Rard, J A; Wijesinghe, A M; Wolery, T J
2004-03-30
Published thermodynamic data yielding the osmotic coefficients, relative apparent molar enthalpies, and apparent molar heat capacities of Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) have been collected, recalculated consistently, and critically assessed. The more reliable of these data have been used to evaluate the parameters of the standard three-parameter form of Pitzer's ion-interaction model to higher molalities than previously available, along with the parameters of Archer's four-parameter, extended ion-interaction model, at 298.15 K. Published experimental thermodynamic data were essentially represented equally well by these two models, provided that the exponential coefficient {alpha}{sub 1} of the standard Pitzer model is fixed at the optimum value of {alpha}{sub 1} = 1.55 kg{sup -1/2} x mol{sup -1/2} rather than the traditional value of {alpha}{sub 1} = 2.0 kg{sup -1/2} x mol{sup -1/2} The use of the standard Pitzer model with this modified {alpha}{sub 1} value is recommended for Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq). In addition, an empirical equation is given for the variation of the water activity of a saturated solution with temperature, from 273.54 to 328.20 K, with Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) x 6H{sub 2}O(s) as the solid phase.
Rard, J A; Clegg, S L; Palmer, D A
2007-01-03
Isopiestic vapor-pressure measurements were made for Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}(aq) from 0.1069 to 2.8190 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} at 298.15 K, and from 0.1148 to 2.7969 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} at 323.15 K, with NaCl(aq) as the reference standard. Published thermodynamic data for this system were reviewed, recalculated for consistency, and critically assessed. The present results and the more reliable published results were used to evaluate the parameters of an extended version of Pitzer's ion-interaction model with an ionic-strength dependent third virial coefficient, as well as those of the standard Pitzer model, for the osmotic and activity coefficients at both temperatures. Published enthalpies of dilution at 298.15 K were also analyzed to yield the parameters of the ion-interaction models for the relative apparent molar enthalpies of dilution. The resulting models at 298.15 K are valid to the saturated solution molality of the thermodynamically stable phase Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O(cr). Solubilities of Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O(cr) at 298.15 K were assessed, and the selected value of m(sat.) = 3.13 {+-} 0.04 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1} was used to evaluate the thermodynamic solubility product K{sub s}(Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, cr, 298.15 K) = (2.62 {+-} 0.19) and a CODATA-compatible standard molar Gibbs energy of formation {Delta}{sub f}G{sub m}{sup o} (Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, cr, 298.15 K) = -(1564.6 {+-} 0.5) kJ {center_dot} mol{sup -1}.
Wijesinghe, A M; Rard, J A
2004-12-21
The electrolytes Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) and NaNO{sub 3}(aq) are both extremely soluble but differ in several important respects. Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) has complex behavior at low ionic strengths and forms several thermodynamically stable and metastable solid phases, whereas NaNO{sub 3}(aq) forms only an anhydrous solid phase. The thermodynamic properties of both have previously been modeled using extended Pitzer ion-interaction models that include higher-order virial terms, in addition to those of the standard Pitzer model. The parameters of the original Pitzer model, however, are often needed for thermodynamic modeling calculations. In this paper we convert the parameters of the extended ion-interaction models for Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) and NaNO{sub 3}(aq) to the standard Pitzer model using an extension of the methodology previously described by Rard and Wijesinghe [J. Chem. Thermodynamics 35 (2003) 439.473]. In this variant, the exponential coefficient {alpha}{sub 1}{sup P} of Pitzer's model is also optimized to yield the most accurate overall representation of the osmotic coefficients {phi} over the ionic strength and temperature ranges of interest. The optimal values of {alpha}{sub 1}{sup P} = 0.87 kg{sup 1/2} {center_dot} mol{sup -1/2} for Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) and {alpha}{sub 1}{sup P} = 1.43 kg{sup 1/2} {center_dot} mol{sup -1/2} for NaNO{sub 3}(aq) are smaller than the value {alpha}{sub 1}{sup P} = 2.00 kg{sup 1/2} {center_dot} mol{sup -1/2} normally used for electrolytes of these valence types. In both cases, the accuracy of the osmotic coefficients predicted by the standard Pitzer model was nearly equal to that of the extended Pitzer model up to the solubility limit for T = (298.15 to 423.15) K. This result is consistent with the findings of Rard, Wijesinghe, and Wolery [J. Chem. Eng. Data 49 (2004) 1127-1140] who obtained a substantial improvement in model accuracy for Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}(aq) at T = 298.15 K by optimizing this parameter
Peter R. Zalupski; Rocklan McDowell; Simon L. Clegg
2014-04-01
Isopiestic vapor pressures were measured at 298.15 K for aqueous NaNO3 + Eu(NO3)3 solutions, using NaCl(aq) as the reference standard. Measurements were made for both binary (single salt) solutions and for ternary solutions of the following NaNO3 ionic strength fractions: 0.05995, 0.08749, 0.16084, 0.27709, and 0.36313 over the water activity range 0.8951 = aw = 0.9832. (These ionic strength fractions correspond to NaNO3 molality fractions 0.27675, 0.36519, 0.53489, 0.69695, and 0.77381, respectively.) The results, and those of other studies for the two pure aqueous solutions, were used to determine the Pitzer model parameters for aqueous Eu(NO3)3 for molalities up to 3 mol kg–1 and the two ternary (mixture) parameters ?Eu,Na = 0.367 ± 0.0035 and ?Eu,Na,NO3 = -0.0743 ± 0.0014. Some deviations of the measurements from the fitted model, of the order of +0.0075 in the osmotic coefficient, were noted for mixtures containing less than about 1 mol kg–1 total NO3–. The use of the mixture parameters in the Pitzer model yields predicted trace activity coefficients of Eu3+ in 1 mol kg–1 aqueous NaNO3 almost a factor of 2 greater than if they are omitted.
李国正; 杨杰; 张良苗; 陆文聪; 陈念贻
2004-01-01
Pattern recognition methods were used to treat the experimentally measured data of Pitzer's coefficients of 107 electrolytes, to find the relationships between the ionic structural parameters of these electrolytes and Pitzer's coefficients. It is found that these relationships can be approximately expressed as linear equations of four dimensionless numbers, (R+/R- ), (R+ +R-)/Z+ Z- , (Z+/Z- ) and (Rt/Rl), where R+ and R- are the cationic and anionic radii respectively; Z+ and Z- are the cationic and anionic charge numbers respectively, and (Rt/Rl) denotes the nonsphericity of some non-spherical ions. Besides, it is found that the difference of the nuclear magnetic resonance measured rotational relaxation time of water molecules around cations and anions, |△τ|, has good correlation with Pitzer's coefficients. The relationships can be interpreted by the theory of corresponding states of ionic solutions. Based on the relationships, an example of application to some hydrometallurgical process was discussed.
Morteza Jabbari; Rahele Zhiani; Ali Farajtabar
2015-06-01
The protonation equilibria for the flavonoid naringenin were studied at 25°C using combined multiwavelength spectroscopic and pH-potentiometric methods as a function of the ionic strength. Over a wide range of ionic strengths, 0.10–3.00 mol dm−3, the investigation was performed in different aqueous solutions of NaClO4 as the background electrolyte. The dependence on ionic strength of protonation constants was modeled by the Brönsted–Guggenheim–Scatchard Specific Ion Interaction Theory (SIT) and Pitzer approaches. Apart from the values of SIT interaction coefficients and Pitzer parameters, the protonation constants at infinite dilution (zero ionic strength) were obtained. On the basis of these results, it was found that Pitzer mode l gives more satisfactory results rather than the SIT method.
Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Xu, Tianfu; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel , Carl
2006-12-15
In this report, we present: -- The Pitzer ion-interactiontheory and models -- Input file requirements for using the TOUGHREACTPitzer ion-interaction model and associated databases -- Run-time errormessages -- Verification test cases and application examples. For themain code structure, features, overall solution methods, description ofinput/output files for parameters other than those specific to theimplemented Pitzer model, and error messages, see the TOUGHREACT User'sGuide (Xu et al., 2005). The TOUGHREACT Pitzer version runs on aDEC-alpha architecture CPU, under OSF1 V5.1, with Compaq Digital FortranCompiler. The compiler run-time libraries are required for execution aswell as compilation. The code also runs on Intel Pentium IV andhigher-version CPU-based machines with Compaq Visual Fortran Compiler orIntel Fortran Compiler (integrated with the Microsoft DevelopmentEnvironment). The minimum hardware configuration should include 1 GB RAMand 1 GB (2 GB recommended) of available disk space.
Boily, Jean F.; Qafoku, Odeta; Felmy, Andrew R.
2007-12-01
Aluminium-oxalate complexation was determined in acidic media of aqueous NaCl solutions ranging from 0.1-5.0 mol•dm-3. Complexation in the H+-Al3+ and H+-Oxalate systems was also studied to provide a set of internally consistent thermodynamic data. The ionic strength dependent formation constants describing the stabilities of the Al3+, AlOH2+, Al3(OH)45+, Al13O4(OH)247+, H2L, HL-, L2-, AlL+, AlL2- and AlL33- species (where L is the oxalate ion) was also described using a Pitzer ion interaction model. The derived parameters can be used to predict chemical speciation in the H+-Al3+-Oxalate system in the 0.1-5.0 mol•dm-3 NaCl range.
Chatterjee, Sayandev; Campbell, Emily L.; Neiner, Doinita; Pence, Natasha; Robinson, Troy; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.
2015-09-11
To date, only limited thermodynamic models describing activity coefficients of the aqueous solutions of lanthanide ions are available. This work expands the existing experimental osmotic coefficient data obtained by classical isopiestic technique for the aqueous binary trivalent lanthanide nitrate Ln(NO3)3 solutions using a combination of water activity and vapor pressure osmometry measurements. The combined osmotic coefficient database for each aqueous lanthanide nitrate at 25°C, consisting of literature available data as well as data obtained in this work, was used to test the validity of Pitzer and Bromley thermodynamic models for the accurate prediction of mean molal activity coefficients of the Ln(NO3)3 solutions in wide concentration ranges. The new and improved Pitzer and Bromley parameters were calculated. It was established that the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients in the solutions with ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 can be estimated by both Pitzer and single-parameter Bromley models, even though the latter provides for more accurate prediction, particularly in the lower ionic strength regime (up to 6 mol kg-1). On the other hand for the concentrated solutions, the extended three-parameter Bromley model can be employed to predict the Ln(NO3)3 activity coefficients with remarkable accuracy. The accuracy of the extended Bromley model in predicting the activity coefficients was greater than ~95% and ~90% for all solutions with the ionic strength up to 12 mol kg-1 and and 20 mol kg-1, respectively. This is the first time that the activity coefficients for concentrated lanthanide solutions have been predicted with such a remarkable accuracy.
Marjani, Azam
2016-07-01
For biomolecules and cell particles purification and separation in biological engineering, besides the chromatography as mostly applied process, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are of the most favorable separation processes that are worth to be investigated in thermodynamic theoretically. In recent years, thermodynamic calculation of ATPS properties has attracted much attention due to their great applications in chemical industries such as separation processes. These phase calculations of ATPS have inherent complexity due to the presence of ions and polymers in aqueous solution. In this work, for target ternary systems of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000)-salt-water, thermodynamic investigation for constituent systems with three salts (NaCl, KCl and LiCl) has been carried out as PEG is the most favorable polymer in ATPS. The modified perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state (EOS), extended Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models were employed for calculation of activity coefficients for the considered systems. Four additional statistical parameters were considered to ensure the consistency of correlations and introduced as objective functions in the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results showed desirable agreement to the available experimental data, and the order of recommendation of studied models is PHSC EOS > extended Debye-Hückel > Pitzer. The concluding remark is that the all the employed models are reliable in such calculations and can be used for thermodynamic correlation/predictions; however, by using an ion-based parameter calculation method, the PHSC EOS reveals both reliability and universality of applications.
Christov, Christomir E-mail: hhristov@chem.ucsd.edu
2004-03-01
This paper describes a chemical model that calculates (solid + liquid) equilibria in the {l_brace}m{sub 1}FeCl{sub 2} + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}FeSO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}NaCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}FeSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}NaCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}KCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}KCl + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq), {l_brace}m{sub 1}K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}FeSO{sub 4}{r_brace}(aq), and {l_brace}m{sub 1}MgCl{sub 2} + m{sub 2}FeCl{sub 2}{r_brace}(aq) systems, where m denotes molality at T=298.15 K. The Pitzer ion-interaction model has been used for thermodynamic analysis of the experimental activity data in binary FeCl{sub 2}(aq) and FeCl{sub 3}(aq) solutions, and ternary solubility data, presented in the literature. The thermodynamic functions needed (binary and ternary parameters of ionic interaction, thermodynamic solubility products) have been calculated and the theoretical solubility isotherms have been plotted. The mixed solution model parameters {l_brace}{theta}(MN) and {psi}(MNX){r_brace} have been chosen on the basis of the compositions of saturated ternary solutions and data on the pure water solubility of the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O double salt. The standard chemical potentials of four ferrous {l_brace}FeCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, and MgCl{sub 2} {center_dot} FeCl{sub 2} {center_dot} 8H{sub 2}O{r_brace} and three ferric {l_brace}FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O, 2KCl {center_dot} FeCl{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O, and 2K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} Fe{sub 2}(SO
Plummer, L.N.; Parkhurst, D.L.; Fleming, G.W.; Dunkle, S.A.
1988-01-01
The program named PHRQPITZ is a computer code capable of making geochemical calculations in brines and other electrolyte solutions to high concentrations using the Pitzer virial-coefficient approach for activity-coefficient corrections. Reaction-modeling capabilities include calculation of (1) aqueous speciation and mineral-saturation index, (2) mineral solubility, (3) mixing and titration of aqueous solutions, (4) irreversible reactions and mineral water mass transfer, and (5) reaction path. The computed results for each aqueous solution include the osmotic coefficient, water activity , mineral saturation indices, mean activity coefficients, total activity coefficients, and scale-dependent values of pH, individual-ion activities and individual-ion activity coeffients , and scale-dependent values of pH, individual-ion activities and individual-ion activity coefficients. A data base of Pitzer interaction parameters is provided at 25 C for the system: Na-K-Mg-Ca-H-Cl-SO4-OH-HCO3-CO3-CO2-H2O, and extended to include largely untested literature data for Fe(II), Mn(II), Sr, Ba, Li, and Br with provision for calculations at temperatures other than 25C. An extensive literature review of published Pitzer interaction parameters for many inorganic salts is given. Also described is an interactive input code for PHRQPITZ called PITZINPT. (USGS)
Stegen, J.H.G. van der; Weerdenburg, H.; Veen, A.J. van der; Hogendoorn, J.A.; Versteeg, G.F.
1999-01-01
The Pitzer model can be applied to predict the mean activity coefficients of salts in aqueous electrolyte solutions as a function of the molality. In this work it is shown that the mean activity coefficients for NaOH and NaCl solutions as predicted by the Pitzer model are in good agreement with expe
Rai, Dhanpat [Rai Enviro-Chem, LLC, Yachats, OR (United States); Felmy, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States); Kitamura, Akira; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Doi, Reisuke; Yoshida, Yasushi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura (Japan); Moore, Dean A.
2014-11-01
The aqueous solubility of BaSeO{sub 4}(cr) was studied at 23 ± 2 C as a function of Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} concentrations (0.0001 to 4.1 mol kg{sup -1}) and equilibration periods (3 to 596 d). The equilibrium, approached from both the under- and over-saturation directions, in this system was reached rather rapidly (≤ 3d). The SIT and Pitzer's ion-interaction models were used to interpret these data and the predictions based on both of these models agreed closely with the experimental data. Thermodynamic analyses of the data show that BaSeO{sub 4}(cr) is the solubility-controlling phase for Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} concentrations < 0.59 mol kg{sup -1}. The log{sub 10}K{sup 0} value for the BaSeO{sub 4}(cr) solubility product (BaSeO{sub 4}(cr) ↔ Ba{sup 2+} + SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) calculated by the SIT and Pitzer models were very similar (-7.32 ± 0.07 with Pitzer and -7.25 ± 0.11 with SIT). Although the BaSeO{sub 4}(cr) solubility product and Ba concentrations as a function of Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} concentrations predicted by both the SIT and Pitzer models are similar, the models required different sets of fitting parameters. For examples, (1) interpretations using the SIT model required the inclusion of Ba(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2-} species with log{sub 10}K{sup 0} = 3.44 ± 0.12 for the reaction (Ba{sup 2+} + 2SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ↔ Ba(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}{sup 2-}), whereas these species are not needed for Pitzer model, and (2) at Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} concentrations > 0.59 mol kg{sup -1} it was also possible to calculate the value for log{sub 10}K{sup 0} for the solubility product of a proposed double salt (Na{sub 2}Ba(SeO{sub 4}){sub 2}(s) ↔ 2Na{sup +} + Ba{sup 2+} + 2SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}) which for the SIT model is -(8.70 ± 0.29) whereas for the Pitzer model it is -(9.19 ± 0.19). The ion-interaction/ion-association parameters hitherto unavailable for both the SIT and Pitzer models required to fit these extensive data extending to as high ionic strengths as 12.3 mol
Nichols,T.T.; Taylor,D.D.
2003-09-26
A status is presented of the parameterization during FY2003 of an association-based Pitzer model to simulate chemical and phase equilibria of acid-chloride-nitrate-mercury aqueous electrolyte systems at 0-100 C within the industry-standard process simulator, ASPEN Plus. Compatibility with ASPEN Plus requires that the Pitzer model used be limited to the third virial coefficient and have the values of b and a1 as originally proposed by Pitzer. Two aqueous models for 0-110 C at atmospheric pressure were parameterized in FY03. The model for the aqueous H+-K+-Na+-Cl- system is applicable for 0-16 molal, and the HNO3-H2O for 0-20 molal. An association-based Pitzer activity coefficient model is combined with Henry's law to predict activity/osmotic coefficient and VLE. The chloride model also predicts KCl and NaCl solubility, while the nitric acid model has the unique capability of predicting extent of dissociation with an average absolute deviation of 1.43%. The association-based approach presented here extends the utility of the molality-based Pitzer model past 6 molal to predict activity/osmotic coefficients up to 16-20 molal. The association-based approach offers the additional benefits of predicting extent of dissociation and of allowing the Pitzer model to be fully utilized in commercial simulators, such as ASPEN Plus, that require accounting for association to implement Henry's law. The Pitzer models presented here provide the chemical process simulation engineer with a superior alternative to the Electrolyte NRTL model that can easily be used in ASPEN Plus.
Todd T. Nichols; Dean D. Taylor
2003-09-01
A status is presented of the parameterization during FY2003 of an association-based Pitzer model to simulate chemical and phase equilibria of acid-chloride-nitrate-mercury aqueous electrolyte systems at 0-100° C within the industry-standard process simulator, ASPEN Plus. Compatibility with ASPEN Plus requires that the Pitzer model used be limited to the third virial coefficient and have the values of b and a1 as originally proposed by Pitzer. Two aqueous models for 0-110° C at atmospheric pressure were parameterized in FY03. The model for the aqueous H+-K+-Na+-Cl- system is applicable for 0-16 molal, and the HNO3-H2O for 0-20 molal. An association-based Pitzer activity coefficient model is combined with Henry.s law to predict activity/osmotic coefficient and VLE. The chloride model also predicts KCl and NaCl solubility, while the nitric acid model has the unique capability of predicting extent of dissociation with an average absolute deviation of 1.43%. The association-based approach presented here extends the utility of the molality-based Pitzer model past 6 molal to predict activity/osmotic coefficients up to 16-20 molal. The association-based approach offers the additional benefits of predicting extent of dissociation and of allowing the Pitzer model to be fully utilized in commercial simulators, such as ASPEN Plus, that require accounting for association to implement Henry’s law. The Pitzer models presented here provide the chemical process simulation engineer with a superior alternative to the Electrolyte NRTL model that can easily be used in ASPEN Plus.
Ghalami-Choobar, Bahram, E-mail: B-Ghalami@guilan.ac.i [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 19141, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2011-06-15
Research highlights: The thermodynamic properties of the ternary mixed electrolyte system (NaCl + NiCl{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O), by including the effects of higher-order electrostatic terms, are reported. The new self made ion selective electrodes have been used to determine the thermodynamic properties. The emf measurements have been performed on the entire range of total ionic strengths from 0.001 to 4.0 mol kg{sup -1}. The Pitzer model has been used to the thermodynamic properties correlation by including the effects of higher-order electrostatic terms. - Abstract: In this work, the thermodynamic properties of the ternary mixed electrolyte system (NaCl + NiCl{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O), using the potentiometric method, are reported. The potentiometric measurements were carried out on the galvanic cell without liquid junction of the type: Na-ISE/NaCl (m{sub 1}), NiCl{sub 2} (m{sub 2}), H{sub 2}O/Ag-AgCl over total ionic strengths from (0.001 to 4.000) mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. A different series of the salt molality ratios r(r=m{sub NaCl}/m{sub NiCl{sub 2}}=2.5,5.0,7.5,10.0) and pure NaCl were used for the measurement at T = 298.2 K. The results obtained were interpreted by using Pitzer ion-interaction model. The Pitzer mixing parameters have been evaluated for the system by including the effects of higher-order electrostatic terms. The Pitzer model is satisfactory and adequate for the description of our aqueous system. Furthermore, the parameters obtained with the Pitzer model were used to calculate the values of the mean activity coefficients of NiCl{sub 2}, the osmotic coefficients, solvent activity and the excess Gibbs free energy for the whole series of the mixed electrolyte system that was studied.
Towards a quality-controlled and accessible Pitzer model for seawater and related systems
David Turner
2016-09-01
Full Text Available We elaborate the need for a quality-controlled chemical speciation model for seawater and related natural waters, work which forms the major focus of SCOR Working Group 145. Model development is based on Pitzer equations for the seawater electrolyte and trace components. These equations can be used to calculate activities of dissolved ions and molecules and, in combination with thermodynamic equilibrium constants, chemical speciation. The major tasks to be addressed are ensuring internal consistency of the Pitzer model parameters (expressing the interactions between pairs and triplets of species, which ultimately determines the calculated activities, assessing uncertainties, and identifying important data gaps that should be addressed by new measurements. It is recognised that natural organic matter plays an important role in many aquatic ecosystems, and options for including this material in a Pitzer-based model are discussed. The process of model development begins with the core components which include the seawater electrolyte and the weak acids controlling pH. This core model can then be expanded by incorporating additional chemical components, changing the standard seawater composition and/or broadening the range of temperature and pressure, without compromising its validity. Seven important areas of application are identified: open ocean acidification; micro-nutrient biogeochemistry and geochemical tracers; micro-nutrient behaviour in laboratory studies; water quality in coastal and estuarine waters; cycling of nutrients and trace metals in pore waters; chemical equilibria in hydrothermal systems; brines and salt lakes.
LIU; Xingqi; CAI; Keqin; YU; Shengsong
2004-01-01
The geochemical simulation of the formation of brine and salt minerals based on Pitzer model was made in Caka Salt Lake. The evolution of the mixed surface-water and the mineral sequences were calculated and compared with the hydrochemical compositions of the brine and the salt minerals of the deposit in Caka Salt Lake. The results show that the formation temperature of the lake is between 0℃ and 5℃, which is well identical with other studies. The mixing of salt-karst water with the surface waters, neglected by the former researchers, is very important to the formation of the lake, indicating that the initial waters resulting in the formation of the lake are multi-source. It is the first time to use Pitzer model in China for making geochemical simulation of the formation and evolution of inland salt lake and satisfactory results have been achieved.
Triple-ion interactions for the construction of supramolecular capsules
Oshovsky, G.; Reinhoudt, David; Verboom, Willem
2006-01-01
A novel type of [2+4] capsules based on triple-ion interactions was obtained. Four monovalent anions (bromide, nitrate, acetate, and tosylate) bring together two tetrakis(pyridiniummethyl)tetramethyl cavitands by pyridinium−anion−pyridinium interactions. ESI-MS experiments have confirmed the capsule
Jang, J. H.; Nemer, M.
2015-12-01
The U.S. DOE Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep underground repository for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste. The WIPP is located in the Permian Delaware Basin near Carlsbad, New Mexico, U.S.A. The TRU waste includes, but is not limited to, iron-based alloys and the complexing agent, citric acid. Iron is also present from the steel used in the waste containers. The objective of this analysis is to derive the Pitzer activity coefficients for the pair of Na+ and FeCit- complex to expand current WIPP thermodynamic database. An aqueous model for the dissolution of Fe(OH)2(s) in a Na3Cit solution was fitted to the experimentally measured solubility data. The aqueous model consists of several chemical reactions and related Pitzer interaction parameters. Specifically, Pitzer interaction parameters for the Na+ and FeCit- pair (β(0), β(1), and Cφ) plus the stability constant for species of FeCit- were fitted to the experimental data. Anoxic gloveboxes were used to keep the oxygen level low (<1 ppm) throughout the experiments due to redox sensitivity. EQ3NR, a computer program for geochemical aqueous speciation-solubility calculations, packaged in EQ3/6 v.8.0a, calculates the aqueous speciation and saturation index using an aqueous model addressed in EQ3/6's database. The saturation index indicates how far the system is from equilibrium with respect to the solid of interest. Thus, the smaller the sum of squared saturation indices that the aqueous model calculates for the given number of experiments, the more closely the model attributes equilibrium to each individual experiment with respect to the solid of interest. The calculation of aqueous speciation and saturation indices was repeated by adjusting stability constant of FeCit-, β(0), β(1), and Cφ in the database until the values are found that make the sum of squared saturation indices the smallest for the given number of experiments. Results will be presented at the time of
Lach, Adeline; Boulahya, Faïza; André, Laurent; Lassin, Arnault; Azaroual, Mohamed; Serin, Jean-Paul; Cézac, Pierre
2016-07-01
The thermal and volumetric properties of complex aqueous solutions are described according to the Pitzer equation, explicitly taking into account the speciation in the aqueous solutions. The thermal properties are the apparent relative molar enthalpy (Lϕ) and the apparent molar heat capacity (Cp,ϕ). The volumetric property is the apparent molar volume (Vϕ). Equations describing these properties are obtained from the temperature or pressure derivatives of the excess Gibbs energy and make it possible to calculate the dilution enthalpy (∆HD), the heat capacity (cp) and the density (ρ) of aqueous solutions up to high concentrations. Their implementation in PHREEQC V.3 (Parkhurst and Appelo, 2013) is described and has led to a new numerical tool, called PhreeSCALE. It was tested first, using a set of parameters (specific interaction parameters and standard properties) from the literature for two binary systems (Na2SO4-H2O and MgSO4-H2O), for the quaternary K-Na-Cl-SO4 system (heat capacity only) and for the Na-K-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4-HCO3 system (density only). The results obtained with PhreeSCALE are in agreement with the literature data when the same standard solution heat capacity (Cp0) and volume (V0) values are used. For further applications of this improved computation tool, these standard solution properties were calculated independently, using the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations. By using this kind of approach, most of the Pitzer interaction parameters coming from literature become obsolete since they are not coherent with the standard properties calculated according to the HKF formalism. Consequently a new set of interaction parameters must be determined. This approach was successfully applied to the Na2SO4-H2O and MgSO4-H2O binary systems, providing a new set of optimized interaction parameters, consistent with the standard solution properties derived from the HKF equations.
宋婷; 刘士军; 肖刘萍; 陈启元
2012-01-01
用等压法测定了在303.15 K时总碱质量摩尔浓度mNaOH(T)[mNaOH+mNaAl(OH)4]从0.61 mol/kg到5.72mol/kg,苛性比αK[ mNaOH(T) /mNaAl( OH)4]从1.98到7.04的NaOH-NaAl( OH)4-H2O溶液体系的等压平衡浓度和渗透系数,并得到该溶液体系的水活度.用Pitzer模型对实验结果进行了参数化研究,拟合求得了离子相互作用参数.用Pitzer模型计算的渗透系数值与实验结果一致.用获得的参数计算了NaOH和NaAl( OH)4在NaOH-NaAl(OH)4-H2O溶液体系中的活度系数,其值随总碱质量摩尔浓度的增加呈增加的趋势.%The isopiestic equilibrium molalities and the osmotic coefficients for the NaOH-NaAl(OH)4-H2O system were measured using isopiestic method. At 303. 15 K with the total alkli molality[mNa0H(T)= mNa0H + mNaAi(OH)4] from 0. 61 mol/kg to 5.72 mol/kg and molar ratio of Na2O to Al2O3(αK) [mNa0H(T)/mNiA1(0H)4] from 1. 98 to 7. 04. The experimental data were represented by the Pitzer model. The Pitzer ion interaction parameters were evaluated from experimental data using multiple regression. The measured data of osmotic coefficients are in reasonable agreements with those calculated by the model. The activity coefficients of NaOH and NaAl (OH) 4 in the system were calculated from the ion interaction model parameterized, and the values increased with the total alkli molality increasing. These studies are useful to improve the thermodynamic model for sodium aluminate solutions systems and sodium aluminosilicate solutions systems.
肖刘萍; 刘士军; 宋婷; 陈启元
2011-01-01
The isopiestic molalities have been measured for the system NaOH-Na2H2SiO4-H20 by isopi- estic method in the ionic strength ranges from 0.5695 to 6.4775 mol·kg-1 and modulus （mole ratio of SiO2 to Na20） range from 0.1461 to 0.3158 at 313.15 K, and the osmotic coefficients and water activities have been calculated from the measurements. The experimental data have been represented by the Pitzer model of osmotic coefficient. The Pitzer ion interaction parameters were evaluated from experimental data using multiple regression. The experimental data of osmotic coefficients measured and calculated by using the Pitzer model are in reasonable agreements. It is shown that the Pitzer model can describe the system＇s thermody- namic properties well. The mean activity coefficients of NaOH and Na2H2SiO4 were also calculated for the NaOH-NaEH2SiO4-H2O system, and these calculations establish their variations with ionic strength and modulus. The mean activity coefficients of NaOH were compared with those calculated from Mckay-Perring equation, and it was pointed out that the application scope of Mckay-Perring equation for NaOH- NaEH2SiO4-H2O system.%采用等压法测定了313．15K下NaOH-Na2H2SiO4-H2O体系在0．5695～6．4775mol·kg-1的离子强度范围及0．1461～0．3158的模数（SiO2与Na2O的物质的量比）范围内的等压平衡浓度，计算了该混合体系的渗透系数和水活度．用Pitzer离子相互作用模型对实验结果进行了参数化研究，拟合求取了Pitzer离子相互作用参数．用Pitzer模型计算的渗透系数值与实验结果一致，说明该模型能较好的描述NaOH—Na2H2SiO4-H2O体系的热力学性质．用Pitzer模型计算得到了该体系的各组分平均活度系数随离子强度及模数的变化规律，并与Mckay—Perring方程计算得到的NaOH的平均活度系数进行了比较，指出Mckay—Perring方程的适用性．
Le, T T Yen; Wang, Peng; Vijver, Martina G; Kinraide, Thomas B; Hendriks, A Jan; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M
2014-09-01
Effects of ion-ion interactions on metal toxicity to lettuce Lactuca sativa were studied based on the electrical potential at the plasma membrane surface (ψ0 ). Surface interactions at the proximate outside of the membrane influenced ion activities at the plasma membrane surface ({M(n+)}0). At a given free Cu(2+) activity in the bulk medium ({Cu(2+)}b), additions of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) resulted in substantial decreases in {Cu(2+)}0. Additions of Zn(2+) led to declines in {Cu(2+)}0, but Cu(2+) and Ag(+) at the exposure levels tested had negligible effects on the plasma membrane surface activity of each other. Metal toxicity was expressed by the {M(n+)}0 -based strength coefficient, indicating a decrease of toxicity in the order: Ag(+) > Cu(2+) > Zn(2+). Adsorbed Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) had significant and dose-dependent effects on Cu(2+) toxicity in terms of osmolarity. Internal interactions between Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) and between Cu(2+) and Ag(+) were modeled by expanding the strength coefficients in concentration addition and response multiplication models. These extended models consistently indicated that Zn(2+) significantly alleviated Cu(2+) toxicity. According to the extended concentration addition model, Ag(+) significantly enhanced Cu(2+) toxicity whereas Cu(2+) reduced Ag(+) toxicity. By contrast, the response multiplication model predicted insignificant effects of adsorbed Cu(2+) and Ag(+) on the toxicity of each other. These interactions were interpreted using ψ0, demonstrating its influence on metal toxicity.
Majkic, M. D.; Nedeljkovic, N. N.; Galijas, S. M. D.
2010-07-01
We elaborated the time-symmetric, two-state vector model to investigate the intermediate stages of the electron capture into the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions interacting with solid surface under the grazing incidence geometry. The neutralization distances for the ions XeZ+ interacting with Al-surface are calculated, for core charges Z ?[5,30]. The corresponding mean neutralization distances are in agreement with the data deduced from the measured kinetic energy gain due to the image acceleration of the ions.
LI Chao-Hong; DUAN Yi-Wu; Wing-Ki Liu; Jian-Min Yuan
2001-01-01
Within Born-Oppenheimer approximation, by using the classical trajectory theory, a description for the high order harmonic generation of the hydrogen molecular ion interacting with ultrashort laser pulses has been pre sented. The Coulomb singularities have been remedied by the regularization. The action-angle variables have been used to generate the initial inversion symmetry microcanonical distribution. Within a proper intensity range, a harmonic plateau with only odd harmonics appears. For a larger intensity, because of the existence of chaos, the harmonic spectra become noisier. For a large enough intensity, the ionization takes place and the harmonics disappear. So the chaos causes the noises, the ionization suppresses the harmonic generation, and the onset of the ionization follows the onset of chaos.
Mirkovic, M. A.; Nedeljkovic, N. N.
2008-07-01
We analyze the angular momentum distributions of the electron transferred into the Rydberg states of multiply charged ions escaping the solid surfaces. The population probabilities are calculated within the framework of two-state-vector model; in the case of large values of the angular momentum quantum numbers l the model takes into account an importance of a wide space region around the projectile trajectory. The reionization of the previously populated states is also taken into account. The corresponding ionization rates are obtained by the appropriate etalon equation method; in the large-l case the radial electronic coordinate rho is treated as variational parameter. The theoretical predictions based on the proposed population-reionization mechanism fit the available beam-foil experimental data; the obtained large-l distributions are also used to elucidate the recent experimental data concerning the multiply charged Rydberg ions interacting with micro-capillary foil.
Hadron production in relativistic heavy ion interactions and the search for the quark-gluon plasma
Tannenbaum, M.J.
1989-12-01
The course starts with an introduction, from the experimentalist's point of view, of the challenge of measuring Relativistic Heavy Ion interactions. A review of some theoretical predictions for the expected signatures of the quark gluon plasma will be made, with a purpose to understand how they relate to quantities which may be experimentally measured. A short exposition of experimental techniques and details is given including charged particles in matter, momentum resolution, kinematics and Lorentz Transformations, calorimetry. Principles of particle identification including magnetic spectrometers, time of flight measurement. Illustrations using the E802 spectrometer and other measured results. Resolution smearing of spectra, and binning effects. Parent to daughter effects in decay, with {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma} {gamma} as an example. The experimental situation from the known data in p -- p collisions and proton-nucleus reactions is reviewed and used as a basis for further discussions. The Cronin Effect'' and the Seagull Effect'' being two arcana worth noting. Then, selected experiments from the BNL and CERN heavy ion programs are discussed in detail. 118 refs., 45 figs.
Nickel (II) Ions Interaction with Polynucleotides and DNA of Different GC Composition
Bregadze, Vasil G; Melikishvili, Sophie Z; Melikishvili, Zaza G
2009-01-01
The goal of the work was to study the role of GC alternative dimmers in the binding of DNA with Ni (II) ions. The method of ultraviolet difference spectroscopy has been applied to investigate Ni (II) ions interactions with DNA extracted from Clostridium perfringens, Mice liver (C3HA line), Calf thymus, Salmon sperm, Herring sperm, E.coli, Micrococcus luteus and polynucleotides Poly (dA-dT)xPoly (dA-dT), Poly (dG)x Poly (dC), Poly (dG-dC)xPoly (dG-dC). It is shown that Ni (II) ions at outer-spherical binding with DNA double helix from the side of the major groove choose more stable dimmers 3^'-C-G-5^' . . 5^'-G-C-3^' and get bound with N7 atoms of both guanines in dimmer forming G-G interstrand crosslink. It directly correlates to the process of forming point defects of Watson-Crick wrong pair type (creation of rare keto-enolic and amino-imino tautomeric forms) and depurinization.
Alhazmi, Hassan A; Deeb, Sami El; Nachbar, Markus; Redweik, Sabine; Albishri, Hassan M; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Wätzig, Hermann
2015-10-01
To facilitate the implementation of affinity capillary electrophoresis into routine binding screening studies of proteins with metal ions, method acceleration, transfer and precision improvement were investigated. Affinity capillary electrophoresis was accelerated by using shorter capillaries, employing lower sample concentrations and smaller injection volumes. Intra- and inter-instrument method transfers were investigated considering the temperature setting of the capillary cooling system. For intra-instrument method transfer, similar results were obtained when transferring a method from a long (62 cm) to a short (31 cm) capillary. The analysis time was reduced from 9 to 4 min. In case of inter-instrument method transfer, interaction results showed small variation on the capillary electrophoresis instrument with inefficient capillary cooling system. Binding measurement precision was enhanced by slightly pushing the sample above the beginning of the capillary. Changing the buffer vials after each 30 runs and employing extra flushing after each 60 subsequent runs further enhanced the precision. The use of 0.1 molar ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in the rinsing solution successfully desorbs the remaining metal ions from the capillary wall. Excellent precision for apparent mobility ratio measurements was achieved for different protein-metal ion interactions (relative standard deviation of 0.16-0.89%, 15 series, 12 runs for each).
Greene, George W; Thapa, Rajiv; Holt, Stephen A; Wang, Xiaoen; Garvey, Christopher J; Tabor, Rico F
2017-03-14
Lubricin (LUB) is a "mucin-like" glycoprotein found in synovial fluids and coating the cartilage surfaces of articular joints, which is now generally accepted as one of the body's primary boundary lubricants and antiadhesive agents. LUB's superior lubrication and antiadhesion are believed to derive from its unique interfacial properties by which LUB molecules adhere to surfaces (and biomolecules, such as hyaluronic acid and collagen) through discrete interactions localized to its two terminal end domains. These regionally specific interactions lead to self-assembly behavior and the formation of a well-ordered "telechelic" polymer brush structure on most substrates. Despite its importance to biological lubrication, detailed knowledge on the LUB's self-assembled brush structure is insufficient and derived mostly from indirect and circumstantial evidence. Neutron reflectometry (NR) was used to directly probe the self-assembled LUB layers, confirming the polymer brush architecture and resolving the degree of hydration and level of surface coverage. While attempting to improve the LUB contrast in the NR measurements, the LUB layers were exposed to a 20 mM solution of CaCl2, which resulted in a significant change in the polymer brush structural parameters consisting of a partial denaturation of the surface-binding end-domain regions, partial dehydration of the internal mucin-domain "loop", and collapse of the outer mucin-domain surface region. A series of atomic force microscopy measurements investigating the LUB layer surface morphology, mechanical properties, and adhesion forces in phosphate-buffered saline and CaCl2 solutions reveal that the structural changes induced by calcium ion interactions also significantly alter key properties, which may have implications to LUB's efficacy as a boundary lubricant and wear protector in the presence of elevated calcium ion concentrations.
Electron Bubbles in Superfluid (3) 3 He-A: Exploring the Quasiparticle-Ion Interaction
Shevtsov, Oleksii; Sauls, J. A.
2017-06-01
When an electron is forced into liquid ^3He, it forms an "electron bubble", a heavy ion with radius, R˜eq 1.5 nm, and mass, M˜eq 100 m_3, where m_3 is the mass of a ^3He atom. These negative ions have proven to be powerful local probes of the physical properties of the host quantum fluid, especially the excitation spectra of the superfluid phases. We recently developed a theory for Bogoliubov quasiparticles scattering off electron bubbles embedded in a chiral superfluid that provides a detailed understanding of the spectrum of Weyl Fermions bound to the negative ion, as well as a theory for the forces on moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3He-A (Shevtsov and Sauls in Phys Rev B 94:064511, 2016). This theory is shown to provide quantitative agreement with measurements reported by the RIKEN group (Ikegami et al. in Science 341(6141):59, 2013) for the drag force and anomalous Hall effect of moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3He-A. In this report, we discuss the sensitivity of the forces on the moving ion to the effective interaction between normal-state quasiparticles and the ion. We consider models for the quasiparticle-ion (QP-ion) interaction, including the hard-sphere potential, constrained random-phase-shifts, and interactions with short-range repulsion and intermediate-range attraction. Our results show that the transverse force responsible for the anomalous Hall effect is particularly sensitive to the structure of the QP-ion potential and that strong short-range repulsion, captured by the hard-sphere potential, provides an accurate model for computing the forces acting on the moving electron bubble in superfluid 3He-A.
Electron Bubbles in Superfluid ^3 He-A: Exploring the Quasiparticle-Ion Interaction
Shevtsov, Oleksii; Sauls, J. A.
2016-11-01
When an electron is forced into liquid ^3 He, it forms an "electron bubble", a heavy ion with radius, R˜eq 1.5 nm, and mass, M˜eq 100 m_3 , where m_3 is the mass of a ^3 He atom. These negative ions have proven to be powerful local probes of the physical properties of the host quantum fluid, especially the excitation spectra of the superfluid phases. We recently developed a theory for Bogoliubov quasiparticles scattering off electron bubbles embedded in a chiral superfluid that provides a detailed understanding of the spectrum of Weyl Fermions bound to the negative ion, as well as a theory for the forces on moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3 He-A (Shevtsov and Sauls in Phys Rev B 94:064511, 2016). This theory is shown to provide quantitative agreement with measurements reported by the RIKEN group (Ikegami et al. in Science 341(6141):59, 2013) for the drag force and anomalous Hall effect of moving electron bubbles in superfluid ^3 He-A. In this report, we discuss the sensitivity of the forces on the moving ion to the effective interaction between normal-state quasiparticles and the ion. We consider models for the quasiparticle-ion (QP-ion) interaction, including the hard-sphere potential, constrained random-phase-shifts, and interactions with short-range repulsion and intermediate-range attraction. Our results show that the transverse force responsible for the anomalous Hall effect is particularly sensitive to the structure of the QP-ion potential and that strong short-range repulsion, captured by the hard-sphere potential, provides an accurate model for computing the forces acting on the moving electron bubble in superfluid 3 He-A.
Uncovering the Sensitivity of Amide-II Vibration to Peptide-Ion Interactions.
Zhao, Juan; Wang, Jianping
2016-09-15
In this work, linear infrared spectroscopy was used to examine the effect of salt on the amide-II mode in a model β-peptide (N-ethylpropionamide, NEPA) in its deuterated form, to reveal the sensitivity of this mode in reporting peptide-ion interactions. In comparison to the case of NEPA in water, the amide-II spectra mainly showed a red-shifted component in four typical saline solutions (NaCl, CaCl2, MgCl2, and AlCl3) examined in this work. Our results suggest that highly populated hydrated ion complexes under high salt concentration conditions destroy the hydration layer of the model peptide and result in mostly a salting-out state of the peptide. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the hydrated cation mainly interacts with the peptide backbone on the amide C═O side, whereas the hydrated anion interacts on the amide N-H side. As the amide-II mode is mainly a combination of the C-N stretching and N-H in-plane-bending vibrations, this mode is advantageous in being responsive to ionic interaction from both the C═O and N-H sides. Such a dual sensitivity should be very useful in probing the breaking and/or formation of the interamide hydrogen bond between the C═O and N-H groups, which is a very important interaction involved in the solvation and stabilization, as well as folding/unfolding of proteins.
Krueger, Joel; Szanto, Thomas
2016-01-01
Until recently, philosophers and psychologists conceived of emotions as brain- and body-bound affairs. But researchers have started to challenge this internalist and individualist orthodoxy. A rapidly growing body of work suggests that some emotions incorporate external resources and thus extend...... beyond the neurophysiological confines of organisms; some even argue that emotions can be socially extended and shared by multiple agents. Call this the extended emotions thesis (ExE). In this article, we consider different ways of understanding ExE in philosophy, psychology, and the cognitive sciences....... First, we outline the background of the debate and discuss different argumentative strategies for ExE. In particular, we distinguish ExE from cognate but more moderate claims about the embodied and situated nature of cognition and emotion (Section 1). We then dwell upon two dimensions of ExE: emotions...
Müller, Ingo
1993-01-01
Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...
Hu, Tingting; Tian, Nan; Ali, Sarmad; Wang, Zhen; Chang, Jiarui; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin
2016-03-01
The crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-sodium iodine (NaI) composites is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), extensional rheology, and in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with the aim of demonstrating versatile roles played by polymer-ion interactions. In the isothermal quiescent crystallization process, a decrease in the crystal growth rate is observed for PEO-NaI and is attributed to slow chain movement caused by the coordination between cations and polymer. In situ SAXS on extensional flow-induced crystallization (FIC) exhibits enhanced kinetics and orientation for both PEO and PEO-NaI with increasing strain rate. However, an overall weaker strain-rate dependence of FIC is observed for PEO-NaI, which can be interpreted as a synergistic consequence of promoted nucleation under flow and impeded crystal growth by polymer-ion interaction. A possible microscopic mechanism is proposed to account for the experimental observation based on the formation of transient cross-linking points in PEO-NaI and their influence on the entanglement network of polymer under various flow fields. The disclosed strain-rate dependence and various ion effects on the behavior of PEO-salt composites contribute to a comprehensive understanding of polymer-ion solid polyelectrolytes.
Franceschi, Alessandro
2014-01-01
This book is a clear, detailed and practical guide to learn about designing and deploying you puppet architecture, with informative examples to highlight and explain concepts in a focused manner. This book is designed for users who already have good experience with Puppet, and will surprise experienced users with innovative topics that explore how to design, implement, adapt, and deploy a Puppet architecture. The key to extending Puppet is the development of types and providers, for which you must be familiar with Ruby.
A computer game's player is experiencing not only the game as a designer-made artefact, but also a multitude of social and cultural practices and contexts of both computer game play and everyday life. As a truly multidisciplinary anthology, Extending Experiences sheds new light on the mesh...... of possibilities and influences the player engages with. Part one, Experiential Structures of Play, considers some of the key concepts commonly used to address the experience of a computer game player. The second part, Bordering Play, discusses conceptual and practical overlaps of games and everyday life...
Vincent, Jordan C.; Matt, Sarah M.; Rankin, Blake M.; D'Auria, Raffaella; Freites, J. Alfredo; Ben-Amotz, Dor; Tobias, Douglas J.
2015-10-01
Specific ion interactions of KF, and the Na+ salts of SO42-, F-, Cl-, NO3-, I-, and ClO4- with benzene in aqueous solutions were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations and compared with experimental Raman multivariate curve resolution (Raman-MCR) and thermodynamic results. Good agreement is found with the hydration-shell partition coefficients of salts obtained from the thermodynamic analysis and of halogen anions obtained from the Raman-MCR spectra of benzene and pyridine. Larger discrepancies between the simulation and thermodynamic cation partitioning results point to the influence of counter-ion interaction on cation partitioning.
Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia
2012-01-01
There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...
Zhang, Guoxiang; Zheng, Zuoping; Wan, Jiamin
2004-01-28
Concentrated aqueous solutions (CAS) have unique thermodynamic and physical properties. Chemical components in CAS are incompletely dissociated, especially those containing divalent or polyvalent ions. The problem is further complicated by the interaction between CAS flow processes and the naturally heterogeneous sediments. As the CAS migrates through the porous media, the composition may be altered subject to fluid-rock interactions. To effectively model reactive transport of CAS, we must take into account ion-interaction. A combination of the Pitzer ion-interaction and the ion-association model would be an appropriate way to deal with multiple-component systems if the Pitzer' parameters and thermodynamic data of dissolved components and the related minerals are available. To quantify the complicated coupling of CAS flow and transport, as well as the involved chemical reactions in natural and engineered systems, we have substantially extended an existing reactive biogeochemical transport code, BIO-CORE{sup 2D}{copyright}, by incorporating a comprehensive Pitzer ion-interaction model. In the present paper, the model, and two test cases against measured data were briefly introduced. Finally we present an application to simulate a laboratory column experiment studying the leakage of the high alkaline waste fluid stored in Hanford (a site of the U.S. Department of Energy, located in Washington State, USA). With the Pitzer ion-interaction ionic activity model, our simulation captures measured pH evolution. The simulation indicates that all the reactions controlling the pH evolution, including cation exchanges, mineral precipitation and dissolution, are coupled.
Kost, D.
2006-07-01
values. In addition, the experimental results are compared with computer simulations based on the extended dynamical over-the-barrier model. From these calculations, the ratio of deposited potential energy that is transformed into kinetic energy before deposition due to the image charge acceleration can be maintained. (orig.)
Brax, Philippe
2015-01-01
We extend the chameleon models by considering Scalar-Fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyse models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where inter...
Information entropy of a time-dependent three-level trapped ion interacting with a laser field
Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud
2005-10-01
Trapped and laser-cooled ions are increasingly used for a variety of modern high-precision experiments, frequency standard applications and quantum information processing. Therefore, in this communication we present a comprehensive analysis of the pattern of information entropy arising in the time evolution of an ion interacting with a laser field. A general analytic approach is proposed for a three-level trapped-ion system in the presence of the time-dependent couplings. By working out an exact analytic solution, we conclusively analyse the general properties of the von Neumann entropy and quantum information entropy. It is shown that the information entropy is affected strongly by the time-dependent coupling and exhibits long time periodic oscillations. This feature attributed to the fact that in the time-dependent region Rabi oscillation is time dependent. Using parameters corresponding to a specific three-level ionic system, a single beryllium ion in a RF-(Paul) trap, we obtain illustrative examples of some novel aspects of this system in the dynamical evolution. Our results establish an explicit relation between the exact information entropy and the entanglement between the multi-level ion and the laser field. We show that different nonclassical effects arise in the dynamics of the ionic population inversion, depending on the initial states of the vibrational motion/field and on the values of Lamb-Dicke parameter η.
Guo, Jianyu; Zhang, Xiangmin
2004-06-01
The single-crystal structure of SrCl2 x 2C6H12O6 x 3H2O was determined with Mr = 572.88, a = 16.252, b = 7.941(2), c = 10.751(3) angstroms, beta = 127.652(4) degrees, V = 1098.5(6) angstroms3, C2, Z = 2, mu = 0.71073 angstroms and R = 0.0296 for 1998 observed reflections. The fructose moiety of the complex exists as a beta-d-pyranose. The strontium atom is surrounded by eight oxygen atoms, which are arranged in symmetry-related pairs that are derived from four sugar and two water molecules. Three nonvicinal hydroxyl groups of fructose are involved in strontium binding. All the hydroxyl groups and water molecules are involved in forming an extensive hydrogen-bond network. The Sr-fructose complex is isostructural with the Ca-fructose complex, and the crystal structures and FTIR spectra of the two complexes are compared in this article. The O-H, C-O, and C-O-H vibrations are shifted, and the relative intensities changed in the complexes IR spectra, which indicate sugar metalation. By studying the metal-binding properties of fructose, it is hoped that such would aid in the understanding of the structural chemistry of metal ions interacting with saccharides, as an actual biological system, and thereby aid in the interpretation of some particular biological processes.
Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman
2016-06-01
In this study, we attempt to bring out a generalized formulation for electro-osmotic flows over inhomogeneously charged surfaces in presence of non-electrostatic ion-ion interactions. To this end, we start with modified electro-chemical potential of the individual species and subsequently use it to derive modified Nernst-Planck equation accounting for the ionic fluxes generated because of the presence of non-electrostatic potential. We establish what we refer to as the Poisson-Helmholtz-Nernst-Planck equations, coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations, to describe the complete transport process. Our analysis shows that the presence of non-electrostatic interactions between the ions results in an excess body force on the fluid, and modifies the osmotic pressure as well, which has hitherto remained unexplored. We further apply our analysis to a simple geometry, in an effort to work out the Smoluchowski slip velocity for thin electrical double layer limits. To this end, we employ singular perturbation and develop a general framework for the asymptotic analysis. Our calculations reveal that the final expression for slip velocity remains the same as that without accounting for non-electrostatic interactions. However, the presence of non-electrostatic interactions along with ion specificity can significantly change the quantitative behavior of Smoluchowski slip velocity. We subsequently demonstrate that the presence of non-electrostatic interactions may significantly alter the effective interfacial potential, also termed as the "Zeta potential." Our analysis can potentially act as a guide towards the prediction and possibly quantitative determination of the implications associated with the existence of non-electrostatic potential, in an electrokinetic transport process.
On generalized extending modules
ZENG Qing-yi
2007-01-01
A module M is called generalized extending if for any submodule N of M, there is a direct summand K of M such that N≤K and K/N is singular. Any extending module and any singular module are generalized extending. Any homomorphic image of a generalized extending module is generalized extending. Any direct sum of a singular (uniform) module and a semi-simple module is generalized extending. A ring R is a right Co-H-ring ifand only ifall right R modules are generalized extending modules.
Iverson, Chad D; Gu, Xinyun; Lucy, Charles A
2016-08-05
This work systematically investigates the selectivity changes on many HILIC phases from w(w)pH 3.7-6.8, at 5 and 25mM buffer concentrations. Hydrophilicity (kcytosine/kuracil) vs. ion interaction (kBTMA/kuracil) selectivity plots developed by Ibrahim et al. (J. Chromatogr. A 1260 (2012) 126-131) are used to investigate the effect of mobile phase changes on the selectivity of 18 HILIC columns from various classes. "Selectivity change plots" focus on the change in hydrophilicity and ion interaction that the columns exhibit upon changing mobile phase conditions. In general, the selectivity behavior of most HILIC columns is dominated by silanol activity. Minimal changes in selectivity are observed upon changing pH between w(w)pH 5 and 6.8. However, a reduction in ionic interaction is observed when the buffer concentration is increased at w(w)pH≥5.0 due to ionic shielding. Reduction of the w(w)pH to<5.0 results in decreasing cation exchange activity due to silanol protonation. Under all eluent conditions, the majority of phases show little change in their hydrophilicity.
Solubility in the ternary system CaSO4 + Na2SO4 + H2O at 298.15 K
Popović, D.; Stupar, G.; Miladinović, J.; Todorović, M.; Zrilić, M.
2011-12-01
The solubility in the ternary system, aqueous mixture of CaSO4 and Na2SO4, at T = 298.15 K comprises five different salts: calcium sulfate dihydrate, mirabilite, thenardite, glauberite and labile salt. Using the Extended Pitzer's Ion Interaction model for pure and mixed electrolyte solutions and criteria of phase equilibria, predicted solubility behavior of salts was compared with experimental results from literature. The agreement between calculated and experimental solubilities was excellent in the ionic strength range up to 10.9062 mol kg-1.
G. Rezaei Behbehani; A.A. Saboury; A. Divsalar
2008-01-01
The interaction of myelin basic protein (MBP) from the bovine central nervous system with Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, named as M2+, was studied by isothermal titration calorimetry at 27℃ in aqueous solution. The extended solvation model was used to reproduce the enthaipies of MBP+M2+ interactions.The solvation parameters recovered from the extended solvation model were attributed to the structural change of MBP due to the metal ion interaction. It was found that there is a set of two identical and noninteracting binding sites for Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions.
Krutenkova A.P.
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Momentum distributions of hydrogen and helium isotopes from 12C fragmentation at 3.5° were measured at 0.6 GeV/nucleon in the FRAGM experiment at ITEP TWA heavy ion accelerator. The fragments were selected by correlated time of flight and dE/dx measurements with a magnetic spectrometer with scintillation counters. The main attention was drawn to the high momentum region where the fragment velocity exceeds the velocity of the projectile nucleus. The momentum spectra of fragments span the region of the fragmentation peak as well as the cumulative region. The differential cross sections cover six orders of magnitude. The distributions measured are compared to the predictions of three ion-ion interaction models: BC, QMD and LAQGSM03.03. The kinetic energy spectra of fragments in the projectile rest frame have an exponential shape with two temperatures, being defined by their slope parameters.
2016-06-06
ELC – Extended Life Coolant SCA – Supplemental Coolant Additive SOW – Scope of Work SwRI – Southwest Research Institute TARDEC – Tank Automotive...ethylene or propylene glycol and 35% extended life coolant #1 (ELC1) with a balance of water. At a higher ELC1 content of 45% or 50%, the mass loss...UNCLASSIFIED TABLE OF CONTENTS EXTENDED LIFE COOLANT TESTING INTERIM REPORT TFLRF No. 478 by Gregory A. T. Hansen Edwin A
Extended icosahedral structures
Jaric, Marko V
1989-01-01
Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra
Quantum Extended Supersymmetries
Grigore, D R; Grigore, Dan Radu; Scharf, Gunter
2003-01-01
We analyse some quantum multiplets associated with extended supersymmetries. We study in detail the general form of the causal (anti)commutation relations. The condition of positivity of the scalar product imposes severe restrictions on the (quantum) model. It is problematic if one can find out quantum extensions of the standard model with extended supersymmetries.
Extended Theories of Gravitation
Fatibene Lorenzo
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Extended theories of gravitation are naturally singled out by an analysis inspired by the Ehelers-Pirani-Schild framework. In this framework the structure of spacetime is described by a Weyl geometry which is enforced by dynamics. Standard General Relativity is just one possible theory within the class of extended theories of gravitation. Also all Palatini f(R theories are shown to be extended theories of gravitation. This more general setting allows a more general interpretation scheme and more general possible couplings between gravity and matter. The definitions and constructions of extended theories will be reviewed. A general interpretation scheme will be considered for extended theories and some examples will be considered.
The dialogically extended mind
Fusaroli, Riccardo; Gangopadhyay, Nivedita; Tylén, Kristian
2014-01-01
A growing conceptual and empirical literature is advancing the idea that language extends our cognitive skills. One of the most influential positions holds that language – qua material symbols – facilitates individual thought processes by virtue of its material properties. Extending upon this model......, we argue that language enhances our cognitive capabilities in a much more radical way: The skilful engagement of public material symbols facilitates evolutionarily unprecedented modes of collective perception, action and reasoning (interpersonal synergies) creating dialogically extended minds. We...... relate our approach to other ideas about collective minds and review a number of empirical studies to identify the mechanisms enabling the constitution of interpersonal cognitive systems....
The Extended Enterprise concept
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara
1999-01-01
This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....
Hajir Karimi; Fakhri Yousefi; Mohammad Mehdi Papari
2011-01-01
A statistical-mechanical-based equation of state (EOS) for pure substances, the Tao-Mason equation of state, is successfully extended to prediction of the (p-v-T) properties of fourteen natural gas mixtures at temperatures from 225 K to 483 K and pressures up to 60.5 MPa. This work shows that the Tao-Mason equation of state for multicomponent natural gas is predictable with minimal input information, namely critical temperature, critical pressure, and the Pitzer acentric factor. The calculated results agree well with the experimental data. From a total of 963 data of density and 330 data of compressibility factor for natural gases examined in this work, the average absolute deviations (AAD) are 1.704% and 1.344%, respectively. The present EOS is further assessed through the comparisons with Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state. For the all of mixtures Tao-Mason (TM) EOS outperforms the PR EOS.
Rational extended thermodynamics
Müller, Ingo
1998-01-01
Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...
Symmetric Extended Ockham Algebras
T.S. Blyth; Jie Fang
2003-01-01
The variety eO of extended Ockham algebras consists of those algealgebra with an additional endomorphism k such that the unary operations f and k commute. Here, we consider the cO-algebras which have a property of symmetry. We show that there are thirty two non-isomorphic subdirectly irreducible symmetric extended MS-algebras and give a complete description of them.2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 06D15, 06D30
Christov, Christomir. E-mail: hhristov@chem.ucsd.edu
2003-11-01
This paper describes a chemical model that calculates (solid + liquid) equilibria in the (m{sub 1}Rb{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}CoSO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Rb{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}CoSeO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Rb{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}NiSO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Rb{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}ZnSO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Rb{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}ZnSeO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Cs{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}CoSO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Cs{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}CoSeO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Cs{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}NiSO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Cs{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}NiSeO{sub 4})(aq), (m{sub 1}Cs{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}ZnSO{sub 4})(aq), and (m{sub 1}Cs{sub 2}SeO{sub 4} + m{sub 2}ZnSeO{sub 4})(aq) systems, where m denotes molality at the temperature T=298.15 K. The Pitzer ion-interaction model has been used for thermodynamic analysis of the experimental osmotic and solubility data presented in the literature. The thermodynamic functions needed (binary and ternary parameters of ionic interaction, thermodynamic solubility products) have been calculated and the theoretical solubility isotherm has been plotted. The mixing parameters {l_brace}{theta}(MN) and {psi}(MNX){r_brace} have been chosen on the basis of the compositions of saturated ternary solutions and data on the binary solubility of the sulfate M{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. M{sup '}SO{sub 4} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O double salts in water. To validate the mixing solutions model two different approaches have been used in evaluation of the ternary parameters: (I) preserving the same value of the binary mixing {theta}(MN) for the corresponding chloride, bromide, sulfate, and selenate systems with the same cations, and (II) with constant {theta}(MN) value (set equal to -0.05) for the all 11 sulfate and selenate systems. Very good agreement between experimentally determined and model predicted solubilities has been found. Important thermodynamic characteristics (thermodynamic solubility products, standard molar
Japyassú, Hilton F; Laland, Kevin N
2017-05-01
There is a tension between the conception of cognition as a central nervous system (CNS) process and a view of cognition as extending towards the body or the contiguous environment. The centralised conception requires large or complex nervous systems to cope with complex environments. Conversely, the extended conception involves the outsourcing of information processing to the body or environment, thus making fewer demands on the processing power of the CNS. The evolution of extended cognition should be particularly favoured among small, generalist predators such as spiders, and here, we review the literature to evaluate the fit of empirical data with these contrasting models of cognition. Spiders do not seem to be cognitively limited, displaying a large diversity of learning processes, from habituation to contextual learning, including a sense of numerosity. To tease apart the central from the extended cognition, we apply the mutual manipulability criterion, testing the existence of reciprocal causal links between the putative elements of the system. We conclude that the web threads and configurations are integral parts of the cognitive systems. The extension of cognition to the web helps to explain some puzzling features of spider behaviour and seems to promote evolvability within the group, enhancing innovation through cognitive connectivity to variable habitat features. Graded changes in relative brain size could also be explained by outsourcing information processing to environmental features. More generally, niche-constructed structures emerge as prime candidates for extending animal cognition, generating the selective pressures that help to shape the evolving cognitive system.
Ševkušić-Mandić Slavica G.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a pilot project evaluation, carried out as an action investigation whose aim was to provide a better quality extended day for primary school students. The project included the training of teachers involved in extended day program, designing of special activities performed by teachers with children once a week as well as changes and equipping of premises where children stay. The aims of the program were conception and performance of activities in a less formal way than during regular instructional days, linking of learning at school and acquired knowledge to everyday experiences, and work on contents contributing to the development of child's interests and creativity. The program was accomplished in a Belgrade primary school during the 2001/2002 academic year, comprising students of 1st and 2nd grades (N=77. The effects of the program were monitored throughout the academic year (observation and teachers' reports on accomplished workshops and at the end of the academic year (teachers and students' opinions of the program, academic achievement and creativity of students attending the extended day program compared with students not attending it. Findings about positive effects of the program on students' broadening of interests and willingness to express themselves creatively, indicate unequivocally that there is a need for developing special extended day programs. The extended day program is an opportunity for school to exert greater educational influence that has yet to be tapped.
Osmotic and Activity Coefficients of the {xZnCl2 + (1 - x)ZnSO4}(aq) System at 298.15 K
Ninkovic, R; Miladinovic, J; Todorovic, M; Grujic, S; Rard, J A
2006-06-27
Isopiestic vapor pressure measurements were made for (xZnCl{sub 2} + (1 - x)ZnSO{sub 4})(aq) solutions with ZnCl{sub 2} molality fractions of x = (0, 0.3062, 0.5730, 0.7969, and 1) at the temperature 298.15 K, using KCl(aq) as the reference standard. These measurements cover the water activity range 0.901-0.919 {le} a{sub w} {le} 0.978. The experimental osmotic coefficients were used to evaluate the parameters of an extended ion-interaction (Pitzer) model for these mixed electrolyte solutions. A similar analysis was made of the available activity data for ZnCl{sub 2}(aq) at 298.15 K, while assuming the presence of equilibrium amounts of ZnCl{sup +}(aq) ion-pairs, to derive the ion-interaction parameters for the hypothetical pure binary electrolytes (Zn{sup 2+}, 2Cl{sup -}) and (ZnCl{sup +},Cl{sup -}). These parameters are required for the analysis of the mixture results. Although significant concentrations of higher-order zinc chloride complexes may also be present in these solutions, it was possible to represent the osmotic coefficients accurately by explicitly including only the predominant complex ZnCl{sup +}(aq) and the completely dissociated ions. The ionic activity coefficients and osmotic coefficients were calculated over the investigated molality range using the evaluated extended Pitzer model parameters.
Extending Critical Performativity
Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan
2016-01-01
In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... from an undue focus on intra-academic debates; engage in author-itarian theoretical policing; feign relevance through symbolic radicalism; and repackage common sense. We take these critiques as an opportunity to offer an extended model of critical performativity that involves focusing on issues...
Parameterization of extended systems
Niemann, Hans Henrik
2006-01-01
The YJBK parameterization (of all stabilizing controllers) is extended to handle systems with additional sensors and/or actuators. It is shown that the closed loop transfer function is still an affine function in the YJBK parameters in the nominal case. Further, some closed-loop stability results...
Arnaudguilhem, C.; Bierla, K.; Ouerdane, L.; Preud' homme, H. [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Yiannikouris, A. [Alltech Inc., 3031 Catnip Hill Pike, Nicholasville, KY (United States); Lobinski, R., E-mail: ryszard.lobinski@univ-pau.fr [CNRS/UPPA, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, UMR 5254, Helioparc, 2, Av. Pr. Angot, 64053 Pau (France); Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 00-664 Warszawa (Poland)
2012-12-13
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of bimodal chromatographic separation enlarged amount of compounds identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The method allowed the largest scale ever (>60 compounds) speciation analysis of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The estimated concentration of compounds was given. - Abstract: A high efficiency chromatographic separation on a porous graphitic carbon stationary phase was developed for a large-scale separation of selenium metabolites in Se-rich yeast prior to their identification by electrospray hybrid quadrupole trap/Orbitrap mass spectrometry (Orbitrap MS{sup n}). The reversed-phase (RP) separation mode offered distinctly higher separation efficiency than the hydrophilic ion interaction (HILIC) mode. The latter was nevertheless complementary and useful to validate the detection of several compounds. The method allowed the detection of 64 metabolites including 30 Se-Se or Se-S conjugates (3 triple S/Se/S ones) and 14 selenoethers. 21 previously unreported metabolites were detected on the basis of the selenium isotopic pattern usually matched with the sub-ppm mass accuracy. 9 of these metabolites were subsequently identified using the multi-stage high mass accuracy (<5 ppm) mass spectrometry. The identified metabolites (and their groups) were quantified on-line by ICP-MS fitted with a frequency-matching generator allowing a quasi-uniform response over the large (20-90%) acetonitrile mobile phase concentration range. The morphology of HPLC-ICP-MS chromatograms was remarkably similar to that of HPLC multi-ion extracted ESI-MS chromatograms. The detection limits obtained by ICP MS and ESI MS were 1 and 2 ppb, respectively.
Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics
Jou, David
2010-01-01
This is the 4th edition of the highly acclaimed monograph on Extended Irreversible Thermodynamics, a theory that goes beyond the classical theory of irreversible processes. In contrast to the classical approach, the basic variables describing the system are complemented by non-equilibrium quantities. The claims made for extended thermodynamics are confirmed by the kinetic theory of gases and statistical mechanics. The book covers a wide spectrum of applications, and also contains a thorough discussion of the foundations and the scope of the current theories on non-equilibrium thermodynamics. For this new edition, the authors critically revised existing material while taking into account the most recent developments in fast moving fields such as heat transport in micro- and nanosystems or fast solidification fronts in materials sciences. Several fundamental chapters have been revisited emphasizing physics and applications over mathematical derivations. Also, fundamental questions on the definition of non-equil...
Introduction to Extended Electrodynamics
Donev, S
1997-01-01
This paper summarizes the motivations and results obtained so far in the frame of a particular non-linearization of Classical Electrodynamics, which was called Extended Electrodynamics. The main purpose pursued with this non-linear extension of the classical Maxwell's equations is to have a reliable field-theoretical approach in describing (3+1) soliton-like electromagnetic formations, in particular, to build an extended and finite field model of free photons and photon complexes. The first chapter gives a corresponding analysis of Maxwell theory and introduces the new equations. The second chapter gives a full account of the results, including the photon-like solutions, in the vacuum case. A new concept, called scale factor, is defined and successfully used. Two ways for describing the intrinsic angular momentum are given. Interference of two photon-like solutions is also considered. The third chapter considers interaction with external fields (continuous media) on the base of establishing correspondence bet...
Extended Theories of Gravitation
Fatibene Lorenzo
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Within the framework of extended theories of gravitation we shall discuss physical equivalences among different formalisms and classical tests. As suggested by the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild framework, the conformal invariance will be preserved and its effect on observational protocols discussed. Accordingly, we shall review standard tests showing how Palatini f(R-theories naturally passes solar system tests. Observation protocols will be discussed in this wider framework.
Iba, Yukito
2000-01-01
``Extended Ensemble Monte Carlo''is a generic term that indicates a set of algorithms which are now popular in a variety of fields in physics and statistical information processing. Exchange Monte Carlo (Metropolis-Coupled Chain, Parallel Tempering), Simulated Tempering (Expanded Ensemble Monte Carlo), and Multicanonical Monte Carlo (Adaptive Umbrella Sampling) are typical members of this family. Here we give a cross-disciplinary survey of these algorithms with special emphasis on the great f...
Humbert, Richard
2010-01-01
A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…
Beloff, Laura; Klaus, Malena
2016-01-01
Artist talk / Work-in-progress What is the purpose of a machine or an artifact, like the Fly Printer, that is dislocated, that produces images that have no meaning, no instrumentality, that depict nothing in the world? The biological and the cultural are reunited in this apparatus as a possibilit...... the results. The extended version of the Fly Printer containing the technological perception and DNNs is a collaboration between Laura Beloff and Malene Theres Klaus...
2013-10-03
This package assists in genome assembly. extendFromReads takes as input a set of Illumina (eg, MiSeq) DNA sequencing reads, a query seed sequence and a direction to extend the seed. The algorithm collects all seed--]matching reads (flipping reverse--]orientation hits), trims off the seed and additional sequence in the other direction, sorts the remaining sequences alphabetically, and prints them aligned without gaps from the point of seed trimming. This produces a visual display distinguishing the flanks of multi-]copy seeds. A companion script hitMates.pl collects the mates of seed--]hi]ng reads, whose alignment reveals longer extensions from the seed. The collect/trim/sort strategy was made iterative and scaled up in the script denovo.pl, for de novo contig assembly. An index is pre--]built using indexReads.pl that for each unique 21--]mer found in all the reads, records its gfateh of extension (whether extendable, blocked by low coverage, or blocked by branching after a duplicated sequence) and other characteristics. Importantly, denovo.pl records all branchings that follow a branching contig endpoint, providing contig-]extension information
Inequalities of extended beta and extended hypergeometric functions.
Mondal, Saiful R
2017-01-01
We study the log-convexity of the extended beta functions. As a consequence, we establish Turán-type inequalities. The monotonicity, log-convexity, log-concavity of extended hypergeometric functions are deduced by using the inequalities on extended beta functions. The particular cases of those results also give the Turán-type inequalities for extended confluent and extended Gaussian hypergeometric functions. Some reverses of Turán-type inequalities are also derived.
Extended Testability Analysis Tool
Melcher, Kevin; Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher
2012-01-01
The Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool is a software application that supports fault management (FM) by performing testability analyses on the fault propagation model of a given system. Fault management includes the prevention of faults through robust design margins and quality assurance methods, or the mitigation of system failures. Fault management requires an understanding of the system design and operation, potential failure mechanisms within the system, and the propagation of those potential failures through the system. The purpose of the ETA Tool software is to process the testability analysis results from a commercial software program called TEAMS Designer in order to provide a detailed set of diagnostic assessment reports. The ETA Tool is a command-line process with several user-selectable report output options. The ETA Tool also extends the COTS testability analysis and enables variation studies with sensor sensitivity impacts on system diagnostics and component isolation using a single testability output. The ETA Tool can also provide extended analyses from a single set of testability output files. The following analysis reports are available to the user: (1) the Detectability Report provides a breakdown of how each tested failure mode was detected, (2) the Test Utilization Report identifies all the failure modes that each test detects, (3) the Failure Mode Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes, (4) the Component Isolation Report demonstrates the system s ability to discriminate between failure modes relative to the components containing the failure modes, (5) the Sensor Sensor Sensitivity Analysis Report shows the diagnostic impact due to loss of sensor information, and (6) the Effect Mapping Report identifies failure modes that result in specified system-level effects.
J.H Sossa Azuela; R. Barrón Fernández
2007-01-01
The #945; #946; associative memories recently developed in Ref 10 have proven to be powerful tools for memorizing and recalling patterns when they appear distorted by noise. However they are only useful in the binary case. In this paper we show that it is possible to extend these memories now to the gray-level case. To get the desired extension, we take the original operators #945; and #946;, foundation of the #945; #946; memories, and propose a more general family of operators. We find t...
Sakatani, Yuho
2016-01-01
We propose a novel approach to the brane worldvolume theory based on the geometry of extended field theories; double field theory and exceptional field theory. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by showing that one can reproduce the conventional bosonic string/membrane actions, and the M5-brane action in the weak field approximation. At a glance, the proposed 5-brane action without approximation looks different from the known M5-brane actions, but it is consistent with the known non-linear self-duality relation, and it may provide a new formulation of a single M5-brane action. Actions for exotic branes are also discussed.
Frederix, Rikkert
2015-01-01
We consider improving POWHEG+MINLO simulations, so as to also render them NLO accurate in the description of observables receiving contributions from events with lower parton multiplicity than present in their underlying NLO calculation. On a conceptual level we follow the strategy of the so-called MINLO' programs. Whereas the existing MINLO' framework requires explicit analytic input from higher order resummation, here we derive an effective numerical approximation to these ingredients, by imposing unitarity. This offers a way of extending the MINLO' method to more complex processes, complementary to the known route which uses explicit computations of high-accuracy resummation inputs. Specifically, we have focused on Higgs-plus-two-jet production (HJJ) and related processes. We also consider how one can cover three units of multiplicity at NLO accuracy, i.e. we consider how the HJJ-MINLO simulation may yield NLO accuracy for inclusive H, HJ, and HJJ quantities. We perform a feasibility study assessing the po...
Extending juvenility in grasses
Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian
2017-04-11
The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.
Capozziello, Salvatore
2011-01-01
Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein's Theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in Astrophysics, Cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like Inflation, Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Large Scale Structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f (R)-gravity and scalar-tensor gravity in the metric and Pala...
Christensen, Tanya Karoli; Jensen, Torben Juel; Christensen, Marie Herget
Studies of general extenders (GEs), such as Eng. and stuff like that, or something, typically find that it is a feature of youth speech, sometimes correlated with sex and class (e.g. Dubois 1992, Stubbe and Holmes 1995, Cheshire 2007, Tagliamonte and Denis 2010, Pichler and Levey 2011), but only...... that variants with sådan noget, though prevalent across the board, may be stigmatized, since they are produced mainly by young WC males, and exhibit an overall drop in frequency over time. In our paper, we will use GEs in Danish as a case study for evaluating prevailing assumptions about the relationship...... few have a design enabling them to distinguish unequivocally between age grading and communal change. In this paper, we present the results of a large-scale study of GEs in Danish, based on Copenhagen data from the LANCHART corpus, encompassing speech from three age cohorts, of which two have been...
Extended Poisson Exponential Distribution
Anum Fatima
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A new mixture of Modified Exponential (ME and Poisson distribution has been introduced in this paper. Taking the Maximum of Modified Exponential random variable when the sample size follows a zero truncated Poisson distribution we have derived the new distribution, named as Extended Poisson Exponential distribution. This distribution possesses increasing and decreasing failure rates. The Poisson-Exponential, Modified Exponential and Exponential distributions are special cases of this distribution. We have also investigated some mathematical properties of the distribution along with Information entropies and Order statistics of the distribution. The estimation of parameters has been obtained using the Maximum Likelihood Estimation procedure. Finally we have illustrated a real data application of our distribution.
Extended Ewald summation technique
Kylänpää, Ilkka; Räsänen, Esa
2016-09-01
We present a technique to improve the accuracy and to reduce the computational labor in the calculation of long-range interactions in systems with periodic boundary conditions. We extend the well-known Ewald method by using a linear combination of screening Gaussian charge distributions instead of only one. This enables us to find faster converging real-space and reciprocal space summations. The combined simplicity and efficiency of our method is demonstrated, and the scheme is readily applicable to large-scale periodic simulations, classical as well as quantum. Moreover, apart from the required a priori optimization the method is straightforward to include in most routines based on the Ewald method within, e.g., density-functional, molecular dynamics, and quantum Monte Carlo calculations.
Stars with Extended Atmospheres
Sterken, C.
2002-12-01
This Workshop consisted of a full-day meeting of the Working Group "Sterren met Uitgebreide Atmosferen" (SUA, Working Group Stars with Extended Atmospheres), a discussion group founded in 1979 by Kees de Jager, Karel van der Hucht and Pik Sin The. This loose association of astronomers and astronomy students working in the Dutch-speaking part of the Low Countries (The Netherlands and Flanders) organised at regular intervals one-day meetings at the Universities of Utrecht, Leiden, Amsterdam and Brussels. These meetings consisted of the presentation of scientific results by junior as well as senior members of the group, and by discussions between the participants. As such, the SUA meetings became a forum for the exchange of ideas, and for asking questions and advice in an informal atmosphere. Kees de Jager has been chairman of the WG SUA from the beginning in 1979 till today, as the leading source of inspiration. At the occasion of Prof. Kees de Jager's 80th birthday, we decided to collect the presented talks in written form as a Festschrift in honour of this well-respected and much beloved scientist, teacher and friend. The first three papers deal with the personality of Kees de Jager, more specifically with his role as a supervisor and mentor of young researchers and as a catalyst in the research work of his colleagues. And also about his remarkable role in the establishment of astronomy education and research at the University of Brussels. The next presentation is a very detailed review of solar research, a field in which Cees was prominently active for many years. Then follow several papers dealing with stars about which Kees is a true expert: massive stars and extended atmospheres.
Can Asymmetry of Solar Activity be Extended into Extended Cycle?
无
2002-01-01
With the use of the Royal Greenwich Observatory data set of sunspot groups, an attempt is made to examine the north-south asymmetry of solar activity in the "extended" solar cycles. It is inferred that the asymmetry established for individual solar cycles does not extend to the "extended" cycles.
Thermodynamic study of CN~- ion inhibition of Jack bean urease using the extended solvation theory
G. Rezaei Behbehani; A.A. Saboury; M. Mohebbian; S. Tahmasbi Sarvestani; M. Poorheravi
2009-01-01
Cyanide ion was studied as an inhibitor of Jack bean urease at 300 K in 30 mmol/L tris buffer, Ph 7. The inhibition was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The extended solvation model was used for CN~- + JBU interaction over the whole range of CN~- concentrations. The binding parameters recovered from the solvation model were attributed to the cyanide ion interaction. It was found that cyanide ion acted as a non-cooperative inhibitor of urease, and there is a set of 12 ± 0.12 identical and independent binding sites for CN~- ions. The dissociation equilibrium constant is 749.99 μmol/L. The molar enthalpy of binding is △H=-13.60 KJ mol~(-1).
Brax, Philippe; Tamanini, Nicola
2016-05-01
We extend the chameleon models by considering scalar-fluid theories where the coupling between matter and the scalar field can be represented by a quadratic effective potential with density-dependent minimum and mass. In this context, we study the effects of the scalar field on Solar System tests of gravity and show that models passing these stringent constraints can still induce large modifications of Newton's law on galactic scales. On these scales we analyze models which could lead to a percent deviation of Newton's law outside the virial radius. We then model the dark matter halo as a Navarro-Frenk-White profile and explicitly find that the fifth force can give large contributions around the galactic core in a particular model where the scalar field mass is constant and the minimum of its potential varies linearly with the matter density. At cosmological distances, we find that this model does not alter the growth of large scale structures and therefore would be best tested on galactic scales, where interesting signatures might arise in the galaxy rotation curves.
Chirally extended quantum chromodynamics
Brower, R C; Tan, C I; Richard C Brower; Yue Shen; Chung-I Tan
1994-01-01
We propose an extended Quantum Chromodynamics (XQCD) Lagrangian in which the fermions are coupled to elementary scalar %\\sigma and \\pi fields through a Yukawa coupling which preserves chiral invariance. Our principle motivation is to find a new lattice formulation for QCD which avoids the source of critical slowing down usually encountered as the bare quark mass is tuned to the chiral limit. The phase diagram and the weak coupling limit for XQCD are studied. They suggest a conjecture that the continuum limit of XQCD is the same as the continuum limit of conventional lattice formulation of QCD. As examples of such universality, we present the large N solutions of two prototype models for XQCD, in which the mass of the spurious pion and sigma resonance go to infinity with the cut-off. Even if the universality conjecture turns out to be false, we believe that XQCD will still be useful as a low energy effective action for QCD phenomenology on the lattice. Numerical simulations are recommended to further investiga...
Griego, J R
1995-01-01
Some features of extended loops are considered. In particular, the behaviour under diffeomorphism transformations of the wavefunctions with support on the extended loop space are studied. The basis of a method to obtain analytical expressions of diffeomorphism invariants via extended loops are settled. Applications to knot theory and quantum gravity are considered.
Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems
Mijanur Rahaman
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.
On core stability and extendability
Shellshear, Evan
2007-01-01
This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.
On core stability and extendability
Shellshear, Evan
2007-01-01
This paper investigates conditions under which the core of a TU cooperative game is stable. In particular the author extends the idea of extendability to find new conditions under which the core is stable. It is also shown that these new conditions are not necessary for core stability.
Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller
Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)
2016-01-01
Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.
Quantum Mechanics of Extended Objects
Sastry, R R
2000-01-01
We propose a quantum mechanics of extended objects that accounts for the finite extent of a particle defined via its Compton wavelength. The Hilbert space representation theory of such a quantum mechanics is presented and this representation is used to demonstrate the quantization of spacetime. The quantum mechanics of extended objects is then applied to two paradigm examples, the fuzzy (extended object) harmonic oscillator and the Yukawa potential. In the second example the phenomenological coupling constant of the $\\omega$ meson which mediates the short range and repulsive nucleon force as well as the repulsive core radius are theoretically predicted.
Extended scaling in high dimensions
Berche, B.; Chatelain, C.; Dhall, C.; Kenna, R.; Low, R.; Walter, J.-C.
2008-11-01
We apply and test the recently proposed 'extended scaling' scheme in an analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of Ising systems above the upper critical dimension. The data are obtained by Monte Carlo simulations using both the conventional Wolff cluster algorithm and the Prokof'ev-Svistunov worm algorithm. As already observed for other models, extended scaling is shown to extend the high-temperature critical scaling regime over a range of temperatures much wider than that achieved conventionally. It allows for an accurate determination of leading and sub-leading scaling indices, critical temperatures and amplitudes of the confluent corrections.
Cosmological dynamics of extended chameleons
Tamanini, Nicola
2016-01-01
We investigate the cosmological dynamics of the recently proposed extended chameleon models at both background and linear perturbation levels. Dynamical systems techniques are employed to fully characterize the evolution of the universe at the largest distances, while structure formation is analysed at sub-horizon scales within the quasi-static approximation. The late time dynamical transition from dark matter to dark energy domination can be well described by almost all extended chameleon models considered, with no deviations from $\\Lambda$CDM results at both background and perturbation levels. The results obtained in this work confirm the cosmological viability of extended chameleons as alternative dark energy models.
Cognitive Transformations and Extended Expertise
Menary, Richard; Kirchhoff, Michael
2014-01-01
Expertise is extended by becoming immersed in cultural practices. We look at an example of mathematical expertise in which immersion in cognitive practices results in the transformation of expert performance.
Extended gcd of quadratic integers
Miled, Abdelwaheb
2010-01-01
Computation of the extended gcd of two quadratic integers. The ring of integers considered is principal but could be euclidean or not euclidean ring. This method rely on principal ideal ring and reduction of binary quadratic forms.
Locating and extending livelihoods research
Prowse, Martin
2008-01-01
Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...
C.A.Gentile, W.R.Blanchard, T.Kozub, C.Priniski, I.Zatz, S.Obenschain
2009-09-21
It has been shown that post detonation energetic helium ions can drastically reduce the useful life of the (dry) first wall of an IFE reactor due to the accumulation of implanted helium. For the purpose of attenuating energetic helium ions from interacting with first wall components in the Fusion Test Facility (FTF) target chamber, several concepts have been advanced. These include magnetic intervention (MI), deployment of a dynamically moving first wall, use of a sacrificial shroud, designing the target chamber large enough to mitigate the damage caused by He ions on the target chamber wall, and the use of a low pressure noble gas resident in the target chamber during pulse power operations. It is proposed that employing a low-pressure (~ 1 torr equivalent) noble gas in the target chamber will thermalize energetic helium ions prior to interaction with the wall. The principle benefit of this concept is the simplicity of the design and the utilization of (modified) existing technologies for pumping and processing the noble ambient gas. Although the gas load in the system would be increased over other proposed methods, the use of a "gas shield" may provide a cost effective method of greatly extending the first wall of the target chamber. An engineering study has been initiated to investigate conceptual engineering metmethods for implementing a viable gas shield strategy in the FTF.
Extended New Generalized Lindley Distribution
D. S. Shibu
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an extended version of new generalized Lindley distribution (NGLD. We refer to this new generalization as the extended new generalized Lindley distribution (ENGLD. A comprehensive account of the mathematical properties of the new distribution including estimation is presented. A real life data set is considered here to illustrate the relevance of the new model and compared it with other forms of Lindley models using method of moment estimation and method of maximum likelihood estimation.
Extended cognition in science communication.
Ludwig, David
2014-11-01
The aim of this article is to propose a methodological externalism that takes knowledge about science to be partly constituted by the environment. My starting point is the debate about extended cognition in contemporary philosophy and cognitive science. Externalists claim that human cognition extends beyond the brain and can be partly constituted by external devices. First, I show that most studies of public knowledge about science are based on an internalist framework that excludes the environment we usually utilize to make sense of science and does not allow the possibility of extended knowledge. In a second step, I argue that science communication studies should adopt a methodological externalism and accept that knowledge about science can be partly realized by external information resources such as Wikipedia.
An Extended Keyword Extraction Method
Hong, Bao; Zhen, Deng
Among numerous Chinese keyword extraction methods, Chinese characteristics were shortly considered. This phenomenon going against the precision enhancement of the Chinese keyword extraction. An extended term frequency based method(Extended TF) is proposed in this paper which combined Chinese linguistic characteristics with basic TF method. Unary, binary and ternary grammars for the candidate keyword extraction as well as other linguistic features were all taken into account. The method establishes classification model using support vector machine. Tests show that the proposed extraction method improved key words precision and recall rate significantly. We applied the key words extracted by the extended TF method into the text file classification. Results show that the key words extracted by the proposed method contributed greatly to raising the precision of text file classification.
黄虎; 丁平兴; 吕秀红
2001-01-01
The Hamiltonian formalism for surface waves and the mild-slope approximation were empolyed in handling the case of slowly varying three-dimensional currents and an uneven bottom, thus leading to an extended mild-slope equation. The bottom topography consists of two components: the slowly varying component whose horizontal length scale is longer than the surface wave length, and the fast varying component with the amplitude being smaller than that of the surface wave. The frequency of the fast varying depth component is, however, comparable to that of the surface waves. The extended mild- slope equation is more widely applicable and contains as special cases famous mild-slope equations below: the classical mild-slope equation of Berkhoff , Kirby' s mild-slope equation with current, and Dingemans' s mild-slope equation for rippled bed. The extended shallow water equations for ambient currents and rapidly varying topography are also obtained.
Constrained Stochastic Extended Redundancy Analysis.
DeSarbo, Wayne S; Hwang, Heungsun; Stadler Blank, Ashley; Kappe, Eelco
2015-06-01
We devise a new statistical methodology called constrained stochastic extended redundancy analysis (CSERA) to examine the comparative impact of various conceptual factors, or drivers, as well as the specific predictor variables that contribute to each driver on designated dependent variable(s). The technical details of the proposed methodology, the maximum likelihood estimation algorithm, and model selection heuristics are discussed. A sports marketing consumer psychology application is provided in a Major League Baseball (MLB) context where the effects of six conceptual drivers of game attendance and their defining predictor variables are estimated. Results compare favorably to those obtained using traditional extended redundancy analysis (ERA).
5-Dimensional Extended Space Model
Tsipenyuk, D. Yu.; Andreev, V. A.
2006-01-01
We put forward an idea that physical phenomena have to be treated in 5-dimensional space where the fifth coordinate is the interval S. Thus, we considered the (1+4) extended space G(T;X,Y,Z,S). In addition to Lorentz transformations (T;X), (T;Y), (T;Z) which are in (1+3)-dimensional Minkowski space, in the proposed (1+4)d extended space two other types of transformations exist in planes (T,S); (X,S), (Y,S), (Z,S) that converts massive particles into massless and vice versa. We also consider e...
Group Development: Extending Tuckman's Theory.
Maples, Mary F.
1988-01-01
Presents a framework for extending the Tuckman model of developmental sequence in small groups. Considers Tuckman's stages of forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning lacking in descriptive depth and clear definition. Gathered and organized group dynamics graduate students' assessments of characteristics of stages over five-year…
Applying and extending Oracle Spatial
Simon Gerard Greener, Siva Ravada
2013-01-01
This book is an advanced practical guide to applying and extending Oracle Spatial.This book is for existing users of Oracle and Oracle Spatial who have, at a minimum, basic operational experience of using Oracle or an equivalent database. Advanced skills are not required.
Extended range chemical sensing apparatus
Hughes, Robert C.; Schubert, W. Kent
1994-01-01
An apparatus for sensing chemicals over extended range of concentrations. In particular, first and second sensors each having separate, but overlapping ranges for sensing concentrations of hydrogen are provided. Preferably, the first sensor is a MOS solid state device wherein the metal electrode or gate is a nickel alloy. The second sensor is a chemiresistor comprising a nickel alloy.
Offshore Extended Drillstem Testing System
Yao Hao
1995-01-01
@@ Bohai Corp. of CNOOC has started to study and working out the offshore extended drillstem testing system(OEDST) since 1991. Now the OEDST is worked out successfully, and approved on Feb. 15,1995. OEDST has some advantages, such as simple overall program and technological process,multiple and simple operation, easy for transporation ,and low cost with efficient result.
Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia
1990-01-01
Extended duration orbiter (EDO) insignia incorporates a space shuttle orbiter with payload bay doors (PLBDs) open and a spacelab module inside. Trailing the orbiter are the initials EDO. The EDO-modified Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, will be flown for the first EDO mission, STS-50.
Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, Michael K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reed, Donald T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yongliang, Xiong [SNL
2010-01-01
The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.
Borkowski, M.; Richmann, M.; Reed, D.T. [Earth and Environmental Sciences Div., Los Alamos National Lab., Carlsbad Operations, NM (United States); Xiong, Y. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad Program Group, Carlsbad, NM (United States)
2010-07-01
The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported. (orig.)
Andre, Laurent; Spycher, Nicolas; Xu, Tianfu; Vuataz,Francois-D.; Pruess, Karsten.
2006-12-31
The modeling of coupled thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in geothermal systems is complicated by reservoir conditions such as high temperatures, elevated pressures and sometimes the high salinity of the formation fluid. Coupled THC models have been developed and applied to the study of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) to forecast the long-term evolution of reservoir properties and to determine how fluid circulation within a fractured reservoir can modify its rock properties. In this study, two simulators, FRACHEM and TOUGHREACT, specifically developed to investigate EGS, were applied to model the same geothermal reservoir and to forecast reservoir evolution using their respective thermodynamic and kinetic input data. First, we report the specifics of each of these two codes regarding the calculation of activity coefficients, equilibrium constants and mineral reaction rates. Comparisons of simulation results are then made for a Soultz-type geothermal fluid (ionic strength {approx}1.8 molal), with a recent (unreleased) version of TOUGHREACT using either an extended Debye-Hueckel or Pitzer model for calculating activity coefficients, and FRACHEM using the Pitzer model as well. Despite somewhat different calculation approaches and methodologies, we observe a reasonably good agreement for most of the investigated factors. Differences in the calculation schemes typically produce less difference in model outputs than differences in input thermodynamic and kinetic data, with model results being particularly sensitive to differences in ion-interaction parameters for activity coefficient models. Differences in input thermodynamic equilibrium constants, activity coefficients, and kinetics data yield differences in calculated pH and in predicted mineral precipitation behavior and reservoir-porosity evolution. When numerically cooling a Soultz-type geothermal fluid from 200 C (initially equilibrated with calcite at pH 4.9) to 20 C and suppressing mineral
Extended lactation in dairy cows
Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D. Donald; Knight, Christopher Harold
2008-01-01
Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received...... of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion...... of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course...
Lyapunov modes in extended systems.
Yang, Hong-Liu; Radons, Günter
2009-08-28
Hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which have recently been observed in many extended systems with translational symmetry, such as hard sphere systems, dynamic XY models or Lennard-Jones fluids, are nowadays regarded as fundamental objects connecting nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics. We review here our recent results on Lyapunov modes in extended system. The solution to one of the puzzles, the appearance of good and 'vague' modes, is presented for the model system of coupled map lattices. The structural properties of these modes are related to the phase space geometry, especially the angles between Oseledec subspaces, and to fluctuations of local Lyapunov exponents. In this context, we report also on the possible appearance of branches splitting in the Lyapunov spectra of diatomic systems, similar to acoustic and optical branches for phonons. The final part is devoted to the hyperbolicity of partial differential equations and the effective degrees of freedom of such infinite-dimensional systems.
MAJLESI Kavosh; REZAIENEJAD Saghar
2007-01-01
Complexation of two ligands,iminodiacetic acid and ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid,with molybdenum(Ⅵ)was studied in aqueous solutions.Molybdenum(Ⅵ) forms a mononuclear complex with the aforementioned ligands of the type MoO3L2-.All measurements have been carried out at 25 °C and different ionic strengths ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 mol·L-1 of NaClO4,with the pH justified to 6.0.Equilibrium concentration products and stoichiometry of the complexes have been determined from a combination of potentiometric and UV spectroscopic measurements.Comparison of the ionic strength effect on these complex formation reactions has been made using a Debye-Hückel type equation and Bronsted-Guggenheim-Scatchard specific ion interaction theory (SIT).Debye-Hückel theory predicted the first order effects on simple electrolyte solutions.Interactions between the reacting species and the ionic medium were taken into account in the SIT model.All of the calculations have been done by the computer program Excel 2000.
Locating and extending livelihoods research
Prowse, Martin
2008-01-01
Much poverty and development research is not explicit about its methodology or philosophical foundations. Based on the extended case method of Burawoy and the epistemological standpoint of critical realism, this paper discusses a methodological approach for reflexive inductive livelihoods researc...... that overcomes the unproductive social science dualism of positivism and social constructivism. The approach is linked to a conceptual framework and a menu of research methods that can be sequenced and iterated in light of research questions....
An Extended Particle Swarm Optimizer
XU Jun-jie; XIN Zhan-hong
2005-01-01
An Extended Particle Swarm Optimizer (EPSO) is proposed in this paper. In this new algorithm, not only the local but also the global best position will impact the particle's velocity updating process. EPSO is an integration of Local Best paradigm (LBEST) and Global Best paradigm (GBEST) and it significantly enhances the performance of the conventional particle swarm optimizers. The experiment results have proved that EPSO deserves to be investigated.
Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties
Fjær, Eivind Grip; Tutenges, Sébastien
2017-01-01
Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...
Departies: conceptualizing extended youth parties
Eivind Grip, Fjær,; Tutenges, Sébastien
2016-01-01
Every year, millions of young people travel away from home to party for days or weeks on end in permissive environments, such as music festivals, dance parties, and nightlife resorts. The studies that have been conducted on these extended youth parties have focused primarily on specific risk...... immoral; (4) stylistically, by altering their stylistic expressions through dress, demeanor, and consumption; and (5) experientially, because the parties generate mood and mind alterations. These are overlapping and intertwined elements, the combination of which amounts to a distinct type of youth party...
Renormalization of Extended QCD$_2$
Fukaya, Hidenori
2015-01-01
Extended QCD (XQCD) proposed by Kaplan [1] is an interesting reformulation of QCD with additional bosonic auxiliary fields. While its partition function is kept exactly the same as that of original QCD, XQCD naturally contains properties of low energy hadronic models. We analyze the renormalization group flow of two-dimensional (X)QCD, which is solvable in the limit of large number of colors Nc, to understand what kind of roles the auxiliary degrees of freedom play and how the hadronic picture emerges in the low energy region.
Extended UML with Role Modeling
无
2001-01-01
UML is widely accepted and applied by the international softwareindus try. UML is a powerful language for Object-oriented modeling, designing, and i m plementing software systems, but its Use-Case method for requirement analysis a n d modeling software patterns has some explicit drawbacks. For more complete UML, this paper proposes the Role Use-Case modeling and its glyphs, and provides an instance of requirement analysis using Role Use-Case method. Uses the Role Mode l to modeling software pattern at knowledge level. This paper also extends the UM L Meta Model and accentuates “RM before UML's class Modeling”.
Cooke, Brian K
2013-01-01
The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases.
Extended recombinant bacterial ghost system.
Lubitz, W; Witte, A; Eko, F O; Kamal, M; Jechlinger, W; Brand, E; Marchart, J; Haidinger, W; Huter, V; Felnerova, D; Stralis-Alves, N; Lechleitner, S; Melzer, H; Szostak, M P; Resch, S; Mader, H; Kuen, B; Mayr, B; Mayrhofer, P; Geretschläger, R; Haslberger, A; Hensel, A
1999-08-20
Controlled expression of cloned PhiX174 gene E in Gram-negative bacteria results in lysis of the bacteria by formation of an E-specific transmembrane tunnel structure built through the cell envelope complex. Bacterial ghosts from a variety of bacteria are used as non-living candidate vaccines. In the recombinant ghost system, foreign proteins are attached on the inside of the inner membrane as fusions with specific anchor sequences. Ghosts have a sealed periplasmic space and the export of proteins into this space vastly extends the capacity of ghosts or recombinant ghosts to function as carriers of foreign antigens. In addition, S-layer proteins forming shell-like self assembly structures can be expressed in candidate vaccine strains prior to E-mediated lysis. Such recombinant S-layer proteins carrying foreign epitopes further extend the possibilities of ghosts as carriers of foreign epitopes. As ghosts have inherent adjuvant properties, they can be used as adjuvants in combination with subunit vaccines. Subunits or other ligands can also be coupled to matrixes like dextran which are used to fill the internal lumen of ghosts. Oral, aerogenic or parenteral immunization of experimental animals with recombinant ghosts induced specific humoral and cellular immune responses against bacterial and target components including protective mucosal immunity. The most relevant advantage of recombinant bacterial ghosts as immunogens is that no inactivation procedures that denature relevant immunogenic determinants are employed in this production. This fact explains the superior quality of ghosts when compared to other inactivated vaccines. The endotoxic component of the outer membrane does not limit the use of ghosts as vaccine candidates but triggers the release of several potent immunoregulatory cytokines. As carriers, there is no limitation in the size of foreign antigens that can be inserted in the membrane and the capacity of all spaces including the membranes, peri
Dicyanometallates as Model Extended Frameworks
2016-01-01
We report the structures of eight new dicyanometallate frameworks containing molecular extra-framework cations. These systems include a number of hybrid inorganic–organic analogues of conventional ceramics, such as Ruddlesden–Popper phases and perovskites. The structure types adopted are rationalized in the broader context of all known dicyanometallate framework structures. We show that the structural diversity of this family can be understood in terms of (i) the charge and coordination preferences of the particular metal cation acting as framework node, and (ii) the size, shape, and extent of incorporation of extra-framework cations. In this way, we suggest that dicyanometallates form a particularly attractive model family of extended frameworks in which to explore the interplay between molecular degrees of freedom, framework topology, and supramolecular interactions. PMID:27057759
Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects
Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)
2004-12-07
We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.
Learning Extended Finite State Machines
Cassel, Sofia; Howar, Falk; Jonsson, Bengt; Steffen, Bernhard
2014-01-01
We present an active learning algorithm for inferring extended finite state machines (EFSM)s, combining data flow and control behavior. Key to our learning technique is a novel learning model based on so-called tree queries. The learning algorithm uses the tree queries to infer symbolic data constraints on parameters, e.g., sequence numbers, time stamps, identifiers, or even simple arithmetic. We describe sufficient conditions for the properties that the symbolic constraints provided by a tree query in general must have to be usable in our learning model. We have evaluated our algorithm in a black-box scenario, where tree queries are realized through (black-box) testing. Our case studies include connection establishment in TCP and a priority queue from the Java Class Library.
Pedersen, Torben Bach; Gu, Junmin; Shoshani, Arie
2009-01-01
inherent in data in non-standard applications are not accommodated well by OLAP systems. In contrast, object database systems are built to handle such complexity, but do not support OLAP-type querying well. This paper presents the concepts and techniques underlying a flexible, "multi-model" federated...... system that enables OLAP users to exploit simultaneously the features of OLAP and object systems. The system allows data to be handled using the most appropriate data model and technology: OLAP systems for dimensional data and object database systems for more complex, general data. This allows data...... analysis on the OLAP data to be significantly enriched by the use of additional object data. Additionally, physical integration of the OLAP and the object data can be avoided. As a vehicle for demonstrating the capabilities of the system, a prototypical OLAP language is defined and extended to naturally...
The Limits of Extended Quintessence
Nesseris, S
2006-01-01
We use a low redshift expansion of the cosmological equations of extended (scalar-tensor) quintessence to divide the observable Hubble history parameter space in four sectors: A forbidden sector I where the scalar field of the theory becomes imaginary (the kinetic term becomes negative), a forbidden sector II where the scalar field rolls up (instead of down) its potential, an allowed `freezing' quintessence sector III where the scalar field is currently decelerating down its potential towards freezing and an allowed `thawing' sector IV where the scalar field is currently accelerating down its potential. The dividing lines between the sectors depend sensitively on the time derivatives of the Newton's constant G over powers of the Hubble parameter. For minimally coupled quintessence which appears as a special case for a constant G our results are consistent with previous studies. Observable parameter \\chi^2 contours based on current data (SNLS dataset) are also constructed on top of the sectors, for a prior of ...
Extended class of phenomenological universalities
Molski, Marcin
2017-08-01
The phenomenological universalities (PU) are extended to include quantum oscillatory phenomena, coherence and supersymmetry. It will be proved that this approach generates minimum uncertainty coherent states of time-dependent oscillators, which in the dissociation (classical) limit reduce to the functions describing growth (regression) of the systems evolving over time. The PU formalism can be applied also to construct the coherent states of space-dependent oscillators, which in the dissociation limit produce cumulative distribution functions widely used in probability theory and statistics. A combination of the PU and supersymmetry provides a convenient tool for generating analytical solutions of the Fokker-Planck equation with the drift term related to the different forms of potential energy function. The results obtained reveal existence of a new class of macroscopic quantum (or quasi-quantum) phenomena, which may play a vital role in coherent formation of the specific growth patterns in complex systems.
Extended Klein edges in graphene.
He, Kuang; Robertson, Alex W; Lee, Sungwoo; Yoon, Euijoon; Lee, Gun-Do; Warner, Jamie H
2014-12-23
Graphene has three experimentally confirmed periodic edge terminations, zigzag, reconstructed 5-7, and arm-chair. Theory predicts a fourth periodic edge of graphene called the extended Klein (EK) edge, which consists of a series of single C atoms protruding from a zigzag edge. Here, we confirm the existence of EK edges in both graphene nanoribbons and on the edge of bulk graphene using atomic resolution imaging by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy. The formation of the EK edge stems from sputtering and reconstruction of the zigzag edge. Density functional theory reveals minimal energy for EK edge reconstruction and bond distortion both in and out of plane, supporting our TEM observations. The EK edge can now be included as the fourth member of observed periodic edge structures in graphene.
THE EXTENDED VIRGO CLUSTER CATALOG
Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Chung, Jiwon; Pak, Mina; Yi, Wonhyeong; Lee, Woong [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Sung, Eon-Chang [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-01
We present a new catalog of galaxies in the wider region of the Virgo cluster, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. The Extended Virgo Cluster Catalog (EVCC) covers an area of 725 deg{sup 2} or 60.1 Mpc{sup 2}. It is 5.2 times larger than the footprint of the classical Virgo Cluster Catalog (VCC) and reaches out to 3.5 times the virial radius of the Virgo cluster. We selected 1324 spectroscopically targeted galaxies with radial velocities less than 3000 km s{sup –1}. In addition, 265 galaxies that have been overlooked in the SDSS spectroscopic survey but have available redshifts in the NASA Extragalactic Database are also included. Our selection process secured a total of 1589 galaxies, 676 of which are not included in the VCC. The certain and possible cluster members are defined by means of redshift comparison with a cluster infall model. We employed two independent and complementary galaxy classification schemes: the traditional morphological classification based on the visual inspection of optical images and a characterization of galaxies from their spectroscopic features. SDSS u, g, r, i, and z passband photometry of all EVCC galaxies was performed using Source Extractor. We compare the EVCC galaxies with the VCC in terms of morphology, spatial distribution, and luminosity function. The EVCC defines a comprehensive galaxy sample covering a wider range in galaxy density that is significantly different from the inner region of the Virgo cluster. It will be the foundation for forthcoming galaxy evolution studies in the extended Virgo cluster region, complementing ongoing and planned Virgo cluster surveys at various wavelengths.
Technological Packages Extended To Farmers by Non ...
Global Approaches to Extension Practice: A Journal of Agricultural Extension ... crops were the significant crop production technologies extended in the study area. ... Modern snailery was the only identified agro forestry technology extended, ...
Extending Characters on Fix Algebras
Wagner, Stefan
2011-01-01
A dynamical system is a triple $(A,G,\\alpha)$, consisting of a unital locally convex algebra $A$, a topological group $G$ and a group homomorphism $\\alpha:G\\rightarrow\\Aut(A)$, which induces a continuous action of $G$ on $A$. Further, a unital locally convex algebra $A$ is called continuous inverse algebra, or CIA for short, if its group of units $A^{\\times}$ is open in $A$ and the inversion $\\iota:A^{\\times}\\rightarrow A^{\\times},\\,\\,\\,a\\mapsto a^{-1}$ is continuous at $1_A$. For a compact manifold $M$, the Fr\\'echet algebra of smooth functions $C^{\\infty}(M)$ is the prototype of such a continuous inverse algebra. We show that if $A$ is a complete commutative CIA, $G$ a compact group and $(A,G,\\alpha)$ a dynamical system, then each character of $B:=A^G$ can be extended to a character of $A$. In particular, the natural map on the level of the corresponding spectra $\\Gamma_A\\rightarrow\\Gamma_B$, $\\chi\\mapsto\\chi_{\\mid B}$ is surjective.
The motivation behind extended suicide
Roman Kuruc
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The investigation of motivation of suicidal behaviour in cases of so-called extended suicide is of great importance from a forensic-psychological viewpoint. The initiator of such action is often a person suffering from endogenous depression. The motives behind successful suicide are generally not known. This paper aims to demonstrate the motives behind the successful suicide, less frequent in our conditions, of two family members – a father and a son. The case has been thoroughly analysed by morphological methods with the help of additional laboratory tests. At the centre was a suicide letter which was hidden in a very unusual way and which was elucidated only thanks to autopsy of both persons. The manner of realisation – hanging – was among the most frequent in the region and in the state too. The men were not under the influence of any toxic substances. The motivation behind the suicide was an escape from hard living conditions.
CPHD filter derivation for extended targets
Orguner, Umut
2010-01-01
This document derives the CPHD filter for extended targets. Only the update step is derived here. Target generated measurements, false alarms and prior are all assumed to be independent identically distributed cluster processes. We also prove here that the derived CPHD filter for extended targets reduce to PHD filter for extended targets and CPHD filter for standard targets under suitable assumptions.
Two Methods for Extending Quantum Key Warehouse
WU Min; LIAO Chang-jun; LIU Song-hao
2006-01-01
Because the rates of quantum key distribution systems are too low,the interleaving technique and interpolation technique are used to extend the capacity of the quantum key warehouse to increase the quantum key rates of quantum secure communication systems. the simulation technique can extend random sequences and that their randomness are invariable. The correlative theory and technique of digital singal processing is an effective method of extending the quantum dey warehouse.
The X-33 Extended Flight Test Range
Mackall, Dale A.; Sakahara, Robert; Kremer, Steven E.
1998-01-01
Development of an extended test range, with range instrumentation providing continuous vehicle communications, is required to flight-test the X-33, a scaled version of a reusable launch vehicle. The extended test range provides vehicle communications coverage from California to landing at Montana or Utah. This paper provides an overview of the approaches used to meet X-33 program requirements, including using multiple ground stations, and methods to reduce problems caused by reentry plasma radio frequency blackout. The advances used to develop the extended test range show other hypersonic and access-to-space programs can benefit from the development of the extended test range.
Extending models for two-dimensional constraints
Forchhammer, Søren
2009-01-01
Random fields in two dimensions may be specified on 2 times 2 elements such that the probabilities of finite configurations and the entropy may be calculated explicitly. The Pickard random field is one example where probability of a new (non-boundary) element is conditioned on three previous...... elements. To extend the concept we consider extending such a field such that a vector or block of elements is conditioned on a larger set of previous elements. Given a stationary model defined on 2 times 2 elements, iterative scaling is used to define the extended model. The extended model may be used...
Lévy Bases and Extended Subordination
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole
The concept of subordination of Lévy processes is reinterpreted and then extended to a definition of subordination of Lévy bases. This is extended a step further, and then applied to give an alternative way of volatility/intermittency modulation in the context of ambit fields.......The concept of subordination of Lévy processes is reinterpreted and then extended to a definition of subordination of Lévy bases. This is extended a step further, and then applied to give an alternative way of volatility/intermittency modulation in the context of ambit fields....
Report on Extended Campus Library Services.
Strickler, Sally Ann; And Others
This report presents the results of a study of the Extended Campus Library Services program at Western Kentucky University (WKU), which was conducted by a committee appointed by the Director of University Libraries. A description of the program's goals and objectives is followed by a review of the extended campus programs in relation to similar…
38 CFR 21.74 - Extended evaluation.
2010-07-01
...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 31 Duration of Rehabilitation Programs § 21.74 Extended evaluation. (a) General. An extended evaluation may be... concurrence of the Vocational Rehabilitation and Employment (VR&E) Officer before approving the extension of...
Evaluation of Kentucky's Extended School Services Program.
Meehan, Merrill L.; Cowley, Kimberly S.; Schumacher, Debbie; Hauser, Brenda
The Extended School Services (ESS) program was established in 1990 as part of the Kentucky Education Reform Act. The program extends the school day, week, or year for students at risk of academic failure, providing them with additional instructional time to help them meet academic goals. An evaluation of ESS in 2001 utilized statewide surveys and…
Big Gods: Extended prosociality or group binding?
Galen, Luke W
2016-01-01
Big Gods are described as having a "prosocial" effect. However, this conflates parochialism (group cohesion) with cooperation extended to strangers or out-group members. An examination of the cited experimental studies indicates that religion is actually associated with increased within-group parochialism, rather than extended or universal prosociality, and that the same general mechanisms underlie both religious and secular effects.
Teaching the Extended Modifier: A Transformational Approach.
Mann, G. Thomas
1985-01-01
Offers a practical model for teaching the extended modifier that is economical and linguistically sound, based on the insights and methodology of transformational generative grammar. Five transformational rules are given for generating extended modifiers from relative clauses. Examples of transformations and two class exercises in German are also…
Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition
Atkinson, Dwight
2010-01-01
A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…
Extended BRST quantization in general coordinates
Geyer, B; Nersessian, A B
2002-01-01
We propose an extended BRST invariant Lagrangian quantization scheme of general gauge theories based on explicit realization of "modified triplectic algebra" in general coordinates. All the known Lagrangian quantization schemes based on the extended BRST symmetry are obtained by specifying the (free) parameters of that method.
Extended, Embodied Cognition and Second Language Acquisition
Atkinson, Dwight
2010-01-01
A "cognitivist" approach to cognition has traditionally dominated second language acquisition (SLA) studies. In this article, I examine two alternative approaches--"extended cognition" and "embodied cognition"--for how they might help us conceptualize SLA. More specifically, I present: (i) summaries of extended and embodied cognition, followed by…
42 CFR 488.310 - Extended survey.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Extended survey. 488.310 Section 488.310 Public...) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION SURVEY, CERTIFICATION, AND ENFORCEMENT PROCEDURES Survey and Certification of Long-Term Care Facilities § 488.310 Extended survey. (a) Purpose of survey. The purpose of an...
Constructing Extended Formulations from Reflection Relations
Kaibel, Volker
2010-01-01
There are many examples of optimization problems whose associated polyhedra can be described much nicer, and with way less inequalities, by projections of higher dimensional polyhedra than this would be possible in the original space. However, currently not many general tools to construct such extended formulations are available. In this paper, we develop a framework of polyhedral relations that generalizes inductive constructions of extended formulations via projections, and we particularly elaborate on the special case of reflection relations. The latter ones provide polynomial size extended formulations for several polytopes that can be constructed as convex hulls of the unions of (exponentially) many copies of an input polytope obtained via sequences of reflections at hyperplanes. We demonstrate the use of the framework by deriving small extended formulations for the G-permutahedra of all finite reflection groups G (generalizing both Goeman's extended formulation of the permutahedron of size O(n log n) an...
The symmetric extendibility of quantum states
Nowakowski, Marcin L.
2016-09-01
Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states.
Extended Cognitive System and Epistemic Subject
Trybulec Barbara
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The concept of an extended cognitive system is central to contemporary studies of cognition. In the paper I analyze the place of the epistemic subject within the extended cognitive system. Is it extended as well? In answering this question I focus on the differences between the first and the second wave of arguments for the extended mind thesis. I argue that the position of Cognitive Integration represented by Richard Menary is much more intuitive and fruitful in analyses of cognition and knowledge than the early argument formulated by Andy Clark and David Chalmers. Cognitive Integration is compatible with virtue epistemology of John Greco’s agent reliabilism. The epistemic subject is constituted by its cognitive character composed of an integrated set of cognitive abilities and processes. Some of these processes are extended, they are a manipulation of external informational structures and, as such, they constitute epistemic practices. Epistemic practices are normative; to conduct them correctly the epistemic subject needs to obey epistemic norms embedded in the cultural context. The epistemic subject is not extended because of the casual coupling with external informational artifacts which extend his mind from inside the head and into the world. Rather, cognitive practices constitute the subject’s mind, they transform his cognitive abilities, and this is what makes the mind and epistemic subject “extended”.
Extended Hamiltonian approach to continuous tempering.
Gobbo, Gianpaolo; Leimkuhler, Benedict J
2015-06-01
We introduce an enhanced sampling simulation technique based on continuous tempering, i.e., on continuously varying the temperature of the system under investigation. Our approach is mathematically straightforward, being based on an extended Hamiltonian formulation in which an auxiliary degree of freedom, determining the effective temperature, is coupled to the physical system. The physical system and its temperature evolve continuously in time according to the equations of motion derived from the extended Hamiltonian. Due to the Hamiltonian structure, it is easy to show that a particular subset of the configurations of the extended system is distributed according to the canonical ensemble for the physical system at the correct physical temperature.
Supervisory Control of Extended Timed Event Graphs
Zhi-bing Zhuo; Wen-de Chen
2003-01-01
This paper describes the dynamic behavior of extended timed event graphs related to place delay in the dioid framework. By Cofer and Garg's supervisory control theory[3], we address control problems of extended timed event graphs. Supervisory control of extended timed event graphs (a class of discrete event dynamic systems) is studied in the dioid framework, a necessary and sufficient condition for the ideals of the set of firing time sequences of transitions to be controllable is presented. We prove all the strongly controllable subsets can form a complete lattice.
Superfield Lagrangian Quantization with Extended BRST Symmetry
Lavrov, P M
2001-01-01
We consider possible superfield representations of extended BRST symmetry for general gauge theories within the principle of gauge-fixing based on a generating equation for the gauge functional. We examine admissible superfield choices for an extended antibracket and delta-operator with given algebraic properties and show that only one of these choices is compatible with the requirement of extended BRST symmetry realized in terms of supertranslations along Grassmann coordinates. We demonstrate that this realization leads to the gauge-independence of the S-matrix.
The extended loop representation of quantum gravity
Di Bartolo, C; Griego, J R
1995-01-01
A new representation of Quantum Gravity is developed. This formulation is based on an extension of the group of loops. The enlarged group, that we call the Extended Loop Group, behaves locally as an infinite dimensional Lie group. Quantum Gravity can be realized on the state space of extended loop dependent wavefunctions. The extended representation generalizes the loop representation and contains this representation as a particular case. The resulting diffeomorphism and hamiltonian constraints take a very simple form and allow to apply functional methods and simplify the loop calculus. In particular we show that the constraints are linear in the momenta. The nondegenerate solutions known in the loop representation are also solutions of the constraints in the new representation. The practical calculation advantages allows to find a new solution to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Moreover, the extended representation puts in a precise framework some of the regularization problems of the loop representation. We sh...
Characterising and modelling extended conducted electromagnetic emission
Grobler, Inus
2013-06-01
Full Text Available -1 2013 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition Asia (ECCE Downunder), Melbourne, Australia, 3-6 June 2013 Characterising and Modelling Extended Conducted Electromagnetic Emission I Grobler1 and MN Gitau2 Department of Electrical...
Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis derived from the International Comprehensive...
Duality Covariant Solutions in Extended Field Theories
Rudolph, Felix J
2016-01-01
Double field theory and exceptional field theory are formulations of supergravity that make certain dualities manifest symmetries of the action. To achieve this, the geometry is extended by including dual coordinates corresponding to winding modes of the fundamental objects. This geometrically unifies the spacetime metric and the gauge fields (and their local symmetries) in a generalized geometry. Solutions to these extended field theories take the simple form of waves and monopoles in the extended space. From a supergravity point of view they appear as 1/2 BPS objects such as the string, the membrane and the fivebrane in ordinary spacetime. In this thesis double field theory and exceptional field theory are introduced, solutions to their equations of motion are constructed and their properties are analyzed. Further it is established how isometries in the extended space give rise to duality relations between the supergravity solutions. Extensions to these core ideas include studying Goldstone modes, probing s...
Extended emission associated with young HII regions
Ellingsen, S P; Kurtz, S E
2004-01-01
We have used the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) to make observations of a sample of eight young ultra-compact HII regions, selected on the basis that they have associated class II methanol maser emission. We have made observations sensitive to both compact and extended structures and find both to be present in most sources. The scale of the extended emission in our sample is in general less than that observed towards samples based on IRAS properties, or large single-dish flux densities. Our observations are consistent with a scenario where extended and compact radio continuum emission coexists within HII regions for a significant period of time. We suggest that these observations are consistent with a model where HII evolution takes place within hierarchically structured molecular clouds. This model is the subject of a companion paper (Shabala et al. 2005) and addresses both the association between compact and extended emission and UCHII region lifetime problem.
Extending Office 365 with Microsoft Azure
Piirainen, Ville
2016-01-01
The topic of this thesis is extending Office 365 with cloud services offered by Microsoft Azure. The purpose of this thesis is to identify and present Azure services which can be used to extend Office 365 functionality. The most essential services and tools are covered from built-in services to custom solutions. In addition to Azure services, Office 365 application programming interfaces are also covered as they can be used with several extension scenarios. Both Office 365 and Azure are r...
The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success
Jæger, Mads Meier
2012-01-01
Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based on the W...... on educational success originates in the immediate family, the extended family and in interactions between these two family environments....
Extended Dislocations in Plastically Deformed Metallic Nanoparticles
Bin Zheng
2016-05-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the sawtooth nature of compressive loading of metallic nanoparticles is observed using a molecular dynamics simulation. The atomic structure evolution confirmed that extended dislocations are the main defects split into two asynchronous partial disloca‐ tions, along with stored and released fault energy. This is considered the essence of sawtooth loading. The size of the nanoparticles relative to the equilibrium width of the extended dislocation is discussed to explain the simulation results.
Some Aspects of Extended Kinetic Equation
Dilip Kumar
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Motivated by the pathway model of Mathai introduced in 2005 [Linear Algebra and Its Applications, 396, 317–328] we extend the standard kinetic equations. Connection of the extended kinetic equation with fractional calculus operator is established. The solution of the general form of the fractional kinetic equation is obtained through Laplace transform. The results for the standard kinetic equation are obtained as the limiting case.
Musical Manipulations and the Emotionally Extended Mind
Joel Krueger
2015-05-01
Full Text Available I respond to Kersten's criticism in his article "Music and Cognitive Extension" of my approach to the musically extended emotional mind in Krueger (2014. I specify how we manipulate—and in so doing, integrate with—music when, as active listeners, we become part of a musically extended cognitive system. I also indicate how Kersten's account might be enriched by paying closer attention to the way that music functions as an environmental artifact for emotion regulation.
IMM Iterated Extended Particle Filter Algorithm
Yang Wan; Shouyong Wang; Xing Qin
2013-01-01
In order to solve the tracking problem of radar maneuvering target in nonlinear system model and non-Gaussian noise background, this paper puts forward one interacting multiple model (IMM) iterated extended particle filter algorithm (IMM-IEHPF). The algorithm makes use of multiple modes to model the target motion form to track any maneuvering target and each mode uses iterated extended particle filter (IEHPF) to deal with the state estimation problem of nonlinear non-Gaussian system. IEH...
Extended Access List untuk Mengendalikan Trafik Jaringan
Hari Antoni Musril
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Keamana jaringan komputer saat ini menjadi hal penting untuk diterapkan. Banyak organisasi yang telah menjadikan teknologi informasi sebagai bahagian penting dalam menunjang aktivitasnya. Akses pengguna yang tidak dibatasi menjadi ancaman bagi sebuah organisasi, karena banyak data dan informasi penting yang tersebar dalam perangkat jaringan komputer di organisasi tersebut dapat disusupi oleh pihak yang tidak berwenang. Salah satu usaha yang dapat dilakukan adalah dengan menerapkan extended access list yang merupakan salah satu bagian dari metode access control list. Extended access list dapat menyaring lalu lintas data suatu jaringan dengan mengontrol apakah paket-paket tersebut dilewatkan atau dihentikan. Extended access list juga dapat menjamin keamanan untuk setiap komputer sehingga jalur komunikasi serta hak akses setiap komputer dapat berjalan dengan baik. Extended access list memungkinkan penyaringan berdasarkan sumber atau alamat tujuan, protokol yang dipilih, port yang digunakan, dan apakah koneksi sudah ditetapkan. Tulisan ini membahas penerapan extended access list dalam jaringan supaya dapat melakukan filter terhadap paket data yang melewati jaringan. Penerapannya menggunakan software Packet Tracer 6.1.1 untuk membuat prototipe jaringan dan mensimulasikannya. Sehingga nanti dapat diterapkan pada jaringan yang sebenarnya. List yang dibangun pada penelitian ini diterapkan untuk protokol antara lain : TCP (WWW, FTP, Telnet, SMTP, POP3, UDP (DNS, dan ICMP (Ping. Hasilnya didapatkan extended access list yang dikonfigurasi pada router dalam topologi penelitian ini mampu melakukan filter terhadap paket yang melewati jaringan. Hasil konfigurasinya sangat spesifik, sehingga penerapan hak akses permit dan deny dapat dilakukan sesuai dengan aturan dan skenario yang dirancang.
A. Zuend
2011-09-01
Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H^{+}, Li^{+}, Na^{+}, K^{+}, NH_{4}^{+}, Mg^{2+}, Ca^{2+}, Cl^{−}, Br^{−}, NO_{3}^{−}, HSO_{4}^{−}, and SO_{4}^{2−}. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization
A. Zuend
2011-05-01
Full Text Available We present a new and considerably extended parameterization of the thermodynamic activity coefficient model AIOMFAC (Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients at room temperature. AIOMFAC combines a Pitzer-like electrolyte solution model with a UNIFAC-based group-contribution approach and explicitly accounts for interactions between organic functional groups and inorganic ions. Such interactions constitute the salt-effect, may cause liquid-liquid phase separation, and affect the gas-particle partitioning of aerosols. The previous AIOMFAC version was parameterized for alkyl and hydroxyl functional groups of alcohols and polyols. With the goal to describe a wide variety of organic compounds found in atmospheric aerosols, we extend here the parameterization of AIOMFAC to include the functional groups carboxyl, hydroxyl, ketone, aldehyde, ether, ester, alkenyl, alkyl, aromatic carbon-alcohol, and aromatic hydrocarbon. Thermodynamic equilibrium data of organic-inorganic systems from the literature are critically assessed and complemented with new measurements to establish a comprehensive database. The database is used to determine simultaneously the AIOMFAC parameters describing interactions of organic functional groups with the ions H^{+}, Li^{+}, Na^{+}, K^{+}, NH_{4}^{+}, Mg^{2+}, Ca^{2+}, Cl^{−}, Br^{−}, NO_{3}^{−}, HSO_{4}^{−}, and SO_{4}^{2−}. Detailed descriptions of different types of thermodynamic data, such as vapor-liquid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid equilibria, and their use for the model parameterization are provided. Issues regarding deficiencies of the database, types and uncertainties of experimental data, and limitations of the model, are discussed. The challenging parameter optimization problem is solved with a novel combination of powerful global minimization
Solute drag on perfect and extended dislocations
Sills, R. B.; Cai, W.
2016-04-01
The drag force exerted on a moving dislocation by a field of mobile solutes is studied in the steady state. The drag force is numerically calculated as a function of the dislocation velocity for both perfect and extended dislocations. The sensitivity of the non-dimensionalized force-velocity curve to the various controlling parameters is assessed, and an approximate analytical force-velocity expression is given. A non-dimensional parameter S characterizing the strength of the solute-dislocation interaction, the background solute fraction ?, and the dislocation character angle ?, are found to have the strongest influence on the force-velocity curve. Within the model considered here, a perfect screw dislocation experiences no solute drag, but an extended screw dislocation experiences a non-zero drag force that is about 10 to 30% of the drag on an extended edge dislocation. The solutes can change the spacing between the Shockley partials in both stationary and moving extended dislocations, even when the stacking fault energy remains unaltered. Under certain conditions, the solutes destabilize an extended dislocation by either collapsing it into a perfect dislocation or causing the partials to separate unboundedly. It is proposed that the latter instability may lead to the formation of large faulted areas and deformation twins in low stacking fault energy materials containing solutes, consistent with experimental observations of copper and stainless steel containing hydrogen.
[Ischemic cholangiopathy induced by extended burns].
Cohen, Laurence; Angot, Emilie; Goria, Odile; Koning, Edith; François, Arnaud; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe
2013-04-01
Ischemic cholangiopathy is a recently described entity occurring mainly after hepatic grafts. Very few cases after intensive care unit (ICU) for extended burn injury were reported. We report the case of a 73-year-old woman consulting in an hepatology unit, for a jaundice appearing during a hospitalisation in an intensive care unit and increasing from her leaving from ICU, where she was treated for an extended burn injury. She had no pre-existing biological features of biliary disease. Biological tests were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging acquisitions of biliary tracts pointed out severe stenosing lesions of diffuse cholangiopathy concerning intrahepatic biliary tract, mainly peri-hilar. Biopsie from the liver confirmed the diagnosis, showing a biliary cirrhosis with bile infarcts. This case is the fourth case of ischemic cholangiopathy after extended burn injury, concerning a patient without a prior history of hepatic or biliary illness and appearing after hospitalisation in intensive care unit.
The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success
Jæger, Mads Meier
2012-01-01
Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations and on parents and children. This paper argues that the extended family makes up a significant part of the total effect of family background on educational success. Empirical results based...... characteristics of grandparents and aunts and uncles have few direct effects on educational success, resources in the extended family compensate lacking resources in low-SES families, which in turn promote children’s educational success. The main conclusion is that the total effect of family background...... on the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by siblings from the same immediate family, factors shared by first cousins from the same extended family account for a nontrivial part of the total variance in children’s educational success. Results also show that while socioeconomic...
Rough sets: the classical and extended views
ZIARKO Wojciech
2008-01-01
The article is a comprehensive review of two major approaches to rough set theory: the classic rough setmodel introduced by Pawlak and the probabilistic approaches. The classic model is presented as a staging ground to the discussion of two varieties of the probabilistic approach, i.e. of the variable precision and Bayesian rough set models. Both of these models extend the classic model to deal with stochastic interactions while preserving the basicideas of the original rough set theory, such as set approximations, data dependencies, reducts etc. The probabilistic models are able to handle weaker data interactions than the classic model, thus extending the applicability of the rough set paradigm. The extended models are presented in considerable detail with some illustrative examples.
Integration measure and extended BRST covariant quantization
Geyer, B; Nersessian, A P; Geyer, Bodo; Lavrov, Petr; Nersessian, Armen
2001-01-01
We propose an extended BRST invariant Lagrangian quantization scheme of general gauge theories based on an explicit realization of the modified triplectic algebra that was announced in our previous investigation (hep-th/0104189). The algebra includes, besides the odd operators $V^a$ appearing in the triplectic formalism, also the odd operators $U^a$ introduced within modified triplectic quantization, both of which being anti-Hamiltonian vector fields. We show that some even supersymplectic structure defined on the space of fields and antifields provides the extended BRST path integral with a well-defined integration measure. All the known Lagrangian quantization schemes based on the extended BRST symmetry are obtained by specifying the (free) parameters of that method.
The geometry of branes and extended superspaces
Chryssomalakos, C. E-mail: chryss@lie3.ific.uv.es; Azcarraga, J.A. de E-mail: azcarrag@lie1.ific.uv.es; Izquierdo, J.M. E-mail: izquierd@fta.uva.es; Perez Bueno, J.C. E-mail: pbueno@lie.ific.uv.es
2000-02-14
We argue that a description of supersymmetric extended objects from a unified geometric point of view requires an enlargement of superspace. To this aim we study in a systematic way how superspace groups and algebras arise from Grassmann spinors when these are assumed to be the only primary entities. In the process, we recover generalized space-time superalgebras and extensions of supersymmetry found earlier. The enlargement of ordinary superspace with new parameters gives rise to extended superspace groups, on which manifestly supersymmetric actions may be constructed for various types of p-branes, including D-branes (given by Chevalley-Eilenberg cocycles) with their Born-Infeld fields. This results in a field/extended superspace democracy for superbranes: all brane fields appear as pull-backs from a suitable target superspace. Our approach also clarifies some facts concerning the origin of the central charges for the different p-branes.
Extended Interneuronal Network of the Dentate Gyrus
Gergely G. Szabo
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Local interneurons control principal cells within individual brain areas, but anecdotal observations indicate that interneuronal axons sometimes extend beyond strict anatomical boundaries. Here, we use the case of the dentate gyrus (DG to show that boundary-crossing interneurons with cell bodies in CA3 and CA1 constitute a numerically significant and diverse population that relays patterns of activity generated within the CA regions back to granule cells. These results reveal the existence of a sophisticated retrograde GABAergic circuit that fundamentally extends the canonical interneuronal network.
The extended trace identity and its application
Yao Yu-Qin; Chen Deng-Yuan
2007-01-01
The trace identity is extended to the general loop algebra.The Hamiltonian structures of the integrable systems concerning vector spectral problems and the multi-component integrable hierarchy can be worked out by Using the extended trace identity.As its application,we have obtained the Hamiltonian structures of the Yang hierarchy,the Korteweg-de-Vries (KdV) hierarchy,the multi-component Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur (M-AKNS) hierarchy,the multi-component Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur Kaup-Newell (M-AKNS-KN) hierarchy and a new multi-component integrable hierarchy separately.
Dixon's extended bodies and weak gravitational waves
Bini, Donato; Geralico, Andrea; Ortolan, Antonello
2009-01-01
General relativity considers Dixon's theory as the standard theory to deal with the motion of extended bodies in a given gravitational background. We discuss here the features of the "reaction" of an extended body to the passage of a weak gravitational wave. We find that the body acquires a dipolar moment induced by its quadrupole structure. Furthermore, we derive the "world function" for the weak field limit of a gravitational wave background and use it to estimate the deviation between geodesics and the world lines of structured bodies. Measuring such deviations, due to the existence of cumulative effects, should be favorite with respect to measuring the amplitude of the gravitational wave itself.
Study on an extended Boussinesq equation
Chen Chun-Li; Zhang Jin E; Li Yi-Shen
2007-01-01
An extended Boussinesq equation that models weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive waves on a uniform layer of water is studied in this paper. The results show that the equation is not Painlevé-integrable in general. Some particular exact travelling wave solutions are obtained by using a function expansion method. An approximate solitary wave solution with physical significance is obtained by using a perturbation method. We find that the extended Boussinesq equation with a depth parameter of 1/√2 is able to match the Laitone's (1960) second order solitary wave solution of the Euler equations.
Focus point supersymmetry in extended gauge mediation
Ding, Ran [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China); Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics (KITPC),Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China,Chengdu 610054 (China); Staub, Florian [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics & Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nußallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zhu, Bin [School of Physics, Nankai University,Tianjin 300071 (China)
2014-03-27
We propose a small extension of the minimal gauge mediation through the combination of extended gauge mediation and conformal sequestering. We show that the focus point supersymmetry can be realized naturally, and the fine tuning is significantly reduced compared to the minimal gauge mediation and extended gauge mediation without focus point. The Higgs boson mass is around 125 GeV, the gauginos remain light, and the gluino is likely to be detected at the next run of the LHC. However, the multi-TeV squarks is out of the reach of the LHC. The numerical calculation for fine-tuning shows that this model remains natural.
Market Diffusion of Extended Cycle Hormonal Contraceptives
Megen Leeds Schumacher, Pharm.D.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Extended cycle hormonal contraceptives (e.g. Seasonale, Seasonique when introduced in 2003 were considered a very novel approach to contraception. The idea of manipulating the menstrual cycle so that women would experience just four menstruations a year was radical and was assumed to be responsible for the slow acceptance rate among the general public.Objective: This report analyzes two different aspects of the acceptance of this unique idea in the population. The first was the level of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives in the general population, which was measured by a review of sales figures over time in the United States. The second was an examination of market diffusion as it relates to consumer perceptions regarding the characteristics of these products.Methods: To determine the degree of usage of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives the yearly sales, in terms of units sold, were compared with that of other leading methods of hormonal contraception. Along with the data, survey answers were obtained from 65 women who volunteered to participate in the study. Participants were selected randomly to represent the target population to assess the level of awareness about the benefits, risks, and any other concerns regarding the use of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives.Results: The yearly sales data of units sold showed a definitive increase in the sales of extended cycle hormonal contraceptives since their release on the market. The survey results showed an overwhelming awareness in the study population about the extended regimen. However, only about half of the women in the survey group were aware of its benefits. The main concern reported was the perceived significant side effect profile.Conclusion: Though awareness about the extended cycle hormonal contraception regimen was widespread, the survey population was not well informed about the advantages and the disadvantages regarding the degree of severity of side
Extending Symfony 2 web application framework
Armand, Sébastien
2014-01-01
Symfony is a high performance PHP framework for developing MVC web applications. Symfony1 allowed for ease of use but its shortcoming was the difficulty of extending it. However, this difficulty has now been eradicated by the more powerful and extensible Symfony2. Information on more advanced techniques for extending Symfony can be difficult to find, so you need one resource that contains the advanced features in a way you can understand. This tutorial offers solutions to all your Symfony extension problems. You will get to grips with all the extension points that Symfony, Twig, and Doctrine o
Weak Lie symmetry and extended Lie algebra
Goenner, Hubert [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, University of Goettingen, D-37077 Gottingen (Germany)
2013-04-15
The concept of weak Lie motion (weak Lie symmetry) is introduced. Applications given exhibit a reduction of the usual symmetry, e.g., in the case of the rotation group. In this context, a particular generalization of Lie algebras is found ('extended Lie algebras') which turns out to be an involutive distribution or a simple example for a tangent Lie algebroid. Riemannian and Lorentz metrics can be introduced on such an algebroid through an extended Cartan-Killing form. Transformation groups from non-relativistic mechanics and quantum mechanics lead to such tangent Lie algebroids and to Lorentz geometries constructed on them (1-dimensional gravitational fields).
Extending the Use of Saramaccan in Suriname.
Glock, Naomi
1983-01-01
Advocates the use of the vernacular language, not only as an important vehicle for learning, but also as a means of enhancing the native speakers' feeling of self-worth. Presents several ways of extending the use of the vernacular, as well as the problems that can arise. (EKN)
Extending and embedding the Python interpreter
G. van Rossum (Guido)
1995-01-01
textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes h
Extending the Body for Interaction with Reality
Feuchtner, Tiare; Müller, Jörg
2017-01-01
In this paper, we explore how users can control remote devices with a virtual long arm, while preserving the perception that the artificial arm is actually part of their own body. Instead of using pointing, speech, or a remote control, the users’ arm is extended in augmented reality, allowing...
Macrodystrophia lipomatosa extending into the upper abdomen
Fritz, Traci R. [The University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX (United States); Swischuk, Leonard E. [The University of Texas Medical Branch, Departments of Radiology and Pediatrics, Galveston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Medical Branch, Pediatric Radiology, Galveston, TX (United States)
2007-12-15
We report a case of macrodystrophia lipomatosa in an infant with extension of hypertrophied fatty tissue into the abdomen and abdominal wall. The patient not only presented with typical limb abnormalities but also an abdominal mass. We reviewed the literature on the subject, and believe that our case is rare because the hypertrophied lipomatous tissue extended into the abdomen. (orig.)
Extended exergy accounting applied to biodiesel production
Talens Peiro, L. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q-ETSE, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Villalba Mendez, G.; Gabarrell i Durany, X. [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Edifici Q-ETSE, Room QC 3101, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E-08193 Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Edifici Q, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), E- 08193, Bellaterra (Cerdanyola del Valles), Barcelona (Spain); Sciubba, E. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Roma 1 ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Via Eudossiana 18, I-00184 Roma (Italy)
2010-07-15
When evaluating the production of renewable energies such as biofuels, it is necessary to include in the assessment the resource inputs, capital, labor investment and environmental remediation costs. Extended Exergy Accounting (EEA) is a system analysis method that calculates, on the basis of detailed mass and exergy balances, the total amount of primary exergy resources necessary to obtain a product or service. The conceptual novelty of EEA is represented by the fact that it also includes externalities (capital, labor and environmental impact) measured in homogeneous units (Joules). As an illustration of EEA, we assess and compare the production of 1 ton of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCOME) and rapeseed crops (RME). The extended exergy ''content'' of UCOME and RME are 51.90 GJ and 77.05 GJ respectively. The production of UCOME uses 25.15 GJ less resources (materials and energy) and requires lower total investments and environmental remediation costs than that of RME. On the other hand, UCOME requires 35% more workhours. In summary, the extended exergy of UCOME is about 1.5 the extended exergy content of RME. Thus, we can conclude that biodiesel production from UCO is less resource use intensive than the production from RME. (author)
OBSERVABILITY OF EXTENDED TIMED EVENT GRAPH
ZHUO Zhibing; CHEN Wende
2004-01-01
In this paper, we study some results of extended timed event graph (ETEG)by using graph theory's methods in the dioid framework. A necessary and sufficient condition for the observability of ETEG is obtained and ETEG's standard structure is also established.
Extending and embedding the Python interpreter
Rossum, G. van
1995-01-01
Python is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes how to embed
Extended PGA for Range Migration Algorithms
Rossum, W.L. van; Otten, M.P.G.; Bree, R.J.P. van
2006-01-01
The Phase Gradient Autofocus (PGA) algorithm is extended to work for synthetic aperture radar (SAR) spotlight images processed with range migration (ω-k) algorithms. Several pre-processing steps are proposed for aligning the range-compressed phase-history data needed for successful autofocusing of
Partial results on extending the Hopf Lemma
Li, YanYan
2009-01-01
In [1], Theorem 3, the authors proved, in one dimension, a generalization of the Hopf Lemma, and the question arose if it could be extended to higher dimensions. In this paper we present two conjectures as possible extensions, and give a very partial answer. We write this paper to call attention to the problem.
Schedule-extended synchronous dataflow graphs
Damavandpeyma, M.; Stuijk, S.; Basten, T.; Geilen, M.; Corporaal, H.
2013-01-01
Synchronous dataflow graphs (SDFGs) are used extensively to model streaming applications. An SDFG can be extended with scheduling decisions, allowing SDFG analysis to obtain properties, such as throughput or buffer sizes for the scheduled graphs. Analysis times depend strongly on the size of the
Turbo Codes Extended with Outer BCH Code
Andersen, Jakob Dahl
1996-01-01
The "error floor" observed in several simulations with the turbo codes is verified by calculation of an upper bound to the bit error rate for the ensemble of all interleavers. Also an easy way to calculate the weight enumerator used in this bound is presented. An extended coding scheme is proposed...
Quantum field theories of extended objects
Friedan, Daniel
2016-01-01
First steps are taken in a project to construct a general class of conformal and perhaps, eventually, non-conformal quantum field theories of (n-1)-dimensional extended objects in a d=2n dimensional conformal space-time manifold M. The fields live on the spaces E of relative integral (n-1)-cycles in M -- the integral (n-1)-currents of given boundary. Each E is a complete metric space geometrically analogous to a Riemann surface $\\Sigma$. For example, if $M=S^d$, $\\Sigma = S^2$. The quantum fields on E are to be mapped to observables in a 2d CFT on $\\Sigma$. The correlation functions on E are to be given by the 2d correlation functions on $\\Sigma$. The goal is to construct a CFT of extended objects in d=2n dimensions for every 2d CFT, and eventually a non-conformal QFT of extended objects for every non-conformal 2d QFT, so that all the technology of 2d QFT can be applied to the construction and analysis of quantum field theories of extended objects. The project depends crucially on settling some mathematical q...
Extending the Body for Interaction with Reality
Feuchtner, Tiare; Müller, Jörg
2017-01-01
In this paper, we explore how users can control remote devices with a virtual long arm, while preserving the perception that the artificial arm is actually part of their own body. Instead of using pointing, speech, or a remote control, the users’ arm is extended in augmented reality, allowing...
The Extended Mind Thesis and Mechanistic Explanations
Fazekas, Peter
2013-01-01
The Extended Mind Thesis (EMT) is traditionally formulated against the bedrock of functionalism, and ongoing debates are typically bogged down with questions concerning the exact relationship between EMT and different versions of functionalism. In this paper, I offer a novel ally for EMT: the new...
An extended scenario for the Schrodinger equation
Capak, M; Unsal, O L; Atay, S; Gonul, B
2011-01-01
The concept of the elegant work introduced by Levai in Ref. [5] is extended for the solutions of the Schrodinger equation with more realistic other potentials used in different disciplines of physics. The connection between the present model and the other alternative algebraic technique in the literature is discussed
Experimental limits on antigravity in extended supergravity
1995-01-01
The available tests of the equivalence principle constrain the mass of the Higgs-like boson appearing in extended supergravity theories. We determine the constraints imposed by the present and future high precision experiments on the antigravity fields arising from $N=2,8$ supergravity.
Extended Resin Composite Restorations: Techniques and Procedures
Loomans, B.A.C.; Hilton, T.
2016-01-01
This article gives an overview of the state of the art of different restorative treatment procedures and techniques needed for placing extended posterior resin composite restorations. Clinical aspects related to the procedure are discussed and reviewed based on the current literature, such as the
Integrable extended van der Waals model
Giglio, Francesco; Landolfi, Giulio; Moro, Antonio
2016-10-01
Inspired by the recent developments in the study of the thermodynamics of van der Waals fluids via the theory of nonlinear conservation laws and the description of phase transitions in terms of classical (dissipative) shock waves, we propose a novel approach to the construction of multi-parameter generalisations of the van der Waals model. The theory of integrable nonlinear conservation laws still represents the inspiring framework. Starting from a macroscopic approach, a four parameter family of integrable extended van der Waals models is indeed constructed in such a way that the equation of state is a solution to an integrable nonlinear conservation law linearisable by a Cole-Hopf transformation. This family is further specified by the request that, in regime of high temperature, far from the critical region, the extended model reproduces asymptotically the standard van der Waals equation of state. We provide a detailed comparison of our extended model with two notable empirical models such as Peng-Robinson and Soave's modification of the Redlich-Kwong equations of state. We show that our extended van der Waals equation of state is compatible with both empirical models for a suitable choice of the free parameters and can be viewed as a master interpolating equation. The present approach also suggests that further generalisations can be obtained by including the class of dispersive and viscous-dispersive nonlinear conservation laws and could lead to a new type of thermodynamic phase transitions associated to nonclassical and dispersive shock waves.
On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics
Kimura, Keiji [Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Morrison, P. J. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712-1060 (United States)
2014-08-15
A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy.
Computation of unirational fields (extended abstract)
Gutierrez, Jaime
2008-01-01
In this paper we present an algorithm for computing all algebraic intermediate subfields in a separably generated unirational field extension (which in particular includes the zero characteristic case). One of the main tools is Groebner bases theory. Our algorithm also requires computing computing primitive elements and factoring over algebraic extensions. Moreover, the method can be extended to finitely generated K-algebras.
Robotic extended pyelolithotomy for complete staghorn calculus.
Sotelo, Rene; Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Giedelman, Camilo; de Andrade, Robert; Carmona, Oswaldo; Ramirez, Daniel; Clavijo, Rafael
2010-08-01
Staghorn stones represent a therapeutic challenge to urologists. We present our experience with laparoscopic extended pyelolithotomy for treatment of staghorn and complex renal calculi in highly selected cases. This approach provides the principles of open surgery with the advantages of minimally invasive surgery. We describe our experience with robot-assisted extended pyelolithotomy for complex coralliform calculi. Since January 2007, robotic extended pyelolithotomy has been performed by transperitoneal approach in two patients with complete coralliform lithiasis (calculi average size 8 cm). One patient had history of percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Demographic and operative data were collected. All procedures were technically successful without need for open conversion. Mean estimated blood loss was 175 ml (range 50-300 ml), and mean operative time was 150 min (range 120-150 min). A perinephric drain was employed in one patient with duration of 5 days. Postoperative imaging confirmed complete stone clearance. Robotic extended pyelolithotomy is a feasible and reproducible procedure for removal of complete and partial staghorn calculi in selected patients with complex nephrolithiasis. This approach might limit the role of open surgery for these calculi, but further publications with more cases are necessary to further define its utility.
An Extended Analysis of Requirements Traceability Model
Jiang Dandong(蒋丹东); Zhang Shensheng; Chen Lu
2004-01-01
A new extended meta model of traceability is presented. Then, a formalized fine-grained model of traceability is described. Some major issues about this model, including trace units, requirements and relations within the model, are further analyzed. Finally, a case study that comes from a key project of 863 Program is given.
Extending and embedding the Python interpreter
G. van Rossum (Guido)
1995-01-01
textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes
Extending School Hours: A Capital Idea.
Jones, John Hodge
1995-01-01
The Murfreesboro, Tennessee, City Schools have doubled the amount of time schools are open without raising taxes. Instead of going home to empty houses, kids participate in an extended school program offering over 100 courses in recreation, academics, arts, and life skills. Parents and organizations foot the costs; no child is excluded for…
Spontaneous Breakup of Extended Monodisperse Polymer Melts
Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Yu, Kaijia
2011-01-01
We apply continuum mechanical based, numerical modeling to study the dynamics of extended monodisperse polymer melts during the relaxation. The computations are within the ideas of the microstructural ‘‘interchain pressure’’ theory. The computations show a delayed necking resulting in a rupture...
An Extended Chiral SU(3) Quark Model
ZHANG Zong-Ye; YU You-Wen; WANG Ping; DAI Lian-Rong
2003-01-01
The chiral SU(3) quark model is extended by including the vector meson exchanges to describe the short range interactions. The phase shifts of NN scattering are studied in this model. Compared with the results of the chiral SU(3) quark model in which only the pseudo-scalar and scalar chiralfields are considered, the phase shifts of 1 So wave are obviously improved.
Q-Method Extended Kalman Filter
Zanetti, Renato; Ainscough, Thomas; Christian, John; Spanos, Pol D.
2012-01-01
A new algorithm is proposed that smoothly integrates non-linear estimation of the attitude quaternion using Davenport s q-method and estimation of non-attitude states through an extended Kalman filter. The new method is compared to a similar existing algorithm showing its similarities and differences. The validity of the proposed approach is confirmed through numerical simulations.
Simulation and analysis of shared extended mind
Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Schut, M.C.; Treur, J.
2008-01-01
Some types of animals exploit patterns created in the environment as external mental states, thus obtaining an extension of their mind. In the case of social animals the creation and exploitation of such patterns can be shared, which supports a form of shared extended mind or collective intelligence
Exploring Social Structures in Extended Team Model
Zahedi, Mansooreh; Ali Babar, Muhammad
2013-01-01
Extended Team Model (ETM) as a type of offshore outsourcing is increasingly becoming popular mode of Global Software Development (GSD). There is little knowledge about the social structures in ETM and their impact on collaboration. Within a large interdisciplinary project to develop the next gene...
The Extended Family and Children's Educational Success
Jaeger, Mads Meier
2012-01-01
Research on family background and educational success focuses almost exclusively on two generations: parents and children. This study argues that the extended family contributes significantly to the total effect of family background on educational success. Analyses using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study show that, net of family factors shared by…
[Combined hormonal contraception in cycles artificially extended].
Bustillos-Alamilla, Edgardo; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Hernández-Ruiz, M A; Briones-Landa, Carlos Humberto
2010-01-01
To compare the bleeding patterns, satisfaction and tolerability of 3 different contraceptive in an extended regimens in the service of Family Planning of the North Central Hospital of PEMEX. Healthy, adult women with desire of contraception for one year (N 120) were randomly assigned to receive oral contraceptive drospirenone/ethinyl E2 (group1), the norelgestromin/ethinyl E2 transdermal patch (group 2) and vaginal ring etonogestrel/ ethinyl E2 (group 3) in an extended regimen (42 consecutive days, 1 hormone-free week). Study assessments were conducted at scheduled visits at the time of initial screening, at baseline after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Subjects recorded menstrual associated symptoms bleeding data and completed satisfaction questionnaires. Subjects and investigators provided overall assessments of the regimens. Extended use of 3 different contraceptive resulted in fewer bleeding days in every group (66.6%, 55% and 58.3% P 0.0024), and less mastalgia and menstrual pain. Subjects were highly satisfied with three regimens (93.3%, 96.6% and 91.6% P 0.00421). Although not mayor adverse events were reported with this regimen, there was an increase in spotting days; it decreased with each successive cycle of therapy. Efficacy and safety were similar to those reported for traditional cycle. Extended-contraceptive regimen delays menses and reduces bleeding, a profile that may be preferred by women who seek flexibility with their contraceptive method.
From ergodicity to extended phase diagrams.
Woodley, Scott M; Sokol, Alexey A
2012-04-16
Structure prediction of stable and metastable phases is put on equal footing for the first time, with a solid thermodynamical background. How to estimate the lifetime of metastable phases is demonstrated by recent groundbreaking work of Jansen, Pentin, and Schön. At the heart lies the exploration of the Gibbs free-energy landscapes and the extended phase diagrams for complex systems.
Prototype for Extended XDB Using Wiki
Wook-Sung Yoo
2012-11-01
Full Text Available This paper describes a prototype of extended XDB. XDB is an open-source and extensible database architecture developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA to provide integration of heterogeneous and distributed information resources for scientific and engineering applications. XDB enables an unlimited number of desktops and distributed information sources to be linked seamlessly and efficiently into an information grid using Data Access and Retrieval Composition (DARC protocol whichprovides a contextual search and retrieval capability useful for lightweight web applications. This paper shows the usage of XDB on common data management in the enterprise without burdening users and application developers with unnecessary complexity and formal schemas. Supported by NASA Ames Research Center through NASA Exploration System Mission Directorate (ESMD Higher Education grant, a project team at Fairfield University extended this concept and developed an extended XDB protocol and a prototype providing text-searches for Wiki. The technical specification of the protocol was posted to Source Forge (sourceforge.net and a prototype providing text-searches for Wiki was developed. The prototype was created for 16 tags of the MediaWiki dialect. As part of future works, the prototype will be further extended to the complete Wiki markups and other dialects of Wiki.
Nichols, T.T.; Taylor, D.D.
2002-07-18
A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.
Nichols, Todd Travis; Taylor, Dean Dalton
2002-07-01
A status is presented of the development during FY2002 of a database for physical properties models for the simulation of the treatment of Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. An activity coefficient model is needed for concentrated, aqueous, multi-electrolyte solutions that can be used by process design practitioners. Reasonable first-order estimates of activity coefficients in the relevant media are needed rather than an incremental improvement in theoretical approaches which are not usable by practitioners. A comparison of the Electrolyte Non-Random Two-Liquid (ENRTL) and Pitzer ion-interaction models for the thermodynamic representation of SBW is presented. It is concluded that Pitzer's model is superior to ENRTL in modeling treatment processes for SBW. The applicability of the Pitzer treatment to high concentrations of pertinent species and to the determination of solubilities and chemical equilibria is addressed. Alternate values of Pitzer parameters for HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 are proposed, applicable up to 16m, and 12m, respectively. Partial validation of the implementation of Pitzer's treatment within the commercial process simulator ASPEN Plus was performed.
Symmetric cryptographic protocols for extended millionaires' problem
LI ShunDong; WANG DaoShun; DAI YiQi
2009-01-01
Yao's millionaires' problem is a fundamental problem in secure multiparty computation, and its solutions have become building blocks of many secure multiparty computation solutions. Unfortunately,most protocols for millionaires' problem are constructed based on public cryptography, and thus are inefficient. Furthermore, all protocols are designed to solve the basic millionaires' problem, that is,to privately determine which of two natural numbers is greater. If the numbers are real, existing solutions do not directly work. These features limit the extensive application of the existing protocols. This study introduces and refines the first symmetric cryptographic protocol for the basic millionaires' problem, and then extends the symmetric cryptographic protocol to privately determining which of two real numbers is greater, which are called the extended millionaires' problem, and proposes corresponding Constructed based on symmetric cryptography, these protocols are very efficient.
Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Classifier
Aaron Meehan
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This work presents a new general purpose classifier named Averaged Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (AETAN, which is based on combining the advantageous characteristics of Extended Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (ETAN and Averaged One-Dependence Estimator (AODE classifiers. We describe the main properties of the approach and algorithms for learning it, along with an analysis of its computational time complexity. Empirical results with numerous data sets indicate that the new approach is superior to ETAN and AODE in terms of both zero-one classification accuracy and log loss. It also compares favourably against weighted AODE and hidden Naive Bayes. The learning phase of the new approach is slower than that of its competitors, while the time complexity for the testing phase is similar. Such characteristics suggest that the new classifier is ideal in scenarios where online learning is not required.
Extending STL with Efficient Data Structures
吴虹; 聂旭民
1998-01-01
The Standard Template Library(STL)is a C++ library that provides a set of well structured generic C++ components that work together.Based on its well-structured design,STL can be extended by adding new generic algorithms or new generic containers.In this paper,the work on extending STY by adding several efficient container classes for threaded binary search trees is discussed.It is shown that the addition of threads significantly increases the efficiency of some important access operations on the binary tree containers.In general,significant gain in efficiency can be expected in situations where the data structures ar relatively stable,that is,the data structures are looked up often but modified little.
Thermodynamic Products in the Extended Phase Space
Pradhan, Parthapratim
2016-01-01
We have examined the thermodynamic properties of spherically symmetric charged-AdS black hole, charged AdS BH surrounded by quintessence and charged AdS BH in $f(R)$ gravity in the extended phase-space. Where the cosmological constant should be treated as thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate parameter as thermodynamic volume. Then they should behave as a analog of Van der Waal like systems. In the extended phase space we have calculated the \\emph{entropy product} and \\emph{thermodynamic volume product} of all horizons. The mass(or enthalpy) independent nature of the said products signals they are "universal" quantities. Various types of pictorial diagram of the specific heat is given. The divergence of the specific heat indicates that the second order phase transition occurs under certain condition.
Quantum gravity kinematics from extended TQFTs
Dittrich, Bianca
2016-01-01
We show how extended topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) can be used to obtain a kinematical setup for quantum gravity, i.e. a kinematical Hilbert space together with a representation of the observable algebra including operators of quantum geometry. In particular, we consider the holonomy-flux algebra of (2+1)-dimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity, and construct a new representation of this algebra that incorporates a positive cosmological constant. The vacuum state underlying our representation is defined by the Turaev-Viro TQFT. We therefore construct here a generalization, or more precisely a quantum deformation at root of unity, of the previously-introduced SU(2) BF representation. The extended Turaev-Viro TQFT provides a description of the excitations on top of the vacuum, which are essential to allow for a representation of the holonomies and fluxes. These excitations agree with the ones induced by massive and spinning particles, and therefore the framework presented here allows automatical...
Beyond six parameters: extending $\\Lambda$CDM
Di Valentino, Eleonora; Silk, Joseph
2015-01-01
Cosmological constraints are usually derived under the assumption of a $6$ parameters $\\Lambda$-CDM theoretical framework or simple one-parameter extensions. In this paper we present, for the first time, cosmological constraints in a significantly extended scenario, varying up to $12$ cosmological parameters simultaneously, including the sum of neutrino masses, the neutrino effective number, the dark energy equation of state, the gravitational waves background and the running of the spectral index of primordial perturbations. Using the latest Planck 2015 data release (with polarization) we found no significant indication for extensions to the standard $\\Lambda$-CDM scenario, with the notable exception of the angular power spectrum lensing amplitude, $A_{\\rm lens}$ that is larger than the expected value at more than two standard deviations even when combining the Planck data with BAO and supernovae type Ia external datasets. In our extended cosmological framework, we find that a combined Planck+BAO analysis co...
Extended external hemipelvectomy for sigmoid adenocarcinoma treatment.
Reis, Rodrigo Ribas Dias dos; Schiavinatto, Luciane; Telles, Mário Luis; Moreira, Adriana Eliza Brasil; Mainardi, João Paulo Aguiar Jordão
2010-10-01
Surgery is the most effective way of treating a locally advanced colorectal carcinoma and an extended en bloc resection is necessary to achieve the best overall survival rate. In this rare case, a multi-visceral resection was performed along with the entire lower left limb and left iliac bone for a sigmoid carcinoma. The T4N0M0 (B3) tumor involved the left iliac vessels, left pelvic wall, small bowel and both rectus muscles, besides presenting with a skin fistula. A Hartmann colostomy was also performed. Chemotherapy was interrupted because of toxicity. The patient is free of disease after 38 months. There are very few cases that describe an extended hemipelvectomy as part of a colorectal carcinoma treatment.
An extended retinotopic map of mouse cortex
Zhuang, Jun; Ng, Lydia; Williams, Derric; Valley, Matthew; Li, Yang; Garrett, Marina; Waters, Jack
2017-01-01
Visual perception and behavior are mediated by cortical areas that have been distinguished using architectonic and retinotopic criteria. We employed fluorescence imaging and GCaMP6 reporter mice to generate retinotopic maps, revealing additional regions of retinotopic organization that extend into barrel and retrosplenial cortices. Aligning retinotopic maps to architectonic borders, we found a mismatch in border location, indicating that architectonic borders are not aligned with the retinotopic transition at the vertical meridian. We also assessed the representation of visual space within each region, finding that four visual areas bordering V1 (LM, P, PM and RL) display complementary representations, with overlap primarily at the central hemifield. Our results extend our understanding of the organization of mouse cortex to include up to 16 distinct retinotopically organized regions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18372.001 PMID:28059700
Thermalization and pseudolocality in extended quantum systems
Doyon, Benjamin
2015-01-01
Recently, it was understood that extended concepts of locality played important roles in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by response functions. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states: clustering states connected to the infinite-temperature state by paths whose tangents are actions of pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to ...
Quantum Measurement and Extended Feynman Path Integral
文伟; 白彦魁
2012-01-01
Quantum measurement problem has existed many years and inspired a large of literature in both physics and philosophy, but there is still no conclusion and consensus on it. We show it can be subsumed into the quantum theory if we extend the Feynman path integral by considering the relativistic effect of Feynman paths. According to this extended theory, we deduce not only the Klein-Gordon equation, but also the wave-function-collapse equation. It is shown that the stochastic and instantaneous collapse of the quantum measurement is due to the ＂potential noise＂ of the apparatus or environment and ＂inner correlation＂ of wave function respectively. Therefore, the definite-status of the macroscopic matter is due to itself and this does not disobey the quantum mechanics. This work will give a new recognition for the measurement problem.
Assessing change with the extended logistic model.
Cristante, Francesca; Robusto, Egidio
2007-11-01
The purpose of this article is to define a method for the assessment of change. A reinterpretation of the extended logistic model is proposed. The extended logistic model for the assessment of change (ELMAC) allows the definition of a time parameter which is supposed to identify whether change occurs during a period of time, given a specific event or phenomenon. The assessment of a trend of change through time, on the basis of the time parameter which is estimated at different successive occasions during a period of time, is also considered. In addition, a dispersion parameter is calculated which identifies whether change is consistent at each time point. The issue of independence is taken into account both in relation to the time parameter and the dispersion parameter. An application of the ELMAC in a learning process is presented. The interpretation of the model parameters and the model fit statistics is consistent with expectations.
GQL: Extending XQuery to Query GML Documents
GUAN Jihong; ZHU Fubao; ZHOU Jiaogen; NIU Liping
2006-01-01
GML is becoming the de facto standard for electronic data exchange among the applications of Web and distributed geographic information systems. However, the conventional query languages (e.g. SQL and its extended versions) are not suitable for direct querying and updating of GML documents. Even the effective approaches working well with XML could not guarantee good results when applied to GML documents. Although XQuery is a powerful standard query language for XML, it is not proposed for querying spatial features, which constitute the most important components in GML documents. We propose GQL, a query language specification to support spatial queries over GML documents by extending XQuery. The data model, algebra, and formal semantics as well as various spatial functions and operations of GQL are presented in detail.
Korea Peninsula Landscape Extends from Continent End
无
2005-01-01
@@ The Korea peninsula extends southward from the eastern end of the Asian continent. It is divided just slightly north of the 38th parallel. The peninsula is roughly 1020 km(612 miles) long and 175 km(105 miles) wide at its narrowest point. Korean people are big sports fans. During the past 20 years, Korea has hosted many international sports events including the 1988 Seoul Olympic Games and the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and has achieved excellent results in various sports competitions.
FRW Cosmology with the Extended Chaplygin Gas
B. Pourhassan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We propose extended Chaplygin gas equation of state for which it recovers barotropic fluid with quadratic equation of state. We use numerical method to investigate the behavior of some cosmological parameters such as scale factor, Hubble expansion parameter, energy density, and deceleration parameter. We also discuss the resulting effective equation of state parameter. Using density perturbations we investigate the stability of the theory.
Condensed Extended Hyper-Wiener Index
LI Xin-Hua; Abraham F. Jalbout; JI Zhi
2008-01-01
According to the definitions of molecular connectivity and hyper-Wiener index, a novel set of hyper-Wiener indexes (Dn, mDn) were defined and named as condensed extended hyper-Wiener index, the potential usefulness of which in QSAR/QSPR is evaluated by its correlation with a number of C3-C8 alkanes as well as by a favorable comparison with models based on molecular connectivity index and overall Wiener index.
Lepton flavor violation in an extended MSSM
Espinosa-Castañeda, R.; Gómez-Bock, M.; Mondragón, M.
2016-01-01
In this work we explore a lepton flavor violation effect induced at one loop for a flavor structure in an extended minimal standard supersymmetric model, considering an ansatz for the trilinear term. In particular we find a finite expression which will show the impact of this phenomena in the $h\\to \\mu \\tau$ decay, produced by a mixing in the trilinear coupling of the soft supersymmetric Lagrangian.
Extended degree functions and monomial modules
2004-01-01
The arithmetic degree, the smallest extended degree, and the homological degree are invariants that have been proposed as alternatives of the degree of a module if this module is not Cohen-Macaulay. We compare these degree functions and study their behavior when passing to the generic initial or the lexicographic submodule. This leads to various bounds and to counterexamples to a conjecture of Gunston and Vasconcelos, respectively. Particular attention is given to the class of sequentially Co...
Extending Science lessons with Virtual Reality
Minocha, Shailey; Tudor, Ana-Despina; Tilling, Steve; Needham, Richard
2016-01-01
The Open University, Field Studies Council and Association for Science Education are conducting research into the use of Google Expeditions and other virtual reality tools to a) augment and extend field work experiences; and b) as an additional tool in the classrooms along with resources such as videos, photographs. \\ud \\ud The following aspects were discussed in this workshop:\\ud \\ud Does the virtual reality technology improve student engagement, and what are the implications for teachers?\\u...
From self-organized to extended criticality
Elisa eLovecchio
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We address the issue of criticality that is attracting the attention of an increasing number of neurophysiologists. Our main purpose is to establish the specific nature of some dynamical processes that although physically different, are usually termed as "critical", and we focus on those characterized by the cooperative interaction of many units. We notice that the term "criticality" has been adopted to denote both noise-induced phase transitions and Self-Organized Criticality (SOC with no clear connection with the traditional phase transitions, namely the transformation of a thermodynamic system from one state of matter to another. We notice the recent attractive proposal of extended criticality advocated by Bailly and Longo, which is realized through a wide set of critical points rather than emerging as a singularity from a unique value of the control parameter. We study a set of cooperatively firing neurons and we show that for an extended set of interaction couplings the system exhibits a form of temporal complexity similar to that emerging at criticality from ordinary phase transitions. This extended criticality regime is characterized by three main properties: i In the ideal limiting case of infinitely large time period, temporal complexity corresponds to Mittag-Leffler complexity; ii For large values of the interaction coupling the periodic nature of the process becomes predominant while maintaining to some extent, in the intermediate time asymptotic region, the signature of complexity; iii Focusing our attention on firing neuron avalanches, we find two of the popular SOC properties, namely the power indexes 2 and 1.5 respectively for time length and for the intensity of the avalanches. We derive the conclusion that SOC emerges from extended criticality, thereby explaining the experimental observation of Plenz and Beggs: avalanches occur in time with surprisingly regularity, in apparent conflict with he temporal complexity of physical
Extended Deterministic Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-04-21
In this paper, we consider mean-field games where the interaction of each player with the mean field takes into account not only the states of the players but also their collective behavior. To do so, we develop a random variable framework that is particularly convenient for these problems. We prove an existence result for extended mean-field games and establish uniqueness conditions. In the last section, we consider the Master Equation and discuss properties of its solutions.
Changing Requirements of Assurance and Extended Deterrence
2010-07-01
Larsen, eds., Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History, Vol. II (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC - CLIO, 2005...Appendix A Abbreviations ABM Anti-Ballistic Missile ABMT Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty AEIO Atomic Energy Organization of Iran AKP Justice and... ABC -CLIO, 2005. Thranert, Oliver. “NATO, Missile Defence and Extended Deterrence.” Survival 51:6 (December2009-January 2010): 63–75. Wheeler
The Extended Fock Basis of Clifford Algebra
Budinich, Marco
2010-01-01
We investigate the properties of the Extended Fock Basis (EFB) of Clifford algebras introduced in [1]. We show that a Clifford algebra can be seen as a direct sum of multiple spinor subspaces that are characterized as being left eigenvectors of $\\Gamma$. We also show that a simple spinor, expressed in Fock basis, can have a maximum number of non zero coordinates that equals the size of the maximal totally null plane (with the notable exception of vectorial spaces with 6 dimensions).
The Extended Fock Basis of Clifford Algebra
2010-01-01
We investigate the properties of the Extended Fock Basis (EFB) of Clifford algebras introduced in [1]. We show that a Clifford algebra can be seen as a direct sum of multiple spinor subspaces that are characterized as being left eigenvectors of \\Gamma. We also show that a simple spinor, expressed in Fock basis, can have a maximum number of non zero coordinates that equals the size of the maximal totally null plane (with the notable exception of vectorial spaces with 6 dimensions).
Knowledge Management System Design using Extended Gaia
Jain, Pooja; 10.5121/ijcnc.2011.3109
2011-01-01
An efficient Learning resource centre can be achieved with the help of a network of collaborating, coordinating and communicating software agents. Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting new means of analysing, designing and building complex software systems. The designing of the interacting agents is done with the help of Gaia, extended for the multiagent systems. Gaia is a methodology for agent-oriented analysis and design proposed by M. Wooldridge [9].
Knowledge Management System Design Using Extended Gaia
Pooja Jain
2011-01-01
Full Text Available An efficient Learning resource centre can be achieved with the help of a network of collaborating,coordinating and communicating software agents. Agent-oriented techniques represent an exciting newmeans of analysing, designing and building complex software systems. The designing of the interactingagents is done with the help of Gaia, extended for the multiagent systems. Gaia is a methodology foragent-oriented analysis and design proposed by M. Wooldridge [9].
An Extended Colored Zee-Babu Model
Nomura, Takaaki
2016-01-01
We study the extended colored Zee-Babu model introducing a vector-like quark and singlet scalar. The active neutrino mass matrix and muon anomalous magnetic moment are analyzed, which can be fitted to experimental data satisfying the constraints from flavor changing neutral current. Then we discuss signature of our model via vector-like quark production. In addition, the diphoton excess can be explained with the contribution from vector-like quark
Extending DUNE: The dune-xt modules
Leibner, Tobias; Milk, René; Schindler, Felix
2016-01-01
We present our effort to extend and complement the core modules of the Distributed and Unified Numerics Environment DUNE (http://dune-project.org) by a well tested and structured collection of utilities and concepts. We describe key elements of our four modules dune-xt-common, dune-xt-grid, dune-xt-la and dune-xt-functions, which aim at further enabling the programming of generic algorithms within DUNE as well as adding an extra layer of usability and convenience.
Rugged, Tunable Extended-Cavity Diode Laser
Moore, Donald; Brinza, David; Seidel, David; Klipstein, William; Choi, Dong Ho; Le, Lam; Zhang, Guangzhi; Iniguez, Roberto; Tang, Wade
2007-01-01
A rugged, tunable extended-cavity diode laser (ECDL) has been developed to satisfy stringent requirements for frequency stability, notably including low sensitivity to vibration. This laser is designed specifically for use in an atomic-clock experiment to be performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Lasers of similar design would be suitable for use in terrestrial laboratories engaged in atomic-clock and atomic-physics research.
The renewable tradition (extended play remix
Mark Amerika
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Drawing from a network of appropriation artists, process philosophers, performance poets, pla(ygiarists, and other remix provocateurs, this experimental artist essay investigates the act of remixologically inhabiting the body language of others and, in the process, devises an aesthetic theory that situates the contemporary artist as a "postproduction medium" whose methodologies further extend avant-garde practice into the 21st century.
Mobile Agent PLM Architecture for extended enterprise
Abdelhak Boulaalam
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays manufacturers are under increased pressure to have an add value for their products to struggle the low-cost production in emerging countries. Distributed control and Intelligent Product are a new and exciting opportunity to build more effective process networks for a wide range of applications in logistics and product development, Radio Frequency Identification is applied increasingly; this technology applied in conjunction with the Mobile Agent system can bring more values in managing and control the lifecycle of products by optimizing the three essential factors: cost, quality and deadline for the survival of a company in the competitive manufacturing world. In this paper we propose Mobile Agent PLM Architecture for extended enterprise, based on Mobile Agent and RFID or, more generally, Product Embedded Information Devices (PEID, for tracking and managing the information of the whole product lifecycle in the extended enterprise, and to satisfy new requirements for increased integrability, traceability, adaptability, extendibility, and closed-loop PLM. Mobile Agents are suitable for tracking information in distributing environment and the mobility aspect, at any time and any place. This paper proposes a first architecture based on these technologies.
Inviscid Analysis of Extended Formation Flight
Kless, James; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Ning, Simeon Andrew; Nemec, Marian
2012-01-01
Flying airplanes in extended formations, with separation distances of tens of wingspans, significantly improves safety while maintaining most of the fuel savings achieved in close formations. The present study investigates the impact of roll trim and compressibility at fixed lift coefficient on the benefits of extended formation flight. An Euler solver with adjoint-based mesh refinement combined with a wake propagation model is used to analyze a two-body echelon formation at a separation distance of 30 spans. Two geometries are examined: a simple wing and a wing-body geometry. Energy savings, quantified by both formation drag fraction and span efficiency factor, are investigated at subsonic and transonic speeds for a matrix of vortex locations. The results show that at fixed lift and trimmed for roll, the optimal location of vortex impingement is about 10% inboard of the trailing airplane s wing-tip. Interestingly, early results show the variation in drag fraction reduction is small in the neighborhood of the optimal position. Over 90% of energy benefits can be obtained with a 5% variation in transverse and 10% variation in crossflow directions. Early results suggest control surface deflections required to achieve trim reduce the benefits of formation flight by 3-5% at subsonic speeds. The final paper will include transonic effects and trim on extended formation flight drag benefits.
Extended-reach wells tap outlying reserves
Nazzal, G. (Eastman Teleco, Houston, TX (United States))
1993-03-01
Extended-reach drilling (ERD) is being used to exploit fields and reserves that are located far from existing platforms. Effective wellbore placement from fewer platforms can reduce development costs, maximize production and increase reserve recovery. Six wells drilled offshore in the US, North Sea and Australia illustrate how to get the most economic benefit from available infrastructure. These wells are divided into three categories by depth (shallow, medium and deep). Vertical depth of these wells range from 963 to 12,791 ft TVD and displacements range from 4,871 to 23,917 ft. Important factors for successful extended-reach drilling included: careful, comprehensive pre-planning; adequate cuttings removal in all sections; hole stability in long, exposed intervals; torque and drag modeling of drilling BHAs, casing and liners; buoyancy-assisted casing techniques where appropriate; critical modifications to drilling rig and top drive, for medium and deep ERD; modified power swivels for shallow operations; drill pipe rubbers or other casing protection during extended periods of drill string rotation; heavy-wall casting across anticipated high-wear areas; survey accuracy and frequency; sound drilling practices and creativity to accomplish goals and objectives. This paper reviews the case history of these sites and records planning and design procedures.
Why an extended evolutionary synthesis is necessary.
Müller, Gerd B
2017-10-06
Since the last major theoretical integration in evolutionary biology-the modern synthesis (MS) of the 1940s-the biosciences have made significant advances. The rise of molecular biology and evolutionary developmental biology, the recognition of ecological development, niche construction and multiple inheritance systems, the '-omics' revolution and the science of systems biology, among other developments, have provided a wealth of new knowledge about the factors responsible for evolutionary change. Some of these results are in agreement with the standard theory and others reveal different properties of the evolutionary process. A renewed and extended theoretical synthesis, advocated by several authors in this issue, aims to unite pertinent concepts that emerge from the novel fields with elements of the standard theory. The resulting theoretical framework differs from the latter in its core logic and predictive capacities. Whereas the MS theory and its various amendments concentrate on genetic and adaptive variation in populations, the extended framework emphasizes the role of constructive processes, ecological interactions and systems dynamics in the evolution of organismal complexity as well as its social and cultural conditions. Single-level and unilinear causation is replaced by multilevel and reciprocal causation. Among other consequences, the extended framework overcomes many of the limitations of traditional gene-centric explanation and entails a revised understanding of the role of natural selection in the evolutionary process. All these features stimulate research into new areas of evolutionary biology.
Extended pie menus for immersive virtual environments.
Gebhardt, Sascha; Pick, Sebastian; Leithold, Franziska; Hentschel, Bernd; Kuhlen, Torsten
2013-04-01
Pie menus are a well-known technique for interacting with 2D environments and so far a large body of research documents their usage and optimizations. Yet, comparatively little research has been done on the usability of pie menus in immersive virtual environments (IVEs). In this paper we reduce this gap by presenting an implementation and evaluation of an extended hierarchical pie menu system for IVEs that can be operated with a six-degrees-of-freedom input device. Following an iterative development process, we first developed and evaluated a basic hierarchical pie menu system. To better understand how pie menus should be operated in IVEs, we tested this system in a pilot user study with 24 participants and focus on item selection. Regarding the results of the study, the system was tweaked and elements like check boxes, sliders, and color map editors were added to provide extended functionality. An expert review with five experts was performed with the extended pie menus being integrated into an existing VR application to identify potential design issues. Overall results indicated high performance and efficient design.
Origin of density fluctuations in extended inflation
Kolb, Edward W.; Salopek, David S.; Turner, Michael S.
1990-01-01
The density fluctuations (both curvature and isocurvature) that arise due to quantum fluctuations in a simple model of extended inflation based upon the Jordan-Brans-Dicke theory are calculated. Curvature fluctuations arise due to quantum fluctuations in the Brans-Dicke field, in general have a nonscale-invariant spectrum, and can have an amplitude that is cosmologically acceptable and interesting without having to tune any coupling constant to a very small value. The density perturbations that arise due to the inflation field are subdominant. If there are other massless fields in the theory, e.g., an axion or an ilion, then isocurvature fluctuations arise in these fields too. Production of gravitational waves and the massless particles associated with excitations of the Brans-Dicke field are also discussed. Several attempts at more realistic models of extended inflation are also analyzed. The importance of the Einstein conformal frame in calculating curvature fluctuations is emphasized. When viewed in this frame, extended inflation closely resembles slow-rollover inflation with an exponential potential and the usual formula for the amplitude of curvature perturbations applies.
Dark energy and extended dark matter halos
Chernin, A. D.; Teerikorpi, P.; Valtonen, M. J.; Dolgachev, V. P.; Domozhilova, L. M.; Byrd, G. G.
2012-03-01
The cosmological mean matter (dark and baryonic) density measured in the units of the critical density is Ωm = 0.27. Independently, the local mean density is estimated to be Ωloc = 0.08-0.23 from recent data on galaxy groups at redshifts up to z = 0.01-0.03 (as published by Crook et al. 2007, ApJ, 655, 790 and Makarov & Karachentsev 2011, MNRAS, 412, 2498). If the lower values of Ωloc are reliable, as Makarov & Karachentsev and some other observers prefer, does this mean that the Local Universe of 100-300 Mpc across is an underdensity in the cosmic matter distribution? Or could it nevertheless be representative of the mean cosmic density or even be an overdensity due to the Local Supercluster therein. We focus on dark matter halos of groups of galaxies and check how much dark mass the invisible outer layers of the halos are able to host. The outer layers are usually devoid of bright galaxies and cannot be seen at large distances. The key factor which bounds the size of an isolated halo is the local antigravity produced by the omnipresent background of dark energy. A gravitationally bound halo does not extend beyond the zero-gravity surface where the gravity of matter and the antigravity of dark energy balance, thus defining a natural upper size of a system. We use our theory of local dynamical effects of dark energy to estimate the maximal sizes and masses of the extended dark halos. Using data from three recent catalogs of galaxy groups, we show that the calculated mass bounds conform with the assumption that a significant amount of dark matter is located in the invisible outer parts of the extended halos, sufficient to fill the gap between the observed and expected local matter density. Nearby groups of galaxies and the Virgo cluster have dark halos which seem to extend up to their zero-gravity surfaces. If the extended halo is a common feature of gravitationally bound systems on scales of galaxy groups and clusters, the Local Universe could be typical or even
Extended quantification of the generalized recurrence plot
Riedl, Maik; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-04-01
The generalized recurrence plot is a modern tool for quantification of complex spatial patterns. Its application spans the analysis of trabecular bone structures, Turing structures, turbulent spatial plankton patterns, and fractals. But, it is also successfully applied to the description of spatio-temporal dynamics and the detection of regime shifts, such as in the complex Ginzburg-Landau- equation. The recurrence plot based determinism is a central measure in this framework quantifying the level of regularities in temporal and spatial structures. We extend this measure for the generalized recurrence plot considering additional operations of symmetry than the simple translation. It is tested not only on two-dimensional regular patterns and noise but also on complex spatial patterns reconstructing the parameter space of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. The extended version of the determinism resulted in values which are consistent to the original recurrence plot approach. Furthermore, the proposed method allows a split of the determinism into parts which based on laminar and non-laminar regions of the two-dimensional pattern of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. A comparison of these parts with a standard method of image classification, the co-occurrence matrix approach, shows differences especially in the description of patterns associated with turbulence. In that case, it seems that the extended version of the determinism allows a distinction of phase turbulence and defect turbulence by means of their spatial patterns. This ability of the proposed method promise new insights in other systems with turbulent dynamics coming from climatology, biology, ecology, and social sciences, for example.
Implementing extended observing at the JCMT
Walther, Craig; Dempsey, Jessica; Campbell, Ian
2014-08-01
The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) is the largest single dish submillimetre telescope in the world. Recently the Joint Astronomy Centre (JAC) has learned that the JCMT will no longer receive financial support from its original supporting agencies after September 2014. There is significant pressure to complete some surveys that have been in progress at the JCMT for many years now. With the goal of completing a higher percentage of these surveys it was decided to take advantage of the hours between when the telescope operator leaves the telescope and when the day crew arrives. These hours generally have reasonable seeing and low column integrated water vapor, so they are good for observing. This observing is being performed remotely, in Hilo, without staff at the telescope, by staff members who do not have telescope operation as part of their job descriptions. This paper describes the hardware changes necessary to implement remote observing at JCMT. It also describes the software needed for remote, fail safe, operation of the telescope. The protocols and rules for passing the control of the telescope between the various groups are discussed. Since these Extended Operators are not expert telescope operators, the system was simplified as much as possible, but some training was necessary and proper checklists are essential. Due to the success of the first phase of Extending Observing at the JCMT, the hours when the weather is good and no one is at the telescope, but no day crew is on the way, are also now being utilized. Extended Observing has already yielded a considerable amount of science observing time.
Extended technicolor contribution to the Zbb vertex
Hagiwara, K; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Kitazawa, Noriaki
1995-01-01
We show that the flavor-diagonal gauge boson of the extended technicolor theory contributes with opposite sign to the standard model correction for the Zbb vertex. This mechanism can naturally explain the deviation of the LEP result from the standard model prediction for the partial width \\Gamma(Z \\rightarrow b{\\bar b}). A smaller value of the QCD coupling, \\alpha_s(m_Z) \\simeq 0.115, is then preferred by the \\Gamma(Z \\rightarrow \\mbox{hadron}) data, which is consistent with both the recent Lattice-QCD estimate and the Particle Data Group average.
Congruence Permutable Symmetric Extended de Morgan Algebras
Jie FANG
2006-01-01
An algebra A is said to be congruence permutable if any two congruences on it are per-mutable. This property has been investigated in several varieties of algebras, for example, de Morgan algebras, p-algebras, Kn,o-algebras. In this paper, we study the class of symmetric extended de Morgan algebras that are congruence permutable. In particular we consider the case where A is finite, and show that A is congruence permutable if and only if it is isomorphic to a direct product of finitely many simple algebras.
Extendable retractable telescopic mast for deployable structures
Schmid, M.; Aguirre, M.
1986-01-01
The Extendable and Retractable Mast (ERM) which is presently developed by Dornier in the frame of an ESA-contract, will be used to deploy and retract large foldable structures. The design is based on a telescopic carbon-fiber structure with high stiffness, strength and pointing accuracy. To verify the chosen design, a breadboard model of an ERM was built and tested under thermal vacuum (TV)-conditions. It is planned as a follow-on development to manufacture and test an Engineering Model Mast. The Engineering Model will be used to establish the basis for an ERM-family covering a wide range of requirements.
Extended Analysis on New Generalized Chaplygin Gas
WANG Jun; WU Ya-Bo; WANG Di; YANG Wei-Qiang
2009-01-01
We extend the study of the new generalizeal Chaplygin gas (NGCG) based on [J.Cosmol.Astropart.Phys.0601 (2006) 003].Specifically,we not only discuss the change rates of the energy densities and the energy transfer of this model,but also perform the Om diagnostic to differentiate the ACDM model from the NGCG and the GCG models.Furthermore,in order to consider the influence of dark energy on structure formation,we also present the evolution of the growth index in this scenario with interaction.
Extended HI disks in nearby spiral galaxies
Bosma, Albert
2017-03-01
In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a ``tilted ring model'' allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.
Extended HI disks in nearby spiral galaxies
Bosma, A
2016-01-01
In this short write-up, I will concentrate on a few topics of interest. In the 1970s I found very extended HI disks in galaxies such as NGC 5055 and NGC 2841, out to 2 - 2.5 times the Holmberg radius. Since these galaxies are warped, a "tilted ring model" allows rotation curves to be derived, and evidence for dark matter to be found. The evaluation of the amount of dark matter is hampered by a disk-halo degeneracy, which can possibly be broken by observations of velocity dispersions in both the MgI region and the CaII region.
Self-gravitating systems in Extended Gravity
Stabile, A
2014-01-01
Starting from the weak field limit, we discuss astrophysical applications of Extended Theories of Gravity where higher order curvature invariants and scalar fields are considered by generalizing the Hilbert-Einstein action linear in the Ricci curvature scalar $R$. Results are compared to General Relativity in the hypothesis that Dark Matter contributions to the dynamics can be neglected thanks to modified gravity. In particular, we consider stellar hydrostatic equilibrium, galactic rotation curves, and gravitational lensing. Finally, we discuss the weak field limit in the Jordan and Einstein frames pointing out how effective quantities, as gravitational potentials, transform from one frame to the other and the interpretation of results can completely change accordingly.
Extended tree-level gauge mediation
Monaco, M.; Nardecchia, M.; Romanino, A.;
2011-01-01
Tree-level gauge mediation (TGM) is a scenario of SUSY breaking in which the tree-level exchange of heavy (possibly GUT) vector fields generates flavor-universal sfermion masses. In this work we extend this framework to the case of E(6) that is the natural extension of the minimal case studied so...... if the gauge group does not contain SU(5). If SUSY breaking is mediated purely by the U(1) generator that commutes with SO(10) we obtain universal sfermion masses and thus can derive the CMSSM boundary conditions in a novel scenario....
Cambridge IGCSE mathematics core and extended
Pimentel, Ric
2013-01-01
The most cost effective and straightforward way to teach the revised syllabus, with all the core and extended content covered by a single book and accompanying free digital resources. . This title has been written for the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus, for first teaching from 2013. . · Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of questions. · Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every Student's Book. . We are working with Cambridge International Examinations to gain
EXTENDED CASIMIR APPROACH TO CONTROLLED HAMILTONIAN SYSTEMS
Yuqian GUO; Daizhan CHENG
2006-01-01
In this paper, we first propose an extended Casimir method for energy-shaping. Then it is used to solve some control problems of Hamiltonian systems. To solve the H∞ control problem, the energy function of a Hamiltonian system is shaped to such a form that could be a candidate solution of HJI inequality. Next, the energy function is shaped as a candidate of control ISS-Lyapunov function, and then the input-to-state stabilization of port-controlled Hamiltonian systems is achieved. Some easily verifiable sufficient conditions are presented.
Noether symmetries in extended gravity quantum cosmology
Capozziello, Salvatore
2013-01-01
We summarize the use of Noether symmetries in Minisuperspace Quantum Cosmology. In particular, we consider minisuperspace models, showing that the existence of conserved quantities gives selection rules that allow to recover classical behaviors in cosmic evolution according to the so called Hartle criterion. Such a criterion selects correlated regions in the configuration space of dynamical variables whose meaning is related to the emergence of classical observable universes. Some minisuperspace models are worked out starting from Extended Gravity, in particular coming from scalar tensor, f(R) and f(T) theories. Exact cosmological solutions are derived.
Improving epidemic control strategies by extended detection
Karp, Paweł; Dybiec, Bartłomiej; Kleczkowski, Adam
2014-11-01
Majority of epidemics eradication programs work in preventive responsive way. The lack of exact information about epidemiological status of individuals makes responsive actions less efficient. Here, we demonstrate that additional tests can significantly increase the efficiency of "blind" treatment (vaccination or culling). Eradication strategy consisting of "blind" treatment in very limited local neighborhood supplemented by extra tests in a little bit larger neighborhood is able to prevent invasion of even highly infectious diseases and to achieve this at a cost lower than for the "blind" strategy. The effectiveness of the extended strategy depends on such parameters as the test efficiency and test cost.
Extending maps between pre-uniform spaces
Adalberto García-Máynez; Rubén Mancio-Toledo
2012-01-01
[EN] We give sufficient conditions on a uniformly continuous map f: (X,U) → (Y, V ) between completable T1-pre-uniform spaces (X,U), (Y, V ) to have a continuous or a uniformly continuous extension f:X → Y between the corresponding completions. García-Máynez, A.; Mancio-Toledo, R. (2012). Extending maps between pre-uniform spaces. Applied General Topology. 13(1):21-25. doi:10.4995/agt.2012.1634. 21 25 13 1
Extended Global Convergence Framework for Unconstrained Optimization
(A)rpád B(U)RMEN; Franc BRATKOVI(C); Janez PUHAN; Iztok FAJFAR; Tadej TUMA
2004-01-01
An extension of the global convergence framework for unconstrained derivative-free optimization methods is presented. The extension makes it possible for the framework to include optimization methods with varying cardinality of the ordered direction set. Grid-based search methods are shown to be a special case of the more general extended global convergence framework. Furthermore,the required properties of the sequence of ordered direction sets listed in the definition of grid-based methods are re]axed and simplified by removing the requirement of structural equivalence.
Assurance and US extended deterrence in NATO
Yost, David S.
2009-01-01
The NATO allies agreed at the Strasbourg/Kehl summit in April 2009 to prepare a new Strategic Concept for approval at their next summit. One of the issues in the Strategic Concept review will be the alliance’s nuclear deterrence posture and policy. While three members of the alliance (Britain, France and the United States) are nuclear powers, historically the greatest amount of attention has been focused on US ‘extended deterrence’—that is, the extension by Washington of an ...
Resonance regions of extended Mathieu equation
Semyonov, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V.
2016-02-01
One of the mechanisms of energy transfer between degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system is based on parametric resonance. Initial stage of this process can de described by equation similar to Mathieu equation. Such equation is studied by analytical and numerical approach. The numerical solution of the extended Mathieu equation is obtained for a wide range of parameter values. Boundaries of resonance regions, growth rates of amplitudes and times of onset are obtained. The energy transfer between the degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system can occur over a wide range of frequencies.
Simulating futures in extended common LISP
Nachtsheim, Philip R.
1988-01-01
Stack-groups comprise the mechanism underlying implementation of multiprocessing in Extended Common LISP, i.e., running multiple quasi-simultaneous processes within a single LISP address space. On the other hand, the future construct of MULTILISP, an extension of the LISP dialect scheme, deals with parallel execution. The source of concurrency that future exploits is the overlap between computation of a value and use of the value. Described is a simulation of the future construct by an interpreter utilizing stack-group extensions to common LISP.
Primordial fluctuations in extended Liouville theory
Moore, Wynton E.
2015-03-01
Liouville gravity can be used to precisely model features of 3+1 dimensional cosmology in a simplified 1+1d setting. We study primordial fluctuations in a generally covariant extension of Liouville theory, in the context of single field inflation. The scale invariant spectrum of scalar curvature perturbations is exhibited, and their three-point correlation function is computed in the slow roll approximation. We recover Maldacena's consistency relation for the three-point function, which in this context depends on a global shift symmetry of extended Liouville theory.
Primordial fluctuations in extended Liouville theory
Moore, Wynton E
2014-01-01
Liouville gravity can be used to precisely model features of 3+1 dimensional cosmology in a simplified 1+1d setting. We study primordial fluctuations in a generally covariant extension of Liouville theory, in the context of single field inflation. The scale invariant spectrum of scalar curvature perturbations is exhibited, and their three-point correlation function is computed in the slow roll approximation. We recover Maldacena's consistency relation for the three-point function, which in this context depends on a global shift symmetry of extended Liouville theory.
Optimal guidance of extended trajectory shaping
Wang Hui; Lin Defu; Cheng Zhenxuan; Wang Jiang
2014-01-01
To control missile’s miss distance as well as terminal impact angle, by involving the time-to-go-nth power in the cost function, an extended optimal guidance law against a constant maneu-vering target or a stationary target is proposed using the linear quadratic optimal control theory. An extended trajectory shaping guidance (ETSG) law is then proposed under the assumption that the missile-target relative velocity is constant and the line of sight angle is small. For a lag-free ETSG system, closed-form solutions for the missile’s acceleration command are derived by the method of Schwartz inequality and linear simulations are performed to verify the closed-form results. Normalized adjoint systems for miss distance and terminal impact angle error are presented independently for stationary targets and constant maneuvering targets, respectively. Detailed discussions about the terminal misses and impact angle errors induced by terminal impact angle constraint, initial heading error, seeker zero position errors and target maneuvering, are performed.
Fundamentals of Physics, Extended 7th Edition
Halliday, David; Resnick, Robert; Walker, Jearl
2004-05-01
No other book on the market today can match the 30-year success of Halliday, Resnick and Walker's Fundamentals of Physics! Fundamentals of Physics, 7th Edition and the Extended Version, 7th Edition offer a solid understanding of fundamental physics concepts, helping readers apply this conceptual understanding to quantitative problem solving, in a breezy, easy-to-understand style. A unique combination of authoritative content and stimulating applications. * Numerous improvements in the text, based on feedback from the many users of the sixth edition (both instructors and students) * Several thousand end-of-chapter problems have been rewritten to streamline both the presentations and answers * 'Chapter Puzzlers' open each chapter with an intriguing application or question that is explained or answered in the chapter * Problem-solving tactics are provided to help beginning Physics students solve problems and avoid common error * The first section in every chapter introduces the subject of the chapter by asking and answering, "What is Physics?" as the question pertains to the chapter * Numerous supplements available to aid teachers and students The extended edition provides coverage of developments in Physics in the last 100 years, including: Einstein and Relativity, Bohr and others and Quantum Theory, and the more recent theoretical developments like String Theory.
Extending Teach and Repeat to Pivoting Wheelchairs
Guillermo Del Castillo
2003-02-01
Full Text Available The paper extends the teach-and-repeat paradigm that has been successful for the control of holonomic robots to nonholonomic wheelchairs which may undergo pivoting action over the course of their taught movement. Due to the nonholonomic nature of the vehicle kinematics, estimation is required -- in the example given herein, based upon video detection of wall-mounted cues -- both in the teaching and the tracking events. In order to accommodate motion that approaches pivoting action as well as motion that approaches straight-line action, the estimation equations of the Extended Kalman Filter and the control equations are formulated using two different definitions of a nontemporal independent variable. The paper motivates the need for pivoting action in real-life settings by reporting extensively on the abilities and limitations of estimation-based teach-and-repeat action where pivoting and near-pivoting action is disallowed. Following formulation of the equations in the near-pivot mode, the paper reports upon experiments where taught trajectories which entail a seamless mix of near-straight and near-pivot action are tracked.
Extended arrays for nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging
Ficko, Bradley W.; Giacometti, Paolo; Diamond, Solomon G.
2016-01-01
This study implements nonlinear susceptibility magnitude imaging (SMI) with multifrequency intermodulation and phase encoding. An imaging grid was constructed of cylindrical wells of 3.5-mm diameter and 4.2-mm height on a hexagonal two-dimensional 61-voxel pattern with 5-mm spacing. Patterns of sample wells were filled with 40-μl volumes of Fe3O4 starch-coated magnetic nanoparticles (mNPs) with a hydrodynamic diameter of 100 nm and a concentration of 25 mg/ml. The imaging hardware was configured with three excitation coils and three detection coils in anticipation that a larger imaging system will have arrays of excitation and detection coils. Hexagonal and bar patterns of mNP were successfully imaged (R2 > 0.9) at several orientations. This SMI demonstration extends our prior work to feature a larger coil array, enlarged field-of-view, effective phase encoding scheme, reduced mNP sample size, and more complex imaging patterns to test the feasibility of extending the method beyond the pilot scale. The results presented in this study show that nonlinear SMI holds promise for further development into a practical imaging system for medical applications. PMID:26124044
Quasicontinuous functions, domains, and extended calculus
Rodica Cazacu
2007-04-01
Full Text Available One of the aims of domain theory is the construction of an embedding of a given structure or data type as the maximal or “ideal” elements of an enveloping domain of “approximations,” sometimes called a domain environment. Typically the goal is to provide a computational model or framework for recursive and algorithmic reasoning about the original structure. In this paper we consider the function space of (natural equivalence classes of quasicontinuous functions from a locally compact space X into L, an n-fold product of the extended reals [−1,1] (more generally, into a bicontinuous lattice. We show that the domain of all “approximate maps” that assign to each point of X an order interval of L is a domain environment for the quasicontinuous function space. We rely upon the theory of domain environments to introduce an interesting and useful function space topology on the quasicontinuous function space. We then apply this machinery to define an extended differential calculus in the quasicontinuous function space, and draw connections with viscosity solutions of Hamiltonian equations. The theory depends heavily on topological properties of quasicontinuous functions that have been recently uncovered that involve dense sets of points of continuity and sections of closed relations and USCO maps. These and other basic results about quasicontinuous functions are surveyed and presented in the early sections.
Extended parental care in communal social groups
Stephen H. Forbes
2002-11-01
Full Text Available Recent developments in social insect research have challenged the need for close kinship as a prerequisite for the evolution of stable group living. In a model communal bee species, Lasioglossum (Chilalictus hemichalceum, previous allozyme work indicated that groups of cooperating adult females are not relatives. Yet at any given time, not all group members perform the risky task of foraging. We previously hypothesized that tolerance for non-foragers was a component of extended parental care, previously known only for kin based social systems. DNA microsatellites were used to study colony genetic structure in order to test this hypothesis. Microsatellite polymorphism was substantial (He = 0.775. Overall intracolony relatedness, mainly of immatures, was low but significant in nine, late season nests (r = 0.136 plus or minus0.023, indicating that broods contain five to six unrelated sib ships. Detailed analyses of kinship between pairs of individuals revealed that most pairs were unrelated and most related pairs were siblings. Mothers are absent for 89-91% of the developing immature females, and 97% of developing males. Alternatively, 46% of adult females had neither sibs nor offspring in their nests. These findings indicate that the extended parental care model applies broadly to both kin based and nonkin based social systems in the Hymenoptera.
Thermoplastic Polyurethanes with Isosorbide Chain Extender
Javni, Ivan; Bilic, Olivera; Bilic, Nikola; Petrovic, Zoran; Eastwood, Eric; Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan
2015-12-15
Isosorbide, a renewable diol derived from starch, was used alone or in combination with butane diol (BD) as the chain extender in two series of thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) with 50 and 70% polytetramethylene ether glycol (PTMEG) soft segment concentration (SSC), respectively. In the synthesized TPUs, the hard segment composition was systematically varied in both series following BD/isosorbide molar ratios of 100 : 0; 75 : 25; 50 : 50; 25 : 75, and 0 : 100 to examine in detail the effect of chain extenders on properties of segmented polyurethane elastomers with different morphologies. We found that polyurethanes with 50% SSC were hard elastomers with Shore D hardness of around 50, which is consistent with assumed co-continuous morphology. Polymers with 70% SSC displayed lower Shore A hardness of 74–79 (Shore D around 25) as a result of globular hard domains dispersed in the soft matrix. Insertion of isosorbide increased rigidity, melting point and glass transition temperature of hard segments and tensile strength of elastomers with 50% SSC. These effects were weaker or non-existent in 70% SSC series due to the short hard segments and low content of isosorbide. We also found that the thermal stability was lowered by increasing isosorbide content in both series.
Extending Conceptual Schemas with Business Process Information
Marco Brambilla
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The specification of business processes is becoming a more and more critical aspect for organizations. Such processes are specified as workflow models expressing the logical precedence among the different business activities (i.e., the units of work. Typically, workflow models are managed through specific subsystems, called workflow management systems, to ensure a consistent behavior of the applications with respect to the organization business process. However, for small organizations and/or simple business processes, the complexity and capabilities of these dedicated workflow engines may be overwhelming. In this paper, we therefore, advocate for a different and lightweight approach, consisting in the integration of the business process specification within the system conceptual schema. We show how a workflow-extended conceptual schema can be automatically obtained, which serves both to enforce the organization business process and to manage all its relevant domain data in a unified way. This extended model can be directly processed with current CASE tools, for instance, to generate an implementation of the system (including its business process in any technological platform.
Differential Poisson Sigma Models with Extended Supersymmetry
Arias, Cesar; Torres-Gomez, Alexander
2016-01-01
The induced two-dimensional topological N=1 supersymmetric sigma model on a differential Poisson manifold M presented in arXiv:1503.05625 is shown to be a special case of the induced Poisson sigma model on the bi-graded supermanifold T[0,1]M. The bi-degree comprises the standard N-valued target space degree, corresponding to the form degree on the worldsheet, and an additional Z-valued fermion number, corresponding to the degree in the differential graded algebra of forms on M. The N=1 supersymmetry stems from the compatibility between the (extended) differential Poisson bracket and the de Rham differential on M. The latter is mapped to a nilpotent vector field Q of bi-degree (0,1) on T*[1,0](T[0,1]M), and the covariant Hamiltonian action is Q-exact. New extended supersymmetries arise as inner derivatives along special bosonic Killing vectors on M that induce Killing supervector fields of bi-degree (0,-1) on T*[1,0](T[0,1]M).
Agents in grid extended to clouds
Wasielewska, K.; Ganzha, M.; Paprzycki, M.; Bǎdicǎ, C.; Ivanovic, M.; Lirkov, I.; Fidanova, S.
2016-10-01
The presented work is an attempt to extend considerations from the Agents in Grid (AiG) project to the Clouds. The AiG project is aimed at the development of an agent-semantic infrastructure for efficient resource management in the grid. Decision support within the AIG system helps the user, without in-depth knowledge, to choose optimal algorithm and/or resource to solve a problem from a given domain, and later to choose the best contract defining terms of collaboration with the provider of a resource used to solve the problem. Cloud computing refers to an architecture, in which groups of remote servers are networked, to allow online access to computer services or resources. The general vision is the same as in the case of computational grids, i.e., to reduce cost of computing, as well as to increase flexibility and reliability of the infrastructure. However, there are also important differences. It is relatively easy to notice that solutions considered in the context of the AiG system can be easily extended to computational clouds that evolved from computational grids. As it was shown in the case of grids, integrating software agents, semantics and cloud computing could enable highly efficient, intelligent systems, making clouds even more flexible, autonomic and usable.
Charged Local Defects in Extended Systems
Schultz, Peter A.
1999-05-25
The conventional approach to treating charged defects in extended systems in first principles calculations is via the supercell approximation using a neutralizing jellium background charge. I explicitly demonstrate shortcomings of this standard approach and discuss the consequences. Errors in the electrostatic potential surface over the volume of a supercell are shown to be comparable to a band gap energy in semiconductor materials, for cell sizes typically used in first principles simulations. I present an alternate method for eliminating the divergence of the Coulomb potential in supercell calculations of charged defects in extended systems that embodies a correct treatment of the electrostatic potential in the local viciniq of the a charged defect, via a mixed boundary condition approach. I present results of first principles calculations of charged vacancies in NaCl that illustrate the importance of polarization effects once an accurate representation of the local potential is obtained. These polarization effects, poorly captured in small supercells, also impact the energetic on the scale of typical band gap energies.
Mechanics of extended masses in general relativity
Harte, Abraham I
2011-01-01
The "external" or "bulk" motion of extended bodies is studied in general relativity. Material objects of arbitrary shape, spin, internal composition, and velocity are allowed as long as the metric remains near a vacuum solution (with a possible cosmological constant). Under this restriction, physically reasonable linear and angular momenta are proposed that evolve as though they were the momenta of an extended test body moving in an effective vacuum metric. This result holds to all multipole orders. The portion of the physical metric that does not directly affect the motion is a slightly generalized form of the Detweiler-Whiting S-field originally introduced in the context of self-force. This serves only to (finitely) renormalize the "bare" multipole moments of the object's stress-energy tensor. The MiSaTaQu expression for the gravitational self-force is recovered as a simple application. A gravitational self-torque is obtained as well. Lastly, a certain exact result is derived that may provide a basis for un...
A Novel Biped Pattern Generator Based on Extended ZMP and Extended Cart-table Model
Guangbin Sun
2015-07-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on planning patterns for biped walking on complex terrains. Two problems are solved: ZMP (zero moment point cannot be used on uneven terrain, and the conventional cart-table model does not allow vertical CM (centre of mass motion. For the ZMP definition problem, we propose the extended ZMP (EZMP concept as an extension of ZMP to uneven terrains. It can be used to judge dynamic balance on universal terrains. We achieve a deeper insight into the connection and difference between ZMP and EZMP by adding different constraints. For the model problem, we extend the cart-table model by using a dynamic constraint instead of constant height constraint, which results in a mathematically symmetric set of three equations. In this way, the vertical motion is enabled and the resultant equations are still linear. Based on the extended ZMP concept and extended cart-table model, a biped pattern generator using triple preview controllers is constructed and implemented simultaneously to three dimensions. Using the proposed pattern generator, the Atlas robot is simulated. The simulation results show the robot can walk stably on rather complex terrains by accurately tracking extended ZMP.
Quantum gravity kinematics from extended TQFTs
Dittrich, Bianca; Geiller, Marc
2017-01-01
In this paper, we show how extended topological quantum field theories (TQFTs) can be used to obtain a kinematical setup for quantum gravity, i.e. a kinematical Hilbert space together with a representation of the observable algebra including operators of quantum geometry. In particular, we consider the holonomy-flux algebra of (2 + 1)-dimensional Euclidean loop quantum gravity, and construct a new representation of this algebra that incorporates a positive cosmological constant. The vacuum state underlying our representation is defined by the Turaev-Viro TQFT. This vacuum state can be thought of as being peaked on connections with homogeneous curvature. We therefore construct here a generalization, or more precisely a quantum deformation at root of unity, of the previously introduced SU(2) BF representation. The extended Turaev-Viro TQFT provides a description of the excitations on top of the vacuum. These curvature and torsion excitations are classified by the Drinfeld center category of the quantum deformation of SU(2), and are essential in order to allow for a representation of the holonomies and fluxes. The holonomies and fluxes are generalized to ribbon operators which create and interact with the excitations. These excitations agree with the ones induced by massive and spinning particles, and therefore the framework presented here allows automatically for a description of the coupling of such matter to (2+1)-dimensional gravity with a cosmological constant. The new representation constructed here presents a number of advantages over the representations which exist so far. In particular, it possesses a very useful finiteness property which guarantees the discreteness of spectra for a wide class of quantum (intrinsic and extrinsic) geometrical operators. Also, the notion of basic excitations leads to a so-called fusion basis which offers exciting possibilities for the construction of states with interesting global properties, as well as states with certain
Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification
Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau
2008-09-01
This report presents the forward sensitivity analysis method as a means for quantification of uncertainty in system analysis. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a “black box” approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. This approach requires large number of simulation runs and therefore has high computational cost. Contrary to the “black box” method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In this approach equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivity is solved for as variables in the same simulation. This “glass box” method can generate similar sensitivity information as the above “black box” approach with couples of runs to cover a large uncertainty region. Because only small numbers of runs are required, those runs can be done with a high accuracy in space and time ensuring that the uncertainty of the physical model is being measured and not simply the numerical error caused by the coarse discretization. In the forward sensitivity method, the model is differentiated with respect to each parameter to yield an additional system of the same size as the original one, the result of which is the solution sensitivity. The sensitivity of any output variable can then be directly obtained from these sensitivities by applying the chain rule of differentiation. We extend the forward sensitivity method to include time and spatial steps as special parameters so that the numerical errors can be quantified against other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty analysis. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other
Extended MRI findings of intersection syndrome
Lee, Roger P.; Hatem, Stephen F.; Recht, Michael P. [Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)
2009-02-15
The symptoms and physical findings of intersection syndrome have been well described in the clinical medical literature. However, the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in patients with intersection syndrome of the forearm have only recently been described in a small number of patients. We review our experience with imaging of intersection syndrome, describe previously unreported MRI findings, and emphasize modifications to MRI protocols for its evaluation. Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective review of patients with MRI findings consistent with intersection syndrome of the forearm during the period from January 2004 to September 2006. Six patients were identified, three males and three females, with an average age of 39.3 years. The MRI examinations were reviewed to assess signal abnormalities within and adjacent to the first and second dorsal extensor tendon compartments (DETC): tendinosis, peritendinous edema or fluid, muscle edema, subcutaneous edema, and juxtacortical edema. The overall longitudinal extent of signal alterations was measured as well as the distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC. Review of the MRIs showed increased intrasubstance tendon signal suggesting tendinosis in two of the six patients, peritendinous edema or fluid in all six patients, muscle edema in five of the six patients, and subcutaneous edema in three of the six patients. Juxtacortical edema was seen in one patient. Peritendinous edema or fluid extended distally beyond the radiocarpal joint in three of the six patients. The average distance from Lister's tubercle to the crossover of the first and second DETC was 3.95 cm, in keeping with recently published data. Intersection syndrome is an uncommon MRI diagnosis. In addition to the previously described MRI findings of edema adjacent to the first or second DETC, possibly with proximal extension and subcutaneous edema, we have identified
Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans
Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.
2016-10-01
Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this
Extending Stochastic Network Calculus to Loss Analysis
Chao Luo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS. Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.
Extended Magnetic Reconnection Across the Dayside Magnetopause
Dunlop, M. W.; Zhang, Q.-H.; Bogdanova, Y. V.; Lockwood, M.; Pu, Z.; Hasegawa, H.; Wang, J.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Berchem, J.; Lavraund, B.; Eastwood, J.; Volwerk, M.; Shen, C.; Shi, J.-K.; Constantinescu, D.; Frey, H.; Fazakerley, A. N.; Sibeck, D.; Escoubet, P.; Wild, J. A.; Liu, Z.-X.
2011-01-01
The extent of where magnetic reconnection (MR), the dominant process responsible for energy and plasma transport into the magnetosphere, operates across Earth's dayside magnetopause has previously been only indirectly shown by observations. We report the first direct evidence of X-line structure resulting from the operation of MR at each of two widely separated locations along the tilted, subsolar line of maximum current on Earth's magnetopause, confirming the operation of MR at two or more sites across the extended region where MR is expected to occur. The evidence results from in-situ observations of the associated ion and electron plasma distributions, present within each magnetic X-line structure, taken by two spacecraft passing through the active MR regions simultaneously.
Extended Lagrange interpolation in L1 spaces
Occorsio, Donatella; Russo, Maria Grazia
2016-10-01
Let w (x )=e-xβxα , w ¯(x )=x w (x ) and denote by {pm(w)}m,{pn(w¯)}n the corresponding sequences of orthonormal polynomials. The zeros of the polynomial Q2 m +1=pm +1(w )pm(w ¯) are simple and are sufficiently far among them. Therefore it is possible to construct an interpolation process essentially based on the zeros of Q2m+1, which is called "Extended Lagrange Interpolation". Here we study the convergence of this interpolation process in suitable weighted L1 spaces. This study completes the results given by the authors in previous papers in weighted Lup((0 ,+∞ )) , for 1≤p≤∞. Moreover an application of the proposed interpolation process in order to construct an e cient product quadrature scheme for weakly singular integrals is given.
FUZZY OPTIMIZATION USING EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER
M.DIVYA
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Fuzzy Logic is based on the idea that in fuzzy sets each element in the set can assume a value from 0 to 1, not only 0 or 1, as in crisp set theory. The degree of membership function is defined as the gradation in the extent to which an element is belonging to the relevant sets. Optimizing the membership functions of a fuzzy system can be viewed as a system identification problem for nonlinear dynamic system. In this paper two input and one output fuzzy controller is designed for the dynamic process of aircraft. The addition of an EKF in the feedback loop improved the system response by blocking possible effects of measurement error based on Predictor-Corrector algorithm. An Extended Kalman Filter approach to optimize the membership functions of the inputs and outputs of the fuzzy controller. The performance of the fuzzy system before and after the optimization are compared, as well as the membership functions.
Revisiting perturbations in extended quasidilaton massive gravity
Heisenberg, Lavinia
2015-04-01
In this work we study the theory of extended quasidilaton massive gravity together with the presence of matter fields. After discussing the homogeneous and isotropic fully dynamical background equations, which governs the exact expansion history of the universe, we consider small cosmological perturbations around these general FLRW solutions. The stability of tensor, vector and scalar perturbations on top of these general background solutions give rise to slightly different constraints on the parameters of the theory than those obtained in the approximative assumption of the late-time asymptotic form of the expansion history, which does not correspond to our current epoch. This opens up the possibility of stable FLRW solutions to be compared with current data on cosmic expansion with the restricted parameter space based on theoretical ground.
Affordances and the musically extended mind
Joel eKrueger
2014-01-01
Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.
Extended equal areas criterion: foundations and applications
Yusheng, Xue [Nanjim Automation Research Institute, Nanjim (China)
1994-12-31
The extended equal area criterion (EEAC) provides analytical expressions for ultra fast transient stability assessment, flexible sensitivity analysis, and means to preventive and emergency controls. Its outstanding performances have been demonstrated by thousands upon thousands simulations on more than 50 real power systems and by on-line operation records in an EMS environment of Northeast China Power System since September 1992. However, the researchers have mainly based on heuristics and simulations. This paper lays a theoretical foundation of EEAC and brings to light the mechanism of transient stability. It proves true that the dynamic EEAC furnishes a necessary and sufficient condition for stability of multi machine systems with any detailed models, in the sense of the integration accuracy. This establishes a new platform for further advancing EEAC and better understanding of problems. An overview of EEAC applications in China is also given in this paper. (author) 30 refs.
Generalized extended Navier-Stokes theory
Hansen, J. S.; Daivis, Peter J.; Dyre, Jeppe C.
2013-01-01
in molecular fluids. To discuss these phenomena in detail, molecular dynamics simulations of molecular chlorine are performed for three different state points. In general, the theory captures the behavior for small wavevector and frequencies as expected. For example, in the hydrodynamic regime......The extended Navier-Stokes theory accounts for the coupling between the translational and rotational molecular degrees of freedom. In this paper, we generalize this theory to non-zero frequencies and wavevectors, which enables a new study of spatio-temporal correlation phenomena present...... and for molecular fluids with small moment of inertia like chlorine, the theory predicts that the longitudinal and transverse intrinsic angular velocity correlation functions are almost identical, which is also seen in the molecular dynamics simulations. However, the theory fails at large wavevector and frequencies...
An Extended Mild-Slope Equation
PAN Junning; HONG Guangwen; ZUO Qihua
2000-01-01
On the assumption that the vortex and the vertical velocity component of the current are small, a mild-slope equation for wave propagation on non-uniform flows is deduced from the basic hydrodynamic equations, with the terms of ( h h)2 and /2h h included in the equation. The terms of bottom friction, wind energy input and wave nonlinearity are also introduced into the equation. The wind energy input functions for wind waves and swells are separately considered by adopting Wen′s (1989) empirical formula for wind waves and Snyder′s observation results for swells. Thus, an extended mild-slope equation is obtained, in which the effects of refraction, diffraction, reflection, current, bottom friction, wind energy input and wave nonlinearity are considered synthetically.
The Higgs boson from an extended symmetry
Barbieri, Riccardo; Rychkov, Vyacheslav S; Varagnolo, Alvise
2007-01-01
The variety of ideas put forward in the context of a "composite" picture for the Higgs boson calls for a simple and effective description of the related phenomenology. Such a description is given here by means of a "minimal" model explicitly applied to the case of a Higgs-top sector from an SO(5) symmetry. We discuss the spectrum, the ElectroWeak Precision Tests, flavor and B-physics, LHC phenomenology, and naturalness. The extended gauge sector relative to the standard SU(2)xU(1), if there is any, has little or no impact on these considerations. We also discuss the relation of the "minimal" model with its "little Higgs" or "holographic" extensions based on the same symmetry.
Casimir effect in Extended Theories of Gravity
Lambiase, G; Stabile, An
2016-01-01
We study the Casimir vacuum energy density and the Casimir pressure for a massless scalar field confined between two nearby parallel plates in a slightly curved, static spacetime background, employing the weak field approximation in the framework of Extended Theories of Gravity (ETG). Following a perturbative approach upto second order, we find the gravity correction in the ETG to Casimir vacuum energy density and pressure. The corrections to the vacuum energy density in presence of curved spacetime in the framework of General Relativity (GR) are small and today they are still undetected with the current technology. However, future sensitivity improvement in gravitational interferometer experiments will give an useful tool to detect such effect induced by gravity. For these reason we retain interesting from a theoretical point of view generalize the outcomes of GR in the context of ETG. Finally, we find the general relation to constraining the free parameters of the ETG.
Autopoiesis + extended cognition + nature = can buildings think?
Dollens, Dennis
2015-01-01
To incorporate metabolic, bioremedial functions into the performance of buildings and to balance generative architecture's dominant focus on computational programming and digital fabrication, this text first discusses hybridizing Maturana and Varela's biological theory of autopoiesis with Andy Clark's hypothesis of extended cognition. Doing so establishes a procedural protocol to research biological domains from which design could source data/insight from biosemiotics, sensory plants, and biocomputation. I trace computation and botanic simulations back to Alan Turing's little-known 1950s Morphogenetic drawings, reaction-diffusion algorithms, and pioneering artificial intelligence (AI) in order to establish bioarchitecture's generative point of origin. I ask provocatively, Can buildings think? as a question echoing Turing's own, "Can machines think?" PMID:26478784
Action principles for extended magnetohydrodynamic models
Keramidas Charidakos, I.; Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.; White, R. L. [Institute for Fusion Studies and Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Wurm, A. [Department of Physical and Biological Sciences, Western New England University, Springfield, Massachusetts 01119 (United States)
2014-09-15
The general, non-dissipative, two-fluid model in plasma physics is Hamiltonian, but this property is sometimes lost or obscured in the process of deriving simplified (or reduced) two-fluid or one-fluid models from the two-fluid equations of motion. To ensure that the reduced models are Hamiltonian, we start with the general two-fluid action functional, and make all the approximations, changes of variables, and expansions directly within the action context. The resulting equations are then mapped to the Eulerian fluid variables using a novel nonlocal Lagrange-Euler map. Using this method, we recover Lüst's general two-fluid model, extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and electron MHD from a unified framework. The variational formulation allows us to use Noether's theorem to derive conserved quantities for each symmetry of the action.
Revisiting perturbations in extended quasidilaton massive gravity
Heisenberg, Lavinia
2015-01-01
In this work we study the theory of extended quasidilaton massive gravity together with the presence of matter fields. After discussing the homogeneous and isotropic fully dynamical background equations, which governs the exact expansion history of the universe, we consider small cosmological perturbations around these general FLRW solutions. The stability of tensor, vector and scalar perturbations on top of these general background solutions give rise to slightly different constraints on the parameters of the theory than those obtained in the approximative assumption of the late-time asymptotic form of the expansion history, which does not correspond to our current epoch. This opens up the possibility of stable FLRW solutions to be compared with current data on cosmic expansion with the restricted parameter space based on theoretical ground.
Do we need an extended evolutionary synthesis?
Pigliucci, Massimo
2007-12-01
The Modern Synthesis (MS) is the current paradigm in evolutionary biology. It was actually built by expanding on the conceptual foundations laid out by its predecessors, Darwinism and neo-Darwinism. For sometime now there has been talk of a new Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES), and this article begins to outline why we may need such an extension, and how it may come about. As philosopher Karl Popper has noticed, the current evolutionary theory is a theory of genes, and we still lack a theory of forms. The field began, in fact, as a theory of forms in Darwin's days, and the major goal that an EES will aim for is a unification of our theories of genes and of forms. This may be achieved through an organic grafting of novel concepts onto the foundational structure of the MS, particularly evolvability, phenotypic plasticity, epigenetic inheritance, complexity theory, and the theory of evolution in highly dimensional adaptive landscapes.
A noncommutative extended de Finetti theorem
Köstler, Claus
2008-01-01
The extended de Finetti theorem characterizes exchangeable infinite random sequences as conditionally i.i.d. and shows that the apparently weaker distributional symmetry of spreadability is equivalent to exchangeability. Our main result is a noncommutative version of this theorem. In contrast to the classical result of Ryll-Nadzewski, exchangeability turns out to be stronger than spreadability for infinite noncommutative random sequences. Out of our investigations emerges noncommutative conditional independence in terms of a von Neumann algebraic structure closely related to Popa's notion of commuting squares and K\\"ummerer's generalized Bernoulli shifts. Our main result is applicable to classical probability, quantum probability, in particular free probability, braid group representations and Jones subfactors.
Self-Gravitating Systems in Extended Gravity
Arturo Stabile
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Starting from the weak field limit, we discuss astrophysical applications of Extended Theories of Gravity where higher order curvature invariants and scalar fields are considered by generalizing the Hilbert-Einstein action linear in the Ricci curvature scalar R. Results are compared to General Relativity in the hypothesis that Dark Matter contributions to the dynamics can be neglected thanks to modified gravity. In particular, we consider stellar hydrostatic equilibrium, galactic rotation curves, and gravitational lensing. Finally, we discuss the weak field limit in the Jordan and Einstein frames pointing out how effective quantities, as gravitational potentials, transform from one frame to the other and the interpretation of results can completely change accordingly.
ECO-EFFICIENCY WITHIN EXTENDED SUPPLY CHAIN
Handson Cláudio Dias Pimenta
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Designers make decisions that ultimately impact on both the economic and environmental performance of the products, and many of these costs and impacts occur across the supply chain. This paper proposes an initial discussion aboult eco-efficiency concepts applied within extended supply chain (ESC. Eco-efficiency (EE has the potential to incorporate both environmental and economic improvement by companies of ESC, and we explore the use of EE in the design process. It is noteworthy that it is an imperative in the current competitive market that companies must be able to manage their entire production chain taking into account environmental issues as an important factor in their decision-making processes. Therefore, it is believed that EE can integrate and strengthen a company’s functions and assist its decision-making processes as well as implement improvements within its ESC.
Complete Solutions to Extended Stokes' Problems
Chi-Min Liu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The main object of the present study is to theoretically solve the viscous flow of either a finite or infinite depth, which is driven by moving plane(s. Such a viscous flow is usually named as Stokes' first or second problems, which indicates the fluid motion driven by the impulsive or oscillating motion of the boundary, respectively. Traditional Stokes' problems are firstly revisited, and three extended problems are subsequently examined. Using some mathematical techniques and integral transforms, complete solutions which can exactly capture the flow characteristics at any time are derived. The corresponding steady-state and transient solutions are readily determined on the basis of complete solutions. Current results have wide applications in academic researches and are of significance for future studies taking more boundary conditions and non-Newtonian fluids into account.
Extending OLAP Querying to External Object
Pedersen, Torben Bach; Shoshani, Arie; Gu, Junmin
inherent in data in nonstandard applications are not accommodated well by OLAP systems. In contrast, object database systems are built to handle such complexity, but do not support OLAP-type querying well. This paper presents the concepts and techniques underlying a flexible, multi-model federated system...... that enables OLAP users to exploit simultaneously the features of OLAP and object systems. The system allows data to be handled using the most appropriate data model and technology: OLAP systems for dimensional data and object database systems for more complex, general data. Additionally, physical data...... integration can be avoided. As a vehicle for demonstrating the capabilities of the system, a prototypical OLAP language is defined and extended to naturally support queries that involve data in object databases. The language permits selection criteria that reference object data, queries that return...
Extended inertial range phenomenology of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Matthaeus, William H.; Zhou, YE
1989-01-01
A phenomenological treatment of the inertial range of isotropic statistically steady magnetohydrodynamic turbulence is presented, extending the theory of Kraichnan (1965). The role of Alfven wave propagation is treated on equal footing with nonlinear convection, leading to a simple generalization of the relations between the times characteristic of wave propagation, convection, energy transfer, and decay of triple correlations. The theory leads to a closed-form steady inertial range spectral law that reduces to the Kraichnan and Kolmogorov laws in appropriate limits. The Kraichnan constant is found to be related in a simple way to the Kolmogorov constant; for typical values of the latter constant, the former has values in the range 1.22-1.87. Estimates of the time scale associated with spectral transfer of energy also emerge from the new approach, generalizing previously presented 'golden rules' for relating the spectral transfer time scale to the Alfven and eddy-turnover time scales.
Reasoning about Cardinal Directions between Extended Objects
Zhang, Xiaotong; Li, Sanjiang; Ying, Mingsheng
2009-01-01
Direction relations between extended spatial objects are important commonsense knowledge. Recently, Goyal and Egenhofer proposed a formal model, known as Cardinal Direction Calculus (CDC), for representing direction relations between connected plane regions. CDC is perhaps the most expressive qualitative calculus for directional information, and has attracted increasing interest from areas such as artificial intelligence, geographical information science, and image retrieval. Given a network of CDC constraints, the consistency problem is deciding if the network is realizable by connected regions in the real plane. This paper provides a cubic algorithm for checking consistency of basic CDC constraint networks, and proves that reasoning with CDC is in general an NP-Complete problem. For a consistent network of basic CDC constraints, our algorithm also returns a 'canonical' solution in cubic time. This cubic algorithm is also adapted to cope with cardinal directions between possibly disconnected regions, in whic...
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro, C
2004-01-01
A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ( $C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incoporate the lines, areas, volumes, .... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, ... dynamics of the $p$-loop histories (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incoporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, superluminal propagation, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed ) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, in a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the inva...
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro, C
2004-01-01
A brief review of some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces ($C$-spaces) is presented whose " point" coordinates are noncommuting Clifford-valued quantities and which incorporate the lines, areas, volumes,.... degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane,... dynamics of $p$-loops (closed p-branes) living in target $D$-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. $C$-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale), maximal acceleration, noncommuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures that allows to study the dynamics of all (closed) p-branes, for all values of $ p $, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT and the problem of time in Cosmology. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows along with the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations ...
VLA Polarimetry of Two Extended Radio Galaxies
Junor, W; Morganti, R; Padrielli, L
2000-01-01
Multi-wavelength VLA observations of two extended radio galaxies, 0235-197and 1203+043 are presented. There is some evidence from earlier studies thatthese two sources exhibit low frequency (<1 GHz) variability. This work showsthat both sources have linear polarizations, if any, below the detection limitsat 320 MHz, so we cannot explain the variability as being due to instrumentalpolarization effects as has been suggested for 3C159. Refractive scintillationmay be the cause of the variability in 0235-197. This would require theexistence of a bright, compact component in one of the hot spots seen in theseobservations. This is not implausible but the resolution of this observationalprogram is insufficent to address that question. The radio source 1203+043lacks any bright compact component thereby ruling out a refractivescintillation mechanism for its variability. Consequently, it is possible thatclaims of variability in this source are spurious. However, the 320 MHz VLAobservations show that 1203+043 has an `...
Dynamic Visualization of Graphs with Extended Labels
Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Perrine, Kenneth A.; Eagan, James R.; Foote, Harlan P.; Thomas, Jim
2005-10-23
The paper describes a novel technique to visualize graphs with extended node and link labels. The lengths of these labels range from a short phrase to a full sentence to an entire paragraph and beyond. Our solution is different from all the existing approaches that almost always rely on intensive computational effort to optimize the label placement problem. Instead, we share the visualization resources with the graph and present the label information in static, interactive, and dynamic modes without the requirement for tackling the intractability issues. This allows us to reallocate the computational resources for dynamic presentation of real-time information. The paper includes a user study to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the visualization technique.
Extended Analysis of the Casimir Force
Lehnert B.
2014-04-01
Full Text Available There are several arguments for the conventional form of the Zero Point Energy fre- quency spectrum to be put in doubt. It has thus to be revised in to that of a self-consistent system in statistical equilibrium where the total energy de nsity and the equivalent pres- sure become finite. An extended form of the Casimir force is th ereby proposed to be used as a tool for determining the local magnitude of the same pressure. This can be done in terms of measurements on the force between a pair po lished plane plates consisting of different metals, the plates having very small or zero air gaps. T his corre- sponds to the largest possible Casimir force. Even then, the re may arise problems with other adhering forces, possibly to be clarified in further experiments.
Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases
Chi-Deuk Yoo
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.
Cosmological Perturbations in Extended Massive Gravity
Gumrukcuoglu, A Emir; Lin, Chunshan; Mukohyama, Shinji; Trodden, Mark
2013-01-01
We study cosmological perturbations around self-accelerating solutions to two extensions of nonlinear massive gravity: the quasi-dilaton theory and the mass-varying theory. We examine stability of the cosmological solutions, and the extent to which the vanishing of the kinetic terms for scalar and vector perturbations of self-accelerating solutions in massive gravity is generic when the theory is extended. We find that these kinetic terms are in general non-vanishing in both extensions, though there are constraints on the parameters and background evolution from demanding that they have the correct sign. In particular, the self-accelerating solutions of the quasi-dilaton theory are always unstable to scalar perturbations with wavelength shorter than the Hubble length.
Extended SQL for manipulating clinical warehouse data.
Johnson, S B; Chatziantoniou, D
1999-01-01
Health care institutions are beginning to collect large amounts of clinical data through patient care applications. Clinical data warehouses make these data available for complex analysis across patient records, benefiting administrative reporting, patient care and clinical research. Data gathered for patient care purposes are difficult to manipulate for analytic tasks; the schema presents conceptual difficulties for the analyst, and many queries perform poorly. An extension to SQL is presented that enables the analyst to designate groups of rows. These groups can then be manipulated and aggregated in various ways to solve a number of useful analytic problems. The extended SQL is concise and runs in linear time, while standard SQL requires multiple statements with polynomial performance. The extensions are extremely powerful for performing aggregations on large amounts of data, which is useful in clinical data mining applications.
Descriptive complexity for pictures languages (extended abstract)
Grandjean, Etienne; richard, Gaétan
2012-01-01
This paper deals with descriptive complexity of picture languages of any dimension by syntactical fragments of existential second-order logic. - We uniformly generalize to any dimension the characterization by Giammarresi et al. \\cite{GRST96} of the class of \\emph{recognizable} picture languages in existential monadic second-order logic. - We state several logical characterizations of the class of picture languages recognized in linear time on nondeterministic cellular automata of any dimension. They are the first machine-independent characterizations of complexity classes of cellular automata. Our characterizations are essentially deduced from normalization results we prove for first-order and existential second-order logics over pictures. They are obtained in a general and uniform framework that allows to extend them to other "regular" structures. Finally, we describe some hierarchy results that show the optimality of our logical characterizations and delineate their limits.
Neutrino Anomalies in an Extended Zee Model
Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Rindani, Saurabh D.
1999-01-01
We discuss an extended SU(2)X U(1) model which naturally leads to mass scales and mixing angles relevant for understanding both the solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. No right-handed neutrinos are introduced in the model.The model uses a softly broken L_e-L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau} symmetry. Neutrino masses arise only at the loop level. The one-loop neutrino masses which arise as in the Zee model solve the atmospheric neutrino anomaly while breaking of L_e-L_{\\mu}-L_{\\tau} generates at two-loop order a mass splitting needed for the vacuum solution of the solar neutrino problem. A somewhat different model is possible which accommodates the large-angle MSW resolution of the solar neutrino problem.
Observational constraints on extended Chaplygin gas cosmologies
B C PAUL; P THAKUR; A SAHA
2017-08-01
We investigate cosmological models with extended Chaplygin gas (ECG) as a candidate for dark energy and determine the equation of state parameters using observed data namely, observed Hubble data, baryon acousticoscillation data and cosmic microwave background shift data. Cosmological models are investigated considering cosmic fluid which is an extension of Chaplygin gas, however, it reduces to modified Chaplygin gas (MCG) andalso to generalized Chaplygin gas (GCG) in special cases. It is found that in the case of MCG and GCG, the best-fit values of all the parameters are positive. The distance modulus agrees quite well with the experimental Union2data. The speed of sound obtained in the model is small, necessary for structure formation. We also determine the observational constraints on the constants of the ECG equation.
Extended Higgs sectors in radiative neutrino models
Oleg Antipin
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Testable Higgs partners may be sought within the extensions of the SM Higgs sector aimed at generating neutrino masses at the loop level. We study a viability of extended Higgs sectors for two selected models of radiative neutrino masses: a one-loop mass model, providing the Higgs partner within a real triplet scalar representation, and a three-loop mass model, providing it within its two-Higgs-doublet sector. The Higgs sector in the one-loop model may remain stable and perturbative up to the Planck scale, whereas the three-loop model calls for a UV completion around 106 GeV. Additional vector-like lepton and exotic scalar fields, which are required to close one- and three-loop neutrino-mass diagrams, play a decisive role for the testability of the respective models. We constrain the parameter space of these models using LHC bounds on diboson resonances.
Extending stochastic network calculus to loss analysis.
Luo, Chao; Yu, Li; Zheng, Jun
2013-01-01
Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS). Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.
The extended Estabrook-Wahlquist method
Choudhury, S. Roy; Russo, Matthew
2016-07-01
Variable Coefficient Korteweg de Vries (vcKdV), modified Korteweg de Vries (vcMKdV), and nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equations have a long history dating from their derivation in various applications. A technique based on extended Lax Pairs has been devised recently to derive time-and-space-dependent-coefficient generalizations of various such Lax-integrable NLPDE hierarchies, which are thus more general than almost all cases considered earlier via methods such as the Painlevé Test, Bell Polynomials, and similarity methods. However, this technique, although operationally effective, has the significant disadvantage that, for any integrable system with spatiotemporally varying coefficients, one must 'guess' a generalization of the structure of the known Lax Pair for the corresponding system with constant coefficients. Motivated by the somewhat arbitrary nature of the above procedure, we embark in this paper on an attempt to systematize the derivation of Lax-integrable systems with variable coefficients. We consider the Estabrook-Wahlquist (EW) prolongation technique, a relatively self-consistent procedure requiring little prior information. However, this immediately requires that the technique be significantly generalized in several ways, including solving matrix partial differential equations instead of algebraic ones as the structure of the Lax Pair is systematically computed, and also in solving the constraint equations to deduce the explicit forms for various 'coefficient' matrices. The new and extended EW technique which results is illustrated by algorithmically deriving generalized Lax-integrable versions of the NLS, generalized fifth-order KdV, MKdV, and derivative nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equations. We also show how this method correctly excludes the existence of a nontrivial Lax pair for a nonintegrable NLPDE such as the variable-coefficient cubic-quintic NLS.
Beyond six parameters: Extending Λ CDM
Di Valentino, Eleonora; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph
2015-12-01
Cosmological constraints are usually derived under the assumption of a six-parameter Λ CDM theoretical framework or simple one-parameter extensions. In this paper we present, for the first time, cosmological constraints in a significantly extended scenario, varying up to 12 cosmological parameters simultaneously, including the sum of neutrino masses, the neutrino effective number, the dark energy equation of state, the gravitational wave background and the running of the spectral index of primordial perturbations. Using the latest Planck 2015 data release (with polarization), we found no significant indication for extensions to the standard Λ CDM scenario, with the notable exception of the angular power spectrum lensing amplitude, Alens , which is larger than the expected value at more than 2 standard deviations, even when combining the Planck data with BAO and supernovae type Ia external data sets. In our extended cosmological framework, we find that a combined Planck+BAO analysis constrains the value of the rms density fluctuation parameter to σ8=0.781-0.063+0.065 at 95 % C.L., helping to relieve the possible tensions with the CFHTlenS cosmic shear survey. We also find a lower value for the reionization optical depth τ =0.058-0.043+0.040 at 95 % C.L. with respect to the one derived under the assumption of Λ CDM . The scalar spectral index nS is now compatible with a Harrison-Zeldovich spectrum to within 2.5 standard deviations. Combining the Planck data set with the Hubble Space Telescope prior on the Hubble constant provides a value for the equation of state w <-1 at more than 2 standard deviations, while the neutrino effective number is fully compatible with the expectations of the standard three neutrino framework.
The Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces
Castro C.
2005-04-01
Full Text Available An introduction to some of the most important features of the Extended Relativity theory in Clifford-spaces (C-spaces is presented whose “point” coordinates are non-commuting Clifford-valued quantities which incorporate lines, areas, volumes, hyper-volumes. . . degrees of freedom associated with the collective particle, string, membrane, p-brane. . . dynamics of p-loops (closed p-branes in target D-dimensional spacetime backgrounds. C-space Relativity naturally incorporates the ideas of an invariant length (Planck scale, maximal acceleration, non-commuting coordinates, supersymmetry, holography, higher derivative gravity with torsion and variable dimensions/signatures. It permits to study the dynamics of all (closed p-branes, for all values of p, on a unified footing. It resolves the ordering ambiguities in QFT, the problem of time in Cosmology and admits superluminal propagation (tachyons without violations of causality. A discussion of the maximal-acceleration Relativity principle in phase-spaces follows and the study of the invariance group of symmetry transformations in phase-space allows to show why Planck areas are invariant under acceleration-boosts transformations. This invariance feature suggests that a maximal-string tension principle may be operating in Nature. We continue by pointing out how the relativity of signatures of the underlying n-dimensional spacetime results from taking different n-dimensional slices through C-space. The conformal group in spacetime emerges as a natural subgroup of the Clifford group and Relativity in C-spaces involves natural scale changes in the sizes of physical objects without the introduction of forces nor Weyl’s gauge field of dilations. We finalize by constructing the generalization of Maxwell theory of Electrodynamics of point charges to a theory in C-spaces that involves extended charges coupled to antisymmetric tensor fields of arbitrary rank. In the concluding remarks we outline briefly
Hyperuniformity disorder length spectroscopy for extended particles
Durian, D. J.
2017-09-01
The concept of a hyperuniformity disorder length h was recently introduced for analyzing volume fraction fluctuations for a set of measuring windows [Chieco et al., Phys. Rev. E 96, 032909 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevE.96.032909]. This length permits a direct connection to the nature of disorder in the spatial configuration of the particles and provides a way to diagnose the degree of hyperuniformity in terms of the scaling of h and its value in comparison with established bounds. Here, this approach is generalized for extended particles, which are larger than the image resolution and can lie partially inside and partially outside the measuring windows. The starting point is an expression for the relative volume fraction variance in terms of four distinct volumes: that of the particle, the measuring window, the mean-squared overlap between particle and region, and the region over which particles have nonzero overlap with the measuring window. After establishing limiting behaviors for the relative variance, computational methods are developed for both continuum and pixelated particles. Exact results are presented for particles of special shape and for measuring windows of special shape, for which the equations are tractable. Comparison is made for other particle shapes, using simulated Poisson patterns. And the effects of polydispersity and image errors are discussed. For small measuring windows, both particle shape and spatial arrangement affect the form of the variance. For large regions, the variance scaling depends only on arrangement but particle shape sets the numerical proportionality. The combined understanding permit the measured variance to be translated to the spectrum of hyperuniformity lengths versus region size, as the quantifier of spatial arrangement. This program is demonstrated for a system of nonoverlapping particles at a series of increasing packing fractions as well as for an Einstein pattern of particles with several different extended shapes.
Extended mind and after: socially extended mind and actor-network.
Kono, Tetsuya
2014-03-01
The concept of extended mind has been impressively developed over the last 10 years by many philosophers and cognitive scientists. The extended mind thesis (EM) affirms that the mind is not simply ensconced inside the head, but extends to the whole system of brain-body-environment. Recently, some philosophers and psychologists try to adapt the idea of EM to the domain of social cognition research. Mind is socially extended (SEM). However, EM/SEM theory has problems to analyze the interactions among a subject and its surroundings with opposition, antagonism, or conflict; it also tends to think that the environment surrounding the subject is passive or static, and to neglect the power of non-human actants to direct and regulate the human subject. In these points, actor-network theory (ANT) proposed by Latour and Callon is more persuasive, while sharing some important ideas with EM/SEM theory. Actor-network is a hybrid community which is composed of a series of heterogeneous elements, animate and inanimate for a certain period of time. I shall conclude that EM/SEM could be best analyzed as a special case of actor-network. EM/SEM is a system which can be controlled by a human agent alone. In order to understand collective behavior, philosophy and psychology have to study the actor-network in which human individuals are situated.
Planning of the Extended Reach well Dieksand 2; Planung der Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2
Frank, U.; Berners, H. [RWE-DEA AG, Hamburg (Germany). Drilling Team Mittelplate und Dieksand; Hadow, A.; Klop, G.; Sickinger, W. [Wintershall AG Erdoelwerke, Barnstdorf (Germany); Sudron, K.
1998-12-31
The Mittelplate oil field is located 7 km offshore the town of Friedrichskoog. Reserves are estimated at 30 million tonnes of oil. At a production rate of 2,500 t/d, it will last about 33 years. The transport capacity of the offshore platform is limited, so that attempts were made to enhance production by constructing the extended reach borehole Dieksand 2. Details are presented. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das Erdoelfeld Mittelplate liegt am suedlichen Rand des Nationalparks Schleswig Holsteinisches Wattenmeer, ca. 7000 m westlich der Ortschaft Friedrichskoog. Die gewinnbaren Reserven betragen ca. 30 Millionen t Oel. Bei einer Foerderkapazitaet von 2.500 t/Tag betraegt die Foerderdauer ca. 33 Jahre. Aufgrund der begrenzten Transportkapazitaeten von der Insel, laesst sich durch zusaetzliche Bohrungen von der kuenstlichen Insel Mittelplate keine entscheidende Erhoehung der Foerderkapazitaet erzielen. Ab Sommer 1996 wurde erstmals die Moeglichkeit der Lagerstaettenerschliessung von Land untersucht. Ein im Mai 1997 in Hamburg etabliertes Drilling Team wurde mit der Aufgabe betraut, die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 zu planen und abzuteufen. Die Planungsphasen fuer die Extended Reach Bohrung Dieksand 2 wurden aufgezeigt. Die fuer den Erfolg einer Extended Reach Bohrung wichtigen Planungsparameter wurden erlaeutert. Es wurden Wege gezeigt, wie bei diesem Projekt technische und geologische Risiken in der Planung mit beruecksichtigt und nach Beginn der Bohrung weiter bearbeitet werden koennen. (orig.)
A Formalization and Proof of the Extended Church-Turing Thesis -Extended Abstract-
Nachum Dershowitz
2012-07-01
Full Text Available We prove the Extended Church-Turing Thesis: Every effective algorithm can be efficiently simulated by a Turing machine. This is accomplished by emulating an effective algorithm via an abstract state machine, and simulating such an abstract state machine by a random access machine, representing data as a minimal term graph.
Burnett, L; Basten, A; Hensley, W J
1986-01-10
Most computer algorithms used for comparing or aligning nucleotide sequences rely on the premise that the best way to extend a homology between the two sequences is to select a match rather than a mismatch. We have tested this assumption and found that it is not always valid.
Extended Deterrence, Nuclear Proliferation, and START III
Speed, R.D.
2000-06-20
Early in the Cold War, the United States adopted a policy of ''extended nuclear deterrence'' to protect its allies by threatening a nuclear strike against any state that attacks these allies. This threat can (in principle) be used to try to deter an enemy attack using conventional weapons or one using nuclear, chemical, or biological weapons. The credibility of a nuclear threat has long been subject to debate and is dependent on many complex geopolitical factors, not the least of which is the military capabilities of the opposing sides. The ending of the Cold War has led to a significant decrease in the number of strategic nuclear weapons deployed by the United States and Russia. START II, which was recently ratified by the Russian Duma, will (if implemented) reduce the number deployed strategic nuclear weapons on each side to 3500, compared to a level of over 11,000 at the end of the Cold War in 1991. The tentative limit established by Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin for START III would reduce the strategic force level to 2000-2500. However, the Russians (along with a number of arms control advocates) now argue that the level should be reduced even further--to 1500 warheads or less. The conventional view is that ''deep cuts'' in nuclear weapons are necessary to discourage nuclear proliferation. Thus, as part of the bargain to get the non-nuclear states to agree to the renewal of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the United States pledged to work towards greater reductions in strategic forces. Without movement in the direction of deep cuts, it is thought by many analysts that some countries may decide to build their own nuclear weapons. Indeed, this was part of the rationale India used to justify its own nuclear weapons program. However, there is also some concern that deep cuts (to 1500 or lower) in the U.S. strategic nuclear arsenal could have the opposite effect. The fear is that such cuts might undermine extended
Extended Forward Sensitivity Analysis for Uncertainty Quantification
Haihua Zhao; Vincent A. Mousseau
2011-09-01
Verification and validation (V&V) are playing more important roles to quantify uncertainties and realize high fidelity simulations in engineering system analyses, such as transients happened in a complex nuclear reactor system. Traditional V&V in the reactor system analysis focused more on the validation part or did not differentiate verification and validation. The traditional approach to uncertainty quantification is based on a 'black box' approach. The simulation tool is treated as an unknown signal generator, a distribution of inputs according to assumed probability density functions is sent in and the distribution of the outputs is measured and correlated back to the original input distribution. The 'black box' method mixes numerical errors with all other uncertainties. It is also not efficient to perform sensitivity analysis. Contrary to the 'black box' method, a more efficient sensitivity approach can take advantage of intimate knowledge of the simulation code. In these types of approaches equations for the propagation of uncertainty are constructed and the sensitivities are directly solved for as variables in the simulation. This paper presents the forward sensitivity analysis as a method to help uncertainty qualification. By including time step and potentially spatial step as special sensitivity parameters, the forward sensitivity method is extended as one method to quantify numerical errors. Note that by integrating local truncation errors over the whole system through the forward sensitivity analysis process, the generated time step and spatial step sensitivity information reflect global numerical errors. The discretization errors can be systematically compared against uncertainties due to other physical parameters. This extension makes the forward sensitivity method a much more powerful tool to help uncertainty qualification. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time and space steps with other interested physical
An Extended Enterprise Modeling Approach to Enterprise-based Integration
无
2002-01-01
The paradigm of extended enterprise is the core competency focused. An extended enterprise expands its scope from bounding a single enterprise to including additional processes performed by other enterprises. The integration of processes is enterprise based. This paper proposes a recursive enterprises interconnected chain model for the extended enterprise, and presents an enterprise-based integration framework for the extended enterprise. The case study is based on a motorcycle group corporation.
Thermalization and Pseudolocality in Extended Quantum Systems
Doyon, Benjamin
2017-04-01
Recently, it was understood that modified concepts of locality played an important role in the study of extended quantum systems out of equilibrium, in particular in so-called generalized Gibbs ensembles. In this paper, we rigorously study pseudolocal charges and their involvement in time evolutions and in the thermalization process of arbitrary states with strong enough clustering properties. We show that the densities of pseudolocal charges form a Hilbert space, with inner product determined by thermodynamic susceptibilities. Using this, we define the family of pseudolocal states, which are determined by pseudolocal charges. This family includes thermal Gibbs states at high enough temperatures, as well as (a precise definition of) generalized Gibbs ensembles. We prove that the family of pseudolocal states is preserved by finite time evolution, and that, under certain conditions, the stationary state emerging at infinite time is a generalized Gibbs ensemble with respect to the evolution dynamics. If the evolution dynamics does not admit any conserved pseudolocal charges other than the evolution Hamiltonian, we show that any stationary pseudolocal state with respect to these dynamics is a thermal Gibbs state, and that Gibbs thermalization occurs. The framework is that of translation-invariant states on hypercubic quantum lattices of any dimensionality (including quantum chains) and finite-range Hamiltonians, and does not involve integrability.
Positive mass theorem in extended supergravities
Masato Nozawa
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Following the Witten–Nester formalism, we present a useful prescription using Weyl spinors towards the positivity of mass. As a generalization of arXiv:1310.1663, we show that some “positivity conditions” must be imposed upon the gauge connections appearing in the supercovariant derivative acting on spinors. A complete classification of the connection fulfilling the positivity conditions is given. It turns out that these positivity conditions are indeed satisfied for a number of extended supergravity theories. It is shown that the positivity property holds for the Einstein-complex scalar system, provided that the target space is Hodge–Kähler and the potential is expressed in terms of the superpotential. In the Einstein–Maxwell-dilaton theory with a dilaton potential, the dilaton coupling function and the superpotential are fixed by the positive mass property. We also explore the N=8 gauged supergravity and demonstrate that the positivity of the mass holds independently of the gaugings and the deformation parameters.
Conceptual Framework To Extend Life Cycle Assessment ...
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a decision-making tool that accounts for multiple impacts across the life cycle of a product or service. This paper presents a conceptual framework to integrate human health impact assessment with risk screening approaches to extend LCA to include near-field chemical sources (e.g., those originating from consumer products and building materials) that have traditionally been excluded from LCA. A new generation of rapid human exposure modeling and high-throughput toxicity testing is transforming chemical risk prioritization and provides an opportunity for integration of screening-level risk assessment (RA) with LCA. The combined LCA and RA approach considers environmental impacts of products alongside risks to human health, which is consistent with regulatory frameworks addressing RA within a sustainability mindset. A case study is presented to juxtapose LCA and risk screening approaches for a chemical used in a consumer product. The case study demonstrates how these new risk screening tools can be used to inform toxicity impact estimates in LCA and highlights needs for future research. The framework provides a basis for developing tools and methods to support decision making on the use of chemicals in products. This paper presents a conceptual framework for including near-field exposures into Life Cycle Assessment using advanced human exposure modeling and high-throughput tools
Remineralization of caries lesions extending into dentin.
ten Cate, J M
2001-05-01
Remineralization is one aspect of the overall process of tooth decay. However, it is primarily studied in shallow lesions. The aim of this study was to explore whether caries lesions in enamel and extending into the dentin can be remineralized. A single-section model was developed for the longitudinal and non-destructive monitoring of changes in enamel and dentin. Lesions at least 200 microm into dentin were formed in undersaturated acetate buffers. Next, the lesions were divided into groups (three treatment and one control) and remineralized. The treatments were: weekly immersion in 1,000 ppm fluoride, single treatment with methanehydroxybisphosphonate, and a constant level of 1 ppm fluoride. De- and remineralization was assessed by transverse microradiography. Remineralization was observed in enamel, but also in dentin, indicating that, deep into dentin, the pores become supersaturated to apatite formation. Treatments affected remineralization only in the outer part of enamel. Both findings are explained by a relatively fast diffusion of mineral ions, with precipitation being rate-limiting. The results suggest that dentin remineralization, underneath enamel, can be achieved and could possibly be used in clinical treatment strategies.
Extending particle tracking capability with Delaunay triangulation.
Chen, Kejia; Anthony, Stephen M; Granick, Steve
2014-04-29
Particle tracking, the analysis of individual moving elements in time series of microscopic images, enables burgeoning new applications, but there is need to better resolve conformation and dynamics. Here we describe the advantages of Delaunay triangulation to extend the capabilities of particle tracking in three areas: (1) discriminating irregularly shaped objects, which allows one to track items other than point features; (2) combining time and space to better connect missing frames in trajectories; and (3) identifying shape backbone. To demonstrate the method, specific examples are given, involving analyzing the time-dependent molecular conformations of actin filaments and λ-DNA. The main limitation of this method, shared by all other clustering techniques, is the difficulty to separate objects when they are very close. This can be mitigated by inspecting locally to remove edges that are longer than their neighbors and also edges that link two objects, using methods described here, so that the combination of Delaunay triangulation with edge removal can be robustly applied to processing large data sets. As common software packages, both commercial and open source, can construct Delaunay triangulation on command, the methods described in this paper are both computationally efficient and easy to implement.
Module theory, extending modules and generalizations
Tercan, Adnan
2016-01-01
The main focus of this monograph is to offer a comprehensive presentation of known and new results on various generalizations of CS-modules and CS-rings. Extending (or CS) modules are generalizations of injective (and also semisimple or uniform) modules. While the theory of CS-modules is well documented in monographs and textbooks, results on generalized forms of the CS property as well as dual notions are far less present in the literature. With their work the authors provide a solid background to module theory, accessible to anyone familiar with basic abstract algebra. The focus of the book is on direct sums of CS-modules and classes of modules related to CS-modules, such as relative (injective) ejective modules, (quasi) continuous modules, and lifting modules. In particular, matrix CS-rings are studied and clear proofs of fundamental decomposition results on CS-modules over commutative domains are given, thus complementing existing monographs in this area. Open problems round out the work and establish the...
ANALYSING SPACE: ADAPTING AND EXTENDING MULTIMODAL SEMIOTICS
Louise J. Ravelli
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In the field of multimodal discourse analysis, one of the most exciting sites of application is that of 3D space: examining aspects of built environment for its meaningmaking potential. For the built environment – homes, offices, public buildings, parks, etc. – does indeed make meaning. These are spaces which speak – often their meanings are so familiar, we no longer hear what they say; sometimes, new and unusual sites draw attention to their meanings, and they are hotly contested. This chapter will suggest ways of analyzing 3D texts, based on the framework of Kress and van Leeuwen (2006. This framework, developed primarily for the analysis of 2D images, has been successfully extended to a range of other multimodal texts. Extension to the built environment includes Pang (2004, O’Toole (1994, Ravelli (2006, Safeyton (2004, Stenglin (2004 and White (1994, whose studies will inform the analyses presented here. This article will identify some of the key theoretical principles which underline this approach, including the notions of text, context and metafunction, and will describe some of the main areas of analysis for 3D texts. Also, ways of bringing the analyses together will be considered. The analyses will be demonstrated in relation to the Scientia building at the University of New South Wales, Australia.
Extended Lorentz code of a superluminal particle
Ter-Kazarian, G
2012-01-01
While the OPERA experimental scrutiny is ongoing in the community, in the present article we construct a toy model of {\\it extended Lorentz code} (ELC) of the uniform motion, which will be a well established consistent and unique theoretical framework to explain the apparent violations of the standard Lorentz code (SLC), the possible manifestations of which arise in a similar way in all particle sectors. We argue that in the ELC-framework the propagation of the superluminal particle, which implies the modified dispersion relation, could be consistent with causality. Furthermore, in this framework, we give a justification of forbiddance of Vavilov-Cherenkov (VC)-radiation/or analog processes in vacuum. To be consistent with the SN1987A and OPERA data, we identify the neutrinos from SN1987A and the light as so-called {\\it 1-th type} particles carrying the {\\it individual Lorentz motion code} with the velocity of light $c_{1}\\equiv c$ in vacuum as maximum attainable velocity for all the 1-th type particles. Ther...
Extended Particles and the Exterior Calculus
Tucker, R W
2016-01-01
These notes were delivered as a series of NIMROD lectures at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory by the author in February 1976 (RL-76-022). The purpose of these lectures was primarily two-fold: to discuss the classical theory of free point particles, free strings and free membranes from a unified viewpoint; and to present in the process of doing this the rudiments of an intrinsic geometrical calculus that the author has found of immense value in investigating these systems. It is shown how the equations of motion for such classically extended relativistic systems arise in a very simple manner from a principle of stationary action and furthermore how the boundary conditions for finite systems may be derived in a gauge invariant way. Momenta are naturally introduced and the primary constraints that exist in a Hamiltonian description follow simply. Calculations may proceed in an index-free manner until components are required. It is at this stage that one can, if one desires, impose gauge conditions and remove n...
Extending a context model for microphone forensics
Kraetzer, Christian; Qian, Kun; Dittmann, Jana
2012-03-01
In this paper, we extend an existing context model for statistical pattern recognition based microphone forensics by: first, generating a generalized model for this process and second, using this general model to construct a complex new application scenario model for microphone forensic investigations on the detection of playback recordings (a.k.a. replays, re-recordings, double-recordings). Thereby, we build the theoretical basis for answering the question whether an audio recording was made to record a playback or natural sound. The results of our investigations on the research question of playback detection imply that it is possible with our approach on our evaluation set of six microphones. If the recorded sound is not modified prior to playback, we achieve in our tests 89.00% positive indications on the correct two microphones involved. If the sound is post-processed (here, by normalization) this figure decreases (in our normalization example to 36.00%, while another 50.67% of the tests still indicate two microphones, of which one has actually not been involved in the recording and playback recording process).
An Extended View of the Fornax Cluster
Waugh, M; Drinkwater, M J
2000-01-01
The Multibeam survey at the Parkes Radio Telescope has provided a wealth of 21 cm HI data. We have mosaicked ten standard HIPASS cubes to produce a datacube approximately 25 deg x 25 deg in size, centred on NGC1399, the optical centre of the Fornax Cluster. Some properties of the initial approx. 80 galaxies identified in HI are described. In the optical, Ferguson's Fornax Cluster Catalogue (FCC) identified 340 likely member galaxies in the central 40 sq.deg. In the radio we have detected a more uniform sheet of about 80 galaxies at the cluster velocity extending up to 15 deg from the cluster centre. At the cluster distance of about 15 Mpc, this corresponds to an elongated large-scale structure (LSS) more than 7 Mpc in extent. Galaxies were detected to a lower mass limit of 1x10^8M_sun and fewer than 25 of these were within the central 40 sq.deg, suggesting considerable HI depletion of galaxies in the centre of the cluster. Further, these results strongly indicate that HI surveys do not readily identify galaxy...
Extended force density method and its expressions
Miki, Masaaki
2011-01-01
The objective of this work can be divided into two parts. The first one is to propose an extension of the force density method (FDM)(H.J. Schek, 1974), a form-finding method for prestressed cable-net structures. The second one is to present a review of various form-finding methods for tension structures, in the relation with the extended FDM. In the first part, it is pointed out that the original FDM become useless when it is applied to the prestressed structures that consist of combinations of both tension and compression members, while the FDM is usually advantageous in form-finding analysis of cable-nets. To eliminate the limitation, a functional whose stationary problem simply represents the FDM is firstly proposed. Additionally, the existence of a variational principle in the FDM is also indicated. Then, the FDM is extensively redefined by generalizing the formulation of the functional. As the result, the generalized functionals enable us to find the forms of tension structures that consist of combinatio...
An extended database of keratin binding.
Hansen, Steffi; Selzer, Dominik; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Kasting, Gerald B
2011-05-01
Diffusion modeling of dermal absorption relies in large part on high quality input data. Currently, estimates of corneocyte-phase partitioning are based on an analysis of a dataset of limited size and diversity. Therefore, we have updated and broadened the analysis. For this purpose, binding coefficients to different keratins, namely, bovine hoof and horn, human delipidized callus, human delipidized stratum corneum (SC), human nail, human hair, and sheep wool were collected from the literature. In addition, binding coefficients to hoof/horn and delipidized SC were measured for eight hydrophilic compounds including three ionizable compounds that were measured at different pH values. Important results are: (i) only hoof/horn, callus, and delipidized SC are suitable keratins for estimating corneocyte protein binding; (ii) binding coefficients to hoof/horn, callus, and delipidized SC can be predicted from the octanol-water partition coefficients log K(o/w) confirming the analysis of the limited dataset; (iii) binding of ionizable compounds can be predicted by correcting log K(o/w) for pH; (iv) the correlation derived for the extended database is steeper than the relationship derived for the limited dataset. This has consequences for the estimates of SC partition and diffusion coefficients for diffusion modeling of dermal absorption. .
Evidence for an extended scattered disk
Gladman, B; Grav, T; Kavelaars, J J; Nicholson, P; Aksnes, K; Petit, J M
2001-01-01
By telescopic tracking, we have established that the orbit of the trans-neptunian object (2000 CR$_{105}$) has a perihelion of $\\simeq$44 AU, and is thus outside the domain controlled by strong gravitational close encounters with Neptune. Because this object is on a very large, eccentric orbit (with semimajor axis $a\\simeq$216 AU and eccentricity $e\\simeq$0.8) this object must have been placed on this orbit by a gravitational perturbation which is {\\it not} direct gravitational scattering off of any of the giant planets (on their current orbits). The existence of this object may thus have profound cosmogonic implications for our understanding of the formation of the outer Solar System. We discuss some viable scenarios which could have produced it, including long-term diffusive chaos and scattering off of other massive bodies in the outer Solar System. This discovery implies that there must be a large population of trans-neptunian objects in an `extended scattered disk' with perihelia above the previously-disc...
Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range
Hanson, Andrew J.; Chi-Wing Fu, Philip
2012-01-01
Enhanced Graphics for Extended Scale Range is a computer program for rendering fly-through views of scene models that include visible objects differing in size by large orders of magnitude. An example would be a scene showing a person in a park at night with the moon, stars, and galaxies in the background sky. Prior graphical computer programs exhibit arithmetic and other anomalies when rendering scenes containing objects that differ enormously in scale and distance from the viewer. The present program dynamically repartitions distance scales of objects in a scene during rendering to eliminate almost all such anomalies in a way compatible with implementation in other software and in hardware accelerators. By assigning depth ranges correspond ing to rendering precision requirements, either automatically or under program control, this program spaces out object scales to match the precision requirements of the rendering arithmetic. This action includes an intelligent partition of the depth buffer ranges to avoid known anomalies from this source. The program is written in C++, using OpenGL, GLUT, and GLUI standard libraries, and nVidia GEForce Vertex Shader extensions. The program has been shown to work on several computers running UNIX and Windows operating systems.
Extending particle filters to higher dimensional problems
Weir, B.; Miller, R.; Spitz, Y. H.
2013-12-01
Particle filters are attractive solutions to nonlinear and non-Gaussian data assimilation problems since they avoid making parametric assumptions. Nevertheless, in very many dimensions their ensembles collapse onto a single particle unless the number of particles grows exponentially as a function of the dimension. This talk investigates three techniques that, used in conjunction, show the potential of preventing ensemble collapse: optimization, mixture models, and covariance refinement. Optimization is the basis of implicit sampling algorithms. By itself, it significantly reduces the growth of the necessary ensemble size, yet not to a sub-exponential function of dimension. Mixture models, which introduce a semi-parametric assumption, allow the technique to adjust the initial position of the particles. For linear and Gaussian problems, the combination of optimization and mixture models reduces the necessary ensemble size to a sub-exponential function of dimension. Covariance refinement adjusts local approximations of the second moment of the particle distributions to account for its global variation. This is especially effective for problems that are strongly nonlinear. In numerical experiments, covariance refinement used alongside optimization and mixture models shows the potential to extend the prevention of collapse to a general class of nonlinear and non-Gaussian problems.
Economics and extended longevity: a case study.
Gori, G B; Richter, B J; Yu, W K
1984-07-01
Preventive and therapeutic advances have brought life expectancy in the United States to well over 70 years and have shifted mortality causes from acute to chronic diseases, the determinants of which are genetics, lifestyle, the environment, and aging itself. Plausible approaches to chronic disease prevention are likely to increase longevity further, with some foreseeable effects on demographic and economic projections. Primarily, longevity advances would swell forecasts of population size, and would thus have to be met by production advances in order to maintain or improve living standards. This study, a restricted example, considers the probable demographic and economic consequences of a limited prevention program in the context of the Ford Motor Company, based on actual experience and certain expectations up to the year 2000. According to the results, prevention would reduce outlays for life insurance, disability, and health care, but would also generate the higher costs of extending pension plans. Undoubtedly, prevention will continue to be highly ranked in society's pursuit of happiness, and society must prepare to meet its effects with appropriate social and economic policies.
Pramipexole extended release: in Parkinson's disease.
Chwieduk, Claudine M; Curran, Monique P
2010-04-01
Pramipexole extended release (ER) is a non-ergolinic dopamine receptor agonist available for use as a once-daily oral treatment for the signs and symptoms of early and advanced idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Once-daily pramipexole ER and three times-daily pramipexole immediate release (IR) have similar exposure over 24 hours. The ER formulation is associated with fewer fluctuations in plasma pramipexole concentrations over this period. Pramipexole ER improved the symptoms of Parkinson's disease in three well designed trials in adults with early or advanced disease, as measured by changes from baseline in the sum of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) parts II and III subtotal scores. In a 9-week study, the majority of patients with early Parkinson's disease who were receiving stable pramipexole IR treatment were successfully switched to pramipexole ER. Relative to placebo at week 18, pramipexole ER 0.375-4.5 mg (of the salt) once daily significantly decreased the sum of the UPDRS parts II and III subtotal scores from baseline in two trials in patients with early or advanced Parkinson's disease, and also reduced the percentage of off-time during waking hours in patients with advanced disease. The efficacy of pramipexole ER was maintained after 33 weeks of treatment in the trials in patients with early or advanced Parkinson's disease. Pramipexole ER was generally well tolerated in patients with Parkinson's disease, with the rate of adverse events being generally similar to that with pramipexole IR.
Pramipexole extended release in Parkinson's disease.
Hametner, Eva-Maria; Seppi, Klaus; Poewe, Werner
2011-09-01
Pramipexole extended release (ER) is a new once-daily formulation of pramipexole, a nonergot dopamine agonist, which is available in five dosage strengths: 0.26 (0.375) mg, 0.52 (0.75) mg, 1.05 (1.5) mg, 2.1 (3) mg and 3.15 (4.5) mg (all doses are expressed in terms of pramipexole base and the corresponding dose strengths of pramipexole salt are given in brackets). Pramipexole ER is currently approved as monotherapy in early Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as an adjunct therapy to levodopa in advanced PD. Compared with the immediate release (IR) formulation, the ER formulation offers several advantages, including the potential for improved compliance owing to its simple once-daily dosing regimen and steadier plasma levels over 24 h. Double-blind, randomized, placebo and active comparator controlled trials in early, as well as advanced PD, established the superiority of both pramipexole ER and IR over placebo. The overnight switch from pramipexole IR three times a day to ER once-daily in early PD has been shown to be successful in more than 80% of patients. Pramipexole ER is well tolerated, with a similar adverse event profile to pramipexole IR. The aim of this article is to provide a short review of the most relevant pharmacological and clinical data on pramipexole ER.
Extended Life Testing of Duplex Ball Bearings
Mobley, Jeffrey; Robertson, Michael; Hodges, Charles
2016-01-01
Sierra Nevada Corporation’s Space Systems performed bearing life testing for the Scan Mirror Motor/Encoder Assembly (SMMA), part of the Scan Mirror Assembly on-board the Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor (APS) on the NASA Glory Spacecraft. The baseline bearing life test duration extended beyond the launch date for the Glory Spacecraft; a risk that the program was willing to undertake with the understanding that if any anomalies or failures occurred before the required life was achieved, then the mission objectives or operating profile could be modified on orbit to take those results into account. Even though the Glory Spacecraft failed to reach orbit during its launch in March of 2011, the bearing life testing was continued through a mutual understanding of value between Sierra Nevada Corporation and our customer; with a revised goal of testing to failure rather than completing a required number of life cycles. Life testing thus far has not only exceeded the original mission required life, but has also exceeded the published test data for Cumulative Degradation Factor (CDF) from NASA/CR-2009-215681. Many lessons were learned along the way regarding long life testing. The bearing life test has been temporarily suspended due to test support equipment issues.
MSTAR extended operating conditions: a tutorial
Keydel, Eric R.; Lee, Shung W.; Moore, John T.
1996-06-01
One key advantage of the model-based approach for automatic target recognition (ATR) is the wide range of targets and acquisition scenarios that can be accommodated without algorithm re-training. This accrues from the use of predictive models which can be adjusted to hypothesized scenarios on-line. Approaches which rely on measured signature exemplars as the source of reference data for signature matching are constrained to those scenarios represented in the reference data base. The moving and stationary target recognition (MSTAR) program will advance the state-of-the-art in model-based ATR by developing, evaluating, and testing algorithm performance against a set of extended operating conditions (EOCs) designed to reflect real-world battlefield scenarios. In addition to full 360 deg target aspect coverage over a range of depression angles, the EOCs include variations in squint angle, target articulation and configurations, obscuration due to occlusion and/or layover, and intra-class target variability. These conditions can have a profound impact on the nature of the target signature, necessitating the development of explicit prediction and reasoning algorithms to provide robust target recognition. This paper provides a tutorial description of the impact of the MSTAR EOCs on SAR target signatures. A brief background discussion of the SAR imaging process is presented first. This is followed by a description of the impact of each EOC category on the target signature along with synthetic imagery examples to illustrate this impact.
14 CFR 23.1511 - Flap extended speed.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 23.1511 Section 23.1511 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information § 23.1511 Flap extended speed. (a) The flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it...
Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions
Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.
2011-01-01
Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…
Extending Students' Mathematical Thinking during Whole-Group Discussions
Cengiz, Nesrin; Kline, Kate; Grant, Theresa J.
2011-01-01
Studies show that extending students' mathematical thinking during whole-group discussions is a challenging undertaking. To better understand what extending student thinking looks like and how teachers' mathematical knowledge for teaching (MKT) supports teachers in their efforts to extend student thinking, the teaching of six experienced…
Describing Service-Oriented Architecture by Extended Darwin
ZHANG Tao; SHEN Mei-e; YING Shi; YE Peng; LIANG Zao-qing
2005-01-01
Describing Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is critical in the development of Web-based system. In this paper, an approach for describing SOA by extended Darwin is proposed. The requirements for describing SOA, which are different from that of ordinary architecture, are highlighted firstly, and then a solution for extending Darwin is presented. Using the extended Darwin, service components and connectors can be described explicit by the extended construct, as well as precise operational semantics of SOA by the π-calculus. Finally an example of supply-chain management system is given for manifesting the effect of the extended Darwin.
Extending the Schizosaccharomyces pombe molecular genetic toolbox.
Dorota Fennessy
Full Text Available Targeted alteration of the genome lies at the heart of the exploitation of S. pombe as a model system. The rate of analysis is often determined by the efficiency with which a target locus can be manipulated. For most loci this is not a problem, however for some loci, such as fin1+, rates of gene targeting below 5% can limit the scope and scale of manipulations that are feasible within a reasonable time frame. We now describe a simple modification of transformation procedure for directing integration of genomic sequences that leads to a 5-fold increase in the transformation efficiency when antibiotic based dominant selection markers are used. We also show that removal of the pku70+ and pku80+ genes, which encode DNA end binding proteins required for the non-homologous end joining DNA repair pathway, increases the efficiency of gene targeting at fin1+ to around 75-80% (a 16-fold increase. We describe how a natMX6/rpl42+ cassette can be used for positive and negative selection for integration at a targeted locus. To facilitate the evaluation of the impact of a series of mutations on the function of a gene of interest we have generated three vector series that rely upon different selectable markers to direct the expression of tagged/untagged molecules from distinct genomic integration sites. pINTL and pINTK vectors use ura4+ selection to direct disruptive integration of leu1+ and lys1+ respectively, while pINTH vectors exploit nourseothricin resistance to detect the targeted disruption of a hygromycin B resistance conferring hphMX6 cassette that has been integrated on chromosome III. Finally, we have generated a series of multi-copy expression vectors that use resistance to nourseothricin or kanamycin/G418 to select for propagation in prototrophic hosts. Collectively these protocol modifications and vectors extend the versatility of this key model system.
Optimization Testbed Cometboards Extended into Stochastic Domain
Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Patnaik, Surya N.
2010-01-01
COMparative Evaluation Testbed of Optimization and Analysis Routines for the Design of Structures (CometBoards) is a multidisciplinary design optimization software. It was originally developed for deterministic calculation. It has now been extended into the stochastic domain for structural design problems. For deterministic problems, CometBoards is introduced through its subproblem solution strategy as well as the approximation concept in optimization. In the stochastic domain, a design is formulated as a function of the risk or reliability. Optimum solution including the weight of a structure, is also obtained as a function of reliability. Weight versus reliability traced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to 50 percent probability of success, or one failure in two samples. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure that corresponded to unity for reliability. Weight can be reduced to a small value for the most failure-prone design with a compromised reliability approaching zero. The stochastic design optimization (SDO) capability for an industrial problem was obtained by combining three codes: MSC/Nastran code was the deterministic analysis tool, fast probabilistic integrator, or the FPI module of the NESSUS software, was the probabilistic calculator, and CometBoards became the optimizer. The SDO capability requires a finite element structural model, a material model, a load model, and a design model. The stochastic optimization concept is illustrated considering an academic example and a real-life airframe component made of metallic and composite materials.
EXTENDED SPEECH EMOTION RECOGNITION AND PREDICTION
Theodoros Anagnostopoulos
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Humans are considered to reason and act rationally and that is believed to be their fundamental difference from the rest of the living entities. Furthermore, modern approaches in the science of psychology underline that humans as a thinking creatures are also sentimental and emotional organisms. There are fifteen universal extended emotions plus neutral emotion: hot anger, cold anger, panic, fear, anxiety, despair, sadness, elation, happiness, interest, boredom, shame, pride, disgust, contempt and neutral position. The scope of the current research is to understand the emotional state of a human being by capturing the speech utterances that one uses during a common conversation. It is proved that having enough acoustic evidence available the emotional state of a person can be classified by a set of majority voting classifiers. The proposed set of classifiers is based on three main classifiers: kNN, C4.5 and SVM RBF Kernel. This set achieves better performance than each basic classifier taken separately. It is compared with two other sets of classifiers: one-against-all (OAA multiclass SVM with Hybrid kernels and the set of classifiers which consists of the following two basic classifiers: C5.0 and Neural Network. The proposed variant achieves better performance than the other two sets of classifiers. The paper deals with emotion classification by a set of majority voting classifiers that combines three certain types of basic classifiers with low computational complexity. The basic classifiers stem from different theoretical background in order to avoid bias and redundancy which gives the proposed set of classifiers the ability to generalize in the emotion domain space.
Extending and implementing the Persistent ID pillars
Car, Nicholas; Golodoniuc, Pavel; Klump, Jens
2017-04-01
The recent double decade anniversary of scholarly persistent identifier use has triggered journal special editions such as "20 Years of Persistent Identifiers". For such a publication, it is apt to consider the longevity of some persistent identifier (PID) mechanisms (Digital Object Identifiers) and the partial disappearance of others (Life Sciences IDs). We have previously postulated a set of "PID Pillars" [1] which are design principles aimed at ensuring PIDs can survive technology and social change and thus persist for the long term that we have drawn from our observations of PIDs at work over many years. The principles: describe how to ensure identifiers' system and organisation independence; codify the delivery of essential PID system functions; mandate a separation of PID functions from data delivery mechanisms; and require generation of policies detailing how change is handled. In this presentation, first we extend on our previous work of introducing the pillars by refining their descriptions, giving specific suggestions for each and presenting some work that addresses them. Second, we propose a baseline data model for persistent identifiers that, if used, would assist the separation of PID metadata and PID system functioning. This would allow PID system function specifics to change over time (e.g. resolver services or even resolution protocols) and yet preserve the PIDs themselves. Third, we detail our existing PID system — the PID Service [2] — that partially implements the pillars and describe both its successes and shortcomings. Finally, we describe our planned next-generation system that will aim to use the baseline data model and fully implement the pillars.
Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling Cooperative Agreement
Carl R. Sovinec
2008-02-15
The Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) is developing computer simulation models for predicting the behavior of magnetically confined plasmas. Over the first phase of support from the Department of Energy’s Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) initiative, the focus has been on macroscopic dynamics that alter the confinement properties of magnetic field configurations. The ultimate objective is to provide computational capabilities to predict plasma behavior—not unlike computational weather prediction—to optimize performance and to increase the reliability of magnetic confinement for fusion energy. Numerical modeling aids theoretical research by solving complicated mathematical models of plasma behavior including strong nonlinear effects and the influences of geometrical shaping of actual experiments. The numerical modeling itself remains an area of active research, due to challenges associated with simulating multiple temporal and spatial scales. The research summarized in this report spans computational and physical topics associated with state of the art simulation of magnetized plasmas. The tasks performed for this grant are categorized according to whether they are primarily computational, algorithmic, or application-oriented in nature. All involve the development and use of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation, Open Discussion (NIMROD) code, which is described at http://nimrodteam.org. With respect to computation, we have tested and refined methods for solving the large algebraic systems of equations that result from our numerical approximations of the physical model. Collaboration with the Terascale Optimal PDE Solvers (TOPS) SciDAC center led us to the SuperLU_DIST software library [http://crd.lbl.gov/~xiaoye/SuperLU/] for solving large sparse matrices using direct methods on parallel computers. Switching to this solver library boosted NIMROD’s performance by a factor of five in typical large
A Search for Quarks Produced in Heavy-Ion Interactions
2002-01-01
We propose to search for free fractional charges produced in 225~GeV/A heavy-ion collisions at the SPS. A tank of mercury placed in the NA38 beam stop will serve both as a production target and as an absorber to stop reaction products. Mercury from the tank will subsequently be distilled.\\\\ \\\\ This process will decrease the amount of mercury that has to be processed by a factor of about 10|5. The concentrate will be searched for quarks using the proven SFSU automated Millikan apparatus.\\\\ \\\\ This experiment will be sensitive to about one quark produced per 2x10|8 beam particles.
Cluster observations of trapped ions interacting with magnetosheath mirror modes
J. Soucek
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Mirror modes are among the most intense low frequency plasma wave phenomena observed in the magnetosheaths of magnetized planets. They appear as large amplitude non-propagating fluctuations in the magnetic field magnitude and plasma density. These structures are widely accepted to represent a non-linear stage of the mirror instability, dominant in plasmas with large ion beta and a significant ion temperature anisotropy T_{⊥}/T_{∥}>1. It has long been recognized that the mirror instability both in the linear and non-linear stage is a kinetic process and that the behavior of resonant particles at small parallel velocities is crucial for its development and saturation. While the dynamics of the instability and the effect of trapped particles have been studied extensively in theoretical models and numerical simulations, only spurious observations of the trapped ions were published to date. In this work we used data from the Cluster spacecraft to perform the first detailed experimental study of ion velocity distribution associated with mirror mode oscillations. We show a conclusive evidence for the predicted cooling of resonant ions at small parallel velocities and heating of trapped ions at intermediate pitch angles.
Atoms and Ions Interacting with Particles and Fields: Final Report
Robicheaux, Francis [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
2014-09-18
This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms with particles and fields. The duration of the grant was the 10 year period from 8/2003 to 8/2013. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 65 peer reviewed publications over these 10 years with 8 of the publications in Physical Review Letters; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B, ...). I will disuss the results for the periods of time relevant for each grant period.
Low-energy ions interacting with anthracene molecules and clusters
Rousseau, P., E-mail: prousseau@ganil.fr [CEA, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); CNRS, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); ENSICAEN, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); Lawicki, A. [CEA, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); CNRS, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); ENSICAEN, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); Holm, A.I.S. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Capron, M.; Maisonny, R.; Maclot, S.; Lattouf, E. [CEA, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); CNRS, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); ENSICAEN, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, UMR 6252 CIMAP, Boulevard Henri Becquerel, BP 5133, F-14070 Caen cedex 5 (France); Johansson, H.A.B.; Seitz, F. [Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, S-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); and others
2012-05-15
The interaction of slow ions (v{approx}0.4a.u.) with a small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, namely anthracene (C{sub 14}H{sub 10}), is studied in the gas-phase either with the isolated molecule or with a pure cluster target. We discuss the ionization and fragmentation of the molecule with respect to the projectile charge state, i.e. for singly charged He{sup +} ions and for multiply charged Xe{sup 20+} ions. For the isolated C{sub 14}H{sub 10}, single or multiple ionization of the molecule occurs under ion impact. The (multi) cation relative yields are compared with those obtained by other ionization methods (electron and fs-laser). The molecular dissociation occurs by loss of hydrogen and small hydrocarbon molecules, leading to the formation of C{sub n}H{sub x} cations. The interaction of Xe{sup 20+} with C{sub 14}H{sub 10} clusters gives surprising results, i.e. the emission of hotter monomer compared to the interaction with He{sup +}.
Aqua-vanadyl ion interaction with Nafion® membranes
Vijayakumar eMurugesan
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Lack of comprehensive understanding about the interactions between Nafion membrane and battery electrolytes prevents the straightforward tailoring of optimal materials for redox flow battery applications. In this work, we analyzed the interaction between aqua-vanadyl cation and sulfonic sites within the pores of Nafion membranes using combined theoretical and experimental X-ray spectroscopic methods. Molecular level interactions namely solvent share and contact pair mechanisms are discussed based on Vanadium and Sulfur K-edge spectroscopic analysis.
Digging gold: keV He+ ion interaction with Au
Vasilisa Veligura
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Helium ion microscopy (HIM was used to investigate the interaction of a focused He+ ion beam with energies of several tens of kiloelectronvolts with metals. HIM is usually applied for the visualization of materials with extreme surface sensitivity and resolution. However, the use of high ion fluences can lead to significant sample modifications. We have characterized the changes caused by a focused He+ ion beam at normal incidence to the Au{111} surface as a function of ion fluence and energy. Under the influence of the beam a periodic surface nanopattern develops. The periodicity of the pattern shows a power-law dependence on the ion fluence. Simultaneously, helium implantation occurs. Depending on the fluence and primary energy, porous nanostructures or large blisters form on the sample surface. The growth of the helium bubbles responsible for this effect is discussed.
MODEL PSEUDOPOTENTIAL OF THE ELECTRON - NEGATIVE ION INTERACTION
Yu.Rudavskii
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Generalization of the Anderson model to describe the states of electronegative impurities in liquid-metal alloys is the main aim of the present paper. The effects of the random inner field on the charge impurity states is accounted for selfconsistently. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of hamiltonian parameters has been carried out. The limits of the proposed model applicability to a description of real systems are considered. Especially, the case of the oxygen impurity in liquid sodium is studied. The modelling of the proper electron-ionic interaction potential is the main goal of the paper. The parameters of the proposed pseudopotential are analyzed in detail. The comparison with other model potentials have been carried out. Resistivity of liquid sodium containing the oxygen impurities is calculated with utilizing the form-factor of the proposed model potential. Dependence of the resistivity on impurity concentration and on the charge states is received.
Lingzong Meng
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The solubilities and the relevant physicochemical properties of the ternary systems MgCl2 + MgB6O10 + H2O and MgSO4 + MgB6O10 + H2O at 308.15 K were investigated using an isothermal dissolution method. It was found that there is one invariant point, two univariant curves, and two crystallization regions of the systems. The systems belong to a simple co-saturated type, and neither double salts nor solid solutions were found. Based on the extended HW model and its temperature-dependent equations, the single-salt Pitzer parameters β(0, β(1, β(2 and CØ for MgCl2, MgSO4, and Mg(B6O7(OH6, the mixed ion-interaction parameters θCl,B6O10, θSO4,B6O10, ΨMg,Cl,B6O10, ΨMg,SO4,B6O10 of the systems at 308.15 K were fitted, In addition, the average equilibrium constants of the stable equilibrium solids at 308.15 K were obtained by a method using the activity product constant. Then the solubilities of the ternary systems are calculated. The calculated solubilities agree well with the experimental values.
Fuchs, Andreas
2012-10-15
At the Frankfurt Motor Show IAA 2012, MAN will be presenting the Metropolis, a heavy-duty truck for use in urban areas that produces no emissions and is ultra-quiet. Using mains electricity generated from renewable sources, it can operate without producing any CO{sub 2}. The truck's modular lithium-ion battery is located under the ab. A quiet and efficient diesel engine from the Volkswagen Group generates power as needed and functions as a range extender for the truck. At the end of 2012, the MAN Metropolis will start a two-year field test as a refuse collection vehicle. (orig.)
14 CFR 25.1511 - Flap extended speed.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flap extended speed. 25.1511 Section 25... Limitations § 25.1511 Flap extended speed. The established flap extended speed V FE must be established so that it does not exceed the design flap speed V F chosen under §§ 25.335(e) and 25.345, for...
Classical Analog of Extended Phase Space SUSY and Its Breaking
Gagik Ter-Kazarian
2013-01-01
We derive the classical analog of the extended phase space quantum mechanics of the particle with odd degrees of freedom which gives rise to (N=2)-realization of supersymmetry (SUSY) algebra. By means of an iterative procedure, we find the approximate groundstate solutions to the extended Schr\\"{o}dinger-like equation and use these solutions further to calculate the parameters which measure the breaking of extended SUSY such as the groundstate energy. Consequently, we calculate a more practic...
The role of extended family in diverse teens’ sexual health
Grossman, Jennifer M; Tracy, Allison; Richer,Amanda; Erkut, Sumru
2014-01-01
Despite increasing extended family involvement in childrearing, particularly in minority families, few studies investigate their role in talking with teens about sex or how this relates to teens’ sexual behavior. This mixed methods study assesses extended family sexuality communication through a survey of 1492 diverse middle school students and interviews with 32 students. Logistic regression shows that participants who report having had sex are more likely to report talking with extended fam...
Numerical simulation and experimental verification of extended source interferometer
Hou, Yinlong; Li, Lin; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Xiao; Zang, Haijun; Zhu, Qiudong
2013-12-01
Extended source interferometer, compared with the classical point source interferometer, can suppress coherent noise of environment and system, decrease dust scattering effects and reduce high-frequency error of reference surface. Numerical simulation and experimental verification of extended source interferometer are discussed in this paper. In order to provide guidance for the experiment, the modeling of the extended source interferometer is realized by using optical design software Zemax. Matlab codes are programmed to rectify the field parameters of the optical system automatically and get a series of interferometric data conveniently. The communication technique of DDE (Dynamic Data Exchange) was used to connect Zemax and Matlab. Then the visibility of interference fringes can be calculated through adding the collected interferometric data. Combined with the simulation, the experimental platform of the extended source interferometer was established, which consists of an extended source, interference cavity and image collection system. The decrease of high-frequency error of reference surface and coherent noise of the environment is verified. The relation between the spatial coherence and the size, shape, intensity distribution of the extended source is also verified through the analysis of the visibility of interference fringes. The simulation result is in line with the result given by real extended source interferometer. Simulation result shows that the model can simulate the actual optical interference of the extended source interferometer quite well. Therefore, the simulation platform can be used to guide the experiment of interferometer which is based on various extended sources.
An extended phase-space SUSY quantum mechanics
Ter-Kazarian, G [Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, Byurakan 378433, Aragatsotn District (Armenia)], E-mail: gago_50@yahoo.com
2009-02-06
In the present paper, we will concern ourselves with the extended phase-space quantum mechanics of particles which have both bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom, i.e., the quantum field theory in (0 + 1) dimensions in q-(position) and p-(momentum) spaces, exhibiting supersymmetry. We present (N = 2) realization of extended supersymmetry algebra and discuss the vacuum energy and topology of super-potentials. Shape invariance of exactly solvable extended SUSY potentials allows us to obtain analytic expressions for the entire energy spectrum of an extended Hamiltonian with, for example, Scarf potential without ever referring to an underlying differential equation.
Liposomal extended-release bupivacaine for postsurgical analgesia
Lambrechts, Mark; O'Brien, Michael J; Savoie, Felix H; You, Zongbing
2013-01-01
..., inguinal hernia repair, total knee arthroplasty, and augmentation mammoplasty. However, like other bupivacaine formulations, the liposomal extended-release bupivacaine does have some side effects...
Collaborative Proposal to Extend ONR YIP Research with BRC Efforts
2013-09-30
DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Collaborative Proposal to Extend ONR YIP research with BRC Efforts...SEP 2013 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Collaborative Proposal to Extend ONR YIP research with
An Extended Ockham Algebra with Endomorphism Kernel Property
Jie FANG
2007-01-01
An algebraic structure (∮) is said to have the endomorphism kernel property if every congruence on (∮) , other than the universal congruence, is the kernel of an endomorphism on (∮) .Inthis paper, we consider the EKP (that is, endomorphism kernel property) for an extended Ockham algebra (∮) . In particular, we describe the structure of the finite symmetric extended de Morgan algebras having EKP.
LR-parsing of Extended Context-free Grammars
Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Kristensen, Bent Bruun
1976-01-01
To improve the readability of a grammar it is common to use extended context free grammars (ECFGs) which are context free grammars (CFGs) extended with the repetition operator (*), the alternation operator (¦) and parentheses to express the right hand sides of the productions. The topic treated h...
Extending Gaussian hypergeometric series to the $p$-adic setting
McCarthy, Dermot
2012-01-01
We define a function which extends Gaussian hypergeometric series to the $p$-adic setting. This new function allows results involving Gaussian hypergeometric series to be extended to a wider class of primes. We demonstrate this by providing various congruences between the function and truncated classical hypergeometric series. These congruences provide a framework for proving the supercongruence conjectures of Rodriguez-Villegas.
Polyurethanes elastomers with amide chain extenders of uniform length
van der Schuur, J.M.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Noordover, Bart; Gaymans, R.J.
2006-01-01
Toluene diisocyanate based polyurethanes with amide extenders were synthesized poly(propylene oxide) with a number average molecular weight of 2000 and endcapped with toluene diisocyanate was used as the polyether segment. The chain extenders were based on poly(hexamethylene terephthalamide):
Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images
Mulder, W.A.
2012-01-01
Migration velocity analysis with the wave equation can be accomplished by focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface offset or shift. A reflector in the wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In the correct model, it should collapse to a
Subsurface offset behaviour in velocity analysis with extended reflectivity images
Mulder, W.A.
2013-01-01
Migration velocity analysis with the constant-density acoustic wave equation can be accomplished by the focusing of extended migration images, obtained by introducing a subsurface shift in the imaging condition. A reflector in a wrong velocity model will show up as a curve in the extended image. In
Polyurethane elastomers with amide chain extenders of uniform length
Schuur, van der Martijn; Noordover, Bart; Gaymans, Reinoud J.
2006-01-01
Toluene diisocyanate based polyurethanes with amide extenders were synthesized poly(propylene oxide) with a number average molecular weight of 2000 and endcapped with toluene diisocyanate was used as the polyether segment. The chain extenders were based on poly(hexamethylene terephthalamide): hexame
[Extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches in skull base surgery].
Kalinin, P L; Fomichev, D V; Kutin, M A; Kadashev, B A; Faĭzullaev, R B
2008-01-01
The article deals with endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery, which has gained great interest among the modem trends of neurosurgery. Application of extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches significantly advances capabilities of transsphenoidal surgery. Pituitary adenomas and some other sellar tumors which traditionally require transcranial procedure now can be removed via endonasal route. The article describes several types of extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches.
The accuracy of extended histopathology to detect immunotoxic chemicals
Germolec, D.R.; Kashon, M.; Nyska, A.; Kuper, C.F.; Portier, C.; Kommineni, C.; Johnson, K.A.; Luster, M.I.
2004-01-01
The accuracy of extended histopathology to detect immunotoxic chemicals in female B6C3F1 mice was evaluated under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP). A workgroup was formed consisting of four pathologists who conducted extended histopathological evaluation of lymphoid tissues
Application of Noether's theorem to extended particles
Smida, A; Hachemane, M; Hamici, A H [Faculte de Physique, USTHB B.P.32 El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar 16111 Alger (Algeria)], E-mail: hachemane@wissal.dz
2008-08-15
We consider an approach similar to field theory for the application of Noether theorem to extended paticles. We obtain Euler-Lagrange equations for the extended particles as well as an equation binding the internal and external currents. The concrete case of spin 1/2 is considered in detail.
Propagation of extended objects across singularity of time dependent orbifold
Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw
2010-01-01
In this paper we argue that the compactified Milne space is a promising model of the cosmological singularity. It is shown that extended objects like strings propagate in a well-defined manner across the singularity of the embedding space. Then a proposal for quantization of extended objects in the case of a membrane is given.
The role of infant appetite in extended formula feeding
Syrad, H.; Jaarsveld, C.H.M. van; Wardle, J.; Llewellyn, C.H.
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: Parental decision-making around extended formula feeding (12 months+) has not been explored previously. This study tested the hypotheses that extended formula milk use (i) is associated with poorer appetite and (ii) supplements lower food intake. METHODS: Appetite was assessed with the Ch
Review of extended producer responsibility: A case study approach.
Gupt, Yamini; Sahay, Samraj
2015-07-01
Principles of extended producer responsibility have been the core of most of the recent policies and legislation dealing with the end-of-life management of recyclable goods. This article makes an exploratory review of 27 cases of extended producer responsibility from developed and developing economies with and without informal recycling, to ascertain the most important aspect of extended producer responsibility. A comparative analysis of the cases with respect to role of stakeholders in the upstream and downstream stages of the extended producer responsibility has been carried out. Further, the study uses exploratory factor analysis to determine the important aspects of the extended producer responsibility in practice using 13 variables identified from the review. Findings of the comparative analysis reveal that financial responsibility of the producers and separate collecting and recycling agencies contributed significantly to the success of the extended producer responsibility-based environmental policies. Regulatory provisions, take-back responsibility and financial flow come out to be the three most important aspects of the extended producer responsibility. Presence of informal sector had a negative impact on the regulatory provisions. The outcomes of this study could serve as a guideline for designing of effective extended producer responsibility-based policies. © The Author(s) 2015.
Extended Fuzzy Logic Programs with Fuzzy Answer Set Semantics
Saad, Emad
This paper extends fuzzy logic programs [12, 24] to allow the explicit representation of classical negation as well as non-monotonic negation, by introducing the notion of extended fuzzy logic programs. We present the fuzzy answer set semantics for the extended fuzzy logic programs, which is based on the classical answer set semantics of classical extended logic programs [7]. We show that the proposed semantics is a natural extension to the classical answer set semantics of classical extended logic programs [7]. Furthermore, we define fixpoint semantics for extended fuzzy logic programs with and without non-monotonic negation, and study their relationship to the fuzzy answer set semantics. In addition, we show that the fuzzy answer set semantics is reduced to the stable fuzzy model semantics for normal fuzzy logic programs introduced in [42]. The importance of that is computational methods developed for normal fuzzy logic programs can be applied to the extended fuzzy logic programs. Moreover, we show that extended fuzzy logic programs can be intuitively used for representing and reasoning about actions in fuzzy environment.
The extended Kerr-Schild approach to general relativity
Wang, Xun
2016-01-01
We study in some detail the "extended Kerr-Schild" formulation of general relativity, which decomposes the gauge-independent degrees of freedom of a generic metric into two arbitrary functions and the choice of a flat background tetrad. We recast Einstein's equations and spacetime curvatures in the extended Kerr-Schild form and discuss their properties, illustrated with simple examples.
Extended Logistic Chaotic Sequence and Its Performance Analysis
ZHANG Xuefeng; FAN Jiulun
2007-01-01
In order to improve performance and security of image encryption algorithm effectively based on chaotic sequences, an extended chaotic sequence generating method is presented based on logistic chaotic system using Bernstein form Bezier curve generating algorithm. In order to test the pseudorandom performance of the extended chaotic sequence, we also analyze random performance, autocorrelation performance, and balance performance of the extended chaotic sequence. Simulation results show that the extended chaotic sequence generated using our method is pseudorandom and its correlation performance and balance performance are good. As an application, we apply the extended chaotic sequence in image encryption algorithm, the simulation results show that the performance of the encrypted image using our method is better than that using logistic chaotic sequence.
The scattering amplitude for rationally extended shape invariant Eckart potentials
Yadav, Rajesh Kumar, E-mail: rajeshastrophysics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India); Khare, Avinash, E-mail: khare@iiserpune.ac.in [Raja Ramanna Fellow, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Pune-411021 (India); Mandal, Bhabani Prasad, E-mail: bhabani.mandal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi-221005 (India)
2015-01-23
Highlights: • Bound states of rationally extended Eckart potentials have been discussed. • These potentials exhibit extended shape invariant properties. • The potentials which are isospectral to the conventional Eckart potential are considered. • The scattering amplitude of these potentials has been obtained. • For a check, m=0 provide the scattering amplitude for the conventional potential. - Abstract: We consider the rationally extended exactly solvable Eckart potentials which exhibit extended shape invariance property. These potentials are isospectral to the conventional Eckart potential. The scattering amplitude for these rationally extended potentials is calculated analytically for the generalized mth (m=1,2,3,...) case by considering the asymptotic behavior of the scattering state wave functions which are written in terms of some new polynomials related to the Jacobi polynomials. As expected, in the m=0 limit, this scattering amplitude goes over to the scattering amplitude for the conventional Eckart potential.
Márcia D. Clarisse
2000-09-01
Full Text Available Este trabalho visa o estudo da interação entre polímeros sintéticos e produtos naturais à base de taninos com o íon zinco (Zn+2 em meio aquoso para sua utilização na remoção de metais em efluentes. Uma série de copolímeros poli(acrilamida-co-ácido acrílico de diferentes composições e homopolímeros de acrilamida e de ácido acrílico foram preparados, assim como, taninos comerciais foram utilizados como recebidos e purificados por extração. Uma metodologia de avaliação da eficiência de interação da macromolécula com o íon Zn+2 foi desenvolvida baseada em curva padrão de intensidade de absorção na região do ultravioleta-visível (UV-VIS em função da concentração do complexo formado, utilizando colorimetria. A capacidade de interação com o íon zinco foi ligeiramente maior para os polímeros sintéticos porém o produto natural tem a vantagem de apresentar um custo mais baixo.The aim of this work was to evaluate the interaction between natural and synthetic macromolecules with the zinc ion (Zn+2 in aqueous solution. Polyacrylamide, poly(acrylic acid and poly(acrylamide-co-acrylic acid were prepared and natural products (tannins were extracted and purified from commercial products. The methodology to evaluate the macromolecule/zinc ion interaction was based on colorimetry by using a standard curve. The interaction efficiency was slightly larger for the synthetic macromolecules when compared to the natural one. Nevertheless, the tanning has lower cost and its use could be recommended.
Population aging and the extended family in Taiwan
2004-05-01
Full Text Available Population aging produces changes in the availability of kin with uncertain implications for extended living arrangements. We propose a highly stylized model that can be used to analyze and project age-specific proportions of adults living in extended and nuclear households. The model is applied to Taiwan using annual data from 1978-1998. We estimate cohort and age effects showing that more recently born cohorts of seniors are less likely to live in extended households, but that as seniors age the proportion living in extended households increases. The effect of individual aging has diminished over time, however. The proportion of non-senior adults living in extended households has increased steadily because changes in the age structure have increased the availability of older kin. The model is used to project living arrangements and we conclude that the proportion living in extended households will begin to decline gradually for both seniors and non-seniors. The extended family is becoming less important in Taiwan, but it is not on the way out.
Interdigitated Extended Gate Field Effect Transistor Without Reference Electrode
Ali, Ghusoon M.
2017-02-01
An interdigitated extended gate field effect transistor (IEGFET) has been proposed as a modified pH sensor structure of an extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET). The reference electrode and the extended gate in the conventional device have been replaced by a single interdigitated extended gate. A metal-semiconductor-metal interdigitated extended gate containing two multi-finger Ni electrodes based on zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film as a pH-sensitive membrane. ZnO thin film was grown on a p-type Si (100) substrate by the sol-gel technique. The fabricated extended gate is connected to a commercial metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor device in CD4007UB. The experimental data show that this structure has real time and linear pH voltage and current sensitivities in a concentration range between pH 4 and 11. The voltage and current sensitivities are found to be about 22.4 mV/pH and 45 μA/pH, respectively. Reference electrode elimination makes the IEGFET device simple to fabricate, easy to carry out the measurements, needing a small volume of solution to test and suitable for disposable biosensor applications. Furthermore, this uncomplicated structure could be extended to fabricate multiple ions microsensors and lab-on-chip devices.
Extended radio emission and the nature of blazars
Antonucci, R.R.J.; Ulvestad, J.S.
1985-07-01
The VLA has been used at 20 cm to map all 23 of the 54 confirmed blazars listed in the Angel and Stockman review paper that had not been mapped before at high resolution. (Blazars include BL Lac objects and optically violently variable quasars.) In addition, data on most of the previously mapped blazars have been reprocessed in order to achieve higher dynamic range. Extended emission has been detected associated with 49 of the 54 objects. The extended radio emission has been used to test the hypothesis that blazars are normal radio galaxies and radio quasars viewed along the jet axes. We find that blazars have substantial extended power, consistent with this hypothesis. Many have extended powers as high as the luminous Fanaroff-Riley class 2 radio doubles. The projected linear sizes are small, as expected from foreshortening of the extended sources, and many blazars have the expected core-halo morphology. There are also several small doubles, a head-tail source, and some one-sided sources, and these could be in cases where the line of sight is slightly off the jet axis, or projections of asymmetrical radio galaxies and quasars. The ratio of core to extended radio emission has been studied as a possible indicator of viewing aspect or beaming intensity. It is found to correlate with optical polarization, optical and radio core variability, and one-sided radio morphology. We can go beyond these consistency checks and work toward a proof of the hypothesis under discussion. The flux from the extended emission alone is sufficient in some blazars to qualify them for inclusion in the 3C and 4C catalogs. Suppose that the radio core emission is anisotropic, but the extended emission is predominantly isotropic. The isotropy of the extended emission implies that these blazars would be in the catalogs even if viewed from the side.
Octonionic Realizations of 1-dimensional Extended Supersymmetries. A Classification
Carrion, H L; Toppan, F
2003-01-01
The classification of the octonionic realizations of the one-dimensional extended supersymmetries is here furnished. These are non-associative realizations which, albeit inequivalent, are put in correspondence with a subclass of the already classified associative representations for 1D extended supersymmetries. Examples of dynamical systems invariant under octonionic realizations of the extended supersymmetries are given. We cite among the others the octonionic spinning particles, the N=8 KdV, etc. Possible applications to supersymmetric systems arising from dimensional reduction of the octonionic superstring and M-theory are mentioned.
Octonionic realizations of 1-dimensional extended supersymmetries. A classification
Carrion, H.L.; Rojas, M.; Toppan, F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Teoria de Campos e Particulas]. E-mail: hleny@cbpf.br; mrojas@cbpf.br; toppan@cbpf.br
2002-12-01
The classification of the octonionic realizations of the one-dimensional extended supersymmetries is here furnished. These are non-associative realizations which, albeit inequivalent, are put in correspondence with a subclass of the already classified associative representations for 1D extended supersymmetries. Examples of dynamical systems invariant under octonionic realizations of the extended supersymmetries are given. We cite among the others the octonionic spinning particles, the N = 8 KdV, etc. Possible applications to supersymmetric systems arising from dimensional reduction of the octonionic superstring and M-theory are mentioned. (author)
Extended Riemannian Geometry I: Local Double Field Theory
Deser, Andreas
2016-01-01
We present an extended version of Riemannian geometry suitable for the description of current formulations of double field theory (DFT). This framework is based on graded manifolds and it yields extended notions of symmetries, dynamical data and constraints. In special cases, we recover general relativity with and without 1-, 2- and 3-form gauge potentials as well as DFT. We believe that our extended Riemannian geometry helps to clarify the role of various constructions in DFT. For example, it leads to a covariant form of the strong section condition. Furthermore, it should provide a useful step towards global and coordinate invariant descriptions of T- and U-duality invariant field theories.
An Examination of Extended a-Rescaling Model
YAN Zhan-Yuan; DUAN Chun-Gui; HE Zhen-Min
2001-01-01
The extended x-rescaling model can explain the quark's nuclear effect very well. Weather it can also explain the gluon's nuclear effect should be investigated further. Associated J/ψ and γ production with large PT is a very clean channel to probe the gluon distribution in proton or nucleus. In this paper, using the extended x-rescaling model, the PT distribution of the nuclear effect factors of p + Fe → J/Ψ + γ+ X process is calculated and discussed. Comparing our theoretical results with the future experimental data, the extended x-rescaling model can be examined.``
Symposium on quantum electronics. Extended abstracts of contributed papers
1981-02-01
Extended abstracts are provided for papers presented in these subject areas: lasers; quantum optics; nonlinear optics; laser photochemistry; laser spectroscopy; laser scattering; laser produced plasma; and laser applications. (GHT)
A note on extending decision algorithms by stable predicates
Alfredo Ferro
1988-11-01
Full Text Available A general mechanism to extend decision algorithms to deal with additional predicates is described. The only conditions imposed on the predicates is stability with respect to some transitive relations.
Structured plan and its execution for extended goals
HUANG Wei; PENG Hong
2009-01-01
In many real world planning domains, some observation information is optional and useless to the execution of a plan, and the information acquisition may require some kind of cost. So it is significant to propose a framework for planning with extended goals under partial observability, which can adapt to the idea of observation reduction. In this paper, a method was proposed to solve the problem. The definition of structured plans was given, which can encode sequential, conditional and iterative behaviors, and are expressive enough for dealing with incomplete observation information and with extended goals. In order to express extended goals over sub-plans and observation information, the interpretation of basic propositions in K-CTL and EAGLE (two important languages for expressing temporal requirements in nondeterministic domains) was extended.
An engineering approach to extending lifespan in C. elegans.
Dror Sagi
Full Text Available We have taken an engineering approach to extending the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans. Aging stands out as a complex trait, because events that occur in old animals are not under strong natural selection. As a result, lifespan can be lengthened rationally using bioengineering to modulate gene expression or to add exogenous components. Here, we engineered longer lifespan by expressing genes from zebrafish encoding molecular functions not normally present in worms. Additionally, we extended lifespan by increasing the activity of four endogenous worm aging pathways. Next, we used a modular approach to extend lifespan by combining components. Finally, we used cell- and worm-based assays to analyze changes in cell physiology and as a rapid means to evaluate whether multi-component transgenic lines were likely to have extended longevity. Using engineering to add novel functions and to tune endogenous functions provides a new framework for lifespan extension that goes beyond the constraints of the worm genome.
Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST), Version 4
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Extended Reconstructed Sea Surface Temperature (ERSST) dataset is a global monthly sea surface temperature analysis on a 2x2 degree grid derived from the...
Optimal control problem for the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation
Ning Duan
2016-02-01
In this paper, the optimal control problem for the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation is studied. The optimal control under boundary condition is given, the existence of optimal solution to the equation is proved and the optimality system is established.
Quantum potential and symmetries in extended phase space
Nasiri, S
2005-01-01
Here, we study the concept of the quantum potential using an extended phase space technique. It seems that, for a given potential, there exist an extended canonical transformation that removes the expression for quantum potential in dynamical equation. The situation, mathematically, is similar to the appearance of centrifugal potential in going from Cartesian to spherical coordinates that changes the physical potential to an effective one. As Examples, the cases of harmonic oscillator, particle in a box and hydrogen atom are worked out, where the quantum potential disappears from the Wigner equation as a possible representation of quantum mechanics in the phase space. This representation that keeps the Hamilton-Jacobi equation form invariant could be obtained by a particular extended canonical transformation on Sobouti-Nasiri equation in extended phase space.
Construction of extended exponential general linear methods 524 ...
Construction of extended exponential general linear methods 524 for solving semi-linear problems. ... Journal Home > Vol 13, No 2 (2014) > ... This paper introduces a new approach for constructing higher order of EEGLM which have become ...
The entity-to-algorithm allocation problem: Extending the analysis
Grobler, J
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper extends the investigation into the algorithm selection problem in hyper-heuristics, otherwise referred to as the entity-to-algorithm allocation problem, introduced by Grobler et al.. Two newly developed population-based portfolio...
Extended Supersymmetric BMS$_3$ algebras and Their Free Field Realisations
Banerjee, Nabamita; Lodato, Ivano; Mukhi, Sunil; Neogi, Turmoli
2016-01-01
We study $N=(2,4,8)$ supersymmetric extensions of the three dimensional BMS algebra (BMS$_3$) with most generic possible central extensions. We find that $N$-extended supersymmetric BMS$_3$ algebras can be derived by a suitable contraction of two copies of the extended superconformal algebras. Extended algebras from all the consistent contractions are obtained by scaling left-moving and right-moving supersymmetry generators symmetrically, while Virasoro and R-symmetry generators are scaled asymmetrically. On the way, we find that the BMS/GCA correspondence does not in general hold for supersymmetric systems. Using the $\\beta$-$\\gamma$ and the ${\\mathfrak b}$-${\\mathfrak c}$ systems, we construct free field realisations of all the extended super-BMS$_3$ algebras.
Extending the unambiguous velocity range using multiple carrier frequencies
Zhang, Z.; Jakobsson, A.; Nikolov, Svetoslav;
2005-01-01
Typically, velocity estimators based on the estimation of the Doppler shift will suffer from a limited unambiguous velocity range. Proposed are two novel multiple carrier based velocity estimators extending the velocity range above the Nyquist velocity limit. Numerical simulations indicate...
Asymptotic Theory for Extended Asymmetric Multivariate GARCH Processes
M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
2016-01-01
textabstractThe paper considers various extended asymmetric multivariate conditional volatility models, and derives appropriate regularity conditions and associated asymptotic theory. This enables checking of internal consistency and allows valid statistical inferences to be drawn based on empirical
Classical analog of extended phase space SUSY and its breaking
Ter-Kazarian, Gagik
2013-01-01
We derive the classical analog of the extended phase space quantum mechanics of the particle with odd degrees of freedom which gives rise to (N=2)-realization of supersymmetry (SUSY) algebra. By means of an iterative procedure, we find the approximate groundstate solutions to the extended Schr\\"{o}dinger-like equation and use these solutions further to calculate the parameters which measure the breaking of extended SUSY such as the groundstate energy. Consequently, we calculate a more practical measure for the SUSY breaking which is the expectation value of an auxiliary field. We analyze non-perturbative mechanism for extended phase space SUSY breaking in the instanton picture and show that this has resulted from tunneling between the classical vacua of the theory. Particular attention is given to the algebraic properties of shape invariance and spectrum generating algebra.
extended pedicle rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for groin
Damary
2005-03-10
Mar 10, 2005 ... a flabby and redundant abdominal tissue is used as a huge extended ... functional muscle in head and neck. This flap is ... the aneurysm and adjacent muscle planes. The distal ... Histology of the excised portion of aneurysmal.
Extended Homogeneous Balance Method and Lax Pairs, Backlund Transformation
BAI ChengLin
2002-01-01
Using the extended homogeneous balance method, which is very concise and primary, Lax pairs and Backlund transformation for most nonlinear evolution equations, such as the compound KdV-Burgers equation and nonlinear diffusion equation are obtained.
In-Situ Extended Lateral Range Surface Metrology Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop an extended lateral range capability for a dynamic optical profiling system to enable non-contact, surface roughness measurement of large and...
comparison of three different extenders and storage temperature on ...
HelenM
extenders protect sperm against seminal plasma which can be toxic, while providing temperature protection ... sperm cell waste, ions for membrane and cell balance, and antibiotics to prevent growth of ... of sperm to perform their function.
Extended quintessence, inflation, and stable de Sitter spaces
Faraoni, V; Faraoni, Valerio; Jensen, Michael N.
2006-01-01
A new gauge-invariant criterion for stability against inhomogeneous perturbations of de Sitter space is applied to scenarios of dark energy and inflation in scalar-tensor gravity. The results extend previous studies.
34 CFR 300.106 - Extended school year services.
2010-07-01
... year services must be provided only if a child's IEP Team determines, on an individual basis, in..., or duration of those services. (b) Definition. As used in this section, the term extended school...
Sky pixelization for the analysis of extended emission
Verkhodanov, O. V.; Doroshkevich, A. G.
2013-08-01
Spherical pixelization schemes are reviewed that allow analyzing extended emission and, in particular, the cosmic microwave background. Problems with implementing different schemes are considered. The nonhierarchical Gauss-Legendre sky pixelization (GLESP) approach is discussed in detail.
Optical technologies in extended-reach access networks
Wong, Elaine; Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2009-01-01
The merging of access and metro networks has been proposed as a solution to lower the unit cost of customer bandwidth. This paper reviews some of the recent advances and challenges in extended-reach optical access networks....
Analogy to Derive an Extended Pythagorean Theorem to ''N'' Dimensions
Acosta-Robledo J.U.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This article demonstrates that it is possible to extend the Pythagorean Theorem to ''N'' dimensions. This demonstration is mainly done based on linear algebra, especially in the vector product of ''N'' dimensions.
Creating a Generic Extended Enterprise Management Model using GERAM
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Kaas-Pedersen, Carsten; Vesterager, Johan
1998-01-01
The two main themes of the Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st century) project are product life cycle management and extended enterprise management. This article focus on the later of these subjects and an illustration of the concept is given together with a discussion of the concept...... management model. By working with GERAM in relation to extended enterprise management it has been found that it provides a useful background for organising knowledge, experience and the activities within the project...... of virtual enterprises. Through the introduction of GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) an initial version of a basic framework for extended enterprise management is introduced. This basic framework is the first step towards the creation of a generic extended enterprise...
Extended Quark Potential Model From Random Phase Approximation
DENGWei－Zhen; CHENXiao－Lin; 等
2002-01-01
The quark potential model is extended to include the sea quark excitation using the random phase approximation.The effective quark interaction preserves the important QCD properties-chiral symmetry and confinement simultaneously.A primary qualitative analysis shows that the π meson as a well-known typical Goldstone boson and the other mesons made up of valence qq quark pair such as the ρ meson can also be described in this extended quark potential model.
Extended Quark Potential Model from Random Phase Approximation
DENG Wei-Zhen; CHEN Xiao-Lin; LU Da-Hai; YANG Li-Ming
2002-01-01
The quark potential model is extended to include the sea quark excitation using the random phase approx-imation. The effective quark interaction preserves the important QCD properties - chiral symmetry and confinementsimultaneously. A primary qualitative analysis shows that the π meson as a well-known typical Goldstone boson andthe other mesons made up of valence qq quark pair such as the ρ meson can also be described in this extended quarkpotential model.
An extended Coleman-Noll procedure for generalized continuum theories
Hütter, Geralf
2016-11-01
Within rational continuum mechanics, the Coleman-Noll procedure is established to derive requirements to constitutive equations. Aiming in particular at generalized continuum theories, the present contribution demonstrates how this procedure can be extended to yield additionally the underlying balance equations of stress-type quantities. This is demonstrated for micromorphic and strain gradient media as well as for the microforce theory. The relation between the extended Coleman-Noll procedure and the method of virtual powers is pointed out.
Chaotic synchronization in coupled spatially extended beam-plasma systems
Filatov, Roman A.; Hramov, Alexander E.; ALEXEY A. KORONOVSKII
2006-01-01
The appearance of the chaotic synchronization regimes has been discovered for the coupled spatially extended beam-plasma Pierce systems. The coupling was introduced only on the right bound of each subsystem. It has been shown that with coupling increase the spatially extended beam-plasma systems show the transition from asynchronous behavior to the phase synchronization and then to the complete synchronization regime. For the consideration of the chaotic synchronization we used the concept of...
Extended Goldstone-boson-exchange constituent quark model
Wagenbrunn, R F; Plessas, W; Varga, K
2000-01-01
We discuss an updated version of the Goldstone-boson-exchange chiral quark model extended to include in addition to pseudoscalar meson exchanges also vector and scalar meson exchanges. The latter ingredients are viewed as effective parametrizations of multiple Goldstone-boson exchanges in baryons. The extended model allows for an accurate description of all light and strange baryon spectra and at the same time produces the right properties for deducing baryon-baryon interactions.
Extended phenotype: nematodes turn ants into bird-dispersed fruits
Hughes, D P; Kronauer, D J C; Boomsma, J J
2008-01-01
A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs.......A recent study has discovered a novel extended phenotype of a nematode which alters its ant host to resemble ripe fruit. The infected ants are in turn eaten by frugivorous birds that disperse the nematode's eggs....
Extended treatment for cigarette smoking cessation: a randomized control trial.
Laude, Jennifer R; Bailey, Steffani R; Crew, Erin; Varady, Ann; Lembke, Anna; McFall, Danielle; Jeon, Anna; Killen, Diana; Killen, Joel D; David, Sean P
2017-08-01
To test the potential benefit of extending cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) relative to not extending CBT on long-term abstinence from smoking. Two-group parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized to receive non-extended CBT (n = 111) or extended CBT (n = 112) following a 26-week open-label treatment. Community clinic in the United States. A total of 219 smokers (mean age: 43 years; mean cigarettes/day: 18). All participants received 10 weeks of combined CBT + bupropion sustained release (bupropion SR) + nicotine patch and were continued on CBT and either no medications if abstinent, continued bupropion + nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) if increased craving or depression scores, or varenicline if still smoking at 10 weeks. Half the participants were randomized at 26 weeks to extended CBT (E-CBT) to week 48 and half to non-extended CBT (no additional CBT sessions). The primary outcome was expired CO-confirmed, 7-day point-prevalence (PP) at 52- and 104-week follow-up. Analyses were based on intention-to-treat. PP abstinence rates at the 52-week follow-up were comparable across non-extended CBT (40%) and E-CBT (39%) groups [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55, 1.78]. A similar pattern was observed across non-extended CBT (39%) and E-CBT (33%) groups at the 104-week follow-up (OR = 0.79; 95% CI= 0.44, 1.40). Prolonging cognitive-behavioral therapy from 26 to 48 weeks does not appear to improve long-term abstinence from smoking. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Solvability of Extended General Strongly Mixed Variational Inequalities
Balwant Singh Thakur
2013-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of extended general strongly mixed variational inequalities is introduced and studied in Hilbert spaces. An existence theorem of solution is established and using resolvent operator technique, a new iterative algorithm for solving the extended general strongly mixed variational inequality is suggested. A convergence result for the iterative sequence generated by the new algorithm is also established.
Extending Particle Swarm Optimisers with Self-Organized Criticality
Løvbjerg, Morten; Krink, Thiemo
2002-01-01
Particle swarm optimisers (PSOs) show potential in function optimisation, but still have room for improvement. Self-organized criticality (SOC) can help control the PSO and add diversity. Extending the PSO with SOC seems promising reaching faster convergence and better solutions.......Particle swarm optimisers (PSOs) show potential in function optimisation, but still have room for improvement. Self-organized criticality (SOC) can help control the PSO and add diversity. Extending the PSO with SOC seems promising reaching faster convergence and better solutions....
International Symposium on Halide Glasses (2nd) (Extended Abstracts).
1983-08-05
method in which Pyrex 7740 is the standard material. These results will be compared with our earlier results on a fluorozirconate glass ( ZBLAN glass ...AliS 215 INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON HALIDE GLASSES 12ND) 1/1 (EXTENDED ABSTRACTS) (U) RENSSELAER POLY’TECHNIC INST TROY NY DEPT OF MATERIALS ENGINEE...Classification) Second International Symposium on Halide Glasses (Extended Abstracts) (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Cornelius T. Moynihan Chairman 13a
Extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yaounde, Cameroon
Gangoue Pieboji, Joseph; Bedenic, B.; Koulla-Shiro, S.; Randegger, C.; Adiogo, D.; Ngassam, P.; Ndumbe, P; Hachler, H.
2005-01-01
Organisms producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Cameroon. A total of 259 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated between 1995 and 1998 from patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk (DD)...
Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Yaounde, Cameroon
Gangoué-Piéboji, Joseph; Bedenic, Branka; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Randegger, Corinne; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Ngassam, Pierre; Ndumbe, Peter; Hächler, Herbert
2005-01-01
Organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) have been reported in many countries, but there is no information on the prevalence of ESBL-producing members of the family Enterobacteriaceae in Cameroon. A total of 259 Enterobacteriaceae strains were isolated between 1995 and 1998 from patients at the Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. Enterobacterial isolates resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporin and monobactam were screened for ESBL production by the double-disk (DD) sy...
A Note of Extended Proca Equations and Superconductivity
Christianto V.
2009-01-01
Full Text Available It has been known for quite long time that the electrodynamics of Maxwell equations can be extended and generalized further into Proca equations. The implications of in- troducing Proca equations include an alternative description of superconductivity, via extending London equations. In the light of another paper suggesting that Maxwell equations can be written using quaternion numbers, then we discuss a plausible exten- sion of Proca equation using biquaternion number. Further implications and experi- ments are recommended.
Analysis of RTM extended images for VTI media
Li, Vladimir
2016-04-28
Extended images obtained from reverse time migration (RTM) contain information about the accuracy of the velocity field and subsurface illumination at different incidence angles. Here, we evaluate the influence of errors in the anisotropy parameters on the shape of the residual moveout (RMO) in P-wave RTM extended images for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media. Using the actual spatial distribution of the zero-dip NMO velocity (Vnmo), which could be approximately estimated by conventional techniques, we analyze the extended images obtained with distorted fields of the parameters η and δ. Differential semblance optimization (DSO) and stack-power estimates are employed to study the sensitivity of focusing to the anisotropy parameters. We also build angle gathers to facilitate interpretation of the shape of RMO in the extended images. The results show that the signature of η is dip-dependent, whereas errors in δ cause defocusing only if that parameter is laterally varying. Hence, earlier results regarding the influence of η and δ on reflection moveout and migration velocity analysis remain generally valid in the extended image space for complex media. The dependence of RMO on errors in the anisotropy parameters provides essential insights for anisotropic wavefield tomography using extended images.
Network Extender for MIL-STD-1553 Bus
Marcus, Julius; Hanson, T. David
2003-01-01
An extender system for MIL-STD-1553 buses transparently couples bus components at multiple developer sites. The bus network extender is a relatively inexpensive system that minimizes the time and cost of integration of avionic systems by providing a convenient mechanism for early testing without the need to transport the usual test equipment and personnel to an integration facility. This bus network extender can thus alleviate overloading of the test facility while enabling the detection of interface problems that can occur during the integration of avionic systems. With this bus extender in place, developers can correct and adjust their own hardware and software before products leave a development site. Currently resident at Johnson Space Center, the bus network extender is used to test the functionality of equipment that, although remotely located, is connected through a MILSTD- 1553 bus. Inasmuch as the standard bus protocol for avionic equipment is that of MIL-STD-1553, companies that supply MIL-STD-1553-compliant equipment to government or industry and that need long-distance communication support might benefit from this network bus extender
Design and evaluation of nicorandil extended-release tablet
Ju-Young Kim
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to design and evaluate extended-release formulations of a model drug, nicorandil, in order to achieve the desired steady-state plasma concentration of drug in vivo. Simulation was employed to estimate optimum dissolution and absorption rate of nicorandil. The dissolution test was employed using pH 1.2, 4.0, 6.8 buffer solution, or water, to measure the in vitro release behaviors of nicorandil formulations. A single dose (15 mg of each formulation was orally administered to four beagle dogs under fasted conditions, and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The in vitro/in vivo relationship of the extended-release formulation was confirmed using in vitro dissolution profiles and plasma concentrations of drug in beagle dogs. Nicorandil was released completely within 30 min from the immediate-release tablets and released for 24 h from the extended-release tablets. The nicorandil plasma concentration could be modified by adjusting the drug release rate from the extended-release formulation. The release rate of nicorandil was the rate-limiting step in the overall absorption of drug from the extended-release formulations. These results highlight the potential of a nicorandil extended-release formulation in the treatment of angina pectoris.
Pramipexole Extended Release: A Novel Treatment Option in Parkinson's Disease
Wolfram Eisenreich
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Pramipexole, the most commonly prescribed dopamine agonist worldwide, meanwhile serves as a reference substance for evaluation of new drugs. Based on numerous clinical data and vast experiences, efficacy and safety profiles of this non-ergoline dopamine agonist are well characterized. Since October 2009, an extended-release formulation of pramipexole has been available for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. Pramipexole administration can be cut down from three times to once a day due to the newly developed extended-release formulation. This is considerable progress in regard to minimizing pill burden and enhancing compliance. Moreover, the 24 h continuous drug release of the once-daily extended-release formulation results in fewer fluctuations in plasma concentrations over time compared to immediate-release pramipexole, given three times daily. The present study summarizes pharmacokinetics and all essential pharmacological and clinical characteristics of the extended-release formulation. In addition, it provides all study data, available so far, with regard to transition and de-novo administration of extended-release formulation for patients with Parkinson's disease. It further compares efficacy and safety data of immediate-release pramipexole with the extended-release formulation of pramipexole.
A framework for investigation into extended enterprise resilience
Erol, Ozgur; Sauser, Brian J.; Mansouri, Mo
2010-05-01
This article proposes a framework for investigation into 'extended enterprise resilience' based on the key attributes of enterprise resilience in the context of extended enterprises. Such attributes, namely agility, flexibility, adaptability and connectivity, are frequently defined as supporting attributes of enterprise resilience, but the issue is how they can be more effectively applied to extended enterprises. The role of information technology in assisting connectivity and collaboration is frequently recognised as contributing to resilience on all levels, and will likewise be employed on the level of extended enterprise systems. The proposed framework is based on the expanded application of two primary enablers of enterprise resilience: (i) the capability of an enterprise to connect systems, people, processes and information in a way that allows enterprise to become more connected and responsive to the dynamics of its environment, stakeholders and competitors; (ii) the alignment of information technology with business goals. The former requires inter- and intra-level interoperability and integration within the extended enterprises, and the latter requires modelling of the underlying technology infrastructure and creation of a consolidated view of, and access to, all available resources in the extended enterprises that can be attained by well-defined enterprise architecture.
Ahmad reza Javaheri
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Egg yolk is the main cryoprotectant agent in semen freezing extenders which is usedin order to protect spermatozoa against cold shock. However, elimination of animal bioproductsfrom the cryopreservation protocol is becoming mandatory. Therefore, the aim of this study is tocompare a previously studied, homemade soya bean lecithin based extender with a commerciallyavailable extender for ram sperm cryopreservation.Materials and Methods: Samples from three rams were pooled and split into two equal aliquots anddiluted (1:20 with i%lecithin - 7%glycerol (L1G7 and Bioxcell®. The effects of L1G7 and Bioxcell® onsperm parameters and the in vitro fertilization ability of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa were assessed.Results: The results of this study revealed no difference between the two extenders in terms of motility,viability, and capacitation status. The results of in vitro fertilization in terms of rate of blastocyst formationwere similar for both extenders, but significantly lower than that of freshly processed ram sperm.Conclusion: We conclude that both extenders are suitable for ram sperm cryopreservation.
Analysis of RTM extended images for VTI media
Li, Vladimir
2015-08-19
Extended images obtained from reverse-time migration (RTM) contain information about the accuracy of the velocity field and subsurface illumination at different incidence angles. Here, we evaluate the influence of errors in the anisotropy parameters on the shape of the residual moveout (RMO) in P-wave RTM extended images for VTI (transversely isotropic with a vertical symmetry axis) media. Considering the actual spatial distribution of the zero-dip NMO velocity (Vnmo), which could be approximately estimated by conventional techniques, we analyze the extended images obtained with distorted fields of the parameters η and δ. Differential semblance optimization (DSO) and stack-power estimates are employed to study the sensitivity of focusing to the anisotropy parameters. The results show that the signature of η is dip-dependent, whereas errors in δ cause defocusing only if that parameter is laterally varying. Hence, earlier results regarding the influence of η and δ on reflection moveout and migration velocity analysis remain generally valid in the extended image space for complex media. The dependence of RMO on errors in the anisotropy parameters provides essential insights for anisotropic wavefield tomography using extended images.
Speeds of Propagation in Classical and Relativistic Extended Thermodynamics
Müller Ingo
1999-01-01
Full Text Available The Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory of viscous, heat-conducting fluids provides parabolic equations and thus predicts infinite pulse speeds. Naturally this feature has disqualified the theory for relativistic thermodynamics which must insist on finite speeds and, moreover, on speeds smaller than $c$. The attempts at a remedy have proved heuristically important for a new systematic type of thermodynamics: Extended thermodynamics. That new theory has symmetric hyperbolic field equations and thus it provides finite pulse speeds. Extended thermodynamics is a whole hierarchy of theories with an increasing number of fields when gradients and rates of thermodynamic processes become steeper and faster. The first stage in this hierarchy is the 14-field theory which may already be a useful tool for the relativist in many applications. The 14 fields -- and further fields -- are conveniently chosen from the moments of the kinetic theory of gases. The hierarchy is complete only when the number of fields tends to infinity. In that case the pulse speed of non-relativistic extended thermodynamics tends to infinity while the pulse speed of relativistic extended thermodynamics tends to $c$, the speed of light. In extended thermodynamics symmetric hyperbolicity -- and finite speeds -- are implied by the concavity of the entropy density. This is still true in relativistic thermodynamics for a privileged entropy density which is the entropy density of the rest frame for non-degenerate gases.
Extended Emission of Short Gamma-Ray Bursts
Lin, Lin; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Shuang Nan
2008-01-01
Preliminary results of our analysis on the extended emission of short/medium duration GRBs observed with Swift/BAT are presented. The Bayesian blocks algorithm is used to analyze the burst durations and the temporal structure of the lightcurves in different energy bands. We show here the results of three bursts (GRBs 050724, 061006 and 070714B) that have a prominent soft extended emission component in our sample. The extended emission of these bursts is a continuous, flickering-liked component, lasting $\\sim 100$ seconds post the GRB trigger at 15-25 keV bands. Without considering this component, the three bursts are classified as short GRBs, with $T_{90}=2\\sim 3$ seconds. GRB 060614 has an emission component similar to the extended emission, but this component has pulse-liked structure, possibly indicating that this emission component is different from that observed in GRBs 050724, 061006, and 070714B. Further analysis on the spectral evolution behavior of the extended emission component is on going.
Extended high frequency audiometry in secretory otitis media.
Sharma, Deepika; Munjal, Sanjay K; Panda, Naresh K
2012-06-01
The objective of the present study was to determine the status of extended high frequencies in subjects with secretory otitis media. The study evaluated 30 ears of 20 subjects with secretory otitis media in the age group of 15-30 years. This data was compared with 20 ears of 10 volunteers of the same age group with clinically normal hearing. Pure tone air conduction thresholds were analyzed in three frequency groups: low frequency (LF: 0.25, 0.5, and 1 kHz), high frequency (HF: 2, 4, and 8 kHz) and extended high frequency (EHF: 10, 12, and 16 kHz). The results showed elevated extended high frequency thresholds (EHFG) as compared to control group and comparatively better thresholds at high frequencies(HFG)s as compared to low (LFG)and extended high frequencies(EHFG) in the study group. This validates the importance of including an extended high frequency audiometry in the test battery of patients with secretory otitis media.
Concomitant Hamiltonian and topological structures of extended magnetohydrodynamics
Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: mlingam@princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Miloshevich, George, E-mail: gmilosh@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Morrison, Philip J., E-mail: morrison@physics.utexas.edu [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2016-07-15
Highlights: • Common Hamiltonian structure of the extended MHD models presented. • The generalized helicities of extended MHD shown to be topological invariants analogous to fluid/magnetic helicity. • Generalized helicities can be studied through powerful topological and knot-theoretic methods such as the Jones polynomial. • Each extended MHD model shown to possess two Lie-dragged 2-forms, which are interpreted as the generalized vorticity fluxes. - Abstract: The paper describes the unique geometric properties of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), and demonstrates how such features are inherited by extended MHD, viz. models that incorporate two-fluid effects (the Hall term and electron inertia). The generalized helicities, and other geometric expressions for these models are presented in a topological context, emphasizing their universal facets. Some of the results presented include: the generalized Kelvin circulation theorems; the existence of two Lie-dragged 2-forms; and two concomitant helicities that can be studied via the Jones polynomial, which is widely utilized in Chern–Simons theory. The ensuing commonality is traced to the existence of an underlying Hamiltonian structure for all the extended MHD models, exemplified by the presence of a unique noncanonical Poisson bracket, and its associated energy.
Rethinking neuroethics in the light of the extended mind thesis.
Levy, Neil
2007-09-01
The extended mind thesis is the claim that mental states extend beyond the skulls of the agents whose states they are. This seemingly obscure and bizarre claim has far-reaching implications for neuroethics, I argue. In the first half of this article, I sketch the extended mind thesis and defend it against criticisms. In the second half, I turn to its neuroethical implications. I argue that the extended mind thesis entails the falsity of the claim that interventions into the brain are especially problematic just because they are internal interventions, but that many objections to such interventions rely, at least in part, on this claim. Further, I argue that the thesis alters the focus of neuroethics, away from the question of whether we ought to allow interventions into the mind, and toward the question of which interventions we ought to allow and under what conditions. The extended mind thesis dramatically expands the scope of neuroethics: because interventions into the environment of agents can count as interventions into their minds, decisions concerning such interventions become questions for neuroethics.
Extended Hansen solubility approach: naphthalene in individual solvents.
Martin, A; Wu, P L; Adjei, A; Beerbower, A; Prausnitz, J M
1981-11-01
A multiple regression method using Hansen partial solubility parameters, delta D, delta p, and delta H, was used to reproduce the solubilities of naphthalene in pure polar and nonpolar solvents and to predict its solubility in untested solvents. The method, called the extended Hansen approach, was compared with the extended Hildebrand solubility approach and the universal-functional-group-activity-coefficient (UNIFAC) method. The Hildebrand regular solution theory was also used to calculate naphthalene solubility. Naphthalene, an aromatic molecule having no side chains or functional groups, is "well-behaved', i.e., its solubility in active solvents known to interact with drug molecules is fairly regular. Because of its simplicity, naphthalene is a suitable solute with which to initiate the difficult study of solubility phenomena. The three methods tested (Hildebrand regular solution theory was introduced only for comparison of solubilities in regular solution) yielded similar results, reproducing naphthalene solubilities within approximately 30% of literature values. In some cases, however, the error was considerably greater. The UNIFAC calculation is superior in that it requires only the solute's heat of fusion, the melting point, and a knowledge of chemical structures of solute and solvent. The extended Hansen and extended Hildebrand methods need experimental solubility data on which to carry out regression analysis. The extended Hansen approach was the method of second choice because of its adaptability to solutes and solvents from various classes. Sample calculations are included to illustrate methods of predicting solubilities in untested solvents at various temperatures. The UNIFAC method was successful in this regard.
Stability profiles of drug products extended beyond labeled expiration dates.
Lyon, Robbe C; Taylor, Jeb S; Porter, Donna A; Prasanna, Hullahalli R; Hussain, Ajaz S
2006-07-01
The American Medical Association has questioned whether expiration dating markedly underestimates the actual shelf life of drug products. Results from the shelf life extension program (SLEP) have been evaluated to provide extensive data to address this issue. The SLEP has been administered by the Food and Drug Administration for the United States Department of Defense (DOD) for 20 years. This program probably contains the most extensive source of pharmaceutical stability data extant. This report summarizes extended stability profiles for 122 different drug products (3,005 different lots). The drug products were categorized into five groups based on incidence of initial extension failures and termination failures (extended lot eventually failed upon re-testing). Based on testing and stability assessment, 88% of the lots were extended at least 1 year beyond their original expiration date for an average extension of 66 months, but the additional stability period was highly variable. The SLEP data supports the assertion that many drug products, if properly stored, can be extended past the expiration date. Due to the lot-to-lot variability, the stability and quality of extended drug products can only be assured by periodic testing and systematic evaluation of each lot.
Extending a perfect matching to a Hamiltonian cycle
Alahmadi, Adel; Aldred, Robert E. L.; Alkenani, Ahmad;
2015-01-01
In 1993 Ruskey and Savage conjectured that in the d-dimensional hypercube, every matching M can be extended to a Hamiltonian cycle. Fink verified this for every perfect matchingM, remarkably even ifM contains external edges. We prove that this property also holds for sparse spanning regular...... subgraphs of the cubes: for every d ≥ 7 and every k, where 7 ≥ k ≥ d, the d-dimensional hypercube contains a k-regular spanning subgraph such that every perfect matching (possibly with external edges) can be extended to a Hamiltonian cycle. We do not know if this result can be extended to k = 4; 5; 6....... It cannot be extended to k = 3. Indeed, there are only three 3-regular graphs such that every perfect matching (possibly with external edges) can be extended to a Hamiltonian cycle, namely the complete graph on 4 vertices, the complete bipartite 3-regular graph on 6 vertices and the 3-cube on 8 vertices...
Creating a Generic Extended Enterprise Management Model using GERAM
Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Kaas-Pedersen, Carsten; Vesterager, Johan
1998-01-01
The two main themes of the Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st century) project are product life cycle management and extended enterprise management. This article focus on the later of these subjects and an illustration of the concept is given together with a discussion of the concept of...... management model. By working with GERAM in relation to extended enterprise management it has been found that it provides a useful background for organising knowledge, experience and the activities within the project......The two main themes of the Globeman21 (Global Manufacturing in the 21st century) project are product life cycle management and extended enterprise management. This article focus on the later of these subjects and an illustration of the concept is given together with a discussion of the concept...... of virtual enterprises. Through the introduction of GERAM (Generalised Enterprise Reference Architecture and Methodology) an initial version of a basic framework for extended enterprise management is introduced. This basic framework is the first step towards the creation of a generic extended enterprise...
The Classification of Two-Dimensional Extended Topological Field Theories
Schommer-Pries, Christopher J
2011-01-01
We provide a complete generators and relations presentation of the 2-dimensional extended unoriented and oriented bordism bicategories as symmetric monoidal bicategories. Thereby we classify these types of 2-dimensional extended topological field theories with arbitrary target bicategory. As an immediate corollary we obtain a concrete classification when the target is the symmetric monoidal bicategory of algebras, bimodules, and intertwiners over a fixed commutative ground ring. In the oriented case, such an extended topological field theory is equivalent to specifying a (non-commutative) separable symmetric Frobenius algebra. We review the notion of symmetric monoidal bicategory, giving also a precise notion of generators and relations in this context. We provide several supporting lemmas, one of which provides a simple list of criteria for determining when a morphism of symmetric monoidal bicategories is an equivalence. We introduce the symmetric monoidal bicategory of bordisms with structure, where the all...
Firm Growth Function and Extended-Gibrat’s Property
Atushi Ishikawa
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We analytically show that the logarithmic average sales of firms first follow power-law growth and subsequently follow exponential growth, if the growth-rate distributions of the sales obey the extended-Gibrat’s property and Gibrat’s law. Here, the extended-Gibrat’s property and Gibrat’s law are statistically observed in short-term data, which denote the dependence of the growth-rate distributions on the initial values. In the derivation, we analytically show that the parameter of the extended-Gibrat’s property is identical to the power-law growth exponent and that it also decides the parameter of the exponential growth. By employing around one million bits of exhaustive sales data of Japanese firms in the ORBIS database, we confirmed our analytic results.
Extended Chaplygin Gas in Horava-Lifshitz Gravity
Pourhassan, B
2014-01-01
In this paper, we investigate cosmological models of the extended Chaplygin gas in a universe governed by Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The equation of state for an extended Chaplygin gas is a (n+2)-variable equation determined by A_{n}, alpha, and B. In this work, we are interested to the case of second order (n=2) equation of state which recovers quadratic barotropic equation of state. In that case there are four free parameters. Under some assumptions we relate free parameters to each other to have only one free independent parameter (A_{2}). It help us to obtain explicit expression for energy density in terms of scale factor. The allowed values of the second order extended Chaplygin gas parameter is determined using the recent astrophysical and cosmological observational data.
Proceedings of the workshop on nonlinear MHD and extended MHD
NONE
1998-12-01
Nonlinear MHD simulations have proven their value in interpreting experimental results over the years. As magnetic fusion experiments reach higher performance regimes, more sophisticated experimental diagnostics coupled with ever expanding computer capabilities have increased both the need for and the feasibility of nonlinear global simulations using models more realistic than regular ideal and resistive MHD. Such extended-MHD nonlinear simulations have already begun to produce useful results. These studies are expected to lead to ever more comprehensive simulation models in the future and to play a vital role in fully understanding fusion plasmas. Topics include the following: (1) current state of nonlinear MHD and extended-MHD simulations; (2) comparisons to experimental data; (3) discussions between experimentalists and theorists; (4) /equations for extended-MHD models, kinetic-based closures; and (5) paths toward more comprehensive simulation models, etc. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.
Extended knots and the space of states of quantum gravity
Griego, J R
1996-01-01
In the loop representation the quantum constraints of gravity can be solved. This fact allowed significant progress in the understanding of the space of states of the theory. The analysis of the constraints over loop dependent wavefunctions has been traditionally based upon geometric (in contrast to analytic) properties of the loops. The reason for this preferred way is twofold: for one hand the inherent difficulties associated with the analytic loop calculus, and on the other our limited knowledge about the analytic properties of knots invariants. Extended loops provide a way to overcome the difficulties at both levels. For one hand, a systematic method to construct analytic expressions of diffeomorphism invariants (the extended knots) in terms of the Chern-Simons propagators can be developed. Extended knots are simply related to ordinary knots (at least formally). The analytic expressions of knot invariants could be produced then in a generic way. On the other hand, the evaluation of the Hamiltonian over ex...
The "extended mind" approach for a new paradigm of psychology.
Kono, Tetsuya
2010-12-01
In this paper, I would like to propose the idea of "extended mind" for a new paradigm of psychology. Kohler (Integrative Psychology & Behavioral Science 44:39-57, 2010) correctly pointed out the serious problems of the machine paradigm, and proposed the "organic" view as a new paradigm. But the term "organic" signifying the processes inside the body, is inadequate to express the characteristic of human mind. The recent philosophy of mind suggests that the mind is realized neither only in the brain nor only in the body, but in the whole system of brain-body-environment, namely, in the "extended mind". The characteristic of human mind resides in the interaction with the mediating tools, artifacts, and the humanized environment. We should propose an "extended mind approach" or an "ecological approach to humanized environment" as a new paradigm for a psychology.
Life Extending Minimum-Time Path Planning for Hexapod Robot
Xin Wu
2011-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a minimum‐time path planning scheme for life‐extending operation of legged robots, illustrated with a six‐legged walking robot (hexapod. The focus of this study is on extending the bearing fatigue life for leg joints. As a typical treatment, the minimum‐time path planning is performed through a bisecting‐plane (BP algorithm with the constraints of maximum joint angular velocity and acceleration. Based on bearing fatigue life theory, its fatigue life increases while the dynamic radial force on the bearing decreases. By imposing more rigorous constraint on the dynamic radial force, the minimum‐time path planning algorithm is thus revised by reinforcing the constraint of maximum radial force based on the expectation of life extension. A symmetric hexapod with 18 degree‐of‐freedom (DOF is adopted as the illustrative example for simulation study. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of possible life extending with moderate compromise in transient performance.
Neutron shielding performance of water-extended polyester
Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M. [Zacatecas Univ. Autonoma, Nuclear Studies (Mexico); Vega Carrillo, H.R.; Hernandez-Davila, V.M. [Zacatecas Univ. Autonoma, Electric Engineering Academic Units (Mexico); Gallego, E.; Lorente, A. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, cNuclear Engineering Department (Mexico)
2006-07-01
A Monte Carlo study to determine the shielding features to neutrons of water-extended polyester (WEP) was carried out. Materials with low atomic number are predominantly used for neutron shielding because these materials effectively attenuate neutrons, mainly through elastic and inelastic collisions. In addition to neutron attenuation properties, other desirable properties for neutron shielding materials include mechanical strength, stability, low cost, and ease of handling. During the selection of materials to design a neutron shield, prompt gamma production as well as radionuclide induced by neutron activation must be considered. In this investigation the Monte Carlo method (MCNP code) was used to evaluate the performance of a water-extended polyester shield designed for the transportation, storage, and use of a {sup 252}Cf isotopic neutron source, for comparison the calculations were extended to water shielding, the bare source in vacuum and in air. (authors)
ARCHITECTURE OF MANUFACTURING EXECUTION SYSTEM IN THE EXTENDED ENTERPRISE
无
2002-01-01
The extended enterprise is formed according to the philosophy of dispersed networked manufacturing. Manufacturing execution system (MES) can close the information gap which exists between device control system and production information management system. The functions and the web-based architecture of the MES in the extended enterprise are introduced. Using the cooperating system models of object-oriented and distributed agents and CORBA, all objects keep to uniform interface standards and are easily inserted to object request broker. The utilization of distributed MES in extended enterprise can adapt fast change of manufacturing environment and resource. It also can improve the independent management capability of manufacturing cell and the enterprise response capability to global economic competition.
Atomic structure and electronic states of extended defects in silicon
Riedel, F; Schröter, W
2002-01-01
Defects in silicon like dislocations, grain boundaries, silicide precipitates, etc. are spatially extended and associated with a large number of electronic states in the band gap. Our knowledge on the relation between atomic structure and electronic states of these extended defects presently starts to grow by applying high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) in combination with numerical simulations. While by means of HRTEM details of structure can be studied, DLTS has been shown to allow for a classification of extended defect states into bandlike and localized. Moreover, this method opens the perspective to distinguish between trap-like and recombination-like electrical activity. In this paper, we emphasize the particular role of nickel and copper silicide precipitates, since in their cases structural features could be successfully related to specific DLTS line characteristics. Rapid quenching from high diffusion temperatures prevents decoration of platelet-sh...
Extended Chaplygin gas in Horava-Lifshitz gravity
Pourhassan, B.
2016-09-01
In this paper, we investigate cosmological models of the extended Chaplygin gas in a universe governed by Horava-Lifshitz gravity. The equation of state for an extended Chaplygin gas is a (n + 2) -variable equation determined by An, α, and B. In this work, we are interested to the case of second order (n = 2) equation of state which recovers quadratic barotropic equation of state. In that case there are four free parameters. We solve conservation equation approximately and obtain energy density in terms of scale factor with mentioned free parameters. Under some assumptions we relate free parameters to each other to have only one free independent parameter (A2) . It help us to obtain explicit expression for energy density in terms of scale factor. The allowed values of the second order extended Chaplygin gas parameter is fixed using the recent astrophysical and cosmological observational data. Thermodynamics of the model investigated based on the first and second law of thermodynamics.
Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots
Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik (Germany); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Department of Control Theory, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Foerster, Saskia [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.4 Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)
2015-05-08
Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analysing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world. - Highlights: • We use recurrence plots for analysing partially extended dynamics. • We investigate the high-dimensional chaos of the Lorenz96 model. • The approach distinguishes different spatio-temporal dynamics. • We use the method for studying vegetation cover time series.
A Parametric Study of Extended-MHD Drift Tearing
King, Jacob R
2014-01-01
The linear drift-tearing mode is analyzed for different regimes of the plasma-$\\beta$, ion-skin-depth parameter space with an unreduced, extended-MHD model. New dispersion relations are found at moderate plasma $\\beta$ and previous drift-tearing results are classified as applicable at small plasma $\\beta$. The drift stabilization of the mode in the regimes varies from non-existent/weak to complete. As the diamagnetic-drift frequency is proportional to the plasma $\\beta$, verification exercises with unreduced, extended-MHD models in the small plasma-$\\beta$ regimes are impractical. The new dispersion relations in the moderate plasma-$\\beta$ regimes are used to verify the extended-MHD implementation of the NIMROD code [C. R. Sovinec et al., J. Comput. Phys. 195, 355 (2004)]. Given the small boundary-layer skin depth, discussion of the validity of the first-order finite-Larmour-radius model is presented.
Judgement on Extended Hepatectomy for Primary Liver Cancer
YANGJiamei; TONGYing; CHENHan; XUFeng; KANTong; WUMengchao
2003-01-01
Objective: To expore the indications and safety of extended hepatectomy for primary liver cancer (PLC). Methods: From Nov. 2000 to Oct. 2002, 33 patients with PLC received extended hepatectomy, 26 of whom were complicated with liver cirrhosis. Preoperative findings, intraoperative management and the outcome of postoperative recovery were analyzed and evaluated. Results: Operative mortality was zero in this group and postoperative morbidity of complications was 33.3%, and all complications were cured after proper treatment. Conclusion: Extended hepatectomy for PLC was safe and viable for the patients who had enough reserve of liver function if the incised liver volume was less than 50% of the liver and the supporting treatment of the remnant liver was given as well as the postoperative complications were managed appropriately.
Hydrothermal scheduling via extended differential dynamic programming and mixed coordination
Tang, J. [Alfred Univ., NY (United States). Div. of Electrical Engineering; Luh, P.B. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Systems Engineering
1995-11-01
This paper addresses short-term scheduling of hydrothermal systems by using extended differential dynamic programming and mixed coordination. The problem is first decomposed into a thermal subproblem and a hydro subproblem by relaxing the supply-demand constraints. The thermal subproblem is solved analytically. The hydro subproblem is further decomposed into a set of smaller problems that can be solved in parallel. Extended differential dynamic programming and mixed coordination are used to solve the hydro subproblem. Two problems are tested and the results show that the new approach performs well under a simulated parallel processing environment, and high speedup is obtained. The method is then extended to handle unpredictable changes in natural inflow by utilizing the variational feedback nature of the control strategy. A quick estimate on the impact of an unpredictable change on total cost is also obtained. Numerical results show that estimates are accurate, and unpredictable change in natural inflow can be quickly and effectively handled.
Extended Range Hydrological Predictions: Uncertainty Associated with Model Parametrization
Joseph, J.; Ghosh, S.; Sahai, A. K.
2016-12-01
The better understanding of various atmospheric processes has led to improved predictions of meteorological conditions at various temporal scale, ranging from short term which cover a period up to 2 days to long term covering a period of more than 10 days. Accurate prediction of hydrological variables can be done using these predicted meteorological conditions, which would be helpful in proper management of water resources. Extended range hydrological simulation includes the prediction of hydrological variables for a period more than 10 days. The main sources of uncertainty in hydrological predictions include the uncertainty in the initial conditions, meteorological forcing and model parametrization. In the present study, the Extended Range Prediction developed for India for monsoon by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune is used as meteorological forcing for the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model. Sensitive hydrological parameters, as derived from literature, along with a few vegetation parameters are assumed to be uncertain and 1000 random values are generated given their prescribed ranges. Uncertainty bands are generated by performing Monte-Carlo Simulations (MCS) for the generated sets of parameters and observed meteorological forcings. The basins with minimum human intervention, within the Indian Peninsular region, are identified and validation of results are carried out using the observed gauge discharge. Further, the uncertainty bands are generated for the extended range hydrological predictions by performing MCS for the same set of parameters and extended range meteorological predictions. The results demonstrate the uncertainty associated with the model parametrisation for the extended range hydrological simulations. Keywords: Extended Range Prediction, Variable Infiltration Capacity model, Monte Carlo Simulation.
Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor Extends Caenorhabditis elegans Life Span.
Kumar, Sandeep; Dietrich, Nicholas; Kornfeld, Kerry
2016-02-01
Animal aging is characterized by progressive, degenerative changes in many organ systems. Because age-related degeneration is a major contributor to disability and death in humans, treatments that delay age-related degeneration are desirable. However, no drugs that delay normal human aging are currently available. To identify drugs that delay age-related degeneration, we used the powerful Caenorhabditis elegans model system to screen for FDA-approved drugs that can extend the adult lifespan of worms. Here we show that captopril extended mean lifespan. Captopril is an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat high blood pressure in humans. To explore the mechanism of captopril, we analyzed the acn-1 gene that encodes the C. elegans homolog of ACE. Reducing the activity of acn-1 extended the mean life span. Furthermore, reducing the activity of acn-1 delayed age-related degenerative changes and increased stress resistance, indicating that acn-1 influences aging. Captopril could not further extend the lifespan of animals with reduced acn-1, suggesting they function in the same pathway; we propose that captopril inhibits acn-1 to extend lifespan. To define the relationship with previously characterized longevity pathways, we analyzed mutant animals. The lifespan extension caused by reducing the activity of acn-1 was additive with caloric restriction and mitochondrial insufficiency, and did not require sir-2.1, hsf-1 or rict-1, suggesting that acn-1 functions by a distinct mechanism. The interactions with the insulin/IGF-1 pathway were complex, since the lifespan extensions caused by captopril and reducing acn-1 activity were additive with daf-2 and age-1 but required daf-16. Captopril treatment and reducing acn-1 activity caused similar effects in a wide range of genetic backgrounds, consistent with the model that they act by the same mechanism. These results identify a new drug and a new gene that can extend the lifespan of worms and suggest new
Short Gamma-Ray Bursts with Extended Emission
Norris, J. P.; Bonnell, J. T.
2005-01-01
The recent association of several short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with early type galaxies with low star formation rate demonstrates that short bursts arise from a different progenitor mechanism than long bursts. However, since the duration distributions of the two classes overlap, membership is not always easily established. The picture is complicated by the occasional presence of softer, extended emission lasting tens of seconds after the initial spike- like emission comprising an otherwise short burst. Using the large BATSE sample with time-tagged event (TTE) data, we show that the fundamental defining characteristic of the short burst class is that the initial spike exhibits negligible spectral evolution at energies above approx. 25 keV. This is behavior is nearly ubiquitous for the 260 bursts with T(sub 90) less than 2s where the BATSE TTE data type completely included the initial spike: Their spectral lags measured between the 25-50 keV and 100-300 energy ranges are consistent with zero in 90-95% of the cases, with most outliers probably representing the tail of the long burst class. We also analyze a small sample of "short" BATSE bursts - those with the most fluent, intense extended emission. The same lack of evolution on the pulse timescale obtains for the extended emission in the brighter bursts where significant measurements can be made. One possible inference is that both emission components may arise in the same region. We also show that the dynamic range in the ratio of peak intensities, spike : extended, is at least approx. l0(exp 3), and that for some bursts, the extended emission is only a factor of 2-5 lower. However, for our whole sample the total counts fluence of the extended component equals or exceeds that in the spike by a factor of several.
Validation of the Eclipse AAA algorithm at extended SSD.
Hussain, Amjad; Villarreal-Barajas, Eduardo; Brown, Derek; Dunscombe, Peter
2010-06-08
The accuracy of dose calculations at extended SSD is of significant importance in the dosimetric planning of total body irradiation (TBI). In a first step toward the implementation of electronic, multi-leaf collimator compensation for dose inhomogeneities and surface contour in TBI, we have evaluated the ability of the Eclipse AAA to accurately predict dose distributions in water at extended SSD. For this purpose, we use the Eclipse AAA algorithm, commissioned with machine-specific beam data for a 6 MV photon beam, at standard SSD (100 cm). The model was then used for dose distribution calculations at extended SSD (179.5 cm). Two sets of measurements were acquired for a 6 MV beam (from a Varian linear accelerator) in a water tank at extended SSD: i) open beam for 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 20 x 20 and 40 x 40 cm2 field sizes (defined at 179.5 cm SSD), and ii) identical field sizes but with a 1.3 cm thick acrylic spoiler placed 10 cm above the water surface. Dose profiles were acquired at 5 cm, 10 cm and 20 cm depths. Dose distributions for the two setups were calculated using the AAA algorithm in Eclipse. Confidence limits for comparisons between measured and calculated absolute depth dose curves and normalized dose profiles were determined as suggested by Venselaar et al. The confidence limits were within 2% and 2 mm for both setups. Extended SSD calculations were also performed using Eclipse AAA, commissioned with Varian Golden beam data at standard SSD. No significant difference between the custom commissioned and Golden Eclipse AAA was observed. In conclusion, Eclipse AAA commissioned at standard SSD can be used to accurately predict dose distributions in water at extended SSD for 6 MV open beams.
Medical support for law enforcement-extended operations incidents.
Levy, Matthew J; Tang, Nelson
2014-01-01
As the complexity and frequency of law enforcement-extended operations incidents continue to increase, so do the opportunities for adverse health and well-being impacts on the responding officers. These types of clinical encounters have not been well characterized nor have the medical response strategies which have been developed to effectively manage these encounters been well described. The purpose of this article is to provide a descriptive epidemiology of the clinical encounters reported during extended law enforcement operations, as well as to describe a best practices approach for their effective management. This study retrospectively examined the clinical encounters of the Maryland State Police (MSP) Tactical Medical Unit (TMU) during law enforcement extended operations incidents lasting 8 or more hours. In addition, a qualitative analysis was performed on clinical data collected by federal law enforcement agencies during their extended operations. Forty-four percent of missions (455/1,047) supported by the MSP TMU lasted 8 or more hours. Twenty-six percent of these missions (117/455) resulted in at least one patient encounter. Nineteen percent of patient chief complaints (45/238) were related to heat illness/ dehydration. Fifteen percent of encounters (36/238) were for musculoskeletal injury/pain. Eight percent of patients (19/238) had nonspecific sick call (minor illness) complaints. The next most common occurring complaints were cold-related injuries, headache, sinus congestion, and wound/laceration, each of which accounted for 7 percent of patients (16/238), respectively. Analysis of federal law enforcement agencies' response to such events yielded similar clinical encounters. A wide range of health problems are reported by extended law enforcement operations personnel. Timely and effective treatment of these problems can help ensure that the broader operations mission is not compromised. An appropriate operational strategy for managing health complaints
Representations of centrally extended Lie superalgebra psl(2|2)
Matsumoto, Takuya, E-mail: t.matsumoto@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3854 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Molev, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.molev@sydney.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)
2014-09-15
The symmetries provided by representations of the centrally extended Lie superalgebra psl(2|2) are known to play an important role in the spin chain models originated in the planar anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence and one-dimensional Hubbard model. We give a complete description of finite-dimensional irreducible representations of this superalgebra thus extending the work of Beisert which deals with a generic family of representations. Our description includes a new class of modules with degenerate eigenvalues of the central elements. Moreover, we construct explicit bases in all irreducible representations by applying the techniques of Mickelsson–Zhelobenko algebras.
CHAIN EXTENDER AND EMULSIFIER APPLICATION IN IRON ORE FLOTATION
José Pedro da Silva
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The present study aims to evaluate the reverse flotation performance of iron ore, using collector (amine, in the presence and absence of chain extender (diesel oil and emulsifier (sodium lauryl sulfate.Six tests were realized with duplicate. Tests using amine, diesel oil and sodium lauryl sulphate show the better results, with metallurgical recovery of 91.82% and the concentrate silica equal 1.68%. Thus, it is found that the use of emulsifier and chain extender together with the amine, shows better results in the flotation, in terms of metal recovery and selectivity, when compared to using only amine or amine and diesel oil.
Rapamycin extends life- and health span because it slows aging.
Blagosklonny, Mikhail V
2013-08-01
Making headlines, a thought-provocative paper by Neff, Ehninger and coworkers claims that rapamycin extends life span but has limited effects on aging. How is that possibly possible? And what is aging if not an increase of the probability of death with age. I discuss that the JCI paper actually shows that rapamycin slows aging and also extends lifespan regardless of its direct anti-cancer activities. Aging is, in part, MTOR-driven: a purposeless continuation of developmental growth. Rapamycin affects the same processes in young and old animals: young animals' traits and phenotypes, which continuations become hyperfunctional, harmful and lethal later in life.
Decaying Domain Walls in an Extended Gravity Model and Cosmology
Shiraishi, Kiyoshi
2013-01-01
We investigate cosmological consequences of an extended gravity model which belongs to the same class studied by Accetta and Steinhardt in an extended inflationary scenario. But we do not worry about inflation in our model; instead, we focus on a topological object formed during cosmological phase transitions. Although domain walls appear during first-order phase transitions such as QCD transition, they decay at the end of the phase transition. Therefore the "domain wall problem" does not exist in the suitable range of pameters and, on the contrary, the "fragments" of walls may become seeds of dark matter. A possible connection to "oscillating universe" model offered by Morikawa et al. is also discussed.
Extending the utility of a radioactive material package
Abramczyk, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Nathan, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Loftin, B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions; Bellamy, S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Savannah River Nuclear Solutions
2015-06-04
Once a package has been certified for the transportation of DOT Hazard Class 7 – Radioactive Material in compliance with the requirements of 10 CFR 71, it is often most economical to extend its utility through the addition of content-specific configuration control features or the addition of shielding materials. The SRNL Model 9977 Package’s authorization was expanded from its original single to twenty contents in this manner; and most recently, the 9977 was evaluated for a high-gamma source content. This paper discusses the need for and the proposed shielding modifications to the package for extending the utility of the package for this purpose.
Extending the Relational Model to Deal with Probabilistic Data
MA Zongmin; ZHANG W. J; MA W. Y.
2000-01-01
According to the soundness and completeness of information in databases, the expressive form and the semantics of incomplete information are discussed in this paper. On the basis of the discussion, the current studies on incomplete data in relational databases are reviewed. In order to represent stochastic uncertainty in most general sense in the real world, probabilistic data are introduced into relational databases. An extended relational data model is presented to express and manipulate probabilistic data and the operations in relational algebra based on the extended model are defined in this paper.
An Extended Algorithm of Flexibility Analysis in Chemical Engineering Processes
无
2001-01-01
An extended algorithm of flexibility analysis with a local adjusting method for flexibility region of chemical processes, which is based on the active constraint strategy, is proposed, which fully exploits the flexibility region of the process system operation. The hyperrectangular flexibility region determined by the extended algorithm is larger than that calculated by the previous algorithms. The limitation of the proposed algorithm due to imperfect convexity and its corresponding verification measure are also discussed. Both numerical and actual chemical process examples are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the new algorithm.
An extended Lagrangian support vector machine for classifications
YANG Xiaowei; SHU Lei; HAO Zhifeng; LIANG Yanchun; LIU Guirong; HAN Xu
2004-01-01
Lagrangian support vector machine (LSVM) cannot solve large problems for nonlinear kernel classifiers. In order to extend the LSVM to solve very large problems, an extended Lagrangian support vector machine (ELSVM) for classifications based on LSVM and SVMlight is presented in this paper. Our idea for the ELSVM is to divide a large quadratic programming problem into a series of subproblems with small size and to solve them via LSVM. Since the LSVM can solve small and medium problems for nonlinear kernel classifiers, the proposed ELSVM can be used to handle large problems very efficiently. Numerical experiments on different types of problems are performed to demonstrate the high efficiency of the ELSVM.
Scattering from Rough Surfaces with Extended Self-Similarity
张延冬; 吴振森
2002-01-01
An extended self-similarity (ESS) model is developed by extending the self-similarity condition in fractional Brownian motion (FBM), then the incremental Fourier synthesis algorithm is introduced to generate ESS rough surfaces, and an estimation algorithm is presented to extract the generalized multiscale Hurst parameter, which can also be modified to estimate the Hurst parameter for FBM more accurately. Finally, the scattering coefficient from ESS rough surfaces is calculated with the scalar Kirchhoff approximation, and its variation with the parameters in the ESS model is obtained. Compared with experimental measurements, it can be concluded that the ESS model provides a good tool to model natural rough surfaces.
Research of stochastic weight strategy for extended particle swarm optimizer
XU Jun-jie; YUE Xin; XIN Zhan-hong
2008-01-01
To improve the performance of extended particle swarm optimizer, a novel means of stochastic weight deployment is proposed for the iterative equation of velocity updation. In this scheme, one of the weights is specified to a random number within the range of [0, 1] and the other two remain constant configurations. The simulations show that this weight strategy outperforms the previous deterministic approach with respect to success rate and convergence speed. The experi- ments also reveal that if the weight for global best neighbor is specified to a stochastic number, extended particle swarm optimizer achieves high and robust performance on the given multi-modal function.
OCT imaging of myocardium extending to pulmonary vein
Li, Zhifang; Dickfeld, Timm; Tang, Qinggong; Wang, Bohan; Chen, Yu
2016-02-01
In this study, we propose to use optical coherence tomography to enable a direct visualization of myocardium extending into the pulmonary vein (PV). The results showed that there are obvious differences in the morphology of myocardium and fibrous tissue in the transition region of myocardial sleeve, which is in agreement with the histological analysis. In addition, the myocardial area in transition point has three layers in the depth of 1 mm, and the depth-resolved myocardial fiber show different orientation in the different layers. This characteristic was applied for segmentation of the structures of myocardium extending into PV.
Extended CIII] $\\lambda$1909 emission in Q0957+561
Mediavilla, E; Arribas, S; Falco, E E; Oscoz, A; Serra-Ricart, M; Alcalde, D; Goicoechea, L J; Ramella, M; Barrena, R
1999-01-01
2D spectroscopy of Q0957+561 in the CIII]lambda1909 emission line reveals a rich variety of spatially extended features. We point out: (i) a blueshifted region apparently connecting the A and B compact images; (ii) an almost complete arc in the West side which fits well with the infrared arc detected by the Hubble Space Telescope and (iii) traces of extended emission in the East side which could be the fragments of a larger arc-shaped structure. These features should be explained by the current lens models.
Recurrence plot analysis of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics
Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen
2015-04-01
Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by applying them to data from the Lorenz96 model. The recurrence plot based measures are able to qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.
Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots
Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen
2016-04-01
Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.
Hamiltonian dynamics and Noether symmetries in Extended Gravity Cosmology
Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D
2012-01-01
We discuss the Hamiltonian dynamics for cosmologies coming from Extended Theories of Gravity. In particular, minisuperspace models are taken into account searching for Noether symmetries. The existence of conserved quantities gives selection rule to recover classical behaviors in cosmic evolution according to the so called Hartle criterion, that allows to select correlated regions in the configuration space of dynamical variables. We show that such a statement works for general classes of Extended Theories of Gravity and is conformally preserved. Furthermore, the presence of Noether symmetries allows a straightforward classification of singularities that represent the points where the symmetry is broken. Examples of nonminimally coupled and higher-order models are discussed.