WorldWideScience

Sample records for extended manned space

  1. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  2. Biosafety in manned space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Boever, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of manned exploration is to achieve a prolonged stay in space, for example in an orbital station (such as the International Space Station (ISS)) or in planetary bases on the Moon and/or Mars. It goes without saying that such missions can only be realized when the astronaut's health and well-being is secured. In this respect, the characterization of the microbiological contamination on board spacecraft and orbital stations and the influence of cosmic radiation and microgravity are of paramount importance. Microbial contamination may originate from different sources and includes the initial contamination of space flight materials during manufacturing and assembly, the delivery of supplies to the orbital station, the supplies themselves, secondary contamination during the lifetime of the orbital station, the crew and any other biological material on board e.g. animals, plants, micro-organisms used in scientific experiments. Although most microorganisms do not threaten human health, it has been reported that in a confined environment, such as a space cabin, microorganisms may produce adverse effects on the optimal performance of the space crew and the integrity of the spacecraft or habitat. These effects range from infections, allergies, and toxicities to degradation of air and water supplies. Biodegradation of critical materials may result in system failure and this may jeopardize the crew. The research aims at monitoring the biological airborne and surface contamination during manned space flight. The ISS has been selected as primary test bed for this study. The majority of the investigations are being done by the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), which is responsible for monitoring the biological contamination in the habitable compartments of the ISS for safety and hygienic reasons. Within the frame of a collaboration between IBMP and the European Space Agency (ESA), SCK-CEN is able to participate in the analyses

  3. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  4. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  5. New dimensions for man. [human functions in future space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louviere, A. J.

    1978-01-01

    The functions of man in space have been in a state of constant change since the first manned orbital flight. Initially, the onboard crewmen performed those tasks essential to piloting and navigating the spacecraft. The time devoted to these tasks has steadily decreased and the crewman's time is being allotted to functions other than orbital operations. The evolving functions include added orbital operational capabilities, experimentation, spacecraft maintenance, and fabrication of useful end items. The new functions will include routine utilization of the crewman to extend mission life, satellite retrieval and servicing, remote manipulator systems operations, and piloting of free-flying teleoperator systems. The most demanding tasks are anticipated to be associated with construction of large space structures. The projected changes will introduce innovative designs and revitalize the concepts for utilizing man in space.

  6. Project Mercury: NASA's first manned space programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catchpole, John

    Project Mercury will offer a developmental resume of the first American manned spaceflight programme and its associated infrastructure, including accounts of space launch vehicles. The book highlights the differences in Redstone/Atlas technology, drawing similar comparisons between ballistic capsules and alternative types of spacecraft. The book also covers astronaut selection and training, as well as tracking systems, flight control, basic principles of spaceflight and detailed accounts of individual flights.

  7. Biomedical support of man in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, D. R.; Olszowka, A. J.; Rokitka, M. A.; Farhi, L. E.

    In its broadest sense, biomedical support of man in space must not be limited to assisting spacecraft crew during the mission; such support should also ensure that flight personnel be able to perform properly during landing and after leaving the craft. Man has developed mechanisms that allow him to cope with specific stresses in his normal habitat; there is indisputable evidence that, in some cases, the space environment, by relieving these stresses, has also allowed the adaptive mechanisms to lapse, causing serious problems after re-entry. Inflight biomedical support must therefore include means to simulate some of the normal stresses of the Earth environment. In the area of cardiovascular performance, we have come to rely heavily on complex feedback mechanisms to cope with two stresses, often combined: postural changes, which alter the body axis along which gravitational acceleration acts, and physical exercise, which increases the total load on the system. Unless the appropriate responses are reinforced continuously during flight, crew members may be incapacitated upon return. The first step in the support process must be a study of the way in which changes in g, even of short duration, affect these responses. In particular we should learn more about effects of g on the "on" and "off" dynamics, using a variety of approaches: increased acceleration on one hand at recumbency, immersion, lower body positive pressure, and other means of simulating some of the effects of low g, on the other. Once we understand this, we will have to determine the minimal exposure dose required to maintain the response mechanisms. Finally, we shall have to design stresses that simulate Earth environment and can be imposed in the space vehicle. Some of the information is already at hand; we know that several aspects of the response to exercise are affected by posture. Results from a current series of studies on the kinetics of tilt and on the dynamics of readjustment to exercise in

  8. Potable water supply in U.S. manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Richard L.; Straub, John E., II

    1992-01-01

    A historical review of potable water supply systems used in the U.S. manned flight program is presented. This review provides a general understanding of the unusual challenges these systems have presented to the designers and operators of the related flight hardware. The presentation concludes with the projection of how water supply should be provided in future space missions - extended duration earth-orbital and interplanetary missions and lunar and Mars habitation bases - and the challenges to the biomedical community that providing these systems can present.

  9. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  10. Manned Mission Space Exploration Utilizing a Flexible Universal Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, P.; Barez, F.; Gowda, A.

    2018-02-01

    The proposed ASMS, Inc. "Flexible Universal Module" is in support of NASA's Deep Space Gateway project. The Flexible Universal Module provides a possible habitation or manufacturing environment in support of Manned Mission for Space Exploration.

  11. Magnetoshell Aerocapture for Manned Missions and Planetary Deep Space Orbiters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is clear from past mission studies that a manned Mars mission, as well as deep space planetary orbiters will require aerobraking and aerocapture which use...

  12. Possibility of extending space-time coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yongcheng.

    1993-11-01

    It has been shown that one coordinate system can describe a whole space-time region except some supersurfaces on which there are coordinate singularities. The conditions of extending a coordinate from real field to complex field are studied. It has been shown that many-valued coordinate transformations may help us to extend space-time regions and many-valued metric functions may make one coordinate region to describe more than one space-time regions. (author). 11 refs

  13. Space nuclear power and man's extraterrestrial civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelo, J.J.; Buden, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines leading space nuclear power technology candidates. Particular emphasis is given the heat-pipe reactor technology currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program is aimed at developing a 10-100 kWe, 7-year lifetime space nuclear power plant. As the demand for space-based power reaches megawatt levels, other nuclear reactor designs including: solid core, fluidized bed, and gaseous core, are considered

  14. Immune resistance of man in space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina, V.; Konstantinova, M. D.

    The immune system of 72 cosmonauts was studied after their flights on board Salyut 6, 7 and Mir orbital stations. PHA lymphocyte reactivity, T helper activity and NK capacity to recognize and kill the target were decreased on 1-7 days after prolonged (3-11 months) space flights. Certain alterations were found in the ultrastructure of the NK secretory and locomotor apparatuses. Decrement of IL 2 production was shown using the biological test. However immunoenzymatic analysis did not reveal a decrease in IL 2 synthesis. Production of α-interferon remained unchanged while that of γ-interferon either rose or was diminished. Several cosmonanauts displayed a trend towards increased OAF production. The observed decrease in immune system functioning may increase the risk of various diseases during prolonged space flights.

  15. The space of extended orthomorphisms in a Riesz space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pagter, B.

    1984-01-01

    We study the space Orth°°(L) of extended orthomorphisms in an Archimedean Riesz space L and its analogies with the complete ring of quotients of a commutative ring with unit element. It is shown that for any uniformly complete /-algebra A with unit element, Orth°°(?) is isomorphic with the complete

  16. The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...

  17. Evolutionary space platform concept study. Volume 2, part B: Manned space platform concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Logical, cost-effective steps in the evolution of manned space platforms are investigated and assessed. Tasks included the analysis of requirements for a manned space platform, identifying alternative concepts, performing system analysis and definition of the concepts, comparing the concepts and performing programmatic analysis for a reference concept.

  18. The deep space 1 extended mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, Marc D.; Varghese, Philip

    2001-03-01

    The primary mission of Deep Space 1 (DS1), the first flight of the New Millennium program, completed successfully in September 1999, having exceeded its objectives of testing new, high-risk technologies important for future space and Earth science missions. DS1 is now in its extended mission, with plans to take advantage of the advanced technologies, including solar electric propulsion, to conduct an encounter with comet 19P/Borrelly in September 2001. During the extended mission, the spacecraft's commercial star tracker failed; this critical loss prevented the spacecraft from achieving three-axis attitude control or knowledge. A two-phase approach to recovering the mission was undertaken. The first involved devising a new method of pointing the high-gain antenna to Earth using the radio signal received at the Deep Space Network as an indicator of spacecraft attitude. The second was the development of new flight software that allowed the spacecraft to return to three-axis operation without substantial ground assistance. The principal new feature of this software is the use of the science camera as an attitude sensor. The differences between the science camera and the star tracker have important implications not only for the design of the new software but also for the methods of operating the spacecraft and conducting the mission. The ambitious rescue was fully successful, and the extended mission is back on track.

  19. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKissock, B.I.; Bloomfield, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. The shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station and advanced manned lunar base. (author)

  20. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mckissock, B.I.; Bloomfield, H.S.

    1989-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station, and advanced manned lunar base

  1. Risk evaluation of cosmic-ray exposure in long-term manned space mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu; Majima, Hideyuki; Ando, Koichi; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masao

    1999-03-01

    Long-term manned space missions are planned to be implemented within the first two decades of the 21st century. The International Space Station (ISS) will be ready to run, and a plan to visit Mars is also under way. Humans will live in space for long periods of time and we are planning to do experiments in space to examine various aspects of space science. The main risk in long-term manned space missions is large exposure to space radiation. Human safety must be ensured in space where exposure to cosmic rays is almost 1 mSv a day. As such missions will inevitably result in significant exposure for astronauts, there is increasing need to protect them adequately based on both physical and biological knowledge. A good method to evaluate realistic risk associated with space missions will be in urgent demand. At the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Chiba, Japan, a research institutes of the Science Technology Agency of Japan, high energy cosmic radiation can be simulated only with heavy ion irradiation accelerated by the particle accelerator, Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC). Research to evaluate risk of space radiation, including physical measurement techniques, protective effects, biological effects and risk adjustment, aging, neuronal cell damage and cancer risk are undergoing. We organized a workshop of the latest topics and experimental results of physics and biology related to space radiation supported by Japan Science and Technology Corporation (JST). This workshop was held as a satellite meeting associated with the 32nd Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) Scientific Assembly (Nagoya, July 12-19th, 1998). This volume is an extended proceedings of the workshop. The proceedings contain six main subjects covering the latest information on Risk Evaluation of Cosmic-Ray Exposure in Long-Term Manned Space Mission'. 1. Risk Estimation of Heavy Ion Exposure in Space. 2. Low Dose-Rate Effects and Microbeam-Related Heavy Ions. 3. Chromosome and

  2. Man--machine interface issues for space nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, W.R.; Haugset, K.

    1991-01-01

    The deployment of nuclear reactors in space necessitates an entirely new set of guidelines for the design of the man--machine interface (MMI) when compared to earth-based applications such as commerical nuclear power plants. Although the design objectives of earth- and space-based nuclear power systems are the same, that is, to produce electrical power, the differences in the application environments mean that the operator's role will be significantly different for space-based systems. This paper explores the issues associated with establishing the necessary MMI guidelines for space nuclear power systems. The generic human performance requirements for space-based systems are described, and the operator roles that are utilized for the operation of current and advanced earth-based reactors are briefly summarized. The development of a prototype advanced control room, the Integrated Surveillance and Control System (ISACS) at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Halden Reactor Project is introduced. Finally, preliminary ideas for the use of the ISACS system as a test bed for establishing MMI guidelines for space nuclear systems are presented

  3. Psycho-social training for man in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, R.; Kass, J. R.

    1999-11-01

    In preparation for the international manned space station various international and national space agencies are already participating with the Russian MIR programme with short, medium, and long term presence on the MIR station. Although selection criteria for all crew include careful psychological screening, with some effort also regarding team build-up, this has proved insufficient; moreover, little or no effort is expended in the area of psycho-social- or team training. This paper propounds the authors' thesis that, in addition to the steps already being taken, psycho-social training is essential for long-duration flight. A concrete proposal is made for such a training program, with an overview of how such a program will look like; examples of past applications are given.

  4. Psychosocial value of space simulation for extended spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N.

    1997-01-01

    There have been over 60 studies of Earth-bound activities that can be viewed as simulations of manned spaceflight. These analogs have involved Antarctic and Arctic expeditions, submarines and submersible simulators, land-based simulators, and hypodynamia environments. None of these analogs has accounted for all the variables related to extended spaceflight (e.g., microgravity, long-duration, heterogeneous crews), and some of the stimulation conditions have been found to be more representative of space conditions than others. A number of psychosocial factors have emerged from the simulation literature that correspond to important issues that have been reported from space. Psychological factors include sleep disorders, alterations in time sense, transcendent experiences, demographic issues, career motivation, homesickness, and increased perceptual sensitivities. Psychiatric factors include anxiety, depression, psychosis, psychosomatic symptoms, emotional reactions related to mission stage, asthenia, and postflight personality, and marital problems. Finally, interpersonal factors include tension resulting from crew heterogeneity, decreased cohesion over time, need for privacy, and issues involving leadership roles and lines of authority. Since future space missions will usually involve heterogeneous crews working on complicated objectives over long periods of time, these features require further study. Socio-cultural factors affecting confined crews (e.g., language and dialect, cultural differences, gender biases) should be explored in order to minimize tension and sustain performance. Career motivation also needs to be examined for the purpose of improving crew cohesion and preventing subgrouping, scapegoating, and territorial behavior. Periods of monotony and reduced activity should be addressed in order to maintain morale, provide meaningful use of leisure time, and prevent negative consequences of low stimulation, such as asthenia and crew member withdrawal

  5. Minkowski space-time is locally extendible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beem, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    An example of a real analytic local extension of Minkowski space-time is given in this note. This local extension is not across points of the b-boundary since Minkowski space-time has an empty b-boundary. Furthermore, this local extension is not across points of the causal boundary. The example indicates that the concept of local inextendibility may be less useful than originally envisioned. (orig.)

  6. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  7. Parapharyngeal meningioma extending from the intracranial space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchibori, M.; Odake, G.; Ueda, S.; Yasuda, N.; Hisa, I.

    1990-01-01

    A 50-year old woman with a giant parapharyngeal meningioma extending from the intracranial cavity was admitted to our hospital. The parapharyngeal tumor was biopsied using the transoral approach, and a histological section diagnosis suggested meningioma. Thereafter, further examination by magnetic resonance images (MRI) and contrast enhanced CT scans revealed a diffuse meningioma en plaque in the posterior fossa. Invasion extended from the clival dura to the right sigmoid sinus. The extracranial extension of a meningioma is very rare but a few cases have been reported. In almost all of the reported cases, a large intracranial meningioma was simultaneously or previously verified by CT scans. Our case was special in that the intracranial mass was not voluminous but showed en plaque extension, and also because the pathway of the extracranial extension through the jugular foramen was clearly visualized by CT and MRI. Obliteration and invasion of the right sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular vein by tumor were also demonstrated. (orig.)

  8. 12th Man in Space Symposium: The Future of Humans in Space. Abstract Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is pleased to host the 12th IAA Man in Space Symposium. A truly international forum, this symposium brings together scientists, engineers, and managers interested in all aspects of human space flight to share the most recent research results and space agency planning related to the future of humans in space. As we look out at the universe from our own uniquely human perspective, we see a world that we affect at the same time that it affects us. Our tomorrows are highlighted by the possibilities generated by our knowledge, our drive, and our dreams. This symposium will examine our future in space from the springboard of our achievements.

  9. Exploration of the utility of military man in space in the year 2025

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Daniel L.

    1992-03-01

    It is absolutely essential for the well being of today's space forces as well as the future space forces of 2025, that DOD develop manned advanced technology space systems in lieu of or in addition to unmannned systems to effectively utilize mulitary man's compelling and aggressive warfighting abilities to accomplish the critical wartime mission elements of space control and force application. National space policy, military space doctrine and common all dictate they should do so if space superiority during future, inevitable conflict with enemy space forces is the paramount objective. Deploying military man in space will provide that space superiority and he will finally become the 'center of gravity' of the U.S. space program.

  10. Extended supersymmetry in four-dimensional Euclidean space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2000-01-01

    Since the generators of the two SU(2) groups which comprise SO(4) are not Hermitian conjugates of each other, the simplest supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Euclidean space more closely resembles the N=2 than the N=1 supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Minkowski space. An extended supersymmetry algebra in four-dimensional Euclidean space is considered in this paper; its structure resembles that of N=4 supersymmetry in four-dimensional Minkowski space. The relationship of this algebra to the algebra found by dimensionally reducing the N=1 supersymmetry algebra in ten-dimensional Euclidean space to four-dimensional Euclidean space is examined. The dimensional reduction of N=1 super Yang-Mills theory in ten-dimensional Minkowski space to four-dimensional Euclidean space is also considered

  11. Computers for Manned Space Applications Base on Commercial Off-the-Shelf Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, T.; Gronowski, M.

    2009-05-01

    Similar to the consumer markets there has been an ever increasing demand in processing power, signal processing capabilities and memory space also for computers used for science data processing in space. An important driver of this development have been the payload developers for the International Space Station, requesting high-speed data acquisition and fast control loops in increasingly complex systems. Current experiments now even perform video processing and compression with their payload controllers. Nowadays the requirements for a space qualified computer are often far beyond the capabilities of, for example, the classic SPARC architecture that is found in ERC32 or LEON CPUs. An increase in performance usually demands costly and power consuming application specific solutions. Continuous developments over the last few years have now led to an alternative approach that is based on complete electronics modules manufactured for commercial and industrial customers. Computer modules used in industrial environments with a high demand for reliability under harsh environmental conditions like chemical reactors, electrical power plants or on manufacturing lines are entered into a selection procedure. Promising candidates then undergo a detailed characterisation process developed by Astrium Space Transportation. After thorough analysis and some modifications, these modules can replace fully qualified custom built electronics in specific, although not safety critical applications in manned space. This paper focuses on the benefits of COTS1 based electronics modules and the necessary analyses and modifications for their utilisation in manned space applications on the ISS. Some considerations regarding overall systems architecture will also be included. Furthermore this paper will also pinpoint issues that render such modules unsuitable for specific tasks, and justify the reasons. Finally, the conclusion of this paper will advocate the implementation of COTS based

  12. An old man with a mass in the retropharyngeal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hashemi-Shahri

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available

    • In this article, we discuss clinical manifestations, laboratory results, and radiological findings in an old man with suppurative tender mass in the neck, accompanied by, fever, weight loss, malaise, fatigue, night sweat, cough, vomiting, anddysphagia. Pharyngeal exam revealed a huge retropharyngeal abscess.

  13. Quantum Potential and Symmetries in Extended Phase Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadollah Nasiri

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of the quantum potential is studied for a particle in a linear and a harmonic potential by means of an extended phase space technique. This is done by obtaining an expression for the quantum potential in momentum space representation followed by the generalization of this concept to extended phase space. It is shown that there exists an extended canonical transformation that removes the expression for the quantum potential in the dynamical equation. The situation, mathematically, is similar to disappearance of the centrifugal potential in going from the spherical to the Cartesian coordinates that changes the physical potential to an effective one. The representation where the quantum potential disappears and the modified Hamilton-Jacobi equation reduces to the familiar classical form, is one in which the dynamical equation turns out to be the Wigner equation.

  14. Six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem for Space Station Prototype (SSP) application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostell, G. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Shumar, J. W.; Hallick, T. M.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    A six man, self contained, electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrating subsystem for space station prototype use was successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. A test program was successfully completed which covered shakedown testing, design verification testing, and acceptance testing.

  15. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  16. Space Exploration: Manned and Unmanned Flight. Aerospace Education III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coard, E. A.

    This book, for use only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the idea of space exploration. The possibility of going into space and subsequent moon landings have encouraged the government and scientists to formulate future plans in this field. Brief descriptions (mostly informative in nature) of these plans provide an account of…

  17. Autogenic Feedback Training Applications for Man in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Finding an effective treatment for the motion sickness-like symptoms that occur in space has become a high priority for NASA. This paper reviews the back-round research and procedures of an experiment designed to prevent space motion sickness in shuttle crewmembers. The preventive method used, Autogenic - Feedback Training (AFT) involves training subjects to control voluntarily several of their own physiological responses to environmental stressors. AFT has been used reliably to increase tolerance to motion sickness during around based tests in over 300 men and women under a variety of conditions that induce motion sickness, and preliminary evidence from space suggests that AFT may be an effective treatment for space motion sickness as well. Other applications of AFT described include; (1) a potential treatment for post flight orthostatic intolerance, a serious biomedical problem resulting from long duration exposure to micro-g and (2) improving pilot performance during emergency flying conditions.

  18. Open source IPSEC software in manned and unmanned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jacob

    Network security is a major topic of research because cyber attackers pose a threat to national security. Securing ground-space communications for NASA missions is important because attackers could endanger mission success and human lives. This thesis describes how an open source IPsec software package was used to create a secure and reliable channel for ground-space communications. A cost efficient, reproducible hardware testbed was also created to simulate ground-space communications. The testbed enables simulation of low-bandwidth and high latency communications links to experiment how the open source IPsec software reacts to these network constraints. Test cases were built that allowed for validation of the testbed and the open source IPsec software. The test cases also simulate using an IPsec connection from mission control ground routers to points of interest in outer space. Tested open source IPsec software did not meet all the requirements. Software changes were suggested to meet requirements.

  19. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space: Criteria, survey study, and preliminary model

    OpenAIRE

    Sztejnberg Manuel; Xiao Shanjie; Satvat Nader; Limón Felisa; Hopkins John; Jevremović Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of manned space missions outside Earth's orbit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is therefore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On th...

  20. Psychological considerations of man in space: Problems & solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, J.; Kass, R.; Samaltedinov, I.

    With concrete plans for long duration flight taking form a new impetus is lent to preparing man for this hostile and unnatural environment. Cramped conditions, isolation from family and loved ones, work stress, fear, and incompatibility with fellow crew, are but a few of the problems suffered by astronauts and cosmonauts during their long missions in orbit about the earth. Although criteria for selection of crew is one aspect of attacking the problem, it has not solved it Notwithstanding good selection, team combination, and counselling before flight, problems have still occurred with unwanted consequences. Incompatibility of team members, far from being the exception, has been frequent. This has been detrímental both physiologically and psychologically for the individual as well as for the operational success and safety of the missions. Because problems will inevitably occur in future long duration missions, especially when they are of international and multi-cultural nature, the importance of dealing with them is underlined. This paper takes a different approach towards ameliorating these problems, namely that of psychological group training before a mission.

  1. Problems of microbial ecology in man space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizko, N. N.

    The state of microflora should be considered as one of the important links in chain of the specific functional disorders involving the spaceflight factors effects. At the same time, there occurs an astablishment of nonspecific disbiotic response of the human microflora in the space flights of various duration characterized by a decrease up to a reduction of the "defence" group of microorganisms; by an appearence of unusual microorganisms in various biotypes, by accummulatoin of the potential of pathogenic species of automicroflora with their succeeding colonization and longterm persistence. In experimental animal models to simulate dysbacteriosis and with the use of SPF-rats and primates flow aboard Cosmos biosatellites, the significance of indigenous microflora for preserving microecological homeostasis. Theoretically based and experimentally proven need for increasing the colonization resistence is cofirmed dy the practical use of the measures to stabilize microflora of the cosmonauts during space flights.

  2. Previous experience in manned space flight: A survey of human factors lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandlee, George O.; Woolford, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Previous experience in manned space flight programs can be used to compile a data base of human factors lessons learned for the purpose of developing aids in the future design of inhabited spacecraft. The objectives are to gather information available from relevant sources, to develop a taxonomy of human factors data, and to produce a data base that can be used in the future for those people involved in the design of manned spacecraft operations. A study is currently underway at the Johnson Space Center with the objective of compiling, classifying, and summarizing relevant human factors data bearing on the lessons learned from previous manned space flights. The research reported defines sources of data, methods for collection, and proposes a classification for human factors data that may be a model for other human factors disciplines.

  3. A business man views commercial ventures in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarff, D. D.; Bloom, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Paper reviews technical, resource planning and marketing steps an industrial organization must perform in arriving at a decision to undertake space development and production of commercial products or services for Users on the ground. Technical elements are supported by particular examples. Analysis of required resources emphasizes facility and financial inter-relationships between commercial organizations and NASA. Marketing planning covers elements of profitability. Paper addresses questions related to protection of corporate stockholders and public interest, investment decision timing, budget variations. Paper concludes with observations on timeliness of planning shuttle-based commercial ventures and on key industry/NASA problems and decisions.

  4. Environmental control and life support technologies for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. T.; Wynveen, R. A.; Lin, C.

    1986-01-01

    Regenerative environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technologies are found by the present evaluation to have reached a degree of maturity that recommends their application to long duration manned missions. The missions for which regenerative ECLSSs are attractive in virtue of the need to avoid expendables and resupply requirements have been identified as that of the long duration LEO Space Station, long duration stays at GEO, a permanently manned lunar base (or colony), manned platforms located at the earth-moon libration points L4 or L5, a Mars mission, deep space exploration, and asteroid exploration. A comparison is made between nonregenerative and regenerative ECLSSs in the cases of 10 essential functions.

  5. Extended Cellular Automata Models of Particles and Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beedle, Michael

    2005-04-01

    Models of particles and space-time are explored through simulations and theoretical models that use Extended Cellular Automata models. The expanded Cellular Automata Models consist go beyond simple scalar binary cell-fields, into discrete multi-level group representations like S0(2), SU(2), SU(3), SPIN(3,1). The propagation and evolution of these expanded cellular automatas are then compared to quantum field theories based on the "harmonic paradigm" i.e. built by an infinite number of harmonic oscillators, and with gravitational models.

  6. Cynophobic fear adaptively extends peri-personal space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine eTaffou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Peri-personal space (PPS is defined as the space immediately surrounding our bodies, which is critical in the adaptation of our social behavior. As a space of interaction with the external world, PPS is involved in the control of motor action as well as in the protection of the body. The boundaries of this PPS are known to be flexible but so far, little is known about how PPS boundaries are influenced by unreasonable fear. We hypothesized that unreasonable fear extends the neural representation of the multisensory space immediately surrounding the body in the presence of a feared object, with the aim of expanding the space of protection around the body. To test this hypothesis, we explored the impact of unreasonable fear on the size of PPS in two groups of non-clinical participants: dog-fearful and non-fearful participants. The sensitivity to cynophobia was assessed with a questionnaire. We measured participants’ PPS extent in the presence of threatening (dog growling and non-threatening (sheep bleating auditory stimuli. The sound stimuli were processed through binaural rendering so that the virtual sound sources were looming towards participants from their rear hemi-field. We found that, when in the presence of the auditory dog stimulus, the PPS of dog-fearful participants is larger than that of non-fearful participants. Our results demonstrate that PPS size is adaptively modulated by cynophobia and suggest that anxiety tailors PPS boundaries when exposed to fear-relevant features. Anxiety, with the exception of social phobia, has rarely been studied as a disorder of social interaction. These findings could help develop new treatment strategies for anxious disorders, by involving the link between space and interpersonal interaction in the approach of the disorder.

  7. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  8. Construction in space - Toward a fresh definition of the man/machine relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, H. H.; Stokes, J. W.

    1979-01-01

    The EVA (extravehicular activity) project forming part of the space construction process is reviewed. The manual EVA constuction, demonstrated by the crew of Skylab 3 by assembling a modest space structure in the form of the twin-pole sunshade, is considered, indicating that the experiment dispelled many doubts about man's ability to execute routine and contingency EVA operations. Tests demonstrating the feasibility of remote teleoperator rendezvous, station keeping, and docking operations, using hand controllers for direct input and television for feedback, are noted. Future plans for designing space construction machines are mentioned.

  9. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 3: EVA/Manned Systems/Fluid Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution 16-19 Jan. 1990 in Dallas, Texas. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 3 consists of the technology discipline sections for Extravehicular Activity/Manned Systems and the Fluid Management System. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  10. Space Station CMIF extended duration metabolic control test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Extended Duration Metabolic Control Test (EMCT) was conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility. The primary objective of the EMCT was to gather performance data from a partially-closed regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system functioning under steady-state conditions. Included is a description of the EMCT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements of water and gas samples taken during the test. A comparison of the physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the post test laboratory analyses of the water samples is included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test, providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item. Analytical results pertaining to a system level mass balance and selected system power estimates are also included.

  11. Extending Supernova Spectral Templates for Next Generation Space Telescope Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts-Pierel, Justin; Rodney, Steven A.; Steven Rodney

    2018-01-01

    Widely used empirical supernova (SN) Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) have not historically extended meaningfully into the ultraviolet (UV), or the infrared (IR). However, both are critical for current and future aspects of SN research including UV spectra as probes of poorly understood SN Ia physical properties, and expanding our view of the universe with high-redshift James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) IR observations. We therefore present a comprehensive set of SN SED templates that have been extended into the UV and IR, as well as an open-source software package written in Python that enables a user to generate their own extrapolated SEDs. We have taken a sampling of core-collapse (CC) and Type Ia SNe to get a time-dependent distribution of UV and IR colors (U-B,r’-[JHK]), and then generated color curves are used to extrapolate SEDs into the UV and IR. The SED extrapolation process is now easily duplicated using a user’s own data and parameters via our open-source Python package: SNSEDextend. This work develops the tools necessary to explore the JWST’s ability to discriminate between CC and Type Ia SNe, as well as provides a repository of SN SEDs that will be invaluable to future JWST and WFIRST SN studies.

  12. Research on Life Science and Life Support Engineering Problems of Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Bin; Guo, Linli; Zhang, Zhixian

    2016-07-01

    Space life science and life support engineering are prominent problems in manned deep space exploration mission. Some typical problems are discussed in this paper, including long-term life support problem, physiological effect and defense of varying extraterrestrial environment. The causes of these problems are developed for these problems. To solve these problems, research on space life science and space medical-engineering should be conducted. In the aspect of space life science, the study of space gravity biology should focus on character of physiological effect in long term zero gravity, co-regulation of physiological systems, impact on stem cells in space, etc. The study of space radiation biology should focus on target effect and non-target effect of radiation, carcinogenicity of radiation, spread of radiation damage in life system, etc. The study of basic biology of space life support system should focus on theoretical basis and simulating mode of constructing the life support system, filtration and combination of species, regulation and optimization method of life support system, etc. In the aspect of space medical-engineering, the study of bio-regenerative life support technology should focus on plants cultivation technology, animal-protein production technology, waste treatment technology, etc. The study of varying gravity defense technology should focus on biological and medical measures to defend varying gravity effect, generation and evaluation of artificial gravity, etc. The study of extraterrestrial environment defense technology should focus on risk evaluation of radiation, monitoring and defending of radiation, compound prevention and removal technology of dust, etc. At last, a case of manned lunar base is analyzed, in which the effective schemes of life support system, defense of varying gravity, defense of extraterrestrial environment are advanced respectively. The points in this paper can be used as references for intensive study on key

  13. [Application prospect of human-artificial intelligence system in future manned space flight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jin-he

    2003-01-01

    To make the manned space flight more efficient and safer, a concept of human-artificial (AI) system is proposed in the present paper. The task of future manned space flight and the technique requirement with respect to the human-AI system development were analyzed. The main points are as follows: 1)Astronaut and AI are complementary to each other functionally; 2) Both symbol AI and connectionist AI should be included in the human-AI system, but expert system and Soar-like system are used mainly inside the cabin, the COG-like robots are mainly assigned for EVA either in LEO flight or on the surface of Moon or Mars; 3) The human-AI system is hierarchical in nature with astronaut at the top level; 4) The complex interfaces between astronaut and AI are the key points for running the system reliably and efficiently. As the importance of human-AI system in future manned space flight and the complexity of related technology, it is suggested that the R/D should be planned as early as possible.

  14. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space - Criteria, survey study and preliminary model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztejnberg, M.; Xiao, S.; Satvat, N.; Limon, F.; Hopkins, J.; Jevremovic, T.; T. Jevremovic)

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of manned space missions out side Earth's or bit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is there fore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured, and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy). National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremovic began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Radiation shielding aspects for long manned mission to space: Criteria, survey study, and preliminary model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sztejnberg Manuel

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The prospect of manned space missions outside Earth's orbit is limited by the travel time and shielding against cosmic radiation. The chemical rockets currently used in the space program have no hope of propelling a manned vehicle to a far away location such as Mars due to the enormous mass of fuel that would be required. The specific energy available from nuclear fuel is a factor of 106 higher than chemical fuel; it is therefore obvious that nuclear power production in space is a must. On the other hand, recent considerations to send a man to the Moon for a long stay would require a stable, secured and safe source of energy (there is hardly anything beyond nuclear power that would provide a useful and reliably safe sustainable supply of energy. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA anticipates that the mass of a shielding material required for long travel to Mars is the next major design driver. In 2006 NASA identified a need to assess and evaluate potential gaps in existing knowledge and understanding of the level and types of radiation critical to astronauts' health during the long travel to Mars and to start a comprehensive study related to the shielding design of a spacecraft finding the conditions for the mitigation of radiation components contributing to the doses beyond accepted limits. In order to reduce the overall space craft mass, NASA is looking for the novel, multi-purpose and multi-functional materials that will provide effective shielding of the crew and electronics on board. The Laboratory for Neutronics and Geometry Computation in the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University led by Prof. Tatjana Jevremović began in 2004 the analytical evaluations of different lightweight materials. The preliminary results of the design survey study are presented in this paper.

  16. Report 6: Guidance document. Man-made hazards and Accidental Aircraft Crash hazards modelling and implementation in extended PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahia, S.; Brinkman, H.; Bareith, A.; Siklossy, T.; Vinot, T.; Mateescu, T.; Espargilliere, J.; Burgazzi, L.; Ivanov, I.; Bogdanov, D.; Groudev, P.; Ostapchuk, S.; Zhabin, O.; Stojka, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Kumar, M.; Nitoi, M.; Farcasiu, M.; Borysiewicz, M.; Kowal, K.; Potempski, S.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this report is to provide guidance on practices to model man-made hazards (mainly external fires and explosions) and accidental aircraft crash hazards and implement them in extended Level 1 PSA. This report is a joint deliverable of work package 21 (WP21) and work package 22 (WP22). The general objective of WP21 is to provide guidance on all of the individual hazards selected at the first ASAMPSA-E End Users Workshop (May 2014, Uppsala, Sweden). The objective of WP22 is to provide the solutions for purposes of different parts of man-made hazards Level 1 PSA fulfilment. This guidance is focusing on man-made hazards, namely: external fires and explosions, and accidental aircraft crash hazards. Guidance developed refers to existing guidance whenever possible. The initial part of guidance (WP21 part) reflects current practices to assess the frequencies for each type of hazards or combination of hazards (including correlated hazards) as initiating event for PSAs. The sources and quality of hazard data, the elements of hazard assessment methodologies and relevant examples are discussed. Classification and criteria to properly assess hazard combinations as well as examples and methods for assessment of these combinations are included in this guidance. In appendixes additional material is presented with the examples of practical approaches to aircraft crash and man-made hazard. The following issues are addressed: 1) Hazard assessment methodologies, including issues related to hazard combinations. 2) Modelling equipment of safety related SSC, 3) HRA, 4) Emergency response, 5) Multi-unit issues. Recommendations and also limitations, gaps identified in the existing methodologies and a list of open issues are included. At all stages of this guidance and especially from an industrial end-user perspective, one must keep in mind that the development of man-made hazards probabilistic analysis must be conditioned to the ability to ultimately obtain a representative risk

  17. Summary results of the first United States manned orbital space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J. H. Jr

    1963-01-01

    This paper describes the principal findings of the first United States manned orbital space flight in light of the flight mission. Consideration is given to the coordinated tracking network, recovery forces and to the spacecraft and its several functional systems. These include mechanisms for heat protection, escape maneuvers, spacecraft control, power supply, communications, life support and landing. A few difficulties encountered in the flight and deviations from the planned sequence are described. Craft preparation, aeromedical studies, flight plan and particularly flight observations--including the color, light, horizon visibility by day and by night, cloud formations and sunrise and sunset effects are given in some detail. The general conclusion from the MA-6 flight is that man can adapt well to new conditions encountered in space flight and that man can contribute importantly to mission reliability and toward mission achievement through his capacities to control the spacecraft and its multiple systems contribute to decision making and adaptation of programming as well as to direct exploratory and experimental observations.

  18. The management approach to the NASA space station definition studies at the Manned Spacecraft Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlig, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The overall management approach to the NASA Phase B definition studies for space stations, which were initiated in September 1969 and completed in July 1972, is reviewed with particular emphasis placed on the management approach used by the Manned Spacecraft Center. The internal working organizations of the Manned Spacecraft Center and its prime contractor, North American Rockwell, are delineated along with the interfacing techniques used for the joint Government and industry study. Working interfaces with other NASA centers, industry, and Government agencies are briefly highlighted. The controlling documentation for the study (such as guidelines and constraints, bibliography, and key personnel) is reviewed. The historical background and content of the experiment program prepared for use in this Phase B study are outlined and management concepts that may be considered for future programs are proposed.

  19. Space Nuclear Power and Propulsion - a basic Tool for the manned Exploration of the Solar System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frischauf, Norbert; Hamilton, Booz Allen

    2004-01-01

    Humanity has started to explore space more than 40 years ago. Numerous spacecraft have left the Earth in this endeavour, but while unmanned spacecraft were already sent out on missions, where they would eventually reach the outer limits of the Solar System, manned exploration has always been confined to the tiny bubble of the Earth's gravitational well, stretching out at maximum to our closest celestial companion - the Moon - during the era of the Apollo programme in the late 60's and early 70's. When mankind made its giant leap, the exploration of our cosmic neighbour was seen as the initial step for the manned exploration of the whole Solar System. Consequently ambitious research and development programmes were undertaken at that time to enable what seemed to be the next logical steps: the establishment of a permanent settled base on the Moon and the first manned mission to Mars in the 80's. Nuclear space power and propulsion played an important role in these entire future scenarios, hence ambitious development programmes were undertaken to make these technologies available. Unfortunately the 70's-paradigm shift in space policies did not only bring an end to the Apollo programme, but it also brought a complete halt to all of these technology programmes and confined the human presence in space to a tiny bubble including nothing more than the Earth's sphere and a mere shell of a few hundred kilometres of altitude, too small to even include the Moon. Today, after more than three decades, manned exploration of the Solar System has become an issue again and so are missions to Moon and Mars. However, studies and analyses show that all of these future plans are hampered by today's available propulsion systems and by the problematic of solar power generation at distances at and beyond of Mars, a problem, however, that can readily be solved by the utilisation of space nuclear reactors and propulsion systems. This paper intends to provide an overview on the various fission

  20. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Manned Spacecraft Center data base requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the types of data that the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) should automate in order to make available essential management and technical information to support MSC's various functions and missions. In addition, the software and hardware capabilities to best handle the storage and retrieval of this data were analyzed. Based on the results of this study, recommendations are presented for a unified data base that provides a cost effective solution to MSC's data automation requirements. The recommendations are projected through a time frame that includes the earth orbit space station.

  1. Advanced engineering software for in-space assembly and manned planetary spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaquil, Donald; Mah, Robert

    1990-01-01

    Meeting the objectives of the Lunar/Mars initiative to establish safe and cost-effective extraterrestrial bases requires an integrated software/hardware approach to operational definitions and systems implementation. This paper begins this process by taking a 'software-first' approach to systems design, for implementing specific mission scenarios in the domains of in-space assembly and operations of the manned Mars spacecraft. The technological barriers facing implementation of robust operational systems within these two domains are discussed, and preliminary software requirements and architectures that resolve these barriers are provided.

  2. Constant scalar curvature hypersurfaces in extended Schwarzschild space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pareja, M. J.; Frauendiener, J.

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of spherically symmetric hypersurfaces in the Kruskal extension of the Schwarzschild space-time. The hypersurfaces have constant negative scalar curvature, so they are hyperboloidal in the regions of space-time which are asymptotically flat

  3. Man in space - A time for perspective. [crew performance on Space Shuttle-Spacelab program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    Factors affecting crew performances in long-term space flights are examined with emphasis on the Space Shuttle-Spacelab program. Biomedical investigations carried out during four Skylab missions indicate that initially rapid changes in certain physiological parameters, notably in cardiovascular response and red-blood-cell levels, lead to an adapted condition. Calcium loss remains a potential problem. Space Shuttle environmental control and life-support systems are described together with technology facilitating performance of mission objectives in a weightless environment. It is concluded that crew requirements are within the physical and psychological capability of astronauts, but the extent to which nonastronaut personnel will be able to participate without extensive training and pre-conditioning remains to be determined.

  4. Stressors, stress and stress consequences during long-duration manned space missions: a descriptive model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geuna, Stefano; Brunelli, Francesco; Perino, Maria A.

    Keeping crew members in good health is a major factor in the success or failure of long-duration manned space missions. Among the many possible agents that can affect the crew's general well-being, stress is certainly one of the most critical because of its implications on human health and performance, both physical and mental. Nevertheless, very few studies have been performed on this fundamental issue and none of them has addressed it in its entirity, considering its diverse physical and psychological aspects. In this work, a descriptive model is proposed to expound the mechanism and sequence of events which mediate stress. A critical analysis of the information provided by past manned spaceflights and by dedicated research performed in analogous environments is presented, and an extrapolation of the available data on human stress in such extreme conditions is proposed. Both internal and external stressors have been identified, at physical and psychosocial levels, thus providing the basis for their early detection and preventive reduction. The possible negative consequences of stress that may lead to disease in crewmembers are described. Finally, the most effective instruments which may be of help in reducing space-related human stress and treating its negative consequences are suggested.

  5. Multi-Terrain Earth Landing Systems Applicable for Manned Space Capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasanella, Edwin L.

    2008-01-01

    A key element of the President's Vision for Space Exploration is the development of a new space transportation system to replace the Shuttle that will enable manned exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond. NASA has tasked the Constellation Program with the development of this architecture, which includes the Ares launch vehicle and Orion manned spacecraft. The Orion spacecraft must carry six astronauts and its primary structure should be reusable, if practical. These requirements led the Constellation Program to consider a baseline land landing on return to earth. To assess the landing system options for Orion, a review of current operational parachute landing systems such as those used for the F-111 escape module and the Soyuz is performed. In particular, landing systems with airbags and retrorockets that would enable reusability of the Orion capsule are investigated. In addition, Apollo tests and analyses conducted in the 1960's for both water and land landings are reviewed. Finally, tests and dynamic finite element simulations to understand land landings for the Orion spacecraft are also presented.

  6. Keynote speech - Manned Space Flights: Lessons Learned from Space Craft Operation and Maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Following graduation in 1973 from the Ecole de l'Air (the French Air Force Academy), Michel Tognini served in the French Air Force as an operational fighter pilot, flight leader in 1976, flight commander in 1979, test pilot then chief test pilot from 1983 to 1985. In 1985, France opened a recruitment program to expand its astronaut corps, and Michel Tognini was one of seven candidates selected by CNES. In July 1986, he was one of four candidates to undergo medical examinations in Moscow. In August 1986, he was assigned as a back-up crew member for the Soyuz TM-7 mission. Although he remained a French Air Force officer, he was placed on detachment to CNES for his space flight activities from September 1986 onwards. In 1991 he went to Star City, Russia, to start prime crew training for the third Soviet-French ANTARES mission. During his stay in Russia, he linked up with Mir (ANTARES mission) and spent 14 days (July 27–Aug. 10, 1992; Soyuz TM-14 and TM-14)carrying out a program of joint Soviet-French experimen...

  7. Mini-magnetosphere plasma experiment for space radiation protection in manned spaceflight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Xu Feng; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo

    2012-01-01

    With the development of Chinese manned spaceflight, the planetary missions will become true in the future. The protection of astronauts from cosmic radiation is an unavoidable problem that should be considered. There are many revolutionary ideas for shielding including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. The concept using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field was recommended for further assessment. Magnetic field inflation was produced by the injection of plasma onto the magnetic field. The method can be used to deflect charged ions and to reduce space radiation dose. It can supply the suitable radiation protection for astronauts and spacecraft. Principle experiments demonstrated that the magnetic field was inflated by the injection of the plasma in the vacuum chamber and the magnetic field intensity strengthened with the increasing of input RF power in this paper. The mechanism should be studied in following steps. (authors)

  8. Academic Training: Surviving in space: the challenges of a manned mission to Mars

    CERN Multimedia

    Françoise Benz

    2005-01-01

    2005-2006 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 26, 27, 28 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Surviving in space: the challenges of a manned mission to Mars by L. S. Pinsky / Univ. Houston, USA Program : Lecture I: Understanding the Space Radiation Environment Lecture II: Dosimetry and the Effects of the Exposure of Human Tissue to Heavily Ionizing Radiation Lecture III: Modelling the Interaction of the Space Radiation in Spacecraft & Humans, and Assessing the Risks on a Mission to Mars... ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern.ch/Training/ or fill in an 'application for training' form available from your Departmental Secretariat or from your DTO (Departmental Training Officer). Applications will be accepted in the order ...

  9. The Mini Space Farm—A Food Regenerative System in the Long-term Manned Space Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mao

    In this invention we propose rearing six types of small animals which are mainly insects, all the biological wastes (bio-waste) in the space human life environment, including the human and animal feces, inedible parts of the plants and animals, food bits and other bio-wastes,can be feedstuff for rearing these six small animals, each one can recycle and digest the specific wastes to be their nourishing biomass. The biomass of these six animals, combine with the inedible parts of the space plants, will further be used as feedstuff for feeding edible animals of poultry, aquatics, amphibians, even the livestock. The meat, egg and milk from these edible animals are taken as human's animal food. Here we name these animals are as Edible Animal (EA), these six small animals are as Recycling Animals (RA). The water and nutrition left in the residues after rearing the RA can be recycled again by other RA or used to fertilize the space plants. The appropriate space plants include both terrestrial and aquatic species, such as vegetable,grain,feeding plant,edible algae and germs,also be cultivated as vegetarian food which have already successfully developed by NASA and other countries. These RA have strong reproduction ability, short life cycle, rich of nutrition, and can be easily reared in high densities with high efficiency in microgravity. Like the RA, the EA and space plants, they can be continuously reared in cages,boxes and water tanks as the solid manner, their optimal growth temperature and the humidity are same with RA, so they can be fed in the same cabin. Rearing RA, EA and plants together can provide a self-sustaining food system with minimum volume, weight, energy, labor and cost, which is the basis for realizing mini space farm in long term manned space missions. In this way, two kinds of mini space farm models have been designed: A cabin model to be used on ISS and flight craft functioning within a microgravity environment, and a greenhouse model to be used on

  10. Manned space activity and psychological problems and issues; Yujin uchu katsudo to shinrigakuteki shomondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, M. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper considers psychological problems and issues for crews living in a space station for an extended period of time. The problems and issues may be divided largely into decline in mental functions such as neural fatigue, sleeplessness, decreased mental work functions, and aggravation in mental state such as anxiety, weariness, hostility, and declined morale. Factors for causing psychological problems may include zero gravity environment, radiation, limited space, vibration, being present under all eyes fixed on oneself, physical restrictions, space-sickness, living in a group, and work contents. These are classified into problems of mental functions that occur from situations specific to space and problems of metal state that come from inner part of the individuals. Life under space environment has neither been studied systematically nor organizationally. The following new criteria for human factors would be required: personality factors that demand individual`s natural gifts, crew factors that view group activities of crews importantly, operation factors that consider quality and amount of operations, and check of mental soundness of the crews. Themes that require further studies would include establishment of psychological aptitude selection criteria and development of psychological group training programs. 7 refs.

  11. Hamiltonian dynamics on the symplectic extended phase space for autonomous and non-autonomous systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struckmeier, Juergen

    2005-01-01

    We will present a consistent description of Hamiltonian dynamics on the 'symplectic extended phase space' that is analogous to that of a time-independent Hamiltonian system on the conventional symplectic phase space. The extended Hamiltonian H 1 and the pertaining extended symplectic structure that establish the proper canonical extension of a conventional Hamiltonian H will be derived from a generalized formulation of Hamilton's variational principle. The extended canonical transformation theory then naturally permits transformations that also map the time scales of the original and destination system, while preserving the extended Hamiltonian H 1 , and hence the form of the canonical equations derived from H 1 . The Lorentz transformation, as well as time scaling transformations in celestial mechanics, will be shown to represent particular canonical transformations in the symplectic extended phase space. Furthermore, the generalized canonical transformation approach allows us to directly map explicitly time-dependent Hamiltonians into time-independent ones. An 'extended' generating function that defines transformations of this kind will be presented for the time-dependent damped harmonic oscillator and for a general class of explicitly time-dependent potentials. In the appendix, we will re-establish the proper form of the extended Hamiltonian H 1 by means of a Legendre transformation of the extended Lagrangian L 1

  12. Design and landing dynamic analysis of reusable landing leg for a near-space manned capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Shuai; Nie, Hong; Zhang, Ming; Wei, Xiaohui; Gan, Shengyong

    2018-06-01

    To improve the landing performance of a near-space manned capsule under various landing conditions, a novel landing system is designed that employs double chamber and single chamber dampers in the primary and auxiliary struts, respectively. A dynamic model of the landing system is established, and the damper parameters are determined by employing the design method. A single-leg drop test with different initial pitch angles is then conducted to compare and validate the simulation model. Based on the validated simulation model, seven critical landing conditions regarding nine crucial landing responses are found by combining the radial basis function (RBF) surrogate model and adaptive simulated annealing (ASA) optimization method. Subsequently, the adaptability of the landing system under critical landing conditions is analyzed. The results show that the simulation effectively results match the test results, which validates the accuracy of the dynamic model. In addition, all of the crucial responses under their corresponding critical landing conditions satisfy the design specifications, demonstrating the feasibility of the landing system.

  13. A simulation based optimization approach to model and design life support systems for manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogan, Selen

    This dissertation considers the problem of process synthesis and design of life-support systems for manned space missions. A life-support system is a set of technologies to support human life for short and long-term spaceflights, via providing the basic life-support elements, such as oxygen, potable water, and food. The design of the system needs to meet the crewmember demand for the basic life-support elements (products of the system) and it must process the loads generated by the crewmembers. The system is subject to a myriad of uncertainties because most of the technologies involved are still under development. The result is high levels of uncertainties in the estimates of the model parameters, such as recovery rates or process efficiencies. Moreover, due to the high recycle rates within the system, the uncertainties are amplified and propagated within the system, resulting in a complex problem. In this dissertation, two algorithms have been successfully developed to help making design decisions for life-support systems. The algorithms utilize a simulation-based optimization approach that combines a stochastic discrete-event simulation and a deterministic mathematical programming approach to generate multiple, unique realizations of the controlled evolution of the system. The timelines are analyzed using time series data mining techniques and statistical tools to determine the necessary technologies, their deployment schedules and capacities, and the necessary basic life-support element amounts to support crew life and activities for the mission duration.

  14. Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) for Thermal Storage on Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izenson, Michael G.; Chen, Weibo; Chepko, Ariane; Bue, Grant; Quinn, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Future manned exploration spacecraft will need to operate in challenging thermal environments. State-of-the-art technology for active thermal control relies on sublimating water ice and venting the vapor overboard in very hot environments, and or heavy phase change material heat exchangers for thermal storage. These approaches can lead to large loss of water and a significant mass penalties for the spacecraft. This paper describes an innovative thermal control system that uses a Space Evaporator Absorber Radiator (SEAR) to control spacecraft temperatures in highly variable environments without venting water. SEAR uses heat pumping and energy storage by LiCl/water absorption to enable effective cooling during hot periods and regeneration during cool periods. The LiCl absorber technology has the potential to absorb over 800 kJ per kg of system mass, compared to phase change heat sink systems that typically achieve approx. 50 kJ/kg. This paper describes analysis models to predict performance and optimize the size of the SEAR system, estimated size and mass of key components, and an assessment of potential mass savings compared with alternative thermal management approaches. We also describe a concept design for an ISS test package to demonstrate operation of a subscale system in zero gravity.

  15. Effects of turbine spacing on the power output of extended wind-farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We present results from large eddy simulations of extended wind-farms for several turbine configurations with a range of different spanwise and streamwise spacing combinations. The results show that for wind-farms arranged in a staggered configuration with spanwise spacings in the range ≈[3.5,8]D,

  16. Microlith-based Structured Sorbent for Carbon Dioxide, Humidity, and Trace Contaminant Control in Manned Space Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, SUbir; Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.

    2011-01-01

    To support continued manned space exploration, the development of atmosphere revitalization systems that are lightweight, compact, durable, and power efficient is a key challenge. The systems should be adaptable for use in a variety of habitats and should offer operational functionality to either expel removed constituents or capture them for closedloop recovery. As mission durations increase and exploration goals reach beyond low earth orbit, the need for regenerable adsorption processes for continuous removal of CO2 and trace contaminants from cabin air becomes critical. Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) and NASA Marshall (MSFC) have been developing an Engineered Structured Sorbents (ESS) approach based on PCI s patented Microlith technology to meet the requirements of future, extended human spaceflight explorations. This technology offers the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other sorbents with greater structural integrity, regenerability, and process control, thereby providing potential durability and efficiency improvements over current state-of-the-art systems. The major advantages of the ESS explored in this study are realized through the use of metal substrates to provide structural integrity (i.e., less partition of sorbents) and enhanced thermal control during the sorption process. The Microlith technology also offers a unique internal resistive heating capability that shows potential for short regeneration time and reduced power requirement compared to conventional systems. This paper presents the design, development, and performance results of the integrated adsorber modules for removing CO2, water vapor, and trace chemical contaminants. A related effort that utilizes the adsorber modules for sorption of toxic industrial chemicals is also discussed. Finally, the development of a 4-person two-leg ESS system for continuous CO2 removal is also presented.

  17. Modelling natural electromagnetic interference in man-made conductors for space weather applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichtchenko, Larisa

    2016-04-01

    Power transmission lines above the ground, cables and pipelines in the ground and under the sea, and in general all man-made long grounded conductors are exposed to the variations of the natural electromagnetic field. The resulting currents in the networks (commonly named geomagnetically induced currents, GIC), are produced by the conductive and/or inductive coupling and can compromise or even disrupt system operations and, in extreme cases, cause power blackouts, railway signalling mis-operation, or interfere with pipeline corrosion protection systems. To properly model the GIC in order to mitigate their impacts it is necessary to know the frequency dependence of the response of these systems to the geomagnetic variations which naturally span a wide frequency range. For that, the general equations of the electromagnetic induction in a multi-layered infinitely long cylinder (representing cable, power line wire, rail or pipeline) embedded in uniform media have been solved utilising methods widely used in geophysics. The derived electromagnetic fields and currents include the effects of the electromagnetic properties of each layer and of the different types of the surrounding media. This exact solution then has been used to examine the electromagnetic response of particular samples of long conducting structures to the external electromagnetic wave for a wide range of frequencies. Because the exact solution has a rather complicated structure, simple approximate analytical formulas have been proposed, analysed and compared with the results from the exact model. These approximate formulas show good coincidence in the frequency range spanning from geomagnetic storms (less than mHz) to pulsations (mHz to Hz) to atmospherics (kHz) and above, and can be recommended for use in space weather applications.

  18. Evaluation of Superconducting Magnet Shield Configurations for Long Duration Manned Space Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroglini, Filippo; Battiston, Roberto; Burger, William J

    2016-01-01

    A manned mission to Mars would present an important long-term health risk to the crew members due to the prolonged exposure to the ionizing radiation of galactic cosmic-rays. The radiation levels would largely exceed those encountered in the Apollo missions. An increase in the passive shielding provided by the spacecraft implies a significant increase of the mass. The advent of superconducting magnets in the early 1960s was considered an attractive alternative. The technology allows to generate magnetic fields capable to deflect the cosmic-rays in a manner analogous to the reduction of the particle fluxes in the upper atmosphere due to the Earth's dipole magnetic field. A series of the three studies have been conducted over the last 5 years, funded successively by European Space Agency (ESA), the NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) program, and the Union European's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The shielding configurations studied are based on high-temperature superconductors, which eliminate the need to operate with liquid helium. The mass estimates of the coils and supporting structure of the engineering designs are based on the current and expected near-future performance of the superconducting materials. In each case, the shield performance, in terms of dose reduction, is provided by a 3-dimensional Monte Carlo simulation, which treats in detail the electromagnetic and hadronic interactions of the galactic-cosmic rays, and the secondary particles they produce in the materials of the shield and spacecraft. A summary of the results of the studies, representing one of the most detailed and comprehensive efforts made in the field, is presented.

  19. Determining Component Probability using Problem Report Data for Ground Systems used in Manned Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Gillespie, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    During the shuttle era NASA utilized a failure reporting system called the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) it purpose was to identify and track system non-conformance. The PRACA system over the years evolved from a relatively nominal way to identify system problems to a very complex tracking and report generating data base. The PRACA system became the primary method to categorize any and all anomalies from corrosion to catastrophic failure. The systems documented in the PRACA system range from flight hardware to ground or facility support equipment. While the PRACA system is complex, it does possess all the failure modes, times of occurrence, length of system delay, parts repaired or replaced, and corrective action performed. The difficulty is mining the data then to utilize that data in order to estimate component, Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and system reliability analysis metrics. In this paper, we identify a methodology to categorize qualitative data from the ground system PRACA data base for common ground or facility support equipment. Then utilizing a heuristic developed for review of the PRACA data determine what reports identify a credible failure. These data are the used to determine inter-arrival times to perform an estimation of a metric for repairable component-or LRU reliability. This analysis is used to determine failure modes of the equipment, determine the probability of the component failure mode, and support various quantitative differing techniques for performing repairable system analysis. The result is that an effective and concise estimate of components used in manned space flight operations. The advantage is the components or LRU's are evaluated in the same environment and condition that occurs during the launch process.

  20. Simulation and Control Lab Development for Power and Energy Management for NASA Manned Deep Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Soeder, James F.; McNelis, Nancy B.; May, Ryan; Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The development of distributed hierarchical and agent-based control systems will allow for reliable autonomous energy management and power distribution for on-orbit missions. Power is one of the most critical systems on board a space vehicle, requiring quick response time when a fault or emergency is identified. As NASAs missions with human presence extend beyond low earth orbit autonomous control of vehicle power systems will be necessary and will need to reliably function for long periods of time. In the design of autonomous electrical power control systems there is a need to dynamically simulate and verify the EPS controller functionality prior to use on-orbit. This paper presents the work at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio where the development of a controls laboratory is being completed that will be utilized to demonstrate advanced prototype EPS controllers for space, aeronautical and terrestrial applications. The control laboratory hardware, software and application of an autonomous controller for demonstration with the ISS electrical power system is the subject of this paper.

  1. Dormancy effects on the reliability of nuclear thermal propulsion systems for long-term manned space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shooman, M.L.; Sforza, P.M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explores the effects of dormancy on the reliability of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for long-term manned space missions, such as Mars exploration. Dormancy refers to the portion of space systems operation where the power and stress levels are significantly reduced from nominal values and the authors have identified dormancy as a significant effect. Three approaches are used to evaluate the relative importance of failure rates during dormant operation: use of failure rate models involving dormancy, power cycling and fully energized operation; study of data bases which include both dormant and energized failure rates; predictions based on an Arrhenius rate process formulation. The results of these approaches suggest that for a long term manned mission the dormancy, cycle, and energized failure rates will all be important. Reliability in the energized state normally receives utmost attention and care during design, however, unless equal attention is directed to dormancy, the mission reliability may be severely compromised

  2. Bridge between control science and technology. Volume 5 Manufacturing man-machine systems, computers, components, traffic control, space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rembold, U; Kempf, K G; Towill, D R; Johannsen, G; Paul, M

    1985-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are: robotics; CAD/CAM applications; and man-machine systems. Consideration is also given to: tools and software for system design and integration; communication systems for real-time computer control; fail-safe design of real-time computer systems; and microcomputer-based control systems. Additional topics discussed include: programmable and intelligent components and instruments in automatic control; transportation systems; and space applications of automatic control systems.

  3. Study to define and verify the personal oral hygiene requirements for extended manned space flight: Oral physiology and microbiology in Skylab manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    Methods for metabolic fingerprinting of pathogenic oral bacteria were developed and the effects of Skylab missions on salivary electrolyte levels were studied. High resolution gas liquid chromatographic (GLC) and pyrolysis-GLC procedures were used to obtain metabolic profiles of closely related bacteria associated with dental caries and periodontal disease. It was found that the GLC procedures provide a practical and reproducible means of obtaining metabolic markers for identifying closely related strains of these organisms. Fractions of stimulated whole saliva samples from the prime and back-up crews of the three Skylab missions were used to measure salivary electrolyte concentrations. All the electrolytes previously reported as having increased in urine and feces during the missions were assessed. Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous and chloride were studied. A decrease in sodium and an increase in magnesium were observed, but the mineral imbalances attributable to the mission-related increases in urinary electrolytes were not detected.

  4. An extended sampling of the configurational space of HPr from E-coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, B.L.; Amadei, A; Scheek, R.M.; van Nuland, N.A.J.; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, we developed a method (Amadei et al., J. Biomol, Str. Dyn, 13: 815-626; de Groot et al., J. Biomol. Str. Dyn. 13: 741-751, 1996) to obtain an extended sampling of the configurational space of proteins, casing an adapted form of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, based on the essential

  5. An extended sampling of the configurational space of HPr from E-coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, B.L.; Amadei, A; Scheek, R.M.; van Nuland, N.A.J.; Berendsen, H.J.C.

    Recently, we developed a method (Amadei et al., J. Biomol, Str. Dyn, 13: 815-626; de Groot et al., J. Biomol. Str. Dyn. 13: 741-751, 1996) to obtain an extended sampling of the configurational space of proteins, casing an adapted form of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, based on the essential

  6. Extended system of space-time coordinates and generalized translation group of transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaleev, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A method of extending space-time is considered. In the nonrelativistic case extending goes by joining a scalar to the 3-dimensional radius-vector, completing this to a quaternion. The interpretation of scalar obtained as a parameter of scale transfornation of the generalized translation of group of transformations is given. Some basic expressions of nonrelativistic classical mechanics in the quaternion representation are given. In the relativistic case space-time is constructed from two quaternions: the first one consists of a pair scalar-3-dimensional radius-vector; the second one, of a pair-time-scalar-3-dimensional time-vector. Time and space coordinates, enter into the expression with the opposite signature. The introduction of a time-vector as well as of a new scalar is stipulated by the requirement of the principle of conforming quantum mechanics of the 1/2 spin to classical mechanics [ru

  7. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  8. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-01-01

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin

  9. Space and power: young mothers' management of smoking in extended families in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Aimei

    2013-05-01

    Multigenerational co-residence is a widespread phenomenon in China but there is little knowledge about the impact of power dynamics on smoking behaviors among extended family residents. Using a gender lens, this ethnographic study explored how young mothers in extended families in mainland China managed the smoking of their husbands and other family members. Analysis of data resulted in a model of 'two units-three domains' to reflect gendered relationships between young mothers and other family members, and young mothers' participation in family management. Exploration of the mothers' efforts to deal with household smoking using the model provided an explanation for why the young mothers had limited control over household space and could only impose partial restrictions on home smoking in the extended family. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Do extended objects move along the geodesics in the Riemann space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    Movement of an extended self-gravitating body in the gravitational field of another distant body is studied in the postnewtonian approximation of arbitrary metrical gravitational theory. Comparison of the mass center acceleration of the extended body with the acceleration of a point body moving in the Riemann space-time, the metrics of which is formally equivalent to the metrics of two moving extended bodies, shows that in any metrical gravitation theory with conservation laws of energy and momentum of the matter and gravitational field taken together, the mass center of the extended body does not, in general case, move along the geodesics of the Riemann space-time. Application of the general formulas obtained to the system Sun-Earth combined with the experimental data of the lunar laser ranging, shows that the Earth in its orbital motion is oscillating with respect to reference geodesics, with the period about one hour and the amplitude not less than 10 -2 cm. This amplitude is of the postnewtonian magnitude and as a consequence, the deviation of the Earth movement from the geodesical movement can be observed in the experiment possessing the postnewtonian accuracy. The difference between the acceleration of the Earth mass center and that of a test body in the postnewtonian approximation is equal to 10 -7 part of the Earth acceleration. The ratio of the passive gravitational mass of the Earth (defined according to Will) and its inert mass differs from 1 by 10 -8 approximately [ru

  11. Environmental control and life support system requirements and technology needs for advanced manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Ferolyn T.; Sedej, Melaine; Lin, Chin

    1987-01-01

    NASA has completed an environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) technology R&D plan for advanced missions which gave attention to the drivers (crew size, mission duration, etc.) of a range of manned missions under consideration. Key planning guidelines encompassed a time horizon greater than 50 years, funding resource requirements, an evolutionary approach to goal definition, and the funding of more than one approach to satisfy a given perceived requirement. Attention was given to the ECLSS requirements of transportation and service vehicles, platforms, bases and settlements, ECLSS functions and average load requirements, unique drivers for various missions, and potentially exploitable commonalities among vehicles and habitats.

  12. Extending the possibilities in phase space analysis of synchrotron radiation x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Claudio; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias; Riekel, Christian; Gatta, Gilles; Daly, Peter

    2008-08-01

    A simple analytical approach to phase space analysis of the performance of x-ray optical setups (beamlines) combining several elements in position-angle-wavelength space is presented. The mathematical description of a large class of optical elements commonly used on synchrotron beamlines has been reviewed and extended with respect to the existing literature and is reported in a revised form. Novel features are introduced, in particular, the possibility to account for imperfections on mirror surfaces and to incorporate nanofocusing devices like refractive lenses in advanced beamline setups using the same analytical framework. Phase space analysis results of the simulation of an undulator beamline with focusing optics at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility compare favorably with results obtained by geometric ray-tracing methods and, more importantly, with experimental measurements. This approach has been implemented into a simple and easy-to-use program toolkit for optical calculations based on the Mathematica software package.

  13. Evaluation of possible interaction among drugs contemplated for use during manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Possible interactions among drugs contemplated for use during manned spaceflights have been studied in several animal species. The following seven drugs were investigated: nitrofurantoin, chloral hydrate, hexobarbital, phenobarbital, flurazepam, diphenoxylate, and phenazopyridine. Particular combinations included: chloral hydrate, hexabarbital or flurazepam with nitrofurantoin; phenobarbital or flurazepam with phenazopyridine; and diphenoxylate with two does formulations of nitrofurantoin. Studies were carried out in several species to determine whether induction of liver microsomal enzymes would increase the tendency of phenazopyridine to produce methemoglobin in vivo. Animals were premedicated with phenobarbital, a known inducer of azoreductase, and in a separate experiment with flurazepam, before administration of phenazopyridine. Methemoglobin production was determined in each animal after receiving phenazopyridine. No evidence was found for increased production of methemoglobin in the rat, dog, or rabbit that could be attributed to increased amounts of microsomal enzymes.

  14. A Plasma Aerocapture and Entry System for Manned Missions and Planetary Deep Space Orbiters

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Plasma Magnetoshell works like a ballute, where plasma takes the place of inflated fabric. The primary drag-inducing interaction between the magnetically...

  15. MAN IN THE “POINTS OF INTENSITY”: GARDEN AS A SPACE OF SELF-IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Brazgovskaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the issue of semiotic and cognitive potential of a garden as a compositional form (“Ogrody” by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz. Silva rerum, florilegia, hortus act as its genre presupposition in European artistic tradition. We define the semiotic potential of a “garden” through the system of symbolic meanings: garden as a collection, locus amoenus, sphere of potentiality or ordering, garden as a memory space, intellectual space, etc. The garden via a compositional form of this text and the space of thought functions as an iconic sign of memory. Each object of the past, being replaced by a sign, receives localization in our memory and becomes a “text”. This allows us “to read” the past in the absence of an immediate reception. Garden acquires the properties of textuality and a semiotic object. Hence Iwaszkiewicz considers six gardens in “Ogrody” as a model of his life. Memory is a nonlinear space. Therefore, transitions between gardens are only arbitrary, associative. At the same time garden as a compositional form becomes the cognitive tool of identity. Topology of this memory space (configuration of people, books, music, which become signs is the cognitive map of the “self (selfhood, selfness. The self-referent structures create the illusion: I (the one who writes is combined with that person from the past (also I, which he recalls. Nonetheless, all narratives about selfhood are only “the map, but not a territory” (A. Korzybski.

  16. Cosmic-ray-induced radiation environment and dose to man for low-orbit space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandmeier, H.A.; Hansen, G.E.; Battat, M.E.; O'Brien, K.

    1981-09-01

    Neutrons and photons resulting from the interaction of galactic cosmic rays with the material of an orbiting satellite or an orbiting space station at an altitude of some few hundreds of kilometers, and below the level of the radiation belts, have been calculated as a function of geomagnetic latitude and solar activity level. The photon and neutron leakage currents from the top of the atmosphere have been computed. The radiation dose-equivalent rate to an unshielded astronaut has also been calculated. The maximum dose-equivalent rate, near the magnetic poles, was 2 mrem/h. In deep space this would amount to 18 rem/y, indicating that for a prolonged stay in space, shielding would be needed

  17. Extended Hamiltonian formalism of the pure space-like axial gauge Schwinger model. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawaki, Yuji; McCartor, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Canonical methods are not sufficient to properly quantize space-like axial gauges. In this paper, we obtain guiding principles that allow for the construction of an extended Hamiltonian formalism for pure space-like axial gauge fields. To do so, we clarify the general role that residual gauge fields play in the space-like axial gauge Schwinger model. In all the calculations, we fix the gauge using the rule n·A=0, where n is a space-like constant vector, and we refer to its direction as x - . Then, to begin with, we construct a formulation in which the quantization surface is space-like but not parallel to the direction of n. The quantization surface has a parameter that allows us to rotate it, but when we do so, we keep the gauge fixing direction fixed. In that formulation, we can use canonical methods. We bosonize the model to simplify the investigation. We find that the inverse differentiation, (∂ - ) -1 , is ill-defined whatever quantization coordinates we use, as long as the direction of n is space-like. We find that the physical part of the dipole ghost field includes infrared divergences. However, we also find that if we introduce residual gauge fields in such as way that the dipole ghost field satisfies the canonical commutation relations, then the residual gauge fields are determined so as to regularize the infrared divergences contained in the physical part. The propagators then take the form prescribed by Mandelstam and Leibbrandt. We make use of these properties to develop guiding principles that allow us to construct consistent operator solutions in the pure space-like case, in which the quantization surface is parallel to the direction of n, and canonical methods do not suffice. (author)

  18. Shielding of manned space stations against Van Allen Belt protons: a preliminary scoping study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Barnes, J.M.; Corbin, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Calculated results are presented to aid in the design of the shielding required to protect astronauts in a space station that is orbiting through the Van Allen proton belt. The geometry considered - a spherical shell shield with a spherical tissue phantom at its center - is only a very approximate representation of an actual space station, but this simple geometry makes it possible to consider a wide range of possible shield materials. Both homogeneous and laminated shields are considered. Also, an approximation procedure - the equivalent thickness approximation - that allows dose rates to be estimated for any shield material or materials from the dose rates for an aluminum shield is presented and discussed

  19. Chaos in charged AdS black hole extended phase space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabab, M.; El Moumni, H.; Iraoui, S.; Masmar, K.; Zhizeh, S.

    2018-06-01

    We present an analytical study of chaos in a charged black hole in the extended phase space in the context of the Poincare-Melnikov theory. Along with some background on dynamical systems, we compute the relevant Melnikov function and find its zeros. Then we analyse these zeros either to identify the temporal chaos in the spinodal region, or to observe spatial chaos in the small/large black hole equilibrium configuration. As a byproduct, we derive a constraint on the Black hole' charge required to produce chaotic behaviour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first endeavour to understand the correlation between chaos and phase picture in black holes.

  20. Space-time supersymmetry of extended fermionic strings in 2 + 2 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketov, S.V.

    1993-04-01

    The N = 2 fermionic string theory is revisited in light of its recently proposed equivalence to the non-compact N = 4 fermionic string model. The issues of space-time Lorentz covariance and supersymmetry for the BRST quantized N = 2 strings living in uncompactified 2 + 2 dimensions are discussed. The equivalent local quantum supersymmetric field theory appears to be the most transparent way to represent the space-time symmetries of the extended fermionic strings and their interactions. Our considerations support the Siegel's ideas about the presence of SO(2,2) Lorentz symmetry as well as at least two self-dual space-time supersymmetries in the theory of the N = 2(4) fermionic strings, though we do not have a compelling reason to argue about the necessity of the maximal space-time supersymmetry. The world-sheet arguments about the absence of all string massive modes in the physical spectrum, and the vanishing of all string-loop amplitudes in the Polyakov approach, are given on the basis of general consistency of the theory. (orig.)

  1. Impacts on Hubble Space Telescope solar arrays: discrimination between natural and man-made particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearsley, A. T.; Drolshagen, G.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Mandeville, J.-C.; Moussi, A.

    A Post-Flight Investigation was initiated by the European Space Agency to analyze impact fluxes on solar arrays of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), exposed to space for 8.25 years at approximately 600 km altitude. The solar cells were deployed during servicing mission SM-1 (December 1993), and retrieved by shuttle orbiter Columbia in March 2002 (SM-3B). A sub-panel of 2 m2 was cut from the --V2 wing and cells were selected for in-depth analysis. Twelve cells (9.6x10-3 m2) were surveyed for flux of all craters of sizes greater than 5 microns Dco; six at the NHM, and six at ONERA. Cumulative flux plots reveal slightly greater abundance of very small craters than in a comparable survey of SM-1 cells. Analytical scanning electron microscopy was used to locate impact features and to analyse residues at the NHM. 103 features of 3 -- 4000 micron conchoidal detachment diameter (Dco) were located on a total of 17 solar cells. 78 features show identifiable residue: 36 are Space Debris impacts and 42 Micrometeoroid impacts. Of the remaining 25: 4 contain residue of ambiguous origin, 1 is a minor manufacturing flaw, 1 is obscured by contamination, and 19 are unresolved, lacking recognizable residue. Space debris impacts on the SM-3B cells are all less than 80 microns Dco, dominated by Al- rich residue, probably of solid rocket motor origin, some may be unburnt fuel. Three craters may be sodium metal droplet impacts. No residues from paint pigment, aluminium or ferrous alloys, or copper- and tin-bearing metal were found. All craters larger than 100 microns are of micrometeoroid origin, or unresolved. Most residues are magnesium-iron silicate or iron sulfide. A few craters show vesicular Mg, S, Fe and Ni residue. A single Fe Ni metal residue was found, as well as enigmatic Mg- and S-bearing residues, all considered of micrometeoroid origin. A few Fe-, O- and C-bearing residues were classified as of ambiguous origin. The quality and quantity of residue is clearly linked to the

  2. The manned space-laboratories control centre - MSCC. Operational functions and its implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogl, H.; Kehr, J.; Wlaka, M.

    This paper describes the functions of the MSCC during the operations of the Columbus Attached Laboratory and the Free Flying Laboratory as part of the In-Orbit-Infrastructure Ground Segment. For the Attached Laboratory, MSCC payload operations coordination for European experiments within the Attached Laboratory and elsewhere on the Space Station Freedom will be explained. The Free Flying Laboratory will be operated and maintained exclusively from the MSCC during its 30 years lifetime. Several operational scenarios will demonstrate the role of the MSCC during routine - and servicing operations: of main importance are the servicing activities of the Attached Laboratory and the Free Flyer at the Space Station as well as servicing of the Free Flyer by the European Space Plane Hermes. The MSCC will have complex operational-, communications-and management interfaces with the IOI Ground Segment, the Space Station User community and with the international partners. Columbus User Support Centres will be established in many European member states, which have to be coordinated by the MSCC to ensure the proper reception of the scientific data and to provide them with quick access to their experiments in space. For operations planning and execution of experiments in the Attached Laboratory, a close cooperation with the Space Station control authorities in the USA will be established. The paper will show the development of the MSCC being initially used for the upcoming Spacelab Mission D-2 (MSCC Phase-1) and later upgraded to a Columbus dedicated control centre (MSCC Phase-2). For the initial construction phase the establishing of MSCC requirements, the philosophie used for the definition of the 'basic infrastructure' and key features of the installed facilities will be addressed. Resulting from Columbus and D-2 requirements, the sizing of the building with respect to controlrooms, conference rooms, office spare and simulation high-bay areas will be discussed. The defined 'basic

  3. Time, space, stars and man the story of the Big Bang

    CERN Document Server

    Woolfson, Michael M

    2009-01-01

    Most well-read, but non-scientific, people will have heard of the term "Big Bang" as a description of the origin of the Universe. They will recognize that DNA identifies individuals and will know that the origin of life is one of the great unsolved scientific mysteries. This book brings together all of that material. Starting with the creation of space and time - known as the Big Bang - the book traces causally related steps through the formation of matter, of stars and planets, the Earth itself, the evolution of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, and then through to the beginnings of life an

  4. Extended Hamiltonian formalism of the pure space-like axial gauge Schwinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakawaki, Yuji; Mccartor, Gary

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate that pure space-like axial gauge quantizations of gauge fields can be constructed in ways that are free from infrared divergences. To do so, we must extend the Hamiltonian formalism to include residual gauge fields. We construct an operator solution and an extended Hamiltonian of the pure space-like axial gauge Schwinger model. We begin by constructing an axial gauge formation in auxiliary coordinates, x μ =(x + , x - ), where x + =x 0 sinθ + x 1 cosθ, x - =x 0 cosθ - x 1 sinθ, and we take A=A 0 cosθ + A 1 sin θ=0 as the gauge fixing condition. In the region 0 - as the evolution parameter and construct a traditional canonical formulation of the temporal gauge Schwinger model in which residual gauge fields dependent only on x + are static canonical variables. Then we extrapolate the temporal gauge operator solution into the axial region, π / 4 + is taken as the evolution parameter. In the axial region we find that we have to take the representation of the residual gauge fields realizing the Mandelstam-Leibbrandt prescription in order for the infrared divergences resulting from (∂) -1 to be canceled by corresponding ones resulting from the inverse of the hyperbolic Laplace operator. We overcome the difficulty of constructing the Hamiltonian for the residual gauge fields by employing McCartor and Robertson's method, which gives us a term integrated over x - =constant. Finally, by taking the limit θ→π / 2 - 0, we obtain an operator solution and the Hamiltonian of the axial gauge (Coulomb gauge) Schwinger model in ordinary coordinates. That solution includes auxiliary fields, and the representation space is of indefinite metric, providing further evidence that 'physical' gauges are no more physical than 'unphysical' gauges. (author)

  5. Spacelab 1 hematology experiment (INS103): Influence of space flight on erythrokinetics in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.; Chen, J. P.; Crosby, W.; Dunn, C. D. R.; Johnson, P. C.; Lange, R. D.; Larkin, E.; Tavassoli, M.

    1985-01-01

    An experiment conducted on the 10-day Spacelab 1 mission aboard the ninth Space Shuttle flight in November to December 1983 was designed to measure factors involved in the control of erythrocyte turnover that might be altered during weightlessness. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after the flight. Immediately after landing, red cell mass showed a mean decrease of 9.3 percent in the four astronauts. Neither hyperoxia nor an increase in blood phosphate was a cause of the decrease. Red cell survival time and iron incorporation postflight were not significantly different from their preflight levels. Serum haptoglobin did not decrease, indicating that intravascular hemolysis was not a major cause of red cell mass change. An increase in serum ferritin after the second day of flight may have been caused by red cell breakdown early in flight. Erythropoietin levels decreased during and after flight, but preflight levels were high and the decrease was not significant. The space flight-induced decrease in red cell mass may result from a failure of erythropoiesis to replace cells destroyed by the spleen soon after weightlessness is attained.

  6. Linguacultural spaceMan-Nature” in literary texts: cognitive and pragmatic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldarova Ruzanna Alievna

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of representation of nature images, the links to the author’s mind, the hero, the reader can be considered in literary texts as one of the most important sources for identifying the parameters of the national picture of the world and the individually author’s transformation of its components. Researches that identify patterns of functioning linguacultural spaces in the texts are able to give new results projected in the linguistic picture of the ethnic group of the world due to reflections in literary texts of archetypal, stereotyped images of peculiar linguistic culture and ethnic group as a whole as well as individually-copyright, which characterize a particular linguistic identity and its conception of the world. Cognitive paradigm of modern linguistics, anthropocentric in nature allows to consider culture as a process modeling language, which naturally highlights the problem of linguistic linguaculture of predetermined value. Great importance in this regard is the concept of space as linguocultural cognitive model of objective reality. Cognitive-pragmatic potential of a literary text is deepening due to the introduction the descriptions of nature, since they always implement the ethical, aesthetic, and intellectual abilities of the creative subject.

  7. The effect of immediate and delayed post-space preparation using extended working time root canal sealers on apical leakage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chen

    2013-03-01

    Conclusion: Extended working time root canal sealers do not affect microleakage results using a warm gutta-percha vertical compaction technique. The sealing ability of extended working time root canal sealers on high heat conditions is as good as the standard working time root canal sealer during post-space preparation of different intervals.

  8. Cognitive demand of human sensorimotor performance during an extended space mission: a dual-task study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar; Weigelt, Cornelia; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2010-09-01

    Two previous single-case studies found that the dual-task costs of manual tracking plus memory search increased during a space mission, and concluded that sensorimotor deficits during spaceflight may be related to cognitive overload. Since dual-task costs were insensitive to the difficulty of memory search, the authors argued that the overload may reflect stress-related problems of multitasking, rather than a scarcity of specific cognitive resources. Here we expand the available database and compare different types of concurrent task. Three subjects were repeatedly tested before, during, and after an extended mission on the International Space Station (ISS). They performed an unstable tracking task and four reaction-time tasks, both separately and concurrently. Inflight data could only be obtained during later parts of the mission. The tracking error increased from pre- to in flight by a factor of about 2, both under single- and dual-task conditions. The dual-task costs with a reaction-time task requiring rhythm production was 2.4 times higher than with a reaction-time task requiring visuo-spatial transformations, and 8 times higher than with a regular choice reaction-time task. Long-term sensorimotor deficits during spaceflight may reflect not only stress, but also a scarcity of resources related to complex motor programming; possibly those resources are tied up by sensorimotor adaptation to the space environment.

  9. Phase transition and entropy inequality of noncommutative black holes in a new extended phase space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Yan-Gang; Xu, Zhen-Ming, E-mail: miaoyg@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: xuzhenm@mail.nankai.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2017-03-01

    We analyze the thermodynamics of the noncommutative high-dimensional Schwarzschild-Tangherlini AdS black hole with the non-Gaussian smeared matter distribution by regarding a noncommutative parameter as an independent thermodynamic variable named as the noncommutative pressure . In the new extended phase space that includes this noncommutative pressure and its conjugate variable, we reveal that the noncommutative pressure and the original thermodynamic pressure related to the negative cosmological constant make the opposite effects in the phase transition of the noncommutative black hole, i.e. the former dominates the UV regime while the latter does the IR regime, respectively. In addition, by means of the reverse isoperimetric inequality, we indicate that only the black hole with the Gaussian smeared matter distribution holds the maximum entropy for a given thermodynamic volume among the noncommutative black holes with various matter distributions.

  10. Reconciling Planck with the local value of H0 in extended parameter space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Di Valentino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The recent determination of the local value of the Hubble constant by Riess et al., 2016 (hereafter R16 is now 3.3 sigma higher than the value derived from the most recent CMB anisotropy data provided by the Planck satellite in a ΛCDM model. Here we perform a combined analysis of the Planck and R16 results in an extended parameter space, varying simultaneously 12 cosmological parameters instead of the usual 6. We find that a phantom-like dark energy component, with effective equation of state w=−1.29−0.12+0.15 at 68% c.l. can solve the current tension between the Planck dataset and the R16 prior in an extended ΛCDM scenario. On the other hand, the neutrino effective number is fully compatible with standard expectations. This result is confirmed when including cosmic shear data from the CFHTLenS survey and CMB lensing constraints from Planck. However, when BAO measurements are included we find that some of the tension with R16 remains, as also is the case when we include the supernova type Ia luminosity distances from the JLA catalog.

  11. Extended MHD modeling of nonlinear instabilities in fusion and space plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germaschewski, Kai [Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH (United States)

    2017-11-15

    A number of different sub-projects where pursued within this DOE early career project. The primary focus was on using fully nonlinear, curvilinear, extended MHD simulations of instabilities with applications to fusion and space plasmas. In particular, we performed comprehensive studies of the dynamics of the double tearing mode in different regimes and confi gurations, using Cartesian and cyclindrical geometry and investigating both linear and non-linear dynamics. In addition to traditional extended MHD involving Hall term and electron pressure gradient, we also employed a new multi-fluid moment model, which shows great promise to incorporate kinetic effects, in particular off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor, in a fluid model, which is naturally computationally much cheaper than fully kinetic particle or Vlasov simulations. We used our Vlasov code for detailed studies of how weak collisions effect plasma echos. In addition, we have played an important supporting role working with the PPPL theory group around Will Fox and Amitava Bhattacharjee on providing simulation support for HED plasma experiments performed at high-powered laser facilities like OMEGA-EP in Rochester, NY. This project has support a great number of computational advances in our fluid and kinetic plasma models, and has been crucial to winning multiple INCITE computer time awards that supported our computational modeling.

  12. Food intake and nutritional status during EXEMSI. Experimental Campaign for the European Manned Space Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milon, H; Decarli, B; Adine, A M; Kihm, E

    1996-01-01

    Modifications of food intake by astronauts during long-duration spaceflights have been observed. Various psychological stress factors, such as isolation, confinement, constrained community and boredom, are thought to play a role in this phenomenon. For this reason it was decided to include a nutritional investigation in the EXEMSI simulation study, in which four crew members (1 female and 3 males) were isolated and confined for 60 days in a space station-like environment. The Food and Nutritional Management System, developed for this experiment, provided on-line analysis of all available foods in terms of their nutrient content (macronutrients, water, minerals, vitamins). It permitted to keep an accurate record of the daily food intake of each crew member. The system has been shown to be a powerful tool for future missions, either simulations or actual spaceflights. It permits optimal management of food and eating on board, and offers the possibility of online analysis of the nutritional status of the crew. It can provide readily usable data for future analysis of nutritional variables in relation to other physiological and metabolic parameters. It could also supply a periodic feedback to the subject for the purpose of adjusting food intake. Eating and nutrition during the experiment were not a problem, but a pleasure, and therefore played an important role in its success. Confinement and isolation apparently had no effect on either the eating habits or the nutritional status of the crew members. The good food rather helped to decrease the potentially induced stress by providing daily periods of pleasure and of social activities. Detailed analysis of food intake showed erratic eating patterns, both before and during the experiment. However, the weekly averages of macro- and micronutrient intakes were in the normal range, except for vitamins B1 and B6 that were rather low and showed the need for supplements. Food appreciation was assessed by daily questionnaires

  13. Extended phase-space methods for enhanced sampling in molecular simulations: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eFujisaki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Molecular Dynamics simulations are a powerful approach to study biomolecular conformational changes or protein-ligand, protein-protein and protein-DNA/RNA interactions. Straightforward applications however are often hampered by incomplete sampling, since in a typical simulated trajectory the system will spend most of its time trapped by high energy barriers in restricted regions of the configuration space. Over the years, several techniques have been designed to overcome this problem and enhance space sampling. Here, we review a class of methods that rely on the idea of extending the set of dynamical variables of the system by adding extra ones associated to functions describing the process under study. In particular, we illustrate the Temperature Accelerated Molecular Dynamics (TAMD, Logarithmic Mean Force Dynamics (LogMFD, andMultiscale Enhanced Sampling (MSES algorithms. We also discuss combinations with techniques for searching reaction paths. We show the advantages presented by this approach and how it allows to quickly sample important regions of the free energy landscape via automatic exploration.

  14. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO BIN

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-I (Heavenly Palace -I)unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China's manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The second step,to realize multi-person space flight for extended periods of time,has been fulfilled twice.During China's third manned space flight in 2008,Chinese astronauts walked in space.

  15. Manned space flight in debate - An interdisciplinary project for technical decision making will make the discussion more rational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gethmann, Carl F.; Janich, Peter; Sax, Hartmut

    1992-08-01

    Arguments for manned spaceflight that do not depend on cost-benefit analysis are examined. Project Safire is used to illustrate arguments based on the need to further international cooperation, promote national morale, and motivate technological investigations.

  16. Planets for Man

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dole, Stephen; Asimov, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    "Planets for Man" was written at the height of the space race, a few years before the first moon landing, when it was assumed that in the not-too-distant future human beings "will be able to travel...

  17. Gene expression profiling in susceptible interaction of grapevine with its fungal pathogen Eutypa lata: Extending MapMan ontology for grapevine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usadel Björn

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome transcriptomics analysis is a very powerful approach because it gives an overview of the activity of genes in certain cells or tissue types. However, biological interpretation of such results can be rather tedious. MapMan is a software tool that displays large datasets (e.g. gene expression data onto diagrams of metabolic pathways or other processes and thus enables easier interpretation of results. The grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome sequence has recently become available bringing a new dimension into associated research. Two microarray platforms were designed based on the TIGR Gene Index database and used in several physiological studies. Results To enable easy and effective visualization of those and further experiments, annotation of Vitis vinifera Gene Index (VvGI version 5 to MapMan ontology was set up. Due to specificities of grape physiology, we have created new pictorial representations focusing on three selected pathways: carotenoid pathway, terpenoid pathway and phenylpropanoid pathway, the products of these pathways being important for wine aroma, flavour and colour, as well as plant defence against pathogens. This new tool was validated on Affymetrix microarrays data obtained during berry ripening and it allowed the discovery of new aspects in process regulation. We here also present results on transcriptional profiling of grape plantlets after exposal to the fungal pathogen Eutypa lata using Operon microarrays including visualization of results with MapMan. The data show that the genes induced in infected plants, encode pathogenesis related proteins and enzymes of the flavonoid metabolism, which are well known as being responsive to fungal infection. Conclusion The extension of MapMan ontology to grapevine together with the newly constructed pictorial representations for carotenoid, terpenoid and phenylpropanoid metabolism provide an alternative approach to the analysis of grapevine gene expression

  18. Food technology in space habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.

    1979-01-01

    The research required to develop a system that will provide for acceptable, nutritious, and safe diets for man during extended space missions is discussed. The development of a food technology system for space habitats capable of converting raw materials produced in the space habitats into acceptable food is examined.

  19. Polygonal-path approximation on the path spaces of quantum mechanical systems: extended Feynman maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exner, R.; Kolerov, G.I.

    1981-01-01

    Various types of polygonal-path approximations appearing in the functional-integration theory are discussed. The uniform approximation is applied to extend the definition of the Feynman maps from our previous paper and to prove consistency of this extension. Relations of the extended Fsub(-i)-map to the Wiener integral are given. In particular, the basic theorem about the sequential Wiener integral by Cameron is improved [ru

  20. Thermal comfort in sun spaces: To what extend can energy collectors and seasonal energy storages provide thermal comfort in sun space?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wiegel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Preparation for fossil fuel substitution in the building sector persists as an essential subject in architectural engineering. Since the building sector still remains as one of the three major global end energy consumer – climate change is closely related to construction and design. We have developed the archetype sun space to what it is today : a simple but effective predominant naturally ventilated sun trap and as well as living space enlargement. With the invention of industrial glass orangery’s more and more changed from frost protecting envelopes to living spaces from which we meantime expect thermal comfort in high quality. But what level of thermal comfort provide sun spaces? And to what extend may sun spaces manage autarkic operation profiting from passive solar gains and, beyond that, surplus energy generation for energy neutral conditioning of aligned spaces? We deliver detailed information for this detected gap of knowledge. We know about limited thermal comfort in sun spaces winter times. This reasons the inspection of manifold collector technologies, which enable to be embedded in facades and specifically in sun space envelopes. Nonetheless, effective façade integrated collectors are ineffective in seasons with poor irradiation. Hence, the mismatch of offer and demand we have experienced with renewable energies ignites thinking about appropriate seasonal energy storages, which enlarges the research scope of this work. This PhD thesis project investigates on both, a yearly empirical test set up analysis and a virtual simulation of different oriented and located sun spaces abroad Germany. Both empirical and theoretical evaluation result in a holistic research focusing on a preferred occupation time in terms of cumulative frequencies of operational temperature and decided local discomfort, of potential autarkic sun space operation and prospective surplus exergy for alternative heating of aligned buildings. The results are mapped

  1. Modular Extended-Stay HyperGravity Facility Design Concept: An Artificial-Gravity Space-Settlement Ground Analogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorais, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    This document defines the design concept for a ground-based, extended-stay hypergravity facility as a precursor for space-based artificial-gravity facilities that extend the permanent presence of both human and non-human life beyond Earth in artificial-gravity settlements. Since the Earth's current human population is stressing the environment and the resources off-Earth are relatively unlimited, by as soon as 2040 more than one thousand people could be living in Earthorbiting artificial-gravity habitats. Eventually, the majority of humanity may live in artificialgravity habitats throughout this solar system as well as others, but little is known about the longterm (multi-generational) effects of artificial-gravity habitats on people, animals, and plants. In order to extend life permanently beyond Earth, it would be useful to create an orbiting space facility that generates 1g as well as other gravity levels to rigorously address the numerous challenges of such an endeavor. Before doing so, developing a ground-based artificial-gravity facility is a reasonable next step. Just as the International Space Station is a microgravity research facility, at a small fraction of the cost and risk a ground-based artificial-gravity facility can begin to address a wide-variety of the artificial-gravity life-science questions and engineering challenges requiring long-term research to enable people, animals, and plants to live off-Earth indefinitely.

  2. An Extended Ambient Intelligence Implementation for Enhanced Human-Space Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Cheng, A.; Bier, H.H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an extended Ambient Intelligence (AmI) solution that expresses intelligence with respect to both Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) and spatial reconfiguration in the built-environment. With respect to the former, a solution based on a decentralized yet unified

  3. Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report - Extended Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The effects of space weather on modern technological systems are well documented in both the technical literature and popular accounts. Most often cited perhaps is the collapse within 90 seconds of northeastern Canada's Hydro-Quebec power grid during the great geomagnetic storm of March 1989, which left millions of people without electricity for up to 9 hours. This event exemplifies the dramatic impact that severe space weather can have on a technology upon which modern society critically depends. Nearly two decades have passed since the March 1989 event. During that time, awareness of the risks of severe space weather has increased among the affected industries, mitigation strategies have been developed, new sources of data have become available, new models of the space environment have been created, and a national space weather infrastructure has evolved to provide data, alerts, and forecasts to an increasing number of users. Now, 20 years later and approaching a new interval of increased solar activity, how well equipped are we to manage the effects of space weather? Have recent technological developments made our critical technologies more or less vulnerable? How well do we understand the broader societal and economic impacts of severe space weather events? Are our institutions prepared to cope with the effects of a 'space weather Katrina,' a rare, but according to the historical record, not inconceivable eventuality? On May 22 and 23, 2008, a one-and-a-half-day workshop held in Washington, D.C., under the auspices of the National Research Council's (NRC's) Space Studies Board brought together representatives of industry, the federal government, and the social science community to explore these and related questions. The key themes, ideas, and insights that emerged during the presentations and discussions are summarized in 'Severe Space Weather Events--Understanding Societal and Economic Impacts: A Workshop Report' (The National Academies Press, Washington, D

  4. Space Resource Utilization and Extending Human Presence Across the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    The Presidents Vision for Exploration is not a single mission, but an open ended journey that seeks to answer "How can we live on other worlds?" Using space resources is the only known approach for affordable, sustained, flexible, and self sufficient, human occupation beyond Earth orbit. Earth is a large planet. A simple analysis using the rocket equation shows that if Earth were a bit larger, chemical propulsion as a mechanism to access space would become impractical. Thus, even with the most efficient chemical rocket launch capability, the cost of lifting massive payloads into space will remain very steep (currently about $l00k/lb to the Moon and greater than $500k/lb to Mars). Space resource utilization should begin with an aggressive broad based demonstration program as afforded by the precursor missions implementation of the President's Vision of Exploration. Ion engine upper stages, for example, were studied for over 30 years, but only implemented in design after the Deep Space 1 in space demonstration. These demonstrations should include: extraction of elements from lunar regolith, and Martian soil and atmosphere, demonstration of power break even and growth from lunar or Mars moons derived photovoltaics, oxygen extraction for life support and propellant, and metals and alloys for in space repair and the production of habits and radiation shielding. Space resource utilization yields operational dividends through the subsequent programs including: propellant from lunar oxygen which could cut transportation costs from Earth in half, mega watts per year of power grown from lunar photovoltaics at decreasing cost per kW, decreased cost for human Mars missions by a factor of 10 by using propellant derived from Mars atmosphere for return, and in space manufacturing and food production with space resources yielding safe sustained and eventually self sufficient human presence in space. After the demonstration and implementation, the space resource utilization

  5. DISCOURSE AND THIRD SPACE IN FRANK MCCOURT’S NOVEL "TEACHER MAN" AND TOM SCHULMAN’S PLAY "DEAD POETS SOCIETY"; A REFLECTIVE PRACTICE FOR TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Sugeng Ariadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pahl and Rowsell (2005 elucidate that Discourse is ways of dressing, speaking and acting which delineates person’s identities in literacy practices, while a third space is as a meeting spaces between home space and school space, blend and mix space, in which lets teachers think how their students’ meaning-making are happened between school and home. This paper investigates how these theories are fruitfully presented in the character of Mr. McCourt Teacher Man and Mr. Keating Dead Poets Society. Subsequently, it is interconnected with educational theory A taxonomy for Learning, teaching, and assessing: A revision of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives, as recommended by Anderson and Krathwohl (2001. The result shows that the Metacognitive Knowledge domain prominently becomes the intersection as it is emphasizing on the student’s awareness of one’s own cognition and cognitive processes, particularly contextualizing students’ knowledge and general knowledge. Mr. McCourt and Mr. Keating have succeeded in shifting frighten and strict classroom situation generated by most teachers become so challenging and much interesting by utilizing multimodal styles and skills, and piloting third space activity. Henceforth, the writer recommends teachers to maximize their own potentials characters to accommodate their students’ preferences or styles in learning the subjects. In addition, designing teaching and learning process in-between home and school is necessary to be done, in order to contextualizing and perceiving real life experiences.

  6. Safety and Efficacy of Intrapleural Tissue Plasminogen Activator and DNase during Extended Use in Complicated Pleural Space Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason R. McClune

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase improves outcomes in patients with complicated pleural space infections. However, little data exists for the use of combination intrapleural therapy after the initial dosing period of six doses. We sought to describe the safety profile and outcomes of intrapleural therapy beyond this standard dosing. A retrospective review of patients receiving intrapleural therapy with tissue plasminogen activator and DNase was performed at two institutions. We identified 101 patients from January 2013 to August 2015 receiving intrapleural therapy for complicated pleural space infection. The extended use of intrapleural tissue plasminogen activator and DNase therapy beyond six doses was utilized in 20% (20/101 of patients. The mean number of doses in those undergoing extended dosing was 9.8 (range of 7–16. Within the population studied there appears to be no statistically significant increased risk of complications, need for surgical referral, or outcome differences when comparing those receiving standard or extended dosing intrapleural therapy. Future prospective study of intrapleural therapy as an alternative option for patients who fail initial pleural drainage and are unable to tolerate/accept a surgical intervention appears a potential area of study.

  7. Extending Mind and Space: Embodying the Model of Design Process in Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruly Darmawan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent electronic or digital technology has changed the life of contemporary society. From here, a new variant of cultural form is born as a consequence of the intensification of technology usage in everyday activities. This situation is then ended up with the paradigm shift of society’s perceptions, experience, and consciousness in almost all aspect of life, including the spatial discourse. The discourse of spatiality in the digital era becomes significant as it also repositions the conventional human spatial experience and consciousness in everyday life. Furthermore, this new spatial discourse may also appear as an opportunity to determine the learning space in the digital era. This paper emphasizes the topic on the information technology development and its impact on the forming of technoculture. The discussion will then be continued to the spatial discourse in digital era and its contribution in rethinking the learning space, especially the space of design process in academic. Lastly, the paper formulates the hexagonal model as the alternative of expanding the conventional space of design process and learning.

  8. Torelli groups, extended Johnson homomorphisms, and new cycles on the moduli space of curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morita, Shigeyuki; Penner, Robert

    modulo N are derived for all N. Furthermore, the first Johnson homomorphism, which is defined from the classical Torelli group to the third exterior power of the homology of the surface, is shown to lift to an explicit canonical 1-cocycle of the Teichmueller space. The main tool for these results...... cocycle lifts of the higher Johnson homomorphisms....

  9. Crossing Boundaries in Facebook: Students' Framing of Language Learning Activities as Extended Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz-Andersson, Annika; Vigmo, Sylvi; Bowen, Rhonwen

    2013-01-01

    Young people's interaction online is rapidly increasing, which enables new spaces for communication; the impact on learning, however, is not yet acknowledged in education. The aim of this exploratory case study is to scrutinize how students frame their interaction in social networking sites (SNS) in school practices and what that implies for…

  10. man theerasilp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. MAN THEERASILP. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 41 Issue 2 April 2018 pp 42. Synthesis and characterization of SPIO-loaded PEG- b -PS micelles as contrast agent for long-term nanoparticle-based MRI phantom · MAN THEERASILP WITAYA ...

  11. Direct oxidation of strong waste waters, simulating combined wastes in extended-mission space cabins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, L. W.

    1973-01-01

    The applications of modern technology to the resolution of the problem of solid wastes in space cabin environments was studied with emphasis on the exploration of operating conditions that would permit lowering of process temperatures in wet oxidation of combined human wastes. It was found that the ultimate degree of degradation is not enhanced by use of a catalyst. However, the rate of oxidation is increased, and the temperature of oxidation is reduced to 400 F.

  12. A systematic review of the psychosocial outcomes associated with erectile dysfunction: does the impact of erectile dysfunction extend beyond a man's inability to have sex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Marita P; Althof, Stanley E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to report and analyze the published data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for (i) the psychosocial outcomes associated with erectile dysfunction (ED) before treatment with a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor; and (ii) the change in psychosocial outcomes after the use of a PDE5 inhibitor in men with ED. The method used was a prospectively designed systematic literature review of publications reported in MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Science Citation Index Expanded, and PsychINFO from January 1, 1995 to May 14, 2012. The main outcome measures were scores on psychosocial measures in men who were treated for ED with a PDE5 inhibitor before and after treatment. A total of 1,714 publications were retrieved; 1,674 publications were excluded because they did not meet the design requirements of the review, and 40 publications (32 RCTs) were retained. Before treatment, men who participated in clinical trials reported relatively good quality of life and overall relationships, but poor sexual relationships and sexual satisfaction, diminished confidence, low self-esteem, and symptoms of depression. After treatment, there were significant improvements from baseline in most of these measures, except for overall life satisfaction and overall relationship satisfaction. ED and the treatment of ED are associated with substantially broader aspects of a man's life than just erectile functioning. This review demonstrates the importance of evaluating the psychosocial factors associated with ED and its treatment, and the importance of using standardized scales to conduct this evaluation. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the reciprocal relationships among physical and psychological functioning in men with ED. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  13. A chemical sensor and biosensor based totally automated water quality monitor for extended space flight: Step 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    The result of a literature search to consider what technologies should be represented in a totally automated water quality monitor for extended space flight is presented. It is the result of the first summer in a three year JOVE project. The next step will be to build a test platform at the Authors' school, St. John Fisher College. This will involve undergraduates in NASA related research. The test flow injection analysis system will be used to test the detection limit of sensors and the performance of sensors in groups. Sensor companies and research groups will be encouraged to produce sensors which are not currently available and are needed for this project.

  14. Gangliocytic paraganglioma of duodenum metastatic to lymph nodes and liver and extending into the retropancreatic space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, S M; Albrechtsen, N Wewer; Forster, J

    2013-01-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is a rare benign neuroendocrine tumour found most often in the duodenum. To our knowledge, only a dozen cases of possibly malignant duodenal GP with local lymph node metastasis and only one case with liver metastasis have previously been published. Herein, we report...... an unusual case of GP of the duodenum spreading to the retropancreatic space and metastatic to the liver and lymph nodes. Additionally, the present tumour secreted pancreatic polypeptide (PP) which was detected in the serum during the follow-up period. We suggest that serum PP could be a valuable marker...

  15. Application of virtual reality for crew mental health in extended-duration space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Nick; Grimm, Jonathan M.; Horack, John M.; Newton, Elizabeth K.

    2018-05-01

    Human exploration of the solar system brings a host of environmental and engineering challenges. Among the most important factors in crew health and human performance is the preservation of mental health. The mental well-being of astronaut crews is a significant issue affecting the success of long-duration space missions, such as habitation on or around the Moon, Mars exploration, and eventual colonization of the solar system. If mental health is not properly addressed, these missions will be at risk. Upkeep of mental health will be especially difficult on long duration missions because many of the support systems available to crews on shorter missions will not be available. In this paper, we examine the use of immersive virtual reality (VR) simulations to maintain healthy mental states in astronaut crews who are removed from the essential comforts typically associated with terrestrial life. Various methods of simulations and their administration are analyzed in the context of current research and knowledge in the fields of psychology, medicine, and space sciences, with a specific focus on the environment faced by astronauts on long-term missions. The results of this investigation show that virtual reality should be considered a plausible measure in preventing mental state deterioration in astronauts, though more work is needed to provide a comprehensive view of the effectiveness and administration of VR methods.

  16. Prediction of scaling physics laws for proton acceleration with extended parameter space of the NIF ARC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutwala, Krish; Beg, Farhat; Mariscal, Derek; Wilks, Scott; Ma, Tammy

    2017-10-01

    The Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) laser at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is the world's most energetic short-pulse laser. It comprises four beamlets, each of substantial energy ( 1.5 kJ), extended short-pulse duration (10-30 ps), and large focal spot (>=50% of energy in 150 µm spot). This allows ARC to achieve proton and light ion acceleration via the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) mechanism, but it is yet unknown how proton beam characteristics scale with ARC-regime laser parameters. As theory has also not yet been validated for laser-generated protons at ARC-regime laser parameters, we attempt to formulate the scaling physics of proton beam characteristics as a function of laser energy, intensity, focal spot size, pulse length, target geometry, etc. through a review of relevant proton acceleration experiments from laser facilities across the world. These predicted scaling laws should then guide target design and future diagnostics for desired proton beam experiments on the NIF ARC. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the LLNL LDRD program under tracking code 17-ERD-039.

  17. Do extended bodies move alon.o the geodesics of the Riemannian space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Motion of a massive self-gravitating body in the gravitational field of a distant massive source has been considered in the post-Newtonian approximation of the arbitrary metric gravitational theory. The comparison of the massive body center of mass acceleration with that of a point one, moving in Riemannian space-time, whose metrics formally is equivalent to the metrics of two moving massive bodies, makes it clear that in any metric gravitation theory, possessing energy-momentum conservation lows for matter and gravitational field, taken together, massive body does not move generally speaking along the geodesics of Riemannian space-time. Application of the obtained general formulae to the system Earth-Sun and using of the experimental results from lunar-laser-ranging has shown that the Earth during its motion along the orbit, oscillates with respect to the reference geodesic of the geometry with the period of 1 hour and the amplitude not less than 10 -2 cm, which is a post-Newtonian quantity. Therefore the deviation of the Earth motion from the geodesic may be observed in a relevant experiment, which will have a post-Newtonian accuracy. The difference in accelerations of the Earth c.m. and a prob body makes up 10 -7 in the post-Newtonian approximation from the value of the Earth acceleration. The ratio of the passive gravitational mass (defined according to Will) to the inertial mass for the Earth is not equal to unity, and differs from it by the value of approximately 10 -8

  18. Unit Manning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGinniss, Mike

    2003-01-01

    .... This decision combines two crucial initiatives: first, transforming the Army from an individual soldier replacement system to a unit manning system that enhances cohesion and keeps trained soldiers, leaders, and commanders together longer, thereby...

  19. Extending the Generalised Pareto Distribution for Novelty Detection in High-Dimensional Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, David A; Clifton, Lei; Hugueny, Samuel; Tarassenko, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Novelty detection involves the construction of a "model of normality", and then classifies test data as being either "normal" or "abnormal" with respect to that model. For this reason, it is often termed one-class classification. The approach is suitable for cases in which examples of "normal" behaviour are commonly available, but in which cases of "abnormal" data are comparatively rare. When performing novelty detection, we are typically most interested in the tails of the normal model, because it is in these tails that a decision boundary between "normal" and "abnormal" areas of data space usually lies. Extreme value statistics provides an appropriate theoretical framework for modelling the tails of univariate (or low-dimensional) distributions, using the generalised Pareto distribution (GPD), which can be demonstrated to be the limiting distribution for data occurring within the tails of most practically-encountered probability distributions. This paper provides an extension of the GPD, allowing the modelling of probability distributions of arbitrarily high dimension, such as occurs when using complex, multimodel, multivariate distributions for performing novelty detection in most real-life cases. We demonstrate our extension to the GPD using examples from patient physiological monitoring, in which we have acquired data from hospital patients in large clinical studies of high-acuity wards, and in which we wish to determine "abnormal" patient data, such that early warning of patient physiological deterioration may be provided.

  20. Project ARGO: The design and analysis of an all-propulsive and an aeroassisted version of a manned space transportation vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Seifert, D.; Waidelich, J.; Mileski, M.; Herr, D.; Wilks, M.; Law, G.; Folz, A.

    1989-01-01

    The Senior Aerospace System Design class at the University of Michigan undertook the design of a manned space transportation vehicle (STV) that would transport payloads between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). Designated ARGO after the ship of the Greek adventurer Jason, two different versions of an STV that would be based, refueled, and serviced at the Space Station Freedom were designed and analyzed by the class. With the same 2-man/7-day nominal mission of transporting a 10,000-kg payload up to GEO and bringing a 5000-kg payload back to LEO, the two versions of ARGO differ in the manner in which the delta V is applied to insert the vehicle into LEO upon return from GEO. The all-propulsive ARGO (or CSTV for chemical STV) uses thrust from its LH2/LOX rocket engines to produce the delta V during all phases of its mission. While the aeroassisted ARGO (or ASTV for aeroassisted STV) also uses the same engines for the majority of the mission, the final delta V used to insert the ASTV into LEO is produced by skimming the Earth's atmosphere and using the drag on the vehicle to apply the required delta V. This procedure allows for large propellant, and thus cost, savings, but creates many design problems such as the high heating rates and decelerations experienced by a vehicle moving through the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities. The design class, consisting of 43 senior aerospace engineering students, was divided into one managerial and eight technical groups. The technical groups consisted of spacecraft configuration and integration, mission analysis, atmospheric flight, propulsion, power and communications, life support and human factors, logistics and support, and systems analysis. Two committees were set up with members from each group to create the scale models of the STV's and to produce the final report.

  1. Manned space flight activities and sensory-motor coordinations; Yujin uchu katsudo tono hito no kankaku undokei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, K. [Nagoya Univ., Nagoya (Japan). Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1996-03-05

    With an objective to elucidate relationship between human functions related to gravity in space and the gravity, simultaneous measurement was carried out on impulsive eyeball motions and antigravity muscles. The measurement used a non-polarized electrode mounted on a prescribed position on skin. The subject is a spacecraft crew who was subjected to an experiment in space in 1992. Data obtained during the flight were analyzed, and the following findings were obtained: the eyeball motions are performed accurately in terms of space and time; potential time relative to the target appearance time showed greater variation than in control conditions on the ground; activities of trapezius muscle as an antigravity muscle were suppressed, and electric discharge from the muscle was small even if the head is moved; the eyeballs move in coordination with the head when viewing an object; microgravity environment showed a head motion with very little muscle discharge possible as in the case where the head is held unmoved; and difference in motion patterns between the antigravity muscles and non-antigravity muscles may exist as a possible cause of spacesickness in addition to the conventional sensory disagreement theory. 32 refs., 6 figs.

  2. MoMa: From Molecules to Man: Space Research Applied to the improvement of the Quality of Life of the Ageing Population on Earth. Evolution of a project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambito, Anna Maria; Curcio, Francesco; Meli, Antonella; Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco

    The "MoMa" project: "From Molecules to Man: Space Research Applied to the improvement of the Quality of Life of the Ageing Population on Earth started June 16 2006 and finished right on schedule June 25 2009, has been the biggest of the three projects funded by ASI in the sector "Medicine and Biotechnology. In the last years the scientific community had formed a national chain of biomedical spatial research with different research areas. MoMa responds to the necessity of unification in ASI of the two areas "Radiobiology and Protection" and "Cellular and Molecular Biotechnology" in a line of joint research: "Biotechnological Applications" were the interests of all groups would be combined and unified in a goal of social relevance. MoMa is the largest project ever developed in the biomedical area in Italy, the idea was born thinking about the phenomenon of acceleration of the aging process observed in space, and already described in literature, and the aim of studying the effects of the space environment at cellular, molecular and human organism level. "MoMa" was divided into three primary areas of study: Molecules, Cells and Man with an industrial area alongside. This allowed to optimize the work and information flows within the scientific research more similar and more culturally homogeneous and allowed a perfect industrial integration in a project of great scientific importance. Within three scientific areas 10 scientific lines in total are identified, each of them coordinated by a subcontractor. The rapid and efficient exchange of information between different areas of science and the development of industrial applications in various areas of interest have been assured by a strong work of Scientific Coordination of System Engineering and Quality Control. After three years of intense and coordinated activities within the MoMa project, the objectives achieved are very significant not only as regards the scientific results and the important hardware produced but

  3. Communication: Extended multi-state complete active space second-order perturbation theory: Energy and nuclear gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozaki, Toru; Győrffy, Werner; Celani, Paolo; Werner, Hans-Joachim

    2011-08-01

    The extended multireference quasi-degenerate perturbation theory, proposed by Granovsky [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 214113 (2011)], is combined with internally contracted multi-state complete active space second-order perturbation theory (XMS-CASPT2). The first-order wavefunction is expanded in terms of the union of internally contracted basis functions generated from all the reference functions, which guarantees invariance of the theory with respect to unitary rotations of the reference functions. The method yields improved potentials in the vicinity of avoided crossings and conical intersections. The theory for computing nuclear energy gradients for MS-CASPT2 and XMS-CASPT2 is also presented and the first implementation of these gradient methods is reported. A number of illustrative applications of the new methods are presented.

  4. Space to Space Communication Subsystem Manned Spaceflight and Its Key Technology%载人航天空空通信子系统及其关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石云墀

    2011-01-01

    The composition of the space to space communication subsystem which would realize the transmit the data between Shenzhou spaceship and Tiangong target spacecraft and the functiofi and main performances of the space to space communicator were introduced in this paper. The DS/SS technology which could provide very good performance in anti-jamming and secret communication was applied in the space to space communication subsystem. And the key technologies of sequence synchronization and carrier synchronization in the demodulation of IF DS/SS signal which was the core in DS/SS were analyzed. Using the digital demodulation scheme would reduce the complexity of debugging and increase the reliability of the system.%介绍了实现神舟运输飞船与天宫目标飞行器间数据通信和传输的空空通信子系统的构成,以及空空通信机的功能及其主要性能指标。空空通信子系统采用抗干扰能力强、保密性优的直接序列扩频通信技术。分析了其中的核心中频解扩解调中的伪码同步和载波同步等关键技术,应用数字解调方案降低了子系统调试难度,提高了可靠性。

  5. Alternative Food Preservation Techniques, New Technology in Food Preparation and Appropriateness of Food Supply for the Permanently Manned Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    Alternative food preservation techniques are defined as unique processes and combinations of currently used processes for food preservation. Food preservation is the extension of the useful shelf-life of normally perishable foods (from harvest to final consumption) by controlling micro-organisms, enzymes, chemical changes, changes in sensory characteristics and the prevention of subsequent recontamination. The resulting products must comply with all applicable food manufacturing practice regulations and be safe. Most of the foods currently used in both space and military feeding are stabilized either by dehydration or the use of a terminal sterilization process. Other available options would be formulation to reduce water activity, the refrigeration and freezing of perishable foods, chemical addition, and physical treatment (ionizing or nonionizing radiation or mechanical action). These alternatives are considered and proposals made.

  6. A urine-fuelled soil-based bioregenerative life support system for long-term and long-distance manned space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggi, Federico; Tang, Fiona H. M.; Pallud, Céline; Gu, Chuanhui

    2018-05-01

    A soil-based cropping unit fuelled with human urine for long-term manned space missions was investigated with the aim to analyze whether a closed-loop nutrient cycle from human liquid wastes was achievable. Its ecohydrology and biogeochemistry were analysed in microgravity with the use of an advanced computational tool. Urine from the crew was used to supply primary (N, P, and K) and secondary (S, Ca and Mg) nutrients to wheat and soybean plants in the controlled cropping unit. Breakdown of urine compounds into primary and secondary nutrients as well as byproduct gases, adsorbed, and uptake fractions were tracked over a period of 20 years. Results suggested that human urine could satisfy the demand of at least 3 to 4 out of 6 nutrients with an offset in pH and salinity tolerable by plants. It was therefore inferred that a urine-fuelled life support system can introduce a number of advantages including: (1) recycling of liquids wastes and production of food; (2) forgiveness of neglect as compared to engineered electro-mechanical systems that may fail under unexpected or unplanned conditions; and (3) reduction of supply and waste loads during space missions.

  7. Space autonomy as migration of functionality: the mars case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, T.; Bos, A.; Neerincx, M.; Soler, A.O.; Brauer, U.; Wolff, M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops Grandjean and Lecouat's insight that spacecraft autonomy can be seen as the migration of functionality from the ground segment to the space segment. Their insight is extended to manned planetary exploration missions and applied to an IT-based crew assistant for supporting manned

  8. Space Station needs, attributes and architectural options. Volume 2, book 1, part 3: Manned Space Station relevance to commercial telecommunications satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    A document containing a forecast of satellite traffic and revelant technology trends to the year 2000 was prepared which includes those space station capabilities and characteristics that should be provided to make the station useful to commercial satellite owners. The document was circulated to key representative organizations within the commercial telecommunications satellite and related communities of interest, including spacecraft manufacturers, commercial satellite owners, communications carriers, networks and risk insurers. The prospectus document is presented as well as the transmittal letter and the mailing list of the people and companies that were asked to review it. Key commercial telecommunications comments are summarized the actual response letters from the industry are included.

  9. Potentiometric analytical microsystem based on the integration of a gas-diffusion step for on-line ammonium determination in water recycling processes in manned space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Ymbern, Oriol; Puyol, Mar; Casalta, Joan Manel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2015-05-18

    The design, construction and evaluation of a versatile cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-based continuous flow potentiometric microanalyzer to monitor the presence of ammonium ion in recycling water processes for future manned space missions is presented. The microsystem integrates microfluidics, a gas-diffusion module and a detection system in a single substrate. The gas-diffusion module was integrated by a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The potentiometric detection system is based on an all-solid state ammonium selective electrode and a screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The analytical features provided by the analytical microsystem after the optimization process were a linear range from 0.15 to 500 mg L(-1) and a detection limit of 0.07 ± 0.01 mg L(-1). Nevertheless, the operational features can be easily adapted to other applications through the modification of the hydrodynamic variables of the microfluidic platform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Technology for the Stars: Extending Our Reach. [Research and Technology: 1995 Annual Report of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Studies, Research, Technology, and Technology Transfer projects are summarized in this report. The focus of the report is on the three spotlights at MSFC in 1995: space transportation technology, microgravity research, and technology transfer.

  11. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Wang, Junfeng [Department of Astronomy, Physics Building, Xiamen University Xiamen, Fujian, 361005 (China); Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa, E-mail: walter.maksym@cfa.harvard.edu [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, IF, CP 15051, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2017-07-20

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra 's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O iii], [S ii], and H α , as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ∼10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include H α evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  12. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2017-07-01

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O III], [S II], and Hα, as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ˜10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include Hα evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  13. CHEERS Results from NGC 3393. II. Investigating the Extended Narrow-line Region Using Deep Chandra Observations and Hubble Space Telescope Narrow-line Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksym, W. Peter; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Elvis, Martin; Karovska, Margarita; Paggi, Alessandro; Raymond, John; Wang, Junfeng; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa

    2017-01-01

    The CHandra Extended Emission Line Region Survey (CHEERS) is an X-ray study of nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) designed to take full advantage of Chandra 's unique angular resolution by spatially resolving feedback signatures and effects. In the second paper of a series on CHEERS target NGC 3393, we examine deep high-resolution Chandra images and compare them with Hubble Space Telescope narrow-line images of [O iii], [S ii], and H α , as well as previously unpublished mid-ultraviolet (MUV) images. The X-rays provide unprecedented evidence that the S-shaped arms that envelope the nuclear radio outflows extend only ≲0.″2 (≲50 pc) across. The high-resolution multiwavelength data suggest that the extended narrow-line region is a complex multiphase structure in the circumnuclear interstellar medium (ISM). Its ionization structure is highly stratified with respect to outflow-driven bubbles in the bicone and varies dramatically on scales of ∼10 pc. Multiple findings show likely contributions from shocks to the feedback in regions where radio outflows from the AGN most directly influence the ISM. These findings include H α evidence for gas compression and extended MUV emission and are in agreement with existing STIS kinematics. Extended filamentary structure in the X-rays and optical suggests the presence of an undetected plasma component, whose existence could be tested with deeper radio observations.

  14. Renovation of housing using a glass skin, extra space, more comfort, better energy performance and an extended life span

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, M.; Craenmehr, R.J.M.; Driessen, Ruud

    2005-01-01

    In almost every European country a large stock of houses exists. Many houses are outdated in respect to the space offered to the occupants, the general level of comfort and the energy performance. In the Netherlands some 1,300,000 post war houses built in the 1946 - 1965 period are now outdated and

  15. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of Extended [O III]λ 5007 Emission in Nearby QSO2s: New Constraints on AGN Host Galaxy Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Travis C.; Kraemer, S. B.; Schmitt, H. R.; Longo Micchi, L. F.; Crenshaw, D. M.; Revalski, M.; Vestergaard, M.; Elvis, M.; Gaskell, C. M.; Hamann, F.; Ho, L. C.; Hutchings, J.; Mushotzky, R.; Netzer, H.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Straughn, A.; Turner, T. J.; Ward, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope survey of extended [O III] λ5007 emission for a sample of 12 nearby (z continuing to be kinematically influenced by the central active galactic nucleus (AGN) out to an average radius of ∼1130 pc. These findings question the effectiveness of AGNs being capable of clearing material from their host bulge in the nearby universe and suggest that disruption of gas by AGN activity may prevent star formation without requiring evacuation. Additionally, we find a dichotomy in our targets when comparing [O III] radial extent and nuclear FWHM, where QSO2s with compact [O III] morphologies typically possess broader nuclear emission lines.

  16. The Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford Phase Spaces with a Lower and Upper Length Scales and Clifford Group Geometric Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, C

    2004-01-01

    We construct the Extended Relativity Theory in Born-Clifford-Phase spaces with an upper and lower length scales (infrared/ultraviolet cutoff). The invariance symmetry leads naturally to the real Clifford algebra Cl (2, 6, R ) and complexified Clifford Cl_C ( 4 ) algebra related to Twistors. We proceed with an extensive review of Smith's 8D model based on the Clifford algebra Cl ( 1 ,7) that reproduces at low energies the physics of the Standard Model and Gravity; including the derivation of all the coupling constants, particle masses, mixing angles, ....with high precision. Further results by Smith are discussed pertaining the interplay among Clifford, Jordan, Division and Exceptional Lie algebras within the hierarchy of dimensions D = 26, 27, 28 related to bosonic string, M, F theory. Two Geometric actions are presented like the Clifford-Space extension of Maxwell's Electrodynamics, Brandt's action related the 8D spacetime tangent-bundle involving coordinates and velocities (Finsler geometries) followed by a...

  17. Metabolism of /sup 90/Sr and other elements in man, April 1, 1976--March 31, 1977 (extended without additional funding to March 31, 1978) and renewal proposal, April 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, H.

    1977-01-01

    Trace element studies of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, manganese, and nickel were carried out under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males during different calcium intakes. Complete metabolic balances of the trace elements listed above were determined in each 6-day metabolic period for several weeks by analyzing the constant diet and the urinary and fecal excretions of these naturally occurring elements, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Strontium-90 metabolism studies in man were carried out in order to complete previously initiated investigations. Publications and presentations of papers derived from studies carried out during the current contract period are listed.

  18. Metabolism of 90Sr and other elements in man, April 1, 1976--March 31, 1977 (extended without additional funding to March 31, 1978) and renewal proposal, April 1, 1978--March 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, H.

    1977-01-01

    Trace element studies of cadmium, copper, zinc, lead, manganese, and nickel were carried out under strictly controlled dietary conditions in adult males during different calcium intakes. Complete metabolic balances of the trace elements listed above were determined in each 6-day metabolic period for several weeks by analyzing the constant diet and the urinary and fecal excretions of these naturally occurring elements, using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Strontium-90 metabolism studies in man were carried out in order to complete previously initiated investigations. Publications and presentations of papers derived from studies carried out during the current contract period are listed

  19. IMP-8 observations of the spectra, composition, and variability of solar heavy ions at high energies relevant to manned space missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William F.

    1999-01-01

    In more than 25 years of almost continuous observations, the University of Chicago's Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRT) on IMP-8 has amassed a unique database on high-energy solar heavy ions of potential relevance to manned spaceflight. In the very largest particle events, IMP-8/CRT has even observed solar Fe ions above the Galactic cosmic ray background up to ∼800 MeV/nucleon, an energy sufficiently high to penetrate nearly 25 g/cm 2 of shielding. IMP-8/CRT observations show that high-energy heavy-ion spectra are often surprisingly hard power laws, without the exponential roll-offs suggested by stochastic acceleration fits to lower energy measurements alone. Also, in many solar particle events the Fe/O ratio grows with increasing energy, contrary to the notion that ions with higher mass-to-charge ratios should be less abundant at higher energies. Previous studies of radiation hazards for manned spaceflight have often assumed heavy-ion composition and steeply-falling energy spectra inconsistent with these observations. Conclusions based on such studies should therefore be re-assessed. The significant event-to-event variability observed in the high-energy solar heavy ions also has important implications for strategies in building probabilistic models of solar particle radiation hazards

  20. The Extended Space of Public Opinion in the Context of Multi-Platform Journalism: From Speakers to Discursive Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kati Eliana Caetano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has as its starting point the traditional condition of public opinion, especially its existence in the society of mass communication when assuming the role of legitimizing discourses of political protagonists – the government and media. This text aims to show it as an object built around the set of discursive conventions, and show the modifications it goes through in the context of current journalism; a multitude of voices being heard in the circulation of information spaces. The qualitative analysis focuses on opinions on the Israel / Palestine conflict taken from reader comments and Internet search applications based on tags between the period of June and September 2014. Among these changes are the needs to restructure its concept, to understand the challenge it represents to news organizations and to review the formal elaborations that sustain journalistic discourse.

  1. Real space mapping of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states of an extended magnetic scatterer on a conventional superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etzkorn, Markus; Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Topp, Andreas; Ast, Christian R. [Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max-Planck-Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-07-01

    The interaction of a local magnetic impurity with a superconductor causes the formation of Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR)states in the vicinity of the impurity. These have recently received increasing attention in the context of Majorana Fermions and other exotic states that might be created from the mutual interplay. YSR states have been extensively studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and so far have been discussed mainly in the limit of point scattering impurities. Here we present our investigations of the local properties of single magnetic Copper-Phthalocynane molecules on the (5x1) reconstructed, superconducting V(100) surface measured at 15 mK temperature. We find very intense YSR states with energies that depend on the precise absorbtion geometry of the molecule. At the same time we find no indication of a local suppression of the superconducting gap around the impurity. We follow the state evolution in real space for about 3 nm corresponding to about three orders of magnitude in spectral intensity. The spectra display rich structure with local variations in the electron-hole asymmetries. The observed intensity changes in the spectra can not be described on the basis of a single point like scattering potential.

  2. Man's Evolutionary Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobzhansky, Theodosius

    1972-01-01

    Man can aspire to control his evolution and direct it towards goals which he finds good, salutary, worth living for....The one most 'natural' thing for man is to modify nature by means of his knowledge." (Author/AL)

  3. THE EXTENDED HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SUPERNOVA SURVEY: THE RATE OF CORE COLLAPSE SUPERNOVAE TO z {approx} 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlen, Tomas; Riess, Adam G. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strolger, Louis-Gregory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States); Mattila, Seppo; Kankare, Erkki [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, Vaeisaelaentie 20, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Mobasher, Bahram, E-mail: dahlen@stsci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    We use a sample of 45 core collapse supernovae detected with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope to derive the core collapse supernova rate in the redshift range 0.1 < z < 1.3. In redshift bins centered on (z) = 0.39, (z) = 0.73, and (z) = 1.11, we find rates of 3.00{sup +1.28}{sub -0.94} {sup +1.04}{sub -0.57}, 7.39{sup +1.86}{sub -1.52} {sup +3.20}{sub -1.60}, and 9.57{sup +3.76}{sub -2.80} {sup +4.96}{sub -2.80}, respectively, given in units of yr{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3} 10{sup -4} h {sup 3}{sub 70}. The rates have been corrected for host galaxy extinction, including supernovae missed in highly dust-enshrouded environments in infrared bright galaxies. The first errors are statistical while the second ones are the estimated systematic errors. We perform a detailed discussion of possible sources of systematic errors and note that these start to dominate over statistical errors at z > 0.5, emphasizing the need to better control the systematic effects. For example, a better understanding of the amount of dust extinction in the host galaxies and knowledge of the supernova luminosity function, in particular the fraction of faint M {approx}> -15 supernovae, is needed to better constrain the rates. When comparing our results with the core collapse supernova rate based on the star formation rate, we find a good agreement, consistent with the supernova rate following the star formation rate, as expected.

  4. Dosimetric system for prolonged manned flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akatov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, E.E.; Sakovich, V.A.; Deme, Sh.; Fekher, I.; Nguen, V.D.

    1991-01-01

    Comments for the All-Union state standard 25645.202-83 named Radiation safety of a spacecraft crew during space flight. Requirements for personnel dosimetric control, are given. Devices for the dosimetric control used in manned space flights nowadays are reviewed. The performance principle and structure of the FEDOR dosimetric complex under development are discussed

  5. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system

  6. Personalized State-space Modeling of Glucose Dynamics for Type 1 Diabetes Using Continuously Monitored Glucose, Insulin Dose, and Meal Intake: An Extended Kalman Filter Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Molenaar, Peter; Harsh, Saurabh; Freeman, Kenneth; Xie, Jinyu; Gold, Carol; Rovine, Mike; Ulbrecht, Jan

    2014-03-01

    An essential component of any artificial pancreas is on the prediction of blood glucose levels as a function of exogenous and endogenous perturbations such as insulin dose, meal intake, and physical activity and emotional tone under natural living conditions. In this article, we present a new data-driven state-space dynamic model with time-varying coefficients that are used to explicitly quantify the time-varying patient-specific effects of insulin dose and meal intake on blood glucose fluctuations. Using the 3-variate time series of glucose level, insulin dose, and meal intake of an individual type 1 diabetic subject, we apply an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate time-varying coefficients of the patient-specific state-space model. We evaluate our empirical modeling using (1) the FDA-approved UVa/Padova simulator with 30 virtual patients and (2) clinical data of 5 type 1 diabetic patients under natural living conditions. Compared to a forgetting-factor-based recursive ARX model of the same order, the EKF model predictions have higher fit, and significantly better temporal gain and J index and thus are superior in early detection of upward and downward trends in glucose. The EKF based state-space model developed in this article is particularly suitable for model-based state-feedback control designs since the Kalman filter estimates the state variable of the glucose dynamics based on the measured glucose time series. In addition, since the model parameters are estimated in real time, this model is also suitable for adaptive control. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  7. The oldest man ever?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilmoth, J; Skytthe, A; Friou, D

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes recent findings in a case study of exceptional longevity. CM, a resident of San Rafael, California, was 114 years old in August 1996. He is the first properly verified case of a 114-year-old man in human history (although a few women have been known to live longer). Our...... is accurate. Based on the available information, it also seems a reasonable conjecture that he may be the oldest man alive today and perhaps the oldest man who has ever lived. This study documents an extreme example of human longevity and records characteristics of the man's life that may provide clues about...

  8. Extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1976-01-01

    After some disconnected comments on the MIT bag and string models for extended hadrons, I review current understanding of extended objects in classical conventional relativistic field theories and their quantum mechanical interpretation

  9. "Det man siger er man selv..."

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben; Nørgaard, Britta; Uddholm, Mats

    forhold, der er hermeneutisk, strukturelt og relationelt bestemt. Praksisviden kan ikke være objektiv i gængs forstand, men det behøver ikke at diskvalificere denne viden. Forståelse er altid knyttet til den sag og bundet til den situation man står overfor og i som professionel og som menneske....

  10. Ergonomic ship brigde design supports minimum manning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punte, P.A.J.; Post, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    The Royal Netherlands Navy is planning to design a hydrographic survey vessel to replace the currently used vessels in order to extend the tasks of an Officer by reducing require manning. The design includes the arrangements of workspace and the detailed design of workplaces. Digital human models

  11. Man of Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Helene Juarez

    1993-01-01

    The themes of Jose Clemente Orozco's murals, several of which are found on U.S. college campuses, are as relevant today as they were during the Mexican Revolution. Orozco (1883-1949) painted the world as he saw it, portraying corruption, violence, and man's inhumanity to man. (LP)

  12. N K Man

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. N K Man. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 37 Issue 1 February 2014 pp 19-25. Influence of preparation conditions on superconducting properties of Bi-2223 thin films · N T Mua A Sundaresan N K Man D D Dung · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.

  13. The Green Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  14. S.I. 1987 No.688, The Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) (Variation) Order 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This Order, which amends the Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) Order 1977, came into force on 7 May 1987. The Nuclear Installations (Isle of Man) Order 1977 extends certain provisions of the Nuclear Installations Act 1965 as appropriate, to the Isle of Man. This Order extends amendments made to that Act by the Energy Act 1983 and the Congenital Disabilities (Civil Liability) Act 1976, as appropriate, to the Isle of Man. (NEA) [fr

  15. [A Case of Ruptured Internal Carotid-Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Associated with Acute Subdural Hematoma, Extending from the Interhemispheric Space to the Posterior Fossa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Hiroaki; Fukuda, Yuhtaka; Yoshimura, Shouta; Somagawa, Chika; Hiu, Takeshi; Ono, Tomonori; Ushijima, Ryujirou; Toda, Keisuke; Tsutsumi, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of a sudden severe headache without a history of head trauma. CT and MRI revealed an acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) extending from the right interhemispheric space to the posterior fossa bilaterally, with a small amount of subarachnoid hemorrhage that was predominantly localized to the left side of the basal cistern. CT angiogram demonstrated a long protruding ruptured aneurysm at the junction of the right internal carotid and posterior communicating arteries (IC/PC AN) with a posteroinferior projection, associated with a small bleb located near the tentorial edge close to the ipsilateral posterior clinoid process, for which she received clipping surgery. Though rare, IC/PC AN could cause pure or nearly pure ASDH in the above-mentioned distribution. Therefore, in patients with such ASDH, especially without a history of head injury or precise information regarding the situation at the time of onset, urgent imaging evaluation and early intervention are essential to prevent devastating re-rupture events.

  16. Extended phase space thermodynamics and P-V criticality: Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld vs. Einstein-Born-Infeld-dilaton black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P. O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tad, R.M.; Armanfard, Z.; Talezadeh, M.S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Motivated by a thermodynamic analogy of black holes and Van der Waals liquid/gas systems, in this paper, we study P-V criticality of both dilatonic Born-Infeld black holes and their conformal solutions, Brans-Dicke-Born-Infeld solutions. Due to the conformal constraint, we have to neglect the old Lagrangian of dilatonic Born-Infeld theory and its black hole solutions, and introduce a new one. We obtain spherically symmetric nonlinearly charged black hole solutions in both Einstein and Jordan frames and then we calculate the related conserved and thermodynamic quantities. After that, we extend the phase space by considering the proportionality of the cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure. We obtain critical values of the thermodynamic coordinates through numerical methods and plot the relevant P-V and G-T diagrams. Investigation of the mentioned diagrams helps us to study the thermodynamical phase transition. We also analyze the effects of varying different parameters on the phase transition of black holes. (orig.)

  17. REMO poor man's reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, H.; Moseley, C.; Haensler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Reanalyses depict the state of the atmosphere as a best fit in space and time of many atmospheric observations in a physically consistent way. By essentially solving the data assimilation problem in a very accurate manner, reanalysis results can be used as reference for model evaluation procedures and as forcing data sets for different model applications. However, the spatial resolution of the most common and accepted reanalysis data sets (e.g. JRA25, ERA-Interim) ranges from approximately 124 km to 80 km. This resolution is too coarse to simulate certain small scale processes often associated with extreme events. In addition, many models need higher resolved forcing data ( e.g. land-surface models, tools for identifying and assessing hydrological extremes). Therefore we downscaled the ERA-Interim reanalysis over the EURO-CORDEX-Domain for the time period 1989 to 2008 to a horizontal resolution of approximately 12 km. The downscaling is performed by nudging REMO-simulations to lower and lateral boundary conditions of the reanalysis, and by re-initializing the model every 24 hours ("REMO in forecast mode"). In this study the three following questions will be addressed: 1.) Does the REMO poor man's reanalysis meet the needs (accuracy, extreme value distribution) in validation and forcing? 2.) What lessons can be learned about the model used for downscaling? As REMO is used as a pure downscaling procedure, any systematic deviations from ERA-Interim result from poor process modelling but not from predictability limitations. 3.) How much small scale information generated by the downscaling model is lost with frequent initializations? A comparison to a simulation that is performed in climate mode will be presented.

  18. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  19. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  20. Extended Emotions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences...

  1. Real-time prediction and gating of respiratory motion in 3D space using extended Kalman filters and Gaussian process regression network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhari, W.; Hong, S.-M.

    2016-03-01

    The prediction as well as the gating of respiratory motion have received much attention over the last two decades for reducing the targeting error of the radiation treatment beam due to respiratory motion. In this article, we present a real-time algorithm for predicting respiratory motion in 3D space and realizing a gating function without pre-specifying a particular phase of the patient’s breathing cycle. The algorithm, named EKF-GPRN+ , first employs an extended Kalman filter (EKF) independently along each coordinate to predict the respiratory motion and then uses a Gaussian process regression network (GPRN) to correct the prediction error of the EKF in 3D space. The GPRN is a nonparametric Bayesian algorithm for modeling input-dependent correlations between the output variables in multi-output regression. Inference in GPRN is intractable and we employ variational inference with mean field approximation to compute an approximate predictive mean and predictive covariance matrix. The approximate predictive mean is used to correct the prediction error of the EKF. The trace of the approximate predictive covariance matrix is utilized to capture the uncertainty in EKF-GPRN+ prediction error and systematically identify breathing points with a higher probability of large prediction error in advance. This identification enables us to pause the treatment beam over such instances. EKF-GPRN+ implements a gating function by using simple calculations based on the trace of the predictive covariance matrix. Extensive numerical experiments are performed based on a large database of 304 respiratory motion traces to evaluate EKF-GPRN+ . The experimental results show that the EKF-GPRN+ algorithm reduces the patient-wise prediction error to 38%, 40% and 40% in root-mean-square, compared to no prediction, at lookahead lengths of 192 ms, 384 ms and 576 ms, respectively. The EKF-GPRN+ algorithm can further reduce the prediction error by employing the gating function, albeit

  2. Real-time prediction and gating of respiratory motion in 3D space using extended Kalman filters and Gaussian process regression network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukhari, W; Hong, S-M

    2016-01-01

    The prediction as well as the gating of respiratory motion have received much attention over the last two decades for reducing the targeting error of the radiation treatment beam due to respiratory motion. In this article, we present a real-time algorithm for predicting respiratory motion in 3D space and realizing a gating function without pre-specifying a particular phase of the patient’s breathing cycle. The algorithm, named EKF-GPRN +  , first employs an extended Kalman filter (EKF) independently along each coordinate to predict the respiratory motion and then uses a Gaussian process regression network (GPRN) to correct the prediction error of the EKF in 3D space. The GPRN is a nonparametric Bayesian algorithm for modeling input-dependent correlations between the output variables in multi-output regression. Inference in GPRN is intractable and we employ variational inference with mean field approximation to compute an approximate predictive mean and predictive covariance matrix. The approximate predictive mean is used to correct the prediction error of the EKF. The trace of the approximate predictive covariance matrix is utilized to capture the uncertainty in EKF-GPRN + prediction error and systematically identify breathing points with a higher probability of large prediction error in advance. This identification enables us to pause the treatment beam over such instances. EKF-GPRN + implements a gating function by using simple calculations based on the trace of the predictive covariance matrix. Extensive numerical experiments are performed based on a large database of 304 respiratory motion traces to evaluate EKF-GPRN +  . The experimental results show that the EKF-GPRN + algorithm reduces the patient-wise prediction error to 38%, 40% and 40% in root-mean-square, compared to no prediction, at lookahead lengths of 192 ms, 384 ms and 576 ms, respectively. The EKF-GPRN + algorithm can further reduce the prediction error by employing the gating function

  3. Manned Flight Simulator (MFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Aircraft Simulation Division, home to the Manned Flight Simulator (MFS), provides real-time, high fidelity, hardware-in-the-loop flight simulation capabilities...

  4. Rekordhind Man Ray eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    Ameerika sürrealistliku fotograafi Man Ray 1926. a. Pariisis pildistatud foto 'Must ja valge, Pariis (positiiv ja negatiiv)', mis kujutab Ray armukese Kiki de Montparnasse'i portreed, maksis New Yorgi fotooksjonil 7, 3 miljonit Eesti krooni

  5. Genetics and Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, C. O.

    1973-01-01

    Can genetic evolution be controlled by man in a manner which does not violate a civilized, humane, and democratic ethos? The genetics of health and illhealth and of normal variation are discussed with respect to this question. (PEB)

  6. Det man hører, er man selv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svømmekjær, Heidi Frank

    2012-01-01

    Katalog til udstillingen "Det man hører, er man selv" på Mediemuseet i Odense 7. september 2012 - 15. januar 2013.......Katalog til udstillingen "Det man hører, er man selv" på Mediemuseet i Odense 7. september 2012 - 15. januar 2013....

  7. The Manned Spacecraft Center and medical technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, R. S.; Pool, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    A number of medically oriented research and hardware development programs in support of manned space flights have been sponsored by NASA. Blood pressure measuring systems for use in spacecraft are considered. In some cases, complete new bioinstrumentation systems were necessary to accomplish a specific physiological study. Plans for medical research during the Skylab program are discussed along with general questions regarding space-borne health service systems and details concerning the Health Services Support Control Center.

  8. Heroic Reliability Improvement in Manned Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    System reliability can be significantly improved by a strong continued effort to identify and remove all the causes of actual failures. Newly designed systems often have unexpected high failure rates which can be reduced by successive design improvements until the final operational system has an acceptable failure rate. There are many causes of failures and many ways to remove them. New systems may have poor specifications, design errors, or mistaken operations concepts. Correcting unexpected problems as they occur can produce large early gains in reliability. Improved technology in materials, components, and design approaches can increase reliability. The reliability growth is achieved by repeatedly operating the system until it fails, identifying the failure cause, and fixing the problem. The failure rate reduction that can be obtained depends on the number and the failure rates of the correctable failures. Under the strong assumption that the failure causes can be removed, the decline in overall failure rate can be predicted. If a failure occurs at the rate of lambda per unit time, the expected time before the failure occurs and can be corrected is 1/lambda, the Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF). Finding and fixing a less frequent failure with the rate of lambda/2 per unit time requires twice as long, time of 1/(2 lambda). Cutting the failure rate in half requires doubling the test and redesign time and finding and eliminating the failure causes.Reducing the failure rate significantly requires a heroic reliability improvement effort.

  9. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Giichiro

    1985-01-01

    To make real and accurate dose assessment method so far, it is necessitated to provide ''Reference Japanese Man'' based on anotomical, physiological and biochemical data of Japanese people instead of the Reference Man presented in ICRP Publications 23 and 30. This review describes present status of researched for the purpose of establishing of Reference Japanese Man. The Reference Japanese Man is defined as a male or female adult who lives in Japan with a Japanese life-style and food custom. His stature and body weight, and the other data was decided as mean values of male or female people of Japan. As for food custom, Japanese people take significantly smaller amount of meat and milk products than Western people, while larger intake amount of cereals and marine products such as fish or seaweeds. Weight of organs is a principal factor for internal dose assessment and mean values for living Japanese adult has been investigated and the value employable for dose assessment for organs and tissues are shown. To employ these values of Reference Japanese Man, it should be taken into account of age. Metabolic parameters should also be considered. Iodine metabolism in Japanese is quite different from that of Western people. The above-mentioned data are now tentatively employing in modification of table of MIRD method and others. (Takagi, S.)

  10. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  11. Bulletproof Black Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højer, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst.......Netflix’ kommende serie om den sorte Marvel-helt Luke Cage lander snart – midt i de aktuelle racekonflikter i USA. I GIF-anatomien "Bulletproof Black Man" sætter Henrik Højer serien ind i dens amerikanske kontekst....

  12. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  13. An Extended Duopoly Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Illustrates how principles and intermediate microeconomic students can gain an understanding for strategic price setting by playing a relatively large oligopoly game. Explains that the game extends to a continuous price space and outlines appropriate applications. Offers the Mathematica code to instructors so that the assumptions of the game can…

  14. Transversally extended string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Keiichi

    1988-01-01

    Starting with the space-time action of the transversally extended string, we derive its world-sheet action, which is that of a gravitational and gauge theory with matter fields on the world-sheet, with additional effects of the second fundamental quantity. (author)

  15. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  16. Johri, Prof. Man Mohan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elected: 1983 Section: General Biology. Johri, Prof. Man Mohan Ph.D. (Delhi), FNA. Date of birth: 15 September 1940. Specialization: Plant Biochemistry, Molecular Biology of Plants and Genetic Engineering Address: Flat No. 32, New Cosmos CHSL, Juhu-Versova Link Road, Andheri (W), Mumbai 400 053, Maharashtra

  17. Improving Enlisted Fleet Manning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    and FY totals) by rating, program, and gender for active and reserve accessions. Each quarter, the Navy holds a quarterly demand planning confer...The CS E-7, E-8, and E-9 his- torically have been undermanned at sea, but in FY 2014 the CS E-7 sea manning rate reached parity . Figure 55

  18. Man as a Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solem, Alan; And Others

    Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The…

  19. Global Man-made Impervious Surface (GMIS) Dataset From Landsat

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Man-made Impervious Surface (GMIS) Dataset From Landsat consists of global estimates of fractional impervious cover derived from the Global Land Survey...

  20. The man and the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The universe has always aroused people's curiosity. It fascinates and at the same time scares in its vastness. Encourages us to reflect of the meaning of human life. This begs the questions: whether there is a life beyond Earth? Whether is it possible that the man is alone in such a large space? These questions still remain unanswered, and topics concerning "the cosmos" constantly evoke many emotions. It is especially fascinating for the youngest students. Quite often, preschoolers can flawlessly name the planets according to their order of appearance in relation to the sun. They are happy to take the fun inspired by journeys into space. Teaching through action is extremely important for the development of the child-man* (Piaget, 2006). The thinking originates primarily from the action. Therefore, students should undertake independent research activities, perform experiments and conduct observations and thus raise questions about the world, looking for meanings and solutions. Adults (a teacher, a person with a passion) are to be the support in the search for knowledge, its processing and cleaning. Its role is to ensure a proper development of environment that is conducive to research activity. The answer to these requirements was to create in the oldest technical school in Poland (Railway Technical College, now Technical College No. 7) the astronomical observatory, which can be used by pupils of Warsaw's kindergartens and schools. There are organized activities for children and youth in this school, as well as trainings for teachers. Younger students during such an interdisciplinary courses are, among others, the opportunity to get acquainted with the construction of the telescope, they can build their own rockets and organize their racing or create your own star constellations. Older students as a result of observations and experiments may confirm or refute the hypothesis that the universe is within each of us. The classes are enriched using applications on

  1. Extending Puppet

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschi, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.

  2. Manned spaceflight log II—2006–2012

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2013-01-01

    April 12, 1961 "Attention! This is Radio Moscow speaking...The world's first satellite spaceship, Vostock, with a man aboard, was put into orbit round the Earth." Soviet Union cosmonaut Yuri A. Gagarin becomes the first person to fly in space, completing one orbit in 108 minutes. April 5, 2001 As NASA prepares to fly the final Shuttle missions to the International Space Station, Russia launches Soyuz TMA 21 (code-named 'Yuri Gagarin') with the 28th ISS Expedition crew aboard, celebrating 50 years of manned spaceflight. Meanwhile, in China, preparations continue for launching the nation's first Space Station (called Tiangong 1 - or Heavenly Palace 1) later in the year. The sixth decade of manned spaceflight orbital operations has truly began. At this point in the history of human space exploration, it is timely to review the first five decades of adventure and look forward to the next decade and what it might bring. Several notable anniversaries celebrated in 2011 make it the right time to reflect and pay homa...

  3. The End of Man

    OpenAIRE

    Martinon, Jean-Paul

    2013-01-01

    Masculinity? This book attempts to answer this one-word question by revisiting key philosophical concepts in the construction of masculinity, not in order to re-write or debunk them again, but in order to provide a radically new departure to what masculinity means today. This new departure focuses on an understanding of sexuality and gender that is neither structured in oppositional terms (masculine-feminine, male-female, man-woman) nor in performative terms (for which the opposition remains ...

  4. Man Is a Paradox

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茂娟

    2009-01-01

    In the poem "Always", the author Pablo Neruda employs the first person narration to incisively reveal the paradoxical traits in human nature by exploring man in relation to love. "I" play a role shifting from a calm narrator to a furious one, and the last recovering to a mild one, which offers a multiple visual angle to observe humanity. In sum, by means of continuous changes of my inner feelings in the poem, Pablo Neruda reveals the paradoxical humanity .

  5. Man and radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1982-01-01

    The book describes the effects of ionizing radiation on man in a simple, popular, detailed and generally valid manner and gives a comprehensive picture of the concepts, elements, principles of function, and perspectives of medical radiobiology. Radiobiology in general is explained, and its application in research on the causes of radiolesions and radiation diseases as well as a radiotherapy and radiation protection is discussed in popular form. (orig./MG) [de

  6. Man in Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单祝堂

    1994-01-01

    Men usually want to have their own way.They want to thinkand act as they like.No one,however,can have his own way all thetime.A man cannot live in society without considering the interestsof others as well as his own interests.’Society’ means a groupof people with the same laws and the same way of life.People in

  7. Reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, G.-I.; Kawamura, H.; Nakahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The weight of organs from autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults, children, and infants is presented for the purpose of approaching a Reference Japanese Man. The skeletal content and the daily intake of alkaline earth elements are given. A lower rate of transfer (K 2 ) to the thyroid gland of ingested radioiodine, as well as a remarkably shorter biological half-life than the data adopted by ICRP, is also proved as a result of this study. (author)

  8. Man and computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischbach, K.F.

    1981-01-01

    The discussion of cultural and sociological consequences of computer evolution is hindered by human prejudice. For example the sentence 'a computer is at best as intelligent as its programmer' veils actual developments. Theoretical limits of computer intelligence are the limits of intelligence in general. Modern computer systems replace not only human labour, but also human decision making and thereby human responsibility. The historical situation is unique. Human head-work is being automated and man is loosing function. (orig.) [de

  9. Typhoon Man-Yi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Typhoon Man-Yi was pummeling the Japanese island of Okinawa with winds between 230 and 295 kilometers per hour (125-160 knots, 144-184 miles per hour) and heavy rain on the morning of July 13, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. The immense storm covered hundreds of kilometers with spiraling bands of thunderstorms, though it had lost the distinctive cloud-free eye it exhibited the day before. Typhoons are common in Japan, but powerful typhoons usually strike the island nation later in the year. The Japan Meteorological Agency said that Man-Yi is the fourth typhoon of the 2007 season and may be the most powerful ever observed in the northwest Pacific in July, reported Kyodo News. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expected the typhoon to strike Kyushu, a southern Japanese island, on July 14, and then curve northeast along the eastern shore of Japan. By the time the storm reaches Tokyo on July 15, it should be degraded to a tropical storm. As of July 13, Typhoon Man-Yi had injured eight and flooded twenty houses in Okinawa, and forced airlines to cancel hundreds of flights, said Kyodo News. The storm was expected to bring heavy rain to Japan's Pacific coast. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the MODIS Rapid Response team.

  10. Man-machine supervision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmain, J.

    2005-01-01

    Today's complexity of systems where man is involved has led to the development of more and more sophisticated information processing systems where decision making has become more and more difficult. The operator task has moved from operation to supervision and the production tool has become indissociable from its numerical instrumentation and control system. The integration of more and more numerous and sophisticated control indicators in the control room does not necessary fulfill the expectations of the operation team. It is preferable to develop cooperative information systems which are real situation understanding aids. The stake is not the automation of operators' cognitive tasks but the supply of a reasoning help. One of the challenges of interactive information systems is the selection, organisation and dynamical display of information. The efficiency of the whole man-machine system depends on the communication interface efficiency. This article presents the principles and specificities of man-machine supervision systems: 1 - principle: operator's role in control room, operator and automation, monitoring and diagnosis, characteristics of useful models for supervision; 2 - qualitative reasoning: origin, trends, evolutions; 3 - causal reasoning: causality, causal graph representation, causal and diagnostic graph; 4 - multi-points of view reasoning: multi flow modeling method, Sagace method; 5 - approximate reasoning: the symbolic numerical interface, the multi-criteria decision; 6 - example of application: supervision in a spent-fuel reprocessing facility. (J.S.)

  11. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  12. The evolution of automation and robotics in manned spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, T. L.; Erickson, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of automation on all manned spacecraft including the Space Shuttle is reviewed, and a concept for increasing automation and robotics from the current Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to an autonomous system is presented. The requirements for robotic elements are identified for various functions on the Space Station, including extravehicular functions and functions within laboratory and habitation modules which expand man's capacity in space and allow selected teleoperation from the ground. The initial Space Station will employ a telerobot and necessary knowledge based systems as an advisory to the crew on monitoring, fault diagnosis, and short term planning and scheduling.

  13. Queer encounters between Iron Man and Chinese boys' love fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Superhero fan fiction is increasingly popular in the Chinese boys' love (BL community. An exploration of the fan fic Gangtiexia: Zhongdu Yilai (Iron Man: Overly attached investigates how the Hollywood cultural icon Iron Man/Tony Stark is reimagined in Chinese BL culture and to what degree this kind of rendition both echoes and extends as well as challenges and deviates from our current insights into BL fandoms. Through the lenses of queerness and technological human transformation, I explore the fresh contribution of Iron Man fan fiction to both local BL cultures and global superhero fandoms.

  14. Evaluation of possible interaction among drugs contemplated for use during manned space flights. Part 1: Summary from progress report dated 31 October 1973. Part 2: Progress report for the period November 1973 to June 1974

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Possible interactions among drugs contemplated for use during manned spaceflights have been studied in several animal species. The following seven drugs were investigated: nitrofurantoin, chloral hydrate, hexobarbital, phenobarbital, flurazepam, diphenoxylate, and phenazopyridine. Particular combinations included: chloral hydrate, hexobarbital or flurazepam with nitrofurantoin; phenobarbital or flurazepam with phenazopyridine; and diphenoxylate with two dose formulations of nitrofurantoin. The mechanism of action and an explanation of the interaction between diphenoxylate and nitrofurantoin still remains unclear. In man, the interaction does not appear to be significant, affecting only two subjects out of six and with only one dose formulation (Furadantin).

  15. Strategies for "minimal growth maintenance" of cell cultures: a perspective on management for extended duration experimentation in the microgravity environment of a Space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    How cells manage without gravity and how they change in the absence of gravity are basic questions that only prolonged life on a Space station will enable us to answer. We know from investigations carried out on various kinds of Space vehicles and stations that profound physiological effects can and often to occur. We need to know more of the basic biochemistry and biophysics both of cells and of whole organisms in conditions of reduced gravity. The unique environment of Space affords plant scientists an unusual opportunity to carry out experiments in microgravity, but some major challenges must be faced before this can be done with confidence. Various laboratory activities that are routine on Earth take on special significance and offer problems that need imaginative resolution before even a relatively simple experiment can be reliably executed on a Space station. For example, scientists might wish to investigate whether adaptive or other changes that have occurred in the environment of Space are retained after return to Earth-normal conditions. Investigators seeking to carry out experiments in the low-gravity environment of Space using cultured cells will need to solve the problem of keeping cultures quiescent for protracted periods before an experiment is initiated, after periodic sampling is carried out, and after the experiment is completed. This review gives an evaluation of a range of strategies that can enable one to manipulate cell physiology and curtail growth dramatically toward this end. These strategies include cryopreservation, chilling, reduced oxygen, gel entrapment strategies, osmotic adjustment, nutrient starvation, pH manipulation, and the use of mitotic inhibitors and growth-retarding chemicals. Cells not only need to be rendered quiescent for protracted periods but they also must be recoverable and further grown if it is so desired. Elaboration of satisfactory procedures for management of cells and tissues at "near zero or minimal growth" will

  16. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  17. Man and electrotechnics today

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    Man and electrotechnique today - this topic was discussed by experts of the VDE (Society of German Electrotechnicians) during a podium discussion directed by the TV-journalist Ruediger Proske. The discussion was centred on the popular questions of energy supply, electronics and the technical communication systems. What are the technologies' influences on our society, how can the social results for the places of employment be estimated and what role is played here by the technicians, the industry and by economy. In the debate which was partly very heated the members showed their anxiety of the negative attitude which society has been developing towards technique to cause big problems for the future.

  18. Man and electrotechnics today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Man and electrotechnique today - this topic was discussed by experts of the VDE (Society of German Electrotechnicians) during a podium discussion directed by the TV-journalist Ruediger Proske. The discussion was centred on the popular questions of energy supply, electronics and the technical communication systems. What are the technologies' influences on our society, how can the social results for the places of employment be estimated and what role is played here by the technicians, the industry and by economy. In the debate which was partly very heated the members showed their anxiety of the negative attitude which society has been developing towards technique to cause big problems for the future. (orig.) [de

  19. Constructing EuroMan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Marie; Andersen, Dorte

    2008-01-01

    the regional periphery in dynamic state-centred economies. In the course of the 1980s, however, interest has shifted towards regions as motors of growth, thereby making the region an actor in its own right rather than a passive receiver of subsidies. The shift in focus can be regarded a result of so...... and approaches. Eurman is possessing the ability and will to pursue rational-strategic goals and he appears in the form of an economic agent as well as a participant in political processes. Regionalisation, identity-formation and the key characteristics of EuroMan unite in EU regional policies and New...

  20. Time and man

    CERN Document Server

    Elton, L. R. B

    1978-01-01

    Time and Man focuses on the endeavors of humans to probe the mysteries of time and to elucidate its properties. The discussions are both philosophical and factual in nature and encompass science as well as the physical sciences, biology and related disciplines (for example, evolution), and the humanities (for example, religion). Factual information is presented to help the reader gain a better understanding of the concepts associated with time.Comprised of nine chapters, this volume first considers the passage of time and the experiences which humans associate with the concept of time before r

  1. On the use of Space Station Freedom in support of the SEI - Life science research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leath, K.; Volosin, J.; Cookson, S.

    1992-01-01

    The use of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) for life sciences research is evaluated from the standpoint of requirements for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). SEI life sciences research encompasses: (1) biological growth and development in space; (2) life support and environmental health; (3) physiological/psychological factors of extended space travel; and (4) space environmental factors. The platforms required to support useful study in these areas are listed and include ground-based facilities, permanently manned spacecraft, and the Space Shuttle. The SSF is shown to be particularly applicable to the areas of research because its facilities can permit the study of gravitational biology, life-support systems, and crew health. The SSF can serve as an experimental vehicle to derive the required knowledge needed to establish a commitment to manned Mars missions and colonization plans.

  2. Pathways to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    The study of radionuclide pathways leading to man generally has the goal of allowing us to predict human exposure from measurements of the radionuclide concentration in some segment of the environment. This modelling process provides a valuable tool in both the regulatory and health protection fields. However, most of the models in the regulatory field and in the health physics profession were designed to maximize exposure estimates. It is preferable to have scientifically defensible estimates and to add suitable safety factors at the end. Thus we are still faced with the development and validation of suitable models for many of the radionuclides of interest. The most useful models will include means of assessing variability and uncertainty. In this case variability might be considered as the differences in behavior due to age, sex or other factors in animals or man and those differences among plant species or animal species that determine their uptake factors. The uncertainty, on the other hand, would be the estimate of possible error in the experimental measurements. Model parameters would always have some variability even for site-specific cases and broad averages for population groups would have to include a factor expressing the possible variabilty and uncertainity. Thus any exposure calculation would have to be expressed with some range and valid assessments of this range are required

  3. Ecology and man's environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Naqeeb, R

    1975-01-01

    A new and exciting discipline of human ecology is in the making. It has not, perhaps fortunately, found its bearings yet and remains to date overly dependent upon the limitations of sociology, biology, engineering and the sciences for its general theory, approaches, and philosophy. A new discipline with a world view and focussed on the human being and his habitat will hopefully emerge from a rich dialectic among scientists, humanists and policy makers educated and experienced in a variety of fields and committed to man's welfare. This new discipline and its practitioner must always be open to the revelations their knowledge will bring to man through the environmental processes. The implications of public policy, science and technology of industrial and post-industrial nations are all in need of considered re-examination by us all. Since their early application in these western societies we have witnessed the general downgrading of the world's environment. An ungrading in social priorities for the development of adequate housing, jobs, medical care and education which is almost always lower in rank than they should be is needed. The role of local groups, involving a well-informed and participating citizenship, in this process of changing priorities will always remain of prime importance, but no long-range goal in a rapidly-changing landscape is possible without broad national and local planning which contains ways and means of implementation.

  4. 1958 : Manning wants markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    This article described the 2 opposing views in 1958 regarding how the big Montreal refinery market should be served. While the president of Imperial Oil expressed that Montreal refineries should not be forced to use domestic feedstocks, Alberta Premier Ernest Manning urged the Borden Commission to take immediate measures to expand the market for Canadian crude oil into Montreal. Manning argued that the dependence on Venezuelan crude in the Montreal refining market would pose a danger to the stability and development of the oil industry; loss of revenue for municipal, provincial and federal governments; and, an adverse effect on Canada's trade balance with the United States. The Premier suggested that these problems could be avoided by expanding the market for Canadian crude in Ontario and Quebec, in the U.S. Midwest, and in the Pacific Northwest. In 1958, the Canadian oil industry was divided on the Montreal market issue. Other key events in 1958 were listed. Waterton was characterized as Canada's biggest gas field, with reserves of 3 trillion cubic feet. A gas discovery at Berland River was considered the largest single-well exploration find in the world, flowing 27 million cubic feet per day on 1 drillstem. Two new refineries near Vancouver and Toronto were built to raise Canadian refining capacity to 813,000 barrels per day. 1 tab., 1 fig

  5. Personalized State-space Modeling of Glucose Dynamics for Type 1 Diabetes Using Continuously Monitored Glucose, Insulin Dose, and Meal Intake: An Extended Kalman Filter Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Molenaar, Peter; Harsh, Saurabh; Freeman, Kenneth; Xie, Jinyu; Gold, Carol; Rovine, Mike; Ulbrecht, Jan

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of any artificial pancreas is on the prediction of blood glucose levels as a function of exogenous and endogenous perturbations such as insulin dose, meal intake, and physical activity and emotional tone under natural living conditions. In this article, we present a new data-driven state-space dynamic model with time-varying coefficients that are used to explicitly quantify the time-varying patient-specific effects of insulin dose and meal intake on blood glucose fluctu...

  6. The Nature of Man and Its Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrini, D. T.; Gregory, Lura N.

    The many problems presented by the nature of man and in studying man are the focus of this paper which attempts to place these problems in perspective in terms of the past and future. The enigma facing man, that man must study man, is related in an introduction. Freud's, Adler's, and Jung's developments in the study of the nature of man are…

  7. A generalization of Fatou's lemma for extended real-valued functions on σ-finite measure spaces: with an application to infinite-horizon optimization in discrete time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamihigashi, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Given a sequence [Formula: see text] of measurable functions on a σ -finite measure space such that the integral of each [Formula: see text] as well as that of [Formula: see text] exists in [Formula: see text], we provide a sufficient condition for the following inequality to hold: [Formula: see text] Our condition is considerably weaker than sufficient conditions known in the literature such as uniform integrability (in the case of a finite measure) and equi-integrability. As an application, we obtain a new result on the existence of an optimal path for deterministic infinite-horizon optimization problems in discrete time.

  8. Play the Man!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edelberg, Peter

    . Men's bodies experienced a new form of interest in interwar Britain as physical training was becoming a general pursuit and sexual reformers and conservatives tried to come to terms with a post-Victorian society. The interwar period saw a strong tendency away from the ideal of men and women......This book investigates ideas of men and masculinities in interwar Britain in three different areas: psychology, physical education and sex. Using a broad range of sources from different walks of life it explores how men and masculinities were constructed in different ways for different purposes...... as opposites towards a heterosexual matrimonial ideal wherein men could try to establish a masculine identity. This tendency created new frontiers where homosexuals, 'perverts', 'misfits' and 'freaks' were seen as opposites of the 'real man' in the symbolic world of the early twentieth century....

  9. The 'poor man's laryngogram'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartelt, D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is reassessment of an old method improved by well-directed application of well-known maneuvers of laryngo-pharyngeal function. Although not as visually attractive as a dedicated laryngogram (now hardly ever requested), it does render similarly reliable diagnostic information, which, supported, as occasionally necessary, by conventional tomography, can even surpass that given by the older technique. Its main advantage lies in providing cheap, quick, noninvasive studies with minimal descomfort for the patient. Should further investigation be necessary, for analysis of deep extension, modern cross-sectional imaging methods (especially MR) far surpass even dedicated laryngography in diagnostic value and can be based adequately on 'poor mans's laryngography'. Ways in which this method may be optimised, especially those involving laryngopharyngeal function, are briefly presented - with emphasis on relevant practical aspects - as are normal and abnormal findings. (orig.) [de

  10. Organic chemistry in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Organic cosmochemistry, organic materials in space exploration, and biochemistry of man in space are briefly surveyed. A model of Jupiter's atmosphere is considered, and the search for organic molecules in the solar system and in interstellar space is discussed. Materials and analytical techniques relevant to space exploration are indicated, and the blood and urine analyses performed on Skylab are described.

  11. First exposure in man: toxicological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Sjöberg, P; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    2000-01-01

    The safety of a volunteer/patient who participate in the very first human trial relies on data from animal experimentation and on the design of the trial. Recommendations on the type and extent of preclinical safety studies that should be conducted prior to first dose in man have been developed...... for preclinical testing have had an important impact on the documented impressive safety record of phase I clinical trials. In this spirit we extend our warmest and sincerest thanks to Professor Jens S. Schou for his long and deep engagement in European and International harmonisation of preclinical test...

  12. Fusion of space-borne multi-baseline and multi-frequency interferometric results based on extended Kalman filter to generate high quality DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Zeng, Qiming; Jiao, Jian; Zhang, Jingfa

    2016-01-01

    Repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is a technique that can be used to generate DEMs. But the accuracy of InSAR is greatly limited by geometrical distortions, atmospheric effect, and decorrelations, particularly in mountainous areas, such as western China where no high quality DEM has so far been accomplished. Since each of InSAR DEMs generated using data of different frequencies and baselines has their own advantages and disadvantages, it is therefore very potential to overcome some of the limitations of InSAR by fusing Multi-baseline and Multi-frequency Interferometric Results (MMIRs). This paper proposed a fusion method based on Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), which takes the InSAR-derived DEMs as states in prediction step and the flattened interferograms as observations in control step to generate the final fused DEM. Before the fusion, detection of layover and shadow regions, low-coherence regions and regions with large height error is carried out because MMIRs in these regions are believed to be unreliable and thereafter are excluded. The whole processing flow is tested with TerraSAR-X and Envisat ASAR datasets. Finally, the fused DEM is validated with ASTER GDEM and national standard DEM of China. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is effective even in low coherence areas.

  13. Cosmic evolution, life and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oro, J.

    1995-01-01

    Among the most basic problems confronting science are those regarding the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the origin of man. This general overview starts (1) with a brief introduction addressed primarily to the Cyril Ponnamperuma Memorial. Then, the thesis is presented that the appearance of life and intelligence on our planet can be understood as the result of a number of cosmic and biological evolutionary processes, including (2) the stellar thermonuclear synthesis of the biogenic elements other than hydrogen (C, N, O, P and S), their dispersal into space, and their combination into circumstellar and interstellar molecules. (3) The formation of the Solar System and the Earth-Moon System. (4) The role of comets and carbonaceous chondrites in contributing organic matter to the primitive Earth. (5) The prebiotics synthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and other biochemical monomers. (6) The prebiotic condensation reactions leading to the synthesis of oligomers such as oligonucleotides and oligopeptides, with replicative and catalytic activities. (7) The synthesis of amphiphilic lipids, and their self-assembly into liposomes with bi-layered membranes. (8) The formation of protocellular structures. (9) The activation of protocells into a functioning Darwin's ancestral cell. (10) Early evolution of life. (11) The K-T boundary event and the disappearance of dinosaurs. (12) Evolution of hominids leading to Homo sapiens. (13) The rapid development of civilization. (14) The exploration of the Solar System. (15) Life beyond our planetary system. (16) Epilogue. Peace from cosmic evolution? (Abstract only)

  14. Cosmic evolution, life and man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oro, J [Houston Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemical and Biophysical Sciences

    1995-08-01

    Among the most basic problems confronting science are those regarding the origin of the universe, the origin of life and the origin of man. This general overview starts (1) with a brief introduction addressed primarily to the Cyril Ponnamperuma Memorial. Then, the thesis is presented that the appearance of life and intelligence on our planet can be understood as the result of a number of cosmic and biological evolutionary processes, including (2) the stellar thermonuclear synthesis of the biogenic elements other than hydrogen (C, N, O, P and S), their dispersal into space, and their combination into circumstellar and interstellar molecules. (3) The formation of the Solar System and the Earth-Moon System. (4) The role of comets and carbonaceous chondrites in contributing organic matter to the primitive Earth. (5) The prebiotics synthesis of amino acids, purines, pyrimidines, fatty acids, and other biochemical monomers. (6) The prebiotic condensation reactions leading to the synthesis of oligomers such as oligonucleotides and oligopeptides, with replicative and catalytic activities. (7) The synthesis of amphiphilic lipids, and their self-assembly into liposomes with bi-layered membranes. (8) The formation of protocellular structures. (9) The activation of protocells into a functioning Darwin`s ancestral cell. (10) Early evolution of life. (11) The K-T boundary event and the disappearance of dinosaurs. (12) Evolution of hominids leading to Homo sapiens. (13) The rapid development of civilization. (14) The exploration of the Solar System. (15) Life beyond our planetary system. (16) Epilogue. Peace from cosmic evolution? (Abstract only).

  15. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  16. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  17. Extended quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavel Bona

    2000-01-01

    The work can be considered as an essay on mathematical and conceptual structure of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics which is related here to some other (more general, but also to more special and 'approximative') theories. Quantum mechanics is here primarily reformulated in an equivalent form of a Poisson system on the phase space consisting of density matrices, where the 'observables', as well as 'symmetry generators' are represented by a specific type of real valued (densely defined) functions, namely the usual quantum expectations of corresponding selfjoint operators. It is shown in this paper that inclusion of additional ('nonlinear') symmetry generators (i. e. 'Hamiltonians') into this reformulation of (linear) quantum mechanics leads to a considerable extension of the theory: two kinds of quantum 'mixed states' should be distinguished, and operator - valued functions of density matrices should be used in the role of 'nonlinear observables'. A general framework for physical theories is obtained in this way: By different choices of the sets of 'nonlinear observables' we obtain, as special cases, e.g. classical mechanics on homogeneous spaces of kinematical symmetry groups, standard (linear) quantum mechanics, or nonlinear extensions of quantum mechanics; also various 'quasiclassical approximations' to quantum mechanics are all sub theories of the presented extension of quantum mechanics - a version of the extended quantum mechanics. A general interpretation scheme of extended quantum mechanics extending the usual statistical interpretation of quantum mechanics is also proposed. Eventually, extended quantum mechanics is shown to be (included into) a C * -algebraic (hence linear) quantum theory. Mathematical formulation of these theories is presented. The presentation includes an analysis of problems connected with differentiation on infinite-dimensional manifolds, as well as a solution of some problems connected with the work with only densely defined unbounded

  18. LCA single score analysis of man-made cellulose fibres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the LCA report “Life Cycle assessment of man-made cellulose fibres” [3] is extended to the single score analysis in order to provide an additional basis for decision making. The single score analysis covers 9 to 11 environmental impact categories. Three single score methods (Single

  19. Man Machine Systems in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Malkit S.

    This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education. Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…

  20. "Det man hører, er man selv"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2015-01-01

    ”Det man hører, er man selv” er Danmarks Radios P3s yderst velkendte slogan. Det dukkede op i begyndelsen af (20)00erne som opfindsom og populær afspejling af en moderne forståelse af den rolle musik og medieforbrug spiller for den voksne dansker. Denne artikel handler ikke om P3 som musikkanal...

  1. Japanese reference man 1988, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Gi-ichiro

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative description of physical properties and other characteristics of the human body is one of the basic data for estimating dose equivalent and calculating Annual Limit on Intake of radionuclides. The exact mass weight of organs and tissues are measured from about 1000 autopsy cases of normal Japanese adults and physical properties are obtained from recent Japanese Government publications. Japanese (Asian) Reference Man is completed by establishing the Normal Japanese, harmonizing with Caucasian Reference Man and coinciding with the ICRP Reference Man Task Group members concept. (author)

  2. Power system technologies for the manned Mars mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bents, D.; Patterson, M.J.; Berkopec, F.; Myers, I.; Presler, A.

    1986-01-01

    The high impulse of electric propulsion makes it an attractive option for manned interplanetary missions such as a manned mission to Mars. This option is, however, dependent on the availability of high energy sources for propulsive power in addition to that required for the manned interplanetary transit vehicle. Two power system technologies are presented: nuclear and solar. The ion thruster technology for the interplanetary transit vehicle is described for a typical mission. The power management and distribution system components required for such a mission must be further developed beyond today's technology status. High voltage-high current technology advancements must be achieved. These advancements are described. In addition, large amounts of waste heat must be rejected to the space environment by the thermal management system. Advanced concepts such as the liquid droplet radiator are discussed as possible candidates for the manned Mars mission. These thermal management technologies have great potential for significant weight reductions over the more conventional systems

  3. A Foothold in Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the successful launch of Tiangong-1 (Heavenly Palace-1) unmanned module on September 29,China took a significant step forward in realizing its ambitions in space.China’s manned space program consists of three steps.The first step,to send an astronaut into space,was achieved in 2003.The

  4. Venturing Further Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China launches a prototype space module as a precursor to a manned space station China’s first unmanned space module Tiangong-1,or Heavenly Palace-1,successfully lifted off from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwest China’s Gansu Province on September 29. "The successful launch of the 8.5-ton

  5. Emblem for the third manned Skylab mission - Skylab 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This is the emblem for the third manned Skylab mission. It will be a mission of up to 56 days. The symbols in the patch refer to the three major areas of investigation proposed in the mission. The tree represents man's natural environment and relates directly to the Skylab mission objectives of advancing the study of Earth resources. The hydrogen atom, as the basic building block of the universe, represents man's exploration of the physical world, his application of knowledge, and his development of technology. Since the Sun is composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate that the symbol refers to the solar physics mission objectives. The human silhouette represents mankind and the human capacity to direct technology with a wisdom tempered by regard for his natural environment. It also directly relates to the Skylab medical studies of man himself. The rainbow, adopted from the Biblical story of the flood, symbolizes the promise that is offered man. It embraces man and extends to t

  6. Dose-to-man studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Dose-to-Man Studies focused on developing computer data handling and computer modules which permit easy, rapid assessment of the dose to southeastern United States populations from routine or accidental releases of radionuclides to atmospheric and stream systems

  7. Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillaman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight study analyzes risk management in large enterprises and how to effectively communicate risks across organizations. The Calysto Risk Management tool developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center's SharePoint team is used and referenced throughout the study. Calysto is a web-base tool built on Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The risk management process at NASA is examined and incorporated in the study. Using risk management standards from industry and specific organizations at the Kennedy Space Center, three methods of communicating and elevating risk are examined. Each method describes details of the effectiveness and plausibility of using the method in the Calysto Risk Management Tool. At the end of the study suggestions are made for future renditions of Calysto.

  8. Extended edentulous spaces in the esthetic zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wismeijer, D.; Chen, S.; Buser, D.

    2012-01-01

    Dental implants are used routinely throughout the world to replace missing teeth. With the broadening of treatment options and an increasing numbers of clinicians that provide implant therapy, it is important to ensure that the treatment methods used meet the highest clinical standards. The ITI

  9. Manipulator system man-machine interface evaluation program. [technology assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, T. B.; Kirkpatrick, M.; Shields, N. L.

    1974-01-01

    Application and requirements for remote manipulator systems for future space missions were investigated. A manipulator evaluation program was established to study the effects of various systems parameters on operator performance of tasks necessary for remotely manned missions. The program and laboratory facilities are described. Evaluation criteria and philosophy are discussed.

  10. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  11. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD... HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the judgment of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, such manning is...

  12. The Black Man in American Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  13. Economic man as model man: Ideal types, idealization and caricatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, M.S.

    2006-01-01

    Economics revolves around a central character: "economic man." As historians, we are all familiar with various episodes in the history of this character, and we appreciate his ever-changing aspect even while many of our colleagues in economics think the rational economic agent of neoclassical

  14. Establishment of Filipino standard man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natera, E.; San Jose, V.; Napenas, D.

    1984-01-01

    The initial data gathered on measurements of total body weight and weights of specific organs from autopsy cases of normal Filipinos are reported. Comparison of the above data with the Reference Man data of ICRP which was based primarily on Caucasians suggests some differences in the average weight and height of whole body and in the weights of some organs. Hence there appears to be a need for the establishment of Filipino standard man which can be used in the estimation of internal dose commitment of the Filipinos. (author)

  15. Establishment of Filipino standard man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natera, E.; San Jose, V.; Napenas, D.

    The initial data gathered on measurements of total body weight and weights of specific organs from autopsy cases of normal Filipinos are reported. Comparison of the above data with the Reference Man data of ICRP which was based primarily on Caucasians suggests some differences in the average weight and height of whole body and in the weights of some organs. Hence there appears to be a need for the establishment of Filipino standard man which can be used in the estimation of internal dose commitment of the Filipinos.

  16. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analog...

  17. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  18. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  19. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  20. Electric refuse collection vehicle with a range extender; Elektrisches Abfallsammelfahrzeug mit Range Extender

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    At the Frankfurt Motor Show IAA 2012, MAN will be presenting the Metropolis, a heavy-duty truck for use in urban areas that produces no emissions and is ultra-quiet. Using mains electricity generated from renewable sources, it can operate without producing any CO{sub 2}. The truck's modular lithium-ion battery is located under the ab. A quiet and efficient diesel engine from the Volkswagen Group generates power as needed and functions as a range extender for the truck. At the end of 2012, the MAN Metropolis will start a two-year field test as a refuse collection vehicle. (orig.)

  1. Autonomy and the human element in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    NASA is contemplating the next logical step in the U.S. space program - the permanent presence of humans in space. As currently envisioned, the initial system, planned for the early 1990's, will consist of manned and unmanned platforms situated primarily in low Earth orbit. The manned component will most likely be inhabited by 6-8 crew members performing a variety of tasks such as materials processing, satellite servicing, and life science experiments. The station thus has utility in scientific and commercial enterprises, in national security, and in the development of advanced space technology. The technical foundations for this next step have been firmly established as a result of unmanned spacecraft missions to other planets, the Apollo program, and Skylab. With the shuttle, NASA inaugurates a new era of frequent flights and more routine space operations supporting a larger variety of missions. A permanently manned space system will enable NASA to expand the scope of its activities still further. Since NASA' s inception there has been an intense debate over the relative merits of manned and unmanned space systems. Despite the generally higher costs associated with manned components, astronauts have accomplished numerous essential, complex tasks in space. The unique human talent to evaluate and respond inventively to unanticipated events has been crucial in many missions, and the presence of crews has helped arouse and sustain public interest in the space program. On the other hand, the hostile orbital environment affects astronaut physiology and productivity, is dangerous, and mandates extensive support systems. Safety and cost factors require the entire station complex, both space and ground components, to be highly automated to free people from mundane operational chores. Recent advances in computer technology, artificial intelligence (AI), and robotics have the potential to greatly extend space station operations, offering lower costs and superior

  2. A Research on the Electrical Test Fault Diagnostic and Data Mining of a Manned Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Feng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the modeling method and modeling tool for the fault diagnosis of manned spacecraft, the multi-signal flow graph model of a manned space equipment was established using this method; the framework of the fault detection and diagnosis system of manned spacecraft is proposed, the function of ground system and function of the spacecraft are clearly defined. The structure of the functional module is given separately; finally, the tool builds the fault detection and diagnosis system, the application of fault diagnosis method for manned spacecraft is used for reference.

  3. Man and the Pongolo floodplain

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Heeg, J

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available This report comprises a synthesis of contributions to a workshop on Man and the Pongolo held at the University of Natal, Pietermaritzburg in February 1978. Studies on the ecology of the Pongolo floodplain, encompassing its fauna, flora and human...

  4. The Man Who Knew Infinity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his work. Ramanujan did mathematics for its own sake, for the thrill that he got in seeing and discovering ... in those times led to a frantic search for a job to earn an income. .... mathematics, a man whose career seems full of paradoxes and ...

  5. Man...An Endangered Species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  6. The half-yellow man

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The half-yellow man. BJ Merwitza* and FJ Raala. aFaculty of Health Sciences, Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism Research Unit, University of the Witswaterand, Johannesburg, South Africa. *Corresponding author, emails: bmerwitz@hotmail.com, brad.merwitz@gmail.com. Keywords: diffuse normolipaemic planar ...

  7. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  8. Man-Made Climatic Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, Helmut E.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

  9. Man, Controller of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olowin, R. P.

    2011-06-01

    The Man, Controller of the Universe painted by the renowned Mexican artist Diego Rivera in the gigantic mural of the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City is overlooked by a telescope. We acknowledge this instrument as the Plaskett Telescope at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, Canada.

  10. Man-machine design integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera, J.P. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Monroeville, PA (United States). Nuclear Technology Div.; Haentjens, J. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Brussels (Belgium). Nuclear Technology Div.

    1995-12-31

    The presentation overviews the bases for Man-Machine Interface (MMI) designs that are part of three other presentations during the same conference: Advanced Alarm Management System, Functional Displays and System for Emergency Procedure Execution Monitoring. The MMD group history, team and goals are summarized to give some context to the core of the MMD philosophy and integration. (10 refs., 5 figs.).

  11. Scientific projection paper for space radiobiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinograd, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    A nationale for the radiobiological research requirements for space is rooted in a national commitment to the exploration of space, mandated in the form of the National Space Act. This research is almost entirely centered on man; more specifically, on the effects of the space radiation environment on man and his protection from them. The research needs discussed in this presentation include the space radiation environment; dosimetry; radiation biology-high LET particles (dose/response); and operational countermeasures

  12. Man-caused seismicity of Kuzbass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanov, Alexandr; Emanov, Alexey; Leskova, Ekaterina; Fateyev, Alexandr

    2010-05-01

    A natural seismicity of Kuznetsk Basin is confined in the main to mountain frame of Kuznetsk hollow. In this paper materials of experimental work with local station networks within sediment basin are presented. Two types of seismicity display within Kuznetsk hollow have been understood: first, man-caused seismic processes, confined to mine working and concentrated on depths up to one and a half of km; secondly, seismic activations on depths of 2-56 km, not coordinated in plan with coal mines. Every of studied seismic activations consists of large quantity of earthquakes of small powers (Ms=1-3). From one to first tens of earthquakes were recorded in a day. The earthquakes near mine working shift in space along with mine working, and seismic process become stronger at the instant a coal-plough machine is operated, and slacken at the instant the preventive works are executed. The seismic processes near three lavas in Kuznetsk Basin have been studied in detail. Uplift is the most typical focal mechanism. Activated zone near mine working reach in diameter 1-1,5 km. Seismic activations not linked with mine working testify that the subsoil of Kuznetsk hollow remain in stress state in whole. The most probable causes of man-caused action on hollow are processes, coupled with change of physical state of rocks at loss of methane from large volume or change by mine working of rock watering in large volume. In this case condensed rocks, lost gas and water, can press out upwards, realizing the reverse fault mechanism of earthquakes. A combination of stress state of hollow with man-caused action at deep mining may account for incipient activations in Kuznetsk Basin. Today earthquakes happen mainly under mine workings, though damages of workings themselves do not happen, but intensive shaking on surface calls for intent study of so dangerous phenomena. In 2009 replicates of the experiment on research of seismic activations in area of before investigated lavas have been conducted

  13. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  14. Tiangong-1, the First Manned Spacelab of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coue, P.

    This paper presents an overview of Tiangong-1, the first Chinese space station officially dubbed Spacelab by Beijing authorities. Tiangong programme also demonstrates the actual progress level of China in the field of manned space activities. This new spacecraft will allow China to practice many tasks, to help prepare for the next step: the permanently occupied space station. Open sources have been only used to write this paper. For example, Chinese media revealed numerous information describing the Spacelab during the first docking operation between Tiangong-1 and Shenzhou-8. All aspects of this programme will be listed comprising the old stories and the new one: major technical characteristics, accommodation, mission, future prospects, etc.

  15. How Far Can Extended Knowledge Be Extended?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wray, K. Brad

    2018-01-01

    by an artifact, like a notebook or telescope. The chapter illustrates this by applying Pritchard’s account of extended knowledge to collaborating scientists. The beliefs acquired through collaborative research cannot satisfy both of Pritchard’s conditions of creditability. Further, there is evidence......Duncan Pritchard (2010) has developed a theory of extended knowledge based on the notion of extended cognition initially developed by Clark and Chalmers (1998). Pritchard’s account gives a central role to the notion of creditability, which requires the following two conditions to be met: (i...... that scientists are not prepared to take responsibility for the actions of the scientists with whom they collaborate....

  16. Tissue Engineering Organs for Space Biology Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H. H.; Shansky, J.; DelTatto, M.; Lee, P.; Meir, J.

    1999-01-01

    Long-term manned space flight requires a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy resulting from microgravity. Atrophy most likely results from changes at both the systemic level (e.g. decreased circulating growth hormone, increased circulating glucocorticoids) and locally (e.g. decreased myofiber resting tension). Differentiated skeletal myofibers in tissue culture have provided a model system over the last decade for gaining a better understanding of the interactions of exogenous growth factors, endogenous growth factors, and muscle fiber tension in regulating protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. Tissue engineering these cells into three dimensional bioartificial muscle (BAM) constructs has allowed us to extend their use to Space flight studies for the potential future development of countermeasures.

  17. Onboard radiation shielding estimates for interplanetary manned missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, A.; Jevremovic, T.; Hounshel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The main focus of space related shielding design is to protect operating systems, personnel and key structural components from outer space and onboard radiation. This paper summarizes the feasibility of a lightweight neutron radiation shield design for a nuclear powered, manned space vehicle. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to determine radiation transport characteristics of the different materials and find the optimized shield configuration. A phantom torso encased in air is used to determine a dose rate for a crew member on the ship. Calculation results indicate that onboard shield against neutron radiation coming from nuclear engine can be achieved with very little addition of weight to the space vehicle. The selection of materials and neutron transport analysis as presented in this paper are useful starting data to design shield against neutrons generated when high-energy particles from outer space interact with matter on the space vehicle. (authors)

  18. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options.

  19. Small reactor power systems for manned planetary surface bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the potential application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to manned planetary surface base missions was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology, performance, and safety issues associated with integration of reactor power systems with an evolutionary manned planetary surface exploration scenario. The requirements and characteristics of a variety of human-rated modular reactor power system configurations selected for a range of power levels from 25 kWe to hundreds of kilowatts is described. Trade-off analyses for reactor power systems utilizing both man-made and indigenous shielding materials are provided to examine performance, installation and operational safety feasibility issues. The results of this study have confirmed the preliminary feasibility of a wide variety of small reactor power plant configurations for growth oriented manned planetary surface exploration missions. The capability for power level growth with increasing manned presence, while maintaining safe radiation levels, was favorably assessed for nominal 25 to 100 kWe modular configurations. No feasibility limitations or technical barriers were identified and the use of both distance and indigenous planetary soil material for human rated radiation shielding were shown to be viable and attractive options

  20. Teleoperators: Man's Machine Partners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1972-01-01

    This booklet is about teleoperators, a class of machines that augment man rather than replace him. Teleoperators have the ability to add to man's strength, his reach, and his ability to work in hostile environments.

  1. Analysis of RTM extended images for VTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Vladimir; Tsvankin, Ilya; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2015-01-01

    velocity analysis remain generally valid in the extended image space for complex media. The dependence of RMO on errors in the anisotropy parameters provides essential insights for anisotropic wavefield tomography using extended images.

  2. Extended Enterprise performance Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbink, Maria Lammerdina; Hartmann, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The allegiance of partnering organisations and their employees to an Extended Enterprise performance is its proverbial sword of Damocles. Literature on Extended Enterprises focuses on collaboration, inter-organizational integration and learning to avoid diminishing or missing allegiance becoming an

  3. Perspectives on extended Deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno; Yost, David S.; Bunn, Elaine; Lee, Seok-soo; Levite, Ariel e.; Russell, James A.; Hokayem, Emile; Kibaroglu, Mustafa; Schulte, Paul; Thraenert, Oliver; Kulesa, Lukasz

    2010-05-01

    In November 2009, the Foundation for Strategic Research (Fondation pour la recherche strategique, FRS) convened a workshop on 'The Future of extended Deterrence', which included the participation of some of the best experts of this topic, from the United States, Europe, the Middle East and East Asia, as well as French and NATO officials. This document brings together the papers prepared for this seminar. Several of them were updated after the publication in April 2010 of the US Nuclear Posture Review. The seminar was organized with the support of the French Atomic energy Commission (Commissariat a l'energie atomique - CEA). Content: 1 - The future of extended deterrence: a brainstorming paper (Bruno Tertrais); 2 - US extended deterrence in NATO and North-East Asia (David S. Yost); 3 - The future of US extended deterrence (Elaine Bunn); 4 - The future of extended deterrence: a South Korean perspective (Seok-soo Lee); 5 - Reflections on extended deterrence in the Middle East (Ariel e. Levite); 6 - extended deterrence, security guarantees and nuclear weapons: US strategic and policy conundrums in the Gulf (James A. Russell); 7 - extended deterrence in the Gulf: a bridge too far? (Emile Hokayem); 8 - The future of extended deterrence: the case of Turkey (Mustafa Kibaroglu); 9 - The future of extended deterrence: a UK view (Paul Schulte); 10 - NATO and extended deterrence (Oliver Thraenert); 11 - extended deterrence and assurance in Central Europe (Lukasz Kulesa)

  4. 77 FR 23806 - Manning Rail, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Manning Grain Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. FD 35607] Manning Rail, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Manning Grain Company Manning Rail, Inc. (MRI), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Manning Grain Company (MGC) and...

  5. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  6. Kant and the practical man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2017-01-01

    The Appendix to Kant’s Toward perpetual peace is commonly viewed as an explication of the systematic relations between political practice and normative political theory. This paper provides an alternative interpretation to Kant’s main aim in the Apendix which is to provide an argument against...... that Kant’s argument against the practical man is based on a proto-phenomenological analysis of moral experience. The practical man’s attempt to describe political practice in purely non-normative terms is, Kant believes, necessarily self-undermining because it denies one of the most basic aspects of human...

  7. Man - Environment - Knowledge. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, B.

    1991-01-01

    The book brings together certain facts which were collated and processed on the subject of ''Man-Environment-Knowledge'' within the scope of a tutorial function of the same name organised and held by the ''ETH'' (the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich). Starting off from certain important fundamental facts which reproduce the current state of our planet in the form of data, it goes on to illustrate those interconnections and processes that are important for the understanding of the world in which we live. figs., tabs., [800 refs.

  8. Effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.A.H.

    1981-01-01

    The available evidence on the effects of radiation on man and the predictions that have been made of possible low level effects are reviewed. Data from United Nations Scientific Committee of the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) and the committee on the Biological Effects of Ionising Radiation (BEIR) is used to illustrate the acute, delayed and hereditary effects of high dose levels. The effects of low dose levels are discussed on the assumption that both somatic and hereditary effects can be predicted on the basis of linear extrapolation from high dose effects. (U.K.)

  9. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  10. Manned spacecraft automation and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Jon D.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station holds promise of being a showcase user and driver of advanced automation and robotics technology. The author addresses the advances in automation and robotics from the Space Shuttle - with its high-reliability redundancy management and fault tolerance design and its remote manipulator system - to the projected knowledge-based systems for monitoring, control, fault diagnosis, planning, and scheduling, and the telerobotic systems of the future Space Station.

  11. An age dependent model for radium metabolism in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J R

    1983-01-01

    The model developed by a Task Group of Committee 2 of ICRP to describe Alkaline Earth Metabolism in Adult Man (ICRP Publication 20) has been modified so that recycling is handled explicitly, and retention in mineral bone is represented by second compartments rather than by the product of a power function and an exponential. This model has been extended to include all ages from birth to adult man, and has been coupled with modified "ICRP" lung and G.I. tract models so that activity in organs can be calculated as functions of time during or after exposures. These activities, and age dependent "specific effective energy" factors, are then used to calculate age dependent dose rates, and dose commitments. This presentation describes this work, with emphasis on the model parameters and results obtained for radium.

  12. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  13. Man-machine interactions 3

    CERN Document Server

    Czachórski, Tadeusz; Kozielski, Stanisław

    2014-01-01

    Man-Machine Interaction is an interdisciplinary field of research that covers many aspects of science focused on a human and machine in conjunction.  Basic goal of the study is to improve and invent new ways of communication between users and computers, and many different subjects are involved to reach the long-term research objective of an intuitive, natural and multimodal way of interaction with machines.  The rapid evolution of the methods by which humans interact with computers is observed nowadays and new approaches allow using computing technologies to support people on the daily basis, making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs.   This monograph is the third edition in the series and presents important ideas, current trends and innovations in  the man-machine interactions area.  The aim of this book is to introduce not only hardware and software interfacing concepts, but also to give insights into the related theoretical background. Reader is provided with a compilation of high...

  14. [The man on the portrait].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrand, A

    1996-01-01

    Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry 1911. During the preceding year a rumour had circulated in Stockholm that she had had an affaire with one of her assistants. She received a letter, in which she was told that there had been strong opposition to her election not on scientific but moral grounds, and that she should not go to Stockholm, because nobody could forsee what reactions her appearance at the prize ceremony could evoke. Emil Kleen, a man of violent temper and radical opinions, reacted strongly to these rumours. He wrote a paper, with a violent attack on Gustaf Retzius, previous professor of Histology at Karolinska Institutet. Rightly or wrongly he suspected him to be the author of the infamous letter. Retzius is described as a dilletant in scientific matters, as a "sexual hyena" and a garroulus old man. This portrait of Retzius is of course most unfair, but the portrait of Emil Kleen by the famous swedish artist Bruno Liljefors is a masterpiece and one of the most valuable of the Swedish Medical Association.

  15. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  16. The extended bigraded Toda hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlet, Guido

    2006-01-01

    We generalize the Toda lattice hierarchy by considering N + M dependent variables. We construct roots and logarithms of the Lax operator which are uniquely defined operators with coefficients that are ε-series of differential polynomials in the dependent variables, and we use them to provide a Lax pair definition of the extended bigraded Toda hierarchy, generalizing [4]. Using R-matrix theory we give the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of this hierarchy and we prove the existence of a tau function for its solutions. Finally we study the dispersionless limit and its connection with a class of Frobenius manifolds on the orbit space of the extended affine Weyl groups W-tilde (N) (A N+M-1 ) of the A series, defined by Dubrovin and Zhang (1998 Compos. Math. 111 167)

  17. Extending Database Integration Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buneman, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Formal approaches to the semantics of databases and database languages can have immediate and practical consequences in extending database integration technologies to include a vastly greater range...

  18. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J

    1990-01-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity. PMID:2135948

  19. Food for U.S. Manned Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-01

    NF) Instant Breakfast, Strawberry Beef Stroganoff w/ Noodles (R) * Nuts, Peanuts (NF) Instant Breakfast, Vanilla * Bread, Seedless Rye (I)(NF...has also been successfully applied to entrees - meat and vegetables or meat and rice combinations, instant puddings, and even sweetened dehydrated...Meatballs w/BBQ Sauce (T) * Grapefruit Drink Beef, Slices w/BB Sauce (T) * Nuts, Almonds (NF) * instant Breakfast, Chocolate • Beef Steak (1)(T) Nuts, Cashews

  20. Radiation shielding estimates for manned Mars space flight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudkin, V.E.; Kovalev, E.E.; Kolomensky, A.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Semenov, V.F.; Demin, V.P.; Benton, E.V.

    1992-01-01

    In the analysis of the required radiation shielding for spacecraft during a Mars flight, the specific effects of solar activity (SA) on the intensity of galactic and solar cosmic rays were taken into consideration. Three spaceflight periods were considered: (1) maximum SA; (2) minimum SA; and (3) intermediate SA, when intensities of both galactic and solar cosmic rays are moderately high. Scenarios of spaceflights utilizing liquid-propellant rocket engines, low-and intermediate-thrust nuclear electrojet engines, and nuclear rocket engines, all of which have been designed in the Soviet Union, are reviewed. Calculations were performed on the basis of a set of standards for radiation protection approved by the U.S.S.R. State Committee for Standards. It was found that the lowest estimated mass of a Mars spacecraft, including the radiation shielding mass, obtained using a combination of a liquid propellant engine with low and intermediate thrust nuclear electrojet engines, would be 500-550 metric tons. (author)

  1. Tesla man out of time

    CERN Document Server

    Cheney, Margaret

    1981-01-01

    Called a madman by some, a genius by others, and an enigma by nearly everyone, Nikola Tesla created astonishing, world-transforming devises that were virtually without theoretical precedent. Tesla not only discovered the rotating magnetic field, the basis of most alternating current machinery, but also introduced the fundamentals of robotry, computers, and missile science and helped pave the way for such technologies as satellites, microwaves, beam weapons, and nuclear fusion. Almost supernaturally gifted, Tesla was also unusually erratic, flamboyant, and neurotic. He was J. P. Morgan's client, counted Mark Twain as a friend, and considered Thomas Edison an enemy. But above all, he was the hero and mentor to many of the last century's most famous scientists. In a meticulously researched, engagingly written biography, Margaret Cheney presents the many different dimensions of this extraordinary man, capturing his human qualities and quirks as she chronicles a lifetime of discoveries that continue to alter our ...

  2. Deformation of Man Made Objects

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2012-07-01

    We introduce a framework for 3D object deformation with primary focus on man-made objects. Our framework enables a user to deform a model while preserving its defining characteristics. Moreover, our framework enables a user to set constraints on a model to keep its most significant features intact after the deformation process. Our framework supports a semi-automatic constraint setting environment, where some constraints could be automatically set by the framework while others are left for the user to specify. Our framework has several advantages over some state of the art deformation techniques in that it enables a user to add new features to the deformed model while keeping its general look similar to the input model. In addition, our framework enables the rotation and extrusion of different parts of a model.

  3. Man's limitations. The Catholic view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacani, T

    1993-10-27

    The Assistant Bishop of Manila, Philippines, comments on Pope John Paul II teachings and former Pope Paul VI's Humanae Vitae. The Roman Catholic Church over the past twenty five years has not accepted modern contraception. Lay Catholics are confused over the appropriate behavior regarding family planning, are ignorant of the Church's teachings, or have followed their conscience. Critics say that the teachings are obsolete and unheeded. Church officials respond that the Church is run by divine inspiration and not majority rule. The Church position is based on reason and on God himself, who prohibits man-made contraception. Paul VI revealed that the conjugal act was the link between unitive and procreative meanings, and man did not have the right to break the link on his own initiative. John Paul II reaffirms this position by stating that human beings do not have "absolute dominion over the conjugal act" and are not the final arbiters of the creation of life. Humans are servants of the creation of new life as collaborators and procreators. Humans act like Gods when they deprive the conjugal act of procreative meaning through contraceptive use. Natural family planning does not violate this divine prerogative. The Pope's teachings are verified. There is evidence of declines in conjugal infidelity, the lowering of moral standards, increased abortion, and the demise of demographic imperialism. The Church recognizes the problem of overpopulation, and the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines acknowledges the responsibility of all sectors of society to solve the problem. Catholics in the Philippines are opposed to the Ramos' administration's aggressive birth control program. The opposition is due to the government's lack of provision of sufficient information about the side effects of modern contraceptives and the neglect of natural family planning, which is the only morally legitimate form of contraception sanctioned by Roman Catholics. Freedom of choice means

  4. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  5. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  6. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  7. Design options for advanced manned launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Delma C.; Talay, Theodore A.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Wilhite, Alan W.

    1995-03-01

    Various concepts for advanced manned launch systems are examined for delivery missions to space station and polar orbit. Included are single-and two-stage winged systems with rocket and/or air-breathing propulsion systems. For near-term technologies, two-stage reusable rocket systems are favored over single-stage rocket or two-stage air-breathing/rocket systems. Advanced technologies enable viable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) concepts. Although two-stage rocket systems continue to be lighter in dry weight than SSTO vehicles, advantages in simpler operations may make SSTO vehicles more cost-effective over the life cycle. Generally, rocket systems maintain a dry-weight advantage over air-breathing systems at the advanced technology levels, but to a lesser degree than when near-term technologies are used. More detailed understanding of vehicle systems and associated ground and flight operations requirements and procedures is essential in determining quantitative discrimination between these latter concepts.

  8. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  9. Emblem for the second manned Skylab mission, Skylab 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This is the emblem for the second manned Skylab mission. It will be a mission of up to 56 days. The patch symbolizes the main objectives of the flight. The central figure, adapted from one by Leonardo da Vinci, illustrates the proportions of the human form and suggests the many studies of man himself to be conducted in the zero-gravity environment of space. This drawing is superimposed on two hemispheres representing the two additional main areas of research - studies of the Sun and the development of techniques for survey of the Earth's resources. The left hemisphere show the Sun as it will be seen in the red light radiated by hydrogen atoms in the solar atmosphere. The right hemisphere is intended to suggest the studies of Earth resources to be conducted on Skylab. Although the patch denotes this mission as Skylab II, it is actually consided to be the Skylab III mission.

  10. Earth observation from the manned low Earth orbit platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huadong; Dou, Changyong; Zhang, Xiaodong; Han, Chunming; Yue, Xijuan

    2016-05-01

    The manned low Earth orbit platforms (MLEOPs), e.g., the U.S. and Russia's human space vehicles, the International Space Station (ISS) and Chinese Tiangong-1 experimental space laboratory not only provide laboratories for scientific experiments in a wide range of disciplines, but also serve as exceptional platforms for remote observation of the Earth, astronomical objects and space environment. As the early orbiting platforms, the MLEOPs provide humans with revolutionary accessibility to the regions on Earth never seen before. Earth observation from MLEOPs began in early 1960s, as a part of manned space flight programs, and will continue with the ISS and upcoming Chinese Space Station. Through a series of flight missions, various and a large amount of Earth observing datasets have been acquired using handheld cameras by crewmembers as well as automated sophisticated sensors onboard these space vehicles. Utilizing these datasets many researches have been conducted, demonstrating the importance and uniqueness of studying Earth from a vantage point of MLEOPs. For example, the first, near-global scale digital elevation model (DEM) was developed from data obtained during the shuttle radar topography mission (SRTM). This review intends to provide an overview of Earth observations from MLEOPs and present applications conducted by the datasets collected by these missions. As the ISS is the most typical representative of MLEOPs, an introduction to it, including orbital characteristics, payload accommodations, and current and proposed sensors, is emphasized. The advantages and challenges of Earth observation from MLEOPs, using the ISS as an example, is also addressed. At last, a conclusive note is drawn.

  11. The man and the hill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  12. Radiation environment in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goka, Tateo; Koga, Kiyokazu; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Komiyama, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Japanese Experiment Module (Kibo) had been build into the International Space Station (ISS), which is a multipurpose manned facility and laboratory and is operated in orbit at about 400 km in altitude. Two Japanese astronauts stayed in the ISS for long time (4.5 and 5.5 months) for the first time. Space radiation exposure is one of the biggest safety issues for astronauts to stay for such a long duration in space. This special paper is presenting commentary on space radiation environment in ISS, neutrons measurements and light particles (protons and electrons) measurements, the instruments, radiation exposure management for Japanese astronauts and some comments in view of health physics. (author)

  13. An extended technicolor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelquist, T.; Terning, J.

    1994-01-01

    An extended technicolor model is constructed. Quark and lepton masses, spontaneous CP violation, and precision electroweak measurements are discussed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is analyzed using the concept of the big MAC (most attractive channel)

  14. Extending mine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining

  15. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  16. The dialogically extended mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....

  17. Extending Mondrian Memory Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    a kernel semaphore is locked or unlocked. In addition, we extended the system call interface to receive notifications about user-land locking...operations (such as calls to the mutex and semaphore code provided by the C library). By patching the dynamically loadable GLibC5, we are able to test... semaphores , and spinlocks. RTO-MP-IST-091 10- 9 Extending Mondrian Memory Protection to loading extension plugins. This prevents any untrusted code

  18. Extended Life Coolant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-06

    number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 06-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED ... Corrosion Testing of Traditional and Extended Life Coolants 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Hansen, Gregory A. T...providing vehicle specific coolants. Several laboratory corrosion tests were performed according to ASTM D1384 and D2570, but with a 2.5x extended time

  19. Some Direct and Generalized Effects of Replacing an Autistic Man's Echolalia with Correct Responses to Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorrow, Martin J.; Foxx, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of operant procedures was extended to decrease immediate echolalia and increase appropriate responding to questions of a 21-year-old autistic man. Multiple baseline designs demonstrated that echolalia was rapidly replaced with correct stimulus-specific responses. A variety of generalized improvements were observed in verbal responses to…

  20. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed...

  1. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markova, Ivana

    1979-01-01

    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  2. A methodology for costing man-rem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieber, C.

    1976-03-01

    An attempt is made to provide a methodology for costing man-rem in a way that can be applied to station conditions, based on 1974 Pickering G.S. data. Factors taken into account were social costs, exposure costs (dose accounting, training, dosimetry) temporary labour costs, and permanent replacement labour costs. A figure of $620/ man-rem was derived. (LL)

  3. Marihuana in Man: Three Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews three years of research on the effects of marihuana in man. Previously known clinical mental and physical effects have been confirmed. Causes and mechanisms of these effects generally remain undetermined in man and animals. Social implications and long term effects require additional study, although usage appears detrimental. (JM)

  4. Human Behaviour and the Origin of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, M. J.; Washburn, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The study of origin and evolution of man gives new perspective for understanding his behavior. Physical behaviors such as walking and throwing are results of biological evolution which has not kept pace with sociocultural evolution. Irrational decisions by man in social, cultural, and political fields are results of this brain activity. (PS)

  5. Human factors and man-machine-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr-Bruckmayr, E.

    1985-01-01

    Definitions of the man-machine-interface concept are given. The importance of ergonomics in planning, construction, start-up and operation of a nuclear power plant is highlighted. A comprehensive task analysis is the basis of man-machine-interaction. Personnel performance, work shaping and security are discussed

  6. The Aging of Iron Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhaar Ashraf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Transuranic element pathways to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    1976-01-01

    Transfer to man of transuranic element contamination may occur by the inhalation or ingestion pathways. The measurements of globally dispersed fall-out radioactivity have provided pertinent data on the environmental behaviour of plutonium. Additional data may eventually become available for americium. From the measured and inferred concentrations of fall-out plutonium, the inhalation intake has been determined and the ICRP Task Group lung model used to estimate deposition in the lung and transfer to other body organs. The computed body burden reached a maximum of 4pCi in 1964 and is currently about 2.5pCi. A complete diet sampling has been conducted to determine ingestion intake. Plutonium concentration in food ranged from 0.01pCi/kg in shellfish to undetected (less than 0.0003pCi/kg) in milk. Annual intake in total diet is estimated to have been 1.6pCi in 1972. Low uptake by the gastrointestinal tract makes contribution to organ burdens from ingestion negligible. Long-term pathway considerations include plant uptake from the cumulative deposit in soil and resuspension. Downward movement in soil may limit the significance of these long-term pathway components. (author)

  8. The Aging of Iron Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Azhaar; Clark, Maryam; So, Po-Wah

    2018-01-01

    Brain iron is tightly regulated by a multitude of proteins to ensure homeostasis. Iron dyshomeostasis has become a molecular signature associated with aging which is accompanied by progressive decline in cognitive processes. A common theme in neurodegenerative diseases where age is the major risk factor, iron dyshomeostasis coincides with neuroinflammation, abnormal protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and neurobehavioral deficits. There is a great need to determine the mechanisms governing perturbations in iron metabolism, in particular to distinguish between physiological and pathological aging to generate fruitful therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of the present review is to focus on the age-related alterations in brain iron metabolism from a cellular and molecular biology perspective, alongside genetics, and neuroimaging aspects in man and rodent models, with respect to normal aging and neurodegeneration. In particular, the relationship between iron dyshomeostasis and neuroinflammation will be evaluated, as well as the effects of systemic iron overload on the brain. Based on the evidence discussed here, we suggest a synergistic use of iron-chelators and anti-inflammatories as putative anti-brain aging therapies to counteract pathological aging in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Function spaces, 1

    CERN Document Server

    Pick, Luboš; John, Oldrich; Fucík, Svatopluk

    2012-01-01

    This is the first part of the second revised and extended edition of a well established monograph. It is an introduction to function spaces defined in terms of differentiability and integrability classes. It provides a catalogue of various spaces and benefits as a handbook for those who use function spaces to study other topics such as partial differential equations. Volum

  10. Man-machine communication in reactor control using AI methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klebau, J.; Lindner, A.; Fiedler, U.

    1987-01-01

    In the last years the interest in process control has expecially focused on problems of man-machine communication. It depends on its great importance to process performance and user acceptance. Advanced computerized operator aids, e.g. in nuclear power plants, are as well as their man-machine interface. In the Central Institute for Nuclear Research in Rossendorf a computerized operator support system for nuclear power plants is designed, which is involved in a decentralized process automation system. A similar but simpler system, the Hierarchical Informational System (HIS) at the Rossendorf Research Reactor, works with a computer controlled man-machine interface, based on menu. In the special case of the disturbance analysis program SAAP-2, which is included in the HIS, the limits of menu techniques are obviously. Therefore it seems to be necessary and with extended hard- and software possible to realize an user controlled natural language interface using Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods. The draft of such a system is described. It should be able to learn during a teaching phase all phrases and their meanings. The system will work on the basis of a self-organizing, associative data structure. It is used to recognize a great amount of words which are used in language analysis. Error recognition and, if possible, correction is done by means of a distance function in the word set. Language analysis should be carried out with a simplified word class controlled functional analysis. With this interface it is supposed to get experience in intelligent man-machine communication to enhance operational safety in future. (author)

  11. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  12. Extended spider cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N

    2017-05-01

    There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.

  13. Extending quantum mechanics entails extending special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinda, S; Srikanth, R

    2016-01-01

    The complementarity between signaling and randomness in any communicated resource that can simulate singlet statistics is generalized by relaxing the assumption of free will in the choice of measurement settings. We show how to construct an ontological extension for quantum mechanics (QMs) through the oblivious embedding of a sound simulation protocol in a Newtonian spacetime. Minkowski or other intermediate spacetimes are ruled out as the locus of the embedding by virtue of hidden influence inequalities. The complementarity transferred from a simulation to the extension unifies a number of results about quantum non-locality, and implies that special relativity has a different significance for the ontological model and for the operational theory it reproduces. Only the latter, being experimentally accessible, is required to be Lorentz covariant. There may be certain Lorentz non-covariant elements at the ontological level, but they will be inaccessible at the operational level in a valid extension. Certain arguments against the extendability of QM, due to Conway and Kochen (2009) and Colbeck and Renner (2012), are attributed to their assumption that the spacetime at the ontological level has Minkowski causal structure. (paper)

  14. Automation, robotics, and inflight training for manned Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1986-01-01

    The automation, robotics, and inflight training requirements of manned Mars missions will be supported by similar capabilities developed for the space station program. Evolutionary space station onboard training facilities will allow the crewmembers to minimize the amount of training received on the ground by providing extensive onboard access to system and experiment malfunction procedures, maintenance procedures, repair procedures, and associated video sequences. Considerable on-the-job training will also be conducted for space station management, mobile remote manipulator operations, proximity operations with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (and later the Orbit Transfer Vehicle), and telerobotics and mobile robots. A similar approach could be used for manned Mars mission training with significant additions such as high fidelity image generation and simulation systems such as holographic projection systems for Mars landing, ascent, and rendezvous training. In addition, a substantial increase in the use of automation and robotics for hazardous and tedious tasks would be expected for Mars mission. Mobile robots may be used to assist in the assembly, test and checkout of the Mars spacecraft, in the handling of nuclear components and hazardous chemical propellent transfer operations, in major spacecraft repair tasks which might be needed (repair of a micrometeroid penetration, for example), in the construction of a Mars base, and for routine maintenance of the base when unmanned.

  15. On the identity of Dorylaimus robustus de Man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loof, P.A.A.

    1961-01-01

    The taxonomic position of Dorylaimus robustus de Man, 1876 is fully discussed. It is concluded that D. robustus de Man, 1876 is a synonym of D. stagnalis Dujardin, 1845; also included in this synonymy are D. robustus apud de Man, 1880, apud de Man, 1884 (male, partim) and Labronema robustum (de Man,

  16. Radiation exposure in manned spaceflight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buecker, H. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Horneck, G. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Facius, R. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)); Reitz, G. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-01

    Space missions exposure humans to a radiation environment of a particulate composition and intensity not encountered within our biosphere. The natural radiation environment encountered in Earth orbit is a complex mixture of charged particles of galactic and solar origin and of those trapped by the geomagnetic field. In addition, secondaries are produced by interaction of cosmic ray primaries with the spacecraft shielding material. Among this large variety of radiation components in space, it is likely that the heavy ions are the significant species as far as radiobiological effects are concerned. In addition, a synergistic interaction of microgravity and radiation on living systems has been reported in some instances. Based on an admissible risk of 3% mortality due to cancers induced during a working career, radiation protection guidelines have been developed for this radiation environment. (orig.)

  17. Ariane Transfer Vehicle in service of man in orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutscher, N.; Schefold, K.; Cougnet, C.

    1988-10-01

    The Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV), an unmanned propulsion system that is designed to be carried by the Ariane 5 launch vehicle, will undertake the logistical support required by the International Space Station and the Man-Tended Free Flyer, carrying both pressurized and unpressurized cargo to these spacecraft and carrying away wastes. The ATV is an expendable vehicle, disposed of by burn-up during reentry, and will be available for initial operations in 1996. In order to minimize development costs and recurrent costs, the ATV design will incorporate existing hardware and software.

  18. Radiation shield analysis for a manned Mars rover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morley, N.J.; ElGenk, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation shielding for unmanned space missions has been extensively studied; however, designs of man-rated shields are minimal. Engle et al.'s analysis of a man-rated, multilayered shield composed of two and three cycles (a cycle consists of a tungsten and a lithium hydride layer) is the basis for the work reported in this paper. The authors present the results of a recent study of shield designs for a manned Mars rover powered by a 500-kW(thermal) nuclear reactor. A train-type rover vehicle was developed, which consists of four cars and is powered by an SP-100-type nuclear reactor heat source. The maximum permissible dose rate (MPD) from all sources is given by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements as 500 mSv/yr (50 rem/yr) A 3-yr Mars mission (2-yr round trip and 1-yr stay) will deliver a 1-Sv natural radiation dose without a solar particle event, 450 mSv/yr in flight, and an additional 100 mSv on the planet surface. An anomalously large solar particle event could increase the natural radiation dose for unshielded astronauts on the Martian surface to 200 mSv. This limits the MPD to crew members from the nuclear reactor to 300 mSv

  19. Fold and Fit: Space Conserving Shape Editing

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Yan, Dong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We present a framework that folds man-made objects in a structure-aware manner for space-conserving storage and transportation. Given a segmented 3D mesh of a man-made object, our framework jointly optimizes for joint locations, the folding order

  20. Understanding Spider-Man: Your Everyday Superhero

    OpenAIRE

    Falk, Nicklas; Blomsterberg, Sofie Amalie; Suciu, Alice Sabrina; Pedersen, Mads Peter; Lucas, Vilhelm

    2014-01-01

    This project focuses on the understanding of Spider-Man, and the morals and ethics that lie behind the choices he makes. Through the Dimensions Philosophy & Science/Text & Sign, this understanding is concluded by looking at ethical theories and comic book analysis. Based on the Ultimate Spider-Man comic book series, the aim is to clarify who Spider-Man is and what causes him to act in certain ways; before and after his realization of power. Some theories used to investigate these area...

  1. Man-made gemstones; Jinko hoseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogami, M. [Kyocera Corp., Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    Birth and development of the man-made gemstones in the 20th century are outlined. Manufacturing gemstones was initiated by the invention of corundum production, followed by production of rubies and sapphires. In 1950 GE Co. synthesized diamonds, after that, most gemstones were manufactured consequently by progress of technologies of single crystal growing and ceramic manufacturing. In the 21st century, steep growth in demand is not expected but it seems to keep steady growth and the importance and necessity of man-made gemstones may be increased because of global environmental issues. Man-made gemstones seem to have both personality and variety of characteristics. (NEDO)

  2. The clustering of the SDSS-IV extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey DR14 quasar sample: anisotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillations measurements in Fourier-space with optimal redshift weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dandan; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Wang, Yuting; Percival, Will J.; Ruggeri, Rossana; Zhu, Fangzhou; Tojeiro, Rita; Myers, Adam D.; Chuang, Chia-Hsun; Baumgarten, Falk; Zhao, Cheng; Gil-Marín, Héctor; Ross, Ashley J.; Burtin, Etienne; Zarrouk, Pauline; Bautista, Julian; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Dawson, Kyle; Brownstein, Joel R.; de la Macorra, Axel; Schneider, Donald P.; Shafieloo, Arman

    2018-06-01

    We present a measurement of the anisotropic and isotropic Baryon Acoustic Oscillations (BAO) from the extended Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey Data Release 14 quasar sample with optimal redshift weights. Applying the redshift weights improves the constraint on the BAO dilation parameter α(zeff) by 17 per cent. We reconstruct the evolution history of the BAO distance indicators in the redshift range of 0.8 < z < 2.2. This paper is part of a set that analyses the eBOSS DR14 quasar sample.

  3. Extended artistic appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert A

    2013-04-01

    I propose that in at least some cases, objects of artistic appreciation are best thought of not simply as causes of artistic appreciation, but as parts of the cognitive machinery that drives aesthetic appreciation. In effect, this is to say that aesthetic appreciation operates via extended cognitive systems.

  4. Towards Extended Vantage Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of Vantage Theory (VT), a model of (colour) categorization, to linguistic data largely depends on the modifications and adaptations of the model for the purpose. An attempt to do so proposed here, called Extended Vantage Theory (EVT), slightly reformulates the VT conception of vantage by capitalizing on some of the entailments of…

  5. Harmonic superspaces of extended supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.; Kalitzin, S.; Nguyen Ai Viet; Ogievetsky, V.

    1984-01-01

    The main technical apparatus of the harmonic superspace approach to extended SUSY, the calculus of harmonic variables on homogeneous spaces of the SUSY automorphism groups, is presented in detail for N=2, 3, 4. The basic harmonics for the coset manifolds G/H with G=SU(2), H=U(1); G=SU(3), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1); G=SU(4), H=SU(3)xU(1), H=SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1), H=SU(2)xU(1)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1)xU(1); G=USp(2), H=SU(2)xSU(2), H=SU(2)xU(1) and H=U(1)xU(1) are tabulated a number of useful relations among them

  6. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capovilla, R.; Guven, J.; Rojas, E.

    2004-12-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler Lagrange equations.

  7. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capovilla, R; Guven, J; Rojas, E

    2004-01-01

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations

  8. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  9. Extended Linear Models with Gaussian Priors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinonero, Joaquin

    2002-01-01

    In extended linear models the input space is projected onto a feature space by means of an arbitrary non-linear transformation. A linear model is then applied to the feature space to construct the model output. The dimension of the feature space can be very large, or even infinite, giving the model...... a very big flexibility. Support Vector Machines (SVM's) and Gaussian processes are two examples of such models. In this technical report I present a model in which the dimension of the feature space remains finite, and where a Bayesian approach is used to train the model with Gaussian priors...... on the parameters. The Relevance Vector Machine, introduced by Tipping, is a particular case of such a model. I give the detailed derivations of the expectation-maximisation (EM) algorithm used in the training. These derivations are not found in the literature, and might be helpful for newcomers....

  10. Implications of Extended Solar Minima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mitzi L.; Davis, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Since the discovery of periodicity in the solar cycle, the historical record of sunspot number has been carefully examined, attempting to make predictions about the next cycle. Much emphasis has been on predicting the maximum amplitude and length of the next cycle. Because current space-based and suborbital instruments are designed to study active phenomena, there is considerable interest in estimating the length and depth of the current minimum. We have developed criteria for the definition of a minimum and applied it to the historical sunspot record starting in 1749. In doing so, we find that 1) the current minimum is not yet unusually long and 2) there is no obvious way of predicting when, using our definition, the current minimum may end. However, by grouping the data into 22- year cycles there is an interesting pattern of extended minima that recurs every fourth or fifth 22-year cycle. A preliminary comparison of this pattern with other records, suggests the possibility of a correlation between extended minima and lower levels of solar irradiance.

  11. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  12. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  13. Laser Pyro System Standardization and Man Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews an X-38 laser pyro system standardization system designed for a new manned rated program. The plans to approve this laser initiation system and preliminary ideas for this system are also provided.

  14. Man-made climate change: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, E [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-31

    The first major man-made environmental problem was the soil acidification, caused primarily by the massive industrial emissions of sulphur dioxide. Then came the problem of ozone depletion, caused by the emissions of man-made halocarbons. More recently, the possibility of man-made climate change has received a lot of attention. These three man-made problems are interconnected in fundamental ways and require for their solution interdisciplinary and international approach. Narrowing of the scientific uncertainties connected with the problems mentioned above can be expected through international `Global Change` programmes such as the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Periodic assessments of the type produced by the IPCC will clearly be needed. Also in the future such assessments should form the scientific basis for international negotiations and conventions on the climate change issue

  15. Don't Trust the Big Man

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Coerr, Stanton S

    2008-01-01

    .... A full-length analysis of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and its full-scale insurgencies since 1960 -- at the hands of Big Man leaders Lumumba, Mobutu, and Kabila -- provide object lessons...

  16. Synergistic Man: Outcome Model for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseve, Ronald J.

    1973-01-01

    Drawing on the insights of Ruth Benedict and Abraham Maslow in their search for an ethical gauge by which to rate personal-social health, this article proposes synergistic man'' as the desired outcome model for counselors. (Author)

  17. Nuclear fuel: the thinking man's alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, N.

    1989-01-01

    'Nuclear Fuel ' The Thinking Man's Alternative' is the title of the 55th Melchett Lecture given by Neville Chamberlain, Chief Executive of British Nuclear Fuels plc. This article is based on the address, the essence of which is that the case for nuclear power should be based upon an appreciation of the totality and sophistication of man's handling of his energy needs - not on a glib catch-phase or on a simple political dogma or on an economic argument. Arguments in favour of nuclear power were discussed. The conclusion was that nuclear energy is the thinking man's alternative because only thinking man could have and can develop it; secondly, only thinking men should be authorized to exploit and control it; thirdly, a thinking person will appreciate that, properly thought out and controlled, it must be the most important source of future energy for the benefit of mankind. (author)

  18. Long term effects of radiation in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tso Chih Ping; Idris Besar

    1984-01-01

    An overview of the long term effects of radiation in man is presented, categorizing into somatic effects, genetic effects and teratogenic effects, and including an indication of the problems that arise in their determination. (author)

  19. Environmental Education: The Whole Man Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormondy, Edward J.

    1971-01-01

    Environmental education is seen as an interdisciplinary study of the ecology of man, viewed in his totality, in all his dimensions. Biology is not considered the central discipline in this study. (Author/AL)

  20. A report on reference Japanese man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    In connection with the reference Japanese man for evaluation of accurate exposure doses considering the various characteristics, survey data of organs etc. weights and dimensions are given: renal glands, brains, kidneys, liver, lungs, womb, thyroid glands, gallbladder, stomach. (Mori, K.)

  1. Pet Therapy: Man's Best Friend as Healer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... psychological and physiological health of critically ill patients. Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing. 2010;29:211. Cangelosi PR, et al. Walking for therapy with man's best friend. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental ...

  2. Man-made climate change: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holopainen, E. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Meteorology

    1995-12-31

    The first major man-made environmental problem was the soil acidification, caused primarily by the massive industrial emissions of sulphur dioxide. Then came the problem of ozone depletion, caused by the emissions of man-made halocarbons. More recently, the possibility of man-made climate change has received a lot of attention. These three man-made problems are interconnected in fundamental ways and require for their solution interdisciplinary and international approach. Narrowing of the scientific uncertainties connected with the problems mentioned above can be expected through international `Global Change` programmes such as the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP). Periodic assessments of the type produced by the IPCC will clearly be needed. Also in the future such assessments should form the scientific basis for international negotiations and conventions on the climate change issue

  3. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  4. Interpolation in Spaces of Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mosaleheh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the interpolation by certain functions such as trigonometric and rational functions for finite dimensional linear space X. Then we extend this to infinite dimensional linear spaces

  5. Crisis and Man: Literary Responses Across Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnaswami, Mallika

    2012-01-01

    Myth of Sisyphus exemplifies the situation man finds himself in irrespective of his ethnic and geographical background. Art and cultural forms gave expression to this situation and the intensity of the expression depended upon the political and social dimensions. War or peace, man is always condemned to struggle with his problems, moral or otherwise. Post war English writers focused on the social problems the British society found itself in and its helplessness in dealing with them. It was th...

  6. Woman Position In Iron Man Movies

    OpenAIRE

    ANINDITHA, ANNISA

    2014-01-01

    Aninditha, Annisa. 2014. Woman Position in Iron Man movies. Study Program ofEnglish, Department of Language and Literature, Faculty of Cultural Studies,Universitas Brawijaya, Malang. Supervisor: Fariska Pujiyanti. Co Supervisor: NurulLaily Nadhifah. Keywords: Movie, Patriarchal, Iron Man. Movie is one of literary works and electronic media. Movie becomes the best strategy to communicate and deliver message about what happens in this world. The movie makers or directors can express critics, co...

  7. Hvornår er man ung?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundelach, Peter; Nørregård-Nielsen, Esther C.

    2002-01-01

    Hvornår er man ung, og hvornår er man voksen? Er der forskelle i befolkningens værdier i forhold til arbejde og politik, når det undersøges ud fra henholdsvis et alders- eller generationsperspektiv? Baseret på data fra den danske del af den internationale værdiundersøgelse vises at der er så store...

  8. The future of oil and hydrocarbon man

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Colin

    1999-01-01

    Man appeared on the planet about four million years ago, and by 1850 numbered about one billion Ten came Hydrocarbon man. World population has since increased six-fold. After the oil price shocks of the 1970s, people asked "when will production peak?". It is not easy to answer this question because of the very poor database. Reserves and the many different hydrocarbon categories are poorly defined, reporting practices are ambiguous, revisions are not backdated...

  9. 2009 Navy ManTech Project Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    build a hybrid laser / GMAW system that combined deep keyhole penetration of laser welding with the high metal deposition rate of GMAW, enabling...committed to the successful outcome of the ManTech project. In addition, this close working relationship between the parties provides ManTech with a longer...the cost and time to build and repair Navy ships. The Center works closely with the Navy’s acquisition community and the shipbuilding industry to

  10. Long Duration Space Shelter Shielding, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has developed fiber reinforced ceramic composites for radiation shielding that can be used for external walls in long duration manned...

  11. Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Jou, David

    2010-01-01

    This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...

  12. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  13. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... of public importance; engaging with non-academic groups using dialectical reasoning; scaling up insights through movement building; and propagating deliberation...

  14. Analysis on coverage ability of BeiDou navigation satellite system for manned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sihao; Yao, Zheng; Zhuang, Xuebin; Lu, Mingquan

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the service ability of the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) for manned spacecraft, both the current regional and the future-planned global constellations of BDS are introduced and simulated. The orbital parameters of the International Space Station and China's Tiangong-1 spacelab are used to create the simulation scenario and evaluate the performance of the BDS constellations. The number of visible satellites and the position dilution (PDOP) of precision at the spacecraft-based receiver are evaluated. Simulation and analysis show quantitative results on the coverage ability and time percentages of both the current BDS regional and future global constellations for manned-space orbits which can be a guideline to the applications and mission design of BDS receivers on manned spacecraft.

  15. Space-to-Ground Quantum Key Distribution Using a Small-Sized Payload on Tiangong-2 Space Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Sheng-Kai; Lin, Jin; Ren, Ji-Gang; Liu, Wei-Yue; Qiang, Jia; Yin, Juan; Li, Yang; Shen, Qi; Zhang, Liang; Liang, Xue-Feng; Yong, Hai-Lin; Li, Feng-Zhi; Yin, Ya-Yun; Cao, Yuan; Cai, Wen-Qi; Zhang, Wen-Zhuo; Jia, Jian-Jun; Wu, Jin-Cai; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Shan-Cong; Jiang, Xiao-Jun; Wang, Jian-Feng; Huang, Yong-Mei; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Lu; Li, Li; Pan, Ge-Sheng; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yu-Ao; Lu, Chao-Yang; Liu, Nai-Le; Ma, Xiongfeng; Shu, Rong; Peng, Cheng-Zhi; Wang, Jian-Yu; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-08-01

    Not Available Supported by China Manned Space Program, Technology and Engineering Center for Space Utilization Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  16. Geometric construction of extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelecky, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    This work describes the explict construction of the locally SO(4)-invariant, on-shell de Sitter supergravity. First, aspects of classical differential geometry used in the construction of local gauge theories are reviewed. Emphasis is placed on fiber bundles and their uses in Yang-Mills and Einstein theories. Next, the extension of the formalism to differential supergeometry is outlined. Applications to extended supergravities are discussed. Finally, the O(4) deSitter supergravity is obtained by considering a bundle of frames constructed using the orthosymplectic superalgebra osp(4/4). The structure group of this bundle is Sl(2C) x SO(4) and the tangent space to the base supermanifold is homeomorphic to the coset osp(4/4)/sl(2C) x so(4). Constraints taken into the Bianchi identifies yield a realization of the superalgebra in the function space of connections, vielbeins, curvatures and torsions of the bundle. Auxiliary fields, transformation laws and equations of motion are determined. Consistency of the realization is verified, proving closure of the algebra. The associated Poincare supergravity is obtained by a contraction

  17. Extended Theories of Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia

    2011-01-01

    Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.

  18. An extended topological Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deguchi, Shinichi

    1992-01-01

    Introducing infinite number of fields, we construct an extended version of the topological Yang-Mills theory. The properties of the extended topological Yang-Mills theory (ETYMT) are discussed from standpoint of the covariant canonical quantization. It is shown that the ETYMT becomes a cohomological topological field theory or a theory equivalent to a quantum Yang-Mills theory with anti-self-dual constraint according to subsidiary conditions imposed on state-vector space. On the basis of the ETYMT, we may understand a transition from an unbroken phase to a physical phase (broken phase). (author)

  19. Spaceplane Hermes Europe's dream of independent manned spaceflight

    CERN Document Server

    van den Abeelen, Luc

    2017-01-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on the European Hermes program. It tells the fascinating story of how Europe aimed for an independent manned spaceflight capability which was to complement US and Soviet/Russian space activities.In 1975, France decided to expand its plans for automated satellites for materials processing to include the development of a small 10 ton spaceplane to be launched on top of a future heavy-lifting Ariane rocket. This Hermes spaceplane would give Europe its own human spaceflight capability for shuttling crews between Earth and space stations. The European Space Agency backed the proposal. Unfortunately, after detailed studies, the project was cancelled in 1993. If Hermes had been introduced into service, it could have become the preferred "space taxi" for ferrying crews to and from the International Space Station. But that opportunity was lost. This book provides the first look of the complete story of and reasons for the demise of this ambitious program. It also gives an account w...

  20. Some consideration of Japanese standard man value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1976-01-01

    Numerical values of standard man or reference man is important problem in the field of radiation protection and safety. The standard man values given by ICRP were obtained from European and North American adult data. For that reason, there are some theoretical problems in the application of standard man values to Japanese. The purpose of the present paper is to consider the difference of values between Japanese and standard man. The standard man values are divided into three categories. The first category is the size and weight of the body or organ, the second is the values of elementary composition, and the third is the numerical factors related to metabolic kinetics. It is natural that some values of the second and the third categories have little difference between Japanese and European. On the other hand, there are some differences in the value of the first category, but the differences can calculation in proportional allotment to the body weight. The values concerning the thyroid gland and iodine metabolism are important for radiation protection. It has been foreseen that these values of Japanese are significantly different from standard man. A survey of past reports was carried out with a view to search for normal values of the weight, iodine content, and iodine uptake rate of the thyroid of Japanese. The result of the survey showed that the weight of thyroid are about 19g for adult male and 17g for adult female and that the iodine contents are 12-22mg and iodine uptake rate (fw) is about 0.2. (auth.)

  1. Situs Inversus in A 53 Year Old Man: A Case Report | Uchenna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Result: A 53 year old man was referred to the cardiology clinic from the general outpatient department on account of an abnormal ECG. On examination his apex could not be located on the left and was subsequently located on the right 5th intercostal space mid-clavicular line. Examination of the abdomen revealed an ...

  2. Extended Poincare supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strathdee, J.

    1986-05-01

    Supersymmetric extensions of the Poincare algebra in D-dimensional space-time are reviewed and a catalogue of their representations is developed. This catalogue includes all supermultiplets whose states carry helicity <2 in the massless cases and <=1 in the massive cases. (author)

  3. Extending Lipschitz mappings continuously

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2012), s. 167-177 ISSN 1425-6908 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Lipschitz mapping * Hilbert space * extension Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jaa.2012.18.issue-2/jaa-2012-0011/jaa-2012-0011. xml

  4. Extended Testability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.

  5. Extended Wordsearches in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Simon

    1998-04-01

    Students can be encouraged to develop their factual knowledge by use of puzzles. One strategy described here is the extended wordsearch, where the wordsearch element generates a number of words or phrases from which the answers to a series of questions are selected. The wordsearch can be generated with the aid of computer programs, though in order to make them suitable for students with dyslexia or other learning difficulties, a simpler form is more appropriate. These problems can be employed in a variety of contexts, for example, as topic tests and classroom end-of-lesson fillers. An example is provided in the area of calcium chemistry. Sources of suitable software are listed.

  6. Classical extended superconformal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, R.R.

    1990-10-01

    Super-covariant differential operators are defined in two dimensions which map supersymmetry doublets to other doublets. The possibility of constructing a closed algebra among the fields appearing in such operators is explored. Such an algebra exists for Grassmann-odd differential operators. A representation for these operators in terms of free-field doublets is constructed. An explicit closed algebra involving fields of spin 2 and 5/2, in addition to the stress tensor and the supersymmetry generator, is constructed from such a free-field representation as an example of a non-linear extended superconformal algebra. (author). 9 refs

  7. In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...

  8. Man-Made Object Extraction from Remote Sensing Imagery by Graph-Based Manifold Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.; Wang, X.; Hu, X. Y.; Liu, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The automatic extraction of man-made objects from remote sensing imagery is useful in many applications. This paper proposes an algorithm for extracting man-made objects automatically by integrating a graph model with the manifold ranking algorithm. Initially, we estimate a priori value of the man-made objects with the use of symmetric and contrast features. The graph model is established to represent the spatial relationships among pre-segmented superpixels, which are used as the graph nodes. Multiple characteristics, namely colour, texture and main direction, are used to compute the weights of the adjacent nodes. Manifold ranking effectively explores the relationships among all the nodes in the feature space as well as initial query assignment; thus, it is applied to generate a ranking map, which indicates the scores of the man-made objects. The man-made objects are then segmented on the basis of the ranking map. Two typical segmentation algorithms are compared with the proposed algorithm. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can extract man-made objects with high recognition rate and low omission rate.

  9. High Recovery, Low Fouling Reverse Osmosis Membrane Elements for Space Wastewater Reclamation, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the expected extension of duration of the space missions outlined in NASA's Vision of Space Exploration, such as a manned mission to Mars or the establishment...

  10. Superconducting Nanowire Single Photon Detectors for High-Data-Rate Deep-Space Optical Communication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High data rate deep space optical communication (DSOC) links for manned and unmanned space exploration have been identified by NASA as a critical future capability,...

  11. Multipurpose Cooling Garment for Improved Space Suit Environmental Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future manned space exploration missions will require space suits with capabilities beyond the current state of the art. Portable Life Support Systems for these...

  12. Hydraulic characterisation of karst systems with man-made tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, A.

    1998-01-01

    Tracer experiments using man-made tracers are common in hydrogeological exploration of groundwater aquifers in karst systems. In the present investigation, a convection-dispersion model (multidispersion model with consideration of several flow paths) and a single-cleft model (consideration of the diffusion between the cleft and the surrounding rock matrix) were used for evaluating tracer experiments in the main hydrological system of the saturated zone of karst systems. In addition to these extended analytical solutions, a numerical transport model was developed for investigating the influence of the transient flow rate on the flow and transport parameters. Comparative evaluations of the model approaches for the evaluation of tracer experiments were made in four different karst systems: Danube-Aach, Paderborn, Slowenia and Lurbach, of which the Danube-Aach system was considered as the most important. The investigation also comprised three supplementary experiments in order to enable a complete hydraulic characterisation of the system. (orig./SR) [de

  13. Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

    An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process has been realized through minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, in terms of time frame (dates, transfer time length and trajectory, radiation environment), equipment (vehicles, in terms of shape, volume, onboard material choice, size and structure), location (if in space, on the surface, inside or outside a certain habitats), crew characteristics (number, gender, age, tasks) and performance required (spacecraft and habitat volumes), radiation exposure annual and career limit constraint (from NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle (shelter from the occurrence of Solar Particle Events). On the lunar surface the most important contribution to radiation exposure is given by background Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particles, mostly protons, alpha particles, and some heavy ions, and by locally induced particles, mostly neutrons, created by the interaction between GCR and surface material and emerging from below the surface due to backscattering processes. In this environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with long-term shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats

  14. N=4 Extended MSSM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, Matti; Di Chiara, Stefano; Sannino, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the perturbative regime of the Minimal Supersymmetric Conformal Technicolor and show that it allows for a stable vacuum correctly breaking the electroweak symmetry. We find that the particle spectrum is richer than the MSSM one since it features several new particles stemming out f...... of the theory suggest that the Tevatron and the LHC can rule out a significant portion of the parameter space of this model....

  15. Gauge fixing of Chern-Simons N-extended supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ney, W G [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil); Piguet, O [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), ES 29000-001, Vitoria (Brazil); Spalenza, W [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-08-01

    We treat N-extended supergravity in 2+1 space-time dimensions as a Yang-Mills gauge field with Chern-Simons action associated to the N-extended Poincare supergroup. We fix the gauge of this theory within the Batalin-Vilkovisky scheme. (orig.)

  16. Gauge fixing of Chern-Simons N-extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, W.G.; Piguet, O.; Spalenza, W.

    2004-01-01

    We treat N-extended supergravity in 2+1 space-time dimensions as a Yang-Mills gauge field with Chern-Simons action associated to the N-extended Poincare supergroup. We fix the gauge of this theory within the Batalin-Vilkovisky scheme. (orig.)

  17. Man and technology in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences has set up a committee known as The Committee of Man, Technology and Society. The members of this committee form an interdisciplinary group for the study of the interaction between scientific and technological advances and the way in which society evolves. Most of the committees activities have focused on the present relationship between man, technology and society. Attempts have been made to assess the future influence on society of key developments in biotechnology, electronic communication and systems analysis. In order to pursue this path still further, the committee decided to arrange an international symposium on the topic Man and Technology in the Future at the village of Forsmark on the Baltic coast of Sweden. The proceedings consists of 13 lectures centered on energy systems - and the connected waste problems, biotechnology, and telecommunications. Separate abstracts were prepared for 5 of the lectures in this volume

  18. Oedipus king: preparing man for the polis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Joaquim Pereira Melo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Having Sophoclean play Oedipus King as a frame of reference, the purpose of this paper is to discuss the educative proposal conceived to the Greek Man as preparation for life in the polis. Although not intentionally, Sophocles pointed out an ideal of Man which, in his perspective, would fulfill Greek societal demands of that time. Such society was divided between myth and rationality and, as a result, Man found Himself in conflict and lacking direction for His life. Given that, Oedipus’ character represented the ideal behavior of that society, and it also made it possible for citizens to reflect and to discuss social, economic and political transformations taking place at that period. Thus Sophocles came up with a hero who was an educational model and a citizen’s as well. Furthermore, such hero differed from that one of the archaic Greek thought.

  19. Structural Analysis of Extended Plasma Focus Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Azhar Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Siti Aiasah Hashim

    2016-01-01

    Accelerator Development Centre (ADC) of Nuclear Malaysia intends to upgrade the plasma focus device. It involves the extension part placed on top of the existing plasma focus vacuum chamber. This extended vacuum chamber purposely to give an extra space in conducting experiments on the existing plasma focus chamber. The aim of upgrading the plasma focus device is to solve the limitation in research and analysis of sample due to its done in an open system that cause analysis of samples is limited and less optimal. This extended chamber was design in considering the ease of fabrication as well as durability of its structural. Thus, this paper discusses the structural analysis in term of pressure loading effect in extended chamber. (author)

  20. Extended inflation from higher dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Yun.

    1990-04-01

    The possibility is considered that higher dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. Two separate models are analayzed. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of non-trivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a non-trivial potential for the radius of the internal space. It was found that extended inflation does not occur in these models. It was also found that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  1. Extended inflation from higher-dimensional theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L.; Wang, Y.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the possibility that higher-dimensional theories may, upon reduction to four dimensions, allow extended inflation to occur. We analyze two separate models. One is a very simple toy model consisting of higher-dimensional gravity coupled to a scalar field whose potential allows for a first-order phase transition. The other is a more sophisticated model incorporating the effects of nontrivial field configurations (monopole, Casimir, and fermion bilinear condensate effects) that yield a nontrivial potential for the radius of the internal space. We find that extended inflation does not occur in these models. We also find that the bubble nucleation rate in these theories is time dependent unlike the case in the original version of extended inflation

  2. A generalization of Fatou’s lemma for extended real-valued functions on σ-finite measure spaces: with an application to infinite-horizon optimization in discrete time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kamihigashi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Given a sequence { f n } n ∈ N $\\{f_{n}\\}_{n \\in \\mathbb {N}}$ of measurable functions on a σ-finite measure space such that the integral of each f n $f_{n}$ as well as that of lim sup n ↑ ∞ f n $\\limsup_{n \\uparrow\\infty} f_{n}$ exists in R ‾ $\\overline{\\mathbb {R}}$ , we provide a sufficient condition for the following inequality to hold: lim sup n ↑ ∞ ∫ f n d μ ≤ ∫ lim sup n ↑ ∞ f n d μ . $$ \\limsup_{n \\uparrow\\infty} \\int f_{n} \\,d\\mu\\leq \\int\\limsup_{n \\uparrow\\infty} f_{n} \\,d\\mu. $$ Our condition is considerably weaker than sufficient conditions known in the literature such as uniform integrability (in the case of a finite measure and equi-integrability. As an application, we obtain a new result on the existence of an optimal path for deterministic infinite-horizon optimization problems in discrete time.

  3. EXTENDED EINSTEIN`S THEORY OF WAVES IN THE PRESENCE OF TENSIONS IN SPACE-TIME TENSIONS TEORÍA EXTENDIDA DE ONDAS DE EINSTEIN EN LA PRESENCIA DE TENSIONES EN EL ESPACIO-TIEMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Einstein's dynamics in the presence of certain states of space-time tension is proposed. The structure of the equations of motion for gravitational disturbances is very similar to Maxwell's equations for micro and macroscopic chiral bodies characterized by T, when the operators and are like . The unification limit between the electromagnetism and gravity is discussed. As an application of this theory we mention the birefringence effect in GPS (Global Positioning Systems systems.Se propone una modificación a la dinámica de Einstein en presencia de ciertos tipos de tensión del espacio tiempo. La estructura de las ecuaciones de movimiento para las perturbaciones gravitacionales es muy similar a las ecuaciones de Maxwell para cuerpos quirales micro y macroscópicos caracterizados por T, cuando los operadores de y son como . Se discute el límite de unificación del electromagnetismo y la gravitación en el tiempo de Planck. Como aplicación de esta teoría se menciona el efecto de la birrefringencia en sistemas GPS (Global Positioning Systems.

  4. Partnership in space the mid to late nineties

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This latest entry in the History of Human Space Exploration miniseries by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the mid to late Nineties. Picking up where Tragedy and Triumph in Orbit: The Eighties and Early Nineties left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds here in yet more detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his comprehensive overview of how that momentous journey continued through the decades that followed.   Partnership in Space, the fifth book in the series, explores the final years in which the United States and the Soviet Union – which became the Commonwealth of Independent States in 1992 – pursued human space endeavors independently of each other.   The narrative follows the path taken by two old foes towards an unlikely and often controversial partnership. As the Shuttle program recovered from the loss of Challenger and pursued ever loftier goals, including the ambitious repair of the ...

  5. Exploring the living universe: A strategy for space life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The status and goals of NASA's life sciences programs are examined. Ways and mean for attaining these goals are suggested. The report emphasizes that a stronger life sciences program is imperative if the U.S. space policy is to construct a permanently manned space station and achieve its stated goal of expanding the human presence beyond earth orbit into the solar system. The same considerations apply in regard to the other major goal of life sciences: to study the biological processes and life in the universe. A principal recommendation of the report is for NASA to expand its program of ground- and space-based research contributing to resolving questions about physiological deconditioning, radiation exposure, potential psychological difficulties, and life support requirements that may limit stay times for personnel on the Space Station and complicate missions of more extended duration. Other key recommendations call for strengthening programs of biological systems research in: controlled ecological life support systems for humans in space, earth systems central to understanding the effects on the earth's environment of both natural and human activities, and exobiology.

  6. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  7. Man-machine dialogue design and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Landragin, Frederic

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the main problems posed by the design of a man-machine dialogue system and offers ideas on how to continue along the path towards efficient, realistic and fluid communication between humans and machines. A culmination of ten years of research, it is based on the author's development, investigation and experimentation covering a multitude of fields, including artificial intelligence, automated language processing, man-machine interfaces and notably multimodal or multimedia interfaces. Contents Part 1. Historical and Methodological Landmarks 1. An Assessment of the Evolution

  8. Ocular bacillary angiomatosis in an immunocompromised man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meltzer A; Zamecki, Katherine J; Paskowski, Joseph; Lelli, Gary J

    2010-01-01

    An immunocompromised man presented with an inflammatory eyelid lesion. Biopsy was performed; histopathology and special staining confirmed a diagnosis of bacillary angiomatosis. The man was treated with oral erythromycin, and the lesion resolved. The etiologic agents of bacillary angiomatosis are Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana, Gram-negative coccobacilli. The organisms stain positively with the Warthin-Starry silver stain. Lesions can be cutaneous or visceral and have been commonly described in immunocompromised patients. Histopathologic examination of lesions reveals angiogenesis and cellular proliferation. Bacillary angiomatosis can be treated with oral antibiotics.

  9. Sådan bygger man en kvantecomputer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    KRONIK: Professor Klaus Mølmer forklarer, hvordan man kan konstruere en kvantecomputer. Det kræver en brudebuket, der både er der og ikke er der, og som kan kastes til alle gæsterne ved et bryllup på samme tid.......KRONIK: Professor Klaus Mølmer forklarer, hvordan man kan konstruere en kvantecomputer. Det kræver en brudebuket, der både er der og ikke er der, og som kan kastes til alle gæsterne ved et bryllup på samme tid....

  10. Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's Life in Science

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2011-01-01

    It took a man who was willing to break all the rules to tame a theory that breaks all the rules. This talk will be based on my new book Quantum Man: Richard Feynman's life in science. I will try and present a scientific overview of the contributions of Richard Feynman, as seen through the arc of his fascinating life. From Quantum Mechanics to Antiparticles, from Rio de Janeiro to Los Alamos, a whirlwind tour will provide insights into the character, life and accomplishments of one of the 20th centuries most important scientists, and provide an object lesson in scientific integrity.

  11. Homo Tangens, or Man Touching and Tangible

    OpenAIRE

    J Mizinska

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept sense of touch, which is considered in all its aspects and dimensions. The author's aim is to determine what is touch in terms of philosophy, what types it has and what traditional functions (i.e. prior to the emergence of virtual reality) each of these functions performed. The conducted research allows the author to make a conclusion about the importance of perceiving the role and significance of man as a homo tangens - man touching and t...

  12. Homo Tangens, or Man Touching and Tangible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Mizinska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the concept sense of touch, which is considered in all its aspects and dimensions. The author's aim is to determine what is touch in terms of philosophy, what types it has and what traditional functions (i.e. prior to the emergence of virtual reality each of these functions performed. The conducted research allows the author to make a conclusion about the importance of perceiving the role and significance of man as a homo tangens - man touching and tangible.

  13. Microwave Power Beaming Infrastructure for Manned Lightcraft Operations: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myrabo, Leik N.

    2008-01-01

    In the past ∼7 years, microwave gyrotron technology has rapidly evolved to a critical threshold wherein ultra-energetic space launch missions based on beamed energy propulsion (BEP) now appear eminently feasible. Over the next 20 years, hundred megawatt-class microwave power-beaming stations could be prototyped on high deserts and 3- to 4 km mountain peaks before migrating into low Earth orbit, along with their passive microwave relay satellites. Described herein is a 20 GW rechargeable nuclear power satellite and microwave power-beaming infrastructure designed for manned space launch operations in the year 2025. The technological readiness of 2500 GJ superconducting magnetic energy storage 'batteries', 433-m ultralight space structures, 100 MW liquid droplet radiators, 1-6+ MW gyrotron sources, and mega-scale arrays (e.g., 3000 phase-locked units) is addressed. Microwave BEP is 'breakthrough' technology with the very real potential to radically reduce space access costs by factors of 100 to 1000 in the forseeable future

  14. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  15. Extended biorthogonal matrix polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Shehata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials for commutative matrices were first introduced by Varma and Tasdelen in [22]. The main aim of this paper is to extend the properties of the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials of Varma and Tasdelen and certain generating matrix functions, finite series, some matrix recurrence relations, several important properties of matrix differential recurrence relations, biorthogonality relations and matrix differential equation for the pair of biorthogonal matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k and K(A,B n (x, k are discussed. For the matrix polynomials J(A,B n (x, k, various families of bilinear and bilateral generating matrix functions are constructed in the sequel.

  16. Extended conformal algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goddard, Peter

    1990-01-01

    The algebra of the group of conformal transformations in two dimensions consists of two commuting copies of the Virasoro algebra. In many mathematical and physical contexts, the representations of ν which are relevant satisfy two conditions: they are unitary and they have the ''positive energy'' property that L o is bounded below. In an irreducible unitary representation the central element c takes a fixed real value. In physical contexts, the value of c is a characteristic of a theory. If c < 1, it turns out that the conformal algebra is sufficient to ''solve'' the theory, in the sense of relating the calculation of the infinite set of physically interesting quantities to a finite subset which can be handled in principle. For c ≥ 1, this is no longer the case for the algebra alone and one needs some sort of extended conformal algebra, such as the superconformal algebra. It is these algebras that this paper aims at addressing. (author)

  17. Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anum Fatima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.

  18. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  19. Space Station Freedom combustion research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    Extended operations in microgravity, on board spacecraft like Space Station Freedom, provide both unusual opportunities and unusual challenges for combustion science. On the one hand, eliminating the intrusion of buoyancy provides a valuable new perspective for fundamental studies of combustion phenomena. On the other hand, however, the absence of buoyancy creates new hazards of fires and explosions that must be understood to assure safe manned space activities. These considerations - and the relevance of combustion science to problems of pollutants, energy utilization, waste incineration, power and propulsion systems, and fire and explosion hazards, among others - provide strong motivation for microgravity combustion research. The intrusion of buoyancy is a greater impediment to fundamental combustion studies than to most other areas of science. Combustion intrinsically heats gases with the resulting buoyant motion at normal gravity either preventing or vastly complicating measurements. Perversely, this limitation is most evident for fundamental laboratory experiments; few practical combustion phenomena are significantly affected by buoyancy. Thus, we have never observed the most fundamental combustion phenomena - laminar premixed and diffusion flames, heterogeneous flames of particles and surfaces, low-speed turbulent flames, etc. - without substantial buoyant disturbances. This precludes rational merging of theory, where buoyancy is of little interest, and experiments, that always are contaminated by buoyancy, which is the traditional path for developing most areas of science. The current microgravity combustion program seeks to rectify this deficiency using both ground-based and space-based facilities, with experiments involving space-based facilities including: laminar premixed flames, soot processes in laminar jet diffusion flames, structure of laminar and turbulent jet diffusion flames, solid surface combustion, one-dimensional smoldering, ignition and flame

  20. Weakly infinite-dimensional spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorchuk, Vitalii V

    2007-01-01

    In this survey article two new classes of spaces are considered: m-C-spaces and w-m-C-spaces, m=2,3,...,∞. They are intermediate between the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces in the Alexandroff sense and the class of C-spaces. The classes of 2-C-spaces and w-2-C-spaces coincide with the class of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, while the compact ∞-C-spaces are exactly the C-compact spaces of Haver. The main results of the theory of weakly infinite-dimensional spaces, including classification via transfinite Lebesgue dimensions and Luzin-Sierpinsky indices, extend to these new classes of spaces. Weak m-C-spaces are characterised by means of essential maps to Henderson's m-compacta. The existence of hereditarily m-strongly infinite-dimensional spaces is proved.

  1. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  2. On Being an Angry Black Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaye, Stephen John

    2017-01-01

    Black men are often seen as problems, threats, and thugs. The mere existence of a Black body is often met with fear. Using autoethnographic mystory, I blend personal stories, poetry, song lyrics, and analysis to subvert the angry Black man mantra and explore the productive use of anger to stimulate change.

  3. Plutonium in domestic animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coughtrey, P.J.; Jackson, D.; Jones, C.H.; Kane, P.; Thorne, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter deals with plutonium adsorption, retention and translocation rates in lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, liver and in body tissues of domestic animals and man. Urinary and faecal excretion of plutonium is discussed. Transfer rates to eggs, milk, foetus and newborn are considered. Of all these subjects, data are presented extracted from literature and cast in tables

  4. Man-influenced vegetation of North Korea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolbek, Jiří; Jarolímek, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2008), s. 381-404 ISSN 0253-116X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : vegetation classification * weed communities * man-depending vegetation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  5. [Albert Schweitzer. The man as a symbol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urdaneta-Carruyo, Eliexer

    2007-01-01

    Albert Schweitzer, the great missionary physician from the XXth century, had a versatile personality that integrated multiple talents, leading to the slightly frequent conjunction of the thinker with the man of action, and the humanist with the scientist and the artist. He studied all these disciplines in a brilliant manner: Philosophy, Theology, Music and Medicine; he was also a great scholar of Bach's work, Jesus Christ and the civilization history. In his maturity, this great man renounced to the fame and glory gained as intellectual and musician, to dedicate his life as a physician for the forgotten African natives. His deeply religious spirit allowed him to penetrate into the most recondite of the human soul; in his personality, he expressed in its entire dimension the eternally unsatisfied desire of the solitary man, against the immensity of the universe. His philosophy, based on the respect for life, was realized throughout the practice of the medical profession. His noble character and personality was based on the man as symbol, since it was not so much what he did helping people but what people could do to others due to him. His singular example represented a moral force in the world, superior to millions of men armed for a war. In 1953, he received the Nobel Peace Prize for his philanthropic work in Africa during more that fifty years, and for his deep love to the living beings. He was transformed in a perennial legend as the Lambaréné doctor.

  6. [Dipylidium caninum, a rare parasite in man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, W; Auer, H

    1994-01-01

    Dipylidium caninum, the dog tapeworm, is a common cosmopolitan parasite of dogs and cats. Infestations of man are observed only sporadically. We report the case of a 22 months-old child living in Upper Austria with dipylidiasis. The parasite is briefly outlined with respect to biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, therapy and prevention.

  7. The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Sikora, Martin; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon dated to 8,340-9,200 calibrated years before present (BP). His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and le...

  8. Menkes' disease in Mottled mice and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Prins, H.W.; Nooijen, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Biochemically the defect of the Brindled allelic mutant of the Mottled mouse and of Menkes' disease in man are very similar if not identical. A modification of a normal Cu-binding protein or an unrestrained synthesis of a Cu-binding protein that normally is present only in small amounts is proposed as the basis of this disease

  9. Man's Search: English, Mythology. 5112.22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersheimer, Lenore C.

    A course which is an exploration of man's eternal search to understand himself and his world through the study of the mythology of the world is presented. Performance objectives include: (1) Students will recognize the content of the myths studied; (2) Students will identify the specific characteristics of the civilization studied; (3) Students…

  10. The Language of Man. Book 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    This textbook, book 6 of "The Language of Man" series, covers semantics, the language of politics, language and race, the language of advertising, and the origins and growth of the English language. The material analyzed comes from many sources (advertisements, newspaper articles, poems, parodies) and attempts to demonstrate the effect of the…

  11. Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsheimer, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

  12. Elementary particles in the service of man

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    This article was prepared by the Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, and the Rutherford Laboratory in the U.K., for a Physics Exhibition in March of this year and is reproduced here with acknowledgement. It is an account of how some of the knowledge gained in the previous generation of our research has already been applied 'in the service of man'.

  13. The effects of radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, P.

    1981-01-01

    Available evidence on the effects of high levels of radiation on man and the predictions which have been made on possible low level effects, by extrapolation of the high level data, are summarised. The factors which influence the biological effects of radiation are examined and acute, delayed, somatic and hereditary effects as reported in the literature, are discussed. (U.K.)

  14. Man-machine communication at Forsmark 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultquist, Goeran; Norberg, Soeren

    1984-01-01

    The design of Forsmark 3 began in 1976 and the control room layout and equipment were discussed right from the start. Susequent evolution and events in other nuclear power plants have, however, radically changed the direction of the development of the man-machine functions. (author)

  15. Man, Technology and the Natural Holism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, K. K.

    1980-01-01

    Indicates that the affluence brought about by the impact of science and technology on society now threatens mankind's further course. Asserts that the answer to this predicament lies neither with technological optimists nor with cultural pessimists, but in the resolution of basic value questions related to man's place in nature. (Author/GS)

  16. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S

    1999-01-01

    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  17. Man machine interface and its implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, B.G.; Boettcher, D.B.; Reed, R.

    1992-01-01

    Sizewell B is the latest nuclear power station to be constructed in the United Kingdom: its Man-Machine Interfaces are therefore, by definition, the state-of-the-art. This paper discusses the principal Man-Machine Interfaces used in the operation of the station, and the systems that implement them. The Man-Machine Interface facilities discussed are: in the Main Control Room, which is used for normal operation and shutdown of the plant: in the Auxiliary Shutdown Room, which allows shutdown of the reactor if evacuation of the main Control Room is necessary: and in the Technical Support Centre, which is used for remote monitoring of the plant. The Man-Machine Interfaces that are described are parts of a station-wide group of interlinked computer systems called the Data Processing and Control System. This system collects data from the plant and displays it to the operators via discrete devices and on graphical computer displays. It also acquires control inputs from the operators via switches, which are then used to provide remote manual control, modulating control and sequence control. The computer system that handles the plant process data and alarm information displays uses a windowing interface with keyboard and trackerball navigation to allow easy retrieval and viewing of information. It is this system that is the main topic of this paper. (author)

  18. Emblem for the first manned Skylab mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    This is the emblem for the first manned Skylab mission. It wil be a mission of up to 28 days. The patch, designed by artist Kelly Freas, shows the Skylab silhouetted against the earth's globe, which in turn is eclipsing the Sun - showing the brilliant signet-ring pattern of the instant before total eclipse.

  19. Development of advanced technology for stable support of Korean style space foods by the collaboration with an industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Choi, Jong Il; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-06-01

    Keeping pace with the space era of 21 century, Korea gets an opportunity to participate in a project in which the manned spaceship and the international space station will be developed. The Korean astronaut program is so the first step to open a new field of space development project that needs many researches and experiments to implement the mission successfully. Because food is an important part of life, it is imperative that the space food system is the best it can be. The supply of food must be nourishing and tasty so astronauts maintain their health during their important stays in space. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop space foods maintaining microbial safety and sensory characteristics, and the objective is to produce basic information about the processing technology of space foods. The results showed that combination treatment of radiation technology might be helpful for extending the space foods such as space Kimchi. And the development of a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) for immune and hematopoiesis modulation as well as oxidative damage inhibition in space environment might be helpful for improving the astronaut's health

  20. Development of advanced technology for stable support of Korean style space foods by the collaboration with an industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun; Song, Beom Suk; Choi, Jong Il; Park, Jin Kyu; Park, Jae Nam

    2007-06-15

    Keeping pace with the space era of 21 century, Korea gets an opportunity to participate in a project in which the manned spaceship and the international space station will be developed. The Korean astronaut program is so the first step to open a new field of space development project that needs many researches and experiments to implement the mission successfully. Because food is an important part of life, it is imperative that the space food system is the best it can be. The supply of food must be nourishing and tasty so astronauts maintain their health during their important stays in space. Therefore, this study was conducted to develop space foods maintaining microbial safety and sensory characteristics, and the objective is to produce basic information about the processing technology of space foods. The results showed that combination treatment of radiation technology might be helpful for extending the space foods such as space Kimchi. And the development of a new herbal preparation (HemoHIM) for immune and hematopoiesis modulation as well as oxidative damage inhibition in space environment might be helpful for improving the astronaut's health.

  1. Gemini flies! unmanned flights and the first manned mission

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2018-01-01

    In May 1961, President John F. Kennedy committed the United States to landing a man on the moon before the end of the decade. With just a handful of years to pull it off, NASA authorized the Project Gemini space program, which gathered vital knowledge needed to achieve the nation’s goal. This book introduces the crucial three-step test program employed by the Gemini system, covering:  The short unmanned orbital flight of Gemini 1 that tested the compatibility of launch vehicle, spacecraft and ground systems.  The unmanned suborbital flight of Gemini 2 to establish the integrity of the reentry system and protective heat shield.  The three-orbit manned evaluation flight of Gemini 3, christened ‘Molly Brown’ by her crew. A mission recalled orbit by orbit, using mission transcripts, post-flight reports and the astronauts’ own account of their historic journey. The missions of Project Gemini was the pivotal steppingstone between Project Mercury and the Apollo Program. Following the success of its fi...

  2. Emergency medical support for a manned stratospheric balloon test program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, Rebecca S; Norton, Sean C; Law, Jennifer; Pattarini, James M; Antonsen, Erik L; Garbino, Alejandro; Clark, Jonathan B; Turney, Matthew W

    2014-10-01

    Red Bull Stratos was a commercial program that brought a test parachutist, protected by a full-pressure suit, in a stratospheric balloon with pressurized capsule to over 127,582 ft (38,969 m), from which he free fell and subsequently parachuted to the ground. Given that the major risks to the parachutist included ebullism, negative Gz (toe-to-head) acceleration exposure from an uncontrolled flat spin, and trauma, a comprehensive plan was developed to recover the parachutist under nominal conditions and to respond to any medical contingencies that might have arisen. In this report, the project medical team describes the experience of providing emergency medical support and crew recovery for the manned balloon flights of the program. The phases of flight, associated risks, and available resources were systematically evaluated. Six distinct phases of flight from an Emergency Medical Services (EMS) standpoint were identified. A Medical Support Plan was developed to address the risks associated with each phase, encompassing personnel, equipment, procedures, and communications. Despite geographical, communications, and resource limitations, the medical team was able to implement the Medical Support Plan, enabling multiple successful manned balloon flights to 71,615 ft (21,828 m), 97,221 ft (29,610 m), and 127,582 ft (38,969 m). The experience allowed refinement of the EMS and crew recovery procedures for each successive flight and could be applied to other high altitude or commercial space ventures.

  3. Conceptual models in man-machine design verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1985-01-01

    The need for systematic methods for evaluation of design concepts for new man-machine systems has been rapidly increasing in consequence of the introduction of modern information technology. Direct empirical methods are difficult to apply when functions during rare conditions and support of operator decisions during emergencies are to be evaluated. In this paper, the problems of analytical evaluations based on conceptual models of the man-machine interaction are discussed, and the relations to system design and analytical risk assessment are considered. Finally, a conceptual framework for analytical evaluation is proposed, including several domains of description: 1. The problem space, in the form of a means-end hierarchy; 2. The structure of the decision process; 3. The mental strategies and heuristics used by operators; 4. The levels of cognitive control and the mechanisms related to human errors. Finally, the need for models representing operators' subjective criteria for choosing among available mental strategies and for accepting advice from intelligent interfaces is discussed

  4. THE MAN CATEGORY IN PUBLIC POLICIES AND BRAZILIAN LAWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Alflen Banin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the view of man as a gender category in public policies and national laws, especially those focused on violence against women. With this objective, it contextualizes the studies of feminisms and masculinities as theories and epistemology that guide the analysis of 17 official Brazilian documents selected for this study. This analysis seeks to clarify how the gendered man has been understood in various documents over the years. It discusses how the formulation of laws can provide a new accountability approach beyond the punishment of these men. It also investigates the regulation of some of the existing groups of men who have used violence against women in the country. It finalizes claiming the importance of these reflections for the debate on gender and masculinities in pursuit of a more effective system of prevention and eradication of violence against women. It discusses and argues in favor of both changing the way this category is addressed in official documents, and formalizing spaces for reflection for men who have used violence against women.

  5. 14 CFR 135.167 - Emergency equipment: Extended overwater operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Emergency equipment: Extended overwater operations. 135.167 Section 135.167 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...) One CO2 bottle for emergency inflation; (x) One inflation pump; (xi) Two oars; (xii) One 75-foot...

  6. EcAMSat and BioSentinel: Autonomous Bio Nanosatellites Addressing Strategic Knowledge Gaps for Manned Spaceflight Beyond LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgen, Mike

    2017-01-01

    Manned missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) require that several strategic knowledge gaps about the effects of space travel on the human body be addressed. NASA Ames Research Center has been the leader in developing autonomous bio nanosatellites, including past successful missions for GeneSat, PharmaSat, and OOREOS, that tackled some of these issues. These nanosatellites provide in situ measurements, which deliver insight into the dynamic changes in cell behavior in microgravity. In this talk, two upcoming bio nanosatellites developed at Ames, the E. coli Antimicrobial Satellite (EcAMSat) and BioSentinel, will be discussed. Both satellites contain microfluidic systems that precisely deliver nutrients to the microorganisms stored within wells of fluidic cards. Each well, in turn, has its own 3-color LED and detector system which is used to monitor changes in metabolic activity with alamarBlue, a redox indicator, and the optical density of the cells. EcAMSat investigates the effects of microgravity on bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs, vital knowledge for understanding how to maintain the health of astronauts in long-term and beyond LEO spaceflight. The behavior of wild type and mutant uropathic E. coli will be compared in microgravity and with ground data to help understand the molecular mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance and how these phenotypes might change in space. BioSentinel seeks to directly measure the effects of space radiation on budding yeast S. cerevisiae, particularly double strand breaks (DSB). While hitching a ride on the SLS EM-1 mission (Orions first unmanned mission to the moon) in 2018, BioSentinel will be kicked off and enter into a heliocentric orbit, becoming the first study of the effects of radiation on living organisms outside LEO since the Apollo program. The yeast are stored in eighteen independent 16-well microfluidic cards, which will be individually activated over the 12 month mission duration. In addition to the wild

  7. Setup of HDRK-Man voxel model in Geant4 Monte Carlo code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Hwi; Cho, Sung Koo; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sang Hyoun [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Kun Woo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-10-15

    Many different voxel models, developed using tomographic images of human body, are used in various fields including both ionizing and non-ionizing radiation fields. Recently a high-quality voxel model/ named HDRK-Man, was constructed at Hanyang University and used to calculate the dose conversion coefficients (DCC) values for external photon and neutron beams using the MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The objective of the present study is to set up the HDRK-Man model in Geant4 in order to use it in more advanced calculations such as 4-D Monte Carlo simulations and space dosimetry studies involving very high energy particles. To that end, the HDRK-Man was ported to Geant4 and used to calculate the DCC values for external photon beams. The calculated values were then compared with the results of the MCNPX code. In addition, a computational Linux cluster was built to improve the computing speed in Geant4.

  8. Ion accelerators for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Potvin, L.

    1991-01-01

    The main purpose of the accelerators is to allow ion implantation in space stations and their neighborhoods. There are several applications of interest immediately useful in such environment: as ion engines and thrusters, as implanters for material science and for hardening of surfaces (relevant to improve resistance to micrometeorite bombardment of exposed external components), production of man made alloys, etc. The microgravity environment of space stations allows the production of substances (crystalline and amorphous) under conditions unknown on earth, leading to special materials. Ion implantation in situ of those materials would thus lead uninterruptedly to new substances. Accelerators for space require special design. On the one hand it is possible to forego vacuum systems simplifying the design and operation but, on the other hand, it is necessary to pay special attention to heat dissipation. Hence it is necessary to construct a simulator in vacuum to properly test prototypes under conditions prevailing in space

  9. Space and the historian. [rocketry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emme, E. M.

    1973-01-01

    The history of modern rocketry begins with the launching of rockets for vertical soundings in the upper atmosphere. The launchings of the first earth satellites sparked space endeavors including manned flight accomplishments largely unforeseen as to the scope and rapidity of their happening. The scope of historical inquiry should include the entire historical spectrum involving space science and technology, i.e., political, economic, and social aspects, and the international environment. The methodology of contemporary history is discussed.

  10. Non-ionising electromagnetic environments on manned spacecraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J R

    1989-08-01

    Future space travellers and settlers will be exposed to a variety of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Extrinsic sources will include solar and stellar fluxes, planetary fluxes, and supernovae. Intrinsic sources may include fusion and ion engines, EMFs from electrical equipment, radar, lighting, superconduction energy storage systems, magnetic bearings on gyroscopic control and orientation systems, and magnetic rail microprobe launch systems. Communication sources may include radio and microwave frequencies, and laser generating systems. Magnetic fields may also be used for deflection of radiation. There is also a loss of the normal Geomagnetic field (GMF) which includes static, alternating, and time-varying components. This paper reviews exposure limits and the biological effects of EMFs, and evidence for an electromagnetic sense organ and a relationship between man and the Geomagnetic field.

  11. The soviet manned lunar program N1-L3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardier, Christian

    2018-01-01

    The conquest of space was marked by the Moon race in which the two superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, were engaged in the 1960s. On the American side, the Apollo program culminated with the Man on the Moon in July 1969, 50 years ago. At the same time, the Soviet Union carried out a similar program which was kept secret for 20 years. This N1-L3 program was unveiled in August 1989. Its goal was to arrive on the Moon before the Americans. It included an original super-rocket, development of which began in June 1960. But this program became a national priority only in August 1964 and the super-rocket failed four times between 1969 and 1972. This article analyses the reasons for these failures, which led to the cancellation of the program in 1974.

  12. From the rights of man to the human rights: Man - nation - humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaharijević Adriana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The insistence on the fact that human rights and the rights of man (codified in The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, respectively are not one and the same, which could be deduced from the notion of man common to both terms, is the key thesis of this text. By developing this motive, I try to determine the following: that the notion of man, by definition inclusive and abstractly non-discriminative term, is in fact established on tacit exclusions in the time of its inception (Enlightenment revolutinary era, and it was only upon these exclusions that the term man could have signified "the free and equal". Although the parallel or simultaneous evolution and implementation of the rights of man and national rights might seem contradictory, I seek to demonstrate that this paradox is only ostensible, arguing that the notion of man is itself limited and exclusionary, and is therefore compatible with the exclusivity which is the conditio sine qua non of nation. The consequences of nationalism - World Wars, primarily - proved that the conception of liberty and equality, based on the conception of fraternity of men (white European males, and of partial democracy pretending to be universal, cannot be maintained any further. Codification of universal human rights represents a reaction to this internal discrepancy inasmuch as it is a reaction to the destructiveness of all kinds of nationalisms. The notion of life, developed in this text, corresponds to the fundamental requirement for the right to life (as the first and the most basic of all human rights, which no longer belongs to "man", but to everyone.

  13. 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to Space Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    This picture illustrates a concept of a 33-Foot-Diameter Space Station Leading to a Space Base. In-house work of the Marshall Space Flight Center, as well as a Phase B contract with the McDornel Douglas Astronautics Company, resulted in a preliminary design for a space station in 1969 and l970. The Marshall-McDonnel Douglas approach envisioned the use of two common modules as the core configuration of a 12-man space station. Each common module was 33 feet in diameter and 40 feet in length and provided the building blocks, not only for the space station, but also for a 50-man space base. Coupled together, the two modules would form a four-deck facility: two decks for laboratories and two decks for operations and living quarters. Zero-gravity would be the normal mode of operation, although the station would have an artificial gravity capability. This general-purpose orbital facility was to provide wide-ranging research capabilities. The design of the facility was driven by the need to accommodate a broad spectrum of activities in support of astronomy, astrophysics, aerospace medicine, biology, materials processing, space physics, and space manufacturing. To serve the needs of Earth observations, the station was to be placed in a 242-nautical-mile orbit at a 55-degree inclination. An Intermediate-21 vehicle (comprised of Saturn S-IC and S-II stages) would have launched the station in 1977.

  14. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  15. Understanding and modelling Man-Machine Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art in man machine systems interaction studies, focusing on the problems derived from highly automated working environments and the role of humans in the control loop. In particular, it is argued that there is a need for sound approaches to design and analysis of Man-Machine Interaction (MMI), which stem from the contribution of three expertises in interfacing domains, namely engineering, computer science and psychology: engineering for understanding and modelling plants and their material and energy conservation principles; psychology for understanding and modelling humans and their cognitive behaviours; computer science for converting models in sound simulations running in appropriate computer architectures. (author)

  16. The Somerton man : an unsolved history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balint, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind of historical project. The limitations of a history without a coherent centre are myriad, yet so are the possibilities. In this article, I explore the possibilities of an ‘unsolved history’, a history of dead ends, and argue that it is the very unknowable-ness of the Somerton Man that allows for a perception of history as multi-dimensional and complex.

  17. The Somerton Man: An Unsolved History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Balint

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind of historical project. The limitations of a history without a coherent centre are myriad, yet so are the possibilities.  In this article, I explore the possibilities of an ‘unsolved history’, a history of dead ends, and argue that it is the very unknowable-ness of the Somerton Man that allows for a perception of history as multi-dimensional and complex.

  18. Recent developments in man-machine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The field of man-machine systems is introduced with its subareas and a short outline of its history of 45 years. Three current lines of development in university and industrial research are emphasized. Today, the human problem solving activities are experimentally investigated and analytically described more vigorously than the control activities. Further, improved information presentations and decision support are made possible through new technologies of computer graphics and expert systems. At last, work on a general design methodology for man-machine systems is in progress. The aim is to better support human operators of dynamic technological systems as well as designers of graphics for visual display units and of dialogue styles. Thereby, safety and availability of the complete system can be increased. (orig.) [de

  19. Understanding and modelling man-machine interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacciabue, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the current state of the art in man-machine system interaction studies, focusing on the problems derived from highly automated working environments and the role of humans in the control loop. In particular, it is argued that there is a need for sound approaches to the design and analysis of man-machine interaction (MMI), which stem from the contribution of three expertises in interfacing domains, namely engineering, computer science and psychology: engineering for understanding and modelling plants and their material and energy conservation principles; psychology for understanding and modelling humans an their cognitive behaviours; computer science for converting models in sound simulations running in appropriate computer architectures. (orig.)

  20. [Man's place and anthropology in bioethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar Romero, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    From the analysis of its epistemological status, the article focuses on the philosophical fundament of bioethics, stressing the need for an authentic anthropology as a reference or starting point. Being an applied ethics, the first fundament of bioethics is in ethics. It shows how only personalistic ethics, which takes as reference the nature or essence of man, can offer objective and universal criteria. Philosophical anthropology studies man as a whole, in an integral manner, from the perspective of its nature or fundamental aspects of his being. It analyzes the distinction and relationship between the philosophical anthropology and the positive anthropologies, as well as with the physical, human and social sciences. Finally, it reflects on the current anthropological crisis and its ethical consequences.

  1. Man-midwifery history: 1730-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, D C

    2012-11-01

    This paper seeks to determine whether the man-midwives William Smellie and William Hunter deserve continuing approbation as 'Founding Fathers' of the obstetrics profession. Scrutiny of their careers reveals their involvement in murders for dissection. In addition, the man-midwifery initiative of delivery in lying-in hospitals resulted in around 1 million more deaths in Britain and Ireland between 1730 and 1930, than would have occurred had home-births remained as the norm. While some may still credit Smellie and Hunter with obstetric discoveries, their knowledge was obtained by murder-for-dissection. That indictment, together with the lying-in hospital legacy, far outweighs their discoveries. The paper invites further constructive discussion and debate, but concludes the accolade of Founding Fathers is undeserved. Any continuing endorsement of Smellie and Hunter effectively demeans the high ethical standards and reputation of current obstetric professionals.

  2. The shipping man adventures in ship finance

    CERN Document Server

    McCleery, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    When restless New York City hedge fund manager Robert Fairchild watches the Baltic Dry Cargo Index plunge 97%, registering an all-time high and a 25-year low within the span of just six months, he decides to buy a ship. Immediately fantasizing about naming a vessel after his wife, carrying a string of worry beads and being able to introduce himself as a "shipowner" at his upcoming college reunion, Fairchild immediately embarks on an odyssey into the most exclusive, glamorous and high stakes business in the world. From pirates off the coast of Somalia and on Wall Street to Greek and Norwegian shipping magnates, the education of Robert Fairchild is an expensive one. In the end, he loses his hedge fund, but he gains a life - as a Shipping Man. Part fast paced financial thriller, part ship finance text book, The Shipping Man is 310 pages of required reading for anyone with an interest in capital formation for shipping.

  3. Planning to Explore: Using a Coordinated Multisource Infrastructure to Overcome Present and Future Space Flight Planning Challenges

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Few human endeavors present as much of a planning and scheduling challenge as space flight, particularly manned space flight. Just on the operational side of it,...

  4. The Somerton Man: An Unsolved History

    OpenAIRE

    Balint, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    The case of the unknown man who died mysteriously at Somerton Beach in South Australia in 1948 remains an open police investigation, although the trail today has grown fairly cold. Revisiting the case, and the responses the mystery of his person have elicited, enables a special historical insight into Australia’s postwar society, and the ways in which the past is continually reshaped by the subjectivities of the present. Further, an unsolved case such as this provides for a unique kind ...

  5. Don’t Trust the Big Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-06

    on the scholar questioned, these entities began as either natural alliances of people already united by colocation, culture , ethnicity, religion and...anger to provide a channel for the pent-up anger at a failing government. This is where the tribal culture becomes interesting. The Big Man can find...Zulu, Dinka, and Maasai; the Shona and Yoruba and Somali - militates against the very idea of borders drawn through tribal and nomadic areas by the

  6. Bobby Fong: Man on a Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Bobby Fong, was president of Ursinus College until his death in September 2014 and is the only person to have served twice as chair of the AAC&U Board of Directors. In this article, his son Collin presents remarks made at the memorial service for his father. Collin describes his father as a man with a mission, and that mission was to make the…

  7. The conception of man in Honorio Delgado

    OpenAIRE

    Chiappo, Leopoldo

    1992-01-01

    ​Honorio Delgado is still the most eminent authority in the history of psychiatric and psychopathological study in Peru and the spanish-speaking world. This article is an attempt to extract from the multi-faceted work of Honorario Delgado, not only in psychiatry, psychopathology, psychology, neurology, biology, ecology and medicine, bu also in philosophy, education, literary and biographical studies, and humanities as a whole, what one might call the “honorian” vision of the man, the explicit...

  8. Design of man-machine-communication-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, R.

    1975-04-01

    This paper shows some fundamentals of man-machine-communication and deduces demands and recommendations for the design of communication systems. The main points are the directives for the design of optic display systems with details for visual perception and resolution, luminance and contrast, as well as discernibility and coding of displayed information. The most important rules are recommendations for acoustic information systems, control devices and for design of consoles are also given. (orig.) [de

  9. 2.1 Man: subject of protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This second chapter 'Man and environment' of the 7th state of the environment report of Austria describes the current situation of the protection of human health in terms of the European environmental policy and the main subjects of high relevance to it, such as air pollutants, water pollution, noise pollution, dangerous chemicals, food contamination, radiation protection, effects of climate change, plants, animal and habitats. (nevyjel)

  10. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike

    Eliminating middlemen from security protocols helps less than one would think. EMV electronic payments, for example, can be made fairer by adding an electronic attorney - a middleman which mediates access to a customer’s card. We compare middlemen in crypto protocols and APIs with those in the real world, and show that a man-in-the-middle defence is helpful in many circumstances. We suggest that the middleman has been unfairly demonised.

  11. Malaysia : the lucky man of Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Kind, Hans Jarle; Ismail, Mohd Nazari

    2001-01-01

    Malaysia has been labelled the Lucky Man of Asia due to its wealth of natural resources, such as tin, rubber, palm oil, pepper, tropical timber, petroleum and a very fertile soil. There is no doubt that this richness has helped Malaysia to achieve impressive growth rates over the last decades, but history has taught us that large endowments of natural resources by far are sufficient to generate development. Since the early 1970s Malaysia has led a relatively successful racial integration poli...

  12. Rodent management: the man/environment interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, W.B.

    1978-01-01

    Rodents which interact with man generally are regarded as undesirable. Attempts at eliminating such rodents by increasing predation (including traps, microbiological agents, toxicants) have been relatively unsuccessful. Management by environmental manipulation must be basic. This then can be supplemented with predation at critical points where public health, use practices, or imperfections in the system demand. Society mores, practices, and economic considerations also have significant impact on the management system

  13. Magnetic field and its influence on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovin, N.I.; Kurik, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    Positive effects of the Earth magnetic field (MF) on bacteria and animals are demonstrated. The same beneficial effect was found for man: screening of MF leads to blood vessel contraction and violation of exchange processes in organism. Effects of MF are considered as similar to that of catalysts. A correlation between MF values and various human diseases was found. Different methods of magnetotherapy are proposed

  14. Man-machine interface requirements - advanced technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R. W.; Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research issues and areas are identified where increased understanding of the human operator and the interaction between the operator and the avionics could lead to improvements in the performance of current and proposed helicopters. Both current and advanced helicopter systems and avionics are considered. Areas critical to man-machine interface requirements include: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) visual displays; (3) voice technology; (4) cockpit integration; and (5) pilot work loads and performance.

  15. The effects of ionizing radiation on man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, G.M.

    1975-08-01

    This paper describes the major effects of ionizing radiation on man and the relationship between such effects and radiation dose, with the conclusion that standards of radiological safety must be based on the carcinogenetic and mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation. Man is exposed to radiation from natural sources and from man-made sources. Exposure from the latter should be regulated but, since there is little observational or experimental evidence for predicting the effects of the very small doses likely to be required for adequate standards of safety, it is necessary to infer them from what is seen at high doses. Because the formal relationship between dose and effect is not fully understood, simplifying assumptions are necessary to estimate the effects of low doses. Two such assumptions are conventionally used; that there is a linear relationship between dose and effect at all levels of dose, and that the rate at which a dose of radiation is given does not alter the magnitude of the effect. These assumptions are thought to be conservative, that is they will not lead to an underestimation of the effects of small radiation doses although they may give an over-estimate. (author)

  16. Man-machine interface for the MFTF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speckert, G.C.

    1979-01-01

    In any complex system, the interesting problems occur at the interface of dissimilar subsystems. Control of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) begins with the US Congress, which controls the dollars, which control the people, who control the nine top-level minicomputers, which control the 65 microprocessors, which control the hardware that controls the physics experiment. There are many interesting boundaries across which control must pass, and the one that this paper addresses is the man-machine one. For the MFTF, the man-machine interface consists of a system of seven control consoles, each allowing one operator to communicate with one minicomputer. These consoles are arranged in a hierarchical manner, and both hardware and software were designed in a top-down fashion. This paper describes the requirements and the design of the console system as a whole, as well as the design and operation of the hardware and software of each console, and examines the possible form of a future man-machine interface

  17. Pathways of evolution for man and machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.

    1983-01-01

    A simplified model of the future is introduced in order to examine the relations between man, machine, and extraterrestrial intelligence. The observed lack of extraterrestrials on earth is used as a boundary condition for the model. Two exobiological conclusions are obtained: (1) advanced extraterrestrials exist but are difficult to observe or to distinguish from natural phenomena, (2) lower level, man-like extraterrestrials, which are potentially observable, are rare in the Universe because they are rapidly replaced in the evolutinary sequence by the intelligent machines which they create. The decline of man is inferred and may take place as soon as 100 years from now or as long as 100,000 years from the present time. Thus, we are a short-lived species, having a life expectancy of only a million years. A note is appended on the rationale and methods of the search for extraterrestrial intelligence in light of the above calculations. The Tau Ceti and Epsilon Eridani systems present favourable opportunities for a radio-search experiment in 1987 and 1988, respectively.

  18. Man-machine interface for the MFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speckert, G.C.

    1979-11-09

    In any complex system, the interesting problems occur at the interface of dissimilar subsystems. Control of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) begins with the US Congress, which controls the dollars, which control the people, who control the nine top-level minicomputers, which control the 65 microprocessors, which control the hardware that controls the physics experiment. There are many interesting boundaries across which control must pass, and the one that this paper addresses is the man-machine one. For the MFTF, the man-machine interface consists of a system of seven control consoles, each allowing one operator to communicate with one minicomputer. These consoles are arranged in a hierarchical manner, and both hardware and software were designed in a top-down fashion. This paper describes the requirements and the design of the console system as a whole, as well as the design and operation of the hardware and software of each console, and examines the possible form of a future man-machine interface.

  19. Man in the middle attacks on SSL/TLS

    OpenAIRE

    Caro Alonso-Rodríguez, Antonio Jesús

    2013-01-01

    El proyecto estudia un tipo concreto de ataque sobre el protocolo SSL/TLS llamado "Man in the middle". El projecte estudia un tipus concret d'atac sobre el protocol SSL/TLS anomenat "Man in the middle".

  20. Hamiltonian Anomalies from Extended Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, Samuel

    2015-09-01

    We develop a proposal by Freed to see anomalous field theories as relative field theories, namely field theories taking value in a field theory in one dimension higher, the anomaly field theory. We show that when the anomaly field theory is extended down to codimension 2, familiar facts about Hamiltonian anomalies can be naturally recovered, such as the fact that the anomalous symmetry group admits only a projective representation on the Hilbert space, or that the latter is really an abelian bundle gerbe over the moduli space. We include in the discussion the case of non-invertible anomaly field theories, which is relevant to six-dimensional (2, 0) superconformal theories. In this case, we show that the Hamiltonian anomaly is characterized by a degree 2 non-abelian group cohomology class, associated to the non-abelian gerbe playing the role of the state space of the anomalous theory. We construct Dai-Freed theories, governing the anomalies of chiral fermionic theories, and Wess-Zumino theories, governing the anomalies of Wess-Zumino terms and self-dual field theories, as extended field theories down to codimension 2.

  1. 29 CFR 780.305 - 500 man-day provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 500 man-day provision. 780.305 Section 780.305 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.305 500 man-day provision. (a) Section 3(u) of the Act defines man-day to mean “any day during which an employee performs agricultural labor for not less than 1 hour.” 500 man-days...

  2. TaxMan: a taxonomic database manager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaxter Mark

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phylogenetic analysis of large, multiple-gene datasets, assembled from public sequence databases, is rapidly becoming a popular way to approach difficult phylogenetic problems. Supermatrices (concatenated multiple sequence alignments of multiple genes can yield more phylogenetic signal than individual genes. However, manually assembling such datasets for a large taxonomic group is time-consuming and error-prone. Additionally, sequence curation, alignment and assessment of the results of phylogenetic analysis are made particularly difficult by the potential for a given gene in a given species to be unrepresented, or to be represented by multiple or partial sequences. We have developed a software package, TaxMan, that largely automates the processes of sequence acquisition, consensus building, alignment and taxon selection to facilitate this type of phylogenetic study. Results TaxMan uses freely available tools to allow rapid assembly, storage and analysis of large, aligned DNA and protein sequence datasets for user-defined sets of species and genes. The user provides GenBank format files and a list of gene names and synonyms for the loci to analyse. Sequences are extracted from the GenBank files on the basis of annotation and sequence similarity. Consensus sequences are built automatically. Alignment is carried out (where possible, at the protein level and aligned sequences are stored in a database. TaxMan can automatically determine the best subset of taxa to examine phylogeny at a given taxonomic level. By using the stored aligned sequences, large concatenated multiple sequence alignments can be generated rapidly for a subset and output in analysis-ready file formats. Trees resulting from phylogenetic analysis can be stored and compared with a reference taxonomy. Conclusion TaxMan allows rapid automated assembly of a multigene datasets of aligned sequences for large taxonomic groups. By extracting sequences on the basis of

  3. Extending applicability of bimetric theory: chameleon bigravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukohyama, Shinji; Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2018-02-01

    This article extends bimetric formulations of massive gravity to make the mass of the graviton to depend on its environment. This minimal extension offers a novel way to reconcile massive gravity with local tests of general relativity without invoking the Vainshtein mechanism. On cosmological scales, it is argued that the model is stable and that it circumvents the Higuchi bound, hence relaxing the constraints on the parameter space. Moreover, with this extension the strong coupling scale is also environmentally dependent in such a way that it is kept sufficiently higher than the expansion rate all the way up to the very early universe, while the present graviton mass is low enough to be phenomenologically interesting. In this sense the extended bigravity theory serves as a partial UV completion of the standard bigravity theory. This extension is very generic and robust and a simple specific example is described.

  4. Hyperstate matrix models : extending demographic state spaces to higher dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roth, G.; Caswell, H.

    2016-01-01

    1. Demographic models describe population dynamics in terms of the movement of individuals among states (e.g. size, age, developmental stage, parity, frailty, physiological condition). Matrix population models originally classified individuals by a single characteristic. This was enlarged to two

  5. An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Joolingen, Wouter; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS

  6. Astrobiology Extends Biology into Deep Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, David

    2003-01-01

    To understand our own origins and to search for biospheres beyond Earth, we need a more robust concept of life itself. We must learn how to discriminate between attributes that are fundamental to all living systems versus those that represent principally local outcomes of long-term survival on Earth. We should identify the most basic environmental needs of life, chart the distribution of other habitable worlds, and understand the factors that created their distribution. Studies of microbial communities and the geologic record will be summarized that offer clues about the early evolution of our own biosphere as well as the signatures of life that we might find in the heavens.

  7. On the maximal ideal space of extended analytic Lipschitz algebras ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Let X be a compact, plane set and let K be a compact subset of X. We introduce new classes of Lipschitz algebras Lip(X, K, α), lip(X, K, α), consisting of those continuous functions f on X such that f|K ε Lip(K, α), lip(K, α), and their analytic subalgebras LipA(X, K, α) = Lip(X, K, α) ∩ A(X, K) and lipA(X, K, α) = lip(X, K, α) ∩ A(X, ...

  8. Irreducibility conditions for extended superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokatchev, E.

    1981-05-01

    The irreducible supermultiplets contained in an extended superfield are presented as sets of covariant derivatives of the superfield. Differential irreducibility constraints are easily obtained from this decomposition. (author)

  9. 29 CFR 780.317 - Man-day exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Man-day exclusion. 780.317 Section 780.317 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.317 Man-day exclusion. Section 3(e)(2) specifically excludes from the employer's man-day total (as defined in section 3(u)) employees who qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(6...

  10. 29 CFR 780.309 - Man-day exclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Man-day exclusion. 780.309 Section 780.309 Labor...) Statutory Provisions § 780.309 Man-day exclusion. Section 3(e)(1) specifically excludes from the employer's man-day total (as defined in section 3(u)) employees who qualify for exemption under section 13(a)(6...

  11. The Modern Igbo Man and Quest for Freedom | Ogugua | AFRREV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modern Igbo man has through the decades been beset with one type of problem or the other. He has known multi-quam problems: poverty, ignorance, marginalization, genocide, betrayal, war etc. It is the onus of this paper to examine our operative concepts, Igbo man.s set of unfreedoms, and the shades of Igboman.s ...

  12. Plasmodium Infection In Man: A Review | Ekpenyong | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium infection in man is caused by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This results in the disease, malaria. Malaria has serious debilitating effects on man. It adversely affectsman's health, strength and productivity. Here, a review of Plasmodium infection in man including the life cycle transmisson, ...

  13. 32 CFR 707.2 - Man overboard lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Man overboard lights. 707.2 Section 707.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.2 Man overboard lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating man overboard, two...

  14. Man bhawan - new chrysanthemum cultivar induced by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    Attempts were made to find out the biochemical difference between two gamma ray induced chrysanthemum cultivars, 'Flirt' and 'Man Bhawan' by thin layer chromatographic and spectrophotometric analysis of pigments. The analysis were done from florets extracts of original cv., 'Flirt' and mutant 'Man Bhawan' at full bloom stage and also at fading of 'Man Bhawan'. (author)

  15. Grounding the RPA Force: Why Machine Needs Man

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    AU/ACSC/2016 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY GROUNDING THE RPA FORCE: WHY MACHINE NEEDS MAN by Charles M. Washuk, Major, USAF (MBA...6 CHALLENGES OF MANNED FLIGHT...tactics will still require the presence of an operator, or “ man .” This paper focuses on the need for the Air Force to address the 18X career field and

  16. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  17. Manned maneuvering unit applications for automated rendezvous and capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Donald L.; Cuseo, John A.; Lenda, Joseph A.; Ray, Lex; Whitsett, C. Edward

    Automated Rendezvous and Capture (AR&C) is an important technology to multiple National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs and centers. The recent Johnson Spacecraft Center (JSC) AR&C Quality Function Deployment (QFD) has listed on-orbit demonstration of related technologies as a near term priority. Martin Marietta has been evaluating use of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) for a low cost near term on-orbit demonstration of AR&C technologies such as control algorithms, sensors, and processors as well as system level performance. The MMU Program began in 1979 as the method of repairing the Space Shuttle (STS) Thermal Protection System (the tiles). The units were not needed for this task, but were successfully employed during three Shuttle flights in 1984: a test flight was flown in in February as proof of concept, in April the MMU participated in the Solar Max Repair Mission, and in November the MMU's returned to space to successfully rescue the two errant satellites, Westar and Palapa. In the intervening years, the MMU simulator and MMU Qualification Test Unit (QTU) have been used for Astronaut training and experimental evaluations. The Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) Retriever has used the QTU, in an unmanned form, as a free-flyer on the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Precision Air Bearing Floor (PABF). Currently, the MMU is undergoing recertification for flight. The two flight units were removed from storage in September, 1991 and evaluation tests were performed. The tests demonstrated that the units are in good shape with no discrepancies that would preclude further use. The Return to Flight effort is currently clearing up recertification issues and evaluating the design against the present Shuttle environments.

  18. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.

    2013-01-01

    The Hybrid Inflatable DSH combined with electric propulsion and high power solar-electric power systems offer a near TRL-now solution to the space radiation crew dose problem that is an inevitable aspect of long term manned interplanetary flight. Spreading program development and launch costs over several years can lead to a spending plan that fits with NASA's current and future budgetary limitations, enabling early manned interplanetary operations with space radiation dose control, in the near future while biomedical research, nuclear electric propulsion and active shielding research and development proceed in parallel. Furthermore, future work should encompass laboratory validation of HZETRN calculations, as previous laboratory investigations have not considered large shielding thicknesses and the calculations presented at these thicknesses are currently performed via extrapolation.

  19. Views from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitmacher, Gary H.

    2002-01-01

    Only in the last century have human beings flown in space and men and machines have explored the worlds of our solar system. Robots have gone to most of the our neighboring worlds, the valleys of Mars and the clouds and moons of Jupiter. Instruments like the Hubble Space Telescope have looked into deep space. Those of us on the earth have been able to participate as vicarious explorers through the records, and experiences and the photographs that have been returned. At the beginning of the space program hardly anyone thought of photographs from space as anything more than a branch of industrial photography. There were pictures of the spaceships, and launches and of astronauts in training, but these were all pictures taken on the ground. When John Glenn became America's first man in orbit, bringing a camera was an afterthought. An Ansco Autoset was purchased in a drug store and hastily modified so the astronaut could use it more easily while in his pressure suit. In 1962, everything that Glenn did was deemed an experiment. At the beginning of the program, no one knew for certain whether weightlessness would prevent a man from seeing, or from breathing, or from eating and swallowing. Photography was deemed nothing more than a recreational extra. Not only was little expected of those first pictures taken from space, but there was serious concern that taking pictures of other nations from orbit would be seen as an act of ill will and even one of war- as sovereign sensitive nations would resent having pictures taken by Americans orbiting overhead. A few years earlier, in 1957, in reaction to the Soviet launch of the first Sputnik satellite, scientists told congressman of the necessity of orbiting our own robot spacecraft-they predicted that one day we would take daily pictures of the world's weather. Congressman were incredulous. But space photography developed quickly. For security purposes, spy satellites took over many of the responsibilities we had depended upon

  20. Extended Holomorphic Anomaly in Gauge Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The partition function of an N=2 gauge theory in the Omega-background satisfies, for generic value of the parameter beta=-eps_1/eps_2, the, in general extended, but otherwise beta-independent, holomorphic anomaly equation of special geometry. Modularity together with the (beta-dependent) gap structure at the various singular loci in the moduli space completely fixes the holomorphic ambiguity, also when the extension is non-trivial. In some cases, the theory at the orbifold radius, corresponding to beta=2, can be identified with an "orientifold" of the theory at beta=1. The various connections give hints for embedding the structure into the topological string.