this technology to industry. This presentation deals with the NDE Center's transfer of the NDE and life assessment technology to industry and discusses a particular application by Duke Power Company at their Allen Plant, Unit 1 to extend the operating life of an IP/LP turbine. (author)

  4. A novel life cycle arising from leaf segments in plants regenerated from horseradish hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Y; Matsuhashi, M

    1995-03-01

    Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) hairy root clones were established from hairy roots which were transformed with the Ri plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834. The transformed plants, which were regenerated from hairy root clones, had thicker roots with extensive lateral branches and thicker stems, and grew faster compared with non-transformed horseradish plants. Small sections of leaves of the transformed plants generated adventitious roots in phytohormone-free G (modified Gamborg's) medium. Root proliferation was followed by adventitious shoot formation and plant regeneration. Approximately twenty plants were regenerated per square centimeter of leaf. The transformed plants were easily transferable from sterile conditions to soil. When leaf segments of the transformed plants were cultured in a liquid fertilizer under non-sterile conditions, adventitious roots were generated at the cut ends of the leaves. Adventitious shoots were generated at the boundary between the leaf and the adventitious roots and developed into complete plants. This novel life cycle arising from leaf segments is a unique property of the transformed plants derived from hairy root clones.

  5. Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busby, Jeremy T; Nanstad, Randy K; Stoller, Roger E; Feng, Zhili; Naus, Dan J

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the key issue with materials aging and cable/piping as the top concerns for plant reliability. Materials degradation within a nuclear power plant is very complex. There are many different types of materials within the reactor itself: over 25 different metal alloys can be found with can be found within the primary and secondary systems, not to mention the concrete containment vessel, instrumentation and control, and other support facilities. When this diverse set of materials is placed in the complex and harsh environment coupled with load, degradation over an extended life is indeed quite complicated. To address this issue, the USNRC has developed a Progressive Materials Degradation Approach (NUREG/CR-6923). This approach is intended to develop a foundation for appropriate actions to keep materials degradation from adversely impacting component integrity and safety and identify materials and locations where degradation can reasonably be expected in the future. Clearly, materials degradation will impact reactor reliability, availability, and potentially, safe operation. Routine surveillance and component replacement can mitigate these factors, although failures still occur. With reactor life extensions to 60 years or beyond or power uprates, many components must tolerate the reactor environment for even longer times. This may increase

  6. EVALUATING THE LIFE CYCLE COSTS OF PLANT ASSETS – A MULTIDIMENSIONAL VIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Gram

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the results of the task group "Asset life cycle management" of the AustrianScientific Maintenance and Asset Management Association (ÖVIA. One purpose of the researchactivities is to create a generic life cycle model for physical assets which includes all costs in everyphase of the asset life cycle. The first step is a literature review determining the most established lifecycle cost models. This is the input for discussing the completeness of such frameworks with theparticipating industrial companies. A general model is deducted from existing approaches and thedetermined costs are evaluated with respect to priority and practical relevance. The result of theevaluation shows which costs are taken into account for investment decisions. Another outcome ofthe study is the verification of importance of the proposed costs for industrial companies, especiallyfor the process industry. The derived life cycle cost framework is the basis for developing a calculationtool and subsequently, for further research in the flied of uncertainty-based methodologies forlife cycle cost analyzing of physical plant assets.

  7. Renovation and uprating of seven hydropower plants in Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuessli, W.

    1991-01-01

    The Indonesian Power Authority is planning to renovate and uprate seven hydropower stations in Java to expand plant life expectancy, ensure operating safety and reliability, and increase power and generation within economical limits. The power plants were constructed in the early 1920s and extended between 1945 and 1950. Their capacities vary between 4 and 20 MW. For the renovation project, Colenco Power Consulting Ltd. is acting as a consultant to PLN. In February 1990, Colenco inspected all seven power plants. The results of the inspections served as the basis for the development of renovation plans for each of the seven hydropower plants. To determine the cost of the proposed renovation plans, appraisers had to determine a method for comparing the value of an existing plant to that of a renovated one. The two different evaluation methods used for these comparisons are the focus of this paper

  8. RIMAP demonstration project. Pat. 1: Risk based life management of piping system in power plant Heilbronn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bareiss, J.; Puck, P.; Matschecko, B.; Jovanovic, A.; Balos, D.; Perunicic

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of EU project RIMAP [1] a new European Guideline for optimized risk based maintenance and inspection planning of industrial plants (RBLM - Risk Based Life Management) is being developed. The RIMAP project consists of the three clustered projects: development (RTD), demonstration (DEMO) and thematic network (TN). Current work and future, planned work in RIMAP demonstration project on applications of the RIMAP methodology in power plants are presented briefly in the first part of the paper. Also presented in the paper are the results of a preliminary analysis of piping system in power plant Heilbronn using the concept of risk-based monitoring as part of overall concept of risk-based life management. Shortly the following issues are discussed in the paper: identification of critical components, application of a multilevel risk analysis (..from ''screening'' to ''detailed analysis''), determination of PoF - Probability of Failure, determination of COF - Consequence of Failure and optimation of inspection and maintenance plan. (orig.)

  9. Revision of nuclear power plants safety systems' routine testing assigned periodicity during the design extension period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalozubov, V.I.; Kozlov, Yi.L.; Chulkyin, O.O.

    2017-01-01

    When nuclear power plants safety systems thermal equipment operation extending, a necessary requirement shall rely on revising the scheduled equipment tests frequency to optimize those tests schedule taking into account the equipment remained lifespan. On the one hand, there exists a need for tests frequency increase to detect ''hidden'' failures, and on the another, frequent tests cause a premature wear of the equipment. Proposed is an original method for optimizing the frequency of NPPs safety systems thermal engineering equipment testing. Essential in the proposed method is the optimization criterion chosen: index of security system failure probability non-exceedance during the beyond-design operating period as referred to the failure probability expected considering the equipment residual resource during the design operating period. The developed method implementation when applied to NPPs safety systems operated beyond the design service life at nuclear power plants with WWER-1000 series reactors, allowed to establish that the optimal tests frequency makes half the designed one when the equipment service life is extended by five years and three times less that the designed frequency when subject lifespan extended by 10 years.

  10. Practice and perspectives of nuclear power plants life management activities in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurakov, Y.; Yanko, L.

    1998-01-01

    Extension of safe operation of NPPs is of special importance for Russia for economical reasons. The principles of NPP life extension are the same as for issuing licences for operation by the Regulatory body. It is requested to prove that undertaken measures compensate effects of ageing of structural components. Special attention is foreseen for methods of modernization of power plants for their safe operation

  11. At-reactor storage of spent fuel for life-of-plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuierer, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The management of commercial spent fuel is a fairly broad topic beginning with the discharge from a reactor, its storage on-site, its transport from the reactor site to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility, and its ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. This paper discusses spent-fuel management in the at-reactor phase. There are two basic methods for at-reactor storage of spent fuel. The first is wet storage in a pool, and the second is dry storage external to the plant in some form of cask or vault. Spent-fuel consolidation will impact the utility and the DOE waste system. Some of these impacts have a positive effect and some have a negative effect, and each will vary somewhat for each utility. Spent-fuel consolidation and life-of-plant storage will be an increased burden to utilities but will likely result in significant cost savings to the overall waste management system and by proper integration can result in significant institutional benefits

  12. Monitoring ethylene emissions from plants cultured for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Emission of hydrocarbons and other volatile compounds by materials and organisms in closed environments will be a major concern in the design and management of advanced life support systems with a bioregenerative component. Ethylene, a simple hydrocarbon synthesized by plants, is involved in the elicitation of a wide range of physiological responses. In closed environments, ethylene may build up to levels which become physiologically active. In several growouts of 'Yecora Rojo' wheat in Kennedy Space Center's Biomass Production Chamber (BPC), it was observed that leaf flecking and rolling occurred in the sealed environment and was virtually eliminated when potassium permanganate was used to scrub the atmospheric environment. It was suggested that ethylene, which accumulated to about 60 ppb in the chamber and which was effectively absorbed by potassium permanganate, was responsible for the symptoms. The objectives of this work were to: (1) determine rates of ethylene evolution from lettuce (Lactuca sativa cultivar Waldemann's Green) and wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivar Yecora Rojo) plants during growth and development; (2) determine the effects of exposure of whole, vegetative stage plants to exogenous ethylene concentrations in the range of what would develop in closed environment growth chambers; and (3) develop predictive functions for changes in ethylene concentration that would develop under different cropping and closed environment configurations. Results will lead to the development of management strategies for ethylene in bioregenerative life support systems.

  13. How to deal with financial risk under the life circles of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shilong

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plants don't necessarily form enterprise boundary, in the background of nuclear power booming, what characteristics of financial risk exist in nuclear power plant, how to deal with such financial risk and how to sustain a stable development of nuclear power ? Based on the enterprise boundary theory of transaction fees, the separate of the nuclear power plant owner, engineering company and operating company comply with the cost-efficient principle. The financial risk of the plant owner come from the cash flow characteristics under different life circles of its nuclear power plants, due to the passivation of the asset structure in the construction and early operation periods, considering the effects of asset structure on financial risk is meaningless. Based on the owners with single reactor or constructing reactors, big-scale investment holding company is needed to conduct professional asset management, and to diversify the financial risk, on the other hand, professional engineering and operation companies can realize the scale and the multi-reactor advantages. (author)

  14. Extending life of reversible heat exchangers; Prologando a vida util de trocadores de calor reversiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Ronaldo [White Martins de Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Usina de Liquidos; Cabral, Antonio Tarciso S. [White Martins de Volta Redonda (Brazil). Usina de Liquidos

    2010-07-01

    Praxair is one of the three largest industrial gases companies worldwide, with operations in over 40 countries. In Brazil, Praxair is the owner of White Martins, the largest industrial gases company in South America, present in nine countries on the continent and throughout the Brazilian steel industry, operating and supplying products from plants for separation of air gases or other products and services for all steelmaking processes. In addition to technologies of production of atmospheric gases, White Martins includes the production of carbon dioxide, acetylene, hydrogen, specialty and health and care gases, mixtures for welding, gas seamless steel cylinders, storage and gases transportation, equipment for measurement and control of gas injection, following the strictest standards of safety and quality. This paper describe the improvements, availability and reliability gains achieved through implementation of operational control systems of RHX, equipment commonly found in air separation plants, which allowed better monitoring and increasing the useful life of these heat exchangers and to keep the purity of the products supplied for the manufacture of high quality steels. (author)

  15. Nuclear power plant life management processes: Guidelines and practices for heavy water reactors. Report prepared within the framework of the Technical Working Groups on Advanced Technologies for Heavy Water Reactors and on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The time is right to address nuclear power plant life management and ageing management issues in terms of processes and refurbishments for long term operation and license renewal aspects of heavy water reactors (HWRs) because some HWRs are close to the design life. In general, HWR nuclear power plant (NPP) owners would like to keep their NPPs in service as long as they can be operated safely and economically. This involves the consideration of a number of factors, such as the material condition of the plant, comparison with current safety standards, the socio-political climate and asset management/ business planning considerations. This TECDOC deals with organizational and managerial means to implement effective plan life management (PLiM) into existing plant in operating HWR NPPs. This TECDOC discusses the current trend of PLiM observed in NPPs to date and an overview of PLiM programmes and considerations. This includes key objectives of such programs, regulatory considerations, an overall integrated approach, organizational and technology infrastructure considerations, importance of effective plant data management and finally, human issues related to ageing and finally integration of PLiM with economic planning. Also general approach to HWR PLiM, including the key PLiM processes, life assessment for critical structures and components, conditions assessment of structures and components and obsolescence is mentioned. Technical aspects are described on component specific technology considerations for condition assessment, example of a proactive ageing management programme, and Ontario power generation experiences in appendices. Also country reports from Argentina, Canada, India, the Republic of Korea and Romania are attached in the annex to share practices and experiences to PLiM programme. This TECDOC is primarily addressed to both the management (decision makers) and technical staff (engineers and scientists) of NPP owners/operators and technical support

  16. Interactions between plant hormones and heavy metals responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Bücker-Neto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Heavy metals are natural non-biodegradable constituents of the Earth's crust that accumulate and persist indefinitely in the ecosystem as a result of human activities. Since the industrial revolution, the concentration of cadmium, arsenic, lead, mercury and zinc, amongst others, have increasingly contaminated soil and water resources, leading to significant yield losses in plants. These issues have become an important concern of scientific interest. Understanding the molecular and physiological responses of plants to heavy metal stress is critical in order to maximize their productivity. Recent research has extended our view of how plant hormones can regulate and integrate growth responses to various environmental cues in order to sustain life. In the present review we discuss current knowledge about the role of the plant growth hormones abscisic acid, auxin, brassinosteroid and ethylene in signaling pathways, defense mechanisms and alleviation of heavy metal toxicity.

  17. Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities : a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strykstra, RJ; Bekker, RM; Van Andel, J

    Dispersal and life span of individual plant species within five plant communities were assessed to obtain a characterization of these communities in this respect. Such a characterization is important in the context of restoration and maintenance. The most frequent species of five communities were

  18. Risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, E.; Jovanovic, A.S.; Maile, K.; Auerkari, P.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes application of different modules of the MPA-System ALIAS in risk-based management of remaining life of power plant components. The system allows comprehensive coverage of all aspects of the remaining life management, including also the risk analysis and risk management. In addition, thanks to the modular character of the system it is also possible to implement new methods: In the case described here, a new (probabilistic) method for determination of the next inspection time for the components exposed to creep loading has been developed and implemented in the system. Practical application of the method has shown (a) that the mean values obtained by the method fall into the range of results obtained by other methods (based on expert knowledge), and (b) that it is possible to quantify the probability of aberration from the mean values. This in turn allows quantifying the additional risks linked to e.g. prolonging of inspection intervals. (orig.) [de

  19. Activities of the IAEA International Working Group on Life Management of Nuclear Power Plants (IWG-LMNPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianko, L.

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the IAEA international working group on life management of nuclear power plants are outlined with emphasis on objectives, scope of activities, methods of work, organizational matters, financing

  20. Maintenance, rehabilitation, long life-the CANDU potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torgerson, D.F.; Charlebois, P.; Hopkins, J.

    1998-01-01

    Plant life extension beyond the original design life is becoming an attractive economic consideration in the nuclear industry. Plant Life Management and life extension considerations have been built into the complete life cycle of the CANDU plant. The plant life management studies demonstrate that life extension for operating plants beyond 30 years is economically viable. The new CANDU designs benefit from this experience feedback and as a result, the plant design basis is now 40 years or better with potential for economical life extension. AECL is therefore confident that the new CANDU designs will exceed the performance record of the first generation CANDU 6 units and is committed to providing continued support and services during the operating life of the plant

  1. The role of cold cues at different life stages on germination and flowering phenology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Matthew J; Friedman, Jannice

    2018-04-23

    The timing of major phenological transitions is critical to lifetime fitness, and life history theory predicts differences for annual and perennial plants. To correctly time these transitions, many plants rely on environmental cues such as exposure to extended periods of cold, which may occur at different stages throughout their lifetime. We studied the role of cold at different life stages, by jointly exposing seed (stratification) and rosettes (vernalization) to cold. We used 23 populations of Mimulus guttatus, which vary from annuals to perennials, and investigated how cold at one or both stages affected germination, flowering, growth, and biomass. We found that stratification and vernalization interact to affect life cycle transitions, and that cold at either stage could synchronize flowering phenology. For perennials, either stratification or vernalization is necessary for maximum flowering. We also found that germination timing covaried with later traits. Moreover, plants from environments with dissimilar climates displayed different phenological responses to stratification or vernalization. In general, cold is more important for seed germination in annuals and plants from environments with warm temperatures and variable precipitation. In contrast, cold is more important for flowering in perennials: it accelerates flowering in plants from lower precipitation environments, and it increases flowering proportion in plants from cooler, more stable precipitation environments. We discuss our findings in the context of the variable environments plants experience within a population and the variation encountered across the biogeographic native range of the species. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  2. Identification of Bottlenecks in the Plant Life Cycle for Sustainable Conservation of Rare and Endangered Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Aronne

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Long term survival of a species relies on maintenance of genetic variability and natural selection by means of successful reproduction and generation turnover. Although, basic to monitor the conservation status of a plant species, life history data are rarely available even for threatened species due to the gap between the large amount of information required and the limits in terms of time and available economic resources to gather these data. Here, the focus on bottlenecks in life-cycle of rare endangered plant species is proposed as a resolving approach to address the challenges of feasible conservation actions. Basic considerations for this approach are: (a all biological and ecological studies on plant species can be scientifically important, but not all of them are equally relevant to conservation planning and management requirements; (b under a changing environment, long term survival of a species relies on generation turnover; (c for conservation purposes, priority should be given to studies aimed to focus on bottlenecks in the succession of generations because they prevent, or slow down natural selection processes. The proposed procedure, named Systematic Hazard Analysis of Rare-endangered Plants (SHARP, consists of a preliminary survey of the already available information on the species and two main components. The first component is the identification of the bottlenecks in the life cycle by means of field surveys. The second is the diagnosis of the causes of the bottleneck by appropriate experimental methods. The target is to provide researchers, managers and practitioners with substantiated indications for sustainable conservation measures.

  3. Aging plant life management - the requirements defined to date by the KTA nuclear engineering codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, I.

    1996-01-01

    German nuclear engineering codes so far do not enclose a specific aging plant life management programme. However, the existing codes and standards do contain a number of applicable requirements and principles of relevance to objectives and principles of such programmes, as they also cover aging-induced effects on power plants. The major principles relating to preventive safety engineering and quality assurance are laid down in the publications KTA 1401, 1404, 1201, 1202, and KTA 3211. (DG) [de

  4. Overview of the Italian activities in the field of life management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pini, A.

    1994-01-01

    Overview of the Italian activities in the field of life management of nuclear power plants is presented, including the following issues: nuclear energy scenario in Italy, study of reactor pressure vessel, piping and containment integrity, seismic risk analysis

  5. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezdikian, G. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Production Nucleaire, 93 - Saint-Denis (France); Quinot, P. [FRAMATOME, Dept. Bloc Reacteur et Boucles Primaires, 92 - Paris-La-Defence (France); Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H. [Electricite de France (EDF), Div. Ingenierie et Service, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    2001-07-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  6. French nuclear plants PWR vessel integrity assessment and life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezdikian, G.; Quinot, P.; Faidy, C.; Churier-Bossennec, H.

    2001-01-01

    The Reactor Pressure Vessel life management of 56 PWR 3 loop and 4 loop reactors units was engaged by the French Utility EDF (Electricite de France) a few years ago and is yet on going on. This paper will present the work carried out within the framework of justifying why the 34 three loop reactor vessels will remain acceptable for operation for a lifetime of at least 40-years. A summary of the measures will be given. An overall review of actions will be presented describing the French approach, using important existing databases, including studies related to irradiation surveillance monitoring program and end of life fluence assessment. The last results obtained are based on generic integrity analyses for all categories of situations (normal upset emergency and faulted conditions) until the end of lifetime, postulating circumferential an radial kinds of flaw located in the stainless steel cladding or shallow sub-cladding area. The results of structural integrity analyses beginning with elastic computations and completed with three-dimensional finite element elastic plastic computations for envelope cases, are compared with code criteria for operating plants. The objective is to evaluate the margins on different parameters as RTNDT (Reference Nil Ductility Transition Temperature), toughness or crack size, to justify the global fitness for service of all these Reactor Pressure Vessels. The paper introduces EDF's maintenance strategy, related to integrity assessment, for those nuclear power plants under operation, based on NDE in-service inspection of the first thirty millimeters in the thickness of the wall and major surveillance programs of the vessels. (author)

  7. Laguna Verde after the extended power increase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera C, M. N.; Castaneda G, M. A.; Cardenas J, J. B.; Garcia de la C, F. M.

    2012-10-01

    The project of extended power increase that was implemented in both units of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde beginning with the stage feasibility evaluation in nuclear side of the facilities, that is to say the affectation of the power increase in the equipment s, systems and components of the nuclear power plant; besides the feasibility evaluation a study cost-benefit for the rehabilitated and modernization of the equipment s, systems and components of Plant Balance was realized. Once considered technical and economically feasible the project began the engineering evaluations required to carry out the licensing of the new operation conditions, as well as beginning to the elaboration of the technical specifications purchase of the equipment s, systems and components of the Plant Balance. While on one hand was carried out the administration of the licensing of the extended power increase for other was carried out the necessary engineering to make the physical changes in the conventional side of the nuclear power plant. Once concluded the constructive stage beginning the final stage of the project, the starting-up tests, operation and performance of the Units under the new operation conditions. This work describes this last stage that contains the technical base, the realized tests and the obtained results. (Author)

  8. FP-4 and FP-5 Euratom research activities in the field of plant life management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Goethem, G. van

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an overview is given of the European Union (EU) Euratom research conducted through shared cost and concerted actions in the field of plant life management. After a general introduction on the organisation of the research framework programmes the achievements of the 4th framework programme (FP-4/1994-1998) and the activities under the 5th framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) in the field of plant life management are presented and discussed in detail. Besides technological safety requirements, socio-economic aspects are becoming increasingly important due to the level of public and political acceptance and to the economic pressure of deregulated electricity markets. It is shown that research conducted in the Euratom framework may contribute to meet these requirements, thereby maintaining nuclear power as a competitive and sustainable option for the energy policy of the European Union. (author)

  9. Method for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells by flushing with inert gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, M.W.; Yoshida, Tatsuro

    1997-04-29

    A method is disclosed using oxygen removal for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. A cost-effective, 4 C storage procedure that preserves red cell quality and prolongs post-transfusion in vivo survival is described. Preservation of adenosine triphosphate levels and reduction in hemolysis and in membrane vesicle production of red blood cells stored at 4 C for prolonged periods of time is achieved by removing oxygen from the red blood cells at the time of storage; in particular, by flushing with an inert gas. Adenosine triphosphate levels of the stored red blood cells are boosted in some samples by addition of ammonium phosphate. 4 figs.

  10. A Fasting-Responsive Signaling Pathway that Extends Life Span in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Uno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent fasting is one of the most effective dietary restriction regimens that extend life span in C. elegans and mammals. Fasting-stimulus responses are key to the longevity response; however, the mechanisms that sense and transduce the fasting stimulus remain largely unknown. Through a comprehensive transcriptome analysis in C. elegans, we find that along with the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16, AP-1 (JUN-1/FOS-1 plays a central role in fasting-induced transcriptional changes. KGB-1, one of the C. elegans JNKs, acts as an activator of AP-1 and is activated in response to fasting. KGB-1 and AP-1 are involved in intermittent fasting-induced longevity. Fasting-induced upregulation of the components of the SCF E3 ubiquitin ligase complex via AP-1 and DAF-16 enhances protein ubiquitination and reduces protein carbonylation. Our results thus identify a fasting-responsive KGB-1/AP-1 signaling pathway, which, together with DAF-16, causes transcriptional changes that mediate longevity, partly through regulating proteostasis.

  11. Maintenance of French 900 MW PWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents the doctrine and the aims of maintenance of EDF in the next few years. With an average age of 3.5 years, France's 900 MW PWRs, which now total 31, have overcome their growing pains. During the next few years EDF is aiming for a sharp increase in the availability factor of these plants which make up most of its nuclear thermal capacity, a reduction in the number of emergency outages, as great a cut back as possible in the period of programmed outages and the bringing down of the doses received by staff to the lowest possible level. Eventually the idea is to extend the operating life of plants as much as possible, perhaps to 40 or 50 years [fr

  12. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  13. Evaluation of the contribution of license renewal of nuclear power plants to fault reduction in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Goro

    2008-01-01

    Although nuclear power plants in the U.S. were originally permitted to operate for 40 years, operating periods of many plants have been extended by license renewal for another 20 years. On the other hand, plant life management of nuclear power plants in Japan is carried out assuming long-term operation, and the licensee submits aging technology assessment reports before the plant has been operating commercially for 30 years, and then every ten years thereafter, and receives an evaluation by the authorities. In this paper, trend analysis using the INSS database on faults at nuclear power plants overseas, state of implementation of relevant aging management programs, and the effects of license renewal on preservation activities are examined. It is shown that the aging management program identified that many of the cases of fatigue, FAC, and a closed cycle cooling system have been addressed. As a result of analyzing the fault number for each unit, the number of aging faults trends to decrease after applying for license renewal. Therefore, the U.S. license renewal system is considered to be effective for plant life management, and hence the plant life management in Japan, which is substantially equivalent to the U.S. system, is valid. (author)

  14. Eu-funded nuclear research on plant life management in the 4. and 5. framework programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, P.; Van Goethem, G.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper an overview will be given of the European Union EURATOM research in the field of plant life management and ageing of structural components. The results obtained so far in the projects executed under the 5. framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) will be presented and discussed in detail. The objectives of the 5. framework programme, which is end-user driven, are: 1) to develop a common basis for the continued safe operation and prolonging the safe operational life-spans of existing nuclear installations; 2) to develop better methods for their inspection, maintenance and management (both in terms of performance and occupational exposure). The following three sections were proposed under this heading of the work programme: Integrity of equipment and structures, on-line monitoring, inspection and maintenance, and organisation and management of safety. Besides the traditional technological challenges, socio-economic concerns are also taken on board, such as public acceptance and cost of the nuclear option as well as plant simplification and man-technology-organisation interaction. An additional challenge for the EU consists of the enlargements process towards Central and Eastern European Countries in the coming years. Therefore FP5 pays attention also to plant safety assessments of VVER reactors and to the spreading of the new safety culture in these candidate countries in co-operation with similar activities run at the Commission especially under the programmes of Tacis/Phare and of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). In the area of plant life management so far 18 projects have been selected for funding by the European Commission. Most of them are costs shared actions, which means that the European Commission on the one hand and the project partners on the other hand provide each 50 % of the necessary funding. The total contract value of the selected projects is about 18 million euros. (authors)

  15. Eu-funded nuclear research on plant life management in the 4. and 5. framework programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaitre, P.; Van Goethem, G. [European Commission, Dir. General Research, Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper an overview will be given of the European Union EURATOM research in the field of plant life management and ageing of structural components. The results obtained so far in the projects executed under the 5. framework programme (FP-5/1999-2002) will be presented and discussed in detail. The objectives of the 5. framework programme, which is end-user driven, are: 1) to develop a common basis for the continued safe operation and prolonging the safe operational life-spans of existing nuclear installations; 2) to develop better methods for their inspection, maintenance and management (both in terms of performance and occupational exposure). The following three sections were proposed under this heading of the work programme: Integrity of equipment and structures, on-line monitoring, inspection and maintenance, and organisation and management of safety. Besides the traditional technological challenges, socio-economic concerns are also taken on board, such as public acceptance and cost of the nuclear option as well as plant simplification and man-technology-organisation interaction. An additional challenge for the EU consists of the enlargements process towards Central and Eastern European Countries in the coming years. Therefore FP5 pays attention also to plant safety assessments of VVER reactors and to the spreading of the new safety culture in these candidate countries in co-operation with similar activities run at the Commission especially under the programmes of Tacis/Phare and of the Joint Research Centre (JRC). In the area of plant life management so far 18 projects have been selected for funding by the European Commission. Most of them are costs shared actions, which means that the European Commission on the one hand and the project partners on the other hand provide each 50 % of the necessary funding. The total contract value of the selected projects is about 18 million euros. (authors)

  16. An overview of the United States Department of Energy Plant Lifetime Improvement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Clauss, J.M.; Harrison, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1985, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been working with the nuclear industry and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to establish and demonstrate the option to extend the life of nuclear power plants through the renewal of operating licenses. This paper focuses primarily on DOE'S Plant Lifetime Improvement (PLIM) Program efforts to develop the technical criteria and bases for effective aging management and lifetime improvement for continued operation of nuclear power plants. This paper describes current projects to resolve generic technical issues, including degradation