WorldWideScience

Sample records for extended estimating equations

  1. Extended rate equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, B.W.

    1981-01-01

    The equations of motion are discussed which describe time dependent population flows in an N-level system, reviewing the relationship between incoherent (rate) equations, coherent (Schrodinger) equations, and more general partially coherent (Bloch) equations. Approximations are discussed which replace the elaborate Bloch equations by simpler rate equations whose coefficients incorporate long-time consequences of coherence

  2. Generalized estimating equations

    CERN Document Server

    Hardin, James W

    2002-01-01

    Although powerful and flexible, the method of generalized linear models (GLM) is limited in its ability to accurately deal with longitudinal and clustered data. Developed specifically to accommodate these data types, the method of Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) extends the GLM algorithm to accommodate the correlated data encountered in health research, social science, biology, and other related fields.Generalized Estimating Equations provides the first complete treatment of GEE methodology in all of its variations. After introducing the subject and reviewing GLM, the authors examine th

  3. Resonance regions of extended Mathieu equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semyonov, V. P.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-02-01

    One of the mechanisms of energy transfer between degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system is based on parametric resonance. Initial stage of this process can de described by equation similar to Mathieu equation. Such equation is studied by analytical and numerical approach. The numerical solution of the extended Mathieu equation is obtained for a wide range of parameter values. Boundaries of resonance regions, growth rates of amplitudes and times of onset are obtained. The energy transfer between the degrees of freedom of dusty plasma system can occur over a wide range of frequencies.

  4. An extended formulation of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1985-10-01

    An extended Lorentz invariant formulation of Maxwell's equations is presented which both includes time dependent and steady-state solutions. In this approach the charge and current densities are treated as intrinsic properties of the electromagnetic field itself, in vacuo. Two main results follow from such an approach. First, a longitudinal electric wave is predicted to propagate in vacuo. Second, an axially symmetric steady state can be outlined in which 'self-confined' electromagnetic radiation circulates in closed orbits around the axis of symmetry. For this state values are obtained of the charge, the spin, and the product between magnetic moment and mass which are of the same order of magnitude as those observed for some elementary particles such as the proton and electron. Consequently, this may provide certain areas of conventional elementary particle analysis with some complementary ideas. Whether the predicted new phenomena also correspond to physical realities is so far an open question which requires further investigation. With 6 refs. (Author)

  5. A Note of Extended Proca Equations and Superconductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianto V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been known for quite long time that the electrodynamics of Maxwell equations can be extended and generalized further into Proca equations. The implications of in- troducing Proca equations include an alternative description of superconductivity, via extending London equations. In the light of another paper suggesting that Maxwell equations can be written using quaternion numbers, then we discuss a plausible exten- sion of Proca equation using biquaternion number. Further implications and experi- ments are recommended.

  6. Techniques for estimating allometric equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaster, B J; Manaster, S

    1975-11-01

    Morphologists have long been aware that differential size relationships of variables can be fo great value when studying shape. Allometric patterns have been the basis of many interpretations of adaptations, biomechanisms, and taxonomies. It is of importance that the parameters of the allometric equation be as accurate estimates as possible since they are so commonly used in such interpretations. Since the error term may come into the allometric relation either exponentially or additively, there are at least two methods of estimating the parameters of the allometric equation. That most commonly used assumes exponentiality of the error term, and operates by forming a linear function by a logarithmic transformation and then solving by the method of ordinary least squares. On the other hand, if the rrror term comes into the equation in an additive way, a nonlinear method may be used, searching the parameter space for those parameters which minimize the sum of squared residuals. Study of data on body weight and metabolism in birds explores the issues involved in discriminating between the two models by working through a specific example and shows that these two methods of estimation can yield highly different results. Not only minimizing the sum of squared residuals, but also the distribution and randomness of the residuals must be considered in determing which model more precisely estimates the parameters. In general there is no a priori way to tell which model will be best. Given the importance often attached to the parameter estimates, it may be well worth considerable effort to find which method of solution is appropriate for a given set of data.

  7. Optimal control problem for the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the optimal control problem for the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation is studied. The optimal control under boundary condition is given, the existence of optimal solution to the equation is proved and the optimality system is established.

  8. Efficient Estimating Functions for Stochastic Differential Equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Nina Munkholt

    The overall topic of this thesis is approximate martingale estimating function-based estimationfor solutions of stochastic differential equations, sampled at high frequency. Focuslies on the asymptotic properties of the estimators. The first part of the thesis deals with diffusions observed over...... a fixed time interval. Rate optimal and effcient estimators areobtained for a one-dimensional diffusion parameter. Stable convergence in distribution isused to achieve a practically applicable Gaussian limit distribution for suitably normalisedestimators. In a simulation example, the limit distributions...... multidimensional parameter. Conditions for rate optimality and effciency of estimatorsof drift-jump and diffusion parameters are given in some special cases. Theseconditions are found to extend the pre-existing conditions applicable to continuous diffusions,and impose much stronger requirements on the estimating...

  9. Extended Thermodynamics: a Theory of Symmetric Hyperbolic Field Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ingo

    2008-12-01

    Extended thermodynamics is based on a set of equations of balance which are supplemented by local and instantaneous constitutive equations so that the field equations are quasi-linear first order differential equations. If the constitutive functions are subject to the requirements of the entropy principle, one may write them in symmetric hyperbolic form by a suitable choice of fields. The kinetic theory of gases, or the moment theories based on the Boltzmann equation provide an explicit example for extended thermodynamics. The theory proves its usefulness and practicality in the successful treatment of light scattering in rarefied gases. This presentation is based upon the book [1] of which the author of this paper is a co-author. For more details about the motivation and exploitation of the basic principles the interested reader is referred to that reference. It would seem that extended thermodynamics is worthy of the attention of mathematicians. It may offer them a non-trivial field of study concerning hyperbolic equations, if ever they get tired of the Burgers equation. Physicists may prefer to appreciate the success of extended thermodynamics in light scattering and to work on the open problems concerning the modification of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier theory in rarefied gases as predicted by extended thermodynamics of 13, 14, and more moments.

  10. Asymptotics for Estimating Equations in Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    Results on asymptotic normality for the maximum likelihood estimate in hidden Markov models are extended in two directions. The stationarity assumption is relaxed, which allows for a covariate process influencing the hidden Markov process. Furthermore a class of estimating equations is considered...

  11. Regression Equations for Birth Weight Estimation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Birth Weight has been estimated from anthropometric measurements of hand and foot. Linear regression equations were formed from each of the measured variables. These simple equations can be used to estimate Birth Weight of new born babies, in order to identify those with low birth weight and referred to ...

  12. Equating accelerometer estimates among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brazendale, Keith; Beets, Michael W; Bornstein, Daniel B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Different accelerometer cutpoints used by different researchers often yields vastly different estimates of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA). This is recognized as cutpoint non-equivalence (CNE), which reduces the ability to accurately compare youth MVPA across...

  13. A finite element method for extended KdV equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karczewska Anna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The finite element method (FEM is applied to obtain numerical solutions to a recently derived nonlinear equation for the shallow water wave problem. A weak formulation and the Petrov–Galerkin method are used. It is shown that the FEM gives a reasonable description of the wave dynamics of soliton waves governed by extended KdV equations. Some new results for several cases of bottom shapes are presented. The numerical scheme presented here is suitable for taking into account stochastic effects, which will be discussed in a subsequent paper.

  14. Estimating gravity equations with endogeneous trade costs

    OpenAIRE

    Rudolph, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    A basic assumption of the gravity equation of international trade is that increasing trade costs lower exports. Butintuition and theory imply that a high export volume lowers bilateral trade costs as well, because a fixed cost intensivetrade sector probably bears lower average costs with more trade. In this case, standard gravity estimation might bebiased due to simultaneity. This paper finds an empirical interdependency between exports and trade costs. Using asimultaneous equation model to f...

  15. Allometric Equations for Estimating Above Ground Biomass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allometric Equations for Estimating Above Ground Biomass of Rhl'zophom mucronata Lamk. (Rhizophoraceae). Mangroves at Gazi Bay, Kenya. Kirui, B.,1 Kairo, 1.6.2 and Karachi, M.1. 'Egerton University. P. O. Box 536, Njoro. Kenya; 2Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research Institute. PO. Box 8165], Mombasa, Kenya.

  16. Optimal control problem for the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where zd ∈ S is a desired state and δ > 0 is fixed. An optimal control problem about the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation is min J (u, w),. (3.3) where (u, w) satisfies (3.1). Let X = W(0,T ; V ) × L2(Q0) and Y = L2(0,T ; V ) × H. We define an operator e = e(e1,e2) : X → Y, where e1 = (2)−1(ut + k2u − u + u3 − u − Bw) and.

  17. Parameter estimation in stochastic differential equations

    CERN Document Server

    Bishwal, Jaya P N

    2008-01-01

    Parameter estimation in stochastic differential equations and stochastic partial differential equations is the science, art and technology of modelling complex phenomena and making beautiful decisions. The subject has attracted researchers from several areas of mathematics and other related fields like economics and finance. This volume presents the estimation of the unknown parameters in the corresponding continuous models based on continuous and discrete observations and examines extensively maximum likelihood, minimum contrast and Bayesian methods. Useful because of the current availability of high frequency data is the study of refined asymptotic properties of several estimators when the observation time length is large and the observation time interval is small. Also space time white noise driven models, useful for spatial data, and more sophisticated non-Markovian and non-semimartingale models like fractional diffusions that model the long memory phenomena are examined in this volume.

  18. Flexible and efficient estimating equations for variogram estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2018-01-11

    Variogram estimation plays a vastly important role in spatial modeling. Different methods for variogram estimation can be largely classified into least squares methods and likelihood based methods. A general framework to estimate the variogram through a set of estimating equations is proposed. This approach serves as an alternative approach to likelihood based methods and includes commonly used least squares approaches as its special cases. The proposed method is highly efficient as a low dimensional representation of the weight matrix is employed. The statistical efficiency of various estimators is explored and the lag effect is examined. An application to a hydrology dataset is also presented.

  19. A single model procedure for estimating tank calibration equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebetrau, A.M.

    1997-10-01

    A fundamental component of any accountability system for nuclear materials is a tank calibration equation that relates the height of liquid in a tank to its volume. Tank volume calibration equations are typically determined from pairs of height and volume measurements taken in a series of calibration runs. After raw calibration data are standardized to a fixed set of reference conditions, the calibration equation is typically fit by dividing the data into several segments--corresponding to regions in the tank--and independently fitting the data for each segment. The estimates obtained for individual segments must then be combined to obtain an estimate of the entire calibration function. This process is tedious and time-consuming. Moreover, uncertainty estimates may be misleading because it is difficult to properly model run-to-run variability and between-segment correlation. In this paper, the authors describe a model whose parameters can be estimated simultaneously for all segments of the calibration data, thereby eliminating the need for segment-by-segment estimation. The essence of the proposed model is to define a suitable polynomial to fit to each segment and then extend its definition to the domain of the entire calibration function, so that it (the entire calibration function) can be expressed as the sum of these extended polynomials. The model provides defensible estimates of between-run variability and yields a proper treatment of between-segment correlations. A portable software package, called TANCS, has been developed to facilitate the acquisition, standardization, and analysis of tank calibration data. The TANCS package was used for the calculations in an example presented to illustrate the unified modeling approach described in this paper. With TANCS, a trial calibration function can be estimated and evaluated in a matter of minutes

  20. Anthropometric predictive equations for estimating body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Shanei, Ahmad; Salamat, Amir Hossein; Khoshhali, Mehri; Asgari, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Precise and accurate measurements of body composition are useful in achieving a greater understanding of human energy metabolism in physiology and in different clinical conditions, such as, cardiovascular disease and overall mortality. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used to measure body composition, but the easiest method to assess body composition is the use of anthropometric indices. This study has been designed to evaluate the accuracy and precision of body composition prediction equations by various anthropometric measures instead of a whole body DXA scan. Materials and Methods: We identified 143 adult patients underwent DXA evaluation of the whole body. The anthropometric indices were also measured. Datasets were split randomly into two parts. Multiple regression analysis with a backward stepwise elimination procedure was used as the derivation set and then the estimates were compared with the actual measurements from the whole-body scans for a validation set. The SPSS version 20 for Windows software was used in multiple regression and data analysis. Results: Using multiple linear regression analyses, the best equation for predicting the whole-body fat mass (R2 = 0.808) included the body mass index (BMI) and gender; the best equation for predicting whole-body lean mass (R2 = 0.780) included BMI, WC, gender, and age; and the best equation for predicting trunk fat mass (R2 = 0.759) included BMI, WC, and gender. Conclusions: Combinations of anthropometric measurements predict whole-body lean mass and trunk fat mass better than any of these single anthropometric indices. Therefore, the findings of the present study may be used to verify the results in patients with various diseases or diets. PMID:25709999

  1. Vision-Based Position Estimation Utilizing an Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    POSITION ESTIMATION UTILIZING AN EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER by Joseph B. Testa III December 2016 Thesis Advisor: Vladimir Dobrokhodov Co...TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE VISION-BASED POSITION ESTIMATION UTILIZING AN EXTENDED KALMAN FILTER 5. FUNDING...spots” and network relay between the boarding team and ship. 14. SUBJECT TERMS UAV, ROS, extended Kalman filter , Matlab

  2. Parameter Estimation of Partial Differential Equation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Xun, Xiaolei

    2013-09-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) models are commonly used to model complex dynamic systems in applied sciences such as biology and finance. The forms of these PDE models are usually proposed by experts based on their prior knowledge and understanding of the dynamic system. Parameters in PDE models often have interesting scientific interpretations, but their values are often unknown and need to be estimated from the measurements of the dynamic system in the presence of measurement errors. Most PDEs used in practice have no analytic solutions, and can only be solved with numerical methods. Currently, methods for estimating PDE parameters require repeatedly solving PDEs numerically under thousands of candidate parameter values, and thus the computational load is high. In this article, we propose two methods to estimate parameters in PDE models: a parameter cascading method and a Bayesian approach. In both methods, the underlying dynamic process modeled with the PDE model is represented via basis function expansion. For the parameter cascading method, we develop two nested levels of optimization to estimate the PDE parameters. For the Bayesian method, we develop a joint model for data and the PDE and develop a novel hierarchical model allowing us to employ Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques to make posterior inference. Simulation studies show that the Bayesian method and parameter cascading method are comparable, and both outperform other available methods in terms of estimation accuracy. The two methods are demonstrated by estimating parameters in a PDE model from long-range infrared light detection and ranging data. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. © 2013 American Statistical Association.

  3. A New Linearized Crank-Nicolson Mixed Element Scheme for the Extended Fisher-Kolmogorov Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Hong; He, Siriguleng; Gao, Wei

    2013-01-01

    We present a new mixed finite element method for solving the extended Fisher-Kolmogorov (EFK) equation. We first decompose the EFK equation as the two second-order equations, then deal with a second-order equation employing finite element method, and handle the other second-order equation using a new mixed finite element method. In the new mixed finite element method, the gradient ∇u belongs to the weaker (L 2(Ω))2 space taking the place of the classical H(div; Ω) space. We prove some a priori bounds for the solution for semidiscrete scheme and derive a fully discrete mixed scheme based on a linearized Crank-Nicolson method. At the same time, we get the optimal a priori error estimates in L 2 and H 1-norm for both the scalar unknown u and the diffusion term w = −Δu and a priori error estimates in (L 2)2-norm for its gradient χ = ∇u for both semi-discrete and fully discrete schemes. PMID:23864831

  4. Maximum profile likelihood estimation of differential equation parameters through model based smoothing state estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D A; Chkrebtii, O

    2013-12-01

    Statistical inference for biochemical models often faces a variety of characteristic challenges. In this paper we examine state and parameter estimation for the JAK-STAT intracellular signalling mechanism, which exemplifies the implementation intricacies common in many biochemical inference problems. We introduce an extension to the Generalized Smoothing approach for estimating delay differential equation models, addressing selection of complexity parameters, choice of the basis system, and appropriate optimization strategies. Motivated by the JAK-STAT system, we further extend the generalized smoothing approach to consider a nonlinear observation process with additional unknown parameters, and highlight how the approach handles unobserved states and unevenly spaced observations. The methodology developed is generally applicable to problems of estimation for differential equation models with delays, unobserved states, nonlinear observation processes, and partially observed histories. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Estimating value and volume of ponderosa pine trees by equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin E. Plank

    1981-01-01

    Equations for estimating the selling value and tally volume for ponderosa pine lumber from the standing trees are described. Only five characteristics are required for the equations. Development and application of the system are described.

  6. Nonparametric Bayesian drift estimation for multidimensional stochastic differential equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gugushvili, S.; Spreij, P.

    2014-01-01

    We consider nonparametric Bayesian estimation of the drift coefficient of a multidimensional stochastic differential equation from discrete-time observations on the solution of this equation. Under suitable regularity conditions, we establish posterior consistency in this context.

  7. Interior Gradient Estimates for Nonuniformly Parabolic Equations II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieberman Gary M

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove interior gradient estimates for a large class of parabolic equations in divergence form. Using some simple ideas, we prove these estimates for several types of equations that are not amenable to previous methods. In particular, we have no restrictions on the maximum eigenvalue of the coefficient matrix and we obtain interior gradient estimates for so-called false mean curvature equation.

  8. Nonlinear structures for extended Korteweg–de Vries equation in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Port Said University, Port Said 42521, Egypt ... 2. Basic equations and formulation of the problem. We consider a one-dimensional, collisionless, unmagnetized plasma consisting of positive ions, negative ions, electrons, ... is assumed to be adiabatic and is expressed by Ps = n(0).

  9. Extended sine-Gordon Equation Method and Its Application to Maccari's System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    An extended sine-Gordon equation method is proposed to construct exact travelling wave solutions to Maccari's equation based upon a generalized sine-Gordon equation. It is shown that more new travelling wave solutions can be found by this new method, which include bell-shaped soliton solutions, kink-shaped soliton solutions, periodic wave solution, and new travelling waves.

  10. Applications of extended F-expansion and projective Ricatti equation methods to (2+1)-dimensional soliton equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Hitender; Chand, Fakir

    2013-03-01

    The (2+1)-dimensional Maccari and nonlinear Schrödinger equations are reduced to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) by using a simple transformation, various solutions of the nonlinear ODE are obtained by using extended F-expansion and projective Ricatti equation methods. With the aid of solutions of the nonlinear ODE more explicit traveling wave solutions expressed by the hyperbolic functions, trigonometric functions and rational functions are found out. It is shown that these methods provides a powerful mathematical tool for solving nonlinear evolution equations in mathematical physics.

  11. Optimal control problem for the extended Fisher–Kolmogorov equation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    published to study the control problems of nonlinear parabolic equations, for example. [18, 19, 21–24]. ... The extension operator B ∈ L (L2(Q0), L2(0,T ; H)) which is called the controller is introduced as. Bq = { ..... It is well known that the optimality conditions for w is given by the variational inequality. J′(u, w)(v − w) ≥ 0, ...

  12. Adiabatic invariants of the extended KdV equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karczewska, Anna [Faculty of Mathematics, Computer Science and Econometrics, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Rozmej, Piotr, E-mail: p.rozmej@if.uz.zgora.pl [Institute of Physics, Faculty of Physics and Astronomy, University of Zielona Góra, Szafrana 4a, 65-246 Zielona Góra (Poland); Infeld, Eryk [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warszawa (Poland); Rowlands, George [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7A (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-30

    When the Euler equations for shallow water are taken to the next order, beyond KdV, momentum and energy are no longer exact invariants. (The only one is mass.) However, adiabatic invariants (AI) can be found. When the KdV expansion parameters are zero, exact invariants are recovered. Existence of adiabatic invariants results from general theory of near-identity transformations (NIT) which allow us to transform higher order nonintegrable equations to asymptotically equivalent (when small parameters tend to zero) integrable form. Here we present a direct method of calculations of adiabatic invariants. It does not need a transformation to a moving reference frame nor performing a near-identity transformation. Numerical tests show that deviations of AI from constant values are indeed small. - Highlights: • We suggest a new and simple method for calculating adiabatic invariants of second order wave equations. • It is easy to use and we hope that it will be useful if published. • Interesting numerics included.

  13. Optimal Estimating Equation for Logistic Regression with Linked Data

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, Jenkin; Dasylva, Abel; Chu, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    We propose an optimal estimating equation for logistic regression with linked data while accounting for false positives. It builds on a previous solution but estimates the regression coefficients with a smaller variance, in large samples.

  14. Equation of motion for estimation fidelity of monitored oscillating qubits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the convergence properties of state estimates of an oscillating qubit being monitored by a sequence of discrete, unsharp measurements. Our method derives a differential equation determining the evolution of the estimation fidelity from a...

  15. Reconstruction of extended sources for the Helmholtz equation

    KAUST Repository

    Kress, Rainer

    2013-02-26

    The basis of most imaging methods is to detect hidden obstacles or inclusions within a body when one can only make measurements on an exterior surface. Our underlying model is that of inverse acoustic scattering based on the Helmholtz equation. Our inclusions are interior forces with compact support and our data consist of a single measurement of near-field Cauchy data on the external boundary. We propose an algorithm that under certain assumptions allows for the determination of the support set of these forces by solving a simpler \\'equivalent point source\\' problem, and which uses a Newton scheme to improve the corresponding initial approximation. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Reconstruction of extended sources for the Helmholtz equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, Rainer; Rundell, William

    2013-01-01

    The basis of most imaging methods is to detect hidden obstacles or inclusions within a body when one can only make measurements on an exterior surface. Our underlying model is that of inverse acoustic scattering based on the Helmholtz equation. Our inclusions are interior forces with compact support and our data consist of a single measurement of near-field Cauchy data on the external boundary. We propose an algorithm that under certain assumptions allows for the determination of the support set of these forces by solving a simpler ‘equivalent point source’ problem, and which uses a Newton scheme to improve the corresponding initial approximation. (paper)

  17. Smoothing and Decay Estimates for Nonlinear Diffusion Equations Equations of Porous Medium Type

    CERN Document Server

    Vázquez, Juan Luis

    2006-01-01

    This text is concerned with the quantitative aspects of the theory of nonlinear diffusion equations; equations which can be seen as nonlinear variations of the classical heat equation. They appear as mathematical models in different branches of Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Engineering, and are also relevant in differential geometry and relativistic physics. Much of the modern theory of such equations is based on estimates and functional analysis.Concentrating on a class of equations with nonlinearities of power type that lead to degenerate or singular parabolicity ("equations of porou

  18. [Statistical estimation of parameters in allometric equations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zotin, A A

    2000-01-01

    An algorithm for estimating allometric coefficients widely used in biological studies is presented. The coefficients can be estimated only when the relationship between logarithms of the approximated data meets the linearity criterion. The proposed algorithm was applied for the brain-body weight relationship in mammals and oxygen consumption rate-body weight relationship in amphibians.

  19. Equations to estimate creatinine excretion rate: the CKD epidemiology collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ix, Joachim H; Wassel, Christina L; Stevens, Lesley A; Beck, Gerald J; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E; Zhang, Yaping Lucy; Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S

    2011-01-01

    Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Participants (n = 2466) from three kidney disease trials were randomly allocated into equation development (2/3) and internal validation (1/3) data sets. CER served as the dependent variable in linear regression to develop new equations. Their stability was assessed within the internal validation data set. Among 987 individuals from three additional studies the equations were externally validated and compared with existing equations. Mean age was 46 years, 42% were women, and 9% were black. Age, sex, race, weight, and serum phosphorus improved model fit. Two equations were developed, with or without serum phosphorus. In external validation, the new equations showed little bias (mean difference [measured - estimated CER] -0.7% [95% confidence interval -2.5% to 1.0%] and 0.3% [95% confidence interval -2.6% to 3.1%], respectively) and moderate precision (estimated CER within 30% of measured CER among 79% [76% to 81%] and 81% [77% to 85%], respectively). Corresponding numbers within 15% were 51% [48% to 54%] and 54% [50% to 59%]). Compared with existing equations, the new equations had similar accuracy but showed less bias in individuals with high measured CER. CER can be estimated with commonly available variables with little bias and moderate precision, which may facilitate assessment of accuracy of timed urine collections.

  20. Gradient estimates on the weighted p-Laplace heat equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin Feng

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, by a regularization process we derive new gradient estimates for positive solutions to the weighted p-Laplace heat equation when the m-Bakry-Émery curvature is bounded from below by -K for some constant K ≥ 0. When the potential function is constant, which reduce to the gradient estimate established by Ni and Kotschwar for positive solutions to the p-Laplace heat equation on closed manifolds with nonnegative Ricci curvature if K ↘ 0, and reduce to the Davies, Hamilton and Li-Xu's gradient estimates for positive solutions to the heat equation on closed manifolds with Ricci curvature bounded from below if p = 2.

  1. Deriving the New Traveling Wave Solutions for the Nonlinear Dispersive Equation, KdV-ZK Equation and Complex Coupled KdV System Using Extended Simplest Equation Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, K. Elboree

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate the traveling wave solutions for the nonlinear dispersive equation, Korteweg-de Vries Zakharov-Kuznetsov (KdV-ZK) equation and complex coupled KdV system by using extended simplest equation method, and then derive the hyperbolic function solutions include soliton solutions, trigonometric function solutions include periodic solutions with special values for double parameters and rational solutions. The properties of such solutions are shown by figures. The results show that this method is an effective and a powerful tool for handling the solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations (NLEEs) in mathematical physics.

  2. EQUATIONS FOR LEAN SHARE ESTIMATION IN SWINE CARCASSES IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kušec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was performed on 144 pig carcasses selected on the basis of backfat measures obtained by “ZP”- method. There was no stratification according to the carcass weight. One day after slaughter the carcasses were dissected by to EU reference method. The lean share was calculated by equation prescribed by European regulation (Commission Regulation No 3127/94 and estimated by six equations. The first one (MP1 is prescribed by current Croatian regulation (N.N. 119/1999 and the other five were developed on the basis of original data obtained by the experiment. The meat percentage estimated by equation MP1 differed statistically (p<0.01 from mean meat percentage obtained by EU referent method; the current formula significantly overestimates the meatiness of pig carcasses from Croatian population. Original measures of fat and muscle measured for “ZP”- method were used as independent variables in equation MP6. In order to improve the accuracy of estimation, transformed variables were used in equations MP2-MP5. Additional measure of warm carcass weight (T was included as an independent variable to equations MP4 and MP5 but this did not improve their accuracy. Equation MP2 to MP5 satisfy the statistical criterion requested by EU regulations. The equation MP2 and MP5 can be recommended for lean share estimation in pig carcasses of Croatian pig population.

  3. Analyticity estimates for the Navier-Stokes equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, I.; Skibsted, Erik

    We study spatial analyticity properties of solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation and obtain new growth rate estimates for the analyticity radius. We also study stability properties of strong global solutions of the Navier-Stokes equation with data in and prove a stability result...

  4. Equations to Estimate Creatinine Excretion Rate : The CKD Epidemiology Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ix, Joachim H.; Wassel, Christina L.; Stevens, Lesley A.; Beck, Gerald J.; Froissart, Marc; Navis, Gerjan; Rodby, Roger; Torres, Vicente E.; Zhang, Yaping (Lucy); Greene, Tom; Levey, Andrew S.

    Background and objectives Creatinine excretion rate (CER) indicates timed urine collection accuracy. Although equations to estimate CER exist, their bias and precision are untested and none simultaneously include age, sex, race, and weight. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Participants

  5. Self-consistence equations for extended Feynman rules in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielenberg, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis improved solutions for Green's functions are obtained. First the for this thesis essential techniques and concepts of QCD as euclidean field theory are presented. After a discussion of the foundations of the extended approach for the Feynman rules of QCD with a systematic approach for the 4-gluon vertex a modified renormalization scheme for the extended approach is developed. Thereafter the resummation of the Dyson-Schwinger equations (DSE) by the appropriately modified Bethe-Salpeter equation is discussed. Then the leading divergences for the 1-loop graphs of the resummed DSE are determined. Thereafter the equation-of-motion condensate is defined as result of an operator-product expansion. Then the self-consistency equations for the extended approaches are defined and numerically solved. (HSI)

  6. Lidar method to estimate emission rates from extended sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, point measurements, often combined with models, are the primary means by which atmospheric emission rates are estimated from extended sources. However, these methods often fall short in their spatial and temporal resolution and accuracy. In recent years, lidar has emerged as a suitable to...

  7. Parameter Estimation in Stochastic Differential Equations; An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jan Nygaard; Madsen, Henrik; Young, P. C.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the progress of research on parameter estimation methods for stochastic differential equations (mostly in the sense of Ito calculus) over the period 1981-1999. These are considered both without measurement noise and with measurement noise, where the discretely...... observed stochastic differential equations are embedded in a continuous-discrete time state space model. Every attempts has been made to include results from other scientific disciplines. Maximum likelihood estimation of parameters in nonlinear stochastic differential equations is in general not possible...

  8. Networked traffic state estimation involving mixed fixed-mobile sensor data using Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Canepa, Edward S.

    2017-06-19

    Nowadays, traffic management has become a challenge for urban areas, which are covering larger geographic spaces and facing the generation of different kinds of traffic data. This article presents a robust traffic estimation framework for highways modeled by a system of Lighthill Whitham Richards equations that is able to assimilate different sensor data available. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using a Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton–Jacobi equation are linear ones. We then pose the problem of estimating the traffic density given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then extend the density estimation framework to highway networks with any available data constraint and modeling junctions. Finally, we present a travel estimation application for a small network using real traffic measurements obtained obtained during Mobile Century traffic experiment, and comparing the results with ground truth data.

  9. Estimation of Sideslip Angle Based on Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yupeng Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The sideslip angle plays an extremely important role in vehicle stability control, but the sideslip angle in production car cannot be obtained from sensor directly in consideration of the cost of the sensor; it is essential to estimate the sideslip angle indirectly by means of other vehicle motion parameters; therefore, an estimation algorithm with real-time performance and accuracy is critical. Traditional estimation method based on Kalman filter algorithm is correct in vehicle linear control area; however, on low adhesion road, vehicles have obvious nonlinear characteristics. In this paper, extended Kalman filtering algorithm had been put forward in consideration of the nonlinear characteristic of the tire and was verified by the Carsim and Simulink joint simulation, such as the simulation on the wet cement road and the ice and snow road with double lane change. To test and verify the effect of extended Kalman filtering estimation algorithm, the real vehicle test was carried out on the limit test field. The experimental results show that the accuracy of vehicle sideslip angle acquired by extended Kalman filtering algorithm is obviously higher than that acquired by Kalman filtering in the area of the nonlinearity.

  10. Developing a generalized allometric equation for aboveground biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q.; Balamuta, J. J.; Greenberg, J. A.; Li, B.; Man, A.; Xu, Z.

    2015-12-01

    A key potential uncertainty in estimating carbon stocks across multiple scales stems from the use of empirically calibrated allometric equations, which estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) from plant characteristics such as diameter at breast height (DBH) and/or height (H). The equations themselves contain significant and, at times, poorly characterized errors. Species-specific equations may be missing. Plant responses to their local biophysical environment may lead to spatially varying allometric relationships. The structural predictor may be difficult or impossible to measure accurately, particularly when derived from remote sensing data. All of these issues may lead to significant and spatially varying uncertainties in the estimation of AGB that are unexplored in the literature. We sought to quantify the errors in predicting AGB at the tree and plot level for vegetation plots in California. To accomplish this, we derived a generalized allometric equation (GAE) which we used to model the AGB on a full set of tree information such as DBH, H, taxonomy, and biophysical environment. The GAE was derived using published allometric equations in the GlobAllomeTree database. The equations were sparse in details about the error since authors provide the coefficient of determination (R2) and the sample size. A more realistic simulation of tree AGB should also contain the noise that was not captured by the allometric equation. We derived an empirically corrected variance estimate for the amount of noise to represent the errors in the real biomass. Also, we accounted for the hierarchical relationship between different species by treating each taxonomic level as a covariate nested within a higher taxonomic level (e.g. species equations, the plant's taxonomy, and their biophysical environment.

  11. The integrability of an extended fifth-order KdV equation with Riccati ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Furthermore, the infinitely many conservation laws of the extended Lax equation are found using its Lax pair. ... Shanghai Key Laboratory of Trustworthy Computing, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, People's Republic of China; College of Art and Sciences, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306, ...

  12. The integrability of an extended fifth-order KdV equation with Riccati ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2College of Art and Sciences, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 201306,. People's Republic of China. ∗ ... Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, Hamiltonian structure and Painlevé test that can characterize the ... the infinitely many conservation laws of the extended Lax equation are found by using its. Lax pair.

  13. Application of Extended Tanh Method to Generalized Burgers-type Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Panahipour

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show that the extended tanh method can be applied readily to generate exact soliton solutions of generalized forms of Burgers-KdV, Burgers-EW, two-dimensional Burgers-KdV and two-dimensional Burgers-EW equations.

  14. Classification of kink type solutions to the extended derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wyller, J.; Fla, T.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Raman Extended Derivative Non Linear Schrodinger (R-EDNLS) equation which models single mode propagation in optical fibers, is shown to possess travelling and stationary kink envelope solutions of monotonic and oscillatory type. These structures have been called optical shocks in analogy...

  15. Continuous extendibility of solutions of the Neumann problem for the Laplace equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2003), s. 377-395 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : Neumann problem * Laplace equation * continuous extendibility Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.210, year: 2003

  16. Continuous extendibility of solutions of the third problem for the Laplace equation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Medková, Dagmar

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 3 (2003), s. 669-688 ISSN 0011-4642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/00/1515 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : third problem * Laplace equation * continuous extendibility Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.210, year: 2003

  17. Statistically and Computationally Efficient Estimating Equations for Large Spatial Datasets

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying

    2014-11-07

    For Gaussian process models, likelihood based methods are often difficult to use with large irregularly spaced spatial datasets, because exact calculations of the likelihood for n observations require O(n3) operations and O(n2) memory. Various approximation methods have been developed to address the computational difficulties. In this paper, we propose new unbiased estimating equations based on score equation approximations that are both computationally and statistically efficient. We replace the inverse covariance matrix that appears in the score equations by a sparse matrix to approximate the quadratic forms, then set the resulting quadratic forms equal to their expected values to obtain unbiased estimating equations. The sparse matrix is constructed by a sparse inverse Cholesky approach to approximate the inverse covariance matrix. The statistical efficiency of the resulting unbiased estimating equations are evaluated both in theory and by numerical studies. Our methods are applied to nearly 90,000 satellite-based measurements of water vapor levels over a region in the Southeast Pacific Ocean.

  18. Clinical usefulness of a new equation for estimating body fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Silva, Camilo; Catalán, Victoria; Rodríguez, Amaia; Galofré, Juan Carlos; Escalada, Javier; Valentí, Victor; Rotellar, Fernando; Romero, Sonia; Ramírez, Beatriz; Salvador, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema

    2012-02-01

    To assess the predictive capacity of a recently described equation that we have termed CUN-BAE (Clínica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator) based on BMI, sex, and age for estimating body fat percentage (BF%) and to study its clinical usefulness. We conducted a comparison study of the developed equation with many other anthropometric indices regarding its correlation with actual BF% in a large cohort of 6,510 white subjects from both sexes (67% female) representing a wide range of ages (18-80 years) and adiposity. Additionally, a validation study in a separate cohort (n = 1,149) and a further analysis of the clinical usefulness of this prediction equation regarding its association with cardiometabolic risk factors (n = 634) was carried out. The mean BF% in the cohort of 6,510 subjects determined by air displacement plethysmography was 39.9 ± 10.1%, and the mean BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE was 39.3 ± 8.9% (SE of the estimate, 4.66%). In this group, BF% calculated with the CUN-BAE showed the highest correlation with actual BF% (r = 0.89, P < 0.000001) compared with other anthropometric measures or BF% estimators. Similar agreement was found in the validation sample. Moreover, BF% estimated by the CUN-BAE exhibits, in general, better correlations with cardiometabolic risk factors than BMI as well as waist circumference in the subset of 634 subjects. CUN-BAE is an easy-to-apply predictive equation that may be used as a first screening tool in clinical practice. Furthermore, our equation may be a good tool for identifying patients at cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk.

  19. A simple method for estimating the convectiondispersion equation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The convection-dispersion equation (CDE) is the classical approach for modeling solute transport in porous media. So, estimating parameters became a key problem in CDE. For statistical method, some problems such as parameter uniqueness are still unsolved because of more factors. Due to the advantage of clear ...

  20. Development of a preliminary regression equation for estimating the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Objective: To develop a regression equation to estimate the weight of black male paraplegic South African subjects. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Outpatient paraplegic clinic of Kalafong Hospital, Tshwane, South Africa. Subjects: Subjects (n = 43) were selected from a population of black paraplegic males ...

  1. Developing allometric equations for estimating leaf area and leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimation of leaf area (LA) and leaf biomass (LB) is important to understand plant physiological and carbon assimilation processes, and tree growth models. The aim of this study was to develop and compare allometric equations for predicting LA and LB of Artocarpus chaplasha Roxb. taking diameter at breast height ...

  2. ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS IN PAPUA TROPICAL FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhi Imam Maulana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Allometric equations can be used to estimate biomass and carbon stock of  the forest. However, so far the allometric equations for commercial species in Papua tropical forests have not been appropriately developed. In this research, allometric equations are presented based on the genera of  commercial species. Few equations have been developed for the commercial species of  Intsia, Pometia, Palaquium and Vatica genera and an equation of  a mix of  these genera. The number of  trees sampled in this research was 49, with diameters (1.30 m above-ground or above buttresses ranging from 5 to 40 cm. Destructive sampling was used to collect the samples where Diameter at Breast Height (DBH and Wood Density (WD were used as predictors for dry weight of  Total Above-Ground Biomass (TAGB. Model comparison and selection were based on the values of  F-statistics, R-sq, R-sq (adj, and average deviation. Based on these statistical indicators, the most suitable model for Intsia, Pometia, Palaquium and Vatica genera respectively are Log(TAGB = -0.76 + 2.51Log(DBH, Log(TAGB = -0.84 + 2.57Log(DBH, Log(TAGB = -1.52 + 2.96Log(DBH, and Log(TAGB = -0.09 + 2.08Log(DBH. Additional explanatory variables such as Commercial Bole Height (CBH do not really increase the indicators’ goodness of  fit for the equation. An alternative model to incorporate wood density should  be considered for estimating the above-ground biomass for mixed genera. Comparing the presented mixed-genera equation; Log(TAGB = 0.205 + 2.08Log(DBH + 1.75Log(WD, R-sq: 97.0%, R-sq (adj: 96.9%, F statistics 750.67, average deviation: 3.5%; to previously published datashows that this local species specific equation differs substantially from previously published equations and this site-specific equation is  considered to give a better estimation of  biomass.

  3. Explicit estimating equations for semiparametric generalized linear latent variable models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2010-07-05

    We study generalized linear latent variable models without requiring a distributional assumption of the latent variables. Using a geometric approach, we derive consistent semiparametric estimators. We demonstrate that these models have a property which is similar to that of a sufficient complete statistic, which enables us to simplify the estimating procedure and explicitly to formulate the semiparametric estimating equations. We further show that the explicit estimators have the usual root n consistency and asymptotic normality. We explain the computational implementation of our method and illustrate the numerical performance of the estimators in finite sample situations via extensive simulation studies. The advantage of our estimators over the existing likelihood approach is also shown via numerical comparison. We employ the method to analyse a real data example from economics. © 2010 Royal Statistical Society.

  4. Numerical treatment of wave breaking on unstructured finite volume approximations for extended Boussinesq-type equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazolea, M.; Delis, A. I.; Synolakis, C. E.

    2014-08-01

    A new methodology is presented to handle wave breaking over complex bathymetries in extended two-dimensional Boussinesq-type (BT) models which are solved by an unstructured well-balanced finite volume (FV) scheme. The numerical model solves the 2D extended BT equations proposed by Nwogu (1993), recast in conservation law form with a hyperbolic flux identical to that of the Non-linear Shallow Water (NSW) equations. Certain criteria, along with their proper implementation, are established to characterize breaking waves. Once breaking waves are recognized, we switch locally in the computational domain from the BT to NSW equations by suppressing the dispersive terms in the vicinity of the wave fronts. Thus, the shock-capturing features of the FV scheme enable an intrinsic representation of the breaking waves, which are handled as shocks by the NSW equations. An additional methodology is presented on how to perform a stable switching between the BT and NSW equations within the unstructured FV framework. Extensive validations are presented, demonstrating the performance of the proposed wave breaking treatment, along with some comparisons with other well-established wave breaking mechanisms that have been proposed for BT models.

  5. The cluster bootstrap consistency in generalized estimating equations

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Guang

    2013-03-01

    The cluster bootstrap resamples clusters or subjects instead of individual observations in order to preserve the dependence within each cluster or subject. In this paper, we provide a theoretical justification of using the cluster bootstrap for the inferences of the generalized estimating equations (GEE) for clustered/longitudinal data. Under the general exchangeable bootstrap weights, we show that the cluster bootstrap yields a consistent approximation of the distribution of the regression estimate, and a consistent approximation of the confidence sets. We also show that a computationally more efficient one-step version of the cluster bootstrap provides asymptotically equivalent inference. © 2012.

  6. Design of TIR collimating lens for ordinary differential equation of extended light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Qianjing; Liu, Xiaoqin; Hou, Zaihong; Wu, Yi

    2017-10-01

    The source of LED has been widely used in our daily life. The intensity angle distribution of single LED is lambert distribution, which does not satisfy the requirement of people. Therefore, we need to distribute light and change the LED's intensity angle distribution. The most commonly method to change its intensity angle distribution is the free surface. Generally, using ordinary differential equations to calculate free surface can only be applied in a point source, but it will lead to a big error for the expand light. This paper proposes a LED collimating lens based on the ordinary differential equation, combined with the LED's light distribution curve, and adopt the method of calculating the center gravity of the extended light to get the normal vector. According to the law of Snell, the ordinary differential equations are constructed. Using the runge-kutta method for solution of ordinary differential equation solution, the curve point coordinates are gotten. Meanwhile, the edge point data of lens are imported into the optical simulation software TracePro. Based on 1mm×1mm single lambert body for light conditions, The degrees of collimating light can be close to +/-3. Furthermore, the energy utilization rate is higher than 85%. In this paper, the point light source is used to calculate partial differential equation method and compared with the simulation of the lens, which improve the effect of 1 degree of collimation.

  7. Nonparametric estimation of stochastic differential equations with sparse Gaussian processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Constantino A; Otero, Abraham; Félix, Paulo; Presedo, Jesús; Márquez, David G

    2017-08-01

    The application of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) to the analysis of temporal data has attracted increasing attention, due to their ability to describe complex dynamics with physically interpretable equations. In this paper, we introduce a nonparametric method for estimating the drift and diffusion terms of SDEs from a densely observed discrete time series. The use of Gaussian processes as priors permits working directly in a function-space view and thus the inference takes place directly in this space. To cope with the computational complexity that requires the use of Gaussian processes, a sparse Gaussian process approximation is provided. This approximation permits the efficient computation of predictions for the drift and diffusion terms by using a distribution over a small subset of pseudosamples. The proposed method has been validated using both simulated data and real data from economy and paleoclimatology. The application of the method to real data demonstrates its ability to capture the behavior of complex systems.

  8. Quantitative Compactness Estimates for Hamilton-Jacobi Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Fabio; Cannarsa, Piermarco; Nguyen, Khai T.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantitative compactness estimates in {W^{1,1}_{loc}} for the map {S_t}, {t > 0} that is associated with the given initial data {u_0in Lip (R^N)} for the corresponding solution {S_t u_0} of a Hamilton-Jacobi equation u_t+Hbig(nabla_{x} ubig)=0, qquad t≥ 0,quad xinR^N, with a uniformly convex Hamiltonian {H=H(p)}. We provide upper and lower estimates of order {1/\\varepsilon^N} on the Kolmogorov {\\varepsilon}-entropy in {W^{1,1}} of the image through the map S t of sets of bounded, compactly supported initial data. Estimates of this type are inspired by a question posed by Lax (Course on Hyperbolic Systems of Conservation Laws. XXVII Scuola Estiva di Fisica Matematica, Ravello, 2002) within the context of conservation laws, and could provide a measure of the order of "resolution" of a numerical method implemented for this equation.

  9. The Extended-Window Channel Estimator for Iterative Channel-and-Symbol Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry John R

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the expectation-maximization (EM algorithm to channel estimation results in a well-known iterative channel-and-symbol estimator (ICSE. The EM-ICSE iterates between a symbol estimator based on the forward-backward recursion (BCJR equalizer and a channel estimator, and may provide approximate maximum-likelihood blind or semiblind channel estimates. Nevertheless, the EM-ICSE has high complexity, and it is prone to misconvergence. In this paper, we propose the extended-window (EW estimator, a novel channel estimator for ICSE that can be used with any soft-output symbol estimator. Therefore, the symbol estimator may be chosen according to performance or complexity specifications. We show that the EW-ICSE, an ICSE that uses the EW estimator and the BCJR equalizer, is less complex and less susceptible to misconvergence than the EM-ICSE. Simulation results reveal that the EW-ICSE may converge faster than the EM-ICSE.

  10. A relativistic extended Fermi-Thomas-like equation for a self-gravitating system of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merloni, A.; Ruffini, R.; Torroni, V.

    1998-01-01

    The authors extend previous results of a Fermi-Thomas model, describing self-gravitating fermions in their ground state, to a relativistic gravitational theory in Minkowski space. In such a theory the source term of the gravitational potential depends both on the pressure and the density of the fluid. It is shown that, in correspondence of this relativistic treatment, still a Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be derived for the self-gravitating system, though the non-linearities are much more complex. No Fermi-Thomas-like equation can be obtained in the General Relativistic treatment. The canonical results for neutron stars and white dwarfs are recovered and also some erroneous statements in the scientific literature are corrected

  11. Exact Interaction Solutions of an Extended (2+1)-Dimensional Shallow Water Wave Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun-Hu; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Sheng; Chaolu, TEMUER

    2017-08-01

    Applying the consistent Riccati expansion method, the extended (2+1)-dimensional shallow water wave equation is proved consistent Riccati solvable and the exact interaction solutions including soliton-cnoidal wave solutions, solitoff-typed solutions are obtained. With the help of the truncated Painlevé expansion, the corresponding nonlocal symmetry is also given, and furthermore, the nonlocal symmetry is localized by prolonging the related enlarged system. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11405103, 11571008, 51679132, 11601321, and 11526137

  12. Validation of estimated glomerular filtration rate equations for Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Uemura, Osamu; Ishikura, Kenji; Sakai, Tomoyuki; Hamasaki, Yuko; Araki, Yoshinori; Hamda, Riku; Honda, Masataka

    2018-01-25

    The gold standard for evaluation of kidney function is renal inulin clearance (Cin). However, the methodology for Cin is complicated and difficult, especially for younger children and/or patients with bladder dysfunction. Therefore, we developed a simple and easier method for obtaining the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using equations and values for several biomarkers, i.e., serum creatinine (Cr), serum cystatin C (cystC), serum beta-2 microglobulin (β 2 MG), and creatinine clearance (Ccr). The purpose of the present study was to validate these equations with a new data set. To validate each equation, we used data of 140 patients with CKD with clinical need for Cin, using the measured GFR (mGFR). We compared the results for each eGFR equation with the mGFR using mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), P 30 , and Bland-Altman analysis. The ME of Cr, cystC, β 2 MG, and Ccr based on eGFR was 15.8 ± 13.0, 17.2 ± 16.5, 15.4 ± 14.3, and 10.6 ± 13.0 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively. The RMSE was 29.5, 23.8, 20.9, and 16.7, respectively. The P 30 was 79.4, 71.1, 69.5, and 92.9%, respectively. The Bland-Altman bias analysis showed values of 4.0 ± 18.6, 5.3 ± 16.8, 12.7 ± 17.0, and 2.5 ± 17.2 ml/min/1.73 m 2 , respectively, for these parameters. The bias of each eGFR equation was not large. Therefore, each eGFR equation could be used.

  13. A Comparison of Kernel Equating and Traditional Equipercentile Equating Methods and the Parametric Bootstrap Methods for Estimating Standard Errors in Equipercentile Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sae Il

    2009-01-01

    This study used simulation (a) to compare the kernel equating method to traditional equipercentile equating methods under the equivalent-groups (EG) design and the nonequivalent-groups with anchor test (NEAT) design and (b) to apply the parametric bootstrap method for estimating standard errors of equating. A two-parameter logistic item response…

  14. Rigid Body Inertia Estimation Using Extended Kalman and Savitzky-Golay Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghoon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inertia properties of rigid body such as ground, aerial, and space vehicles may be changed by several occasions, and this variation of the properties influences the control accuracy of the rigid body. For this reason, accurate inertia properties need to be obtained for precise control. An estimation process is required for both noisy gyro measurements and the time derivative of the gyro measurements. In this paper, an estimation method is proposed for having reliable estimates of inertia properties. First, the Euler equations of motion are reformulated to obtain a regressor matrix. Next, the extended Kalman filter is adopted to reduce the noise effects in gyro angular velocity measurements. Last, the inertia properties are estimated using linear least squares. To achieve reliable and accurate angular accelerations, a Savitzky-Golay filter based on an even number sampled data is utilized. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm for the case of a space vehicle. The numerical simulation results show that the proposed algorithm provides accurate inertia property estimates in the presence of noisy measurements.

  15. Evaluation of clear-sky incoming radiation estimating equations typically used in remote sensing evapotranspiration algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sun, Z

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available . Results reveal (1) both R(subS) and R(subL) estimates from all evaluated equations well correlate with observations (R2 = 0.92), (2) R(subS) estimating equations tend to overestimate, especially at higher values, (3) R(subL) estimating equations tend...

  16. Transport parameter estimation from lymph measurements and the Patlak equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, P D; Wolf, M B

    1992-01-01

    Two methods of estimating protein transport parameters for plasma-to-lymph transport data are presented. Both use IBM-compatible computers to obtain least-squares parameters for the solvent drag reflection coefficient and the permeability-surface area product using the Patlak equation. A matrix search approach is described, and the speed and convenience of this are compared with a commercially available gradient method. The results from both of these methods were different from those of a method reported by Reed, Townsley, and Taylor [Am. J. Physiol. 257 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 26): H1037-H1041, 1989]. It is shown that the Reed et al. method contains a systematic error. It is also shown that diffusion always plays an important role for transmembrane transport at the exit end of a membrane channel under all conditions of lymph flow rate and that the statement that diffusion becomes zero at high lymph flow rate depends on a mathematical definition of diffusion.

  17. Extended lubrication theory: improved estimates of flow in channels with variable geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakol, Behrouz; Froehlicher, Guillaume; Holmes, Douglas P; Stone, Howard A

    2017-10-01

    Lubrication theory is broadly applicable to the flow characterization of thin fluid films and the motion of particles near surfaces. We offer an extension to lubrication theory by starting with Stokes equations and considering higher-order terms in a systematic perturbation expansion to describe the fluid flow in a channel with features of a modest aspect ratio. Experimental results qualitatively confirm the higher-order analytical solutions, while numerical results are in very good agreement with the higher-order analytical results. We show that the extended lubrication theory is a robust tool for an accurate estimate of pressure drop in channels with shape changes on the order of the channel height, accounting for both smooth and sharp changes in geometry.

  18. Analysis of comparative data using generalized estimating equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Emmanuel; Claude, Julien

    2002-09-21

    It is widely acknowledged that the analysis of comparative data from related species should be performed taking into account their phylogenetic relationships. We introduce a new method, based on the use of generalized estimating equations (GEE), for the analysis of comparative data. The principle is to incorporate, in the modelling process, a correlation matrix that specifies the dependence among observations. This matrix is obtained from the phylogenetic tree of the studied species. Using this approach, a variety of distributions (discrete or continuous) can be analysed using a generalized linear modelling framework, phylogenies with multichotomies can be analysed, and there is no need to estimate ancestral character state. A simulation study showed that the proposed approach has good statistical properties with a type-I error rate close to the nominal 5%, and statistical power to detect correlated evolution between two characters which increases with the strength of the correlation. The proposed approach performs well for the analysis of discrete characters. We illustrate our approach with some data on macro-ecological correlates in birds. Some extensions of the use of GEE are discussed.

  19. INTERVAL STATE ESTIMATION FOR SINGULAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION SYSTEMS WITH DELAYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kharkovskaia

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with linear differential equation systems with algebraic restrictions (singular systems and a method of interval observer design for this kind of systems. The systems contain constant time delay, measurement noise and disturbances. Interval observer synthesis is based on monotone and cooperative systems technique, linear matrix inequations, Lyapunov function theory and interval arithmetic. The set of conditions that gives the possibility for interval observer synthesis is proposed. Results of synthesized observer operation are shown on the example of dynamical interindustry balance model. The advantages of proposed method are that it is adapted to observer design for uncertain systems, if the intervals of admissible values for uncertain parameters are given. The designed observer is capable to provide asymptotically definite limits on the estimation accuracy, since the interval of admissible values for the object state is defined at every instant. The obtained result provides an opportunity to develop the interval estimation theory for complex systems that contain parametric uncertainty, varying delay and nonlinear elements. Interval observers increasingly find applications in economics, electrical engineering, mechanical systems with constraints and optimal flow control.

  20. A matlab framework for estimation of NLME models using stochastic differential equations: applications for estimation of insulin secretion rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Stig B; Klim, Søren; Dammann, Bernd; Kristensen, Niels R; Madsen, Henrik; Overgaard, Rune V

    2007-10-01

    The non-linear mixed-effects model based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs) provides an attractive residual error model, that is able to handle serially correlated residuals typically arising from structural mis-specification of the true underlying model. The use of SDEs also opens up for new tools for model development and easily allows for tracking of unknown inputs and parameters over time. An algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the model has earlier been proposed, and the present paper presents the first general implementation of this algorithm. The implementation is done in Matlab and also demonstrates the use of parallel computing for improved estimation times. The use of the implementation is illustrated by two examples of application which focus on the ability of the model to estimate unknown inputs facilitated by the extension to SDEs. The first application is a deconvolution-type estimation of the insulin secretion rate based on a linear two-compartment model for C-peptide measurements. In the second application the model is extended to also give an estimate of the time varying liver extraction based on both C-peptide and insulin measurements.

  1. Volume equations and biomass estimates for three species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Volume equations predict the volume of the stem of a tree from dendrometrical characteristics that are easy to measure, such as diameter and/or height. These equations can serve as a surrogate for biomass equations, by converting the stem volume to stem biomass, and then expanding it to the total aboveground biomass.

  2. Estimation of aircraft aerodynamic derivatives using Extended Kalman Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Curvo, M.

    2000-01-01

    Design of flight control laws, verification of performance predictions, and the implementation of flight simulations are tasks that require a mathematical model of the aircraft dynamics. The dynamical models are characterized by coefficients (aerodynamic derivatives) whose values must be determined from flight tests. This work outlines the use of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) in obtaining the aerodynamic derivatives of an aircraft. The EKF shows several advantages over the more traditional...

  3. Error Estimates for Approximate Optimization by the Extended Ritz Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kůrková, Věra; Sanguineti, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2005), s. 461-487 ISSN 1052-6234 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/02/0428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : functional optimization * rates of convergence of suboptimal solutions * (extended) Ritz method * curse of dimensionality * convex best approximation problems * learning from data by kernel methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.238, year: 2005

  4. Modulating Function-Based Method for Parameter and Source Estimation of Partial Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-10-08

    Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) are commonly used to model complex systems that arise for example in biology, engineering, chemistry, and elsewhere. The parameters (or coefficients) and the source of PDE models are often unknown and are estimated from available measurements. Despite its importance, solving the estimation problem is mathematically and numerically challenging and especially when the measurements are corrupted by noise, which is often the case. Various methods have been proposed to solve estimation problems in PDEs which can be classified into optimization methods and recursive methods. The optimization methods are usually heavy computationally, especially when the number of unknowns is large. In addition, they are sensitive to the initial guess and stop condition, and they suffer from the lack of robustness to noise. Recursive methods, such as observer-based approaches, are limited by their dependence on some structural properties such as observability and identifiability which might be lost when approximating the PDE numerically. Moreover, most of these methods provide asymptotic estimates which might not be useful for control applications for example. An alternative non-asymptotic approach with less computational burden has been proposed in engineering fields based on the so-called modulating functions. In this dissertation, we propose to mathematically and numerically analyze the modulating functions based approaches. We also propose to extend these approaches to different situations. The contributions of this thesis are as follows. (i) Provide a mathematical analysis of the modulating function-based method (MFBM) which includes: its well-posedness, statistical properties, and estimation errors. (ii) Provide a numerical analysis of the MFBM through some estimation problems, and study the sensitivity of the method to the modulating functions\\' parameters. (iii) Propose an effective algorithm for selecting the method\\'s design parameters

  5. Population estimates of extended family structure and size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garceau, Anne; Wideroff, Louise; McNeel, Timothy; Dunn, Marsha; Graubard, Barry I

    2008-01-01

    Population-based estimates of biological family size can be useful for planning genetic studies, assessing how distributions of relatives affect disease associations with family history and estimating prevalence of potential family support. Mean family size per person is estimated from a population-based telephone survey (n = 1,019). After multivariate adjustment for demographic variables, older and non-White respondents reported greater mean numbers of total, first- and second-degree relatives. Females reported more total and first-degree relatives, while less educated respondents reported more second-degree relatives. Demographic differences in family size have implications for genetic research. Therefore, periodic collection of family structure data in representative populations would be useful. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Extended common-image-point gathers for anisotropic wave-equation migration

    KAUST Repository

    Sava, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    In regions characterized by complex subsurface structure, wave-equation depth migration is a powerful tool for accurately imaging the earth’s interior. The quality of the final image greatly depends on the quality of the model which includes anisotropy parameters (Gray et al., 2001). In particular, it is important to construct subsurface velocity models using techniques that are consistent with the methods used for imaging. Generally speaking, there are two possible strategies for velocity estimation from surface seismic data in the context of wavefield-based imaging (Sava et al., 2010). One possibility is to formulate an objective function in the data space, prior to migration, by matching the recorded data with simulated data. Techniques in this category are known by the name of waveform inversion. Another possibility is to formulate an objective function in the image space, after migration, by measuring and correcting image features that indicate model inaccuracies. Techniques in this category are known as wave-equation migration velocity analysis (MVA).

  7. PERTURBATION ESTIMATES FOR THE MAXIMAL SOLUTION OF A NONLINEAR MATRIX EQUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vejdi I. Hasanov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a nonlinear matrix equation is considered. Perturba- tion estimations for the maximal solution of the considered equation are obtained. The results are illustrated by the use of numerical ex- amples.

  8. Non-linear mixed-effects models with stochastic differential equations: implementation of an estimation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overgaard, Rune V; Jonsson, Niclas; Tornøe, Christoffer W; Madsen, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling is most often performed using non-linear mixed-effects models based on ordinary differential equations with uncorrelated intra-individual residuals. More sophisticated residual error models as e.g. stochastic differential equations (SDEs) with measurement noise can in many cases provide a better description of the variations, which could be useful in various aspects of modelling. This general approach enables a decomposition of the intra-individual residual variation epsilon into system noise w and measurement noise e. The present work describes implementation of SDEs in a non-linear mixed-effects model, where parameter estimation was performed by a novel approximation of the likelihood function. This approximation is constructed by combining the First-Order Conditional Estimation (FOCE) method used in non-linear mixed-effects modelling with the Extended Kalman Filter used in models with SDEs. Fundamental issues concerning the proposed model and estimation algorithm are addressed by simulation studies, concluding that system noise can successfully be separated from measurement noise and inter-individual variability.

  9. An extended K-dV equation for nonlinear magnetosonic wave in a multi-ion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ida, A. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; Sanuki, H.; Todoroki, J.

    1995-06-01

    Nonlinear magnetosonic waves propagating perpendicularly to a magnetic field are studied in two-ion plasma. It is shown that high frequency magnetosonic wave under the influence of finite cut-off frequency is described by an extended K-dV equation, rather than conventional K-dV equation. Modulational stability of this mode is strongly affected by the finite cut-off frequency in two-ion plasma. (author).

  10. Numerical integration of the extended variable generalized Langevin equation with a positive Prony representable memory kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczewski, Andrew D.; Bond, Stephen D.

    2013-07-01

    Generalized Langevin dynamics (GLD) arise in the modeling of a number of systems, ranging from structured fluids that exhibit a viscoelastic mechanical response, to biological systems, and other media that exhibit anomalous diffusive phenomena. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations that include GLD in conjunction with external and/or pairwise forces require the development of numerical integrators that are efficient, stable, and have known convergence properties. In this article, we derive a family of extended variable integrators for the Generalized Langevin equation with a positive Prony series memory kernel. Using stability and error analysis, we identify a superlative choice of parameters and implement the corresponding numerical algorithm in the LAMMPS MD software package. Salient features of the algorithm include exact conservation of the first and second moments of the equilibrium velocity distribution in some important cases, stable behavior in the limit of conventional Langevin dynamics, and the use of a convolution-free formalism that obviates the need for explicit storage of the time history of particle velocities. Capability is demonstrated with respect to accuracy in numerous canonical examples, stability in certain limits, and an exemplary application in which the effect of a harmonic confining potential is mapped onto a memory kernel.

  11. Sourcing for Parameter Estimation and Study of Logistic Differential Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    This article offers modelling opportunities in which the phenomena of the spread of disease, perception of changing mass, growth of technology, and dissemination of information can be described by one differential equation--the logistic differential equation. It presents two simulation activities for students to generate real data, as well as…

  12. Iterative estimate of the solution of nonlinear integral equations by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considered the application of Picard's iteration scheme in the approximation of solutions of operator equations in Banach spaces. Using Lipschitz continuity condition and the prescribed auxiliary scalar function, the location of existence of solution for a nonlinear integral equation of Fredholm type and second kind ...

  13. Evaluation of Clear-Sky Incoming Radiation Estimating Equations Typically Used in Remote Sensing Evapotranspiration Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted W. Sammis

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Net radiation is a key component of the energy balance, whose estimation accuracy has an impact on energy flux estimates from satellite data. In typical remote sensing evapotranspiration (ET algorithms, the outgoing shortwave and longwave components of net radiation are obtained from remote sensing data, while the incoming shortwave (RS and longwave (RL components are typically estimated from weather data using empirical equations. This study evaluates the accuracy of empirical equations commonly used in remote sensing ET algorithms for estimating RS and RL radiation. Evaluation is carried out through comparison of estimates and observations at five sites that represent different climatic regions from humid to arid. Results reveal (1 both RS and RL estimates from all evaluated equations well correlate with observations (R2 ≥ 0.92, (2 RS estimating equations tend to overestimate, especially at higher values, (3 RL estimating equations tend to give more biased values in arid and semi-arid regions, (4 a model that parameterizes the diffuse component of radiation using two clearness indices and a simple model that assumes a linear increase of atmospheric transmissivity with elevation give better RS estimates, and (5 mean relative absolute errors in the net radiation (Rn estimates caused by the use of RS and RL estimating equations varies from 10% to 22%. This study suggests that Rn estimates using recommended incoming radiation estimating equations could improve ET estimates.

  14. Extending remote sensing estimates of Greenland ice sheet melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavner, M.; Loveland, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Melt Area Detection Index (MADI), a remote sensing algorithm to discriminate between dry and wet snow, has been previously developed and applied to the western portion of the Greenland ice sheet for the years 2000-2006, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiospectrometer (MODIS) data (Chylek et al, 2007). We extend that work both spatially and temporally by taking advantage of newly available data, and developing algorithms that facilitate the sensing of cloud cover and the automated inference of wet snow regions. The automated methods allow the development of a composite melt area data product with 0.25 km^2 spatial resolution and approximately two week temporal resolution. We discuss melt area dynamics that are inferred from this high resolution composite melt area. Chylek, P., M. McCabe, M. K. Dubey, and J. Dozier (2007), Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S20, doi:10.1029/2007JD008742.

  15. Final Report for "Extending BOUT++ for Solution of Edge Plasma Equations for Use in Whole Device Simulation of Tokamaks"

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammar H Hakim

    2011-10-20

    In this Phase I project we have extended the BOUT++ code to solve edge fluid equations. We added a simple neutral fluid model, created a mesh generator as well as collected a set of difficult test problems for benchmarking edge codes. The work in this project should be useful as a starting point to build a complete set of edge fluid equations in BOUT++ that would enhance its ability to not only perform edge turbulence calculations, but also allow the coupled transport-turbulence equations evolved in an efficient manner.

  16. Stable estimation of two coefficients in a nonlinear Fisher–KPP equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofol, Michel; Roques, Lionel

    2013-01-01

    We consider the inverse problem of determining two non-constant coefficients in a nonlinear parabolic equation of the Fisher–Kolmogorov–Petrovsky–Piskunov type. For the equation u t = DΔu + μ(x) u − γ(x)u 2 in (0, T) × Ω, which corresponds to a classical model of population dynamics in a bounded heterogeneous environment, our results give a stability inequality between the couple of coefficients (μ, γ) and some observations of the solution u. These observations consist in measurements of u: in the whole domain Ω at two fixed times, in a subset ω⊂⊂Ω during a finite time interval and on the boundary of Ω at all times t ∈ (0, T). The proof relies on parabolic estimates together with the parabolic maximum principle and Hopf’s lemma which enable us to use a Carleman inequality. This work extends previous studies on the stable determination of non-constant coefficients in parabolic equations, as it deals with two coefficients and with a nonlinear term. A consequence of our results is the uniqueness of the couple of coefficients (μ, γ), given the observation of u. This uniqueness result was obtained in a previous paper but in the one-dimensional case only. (paper)

  17. Parameter estimation in a simple stochastic differential equation for phytoplankton modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jan Kloppenborg; Madsen, Henrik; Carstensen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The use of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for simulation of aquatic ecosystems has attracted increasing attention in recent years. The SDE setting also provides the opportunity for statistical estimation of ecosystem parameters. We present an estimation procedure, based on Kalman...... filtering and likelihood estimation, which has proven useful in other fields of application. The estimation procedure is presented and the development from ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to SDEs is discussed with emphasis on autocorrelated residuals, commonly encountered with ODEs. The estimation...

  18. Extending the GERG-2008 equation of state: Improved departure function and interaction parameters for (methane + butane)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowland, Darren; Hughes, Thomas J.; May, Eric F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The GERG-2008 EOS was tested against recently published low temperature data for (methane + butane). • A simpler departure function reduced the maximum c p deviation at T = 120 K from (110 to 7) %. • Improved BIPs for (methane + butane) were determined by re-fitting to an extended data set. • Deviations for high pressure VLE data at T = 244 K were reduced from (9 to 1.4) %. - Abstract: The Groupe Européen de Recherches Gazières (GERG) 2008 multi-parameter equation of state (EOS) is considered the reference model for the prediction of natural gas mixture properties. However, the limited quality of thermodynamic property data available for many key binary mixtures at the time of its development constrained both its range of validity and achievable uncertainty. The data situation for the binary system (CH 4 + C 4 H 10 ) in particular was identified previously as limiting the ability of the GERG-EOS to describe rich natural gases at low temperatures. Recently, new vapour-liquid equilibrium (VLE) and liquid mixture heat capacity data measured at low temperatures and high pressures have been published that significantly improve the data situation for this crucial binary, allowing erroneous literature data to be identified and the predictive behaviour of the GERG-EOS when extrapolated to be tested. The 10 basis functions in the generalised departure function used by the GERG-EOS for several binaries including (CH 4 + C 4 H 10 ) were examined to eliminate the term causing a divergence between measured and predicted liquid mixture isobaric heat capacities at T < 150 K. With a simplified nine-term departure function, the maximum relative deviation between the measured and predicted heat capacities was reduced from nearly (110 to 7) %. The interaction parameters in the GERG equation were also re-determined by including, for the first time for this binary, reliable low temperature VLE data together with most of the other high temperature data used in

  19. Geometrical-integrability constraints and equations of motion in four plus extended super spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, L.L.

    1987-01-01

    It is pointed out that many equations of motion in physics, including gravitational and Yang-Mills equations, have a common origin: i.e. they are the results of certain geometrical integrability conditions. These integrability conditions lead to linear systems and conservation laws that are important in integrating these equations of motion

  20. Proposed Equation to Estimate the Total Dissolved Salts in Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baqer A. Ali

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of this paper is pediment a new equation which can be used to obtain the total dissolved salts in the sand. This equation enables us to obtain the total dissolved salts by finding density of the watery solution resulting from dissolve any sample in distilled water. This equation shows very good results, so in this paper a new method is proposed to find the total dissolved salts by applying this equation which derived in this research without the need to use usual methods in finding those total dissolved salts. In this study, the proposed method uses the density variation between distilled water and the watery solution which is taken from the sand sample dissolved with distilled water. This proposed method will make the test of total dissolved salts more easily and quickly applied. The proposed method is equal or exceed in its reliability on other testing methods.

  1. Estimating Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge and Parameters Using a Continuous-Discrete Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Diab

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A real-time determination of battery parameters is challenging because batteries are non-linear, time-varying systems. The transient behaviour of lithium-ion batteries is modelled by a Thevenin-equivalent circuit with two time constants characterising activation and concentration polarization. An experimental approach is proposed for directly determining battery parameters as a function of physical quantities. The model’s parameters are a function of the state of charge and of the discharge rate. These can be expressed by regression equations in the model to derive a continuous-discrete extended Kalman estimator of the state of charge and of other parameters. This technique is based on numerical integration of the ordinary differential equations to predict the state of the stochastic dynamic system and the corresponding error covariance matrix. Then a standard correction step of the extended Kalman filter (EKF is applied to increase the accuracy of estimated parameters. Simulations resulting from this proposed estimator model were compared with experimental results under a variety of operating scenarios—analysis of the results demonstrate the accuracy of the estimator for correctly identifying battery parameters.

  2. Equations for estimating bankfull channel geometry and discharge for streams in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Gardner C.; Waite, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Regression equations were developed for estimating bankfull geometry—width, mean depth, cross-sectional area—and discharge for streams in Massachusetts. The equations provide water-resource and conservation managers with methods for estimating bankfull characteristics at specific stream sites in Massachusetts. This information can be used for the adminstration of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts Rivers Protection Act of 1996, which establishes a protected riverfront area extending from the mean annual high-water line corresponding to the elevation of bankfull discharge along each side of a perennial stream. Additionally, information on bankfull channel geometry and discharge are important to Federal, State, and local government agencies and private organizations involved in stream assessment and restoration projects. Regression equations are based on data from stream surveys at 33 sites (32 streamgages and 1 crest-stage gage operated by the U.S. Geological Survey) in and near Massachusetts. Drainage areas of the 33 sites ranged from 0.60 to 329 square miles (mi2). At 27 of the 33 sites, field data were collected and analyses were done to determine bankfull channel geometry and discharge as part of the present study. For 6 of the 33 sites, data on bankfull channel geometry and discharge were compiled from other studies done by the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation. Similar techniques were used for field data collection and analysis for bankfull channel geometry and discharge at all 33 sites. Recurrence intervals of the bankfull discharge, which represent the frequency with which a stream fills its channel, averaged 1.53 years (median value 1.34 years) at the 33 sites. Simple regression equations were developed for bankfull width, mean depth, cross-sectional area, and discharge using drainage area, which is the most significant explanatory

  3. Allometric equations for estimating the above-ground biomass in tropical lowland Dipterocarp forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basuki, T.M.; Laake, van P.E.; Skidmore, A.K.; Hussin, Y.A.

    2009-01-01

    Allometric equations can be used to estimate the biomass and carbon stock of forests. However, so far the equations for Dipterocarp forests have not been developed in sufficient detail. In this research, allometric equations are presented based on the genera of commercial species and mixed species.

  4. Validity of anthropometric equations to estimate infant fat mass at birth and in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauble, Jennifer S; Dewi, Mira; Hull, Holly R

    2017-03-27

    In newborns and children, body fat estimation equations are often used at different ages than the age used to develop the equations. Limited validation studies exist for newborn body fat estimation equations at birth or later in infancy. The study purpose was to validate 4 newborn fat mass (FM) estimation equations in comparison to FM measured by air displacement plethysmography (ADP; the Pea Pod) at birth and 3 months. Ninety-five newborns (1-3 days) had their body composition measured by ADP and anthropometrics assessed by skinfolds. Sixty-three infants had repeat measures taken (3 months). FM measured by ADP was compared to FM from the skinfold estimation equations (Deierlein, Catalano, Lingwood, and Aris). Paired t-tests assessed mean differences, linear regression assessed accuracy, precision was assessed by R 2 and standard error of the estimate (SEE), and bias was assessed by Bland-Altman plots. At birth, FM measured by ADP differed from FM estimated by Deierlein, Lingwood and Aris equations, but did not differ from the Catalano equation. At 3 months, FM measured by ADP was different from all equations. At both time points, poor precision and accuracy was detected. Bias was detected in most all equations. Poor agreement, precision, and accuracy were found between prediction equations and the criterion at birth and 3 months.

  5. Precision of estimating equations for GFR in children with a solitary functioning kidney: the KIMONO study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westland, R.; Abraham, Y.; Bokenkamp, A.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Schreuder, M.F.; Wijk, J.A. van

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Children with a solitary functioning kidney may develop CKD. Although widely used, equations to estimate GFR are not validated in these patients. This study sought to determine the precision of common estimating equations in the KIMONO (KIdney of MONofunctional Origin)

  6. An allometric equation for estimating stem biomass of Acacia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twelve different forms of linear, power and exponential equations were compared in this study to select the best model. Two models (VI and XI) were selected based on R 2, adjusted R 2, the Akaike information criterion, F-statistics and the five assumptions of linear regression. Model VI was discarded based on the ...

  7. Regression equations for the estimation of radial length from its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HD) were measured using digital vernier caliper while the circumference of the radial head and the circumference at the radial tuberosity were measured using an anthropometric tape. Pearson correlation and Persian regression were used to derive the liner regression equations for the measured parameters that showed a ...

  8. Validation of Some Anthropometric Equations for Estimating Body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participants weight was measured under water using Hydrostatic weighing equipment. Skinfold was measured at chest, mid axilla, triceps, sub scapular, abdomen, supra iliac, mid thigh, and biceps. Body density (BD) was calculated using underwater weight and anthropometric equations from Behnke and Wilmore, Durning ...

  9. Exponential estimates for solutions of half-linear differential equations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řehák, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 147, č. 1 (2015), s. 158-171 ISSN 0236-5294 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : half-linear differential equation * decreasing solution * increasing solution * asymptotic behavior Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.469, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10474-015-0522-9

  10. Buckling analysis of laminated plates using the extended Kantorovich method and a system of first-order differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhatanadgid, Pairod; Jommalai, Panupan

    2016-01-01

    The extended Kantorovich method using multi-term displacement functions is applied to the buckling problem of laminated plates with various boundary conditions. The out-of-plane displacement of the buckled plate is written as a series of products of functions of parameter x and functions of parameter y. With known functions in parameter x or parameter y, a set of governing equations and a set of boundary conditions are obtained after applying the variational principle to the total potential energy of the system. The higher order differential equations are then transformed into a set of first-order differential equations and solved for the buckling load and mode. Since the governing equations are first-order differential equations, solutions can be obtained analytically with the out-of-plane displacement written in the form of an exponential function. The solutions from the proposed technique are verified with solutions from the literature and FEM solutions. The bucking loads correspond very well to other available solutions in most of the comparisons. The buckling modes also compare very well with the finite element solutions. The proposed solution technique transforms higher-order differential equations to first-order differential equations, and they are analytically solved for out-of-plane displacement in the form of an exponential function. Therefore, the proposed solution technique yields a solution which can be considered as an analytical solution.

  11. Buckling analysis of laminated plates using the extended Kantorovich method and a system of first-order differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhatanadgid, Pairod; Jommalai, Panupan [Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-05-15

    The extended Kantorovich method using multi-term displacement functions is applied to the buckling problem of laminated plates with various boundary conditions. The out-of-plane displacement of the buckled plate is written as a series of products of functions of parameter x and functions of parameter y. With known functions in parameter x or parameter y, a set of governing equations and a set of boundary conditions are obtained after applying the variational principle to the total potential energy of the system. The higher order differential equations are then transformed into a set of first-order differential equations and solved for the buckling load and mode. Since the governing equations are first-order differential equations, solutions can be obtained analytically with the out-of-plane displacement written in the form of an exponential function. The solutions from the proposed technique are verified with solutions from the literature and FEM solutions. The bucking loads correspond very well to other available solutions in most of the comparisons. The buckling modes also compare very well with the finite element solutions. The proposed solution technique transforms higher-order differential equations to first-order differential equations, and they are analytically solved for out-of-plane displacement in the form of an exponential function. Therefore, the proposed solution technique yields a solution which can be considered as an analytical solution.

  12. Derivation of new equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate in pediatric oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millisor, Vanessa E; Roberts, Jessica K; Sun, Yilun; Tang, Li; Daryani, Vinay M; Gregornik, David; Cross, Shane J; Ward, Deborah; Pauley, Jennifer L; Molinelli, Alejandro; Brennan, Rachel C; Stewart, Clinton F

    2017-06-02

    Monitoring renal function is critical in treating pediatric patients, especially when dosing nephrotoxic agents. We evaluated the validity of the bedside Schwartz and Brandt equations in pediatric oncology patients and developed new equations for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in these patients. A retrospective analysis was conducted comparing eGFR using the bedside Schwartz and Brandt equations to measured GFR (mGFR) from technetium-99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) between January 2007 and August 2013. An improved equation to estimate GFR was developed, simplified, and externally validated in a cohort of patients studied from September 2013 to June 2015. Carboplatin doses calculated from 99m Tc-DTPA were compared with doses calculated by GFR-estimating equations. Overall, the bedside Schwartz and Brandt equations did not precisely or accurately predict measured GFR (mGFR). Using a data subset, we developed a five-covariate equation, which included height, serum creatinine, age, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and gender, and a simplified version (two-covariates), which contained height and serum creatinine. These equations were used to estimate GFR in 2036 studies, resulting in precise and accurate predictors of mGFR values. Equations were validated in an external cohort of 570 studies; both new equations were more accurate in calculating carboplatin doses than either the bedside Schwartz or Brandt equation. Two new equations were developed to estimate GFR in pediatric oncology patients, both of which did a better job at estimating mGFR than published equations.

  13. Improved allometric equations for tree aboveground biomass estimation in tropical dipterocarp forests of Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solichin Manuri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Currently, the common and feasible way to estimate the most accurate forest biomass requires ground measurements and allometric models. Previous studies have been conducted on allometric equations development for estimating tree aboveground biomass (AGB of tropical dipterocarp forests (TDFs in Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo. However, before the use of existing equations, a validation for the selection of the best allometric equation is required to assess the model bias and precision. This study aims at evaluating the validity of local and pantropical equations; developing new allometric equations for estimating tree AGB in TDFs of Kalimantan; and validating the new equations using independent datasets. Methods We used 108 tree samples from destructive sampling to develop the allometric equations, with maximum tree diameter of 175 cm and another 109 samples from previous studies for validating our equations. We performed ordinary least squares linear regression to explore the relationship between the AGB and the predictor variables in the natural logarithmic form. Results This study found that most of the existing local equations tended to be biased and imprecise, with mean relative error and mean absolute relative error more than 0.1 and 0.3, respectively. We developed new allometric equations for tree AGB estimation in the TDFs of Kalimantan. Through a validation using an independent dataset, we found that our equations were reliable in estimating tree AGB in TDF. The pantropical equation, which includes tree diameter, wood density and total height as predictor variables performed only slightly worse than our new models. Conclusions Our equations improve the precision and reduce the bias of AGB estimates of TDFs. Local models developed from small samples tend to systematically bias. A validation of existing AGB models is essential before the use of the models.

  14. Predictive equations to estimate spinal loads in symmetric lifting tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, N; Plamondon, A; Shirazi-Adl, A; Larivière, C; Parnianpour, M

    2011-01-04

    Response surface methodology is used to establish robust and user-friendly predictive equations that relate responses of a complex detailed trunk finite element biomechanical model to its input variables during sagittal symmetric static lifting activities. Four input variables (thorax flexion angle, lumbar/pelvis ratio, load magnitude, and load position) and four model responses (L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and anterior-posterior shear forces) are considered. Full factorial design of experiments accounting for all combinations of input levels is employed. Quadratic predictive equations for the spinal loads at the L4-S1 disc mid-heights are obtained by regression analysis with adequate goodness-of-fit (R(2)>98%, pvariable levels that yield spine loads beyond the tolerance compression limit of 3400 N are identified using contour plots. Ergonomists and bioengineers, faced with the dilemma of using either complex but more accurate models on one hand or less accurate but simple models on the other hand, have thereby easy-to-use predictive equations that quantifies spinal loads and risk of injury under different occupational tasks of interest. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Estimating glomerular filtration rate in 2012: which adding value for the CKD-EPI equation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanaye, Pierre; Mariat, Christophe; Moranne, Olivier; Cavalier, Etienne; Flamant, Martin

    2012-07-01

    Measuring or estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is still considered as the best way to apprehend global renal function. In 2009, the new Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) equation has been proposed as a better estimator of GFR than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. This new equation is supposed to underestimate GFR to a lesser degree in higher GFR levels. In this review, we will present and deeply discuss the performances of this equation. Based on articles published between 2009 and 2012, this review will underline advantages, notably the better knowledge of chronic kidney disease prevalence, but also limitations of this new equation, especially in some specific populations. We eventually insist on the fact that all these equations are estimations and nephrologists should remain cautious in their interpretation. Copyright © 2012 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Stable Parameter Estimation for Autoregressive Equations with Random Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Goryainov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent yearsthere has been a growing interest in non-linear time series models. They are more flexible than traditional linear models and allow more adequate description of real data. Among these models a autoregressive model with random coefficients plays an important role. It is widely used in various fields of science and technology, for example, in physics, biology, economics and finance. The model parameters are the mean values of autoregressive coefficients. Their evaluation is the main task of model identification. The basic method of estimation is still the least squares method, which gives good results for Gaussian time series, but it is quite sensitive to even small disturbancesin the assumption of Gaussian observations. In this paper we propose estimates, which generalize the least squares estimate in the sense that the quadratic objective function is replaced by an arbitrary convex and even function. Reasonable choice of objective function allows you to keep the benefits of the least squares estimate and eliminate its shortcomings. In particular, you can make it so that they will be almost as effective as the least squares estimate in the Gaussian case, but almost never loose in accuracy with small deviations of the probability distribution of the observations from the Gaussian distribution.The main result is the proof of consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed estimates in the particular case of the one-parameter model describing the stationary process with finite variance. Another important result is the finding of the asymptotic relative efficiency of the proposed estimates in relation to the least squares estimate. This allows you to compare the two estimates, depending on the probability distribution of innovation process and of autoregressive coefficients. The results can be used to identify an autoregressive process, especially with nonGaussian nature, and/or of autoregressive processes observed with gross

  17. Existence and Uniqueness of Solution of Schrodinger equation in extended Colombeau algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Fattahi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we establish the existence and uniquenessresult of the linear Schr¨odinger equation with Marchaudfractional derivative in Colombeau generalized algebra.The purpose of introducing Marchaud fractional derivativeis regularizing it in Colombeau sense.

  18. Implicit Solution of the Four-field Extended-magnetohydroynamic Equations using High-order High-continuity Finite Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.C. Jardin; J.A. Breslau

    2004-12-17

    Here we describe a technique for solving the four-field extended-magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in two dimensions. The introduction of triangular high-order finite elements with continuous first derivatives (C{sup 1} continuity) leads to a compact representation compatible with direct inversion of the associated sparse matrices. The split semi-implicit method is introduced and used to integrate the equations in time, yielding unconditional stability for arbitrary time step. The method is applied to the cylindrical tilt mode problem with the result that a non-zero value of the collisionless ion skin depth will increase the growth rate of that mode. The effect of this parameter on the reconnection rate and geometry of a Harris equilibrium and on the Taylor reconnection problem is also demonstrated. This method forms the basis for a generalization to a full extended-MHD description of the plasma with six, eight, or more scalar fields.

  19. Superimposed chirped pulse parameter estimation based on the extended Kalman filter (EKF)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, JC

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An extended Kalman filter (EKF) is proposed to estimate the frequencies and chirp rate of multiple superimposed chirped pulses. The estimation problem is a difficult one, where maximum likelyhood methods are very complex especially if more than two...

  20. Conditional Similarity Reductions of the (2+1)-dimensional KdV Equation via the Extended Lie Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-yan; Qian, Xian-min; Lin, Ji; Lou, S. Y.

    2004-06-01

    The classical and nonclassical Lie group approaches are extended and applied to construct new conditional similarity reductions for nonlinear systems. The application of the method to a simple (2+1)-dimensional KdV equation results in not only the known conditional similarity reductions obtained by the modified Clarkson and Kruskal’s direct method but also a great diversity of classical and nonclassical conditional similarity reductions.

  1. Estimation of Supercapacitor Energy Storage Based on Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Ryszard

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, new results on using only voltage measurements on supercapacitor terminals for estimation of accumulated energy are presented. For this purpose, a study based on application of fractional-order models of supercapacitor charging/discharging circuits is undertaken. Parameter estimates of the models are then used to assess the amount of the energy accumulated in supercapacitor. The obtained results are compared with energy determined experimentally by measuring voltage and current on supercapacitor terminals. All the tests are repeated for various input signal shapes and parameters. Very high consistency between estimated and experimental results fully confirm suitability of the proposed approach and thus applicability of the fractional calculus to modelling of supercapacitor energy storage.

  2. Estimation of Supercapacitor Energy Storage Based on Fractional Differential Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopka, Ryszard

    2017-12-22

    In this paper, new results on using only voltage measurements on supercapacitor terminals for estimation of accumulated energy are presented. For this purpose, a study based on application of fractional-order models of supercapacitor charging/discharging circuits is undertaken. Parameter estimates of the models are then used to assess the amount of the energy accumulated in supercapacitor. The obtained results are compared with energy determined experimentally by measuring voltage and current on supercapacitor terminals. All the tests are repeated for various input signal shapes and parameters. Very high consistency between estimated and experimental results fully confirm suitability of the proposed approach and thus applicability of the fractional calculus to modelling of supercapacitor energy storage.

  3. Extended Kalman Filtering and Pathloss modeling for Shadow Power Parameter Estimation in Mobile Wireless Communications

    OpenAIRE

    P. Pappas, George; A. Zohdy, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    In this paper accurate estimation of parameters, higher order state space prediction methods and Extended Kalman filter (EKF) for modeling shadow power in wireless mobile communications are developed. Path-loss parameter estimation models are compared and evaluated. Shadow power estimation methods in wireless cellular communications are very important for use in power control of mobile device and base station. The methods are validated and compared to existing methods, Kalman Filter (KF) with...

  4. When is the next extending of Fick-Jacobs equation necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinay, Pavol

    2013-08-01

    Applicability of the effective one-dimensional equations, such as Fick-Jacobs equation and its extensions, describing diffusion of particles in 2D or 3D channels with varying cross section A(x) along the longitudinal coordinate x, is studied. The leading nonstationary correction to Zwanzig-Reguera-Rubí equation [R. Zwanzig, J. Phys. Chem. 96, 3926 (1992), 10.1021/j100189a004; D. Reguera and J. M. Rubí, Phys. Rev. E 64, 061106 (2001), 10.1103/PhysRevE.64.061106] is derived and tested on the exactly solvable model, diffusion in a 2D linear cone. The effects of such correction are demonstrated and discussed on elementary nonstationary processes, a time dependent perturbation of the stationary flow and calculation of the mean first passage time.

  5. THE ESTIMATION OF INVESTMENT EQUATIONS AT THE FARM-LEVEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ELHORST, JP

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of annual data for individual farms, a model is estimated which explains investment by the Dutch dairy sector in land, buildings and machinery. As a farmer does not invest in all three capital goods every year, a large number of observations are clustered at zero. Because of this, the

  6. An easy to calculate equation to estimate GFR based on inulin clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinalis, Dimitrios; Thiel, Gilbert T

    2009-10-01

    For the estimation of renal function on the basis of serum creatinine, either the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation or the MDRD formula is commonly used. Compared to MDRD (using power functions), CG has the advantage of easy calculability at the bedside. MDRD, however, approaches glomerular filtration rate (GFR) more precisely than CG and gives values corrected for a body surface area (BSA) of 1.73 m(2). We wondered whether CG could be adapted to estimate GFR rather than creatinine clearance without losing the advantage of easy calculability. In this prospective study, inulin clearance under well-defined conditions was taken as the gold standard for GFR. In 182 living kidney donors, inulin clearance was measured under standardized conditions (protein, salt and water intake, overnight stay) before and after nephrectomy. Together with the serum creatinine level, and demographic and clinical data, 281 measurements of inulin clearance were used to compare the accuracy of different estimation equations. Using stepwise multiple regression, a new set of constants was defined for a CG-like equation in order to estimate GFR. The MDRD equation underestimated GFR by 9%, and the quadratic equation suggested by Rule overestimated GFR by 12.4%. The new CG-like equation, even when calculated with 'mental arithmetic-friendly' rounded parameters, showed significantly less bias (1.2%). The adapted equation is GFR[mL/min] = ((155 - Age[years]) x weight [kg]/serum creatinine [micromol/L]) x 0.85 if female. We propose the CG-like equation called IB-eGFR (Inulinclearance Based eGFR) to estimate GFR more reliably than MDRD, Rule's equation or the original Cockcroft-Gault equation. As our data represent a Caucasian population, the adapted equation is still to be validated for patients of other ethnicity.

  7. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boker, Steven; Neale, Michael; Maes, Hermine; Wilde, Michael; Spiegel, Michael; Brick, Timothy; Spies, Jeffrey; Estabrook, Ryne; Kenny, Sarah; Bates, Timothy; Mehta, Paras; Fox, John

    2011-01-01

    OpenMx is free, full-featured, open source, structural equation modeling (SEM) software. OpenMx runs within the "R" statistical programming environment on Windows, Mac OS-X, and Linux computers. The rationale for developing OpenMx is discussed along with the philosophy behind the user interface. The OpenMx data structures are…

  8. Estimating wage equations for Hungarian higher-education graduates

    OpenAIRE

    Galasi, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The paper investigates the wage determination of Hungarian highereducation graduates with using two samples of Hungarian careerbeginners, applying IV techniques and the multiple indicator solution so as to diminish potential estimation biases due to endogeneity of independent variables (especially the education variable) and the simultaneity of wages and working time. The results show that university education yields considerable wage premium as compared to college education, and that the ret...

  9. Adaptive finite element techniques for the Maxwell equations using implicit a posteriori error estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harutyunyan, D.; Izsak, F.; van der Vegt, Jacobus J.W.; Bochev, Mikhail A.

    For the adaptive solution of the Maxwell equations on three-dimensional domains with N´ed´elec edge finite element methods, we consider an implicit a posteriori error estimation technique. On each element of the tessellation an equation for the error is formulated and solved with a properly chosen

  10. Validation of the Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ejike-Ijeh equations for the estimation of body fat percentage makes it possible for the body fat content of individuals and populations to be determined without the use of costly equipment. However, because the equations were derived using data from a young-adult (18-29 years old) Nigerian population, it is important ...

  11. A gradient estimate for solutions to parabolic equations with discontinuous coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jishan Fan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Li-Vogelius and Li-Nirenberg gave a gradient estimate for solutions of strongly elliptic equations and systems of divergence forms with piecewise smooth coefficients, respectively. The discontinuities of the coefficients are assumed to be given by manifolds of codimension 1, which we called them emph{manifolds of discontinuities}. Their gradient estimate is independent of the distances between manifolds of discontinuities. In this paper, we gave a parabolic version of their results. That is, we gave a gradient estimate for parabolic equations of divergence forms with piecewise smooth coefficients. The coefficients are assumed to be independent of time and their discontinuities are likewise the previous elliptic equations. As an application of this estimate, we also gave a pointwise gradient estimate for the fundamental solution of a parabolic operator with piecewise smooth coefficients. Both gradient estimates are independent of the distances between manifolds of discontinuities.

  12. Error estimation in the neural network solution of ordinary differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filici, Cristian

    2010-06-01

    In this article a method of error estimation for the neural approximation of the solution of an Ordinary Differential Equation is presented. Some examples of the application of the method support the theory presented. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dispersive estimates for rational symbols and local well-posedness of the nonzero energy NV equation. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazeykina, Anna; Muñoz, Claudio

    2018-04-01

    We continue our study on the Cauchy problem for the two-dimensional Novikov-Veselov (NV) equation, integrable via the inverse scattering transform for the two dimensional Schrödinger operator at a fixed energy parameter. This work is concerned with the more involved case of a positive energy parameter. For the solution of the linearized equation we derive smoothing and Strichartz estimates by combining new estimates for two different frequency regimes, extending our previous results for the negative energy case [18]. The low frequency regime, which our previous result was not able to treat, is studied in detail. At non-low frequencies we also derive improved smoothing estimates with gain of almost one derivative. Then we combine the linear estimates with a Fourier decomposition method and Xs,b spaces to obtain local well-posedness of NV at positive energy in Hs, s > 1/2. Our result implies, in particular, that at least for s > 1/2, NV does not change its behavior from semilinear to quasilinear as energy changes sign, in contrast to the closely related Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equations. As a complement to our LWP results, we also provide some new explicit solutions of NV at zero energy, generalizations of the lumps solutions, which exhibit new and nonstandard long time behavior. In particular, these solutions blow up in infinite time in L2.

  14. Novel Equations for Estimating Lean Body Mass in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jie; Li, Yan-Jun; Xu, Rong; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Zheng, Ying-Dong

    2015-12-01

    ♦ To develop and validate equations for estimating lean body mass (LBM) in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. ♦ Two equations for estimating LBM, one based on mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and hand grip strength (HGS), i.e., LBM-M-H, and the other based on HGS, i.e., LBM-H, were developed and validated with LBM obtained by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The developed equations were compared to LBM estimated from creatinine kinetics (LBM-CK) and anthropometry (LBM-A) in terms of bias, precision, and accuracy. The prognostic values of LBM estimated from the equations in all-cause mortality risk were assessed. ♦ The developed equations incorporated gender, height, weight, and dialysis duration. Compared to LBM-DEXA, the bias of the developed equations was lower than that of LBM-CK and LBM-A. Additionally, LBM-M-H and LBM-H had better accuracy and precision. The prognostic values of LBM in all-cause mortality risk based on LBM-M-H, LBM-H, LBM-CK, and LBM-A were similar. ♦ Lean body mass estimated by the new equations based on MAMC and HGS was correlated with LBM obtained by DEXA and may serve as practical surrogate markers of LBM in PD patients. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.

  15. Regional Regression Equations to Estimate Flow-Duration Statistics at Ungaged Stream Sites in Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahearn, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple linear regression equations for determining flow-duration statistics were developed to estimate select flow exceedances ranging from 25- to 99-percent for six 'bioperiods'-Salmonid Spawning (November), Overwinter (December-February), Habitat Forming (March-April), Clupeid Spawning (May), Resident Spawning (June), and Rearing and Growth (July-October)-in Connecticut. Regression equations also were developed to estimate the 25- and 99-percent flow exceedances without reference to a bioperiod. In total, 32 equations were developed. The predictive equations were based on regression analyses relating flow statistics from streamgages to GIS-determined basin and climatic characteristics for the drainage areas of those streamgages. Thirty-nine streamgages (and an additional 6 short-term streamgages and 28 partial-record sites for the non-bioperiod 99-percent exceedance) in Connecticut and adjacent areas of neighboring States were used in the regression analysis. Weighted least squares regression analysis was used to determine the predictive equations; weights were assigned based on record length. The basin characteristics-drainage area, percentage of area with coarse-grained stratified deposits, percentage of area with wetlands, mean monthly precipitation (November), mean seasonal precipitation (December, January, and February), and mean basin elevation-are used as explanatory variables in the equations. Standard errors of estimate of the 32 equations ranged from 10.7 to 156 percent with medians of 19.2 and 55.4 percent to predict the 25- and 99-percent exceedances, respectively. Regression equations to estimate high and median flows (25- to 75-percent exceedances) are better predictors (smaller variability of the residual values around the regression line) than the equations to estimate low flows (less than 75-percent exceedance). The Habitat Forming (March-April) bioperiod had the smallest standard errors of estimate, ranging from 10.7 to 20.9 percent. In

  16. Alternatives for the Bedside Schwartz Equation to Estimate Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottel, Hans; Dubourg, Laurence; Goffin, Karolien; Delanaye, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The bedside Schwartz equation has long been and still is the recommended equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. However, this equation is probably best suited to estimate GFR in children with chronic kidney disease (reduced GFR) but is not optimal for children with GFR >75 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Moreover, the Schwartz equation requires the height of the child, information that is usually not available in the clinical laboratory. This makes automatic reporting of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) along with serum creatinine impossible. As the majority of children (even children referred to nephrology clinics) have GFR >75 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , it might be interesting to evaluate possible alternatives to the bedside Schwartz equation. The pediatric form of the Full Age Spectrum (FAS) equation offers an alternative to Schwartz, allowing automatic reporting of eGFR since height is not necessary. However, when height is involved in the FAS equation, the equation is essentially equal to the Schwartz equation for children, but there are large differences for adolescents. Combining standardized biomarkers increases the prediction performance of eGFR equations for children, reaching P10 ≈ 45% and P30 ≈ 90%. There are currently good and simple alternatives to the bedside Schwartz equation, but the more complex equations combining serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, and height show the highest accuracy and precision. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Poisson Stochastic Process and Basic Schauder and Sobolev Estimates in the Theory of Parabolic Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, N. V.; Priola, E.

    2017-09-01

    We show, among other things, how knowing Schauder or Sobolev-space estimates for the one-dimensional heat equation allows one to derive their multidimensional analogs for equations with coefficients depending only on the time variable with the same constants as in the case of the one-dimensional heat equation. The method is quite general and is based on using the Poisson stochastic process. It also applies to equations involving non-local operators. It looks like no other methods are available at this time and it is a very challenging problem to find a purely analytical approach to proving such results.

  18. Continuous dependence estimates for viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear degenerate elliptic equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen R. Jakobsen

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the maximum principle for semicontinuous functions [3,4], we prove a general ``continuous dependence on the nonlinearities'' estimate for bounded Holder continuous viscosity solutions of fully nonlinear degenerate elliptic equations. Furthermore, we provide existence, uniqueness, and Holder continuity results for bounded viscosity solutions of such equations. Our results are general enough to encompass Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman-Isaacs's equations of zero-sum, two-player stochastic differential games. An immediate consequence of the results obtained herein is a rate of convergence for the vanishing viscosity method for fully nonlinear degenerate elliptic equations.

  19. Novel Equations for Estimating Lean Body Mass in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xue; Chen, Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Qu, Zhen; Dong, Jie

    2017-11-15

    Simplified methods to estimate lean body mass (LBM), an important nutritional measure representing muscle mass and somatic protein, are lacking in nondialyzed patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We developed and tested 2 reliable equations for estimation of LBM in daily clinical practice. The development and validation groups both included 150 nondialyzed patients with CKD Stages 3 to 5. Two equations for estimating LBM based on mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) or handgrip strength (HGS) were developed and validated in CKD patients with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry as referenced gold method. We developed and validated 2 equations for estimating LBM based on HGS and MAMC. These equations, which also incorporated sex, height, and weight, were developed and validated in CKD patients. The new equations were found to exhibit only small biases when compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, with median differences of 0.94 and 0.46 kg observed in the HGS and MAMC equations, respectively. Good precision and accuracy were achieved for both equations, as reflected by small interquartile ranges in the differences and in the percentages of estimates that were 20% of measured LBM. The bias, precision, and accuracy of each equation were found to be similar when it was applied to groups of patients divided by the median measured LBM, the median ratio of extracellular to total body water, and the stages of CKD. LBM estimated from MAMC or HGS were found to provide accurate estimates of LBM in nondialyzed patients with CKD. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allometric Equations for Estimating Carbon Stocks in Natural Forest in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Brandon

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Species-specific and mixed-species volume and above ground biomass allometric equations were developed for 15 indigenous tree species and four tree fern species in New Zealand. A mixed-species tree equation based on breast height diameter (DBH and tree height (H provided acceptable estimates of stem plus branch (>10 cm in diameter over bark volume, which was multiplied by live tree density to estimate dry matter. For dead standing spars, DBH, estimated original height, actual spar height and compatible volume/taper functions provided estimates of dead stem volume, which was multiplied by live tree density and a density modifier based on log decay class from field assessments to estimate dry matter. Live tree density was estimated using ratio estimators. Ratio estimators were based on biomass sample trees, and utilized density data from outerwood basic density surveys which were available for 35 tree species sampled throughout New Zealand. Foliage and branch ( < 10 cm in diameter over bark dry matter were estimated directly from tree DBH. Tree fern above ground dry matter was estimated using allometric equations based on DBH and H. Due to insufficient data, below ground carbon for trees was estimated using the default IPCC root/shoot ratio of 25%, but for tree ferns it was estimated using measured root/shoot ratios which averaged 20%.

  1. Development and validation of GFR-estimating equations using diabetes, transplant and weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, L.A.; Schmid, C.H.; Zhang, Y.L.

    2009-01-01

    interactions. Equations were developed in a pooled database of 10 studies [2/3 (N = 5504) for development and 1/3 (N = 2750) for internal validation], and final model selection occurred in 16 additional studies [external validation (N = 3896)]. RESULTS: The mean mGFR was 68, 67 and 68 ml/min/ 1.73 m(2......BACKGROUND: We have reported a new equation (CKD-EPI equation) that reduces bias and improves accuracy for GFR estimation compared to the MDRD study equation while using the same four basic predictor variables: creatinine, age, sex and race. Here, we describe the development and validation...... of this equation as well as other equations that incorporate diabetes, transplant and weight as additional predictor variables. METHODS: Linear regression was used to relate log-measured GFR (mGFR) to sex, race, diabetes, transplant, weight, various transformations of creatinine and age with and without...

  2. Stability analysis solutions and optical solitons in extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order odd and even terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei-Qi; Tian, Shou-Fu; Zou, Li; Zhang, Tian-Tian

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the extended nonlinear Schrödinger equation with higher-order odd (third order) and even (fourth order) terms is investigated, whose particular cases are the Hirota equation, the Sasa-Satsuma equation and Lakshmanan-Porsezian-Daniel equation by selecting some specific values on the parameters of higher-order terms. We first study the stability analysis of the equation. Then, using the ansatz method, we derive its bright, dark solitons and some constraint conditions which can guarantee the existence of solitons. Moreover, the Ricatti equation extension method is employed to derive some exact singular solutions. The outstanding characteristics of these solitons are analyzed via several diverting graphics.

  3. A New Extended Kalman Filtering for Shadow/Fading Power Estimation in Mobile Communications

    OpenAIRE

    George P. Pappas; Subramaniam Ganesan; Mohamed A. Zohdy

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a New Extended Kalman filter (NEKF) approach to improve local mean power estimation. The method is being validated using a GUI system model and then compared to existing methods, Kalman Filter (KF) with Gaussian and Non-Gaussian noise environments. Our analysis is showing that NEKF is a more accurate method in most situations. NEKF can accurately estimate the parameters and predict states in discrete nonlinear state-space for modeling shadow power.

  4. Improving North American forest biomass estimates from literature synthesis and meta-analysis of existing biomass equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    David C. Chojnacky; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Amanda K. Holland

    2009-01-01

    Thousands of published equations purport to estimate biomass of individual trees. These equations are often based on very small samples, however, and can provide widely different estimates for trees of the same species. We addressed this issue in a previous study by devising 10 new equations that estimated total aboveground biomass for all species in North America (...

  5. Model Selection and Risk Estimation with Applications to Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Frederik Vissing

    Broadly speaking, this thesis is devoted to model selection applied to ordinary dierential equations and risk estimation under model selection. A model selection framework was developed for modelling time course data by ordinary dierential equations. The framework is accompanied by the R software...... eective computational tools for estimating unknown structures in dynamical systems, such as gene regulatory networks, which may be used to predict downstream eects of interventions in the system. A recommended algorithm based on the computational tools is presented and thoroughly tested in various...... simulation studies and applications. The second part of the thesis also concerns model selection, but focuses on risk estimation, i.e., estimating the error of mean estimators involving model selection. An extension of Stein's unbiased risk estimate (SURE), which applies to a class of estimators with model...

  6. An extended step characteristic method for solving the transport equation in general geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.; Pevey, R.E.; Parish, T.A.

    1994-01-01

    A method for applying the discrete ordinates method to solve the Boltzmann transport equation on arbitrary two-dimensional meshes has been developed. The finite difference approach normally used to approximate spatial derivatives in extrapolating angular fluxes across a cell is replaced by direct solution of the characteristic form of the transport equation for each discrete direction. Thus, computational cells are not restricted to the geometrical shape of a mesh element characteristic of a given coordinate system. However, in terms of the treatment of energy and angular dependencies, this method resembles traditional discrete ordinates techniques. By using the method developed here, a general two-dimensional space can be approximated by an irregular mesh comprised of arbitrary polygons. Results for a number of test problems have been compared with solutions obtained from traditional methods, with good agreement. Comparisons include benchmarks against analytical results for problems with simple geometry, as well as numerical results obtained from traditional discrete ordinates methods by applying the ANISN and TWOTRAN-II computer programs

  7. Social security wealth and aggregate consumption : An extended life-cycle model estimated for The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zant, W.

    In this paper a method is developed to calculate a wealth variable accounting for the existence of the basic old-age provisions in The Netherlands (AOW). In line with Feldstein's extended life-cycle model, consumption functions with (gross) social security wealth are estimated for The Netherlands

  8. Estimating structural equation models with non-normal variables by using transformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, van K.; Mooijaart, A.; Meijerink, F.

    2009-01-01

    We discuss structural equation models for non-normal variables. In this situation the maximum likelihood and the generalized least-squares estimates of the model parameters can give incorrect estimates of the standard errors and the associated goodness-of-fit chi-squared statistics. If the sample

  9. Stability estimates for solution of IBVP to fractional parabolic differential and difference equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashyralyev, Allaberen; Cakir, Zafer

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we investigate initial-boundary value problems for fractional parabolic equations with the Neumann boundary condition. Stability estimates for the solution of this problem are established. Difference schemes for approximate solution of initial-boundary value problem are constructed. Furthermore, we give theorem on coercive stability estimates for the solution of the difference schemes.

  10. Flexible Approaches to Computing Mediated Effects in Generalized Linear Models: Generalized Estimating Equations and Bootstrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluchter, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    In behavioral research, interest is often in examining the degree to which the effect of an independent variable X on an outcome Y is mediated by an intermediary or mediator variable M. This article illustrates how generalized estimating equations (GEE) modeling can be used to estimate the indirect or mediated effect, defined as the amount by…

  11. Effects of Sample Size, Estimation Methods, and Model Specification on Structural Equation Modeling Fit Indexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao; Wang, Lin; Thompson, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation study investigated the effects on 10 structural equation modeling fit indexes of sample size, estimation method, and model specification. Some fit indexes did not appear to be comparable, and it was apparent that estimation method strongly influenced almost all fit indexes examined, especially for misspecified models. (SLD)

  12. Generalized equations for estimating DXA percent fat of diverse young women and men: The Tiger Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popular generalized equations for estimating percent body fat (BF%) developed with cross-sectional data are biased when applied to racially/ethnically diverse populations. We developed accurate anthropometric models to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry BF% (DXA-BF%) that can be generalized t...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF LOCAL ALLOMETRIC EQUATION TO ESTIMATE TOTAL ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS IN PAPUA TROPICAL FOREST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhi Imam Maulana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, pantropical allometric equations  have been commonly used across the globe to  estimate the aboveground biomass of the forests, including in Indonesia. However, in relation to regional differences in diameter, height and wood density, the lack of data measured, particularly from eastern part of Indonesia, may raise the question on  accuracy of pantropical allometric in such area. Hence, this paper examines  the differences of local allometric equations of Papua Island with equations developed by Chave and his research groups.. Measurements of biomass in this study were conducted directly based on weighing and destructive samplings. Results show that the most appropriate local equation to estimate total aboveground biomass in Papua tropical forest is Log(TAGB = -0.267 + 2.23 Log(DBH +0.649 Log(WD (CF=1.013; VIF=1.6; R2= 95%; R2-adj= 95.1%; RMSE= 0.149; P<0.001. This equation is also a better option in comparison to those of previously published pantropical equations with only 6.47% average deviation and 5.37 points of relative bias. This finding implies that the locally developed equation should be a better option to produce more accurate site specific total aboveground biomass estimation.

  14. Dual extended Kalman filter for combined estimation of vehicle state and road friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Changfu; Hu, Dan; Zheng, Hongyu

    2013-03-01

    Vehicle state and tire-road adhesion are of great use and importance to vehicle active safety control systems. However, it is always not easy to obtain the information with high accuracy and low expense. Recently, many estimation methods have been put forward to solve such problems, in which Kalman filter becomes one of the most popular techniques. Nevertheless, the use of complicated model always leads to poor real-time estimation while the role of road friction coefficient is often ignored. For the purpose of enhancing the real time performance of the algorithm and pursuing precise estimation of vehicle states, a model-based estimator is proposed to conduct combined estimation of vehicle states and road friction coefficients. The estimator is designed based on a three-DOF vehicle model coupled with the Highway Safety Research Institute(HSRI) tire model; the dual extended Kalman filter (DEKF) technique is employed, which can be regarded as two extended Kalman filters operating and communicating simultaneously. Effectiveness of the estimation is firstly examined by comparing the outputs of the estimator with the responses of the vehicle model in CarSim under three typical road adhesion conditions(high-friction, low-friction, and joint-friction). On this basis, driving simulator experiments are carried out to further investigate the practical application of the estimator. Numerical results from CarSim and driving simulator both demonstrate that the estimator designed is capable of estimating the vehicle states and road friction coefficient with reasonable accuracy. The DEKF-based estimator proposed provides the essential information for the vehicle active control system with low expense and decent precision, and offers the possibility of real car application in future.

  15. Comparison of total body water estimates from O-18 and bioelectrical response prediction equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrows, Linda H.; Inners, L. Daniel; Stricklin, Marcella D.; Klein, Peter D.; Wong, William W.; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1993-01-01

    Identification of an indirect, rapid means to measure total body water (TBW) during space flight may aid in quantifying hydration status and assist in countermeasure development. Bioelectrical response testing and hydrostatic weighing were performed on 27 subjects who ingested O-18, a naturally occurring isotope of oxygen, to measure true TBW. TBW estimates from three bioelectrical response prediction equations and fat-free mass (FFM) were compared to TBW measured from O-18. A repeated measures MANOVA with post-hoc Dunnett's Test indicated a significant (p less than 0.05) difference between TBW estimates from two of the three bioelectrical response prediction equations and O-18. TBW estimates from FFM and the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation yielded results that were similar to those given by O-18. Strong correlations existed between each prediction method and O-18; however, standard errors, identified through regression analyses, were higher for the bioelectrical response prediction equations compared to those derived from FFM. These findings suggest (1) the Kushner & Schoeller (1986) equation may provide a valid measure of TBW, (2) other TBW prediction equations need to be identified that have variability similar to that of FFM, and (3) bioelectrical estimates of TBW may prove valuable in quantifying hydration status during space flight.

  16. New equations for age estimation using four permanent mandibular teeth in Thai children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangto, P; Janhom, A; Prasitwattanaseree, S; Iamaroon, A

    2018-03-03

    The purposes of this study were to generate new age estimation equations using two four-teeth methods and to test the accuracy of the resulting equations in comparison with Demirjian and Goldstein four-teeth methods in a Thai population. A sample of 720 digital panoramic radiographs of Thai individuals (360 males and 360 females), aged between 7 and 15 years was randomly selected and assessed for age estimation. The new equations were developed using quadratic regression analysis. The results showed the Thai population-specific equations had a strong relationship between the dental maturity score and the chronological age in both sexes (r = 0.946-0.956). The new equations revealed no statistically significant differences between the estimated and the chronological ages in either sex. On the other hand, Demirjian and Goldstein four-teeth methods showed statistically significant differences between the estimated and the chronological ages in both sexes. Moreover, we found slight differences in the mean absolute error between Demirjian and Goldstein methods and our new equations (0.01 years for males and 0.03 years for females in method I and 0.04 years for males and 0.02 years for females in method II) and the root mean square error between Demirjian and Goldstein methods and our new equations (0.02 years for males and 0.04 years for females in method I and 0.00 years for males and 0.04 years for females in method II). In summary, although Thai population-specific equations provide a slightly increased accuracy in age estimation in Thai children and adolescents, Demirjian and Goldstein methods are still relevant.

  17. Regional regression equations for estimation of natural streamflow statistics in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capesius, Joseph P.; Stephens, Verlin C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board and the Colorado Department of Transportation, developed regional regression equations for estimation of various streamflow statistics that are representative of natural streamflow conditions at ungaged sites in Colorado. The equations define the statistical relations between streamflow statistics (response variables) and basin and climatic characteristics (predictor variables). The equations were developed using generalized least-squares and weighted least-squares multilinear regression reliant on logarithmic variable transformation. Streamflow statistics were derived from at least 10 years of streamflow data through about 2007 from selected USGS streamflow-gaging stations in the study area that are representative of natural-flow conditions. Basin and climatic characteristics used for equation development are drainage area, mean watershed elevation, mean watershed slope, percentage of drainage area above 7,500 feet of elevation, mean annual precipitation, and 6-hour, 100-year precipitation. For each of five hydrologic regions in Colorado, peak-streamflow equations that are based on peak-streamflow data from selected stations are presented for the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year instantaneous-peak streamflows. For four of the five hydrologic regions, equations based on daily-mean streamflow data from selected stations are presented for 7-day minimum 2-, 10-, and 50-year streamflows and for 7-day maximum 2-, 10-, and 50-year streamflows. Other equations presented for the same four hydrologic regions include those for estimation of annual- and monthly-mean streamflow and streamflow-duration statistics for exceedances of 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90 percent. All equations are reported along with salient diagnostic statistics, ranges of basin and climatic characteristics on which each equation is based, and commentary of potential bias, which is not otherwise removed

  18. Solutions to estimation problems for scalar hamilton-jacobi equations using linear programming

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2014-01-01

    This brief presents new convex formulations for solving estimation problems in systems modeled by scalar Hamilton-Jacobi (HJ) equations. Using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the constraints resulting from a HJ equation are convex, and can be written as a set of linear inequalities. We use this fact to pose various (and seemingly unrelated) estimation problems related to traffic flow-engineering as a set of linear programs. In particular, we solve data assimilation and data reconciliation problems for estimating the state of a system when the model and measurement constraints are incompatible. We also solve traffic estimation problems, such as travel time estimation or density estimation. For all these problems, a numerical implementation is performed using experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment. In the context of reproducible research, the code and data used to compute the results presented in this brief have been posted online and are accessible to regenerate the results. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Unit Price and Cost Estimation Equations through Items Percentage of Construction Works in a Desert Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Raheem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research will cover different aspects of estimating process of construction work in a desert area. The inherent difficulties which accompany the cost estimating of the construction works in desert environment in a developing country, will stem from the limited information available, resources scarcity, low level of skilled workers, the prevailing severe weather conditions and many others, which definitely don't provide a fair, reliable and accurate estimation. This study tries to present unit price to estimate the cost in preliminary phase of a project. Estimations are supported by developing mathematical equations based on the historical data of maintenance, new construction of managerial and school projects. Meanwhile, the research has determined the percentage of project items, in such a remote environment. Estimation equations suitable for remote areas have been formulated. Moreover, a procedure for unite price calculation is concluded.

  20. Source Estimation for the Damped Wave Equation Using Modulating Functions Method: Application to the Estimation of the Cerebral Blood Flow

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-10-19

    In this paper, a method based on modulating functions is proposed to estimate the Cerebral Blood Flow (CBF). The problem is written in an input estimation problem for a damped wave equation which is used to model the spatiotemporal variations of blood mass density. The method is described and its performance is assessed through some numerical simulations. The robustness of the method in presence of noise is also studied.

  1. Efficacy of generic allometric equations for estimating biomass: a test in Japanese natural forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Masae I; Utsugi, Hajime; Tanouchi, Hiroyuki; Aiba, Masahiro; Kurokawa, Hiroko; Onoda, Yusuke; Nagano, Masahiro; Umehara, Toru; Ando, Makoto; Miyata, Rie; Hiura, Tsutom

    2015-07-01

    Accurate estimation of tree and forest biomass is key to evaluating forest ecosystem functions and the global carbon cycle. Allometric equations that estimate tree biomass from a set of predictors, such as stem diameter and tree height, are commonly used. Most allometric equations are site specific, usually developed from a small number of trees harvested in a small area, and are either species specific or ignore interspecific differences in allometry. Due to lack of site-specific allometries, local equations are often applied to sites for which they were not originally developed (foreign sites), sometimes leading to large errors in biomass estimates. In this study, we developed generic allometric equations for aboveground biomass and component (stem, branch, leaf, and root) biomass using large, compiled data sets of 1203 harvested trees belonging to 102 species (60 deciduous angiosperm, 32 evergreen angiosperm, and 10 evergreen gymnosperm species) from 70 boreal, temperate, and subtropical natural forests in Japan. The best generic equations provided better biomass estimates than did local equations that were applied to foreign sites. The best generic equations included explanatory variables that represent interspecific differences in allometry in addition to stem diameter, reducing error by 4-12% compared to the generic equations that did not include the interspecific difference. Different explanatory variables were selected for different components. For aboveground and stem biomass, the best generic equations had species-specific wood specific gravity as an explanatory variable. For branch, leaf, and root biomass, the best equations had functional types (deciduous angiosperm, evergreen angiosperm, and evergreen gymnosperm) instead of functional traits (wood specific gravity or leaf mass per area), suggesting importance of other traits in addition to these traits, such as canopy and root architecture. Inclusion of tree height in addition to stem diameter improved

  2. Rhythmic Extended Kalman Filter for Gait Rehabilitation Motion Estimation and Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joukov, Vladimir; Bonnet, Vincent; Karg, Michelle; Venture, Gentiane; Kulic, Dana

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a method to enable the use of non-intrusive, small, wearable, and wireless sensors to estimate the pose of the lower body during gait and other periodic motions and to extract objective performance measures useful for physiotherapy. The Rhythmic Extended Kalman Filter (Rhythmic-EKF) algorithm is developed to estimate the pose, learn an individualized model of periodic movement over time, and use the learned model to improve pose estimation. The proposed approach learns a canonical dynamical system model of the movement during online observation, which is used to accurately model the acceleration during pose estimation. The canonical dynamical system models the motion as a periodic signal. The estimated phase and frequency of the motion also allow the proposed approach to segment the motion into repetitions and extract useful features, such as gait symmetry, step length, and mean joint movement and variance. The algorithm is shown to outperform the extended Kalman filter in simulation, on healthy participant data, and stroke patient data. For the healthy participant marching dataset, the Rhythmic-EKF improves joint acceleration and velocity estimates over regular EKF by 40% and 37%, respectively, estimates joint angles with 2.4° root mean squared error, and segments the motion into repetitions with 96% accuracy.

  3. A posteriori error estimates for finite volume approximations of elliptic equations on general surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Lili; Tian, Li; Wang, Desheng

    2008-10-31

    In this paper, we present a residual-based a posteriori error estimate for the finite volume discretization of steady convection– diffusion–reaction equations defined on surfaces in R3, which are often implicitly represented as level sets of smooth functions. Reliability and efficiency of the proposed a posteriori error estimator are rigorously proved. Numerical experiments are also conducted to verify the theoretical results and demonstrate the robustness of the error estimator.

  4. Estimation of delays and other parameters in nonlinear functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H. T.; Lamm, P. K. D.

    1983-01-01

    A spline-based approximation scheme for nonlinear nonautonomous delay differential equations is discussed. Convergence results (using dissipative type estimates on the underlying nonlinear operators) are given in the context of parameter estimation problems which include estimation of multiple delays and initial data as well as the usual coefficient-type parameters. A brief summary of some of the related numerical findings is also given.

  5. Convex Hypersurfaces and $L^p$ Estimates for Schr\\"odinger Equations

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Quan; Yao, Xiaohua; Fan, Da

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with Schr\\"odinger equations whose principal operators are homogeneous elliptic. When the corresponding level hypersurface is convex, we show the $L^p$-$L^q$ estimate of solution operator in free case. This estimate, combining with the results of fractionally integrated groups, allows us to further obtain the $L^p$ estimate of solutions for the initial data belonging to a dense subset of $L^p$ in the case of integrable potentials.

  6. Energy-Extended CES Aggregate Production: Current Aspects of Their Specification and Econometric Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul E. Brockway

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Capital–labour–energy Constant Elasticity of Substitution (CES production functions and their estimated parameters now form a key part of energy–economy models which inform energy and emissions policy. However, the collation and guidance as to the specification and estimation choices involved with such energy-extended CES functions is disparate. This risks poorly specified and estimated CES functions, with knock-on implications for downstream energy–economic models and climate policy. In response, as a first step, this paper assembles in one place the major considerations involved in the empirical estimation of these CES functions. Discussions of the choices and their implications lead to recommendations for CES empiricists. The extensive bibliography allows those interested to dig deeper into any aspect of the CES parameter estimation process.

  7. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.

  8. A New Entropy Formula and Gradient Estimates for the Linear Heat Equation on Static Manifold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimbola Abolarinwa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we prove a new monotonicity formula for the heat equation via a generalized family of entropy functionals. This family of entropy formulas generalizes both Perelman’s entropy for evolving metric and Ni’s entropy on static manifold. We show that this entropy satisfies a pointwise differential inequality for heat kernel. The consequences of which are various gradient and Harnack estimates for all positive solutions to the heat equation on compact manifold.

  9. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION

    OpenAIRE

    PINTO, Andressa S.; CHEDID, Marcio F.; GUERRA, Léa T.; ÁLVARES-DA-SILVA, Mario R.; ARAÚJO, Alexandre de; GUIMARÃES, Luciano S.; LEIPNITZ, Ian; CHEDID, Aljamir D.; KRUEL, Cleber R. P.; GREZZANA-FILHO, Tomaz J. M.; KRUEL, Cleber D. P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost....

  10. Modulating functions method for parameters estimation in the fifth order KdV equation

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2017-07-25

    In this work, the modulating functions method is proposed for estimating coefficients in higher-order nonlinear partial differential equation which is the fifth order Kortewegde Vries (KdV) equation. The proposed method transforms the problem into a system of linear algebraic equations of the unknowns. The statistical properties of the modulating functions solution are described in this paper. In addition, guidelines for choosing the number of modulating functions, which is an important design parameter, are provided. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method are shown through numerical simulations in both noise-free and noisy cases.

  11. Parameter Estimation for Partial Differential Equations by Collage-Based Numerical Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Deng

    2009-01-01

    into a minimization problem of a function of several variables after the partial differential equation is approximated by a differential dynamical system. Then numerical schemes for solving this minimization problem are proposed, including grid approximation and ant colony optimization. The proposed schemes are applied to a parameter estimation problem for the Belousov-Zhabotinskii equation, and the results show that the proposed approximation method is efficient for both linear and nonlinear partial differential equations with respect to unknown parameters. At worst, the presented method provides an excellent starting point for traditional inversion methods that must first select a good starting point.

  12. Estimation of time- and state-dependent delays and other parameters in functional differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. A.

    1990-01-01

    A parameter estimation algorithm is developed which can be used to estimate unknown time- or state-dependent delays and other parameters (e.g., initial condition) appearing within a nonlinear nonautonomous functional differential equation. The original infinite dimensional differential equation is approximated using linear splines, which are allowed to move with the variable delay. The variable delays are approximated using linear splines as well. The approximation scheme produces a system of ordinary differential equations with nice computational properties. The unknown parameters are estimated within the approximating systems by minimizing a least-squares fit-to-data criterion. Convergence theorems are proved for time-dependent delays and state-dependent delays within two classes, which say essentially that fitting the data by using approximations will, in the limit, provide a fit to the data using the original system. Numerical test examples are presented which illustrate the method for all types of delay.

  13. Variance estimates for transport in stochastic media by means of the master equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautz, S. D.; Franke, B. C.; Prinja, A. K.

    2013-01-01

    The master equation has been used to examine properties of transport in stochastic media. It has been shown previously that not only may the Levermore-Pomraning (LP) model be derived from the master equation for a description of ensemble-averaged transport quantities, but also that equations describing higher-order statistical moments may be obtained. We examine in greater detail the equations governing the second moments of the distribution of the angular fluxes, from which variances may be computed. We introduce a simple closure for these equations, as well as several models for estimating the variances of derived transport quantities. We revisit previous benchmarks for transport in stochastic media in order to examine the error of these new variance models. We find, not surprisingly, that the errors in these variance estimates are at least as large as the corresponding estimates of the average, and sometimes much larger. We also identify patterns in these variance estimates that may help guide the construction of more accurate models. (authors)

  14. Use of glomerular filtration rate estimating equations for drug dosing in HIV-positive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okparavero, Aghogho A; Tighiouart, Hocine; Krishnasami, Zipporah; Wyatt, Christina M; Graham, Hiba; Hellinger, James; Inker, Lesley A

    2014-01-01

    Background Current HIV treatment guidelines recommend using the Cockcroft-Gault equation for drug dosing adjustments. The use of newer glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations for drug dosing and the appropriateness of physician antiretroviral dosing based on estimated kidney function have not been studied in an HIV-positive population. Methods We evaluated concordance between measured and estimated GFR for the assignment of kidney function categories designated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Guidance for Industry for pharmacokinetic studies, and appropriateness of physician antiretroviral drug dosing for level of kidney function in 200 HIV-positive patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. Estimated kidney function was determined using the Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and Cockcroft-Gault equations. Results For assignment of FDA-designated kidney function categories, concordance rates between measured and estimated GFR using the CKD-EPI, MDRD Study and Cockcroft-Gault equations were 79%, 71% and 77%, respectively. This pattern was consistent across most subgroups. When actual prescribed dosages were compared to recommended dosages based on the level of estimated kidney function, 3% to 19% of study participants were prescribed higher than recommended dosages. The largest discordance between prescribed and recommended dosages was observed for the Cockcroft-Gault equation. Conclusions The CKD-EPI equation has the highest concordance with measured GFR for the assignment of FDA-designated kidney function categories. Its use may lead to lower dosing related errors in HIV-infected US adults on stable antiretroviral therapy. More education is required with respect to dose adjustment for level of kidney function. PMID:23963249

  15. Modulating Functions Based Algorithm for the Estimation of the Coefficients and Differentiation Order for a Space-Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation

    KAUST Repository

    Aldoghaither, Abeer

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, a new method, based on the so-called modulating functions, is proposed to estimate average velocity, dispersion coefficient, and differentiation order in a space-fractional advection-dispersion equation, where the average velocity and the dispersion coefficient are space-varying. First, the average velocity and the dispersion coefficient are estimated by applying the modulating functions method, where the problem is transformed into a linear system of algebraic equations. Then, the modulating functions method combined with a Newton\\'s iteration algorithm is applied to estimate the coefficients and the differentiation order simultaneously. The local convergence of the proposed method is proved. Numerical results are presented with noisy measurements to show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. It is worth mentioning that this method can be extended to general fractional partial differential equations.

  16. Development of prediction equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass in Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furushima, Taishi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Murakami, Haruka; Kawano, Hiroshi; Gando, Yuko; Kawakami, Ryoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2017-08-29

    This study aimed to develop and cross-validate prediction equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) and to examine the relationship between sarcopenia defined by the prediction equations and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) or osteoporosis in Japanese men and women. Subjects were healthy men and women aged 20-90 years, who were randomly allocated to the following two groups: the development group (D group; 257 men, 913 women) and the cross-validation group (V group; 119 men, 112 women). To develop prediction equations, stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed on data obtained from the D group, using ASM measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a dependent variable and five easily obtainable measures (age, height, weight, waist circumference, and handgrip strength) as independent variables. When the prediction equations for ASM estimation were applied to the V group, a significant correlation was found between DXA-measured ASM and predicted ASM in both men and women (R 2  = 0.81 and R 2  = 0.72). Our prediction equations had higher R 2 values compared to previously developed equations (R 2  = 0.75-0.59 and R 2  = 0.69-0.40) in both men and women. Moreover, sarcopenia defined by predicted ASM was related to risk factors for osteoporosis and CVD, as well as sarcopenia defined by DXA-measured ASM. In this study, novel prediction equations were developed and cross-validated in Japanese men and women. Our analyses validated the clinical significance of these prediction equations and showed that previously reported equations were not applicable in a Japanese population.

  17. Modification of the Sandwich Estimator in Generalized Estimating Equations with Correlated Binary Outcomes in Rare Event and Small Sample Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Paul; Stoner, Julie

    Regression models for correlated binary outcomes are commonly fit using a Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) methodology. GEE uses the Liang and Zeger sandwich estimator to produce unbiased standard error estimators for regression coefficients in large sample settings even when the covariance structure is misspecified. The sandwich estimator performs optimally in balanced designs when the number of participants is large, and there are few repeated measurements. The sandwich estimator is not without drawbacks; its asymptotic properties do not hold in small sample settings. In these situations, the sandwich estimator is biased downwards, underestimating the variances. In this project, a modified form for the sandwich estimator is proposed to correct this deficiency. The performance of this new sandwich estimator is compared to the traditional Liang and Zeger estimator as well as alternative forms proposed by Morel, Pan and Mancl and DeRouen. The performance of each estimator was assessed with 95% coverage probabilities for the regression coefficient estimators using simulated data under various combinations of sample sizes and outcome prevalence values with an Independence (IND), Autoregressive (AR) and Compound Symmetry (CS) correlation structure. This research is motivated by investigations involving rare-event outcomes in aviation data.

  18. An extended set-value observer for position estimation using single range measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcal, Jose; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.

    the observability of the system is briefly discussed and an extended set-valued observer is presented, with some discussion about the effect of the measurements noise on the final solution. This observer estimates bounds in the errors assuming that the exogenous signals are bounded, providing a safe region......The ability of estimating the position of an underwater vehicle from single range measurements is important in applications where one transducer marks an important geographical point, when there is a limitation in the size or cost of the vehicle, or when there is a failure in a system...

  19. Extended Ellipsoidal Outer-Bounding Set-Membership Estimation for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems with Unknown-but-Bounded Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushuang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops an extended ellipsoidal outer-bounding set-membership estimation (EEOB-SME algorithm with high accuracy and efficiency for nonlinear discrete-time systems under unknown-but-bounded (UBB disturbances. The EEOB-SME linearizes the first-order terms about the current state estimations and bounds the linearization errors by ellipsoids using interval analysis for nonlinear equations of process and measurement equations, respectively. It has been demonstrated that the EEOB-SME algorithm is stable and the estimation errors of the EEOB-SME are bounded when the nonlinear system is observable. The EEOB-SME decreases the computation load and the feasible sets of EEOB-SME contain more true states. The efficiency of the EEOB-SME algorithm has been shown by a numerical simulation under UBB disturbances.

  20. Association of renal function, estimated by four equations, with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doganer, Yusuf C; Rohrer, James E; Aydogan, Umit; Barcin, Cem; Cayci, Tuncer; Saglam, Kenan

    2015-04-01

    Individuals with impaired renal function are at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAD is also associated with an increased likelihood of having chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the present study, we sought to determine the association between impaired renal function with CAD presence and CAD severity based on four different estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equations. We estimated GFR values using four equations: modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault (C-G), chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-Epi), and Mayo Quadratic. Three hundred and fifty-six CAD patients were classified by the number of stenotic coronary arteries occluded >50%, while the CAD severity was categorized based on the number of involved coronary arteries determined to be healthy, single- and multi-vessel disease. The mean values of eGFR calculated by CKD-Epi, MDRD, Mayo, and C-G equations were 77.44, 71.34, 96.33, and 89.49 mL/min/1.73 m(2) respectively. Based on these equations, the prevalence of eGFR equations were independently related to significant CAD: CKD-Epi (p = 0.004, β = 0.969), MDRD (p = 0.003, β = 0.965), and C-G (p = 0.021, β = 0.978). The present study established that accurate eGFR equations commonly used still accurate to determine the association of the impaired renal function with CAD presence and extent.

  1. Equations for estimating Clark Unit-hydrograph parameters for small rural watersheds in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Timothy D.; Melching, Charles S.; Kocher, Kyle E.

    2000-01-01

    Equations for estimating the time of concentration (TC) and storage coefficient (R) of the Clark unit-hydrograph method were developed for small rural watersheds [0.02-2.3 square miles (mi2)] in Illinois. The equations will provide State and local engineers and planners with more accurate methods to estimate the TC and R for use in simulating discharge hydrographs on small rural watersheds when designing stormwater-management facilities and other hydraulic structures, determining flood-plain boundaries, and assessing the safety of structures in rivers. The rainfall and runoff data from gaged small rural watersheds (0.02-2.3 mi2) with insignificant amounts of impervious land cover in Illinois were used to develop the equations.

  2. Approximate damped oscillatory solutions and error estimates for the perturbed Klein–Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Caier; Zhang, Weiguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analyze the dynamical behavior of the planar dynamical system corresponding to the perturbed Klein–Gordon equation. • Present the relations between the properties of traveling wave solutions and the perturbation coefficient. • Obtain all explicit expressions of approximate damped oscillatory solutions. • Investigate error estimates between exact damped oscillatory solutions and the approximate solutions and give some numerical simulations. - Abstract: The influence of perturbation on traveling wave solutions of the perturbed Klein–Gordon equation is studied by applying the bifurcation method and qualitative theory of dynamical systems. All possible approximate damped oscillatory solutions for this equation are obtained by using undetermined coefficient method. Error estimates indicate that the approximate solutions are meaningful. The results of numerical simulations also establish our analysis

  3. Improved extended Kalman filter for state of charge estimation of battery pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-06-01

    It is difficult to model the behavior of the battery pack accurately due to the electrochemical characteristics variations among cells of a battery pack. As a result, accurate state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) estimation for the battery pack is a case provocation. The estimation process poses more challenges after substantial battery aging. This paper tries to estimate the SOC of a Li-ion battery pack for an electrical vehicle using improved extended Kalman filter (IEKF) which benefits from considering aging phenomenon in the electrical model of cells. In order to assemble a battery pack, we find cells with similar electrochemical characteristics. Model adaptive algorithm is applied on the corresponding cells of a string to minimize cell-to-cell variation's effect. During the operation, the values of electrical model of each cell are updated by the same algorithm to compensate aging effects on SOC estimation error. The mean value of updated cell's model is used for a single unit cell model of the pack used at IEKF to achieve more accurate SOC estimation. The algorithm's fast response and low computational burden, makes on-board estimation practical. The experimental results reveal that the proposed approach's SOC and voltage estimation errors do not exceed 1.5%.

  4. Performance of Predictive Equations Specifically Developed to Estimate Resting Energy Expenditure in Ventilated Critically Ill Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotterand Chaparro, Corinne; Taffé, Patrick; Moullet, Clémence; Laure Depeyre, Jocelyne; Longchamp, David; Perez, Marie-Hélène; Cotting, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    To determine, based on indirect calorimetry measurements, the biases of predictive equations specifically developed recently for estimating resting energy expenditure (REE) in ventilated critically ill children, or developed for healthy populations but used in critically ill children. A secondary analysis study was performed using our data on REE measured in a previous prospective study on protein and energy needs in pediatric intensive care unit. We included 75 ventilated critically ill children (median age, 21 months) in whom 407 indirect calorimetry measurements were performed. Fifteen predictive equations were used to estimate REE: the equations of White, Meyer, Mehta, Schofield, Henry, the World Health Organization, Fleisch, and Harris-Benedict and the tables of Talbot. Their differential and proportional biases (with 95% CIs) were computed and the bias plotted in graphs. The Bland-Altman method was also used. Most equations underestimated and overestimated REE between 200 and 1000 kcal/day. The equations of Mehta, Schofield, and Henry and the tables of Talbot had a bias ≤10%, but the 95% CI was large and contained values by far beyond ±10% for low REE values. Other specific equations for critically ill children had even wider biases. In ventilated critically ill children, none of the predictive equations tested met the performance criteria for the entire range of REE between 200 and 1000 kcal/day. Even the equations with the smallest bias may entail a risk of underfeeding or overfeeding, especially in the youngest children. Indirect calorimetry measurement must be preferred. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of equations and proposed reference values to estimate fat mass in Chilean university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Campos, Rossana; Pacheco Carrillo, Jaime; Almonacid Fierro, Alejandro; Urra Albornoz, Camilo; Cossío-Bolaños, Marco

    2018-03-01

    (i) To propose regression equations based on anthropometric measures to estimate fat mass (FM) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as reference method, and (ii)to establish population reference standards for equation-derived FM. A cross-sectional study on 6,713 university students (3,354 males and 3,359 females) from Chile aged 17.0 to 27.0years. Anthropometric measures (weight, height, waist circumference) were taken in all participants. Whole body DXA was performed in 683 subjects. A total of 478 subjects were selected to develop regression equations, and 205 for their cross-validation. Data from 6,030 participants were used to develop reference standards for FM. Equations were generated using stepwise multiple regression analysis. Percentiles were developed using the LMS method. Equations for men were: (i) FM=-35,997.486 +232.285 *Weight +432.216 *CC (R 2 =0.73, SEE=4.1); (ii)FM=-37,671.303 +309.539 *Weight +66,028.109 *ICE (R2=0.76, SEE=3.8), while equations for women were: (iii)FM=-13,216.917 +461,302 *Weight+91.898 *CC (R 2 =0.70, SEE=4.6), and (iv) FM=-14,144.220 +464.061 *Weight +16,189.297 *ICE (R 2 =0.70, SEE=4.6). Percentiles proposed included p10, p50, p85, and p95. The developed equations provide valid and accurate estimation of FM in both sexes. The values obtained using the equations may be analyzed from percentiles that allow for categorizing body fat levels by age and sex. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. A new method for extending solutions to the self-similar relativistic magnetohydrodynamic equations for black hole outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccobello, C.; Cavecchi, Y.; Heemskerk, M. H. M.; Markoff, S.; Polko, P.; Meier, D.

    2018-02-01

    The paradigm in which magnetic fields play a crucial role in launching/collimating outflows in many astrophysical objects continues to gain support. However, semi-analytical models including the effect of magnetic fields on the dynamics and morphology of jets are still missing due to the intrinsic difficulties in integrating the equations describing a collimated, relativistic flow in the presence of gravity. Only few solutions have been found so far, due to the highly non-linear character of the equations together with the need to blindly search for singularities. These numerical problems prevented a full exploration of the parameter space. We present a new integration scheme to solve r-self-similar, stationary, axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing collimated, relativistic outflows crossing smoothly all the singular points (Alfvén point and modified slow/fast points). For the first time, we are able to integrate from the disc mid-plane to downstream of the modified fast point. We discuss an ensemble of jet solutions, emphasizing trends and features that can be compared to observables. We present, for the first time with a semi-analytical MHD model, solutions showing counter-rotation of the jet for a substantial fraction of its extent. We find diverse jet configurations with bulk Lorentz factors up to 10 and potential sites for recollimation between 103 and 107 gravitational radii. Such extended coverage of the intervals of quantities, such as magnetic-to-thermal energy ratios at the base or the heights/widths of the recollimation region, makes our solutions suitable for application to many different systems where jets are launched.

  7. Persistence Property and Estimate on Momentum Support for the Integrable Degasperis-Procesi Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengguang Guo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that a strong solution of the Degasperis-Procesi equation possesses persistence property in the sense that the solution with algebraically decaying initial data and its spatial derivative must retain this property. Moreover, we give estimates of measure for the momentum support.

  8. Allometric equations for estimating tree biomass in restored mixed-species Atlantic Forest stands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Rodrigues Nogueira; Vera Lex Engel; John A. Parrotta; Antonio Carlos Galvão de Melo; Danilo. Scorzoni Ré

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of Atlantic Forests is receiving increasing attention because of its role in both biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration for global climate change mitigation. This study was carried out in an Atlantic Forest restoration project in the south-central region of São Paulo State – Brazil to develop allometric equations to estimate tree biomass of...

  9. A Comparison of Regional and SiteSpecific Volume Estimation Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe P. McClure; Jana Anderson; Hans T. Schreuder

    1987-01-01

    Regression equations for volume by region and site class were examined for lobiolly pine. The regressions for the Coastal Plain and Piedmont regions had significantly different slopes. The results shared important practical differences in percentage of confidence intervals containing the true total volume and in percentage of estimates within a specific proportion of...

  10. The πHe3H3 coupling constant estimation using the Chew-Low equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, R.; Nichitiu, F.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper it is presented an estimation of the πHe 3 H 3 coupling constant using the Chew-Low equation and a semi-phenomenological analysis of the π -+ He 3 elastic differential cross sections at 98, 120, 135 and 156 MeV

  11. A New Equation to Estimate Muscle Mass from Creatinine and Cystatin C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-wook Kim

    Full Text Available With evaluation for physical performance, measuring muscle mass is an important step in detecting sarcopenia. However, there are no methods to estimate muscle mass from blood sampling.To develop a new equation to estimate total-body muscle mass with serum creatinine and cystatin C level, we designed a cross-sectional study with separate derivation and validation cohorts. Total body muscle mass and fat mass were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA in 214 adults aged 25 to 84 years who underwent physical checkups from 2010 to 2013 in a single tertiary hospital. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were also examined.Serum creatinine was correlated with muscle mass (P < .001, and serum cystatin C was correlated with body fat mass (P < .001 after adjusting glomerular filtration rate (GFR. After eliminating GFR, an equation to estimate total-body muscle mass was generated and coefficients were calculated in the derivation cohort. There was an agreement between muscle mass calculated by the novel equation and measured by DXA in both the derivation and validation cohort (P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.829, β = 0.95, P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.856, β = 1.03, respectively.The new equation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C levels can be used to estimate total-body muscle mass.

  12. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for

  13. Allometric equations for aboveground and belowground biomass estimations in an evergreen forest in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nam, Vu Thanh; Kuijk, Van Marijke; Anten, Niels P.R.

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations

  14. Estimating, Testing, and Comparing Specific Effects in Structural Equation Models: The Phantom Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Siegfried; Ledermann, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The phantom model approach for estimating, testing, and comparing specific effects within structural equation models (SEMs) is presented. The rationale underlying this novel method consists in representing the specific effect to be assessed as a total effect within a separate latent variable model, the phantom model that is added to the main…

  15. A multivariate family-based association test using generalized estimating equations : FBAT-GEE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; Silverman, SK; Xu, [No Value; Weiss, ST; Laird, NM

    In this paper we propose a multivariate extension of family-based association tests based on generalized estimating equations. The test can be applied to multiple phenotypes and to phenotypic data obtained in longitudinal studies without making any distributional assumptions for the phenotypic

  16. Standard Error Estimation of 3PL IRT True Score Equating with an MCMC Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuming; Schulz, E. Matthew; Yu, Lei

    2008-01-01

    A Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method and a bootstrap method were compared in the estimation of standard errors of item response theory (IRT) true score equating. Three test form relationships were examined: parallel, tau-equivalent, and congeneric. Data were simulated based on Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary tests of the Iowa Tests of…

  17. Extended Distributed State Estimation: A Detection Method against Tolerable False Data Injection Attacks in Smart Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai Wang

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available False data injection (FDI is considered to be one of the most dangerous cyber-attacks in smart grids, as it may lead to energy theft from end users, false dispatch in the distribution process, and device breakdown during power generation. In this paper, a novel kind of FDI attack, named tolerable false data injection (TFDI, is constructed. Such attacks exploit the traditional detector’s tolerance of observation errors to bypass the traditional bad data detection. Then, a method based on extended distributed state estimation (EDSE is proposed to detect TFDI in smart grids. The smart grid is decomposed into several subsystems, exploiting graph partition algorithms. Each subsystem is extended outward to include the adjacent buses and tie lines, and generate the extended subsystem. The Chi-squares test is applied to detect the false data in each extended subsystem. Through decomposition, the false data stands out distinctively from normal observation errors and the detection sensitivity is increased. Extensive TFDI attack cases are simulated in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE 14-, 39-, 118- and 300-bus systems. Simulation results show that the detection precision of the EDSE-based method is much higher than that of the traditional method, while the proposed method significantly reduces the associated computational costs.

  18. Predictive equations for the estimation of body size in seals and sea lions (Carnivora: Pinnipedia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Morgan; Clementz, Mark T; Kohno, Naoki

    2014-08-01

    Body size plays an important role in pinniped ecology and life history. However, body size data is often absent for historical, archaeological, and fossil specimens. To estimate the body size of pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses) for today and the past, we used 14 commonly preserved cranial measurements to develop sets of single variable and multivariate predictive equations for pinniped body mass and total length. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to test whether separate family specific regressions were more appropriate than single predictive equations for Pinnipedia. The influence of phylogeny was tested with phylogenetic independent contrasts (PIC). The accuracy of these regressions was then assessed using a combination of coefficient of determination, percent prediction error, and standard error of estimation. Three different methods of multivariate analysis were examined: bidirectional stepwise model selection using Akaike information criteria; all-subsets model selection using Bayesian information criteria (BIC); and partial least squares regression. The PCA showed clear discrimination between Otariidae (fur seals and sea lions) and Phocidae (earless seals) for the 14 measurements, indicating the need for family-specific regression equations. The PIC analysis found that phylogeny had a minor influence on relationship between morphological variables and body size. The regressions for total length were more accurate than those for body mass, and equations specific to Otariidae were more accurate than those for Phocidae. Of the three multivariate methods, the all-subsets approach required the fewest number of variables to estimate body size accurately. We then used the single variable predictive equations and the all-subsets approach to estimate the body size of two recently extinct pinniped taxa, the Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis) and the Japanese sea lion (Zalophus japonicus). Body size estimates using single variable regressions

  19. Extended Kalman Filter with a Fuzzy Method for Accurate Battery Pack State of Charge Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sepasi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the world moves toward greenhouse gas reduction, there is increasingly active work around Li-ion chemistry-based batteries as an energy source for electric vehicles (EVs, hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and smart grids. In these applications, the battery management system (BMS requires an accurate online estimation of the state of charge (SOC in a battery pack. This estimation is difficult, especially after substantial battery aging. In order to address this problem, this paper utilizes SOC estimation of Li-ion battery packs using a fuzzy-improved extended Kalman filter (fuzzy-IEKF for Li-ion cells, regardless of their age. The proposed approach introduces a fuzzy method with a new class and associated membership function that determines an approximate initial value applied to SOC estimation. Subsequently, the EKF method is used by considering the single unit model for the battery pack to estimate the SOC for following periods of battery use. This approach uses an adaptive model algorithm to update the model for each single cell in the battery pack. To verify the accuracy of the estimation method, tests are done on a LiFePO4 aged battery pack consisting of 120 cells connected in series with a nominal voltage of 432 V.

  20. A Generalized Estimating Equations Approach to Model Heterogeneity and Time Dependence in Capture-Recapture Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanda Md. Abdus Salam

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities and time dependence are fundamentally important for estimating the closed animal population parameters in capture-recapture studies. A generalized estimating equations (GEE approach accounts for linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions, and individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities in a closed population capture-recapture individual heterogeneity and time variation model. The estimated capture probabilities are used to estimate animal population parameters. Two real data sets are used for illustrative purposes. A simulation study is carried out to assess the performance of the GEE estimator. A Quasi-Likelihood Information Criterion (QIC is applied for the selection of the best fitting model. This approach performs well when the estimated population parameters depend on the individual heterogeneity and the nature of linear correlation among capture-recapture occasions.

  1. Calculation of statistic estimates of kinetic parameters from substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Pedro L; Astudillo-Castro, Carolina; Gajardo, Diego; Flores, Sebastián

    2017-04-01

    We provide initial rate data from enzymatic reaction experiments and tis processing to estimate the kinetic parameters from the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method published by Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden (Cornish-Bowden and Eisenthal, 1974; Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden, 1974). The method was denominated the direct linear plot and consists in the calculation of the median from a dataset of kinetic parameters V max and K m from the Michaelis-Menten equation. In this opportunity we present the procedure to applicate the direct linear plot to the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation; a three-parameter equation. The median method is characterized for its robustness and its insensibility to outlier. The calculations are presented in an Excel datasheet and a computational algorithm was developed in the free software Python. The kinetic parameters of the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation V max , K m and K s were calculated using three experimental points from the dataset formed by 13 experimental points. All the 286 combinations were calculated. The dataset of kinetic parameters resulting from this combinatorial was used to calculate the median which corresponds to the statistic estimator of the real kinetic parameters. A comparative statistical analyses between the median method and the least squares was published in Valencia et al. [3].

  2. Calculation of statistic estimates of kinetic parameters from substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. Valencia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We provide initial rate data from enzymatic reaction experiments and tis processing to estimate the kinetic parameters from the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation using the median method published by Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden (Cornish-Bowden and Eisenthal, 1974; Eisenthal and Cornish-Bowden, 1974. The method was denominated the direct linear plot and consists in the calculation of the median from a dataset of kinetic parameters Vmax and Km from the Michaelis–Menten equation. In this opportunity we present the procedure to applicate the direct linear plot to the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation; a three-parameter equation. The median method is characterized for its robustness and its insensibility to outlier. The calculations are presented in an Excel datasheet and a computational algorithm was developed in the free software Python. The kinetic parameters of the substrate uncompetitive inhibition equation Vmax, Km and Ks were calculated using three experimental points from the dataset formed by 13 experimental points. All the 286 combinations were calculated. The dataset of kinetic parameters resulting from this combinatorial was used to calculate the median which corresponds to the statistic estimator of the real kinetic parameters. A comparative statistical analyses between the median method and the least squares was published in Valencia et al. [3].

  3. Allometric equations for estimating standing biomass of Avicennia marina in Bushehr of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Ghasemi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important to use of ecological indicators, such as biomass for recognizing the special status of ecosystems, such as mangrove forests and also monitoring and evaluating changes through a specific period. Because using the direct method of evaluating biomass would be destructive, it is common in all similar area to use determine exact Allometric equations by using the statistical relationship between the structural characteristics of trees and their biomass and use these equations to estimate the biomass of trees. The aim of this study is estimate the aboveground biomass of mangroves and determine Allometric models for Nayband area in Bushehr, located in southern Iran. A number of mangrove trees were randomly selected. Collar diameter, crown diameter and tree height of standing trees were measured. After logging and weighing fresh weight, dry weight, trunk and branches were obtained in laboratory and biomass of components was calculated. The relationship between quantities feature of trees and biomass for determination of allometric equation was studied by using linear, power and exponential regression. The equations were compared with each other based on the different modeling parameters. The highest significant correlation was found between crown diameters and dry weight (R > 0.90. The best equations were obtained by means of an exponential and power regression models (R2adj> 0.90. The models were obtained from explained factor, suggests that there might be a relationship between the characteristics of mangrove trees and biomass.

  4. Estimation of Resource Productivity and Efficiency: An Extended Evaluation of Sustainability Related to Material Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Chih Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to conduct an extended evaluation of sustainability based on the material flow analysis of resource productivity. We first present updated information on the material flow analysis (MFA database in Taiwan. Essential indicators are selected to quantify resource productivity associated with the economy-wide MFA of Taiwan. The study also applies the IPAT (impact-population-affluence-technology master equation to measure trends of material use efficiency in Taiwan and to compare them with those of other Asia-Pacific countries. An extended evaluation of efficiency, in comparison with selected economies by applying data envelopment analysis (DEA, is conducted accordingly. The Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI is thereby adopted to quantify the patterns and the associated changes of efficiency. Observations and summaries can be described as follows. Based on the MFA of the Taiwanese economy, the average growth rates of domestic material input (DMI; 2.83% and domestic material consumption (DMC; 2.13% in the past two decades were both less than that of gross domestic product (GDP; 4.95%. The decoupling of environmental pressures from economic growth can be observed. In terms of the decomposition analysis of the IPAT equation and in comparison with 38 other economies, the material use efficiency of Taiwan did not perform as well as its economic growth. The DEA comparisons of resource productivity show that Denmark, Germany, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, United Kingdom and Japan performed the best in 2008. Since the MPI consists of technological change (frontier-shift or innovation and efficiency change (catch-up, the change in efficiency (catch-up of Taiwan has not been accomplished as expected in spite of the increase in its technological efficiency.

  5. Body composition in elderly people: effect of criterion estimates on predictive equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumgartner, R.N.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Lichtman, S.; Wang, J.; Pierson, R.N. Jr. (Wright State Univ. School of Medicine, Dayton, OH (USA))

    1991-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether there are significant differences between two- and four-compartment model estimates of body composition, whether these differences are associated with aqueous and mineral fractions of the fat-free mass (FFM); and whether the differences are retained in equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and bioelectric resistance. Body composition was estimated in 98 men and women aged 65-94 y by using a four-compartment model based on hydrodensitometry, {sup 3}H{sub 2}O dilution, and dual-photon absorptiometry. These estimates were significantly different from those obtained by using Siri's two-compartment model. The differences were associated significantly (P less than 0.0001) with variation in the aqueous fraction of FFM. Equations for predicting body composition from anthropometry and resistance, when calibrated against two-compartment model estimates, retained these systematic errors. Equations predicting body composition in elderly people should be calibrated against estimates from multicompartment models that consider variability in FFM composition.

  6. Predictive performance of 12 equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in severely obese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ary Serpa Neto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Considering that the Cockcroft-Gault formula and theequation of diet modification in renal disease are amply used in clinical practice to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, although they seem to have low accuracy in obese patients, the present study intends to evaluate the predictive performance of 12 equations used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in obese patients. Methods: This is a cross-sectional retrospective study, conducted between 2007 and 2008 and carried out at a university, of 140 patients with severe obesity (mean body mass index 44 ± 4.4 kg/m2. The glomerular filtration rate was determined by means of 24-hour urine samples. Patients were classified into one or more of the four subgroups: impaired glucose tolerance (n = 43, diabetic (n = 24, metabolic syndrome (n = 76, and/or hypertension (n = 66. We used bias, precision, and accuracy to assess the predictive performance of each equation in the entire group and in the subgroups. Results: In renal disease, Cockcroft-Gault’s formula and the diet modification equation are not precise in severely obese patients (precision: 40.9 and 33.4, respectively. Sobh’s equationshowed no bias in the general group or in two subgroups. Salazar-Corcoran’s and Sobh’s equations showed no bias for the entire group(Bias: -5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI = -11.4, 1.0, and 6. 2; 95%CI = -0.3, 12.7, respectively. All the other equations were imprecise for the entire group. Conclusion: Of the equations studied, those of Sobh and Salazar-Corcoran seem to be the best for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in severely obese patients analyzed in our study.

  7. New equations to estimate resting energy expenditure in obese adults from body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Antonino; Di Renzo, Laura; Morini, Pietro; de Miranda, Renata Costa; Romano, Lorenzo; Colica, Carmela

    2018-01-01

    The aims of this study were: to develop new equations for predicting resting energy expenditure (REE) in obese Italian subjects according to body composition parameters; to compare them with predicted values estimated by other REE prediction equations; and to cross-validate our equations using a validation set cohort. Four hundred patients were enrolled and divided into three groups. Besides anthropometry and REE (indirect calorimetry), total body fat and lean were evaluated by dual X-ray absorptiometry, and fat mass and fat-free mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The subjects eligible to participate were 330. Group 1 (n = 174) was used to develop (R 2  = 0.79) and (R 2  = 0.77). Group 2 (n = 115) was used to generate (R 2  = 0.85) and (R 2  = 0.81). Group 3 (n = 41) was used to cross-validate the equations. Equations 1 and 3 are reliable to measure REE from calorimetry and better than other equations that use anthropometric variables as predictors of REE. Further analysis in different populations is required before it can be applied in clinical practice.

  8. Sex-Specific Equations to Estimate Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Cycle Ergometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina G. de Souza e Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Aerobic fitness, assessed by measuring VO2max in maximum cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX or by estimating VO2max through the use of equations in exercise testing, is a predictor of mortality. However, the error resulting from this estimate in a given individual can be high, affecting clinical decisions. Objective: To determine the error of estimate of VO2max in cycle ergometry in a population attending clinical exercise testing laboratories, and to propose sex-specific equations to minimize that error. Methods: This study assessed 1715 adults (18 to 91 years, 68% men undertaking maximum CPX in a lower limbs cycle ergometer (LLCE with ramp protocol. The percentage error (E% between measured VO2max and that estimated from the modified ACSM equation (Lang et al. MSSE, 1992 was calculated. Then, estimation equations were developed: 1 for all the population tested (C-GENERAL; and 2 separately by sex (C-MEN and C-WOMEN. Results: Measured VO2max was higher in men than in WOMEN: -29.4 ± 10.5 and 24.2 ± 9.2 mL.(kg.min-1 (p < 0.01. The equations for estimating VO2max [in mL.(kg.min-1] were: C-GENERAL = [final workload (W/body weight (kg] x 10.483 + 7; C-MEN = [final workload (W/body weight (kg] x 10.791 + 7; and C-WOMEN = [final workload (W/body weight (kg] x 9.820 + 7. The E% for MEN was: -3.4 ± 13.4% (modified ACSM; 1.2 ± 13.2% (C-GENERAL; and -0.9 ± 13.4% (C-MEN (p < 0.01. For WOMEN: -14.7 ± 17.4% (modified ACSM; -6.3 ± 16.5% (C-GENERAL; and -1.7 ± 16.2% (C-WOMEN (p < 0.01. Conclusion: The error of estimate of VO2max by use of sex-specific equations was reduced, but not eliminated, in exercise tests on LLCE.

  9. New solitary wave solutions of (3 + 1-dimensional nonlinear extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov and modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations and their applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianchen Lu

    Full Text Available In this paper, new exact solitary wave, soliton and elliptic function solutions are constructed in various forms of three dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs in mathematical physics by utilizing modified extended direct algebraic method. Soliton solutions in different forms such as bell and anti-bell periodic, dark soliton, bright soliton, bright and dark solitary wave in periodic form etc are obtained, which have large applications in different branches of physics and other areas of applied sciences. The obtained solutions are also presented graphically. Furthermore, many other nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering can also be solved by this powerful, reliable and capable method. The nonlinear three dimensional extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov dynamica equation and (3 + 1-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation are selected to show the reliability and effectiveness of the current method. Keywords: Modified extended direct algebraic method, Solitons, Solitary wave solutions, Jacobi and Weierstrass elliptic function solutions, Three dimensional extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov dynamical equation, (3 + 1-Dim modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation

  10. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  11. Variability of glomerular filtration rate estimation equations in elderly Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu X

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Xun Liu,1,2,* Mu-hua Cheng,3,* Cheng-gang Shi,1 Cheng Wang,1 Cai-lian Cheng,1 Jin-xia Chen,1 Hua Tang,1 Zhu-jiang Chen,1 Zeng-chun Ye,1 Tan-qi Lou11Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yet-sun University, Guangzhou, China; 2College of Biology Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China; 3Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yet-sun University, Guangzhou, China *These authors contributed equally to this paperBackground: Chronic kidney disease (CKD is recognized worldwide as a public health problem, and its prevalence increases as the population ages. However, the applicability of formulas for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR based on serum creatinine (SC levels in elderly Chinese patients with CKD is limited.Materials and methods: Based on values obtained with the technetium-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging method, 319 elderly Chinese patients with CKD were enrolled in this study. Serum creatinine was determined by the enzymatic method. The GFR was estimated using the Cockroft–Gault (CG equation, the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD equations, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation, the Jelliffe-1973 equation, and the Hull equation.Results: The median of difference ranged from −0.3–4.3 mL/min/1.73 m2. The interquartile range (IQR of differences ranged from 13.9–17.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. Accuracy with a deviation less than 15% ranged from 27.6%–32.9%. Accuracy with a deviation less than 30% ranged from 53.6%–57.7%. Accuracy with a deviation less than 50% ranged from 74.9%–81.5%. None of the equations had accuracy up to the 70% level with a deviation less than 30% from the standard glomerular filtration rate (sGFR. Bland–Altman analysis demonstrated that the mean difference ranged from −3.0–2.4 mL/min/1.73 m2. However, the

  12. Extended reactance domain algorithms for DoA estimation onto an ESPAR antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harabi, F.; Akkar, S.; Gharsallah, A.

    2016-07-01

    Based on an extended reactance domain (RD) covariance matrix, this article proposes new alternatives for directions of arrival (DoAs) estimation of narrowband sources through an electronically steerable parasitic array radiator (ESPAR) antennas. Because of the centro symmetry of the classic ESPAR antennas, an unitary transformation is applied to the collected data that allow an important reduction in both computational cost and processing time and, also, an enhancement of the resolution capabilities of the proposed algorithms. Moreover, this article proposes a new approach for eigenvalues estimation through only some linear operations. The developed DoAs estimation algorithms based on this new approach has illustrated a good behaviour with less calculation cost and processing time as compared to other schemes based on the classic eigenvalues approach. The conducted simulations demonstrate that high-precision and high-resolution DoAs estimation can be reached especially in very closely sources situation and low sources power as compared to the RD-MUSIC algorithm and the RD-PM algorithm. The asymptotic behaviours of the proposed DoAs estimators are analysed in various scenarios and compared with the Cramer-Rao bound (CRB). The conducted simulations testify the high-resolution of the developed algorithms and prove the efficiently of the proposed approach.

  13. CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C glomerular filtration rate estimation equation seems more suitable for Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease than other equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Xiao-Hua; Li, Gui-Ping; Wang, Quan-Shi; Qi, Yong-Shuai; Huang, Kai; Zhang, Qian; Xue, Yao-Ming

    2017-07-10

    The aim of this study was to identify the optimal equation that accurately estimates the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage in the Chinese population. A total of 1296 Chinese patients aged 18-65 years old were enrolled in this study. The estimated GFRs (eGFRs) calculated separately by three Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations and three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations were compared with the reference GFR (rGFR) measured by the 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging method. By Bland-Altman analysis, eGFR cys and eGFR scr_cys performed similarly, showing the tightest limits of agreement among the six equations. They also achieved the first and second highest 30% and 50% accuracies. Using a combination of the serum creatinine and cystatin C levels (eGFR scr_cys ) could improve the bias (-0.3 for eGFR scr_cys ) of the equation and achieve the highest diagnostic accuracy for renal insufficiency (AUC 60 , 0.953; P equations predicted stage 3 CKD with moderate accuracy (49.7-51.4%) and stage 5 CKD with good accuracy (90.2-96.4%). For stage 1 CKD, eGFR cys showed a higher percentage of misclassification than the other equations. All equations seemed to perform poorly at predicting stage 2 and 4 CKD, as compared to the other CKD stages. eGFR scr_cys was the best-performing equation in terms of accurate classification of the CKD stage based on the overall performance (kappa value, 0.423). For a Chinese population, the CKD-EPI scr_cys equation seems more suitable for estimating the GFR than the other equations. Each equation had its own advantages in predicting different CKD stages.

  14. Classical solutions of quasielliptic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belonosov, V S

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental solutions of quasielliptic equations are constructed; this allows the author to develop a relevant theory of volume potentials, establish estimates for the Holder norms of solutions of equations with constant coefficients, and extend them after that to equations with variable coefficients. As a result, sharp Schauder-type interior estimates are obtained, of which the well-known classical results for elliptic and parabolic equations are special cases

  15. A bias correction for covariance estimators to improve inference with generalized estimating equations that use an unstructured correlation matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Philip M

    2013-07-20

    Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) are routinely used for the marginal analysis of correlated data. The efficiency of GEE depends on how closely the working covariance structure resembles the true structure, and therefore accurate modeling of the working correlation of the data is important. A popular approach is the use of an unstructured working correlation matrix, as it is not as restrictive as simpler structures such as exchangeable and AR-1 and thus can theoretically improve efficiency. However, because of the potential for having to estimate a large number of correlation parameters, variances of regression parameter estimates can be larger than theoretically expected when utilizing the unstructured working correlation matrix. Therefore, standard error estimates can be negatively biased. To account for this additional finite-sample variability, we derive a bias correction that can be applied to typical estimators of the covariance matrix of parameter estimates. Via simulation and in application to a longitudinal study, we show that our proposed correction improves standard error estimation and statistical inference. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The Application of Extended Cox Proportional Hazard Method for Estimating Survival Time of Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Hartina; Astuti Thamrin, Sri; Tahir, Sulaiha; Mukhlisin, Ahmad; Mirna Apriani, M.

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is one type of cancer that is the leading cause of death worldwide. This study aims to model the factors that affect the survival time and rate of cure of breast cancer patients. The extended cox model, which is a modification of the proportional hazard cox model in which the proportional hazard assumptions are not met, is used in this study. The maximum likelihood estimation approach is used to estimate the parameters of the model. This method is then applied to medical record data of breast cancer patient in 2011-2016, which is taken from Hasanuddin University Education Hospital. The results obtained indicate that the factors that affect the survival time of breast cancer patients are malignancy and leukocyte levels.

  17. Optimal Error Estimates of Two Mixed Finite Element Methods for Parabolic Integro-Differential Equations with Nonsmooth Initial Data

    KAUST Repository

    Goswami, Deepjyoti

    2013-05-01

    In the first part of this article, a new mixed method is proposed and analyzed for parabolic integro-differential equations (PIDE) with nonsmooth initial data. Compared to the standard mixed method for PIDE, the present method does not bank on a reformulation using a resolvent operator. Based on energy arguments combined with a repeated use of an integral operator and without using parabolic type duality technique, optimal L2 L2-error estimates are derived for semidiscrete approximations, when the initial condition is in L2 L2. Due to the presence of the integral term, it is, further, observed that a negative norm estimate plays a crucial role in our error analysis. Moreover, the proposed analysis follows the spirit of the proof techniques used in deriving optimal error estimates for finite element approximations to PIDE with smooth data and therefore, it unifies both the theories, i.e., one for smooth data and other for nonsmooth data. Finally, we extend the proposed analysis to the standard mixed method for PIDE with rough initial data and provide an optimal error estimate in L2, L 2, which improves upon the results available in the literature. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  18. New solitary wave solutions of (3 + 1)-dimensional nonlinear extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov and modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equations and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dianchen; Seadawy, A. R.; Arshad, M.; Wang, Jun

    In this paper, new exact solitary wave, soliton and elliptic function solutions are constructed in various forms of three dimensional nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) in mathematical physics by utilizing modified extended direct algebraic method. Soliton solutions in different forms such as bell and anti-bell periodic, dark soliton, bright soliton, bright and dark solitary wave in periodic form etc are obtained, which have large applications in different branches of physics and other areas of applied sciences. The obtained solutions are also presented graphically. Furthermore, many other nonlinear evolution equations arising in mathematical physics and engineering can also be solved by this powerful, reliable and capable method. The nonlinear three dimensional extended Zakharov-Kuznetsov dynamica equation and (3 + 1)-dimensional modified KdV-Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation are selected to show the reliability and effectiveness of the current method.

  19. Comparison of artificial intelligence methods and empirical equations to estimate daily solar radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Saeid; Behmanesh, Javad; Khalili, Keivan

    2016-08-01

    In the present research, three artificial intelligence methods including Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) as well as, 48 empirical equations (10, 12 and 26 equations were temperature-based, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based, respectively) were used to estimate daily solar radiation in Kerman, Iran in the period of 1992-2009. To develop the GEP, ANN and ANFIS models, depending on the used empirical equations, various combinations of minimum air temperature, maximum air temperature, mean air temperature, extraterrestrial radiation, actual sunshine duration, maximum possible sunshine duration, sunshine duration ratio, relative humidity and precipitation were considered as inputs in the mentioned intelligent methods. To compare the accuracy of empirical equations and intelligent models, root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), mean absolute relative error (MARE) and determination coefficient (R2) indices were used. The results showed that in general, sunshine-based and meteorological parameters-based scenarios in ANN and ANFIS models presented high accuracy than mentioned empirical equations. Moreover, the most accurate method in the studied region was ANN11 scenario with five inputs. The values of RMSE, MAE, MARE and R2 indices for the mentioned model were 1.850 MJ m-2 day-1, 1.184 MJ m-2 day-1, 9.58% and 0.935, respectively.

  20. Glomerular filtration rate estimation: performance of serum cystatin C-based prediction equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Letícia Schwerz; Camargo, Eduardo Guimarães; Soares, Ariana A; Silveiro, Sandra Pinho

    2011-11-01

    Serum creatinine measurement is a mainstay in the routine laboratory evaluation of renal function, despite of having several disadvantages. Cystatin C, on the other hand, suffers less influence of gender and muscle mass and has been proposed as a more sensitive marker for glomerular filtration rate. However, serum endogenous markers should not be used alone to assess glomerular filtration rate. Creatinine-based equations such as the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) and Cockcroft-Gault are widely used despite their limitations. A large number of cystatin C-based prediction equations were developed in recent years, in diverse populations, with different laboratory assays and methods. Several studies demonstrated that cystatin C-based equations are reliable markers of glomerular filtration rate and can be used for diagnosis, evaluation and follow-up of kidney disease. They are simpler than creatinine-based equations and have at least the same accuracy and precision for glomerular filtration rate estimation. In conclusion, diabetes mellitus, cystic fibrosis, kidney transplantation, HIV-infection, and cirrhosis are clinical situations where cystatin C-based equations can be useful. Extremes of age such as childhood and advanced age have also been evaluated with favorable results.

  1. Online Estimation of Allan Variance Coefficients Based on a Neural-Extended Kalman Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhiyong; Shen, Feng; Xu, Dingjie; He, Kunpeng; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-01-01

    As a noise analysis method for inertial sensors, the traditional Allan variance method requires the storage of a large amount of data and manual analysis for an Allan variance graph. Although the existing online estimation methods avoid the storage of data and the painful procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation, they require complex transformations and even cause errors during the modeling of dynamic Allan variance. To solve these problems, first, a new state-space model that directly models the stochastic errors to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for inertial sensors. Then, a neural-extended Kalman filter algorithm was used to estimate the Allan variance coefficients. The real noises of an ADIS16405 IMU and fiber optic gyro-sensors were analyzed by the proposed method and traditional methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more suitable to estimate the Allan variance coefficients than the traditional methods. Moreover, the proposed method effectively avoids the storage of data and can be easily implemented using an online processor. PMID:25625903

  2. Online Estimation of Allan Variance Coefficients Based on a Neural-Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyong Miao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As a noise analysis method for inertial sensors, the traditional Allan variance method requires the storage of a large amount of data and manual analysis for an Allan variance graph. Although the existing online estimation methods avoid the storage of data and the painful procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation, they require complex transformations and even cause errors during the modeling of dynamic Allan variance. To solve these problems, first, a new state-space model that directly models the stochastic errors to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for inertial sensors. Then, a neural-extended Kalman filter algorithm was used to estimate the Allan variance coefficients. The real noises of an ADIS16405 IMU and fiber optic gyro-sensors were analyzed by the proposed method and traditional methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more suitable to estimate the Allan variance coefficients than the traditional methods. Moreover, the proposed method effectively avoids the storage of data and can be easily implemented using an online processor.

  3. Online estimation of Allan variance coefficients based on a neural-extended Kalman filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhiyong; Shen, Feng; Xu, Dingjie; He, Kunpeng; Tian, Chunmiao

    2015-01-23

    As a noise analysis method for inertial sensors, the traditional Allan variance method requires the storage of a large amount of data and manual analysis for an Allan variance graph. Although the existing online estimation methods avoid the storage of data and the painful procedure of drawing slope lines for estimation, they require complex transformations and even cause errors during the modeling of dynamic Allan variance. To solve these problems, first, a new state-space model that directly models the stochastic errors to obtain a nonlinear state-space model was established for inertial sensors. Then, a neural-extended Kalman filter algorithm was used to estimate the Allan variance coefficients. The real noises of an ADIS16405 IMU and fiber optic gyro-sensors were analyzed by the proposed method and traditional methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more suitable to estimate the Allan variance coefficients than the traditional methods. Moreover, the proposed method effectively avoids the storage of data and can be easily implemented using an online processor.

  4. A posteriori error estimation of H1 mixed finite element method for the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafie, Sabarina; Tran, Thanh

    2017-08-01

    Error estimations of H1 mixed finite element method for the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony equation are considered. The problem is reformulated into a system of first order partial differential equations, which allows an approximation of the unknown function and its derivative. Local parabolic error estimates are introduced to approximate the true errors from the computed solutions; the so-called a posteriori error estimates. Numerical experiments show that the a posteriori error estimates converge to the true errors of the problem.

  5. Iterative Observer-based Estimation Algorithms for Steady-State Elliptic Partial Differential Equation Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Majeed, Muhammad Usman

    2017-07-19

    Steady-state elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs) are frequently used to model a diverse range of physical phenomena. The source and boundary data estimation problems for such PDE systems are of prime interest in various engineering disciplines including biomedical engineering, mechanics of materials and earth sciences. Almost all existing solution strategies for such problems can be broadly classified as optimization-based techniques, which are computationally heavy especially when the problems are formulated on higher dimensional space domains. However, in this dissertation, feedback based state estimation algorithms, known as state observers, are developed to solve such steady-state problems using one of the space variables as time-like. In this regard, first, an iterative observer algorithm is developed that sweeps over regular-shaped domains and solves boundary estimation problems for steady-state Laplace equation. It is well-known that source and boundary estimation problems for the elliptic PDEs are highly sensitive to noise in the data. For this, an optimal iterative observer algorithm, which is a robust counterpart of the iterative observer, is presented to tackle the ill-posedness due to noise. The iterative observer algorithm and the optimal iterative algorithm are then used to solve source localization and estimation problems for Poisson equation for noise-free and noisy data cases respectively. Next, a divide and conquer approach is developed for three-dimensional domains with two congruent parallel surfaces to solve the boundary and the source data estimation problems for the steady-state Laplace and Poisson kind of systems respectively. Theoretical results are shown using a functional analysis framework, and consistent numerical simulation results are presented for several test cases using finite difference discretization schemes.

  6. Estimation of regional evapotranspiration in the extended Salado Basin (Argentina) from satellite gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesanelli, Andrés; Guarracino, Luis

    2011-05-01

    In this study, regional evapotranspiration is estimated in a wide flatland area that includes Salado River Basin and four tributary basins by using gravity measurements of the space mission Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). Monthly estimates of large-scale variations in the land-water storage are obtained from the satellite data. Evapotranspiration is computed with the water-balance equation using the GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Center and runoff values obtained as 5% of the precipitation. GRACE-derived evapotranspiration values are consistent with the different climatic scenarios observed, and they satisfactorily agree with estimates provided by a global hydrological model. The overall results show that the method used is a valid tool for characterizing the evapotranspiration in the Argentine Pampas and that it can be used to detect and examine changes in the evapotranspiration pattern associated with the occurrence of extreme climatic events. This study illustrates the ability of GRACE to analyze and predict evapotranspiration and other processes on a regional scale in a flatland area.

  7. Accuracy and precision of estimation equations to predict net endogenous acid excretion using the Australian food database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmenter, Benjamin H; Slater, Gary J; Frassetto, Lynda A

    2017-07-01

    The gold standard of measurement for net endogenous acid production (NEAP) is net acid excretion (NAE), a test that is not readily available, and consequently, estimative equations by Remer and Manz and Frassetto et al. are often used. These equations rely on nutrient databases and it is recommended that their validity be assessed using a country's database before their application in research in that country. We sought to delineate the accuracy and precision of these estimation equations using the Australian food database. In a double blind, randomised, cross-over fashion, healthy participants (n = 13) residing in regional Australia were exposed to varying net acid loads while they collected weighted food diaries and 24-hour urine samples for measurement of NAE. In comparison to the Frassetto et al. equations (equation one bias = -57.1 mEq/day, equation two bias = -32.8 mEq/day), only the Remer and Manz equation was accurate (bias = -5.4 mEq/day); however, all equations were imprecise. Using the Australian database, the performance of these equations to predict NEAP appears equal to other databases; however, caveats apply in their application. For future research, the equation by Remer and Manz is preferential for group estimates. None of the equations are recommended for individual estimates. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  8. Improving the correlation structure selection approach for generalized estimating equations and balanced longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Philip M

    2014-06-15

    Generalized estimating equations are commonly used to analyze correlated data. Choosing an appropriate working correlation structure for the data is important, as the efficiency of generalized estimating equations depends on how closely this structure approximates the true structure. Therefore, most studies have proposed multiple criteria to select the working correlation structure, although some of these criteria have neither been compared nor extensively studied. To ease the correlation selection process, we propose a criterion that utilizes the trace of the empirical covariance matrix. Furthermore, use of the unstructured working correlation can potentially improve estimation precision and therefore should be considered when data arise from a balanced longitudinal study. However, most previous studies have not allowed the unstructured working correlation to be selected as it estimates more nuisance correlation parameters than other structures such as AR-1 or exchangeable. Therefore, we propose appropriate penalties for the selection criteria that can be imposed upon the unstructured working correlation. Via simulation in multiple scenarios and in application to a longitudinal study, we show that the trace of the empirical covariance matrix works very well relative to existing criteria. We further show that allowing criteria to select the unstructured working correlation when utilizing the penalties can substantially improve parameter estimation. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Computable Error Estimates for Finite Element Approximations of Elliptic Partial Differential Equations with Rough Stochastic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Hall, Eric Joseph

    2016-12-08

    We derive computable error estimates for finite element approximations of linear elliptic partial differential equations with rough stochastic coefficients. In this setting, the exact solutions contain high frequency content that standard a posteriori error estimates fail to capture. We propose goal-oriented estimates, based on local error indicators, for the pathwise Galerkin and expected quadrature errors committed in standard, continuous, piecewise linear finite element approximations. Derived using easily validated assumptions, these novel estimates can be computed at a relatively low cost and have applications to subsurface flow problems in geophysics where the conductivities are assumed to have lognormal distributions with low regularity. Our theory is supported by numerical experiments on test problems in one and two dimensions.

  10. A review on estimation of stochastic differential equations for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnet, Sophie; Samson, Adeline

    2013-06-30

    This paper is a survey of existing estimation methods for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models based on stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Most parametric estimation methods proposed for SDEs require high frequency data and are often poorly suited for PK/PD data which are usually sparse. Moreover, PK/PD experiments generally include not a single individual but a group of subjects, leading to a population estimation approach. This review concentrates on estimation methods which have been applied to PK/PD data, for SDEs observed with and without measurement noise, with a standard or a population approach. Besides, the adopted methodologies highly differ depending on the existence or not of an explicit transition density of the SDE solution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validation of an equation for estimating maximal oxygen consumption of nonexpert adult swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronese da Costa A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adalberto Veronese da Costa,1,2 Manoel da Cunha Costa,3 Saulo Fernandes Melo de Oliveira,3 Fabíola Lima de Albuquerque,3 Fernando José de Sá Pereira Guimarães,3 Tiago Manuel Barbosa41Department of Physical Education, Bioscience Laboratory of Human Kinetics, Rio Grande do Norte State University, Mossoró, Brazil; 2Sport Sciences Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro University, Research Center in Sport, Health and Human Development, Vila Real, Portugal; 3Superior School of Physical Education, Human Performance Laboratory, Pernambuco State University, Recife, Brazil; 4National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, SingaporeObjective: To validate an equation to estimate the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max of nonexpert adult swimmers.Methods: Participants were 22 nonexpert swimmers, male, aged between 18 and 30 years (age: 23.1 ± 3:59 years; body mass: 73.6 ± 7:39 kg; height 176.6 ± 5.53 cm; and body fat percentage: 15.9% ± 4.39%, divided into two subgroups: G1 – eleven swimmers for the VO2max oximetry and modeling of the equation; and G2 – eleven swimmers for application of the equation modeled on G1 and verification of their validation. The test used was the adapted Progressive Swim Test, in which there occurs an increase in the intensity of the swim every two laps. For normality and homogeneity of data, Shapiro-Wilk and Levene tests were used, the descriptive values of the average and standard deviation. The statistical steps were: (1 reliability of the Progressive Swim Test – through the paired t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and the Pearson linear correlation (R relative to the reproducibility, the coefficient of variation (CV, and standard error measurement (SEM for the absolute reproducibility; (2 in the model equation to estimate VO2max, a relative VO2 was established, and a stepwise multiple regression model was performed with G1 – so the variables used were analysis of variance regression (AR

  12. Extended Kalman Filter Channel Estimation for Line-of-Sight Detection in WCDMA Mobile Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelmonaem Lakhzouri

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile positioning, it is very important to estimate correctly the delay between the transmitter and the receiver. When the receiver is in line-of-sight (LOS condition with the transmitter, the computation of the mobile position in two dimensions becomes straightforward. In this paper, the problem of LOS detection in WCDMA for mobile positioning is considered, together with joint estimation of the delays and channel coefficients. These are very challenging topics in multipath fading channels because LOS component is not always present, and when it is present, it might be severely affected by interfering paths spaced at less than one chip distance (closely spaced paths. The extended Kalman filter (EKF is used to estimate jointly the delays and complex channel coefficients. The decision whether the LOS component is present or not is based on statistical tests to determine the distribution of the channel coefficient corresponding to the first path. The statistical test-based techniques are practical, simple, and of low computation complexity, which is suitable for WCDMA receivers. These techniques can provide an accurate decision whether LOS component is present or not.

  13. Development of Estimating Equation of Machine Operational Skill by Utilizing Eye Movement Measurement and Analysis of Stress and Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For an establishment of a skill evaluation method for human support systems, development of an estimating equation of the machine operational skill is presented. Factors of the eye movement such as frequency, velocity, and moving distance of saccade were computed using the developed eye gaze measurement system, and the eye movement features were determined from these factors. The estimating equation was derived through an outlier test (to eliminate nonstandard data and a principal component analysis (to find dominant components. Using a cooperative carrying task (cc-task simulator, the eye movement and operational data of the machine operators were recorded, and effectiveness of the derived estimating equation was investigated. As a result, it was confirmed that the estimating equation was effective strongly against actual simple skill levels (r=0.56–0.84. In addition, effects of internal condition such as fatigue and stress on the estimating equation were analyzed. Using heart rate (HR and coefficient of variation of R-R interval (Cvrri. Correlation analysis between these biosignal indexes and the estimating equation of operational skill found that the equation reflected effects of stress and fatigue, although the equation could estimate the skill level adequately.

  14. Stochastic differential equations as a tool to regularize the parameter estimation problem for continuous time dynamical systems given discrete time measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leander, Jacob; Lundh, Torbjörn; Jirstrand, Mats

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of estimating parameters in ordinary differential equations given discrete time experimental data. The impact of going from an ordinary to a stochastic differential equation setting is investigated as a tool to overcome the problem of local minima in the objective function. Using two different models, it is demonstrated that by allowing noise in the underlying model itself, the objective functions to be minimized in the parameter estimation procedures are regularized in the sense that the number of local minima is reduced and better convergence is achieved. The advantage of using stochastic differential equations is that the actual states in the model are predicted from data and this will allow the prediction to stay close to data even when the parameters in the model is incorrect. The extended Kalman filter is used as a state estimator and sensitivity equations are provided to give an accurate calculation of the gradient of the objective function. The method is illustrated using in silico data from the FitzHugh-Nagumo model for excitable media and the Lotka-Volterra predator-prey system. The proposed method performs well on the models considered, and is able to regularize the objective function in both models. This leads to parameter estimation problems with fewer local minima which can be solved by efficient gradient-based methods. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid Estimation of Aircraft Performance Models using Differential Vortex Panel Method and Extended Kalman Filter, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Estimation of aerodynamic models for the control of damaged aircraft using an innovative differential vortex lattice method tightly coupled with an extended Kalman...

  16. Tourism sector, Travel agencies, and Transport Suppliers: Comparison of Different Estimators in the Structural Equation Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačić Nataša

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the effect of external integration (EI with transport suppliers on the efficiency of travel agencies in the tourism sector supply chains. The main aim is the comparison of different estimation methods used in the structural equation modeling (SEM, applied to discover possible relationships between EIs and efficiencies. The latter are calculated by the means of data envelopment analysis (DEA. While designing the structural equation model, the exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are also used as preliminary statistical procedures. For the estimation of parameters of SEM model, three different methods are explained, analyzed and compared: maximum likelihood (ML method, Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (BMCMC method, and unweighted least squares (ULS method. The study reveals that all estimation methods calculate comparable estimated parameters. The results also give an evidence of good model fit performance. Besides, the research confirms that the amplified external integration with transport providers leads to increased efficiency of travel agencies, which might be a very interesting finding for the operational management.

  17. Estimation of Bid Curves in Power Exchanges using Time-varying Simultaneous-Equations Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofuji, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki

    Simultaneous-equations model (SEM) is generally used in economics to estimate interdependent endogenous variables such as price and quantity in a competitive, equilibrium market. In this paper, we have attempted to apply SEM to JEPX (Japan Electric Power eXchange) spot market, a single-price auction market, using the publicly available data of selling and buying bid volumes, system price and traded quantity. The aim of this analysis is to understand the magnitude of influences to the auctioned prices and quantity from the selling and buying bids, than to forecast prices and quantity for risk management purposes. In comparison with the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation where the estimation results represent average values that are independent of time, we employ a time-varying simultaneous-equations model (TV-SEM) to capture structural changes inherent in those influences, using State Space models with Kalman filter stepwise estimation. The results showed that the buying bid volumes has that highest magnitude of influences among the factors considered, exhibiting time-dependent changes, ranging as broad as about 240% of its average. The slope of the supply curve also varies across time, implying the elastic property of the supply commodity, while the demand curve remains comparatively inelastic and stable over time.

  18. Extended hildebrand solubility approach in the estimation of indomethacin solubility in ethyl acetate + ethanol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruidiaz, Miller A; Martinez, Fleming

    2009-01-01

    Indomethacin (IMC) is a widely used as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, whose physicochemical properties have not been thoroughly studied. In this work the Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA) was applied to evaluate the solubility of IMC in ethyl acetate + ethanol mixtures at 298.15 K. A good predictive capacity of EHSA was found using regular polynomial models in order five, when the W interaction parameter is related to the solubility parameter of the mixtures. Nevertheless, the deviations obtained in the estimated solubility with respect to experimental solubility were of the same order when compared with those obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility as a function of the mixtures solubility parameters.

  19. Contribution of the MDRD equation and of cystatin C for renal function estimates in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séronie-Vivien, Sophie; Toullec, Stéphanie; Malard, Laurence; Thomas, Fabienne; Durrand, Valérie; Chatelut, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) and Cockcroft-Gault creatinine clearance (CG CrCL) are used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Other markers have been proposed including serum cystatin C (cysC) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study equation. We have compared the diagnostic performances of SCr, cysC, CG CrCL, and the MDRD equation in 144 cancer patients. For reference we used either the measured or the predicted carboplatin clearance, which is around the GFR + 25 mL/min. CysC was more sensitive than SCr (70.1% vs 13.4%) but was not very specific (61% for a cut-off = 0.95 mL). CysC values were higher in 40 cancer patients vs 40 healthy controls with a similar and normal mean CG CrCL (1.08 vs 0.71 mg/L; p cancer patients, cysC is a more sensitive indicator of the glomerular filtration rate than SCr, but its diagnostic performance is lower than for CG CrCL. There may be no advantage in replacing the CG equation by the MDRD equation except for patients with severe malnutrition and/or inflammation.

  20. An algorithm based on a new DQM with modified extended cubic B-splines for numerical study of two dimensional hyperbolic telegraph equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new approach “modified extended cubic B-Spline differential quadrature (mECDQ method” has been developed for the numerical computation of two dimensional hyperbolic telegraph equation. The mECDQ method is a DQM based on modified extended cubic B-spline functions as new base functions. The mECDQ method reduces the hyperbolic telegraph equation into an amenable system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs, in time. The resulting system of ODEs has been solved by adopting an optimal five stage fourth-order strong stability preserving Runge - Kutta (SSP-RK54 scheme. The stability of the method is also studied by computing the eigenvalues of the coefficient matrices. It is shown that the mECDQ method produces stable solution for the telegraph equation. The accuracy of the method is illustrated by computing the errors between analytical solutions and numerical solutions are measured in terms of L2 and L∞ and average error norms for each problem. A comparison of mECDQ solutions with the results of the other numerical methods has been carried out for various space sizes and time step sizes, which shows that the mECDQ solutions are converging very fast in comparison with the various existing schemes. Keywords: Differential quadrature method, Hyperbolic telegraph equation, Modified extended cubic B-splines, mECDQ method, Thomas algorithm

  1. Direct phase derivative estimation using difference equation modeling in holographic interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    A new method is proposed for the direct phase derivative estimation from a single spatial frequency modulated carrier fringe pattern in holographic interferometry. The fringe intensity in a given row/column is modeled as a difference equation of intensity with spatially varying coefficients. These coefficients carry the information on the phase derivative. Consequently, the accurate estimation of the coefficients is obtained by approximating the coefficients as a linear combination of the predefined linearly independent basis functions. Unlike Fourier transform based fringe analysis, the method does not call for performing the filtering of the Fourier spectrum of fringe intensity. Moreover, the estimation of the carrier frequency is performed by applying the proposed method to a reference interferogram. The performance of the proposed method is insensitive to the fringe amplitude modulation and is validated with the simulation results. (paper)

  2. Sharp asymptotic estimates for vorticity solutions of the 2D Navier-Stokes equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncheng You

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The asymptotic dynamics of high-order temporal-spatial derivatives of the two-dimensional vorticity and velocity of an incompressible, viscous fluid flow in $mathbb{R}^2$ are studied, which is equivalent to the 2D Navier-Stokes equation. It is known that for any integrable initial vorticity, the 2D vorticity solution converges to the Oseen vortex. In this paper, sharp exterior decay estimates of the temporal-spatial derivatives of the vorticity solution are established. These estimates are then used and combined with similarity and $L^p$ compactness to show the asymptotical attraction rates of temporal-spatial derivatives of generic 2D vorticity and velocity solutions by the Oseen vortices and velocity solutions respectively. The asymptotic estimates and the asymptotic attraction rates of all the derivatives obtained in this paper are independent of low or high Reynolds numbers.

  3. Error estimation for goal-oriented spatial adaptivity for the SN equations on triangular meshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathouwers, D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we investigate different error estimation procedures for use within a goal oriented adaptive algorithm for the S N equations on unstructured meshes. The method is based on a dual-weighted residual approach where an appropriate adjoint problem is formulated and solved in order to obtain the importance of residual errors in the forward problem on the specific goal of interest. The forward residuals and the adjoint function are combined to obtain both economical finite element meshes tailored to the solution of the target functional as well as providing error estimates. Various approximations made to make the calculation of the adjoint angular flux more economically attractive are evaluated by comparing the performance of the resulting adaptive algorithm and the quality of the error estimators when applied to two shielding-type test problems. (author)

  4. Application of generalized estimating equations to a study in vitro of radiation sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cologne, J.B.; Carter, R.L.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Ban, Sadayuki.

    1993-08-01

    We describes an application of the generalized estimating equation (GEE) method (Liang K-Y, Zeger SL: Longitudinal data analysis using generalized linear models. Biometrika 73:13-22, 1986) for regression analyses of correlated Poisson data. As an alternative to the use of an arbitrarily chosen working correlation matrix, we demonstrate the use of GEE with a reasonable model for the true covariance structure among repeated observations within individuals. We show that, under such a split-plot design with large clusters, the asymptotic relative efficiency of GEE with simple (independence or exchangeable) working correlation matrices is rather low. We also illustrate the use of GEE with an empirically estimated model for overdispersion in a large study of radiation sensitivity where cluster size is small and a simple working correlation structure is sufficient. We conclude by summarizing issues and needs for further work concerning efficiency of the GEE parameter estimates in practice. (author)

  5. Correction equations to adjust self-reported height and weight for obesity estimates among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected self-reported measurements) provided a more accurate estimation of BMI classification than BMIc (from corrected self-reported measurements) and BMIs (from self-reported measurements) by showing a greater ability to predict cases with either a high or a low BMI category while still maintaining a high specificity. However, the equations are applicable only to Caucasian college student populations, so cross-validation in similar populations is needed before they are used more broadly.

  6. Estimation of health effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure using structural equation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Observational studies in epidemiology always involve concerns regarding validity, especially measurement error, confounding, missing data, and other problems that may affect the study outcomes. Widely used standard statistical techniques, such as multiple regression analysis, may......-mercury toxicity. RESULTS: Structural equation models were developed for assessment of the association between biomarkers of prenatal mercury exposure and neuropsychological test scores in 7 year old children. Eleven neurobehavioral outcomes were grouped into motor function and verbally mediated function...... and verbal skills. Adjustment for contaminant exposure to poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) changed the estimates only marginally, but the mercury effect could be reduced to non-significance by assuming a large measurement error for the PCB biomarker. CONCLUSIONS: The structural equation analysis allows...

  7. Estimating unknown input parameters when implementing the NGA ground-motion prediction equations in engineering practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaklamanos, James; Baise, Laurie G.; Boore, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) developed as part of the Next Generation Attenuation of Ground Motions (NGA-West) project in 2008 are becoming widely used in seismic hazard analyses. However, these new models are considerably more complicated than previous GMPEs, and they require several more input parameters. When employing the NGA models, users routinely face situations in which some of the required input parameters are unknown. In this paper, we present a framework for estimating the unknown source, path, and site parameters when implementing the NGA models in engineering practice, and we derive geometrically-based equations relating the three distance measures found in the NGA models. Our intent is for the content of this paper not only to make the NGA models more accessible, but also to help with the implementation of other present or future GMPEs.

  8. Pose and Motion Estimation Using Dual Quaternion-Based Extended Kalman Filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goddard, J.S.; Abidi, M.A.

    1998-06-01

    A solution to the remote three-dimensional (3-D) measurement problem is presented for a dynamic system given a sequence of two-dimensional (2-D) intensity images of a moving object. The 3-D transformation is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic system with the state estimate providing the six-degree-of-freedom motion and position values as well as structure. The stochastic model uses the iterated extended Kalman filter (IEKF) as a nonlinear estimator and a screw representation of the 3-D transformation based on dual quaternions. Dual quaternions, whose elements are dual numbers, provide a means to represent both rotation and translation in a unified notation. Linear object features, represented as dual vectors, are transformed using the dual quaternion transformation and are then projected to linear features in the image plane. The method has been implemented and tested with both simulated and actual experimental data. Simulation results are provided, along with comparisons to a point-based IEKF method using rotation and translation, to show the relative advantages of this method. Experimental results from testing using a camera mounted on the end effector of a robot arm are also given.

  9. Estimating the solute transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation using Bees Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdinejadiani, Behrouz

    2017-08-01

    This study represents the first attempt to estimate the solute transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation using Bees Algorithm. The numerical studies as well as the experimental studies were performed to certify the integrity of Bees Algorithm. The experimental ones were conducted in a sandbox for homogeneous and heterogeneous soils. A detailed comparative study was carried out between the results obtained from Bees Algorithm and those from Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN routines in FracFit toolbox. The results indicated that, in general, the Bees Algorithm much more accurately appraised the sFADE parameters in comparison with Genetic Algorithm and LSQNONLIN, especially in the heterogeneous soil and for α values near to 1 in the numerical study. Also, the results obtained from Bees Algorithm were more reliable than those from Genetic Algorithm. The Bees Algorithm showed the relative similar performances for all cases, while the Genetic Algorithm and the LSQNONLIN yielded different performances for various cases. The performance of LSQNONLIN strongly depends on the initial guess values so that, compared to the Genetic Algorithm, it can more accurately estimate the sFADE parameters by taking into consideration the suitable initial guess values. To sum up, the Bees Algorithm was found to be very simple, robust and accurate approach to estimate the transport parameters of the spatial fractional advection-dispersion equation.

  10. Estimating and interpreting latent variable interactions: A tutorial for applying the latent moderated structural equations method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslowsky, Julie; Jager, Justin; Hemken, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Latent variables are common in psychological research. Research questions involving the interaction of two variables are likewise quite common. Methods for estimating and interpreting interactions between latent variables within a structural equation modeling framework have recently become available. The latent moderated structural equations (LMS) method is one that is built into Mplus software. The potential utility of this method is limited by the fact that the models do not produce traditional model fit indices, standardized coefficients, or effect sizes for the latent interaction, which renders model fitting and interpretation of the latent variable interaction difficult. This article compiles state-of-the-science techniques for assessing LMS model fit, obtaining standardized coefficients, and determining the size of the latent interaction effect in order to create a tutorial for new users of LMS models. The recommended sequence of model estimation and interpretation is demonstrated via a substantive example and a Monte Carlo simulation. Finally, extensions of this method are discussed, such as estimating quadratic effects of latent factors and interactions between latent slope and intercept factors, which hold significant potential for testing and advancing developmental theories.

  11. Performance of Creatinine and Cystatin C GFR Estimating Equations in an HIV-positive population on Antiretrovirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    INKER, Lesley A; WYATT, Christina; CREAMER, Rebecca; HELLINGER, James; HOTTA, Matthew; LEPPO, Maia; LEVEY, Andrew S; OKPARAVERO, Aghogho; GRAHAM, Hiba; SAVAGE, Karen; SCHMID, Christopher H; TIGHIOUART, Hocine; WALLACH, Fran; KRISHNASAMI, Zipporah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of CKD-EPI creatinine, cystatin C and creatinine-cystatin C estimating equations in HIV-positive patients. Methods We evaluated the performance of the MDRD Study and CKD-EPI creatinine 2009, CKD-EPI cystatin C 2012 and CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C 2012 glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimating equations compared to GFR measured using plasma clearance of iohexol in 200 HIV-positive patients on stable antiretroviral therapy. Creatinine and cystatin C assays were standardized to certified reference materials. Results Of the 200 participants, median (IQR) CD4 count was 536 (421) and 61% had an undetectable HIV-viral load. Mean (SD) measured GFR (mGFR) was 87 (26) ml/min/1.73m2. All CKD-EPI equations performed better than the MDRD Study equation. All three CKD-EPI equations had similar bias and precision. The cystatin C equation was not more accurate than the creatinine equation. The creatinine-cystatin C equation was significantly more accurate than the cystatin C equation and there was a trend toward greater accuracy than the creatinine equation. Accuracy was equal or better in most subgroups with the combined equation compared to either alone. Conclusions The CKD-EPI cystatin C equation does not appear to be more accurate than the CKD-EPI creatinine equation in patients who are HIV-positive, supporting the use of the CKD-EPI creatinine equation for routine clinical care for use in North American populations with HIV. The use of both filtration markers together as a confirmatory test for decreased estimated GFR based on creatinine in individuals who are HIV-positive requires further study. PMID:22842844

  12. Generalized equations for estimating DXA percent fat of diverse young women and men: the TIGER study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Daniel P; Bray, Molly S; McFarlin, Brian K; Sailors, Mary H; Ellis, Kenneth J; Jackson, Andrew S

    2010-10-01

    Popular generalized equations for estimating percent body fat (BF%) developed with cross-sectional data are biased when applied to racially/ethnically diverse populations. We developed accurate anthropometric models to estimate dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry BF% (DXA-BF%) that can be generalized to ethnically diverse young adults in both cross-sectional and longitudinal field settings. This longitudinal study enrolled 705 women and 428 men (aged 17-35 yr) for 30 wk of exercise training (3 d·wk(-1) for 30 min·d(-1) of 65%-85% predicted V˙O2max). The distribution of ethnicity was as follows: 37% non-Hispanic white, 29% Hispanic, and 34% African-American. DXA-BF%, skinfold thicknesses, and body mass index (BMI) were collected at baseline and after 15 and 30 wk. Skinfolds, BMI, and race/ethnicity were significant predictors of DXA-BF% in linear mixed model regression analysis. For comparable anthropometric measures (e.g., BMI), DXA-BF% was lower in African-American women and men but higher in Hispanic women compared with non-Hispanic white. Addition of BMI to the skinfold model improved the SEE for women (3.6% vs 4.0%), whereas BMI did not improve prediction accuracy of men (SEE = 3.1%). These equations provide accurate predictions of DXA-BF% for diverse young women and men in both cross-sectional and longitudinal settings. To our knowledge, these are the first published body composition equations with generalizability to multiple time points, and the SEE estimates are among the lowest published in the literature.

  13. A superlinear convergence estimate for an iterative method for the biharmonic equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, M.A. [Wichita State Univ., Wichita, KS (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In [CDH] a method for the solution of boundary value problems for the biharmonic equation using conformal mapping was investigated. The method is an implementation of the classical method of Muskhelishvili. In [CDH] it was shown, using the Hankel structure, that the linear system in [Musk] is the discretization of the identify plus a compact operator, and therefore the conjugate gradient method will converge superlinearly. The purpose of this paper is to give an estimate of the superlinear convergence in the case when the boundary curve is in a Hoelder class.

  14. Allometric equations for estimating aboveground biomass for common shrubs in northeastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Huff; Martin Ritchie; H. Temesgen

    2017-01-01

    Selected allometric equations and fitting strategies were evaluated for their predictive abilities for estimating above ground biomass for seven species of shrubs common to northeastern California. Size classes for woody biomass were categorized as 1-h fuels (0.1–0.6 cm), 10-h fuels (0.6–2.5 cm), 100-h fuels (2.5–7.6 cm), and 1000-h fuels (greater than 7.7 cm in...

  15. A method to estimate the elastic energy stored in braided DNA molecules using hydrodynamic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sierra, Mónica; Delgado-Martí, Violeta; Colón-García, Jorge E.; Quiñones, Edwin

    2011-01-01

    We present a single-molecule method for measuring the torque exerted by braided DNA molecules undergoing spontaneous unbraiding while attached to a paramagnetic dumbbell in the absence of external manipulation. A magnetic tweezers setup is employed to braid pairs of lambda DNA molecules covalently bound to a surface. Upon removing the magnetic field, the braided DNA molecules undergo spontaneous unbraiding, efficiently transforming the stored elastic energy into enough mechanical energy to rotate the tethered dumbbells for periods as long as 30 minutes. Using hydrodynamic equations we estimate the torque exerted on the dumbbells by the DNA braids, yielding values ranging from 47 to 166 pN nm. PMID:21765578

  16. A Performance Comparison Between Extended Kalman Filter and Unscented Kalman Filter in Power System Dynamic State Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) is a critical tool for analysis, monitoring and planning of a power system. The concept of DSE involves designing state estimation with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) methods, which can be used by wide area monitoring to improve......-linear state estimator is developed in MatLab to solve states by applying the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm. Finally, a DSE model is built for a 14 bus power system network to evaluate the proposed algorithm for the networks.This article will focus on comparing...

  17. Penalized Nonlinear Least Squares Estimation of Time-Varying Parameters in Ordinary Differential Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Jiguo

    2012-01-01

    Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are widely used in biomedical research and other scientific areas to model complex dynamic systems. It is an important statistical problem to estimate parameters in ODEs from noisy observations. In this article we propose a method for estimating the time-varying coefficients in an ODE. Our method is a variation of the nonlinear least squares where penalized splines are used to model the functional parameters and the ODE solutions are approximated also using splines. We resort to the implicit function theorem to deal with the nonlinear least squares objective function that is only defined implicitly. The proposed penalized nonlinear least squares method is applied to estimate a HIV dynamic model from a real dataset. Monte Carlo simulations show that the new method can provide much more accurate estimates of functional parameters than the existing two-step local polynomial method which relies on estimation of the derivatives of the state function. Supplemental materials for the article are available online.

  18. Calculation of prevalence estimates through differential equations: application to stroke-related disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Javier; Sainz-Ezkerra, María; Moler-Cuiral, Jose Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Neurological diseases now make up 6.3% of the global burden of disease mainly because they cause disability. To assess disability, prevalence estimates are needed. The objective of this study is to apply a method based on differential equations to calculate the prevalence of stroke-related disability. On the basis of a flow diagram, a set of differential equations for each age group was constructed. The linear system was solved analytically and numerically. The parameters of the system were obtained from the literature. The model was validated and calibrated by comparison with previous results. The stroke prevalence rate per 100,000 men was 828, and the rate for stroke-related disability was 331. The rates steadily rose with age, but the group between the ages of 65 and 74 years had the highest total number of individuals. Differential equations are useful to represent the natural history of neurological diseases and to make possible the calculation of the prevalence for the various states of disability. In our experience, when compared with the results obtained by Markov models, the benefit of the continuous use of time outweighs the mathematical requirements of our model. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate survival in patients with colorectal cancer: cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. \\ud \\ud Design: Cohort study.\\ud \\ud Setting: General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry.\\ud \\ud Participants: 44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer ...

  20. Probabilistic formulation of estimation problems for a class of Hamilton-Jacobi equations

    KAUST Repository

    Hofleitner, Aude

    2012-12-01

    This article presents a method for deriving the probability distribution of the solution to a Hamilton-Jacobi partial differential equation for which the value conditions are random. The derivations lead to analytical or semi-analytical expressions of the probability distribution function at any point in the domain in which the solution is defined. The characterization of the distribution of the solution at any point is a first step towards the estimation of the parameters defining the random value conditions. This work has important applications for estimation in flow networks in which value conditions are noisy. In particular, we illustrate our derivations on a road segment with random capacity reductions. © 2012 IEEE.

  1. Error Estimates for a Semidiscrete Finite Element Method for Fractional Order Parabolic Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Bangti

    2013-01-01

    We consider the initial boundary value problem for a homogeneous time-fractional diffusion equation with an initial condition ν(x) and a homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition in a bounded convex polygonal domain Ω. We study two semidiscrete approximation schemes, i.e., the Galerkin finite element method (FEM) and lumped mass Galerkin FEM, using piecewise linear functions. We establish almost optimal with respect to the data regularity error estimates, including the cases of smooth and nonsmooth initial data, i.e., ν ∈ H2(Ω) ∩ H0 1(Ω) and ν ∈ L2(Ω). For the lumped mass method, the optimal L2-norm error estimate is valid only under an additional assumption on the mesh, which in two dimensions is known to be satisfied for symmetric meshes. Finally, we present some numerical results that give insight into the reliability of the theoretical study. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Tail estimates for stochastic fixed point equations via nonlinear renewal theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collamore, Jeffrey F.; Vidyashankar, Anand N.

    2013-01-01

    estimate P(V>u)~Cu^{-r} as u tends to infinity, and also present a corresponding Lundberg-type upper bound. To this end, we introduce a novel dual change of measure on a random time interval and analyze the path properties, using nonlinear renewal theory, of the Markov chain resulting from the forward...... of our methods to Markov-driven processes.......This paper presents precise large deviation estimates for solutions to stochastic fixed point equations of the type V =_D f(V), where f(v)=Av+g(v) for a random function g(v)=o(v) a.s. as v tends to infinity. Specifically, we provide an explicit characterization of the pair (C,r) in the tail...

  3. Development of Allometric Equations for Estimating Above-Ground Liana Biomass in Tropical Primary and Secondary Forests, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Addo-Fordjour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study developed allometric equations for estimating liana stem and total above-ground biomass in primary and secondary forests in the Penang National Park, Penang, Malaysia. Using biomass-diameter-length data of 60 liana individuals representing 15 species, allometric equations were developed for liana stem biomass and total above-ground biomass (TAGB. Three types of allometric equations were developed: models fitted to untransformed, weighted, and log-transformed (log10 data. There was a significant linear relationship between biomass and the predictors (diameter, length, and/or their combinations. The same set of models was developed for primary and secondary forests due to absence of differences in regression line slopes of the forests (ANCOVA: . The coefficients of determination values of the models were high (stem: 0.861 to 0.990; TAGB: 0.900 to 0.992. Generally, log-transformed models showed better fit (Furnival's index, FI 0.5. A comparison of the best TAGB model in this study (based on FI with previously published equations indicated that most of the equations significantly ( overestimated TAGB of lianas. However, a previous equation from Southeast Asia estimated TAGB similar to that of the current equation (. Therefore, regional or intracontinental equations should be preferred to intercontinental equations when estimating liana biomass.

  4. A novel on-board state-of-charge estimation method for aged Li-ion batteries based on model adaptive extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepasi, Saeed; Ghorbani, Reza; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2014-01-01

    A battery management system needs to have an accurate inline estimation of SOC for each individual cell in the battery pack. This estimation process poses challenges after substantial battery aging. This article presents a novel method based on model adaptive extended Kalman filter (MAEKF) to estimate SOC for Li-ion batteries. Sensitivity analysis of the electrical model verifies that the accuracy of SOC estimated by EKF is sensitive to resistors used in the cell's electrical model. In order to get the best estimation, values of resistors are obtained in an optimization process in the MAEKF. This method uses the fact of two sudden changes in the cell's voltage derivative with respect to time while discharging current is constant. These two points are assumed as reference points in which their SOC can be determined from cell's chemistry. The optimization algorithm uses the derivative of the cell's measured terminal voltage to allocate SOC of 92% and 15% for two reference points in the Vcell equation and updates cell's electrical model. The algorithm's process is fast and computationally inexpensive, making on-board estimation practical. The obtained results demonstrate that by using this method the estimated SOC error for aged Li-ion cells does not exceed 4%.

  5. Current use of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in Spanish laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gràcia-Garcia, Sílvia; Montañés-Bermúdez, Rosario; Morales-García, Luis J; Díez-de Los Ríos, M José; Jiménez-García, Juan Á; Macías-Blanco, Carlos; Martínez-López, Rosalina; Ruiz-Altarejos, Joaquín; Ruiz-Martín, Guadalupe; Sanz-Hernández, Sonia; Ventura-Pedret, Salvador

    2012-07-17

    In 2006 the Spanish Society of Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SEQC) and the Spanish Society of Nephrology (S.E.N.) developed a consensus document in order to facilitate the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic kidney disease with the incorporation of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) into laboratory reports. The current national prevalence of eGFR reporting and the degree of adherence to these recommendations among clinical laboratories is unknown. We administered a national survey in 2010-11 to Spanish clinical laboratories. The survey was through e-mail or telephone to laboratories that participated in the SEQC’s Programme for External Quality Assurance, included in the National Hospitals Catalogue 2010, including both primary care and private laboratories. A total of 281 laboratories answered to the survey. Of these, 88.2% reported on the eGFR, with 61.9% reporting on the MDRD equation and 31.6% using the MDRD-IDMS equation. A total of 42.5% of laboratories always reported serum creatinine values, and other variables only when specifically requested. Regarding the way results were presented, 46.2% of laboratories reported the exact numerical value only when the filtration rate was below 60mL/min/1.73m2, while 50.6% reported all values regardless. In 56.3% of the cases reporting eGFR, an interpretive commentary of it was enclosed. Although a high percentage of Spanish laboratories have added eGFR in their reports, this metric is not universally used. Moreover, some aspects, such as the equation used and the correct expression of eGFR results, should be improved.

  6. Parameter estimation in neuronal stochastic differential equation models from intracellular recordings of membrane potentials in single neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Susanne; Samson, Adeline

    2016-01-01

    Dynamics of the membrane potential in a single neuron can be studied by estimating biophysical parameters from intracellular recordings. Diffusion processes, given as continuous solutions to stochastic differential equations, are widely applied as models for the neuronal membrane potential evolut...

  7. Estimating glomerular filtration rate using the new CKD-EPI equation and other equations in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, Bjarne; Borresen, Malene L; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No studies have compared the performance of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), where the declining GFR typically is followed for many years or even decades. This was the purpose of the present...

  8. Estimation of monthly Angstrom-Prescott equation coefficients from measured daily data in Toledo, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almorox, J.; Hontoria, C. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. De Edafologia; Benito, M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Dpto. De Silvopasicultura

    2005-05-01

    In this study, daily global radiation for Toledo (39{sup o}53'05''N, 4{sup o}02'58''W, Spain) were utilized to determine monthly-specific equations for estimating global solar radiation from sunshine hours and to obtain improved fits to monthly Angstrom-Prescott's coefficients. Models were compared using the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean bias error (MBE) and the t-statistic. According to our results, all the models fitted the data adequately and can be used to estimate the specific monthly global solar radiation. Average RMSE and MBE for comparison between observed and estimated global radiation were 1.260 and -0.002 MJ m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, respectively. The t-statistic was used as the best indicator, this indicator depends on both, and is more effective for determining the model performance. The agreement between the estimated and the measured data were remarkable and the method was recommended for use in Toledo (Spain). (author)

  9. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Thanh Nam

    Full Text Available Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB and root biomass (RB based on 300 (of 45 species and 40 (of 25 species sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH and tree height (H, wood density (WD was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

  10. Allometric Equations for Aboveground and Belowground Biomass Estimations in an Evergreen Forest in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Vu Thanh; van Kuijk, Marijke; Anten, Niels P R

    2016-01-01

    Allometric regression models are widely used to estimate tropical forest biomass, but balancing model accuracy with efficiency of implementation remains a major challenge. In addition, while numerous models exist for aboveground mass, very few exist for roots. We developed allometric equations for aboveground biomass (AGB) and root biomass (RB) based on 300 (of 45 species) and 40 (of 25 species) sample trees respectively, in an evergreen forest in Vietnam. The biomass estimations from these local models were compared to regional and pan-tropical models. For AGB we also compared local models that distinguish functional types to an aggregated model, to assess the degree of specificity needed in local models. Besides diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H), wood density (WD) was found to be an important parameter in AGB models. Existing pan-tropical models resulted in up to 27% higher estimates of AGB, and overestimated RB by nearly 150%, indicating the greater accuracy of local models at the plot level. Our functional group aggregated local model which combined data for all species, was as accurate in estimating AGB as functional type specific models, indicating that a local aggregated model is the best choice for predicting plot level AGB in tropical forests. Finally our study presents the first allometric biomass models for aboveground and root biomass in forests in Vietnam.

  11. Should physicians always rely on estimated glomerular filtration rate without knowing the equation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabbian F

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fabio Fabbian, Dario Priori, Alfredo De Giorgi Department of Medical Sciences, Clinica Medica Unit, University Hospital St Anna, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, ItalyWe read with interest the paper written by Deskur-Smielecka et al1 who investigated the performance of three equations for valuating renal function in 174 patients, aged 78 years, with different cancer diagnosis. They used Cockcroft–Gault (C–G, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, and Berlin Initiative Study1 (BIS1 equations and found that there is a considerable disagreement between renal function estimation formulas. We also performed two studies evaluating different formulas for the calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR in patients with eating disorders2 and in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM.3Authors’ replyEwa Deskur-Smielecka1,2 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek1,2 Jerzy Chudek3,4 Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis1,2The letter from Fabbian et al, in general, supports our findings concerning the disagreement between currently used equations for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR. We agree that disagreement in the estimation of kidney function was previously found by a number of authors. However, in our paper1 we describe this aspect in very specific population – geriatric, palliative care patients – with high prevalence of cachexia and substantial muscle mass loss. Our group has shown some similarities (low creatinine generation to the group of patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa studied by Fabbian et al.2 However, it has to be stressed that patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa were much younger, and therefore had much better, mostly normal kidney function. The second population analyzed by Fabbian et al3 – diabetic patients – also differ from out cohort, as they were better nourished. Regardless of these differences, the conclusions concerning the disagreement of different methods in the estimation of

  12. Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Elderly Chronic Kidney Disease Patients: Comparison of Three Novel Sophisticated Equations and Simple Cystatin C Equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevc, Sebastjan; Hojs, Nina; Hojs, Radovan; Ekart, Robert; Gorenjak, Maksimiljan; Puklavec, Ludvik

    2017-04-01

    Estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in elderly patients is a problem, since they are poorly represented in studies developing GFR equations. Serum cystatin C is a better indicator of GFR than serum creatinine in elderly patients. Therefore the aim of our study was to compare frequently used serum cystatin C based GFR equations with a gold standard ( 51 CrEDTA clearance) in elderly chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. 106 adult Caucasian patients, older than 65 years (58 women, 48 men; mean age 72.5 years), were included. In each patient 51 CrEDTA clearance, serum creatinine (IDMS traceable method) and serum cystatin C (immunonephelometric method) were determined. GFR was estimated using the Simple cystatin C, CKD-EPI cystatin C, CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C and BIS2 equation. Mean serum creatinine of our patients was 141.4 ± 41.5 μmol/L, mean serum cystatin C 1.79 ± 0.6 mg/L, mean 51 CrEDTA clearance was 52.2 ± 15.9 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 . Statistically significant correlations between 51 CrEDTA clearance and all formulas were found (P equations were found. Bland-Altman analysis for the same cut-off showed that CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C and BIS2 equation underestimated and CKD-EPI cystatin C and Simple cystatin C equation overestimated measured GFR. All equations lacked precision. Analysis of ability to correctly predict patient's GFR below or above 45 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 showed similar ability for all equations (P = 0.24-0.89). All equations are equally accurate for estimating GFR in elderly Caucasian CKD patients. For daily practice Simple cystatin C equation is most practical. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  13. Validation of generalized anthropometric equations for body density estimate in military women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernandes Filho

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The validation of the equations for predicting body density allows verifying the accuracy of estimated body density on a population different from that used in the original equation. In this way, the purpose of this study was to verify the validity of six generalized prediction equations of body density in military women. The sample was composed by 107 military women, with ages varying from 18 to 45 years (30.48 ± 6.40 years, total body mass of 58.60 ± 6.99kg and stature of 164.78 ± 5.81cm. Six skinfolds and one circumference were measured according to the selected equations. To estimate body density, the indirect method of hydrostatic densitometry (validation criterion and the doubly indirect methods of prediction equations by Jackson et al. (1980, 3 skinfolds, and by Petroski (1995 were used. Mean body density measured by hydrostatic densitometry was 1.046058 ± 0.011001 g/ml. To validate the equations Pearson´s linear correlations were used and the results were considered acceptable (r = 0.71 to 0.76. When comparing predicted to measured density, it was found that only the quadratic equation using 5 skinfolds by Petroski (1995 did not show any statistical difference (t = 0.573 to p value = 0.568. The correlation coefficient for this equation was r = 0.74, which is also considered acceptable. Total error was ET =0.0075 g/ml and the standard error of the estimate was EPE = 0.0066 g/ml, both onsidered very good values for the validation process. These results permit the conclusion that the generalized quadratic equation by Petroski (1995, using 5 skinfolds (subscapular, triceps, suprailiac, abdominal and medial calf is concurrently valid for estimating body density among military women. RESUMO A validação de equações de predição da densidade corporal permite verificar se os resultados preditos podem estimar, de forma coerente, a densidade corporal de uma população diferente da que originou as equações. Diante desta afirmativa, o

  14. Estimation of State of Charge of Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in HEV Using Robust Extended Kalman Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman M. Sharkh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A robust extended Kalman filter (EKF is proposed as a method for estimation of the state of charge (SOC of lithium-ion batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs. An equivalent circuit model of the battery, including its electromotive force (EMF hysteresis characteristics and polarization characteristics is used. The effect of the robust EKF gain coefficient on SOC estimation is analyzed, and an optimized gain coefficient is determined to restrain battery terminal voltage from fluctuating. Experimental and simulation results are presented. SOC estimates using the standard EKF are compared with the proposed robust EKF algorithm to demonstrate the accuracy and precision of the latter for SOC estimation.

  15. Numerical Estimation of Spectral Properties of Laser Based on Rate Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Litvik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser spectral properties are essential to evaluate the performance of optical communication systems. In general, the power spectral density of the phase noise has a crucial impact on spectral properties of the unmodulated laser signal. Here the white Gaussian noise and 1/f-noise are taken into the consideration. By utilizing the time-dependent realizations of the instantaneous optical power and the phase simultaneously, it is possible to estimate the power spectral density or alternatively the power spectrum of an unmodulated laser signal shifted to the baseband and thus estimate the laser linewidth. In this work, we report on the theoretical approach to analyse unmodulated real-valued high-frequency stationary random passband signal of laser, followed by presenting the numerical model of the distributed feedback laser to emulate the time-dependent optical power and the instantaneous phase, as two important time domain laser attributes. The laser model is based on numerical solving the rate equations using fourth-order Runge-Kutta method. This way, we show the direct estimation of the power spectral density and the laser linewidth, when time-dependent laser characteristics are known.

  16. Correlation structure and variable selection in generalized estimating equations via composite likelihood information criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoloulopoulos, Aristidis K

    2016-06-30

    The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE) is popular in the biostatistics literature for analyzing longitudinal binary and count data. It assumes a generalized linear model for the outcome variable, and a working correlation among repeated measurements. In this paper, we introduce a viable competitor: the weighted scores method for generalized linear model margins. We weight the univariate score equations using a working discretized multivariate normal model that is a proper multivariate model. Because the weighted scores method is a parametric method based on likelihood, we propose composite likelihood information criteria as an intermediate step for model selection. The same criteria can be used for both correlation structure and variable selection. Simulations studies and the application example show that our method outperforms other existing model selection methods in GEE. From the example, it can be seen that our methods not only improve on GEE in terms of interpretability and efficiency but also can change the inferential conclusions with respect to GEE. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. A modelling on estimation of the carbon dioxide emission from vehicles using logistic equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, E. W.; Andry, A.; Afra, F.; Sumarti, N.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the logistic differential equation is used in developing a model on carbon dioxide traces which potentially releases from a particular area. The improvement to a higher scale or scope is straightforward by considering the larger observed data or larger number of the potential CO2 sources. Let G(t) the total amount of the carbon dioxide emission from motorcycles and cars used by the resident of the area. G (t )=P (t )(r1(t )η (t )+r2(t )ξ (t )) where P(t) is the number of the resident of the observed area (population of Bandung Institute of Technology) at year t, r1(t) and r2(t) are the portion of the population who use motorcycles and cars respectively, η(t) and ξ(t) are the approximated total emission of the carbon dioxide from the related vehicles respectively. The number of resident is modeled by the logistic equation so the future number can be estimated. The model is implemented in a campus of Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB) at Ganesha street, Indonesia. The results show that the amount of CO2 produced from the transport in Ganesha campus will reach the carrying capacity of the campus in the next 3 years, which will be at around 2.1 billion kilotons of CO2. Therefore, the need of reducing the usage of motorcycles and cars is inevitable in the near future.

  18. Method for estimating critical properties of heavy compounds suitable for cubic equations of state and its application to the prediction of vapor pressures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Ioannis, Smirlis; Iakovos, Yakoumis

    1997-01-01

    Cubic equations of state (EoS) are often used for correlating and predicting phase equilibria. Before extending any EoS to mixtures, reliable vapor-pressure prediction is essential. This requires experimental, if possible, critical temperatures T-c, pressures P-c, and acentric factor omega...... or extensive pure-compound vapor-pressure data which, for heavy and/or complex compounds, are often not available. This work presents a method for estimating T-c, P-c, and omega values for heavy compounds (typically with MW > 130) suitable for vapor-pressure calculations with generalized cubic Eo......S. The proposed scheme employs a recent group-contribution method (Constantinou et al. Fluid Phase Equilib. 1995, 103 (1), 11) for estimating the acentric factor. The two critical properties are estimated via a generalized correlation for the ratio T-c/P-c (with the van der Waals surface area) and the cubic Eo...

  19. Simple equation for estimating actual evapotranspiration using heat units for wheat in arid regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Salama

    2015-07-01

    Application of treatment (B resulted in highly significant increase in yield production of Gemmeza10 and Misr2 as compared to treatment (A. Grain yield of different wheat varieties grown under treatment (B could be ranked in the following descending order: Misr2 > Gemmeza10 > Sids12. While under treatment (A it could be arranged in the following descending order: Misr2 > Sids12 > Gemmeza10. On the other hand, the overall means indicated non-significant difference between all wheat verities. The highest values of water and irrigation use efficiency as well as heat use efficiency were obtained with treatment (B. The equation used in the present study is available to estimate ETa under arid climate with drip irrigation system.

  20. OPTIMAL ESTIMATES FOR THE SEMIDISCRETE GALERKIN METHOD APPLIED TO PARABOLIC INTEGRO-DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS WITH NONSMOOTH DATA

    KAUST Repository

    GOSWAMI, DEEPJYOTI

    2014-01-01

    AWe propose and analyse an alternate approach to a priori error estimates for the semidiscrete Galerkin approximation to a time-dependent parabolic integro-differential equation with nonsmooth initial data. The method is based on energy arguments combined with repeated use of time integration, but without using parabolic-type duality techniques. An optimal L2-error estimate is derived for the semidiscrete approximation when the initial data is in L2. A superconvergence result is obtained and then used to prove a maximum norm estimate for parabolic integro-differential equations defined on a two-dimensional bounded domain. © 2014 Australian Mathematical Society.

  1. Applicability of the Schwartz Equation and the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children Bedside Equation for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Overweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Teresa V; Harrison, Donald L; Gildon, Brooke L; Carter, Sandra M; Turman, Martin A

    2016-06-01

    To determine if significant correlations exist between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) prediction equation values, derived by using the original Schwartz equation and the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) bedside equation with a 24-hour urine creatinine clearance (Clcr ) value normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m(2) in overweight and obese children. Prospective analysis (20 patients) and retrospective analysis (43 patients). Pediatric inpatient ward and pediatric nephrology clinic at a comprehensive academic medical center. Sixty-three pediatric patients (aged 5-17 years), of whom 27 were overweight (body mass index [BMI] at the 85th percentile or higher) and 36 were not overweight (BMI lower than the 85th percentile [controls]) between 2007 and 2012. Data from the overweight patients were compared with nonoverweight controls. GFR values were calculated by using the original Schwartz equation and the CKiD bedside equation. Each patient's 24-hour urine Clcr value normalized to a body surface area of 1.73 m(2) served as the index value. A Pearson correlation coefficient model was used to determine association between the 24-hour urine Clcr value (index value) with the Schwartz and CKiD GFR estimations. Significant correlation was found to exist between the Schwartz and CKiD bedside GFR estimations relative to the 24-hour urine Clcr in the control subjects (r = 0.85, poverweight subjects (r = 0.86, poverweight children with a kidney disorder. The CKiD bedside GFR estimations were not significantly different compared with 24-hour urine Clcr values for the overweight group with kidney disorder (p=0.85). The Schwartz and CKiD bedside estimations of GFR correlated with 24-hour urine Clcr values in both overweight and nonoverweight children. Compared with the Schwartz equation, which tended to overestimate renal function, the CKiD bedside equation appeared to approximate 24-hour urine Clcr more closely in overweight children with kidney disorder. © 2016

  2. Peak-power estimation equations in 12- to 16-year old children: comparing linear with allometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Hankey, Joanne; Nevill, Alan M

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the efficacy of peak-power estimation equations in children using force platform data and determined whether allometric modeling offers a sounder alternative to estimating peak power in pediatric samples. Ninety one boys and girls aged 12-16 years performed 3 countermovement jumps (CMJ) on a force platform. Estimated peak power (PP(est)) was determined using the Harman et al., Sayers SJ, Sayers CMJ, and Canavan and Vescovi equations. All 4 equations were associated with actual peak power (r = 0.893-0.909, all p equations (p allometric model using CMJ height, body mass, and age was then developed with this sample, which predicted 88.8% of the variance in PP(actual) (p equations were cross-validated using the one-third split sample (n = 31), evidencing a significant positive relationship (r = .910, p = .001) and no significant difference (p = .151) between PP(actual) and PP(est) using this equation. The allometric and linear models determined from this study provide accurate models to estimate peak power in children.

  3. Allometric Equations for Estimating Biomass and Carbon Stocks in the Temperate Forests of North-Western Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicto Vargas-Larreta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new equations for estimating above-ground biomass (AGB and biomass components of seventeen forest species in the temperate forests of northwestern Mexico. A data set corresponding to 1336 destructively sampled oak and pine trees was used to fit the models. The generalized method of moments was used to simultaneously fit systems of equations for biomass components and AGB, to ensure additivity. In addition, the carbon content of each tree component was calculated by the dry combustion method, in a TOC analyser. The results of cross-validation indicated that the fitted equations accounted for on average 91%, 82%, 83% and 76% of the observed variance in stem wood and stem bark, branch and foliage biomass, respectively, whereas the total AGB equations explained on average 93% of the total observed variance in AGB. The inclusion of total height (h or diameter at breast height2 × total height (d2h as a predictor in the d-only based equations systems slightly improved estimates for stem wood, stem bark and total above-ground biomass, and greatly improved the estimates produced by the branch and foliage biomass equations. The predictive power of the proposed equations is higher than that of existing models for the study area. The fitted equations were used to estimate stand level AGB stocks from data on growing stock in 429 permanent sampling plots. Three machine-learning techniques were used to model the estimated stand level AGB and carbon contents; the selected models were used to map the AGB and carbon distributions in the study area, for which mean values of respectively 129.84 Mg ha−1 and 63.80 Mg ha−1 were obtained.

  4. Estimation of Resting Energy Expenditure: Validation of Previous and New Predictive Equations in Obese Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar-Tek, Nilüfer; Ağagündüz, Duygu; Çelik, Bülent; Bozbulut, Rukiye

    2017-08-01

    Accurate estimation of resting energy expenditure (REE) in childrenand adolescents is important to establish estimated energy requirements. The aim of the present study was to measure REE in obese children and adolescents by indirect calorimetry method, compare these values with REE values estimated by equations, and develop the most appropriate equation for this group. One hundred and three obese children and adolescents (57 males, 46 females) between 7 and 17 years (10.6 ± 2.19 years) were recruited for the study. REE measurements of subjects were made with indirect calorimetry (COSMED, FitMatePro, Rome, Italy) and body compositions were analyzed. In females, the percentage of accurate prediction varied from 32.6 (World Health Organization [WHO]) to 43.5 (Molnar and Lazzer). The bias for equations was -0.2% (Kim), 3.7% (Molnar), and 22.6% (Derumeaux-Burel). Kim's (266 kcal/d), Schmelzle's (267 kcal/d), and Henry's equations (268 kcal/d) had the lowest root mean square error (RMSE; respectively 266, 267, 268 kcal/d). The equation that has the highest RMSE values among female subjects was the Derumeaux-Burel equation (394 kcal/d). In males, when the Institute of Medicine (IOM) had the lowest accurate prediction value (12.3%), the highest values were found using Schmelzle's (42.1%), Henry's (43.9%), and Müller's equations (fat-free mass, FFM; 45.6%). When Kim and Müller had the smallest bias (-0.6%, 9.9%), Schmelzle's equation had the smallest RMSE (331 kcal/d). The new specific equation based on FFM was generated as follows: REE = 451.722 + (23.202 * FFM). According to Bland-Altman plots, it has been found out that the new equations are distributed randomly in both males and females. Previously developed predictive equations mostly provided unaccurate and biased estimates of REE. However, the new predictive equations allow clinicians to estimate REE in an obese children and adolescents with sufficient and acceptable accuracy.

  5. New design equations for estimation of ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations resting on rock masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H. Alavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock masses are commonly used as the underlying layer of important structures such as bridges, dams and transportation constructions. The success of a foundation design for such structures mainly depends on the accuracy of estimating the bearing capacity of rock beneath them. Several traditional numerical approaches are proposed for the estimation of the bearing capacity of foundations resting on rock masses to avoid performing elaborate and expensive experimental studies. Despite this fact, there still exists a serious need to develop more robust predictive models. This paper proposes new nonlinear prediction models for the ultimate bearing capacity of shallow foundations resting on non-fractured rock masses using a novel evolutionary computational approach, called linear genetic programming. A comprehensive set of rock socket, centrifuge rock socket, plate load and large-scaled footing load test results is used to develop the models. In order to verify the validity of the models, the sensitivity analysis is conducted and discussed. The results indicate that the proposed models accurately characterize the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The correlation coefficients between the experimental and predicted bearing capacity values are equal to 0.95 and 0.96 for the best LGP models. Moreover, the derived models reach a notably better prediction performance than the traditional equations.

  6. Scour depth estimation using an equation based on wind tunnel experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutsui Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scour is the result of degradation and aggradation by wind or moving fluid in the front and back of a pole standing in sand, respectively, and is often observed at the bottom of bridge piers in rivers. In this study, we propose a method of estimating the scour depth around a cylindrical structure standing in sand. The relationships among the depth of the scour, the aspect ratio of the structure (= height/diameter, the fluid velocity, and the sand properties (particle size and density were determined experimentally using a wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out under clear-water scour conditions. In the experiments, the aspect ratio of the cylindrical structure, the fluid velocity, and the sand particle size were varied systematically. The diameters of the structure were 20, 40, and 60 mm, and the aspect ratio was varied from 0.25 to 3.0. Sand particles of four sizes (200, 275, 475, and 600 μm were used in the experiment, and the velocity was varied from 4 to 11 m/s. The depth and radius of the scour were measured. As a result, we have developed an equation for estimating the scour depth that uses the aspect ratio, fluid velocity, and sand particle size as parameters.

  7. Doubling inequalities for anisotropic plate equations and applications to size estimates of inclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Cristo, M; Lin, C-L; Morassi, A; Rosset, E; Vessella, S; Wang, J-N

    2013-01-01

    We prove the upper and lower estimates of the area of an unknown elastic inclusion in a thin plate by one boundary measurement. The plate is made of non-homogeneous linearly elastic material belonging to a general class of anisotropy and the domain of the inclusion is a measurable subset of the plate. The size estimates are expressed in terms of the work exerted by a couple field applied at the boundary and of the induced transversal displacement and its normal derivative taken at the boundary of the plate. The main new mathematical tool is a doubling inequality for solutions to fourth-order elliptic equations whose principal part P(x, D) is the product of two second-order elliptic operators P 1 (x, D), P 2 (x, D) such that P 1 (0, D) = P 2 (0, D). The proof of the doubling inequality is based on the Carleman method, a sharp three-spheres inequality and a bootstrapping argument. (paper)

  8. Estimation of the tritium retention in ITER tungsten divertor target using macroscopic rate equations simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodille, E. A.; Bernard, E.; Markelj, S.; Mougenot, J.; Becquart, C. S.; Bisson, R.; Grisolia, C.

    2017-12-01

    Based on macroscopic rate equation simulations of tritium migration in an actively cooled tungsten (W) plasma facing component (PFC) using the code MHIMS (migration of hydrogen isotopes in metals), an estimation has been made of the tritium retention in ITER W divertor target during a non-uniform exponential distribution of particle fluxes. Two grades of materials are considered to be exposed to tritium ions: an undamaged W and a damaged W exposed to fast fusion neutrons. Due to strong temperature gradient in the PFC, Soret effect’s impacts on tritium retention is also evaluated for both cases. Thanks to the simulation, the evolutions of the tritium retention and the tritium migration depth are obtained as a function of the implanted flux and the number of cycles. From these evolutions, extrapolation laws are built to estimate the number of cycles needed for tritium to permeate from the implantation zone to the cooled surface and to quantify the corresponding retention of tritium throughout the W PFC.

  9. Validation of equations using anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance for estimating body composition of the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiano Ricardo Rech

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of the elderly population has enhanced the need for studying aging-related issues. In this context, the analysis of morphological alterations occurring with the age has been discussed thoroughly. Evidences point that there are few information on valid methods for estimating body composition of senior citizens in Brazil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to cross-validate equations using either anthropometric or bioelectrical impedance (BIA data for estimation of body fat (%BF and of fat-free mass (FFM in a sample of older individuals from Florianópolis-SC, having the dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA as the criterion-measurement. The group was composed by 180 subjects (60 men and 120 women who participated in four community Groups for the elderly and were systematically randomly selected by a telephone interview, with age ranging from 60 to 81 years. The variables stature, body mass, body circumferences, skinfold thickness, reactance and resistance were measured in the morning at The Sports Center of the Federal University of Santa Catarina. The DEXA evaluation was performed in the afternoon at The Diagnosis Center through Image in Florianópolis-SC. Twenty anthropometric and 8 BIA equations were analyzed for cross-validation. For those equations that estimate body density, the equation of Siri (1961 and the adapted-equation by Deurenberg et al. (1989 were used for conversion into %BF. The analyses were performed with the statistical package SPSS, version 11.5, establishing the level of significance at 5%. The criteria of cross-validation suggested by Lohman (1992 and the graphic dispersion analyses in relation to the mean, as proposed by Bland and Altman (1986 were used. The group presented values for the body mass index (BMI between 18.4kg.m-2 and 39.3kg.m-2. The mean %BF was of 23.1% (sd=5.8 for men and 37.3% (sd=6.9 in women, varying from 6% to 51.4%. There were no differences among the estimates of the equations

  10. Modulating functions-based method for parameters and source estimation in one-dimensional partial differential equations

    KAUST Repository

    Asiri, Sharefa M.

    2016-10-20

    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space–time-dependent unknowns in one-dimensional partial differential equations. The proposed method simplifies the problem into a system of algebraic equations linear in unknown parameters. The well-posedness of the modulating functions-based solution is proved. The wave and the fifth-order KdV equations are used as examples to show the effectiveness of the proposed method in both noise-free and noisy cases.

  11. Bi Input-extended Kalman filter based estimation technique for speed-sensorless control of induction motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barut, Murat, E-mail: muratbarut27@yahoo.co [Nigde University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, 51245 Nigde (Turkey)

    2010-10-15

    This study offers a novel extended Kalman filter (EKF) based estimation technique for the solution of the on-line estimation problem related to uncertainties in the stator and rotor resistances inherent to the speed-sensorless high efficiency control of induction motors (IMs) in the wide speed range as well as extending the limited number of states and parameter estimations possible with a conventional single EKF algorithm. For this aim, the introduced estimation technique in this work utilizes a single EKF algorithm with the consecutive execution of two inputs derived from the two individual extended IM models based on the stator resistance and rotor resistance estimation, differently from the other approaches in past studies, which require two separate EKF algorithms operating in a switching or braided manner; thus, it has superiority over the previous EKF schemes in this regard. The proposed EKF based estimation technique performing the on-line estimations of the stator currents, the rotor flux, the rotor angular velocity, and the load torque involving the viscous friction term together with the rotor and stator resistance is also used in the combination with the speed-sensorless direct vector control of IM and tested with simulations under the challenging 12 scenarios generated instantaneously via step and/or linear variations of the velocity reference, the load torque, the stator resistance, and the rotor resistance in the range of high and zero speed, assuming that the measured stator phase currents and voltages are available. Even under those variations, the performance of the speed-sensorless direct vector control system established on the novel EKF based estimation technique is observed to be quite good.

  12. Numerical discretization-based estimation methods for ordinary differential equation models via penalized spline smoothing with applications in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hulin; Xue, Hongqi; Kumar, Arun

    2012-06-01

    Differential equations are extensively used for modeling dynamics of physical processes in many scientific fields such as engineering, physics, and biomedical sciences. Parameter estimation of differential equation models is a challenging problem because of high computational cost and high-dimensional parameter space. In this article, we propose a novel class of methods for estimating parameters in ordinary differential equation (ODE) models, which is motivated by HIV dynamics modeling. The new methods exploit the form of numerical discretization algorithms for an ODE solver to formulate estimating equations. First, a penalized-spline approach is employed to estimate the state variables and the estimated state variables are then plugged in a discretization formula of an ODE solver to obtain the ODE parameter estimates via a regression approach. We consider three different order of discretization methods, Euler's method, trapezoidal rule, and Runge-Kutta method. A higher-order numerical algorithm reduces numerical error in the approximation of the derivative, which produces a more accurate estimate, but its computational cost is higher. To balance the computational cost and estimation accuracy, we demonstrate, via simulation studies, that the trapezoidal discretization-based estimate is the best and is recommended for practical use. The asymptotic properties for the proposed numerical discretization-based estimators are established. Comparisons between the proposed methods and existing methods show a clear benefit of the proposed methods in regards to the trade-off between computational cost and estimation accuracy. We apply the proposed methods t an HIV study to further illustrate the usefulness of the proposed approaches. © 2012, The International Biometric Society.

  13. Validation of equations to estimate body density of soccer players, category sub-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Santos da Fonseca

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate equations developed from different populations, to estimate body density of soccer players from the south of Brazil, in order to determine their accuracy for this category of athletes. Thirty one national and international equations were analyzed. The sample was composed of 25 male soccer players, aged 16 to 20 years, from the state of Rio Grande do Sul. They had been training at least 1.5 and practiced 5 times a week, 4 hours per session. For cross-validation, the criteria suggested byLohman (1992 were used as a reference standard: Student’s t test for dependent samples, Pearson’s Linear correlation coeffi cient, analysis of standard deviations and standard error of estimate. The equations analyzed tended to underestimate body density and, as such, are not valid for estimating body density in soccer players,producing errors when evaluating the body composition of individuals with the same characteristics as the sample studied here. RESUMO Este estudo teve como objetivo a validação de equações desenvolvidas a partir de diferentes populações, para a estimativa da densidade corporal em atletas de futebol do sul do Brasil, desta forma, buscando determinar acuracidade destas frente a esta categoria de atletas. Foram analisadas 31 equações, tanto nacionais quanto internacionais. A amostra do estudo foi composta de 25 atletas de futebol de campo do estado do Rio Grande do Sul, do sexo masculino, com idade entre 16 e 20 anos, que possuíam no mínimo um ano e meio de treinamento na modalidade de futebol, com volume de treino em torno de 5 vezes por semana e 4 horas diárias. Foi utilizado para a validação cruzada as equações que estimam a densidade corporal com a pesagem hidrostática, método utilizado como padrão de referência, os critérios sugeridos por Lohman (1992: Teste “t” de Student para amostra dependentes, Correlação Linear de Pearson, análise dos Desvios Padrões e Erro Padr

  14. Comparing GFR Estimating Equations Using Cystatin C and Creatinine in Elderly Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Levey, Andrew S; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Andresdottir, Margret B; Gudmundsdottir, Hrefna; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur; Mitchell, Gary; Inker, Lesley A

    2015-08-01

    Current guidelines recommend reporting eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations unless other equations are more accurate, and recommend the combination of creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) as more accurate than either eGFRcr or eGFRcys alone. However, preferred equations and filtration markers in elderly individuals are debated. In 805 adults enrolled in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, we measured GFR (mGFR) using plasma clearance of iohexol, standardized creatinine and cystatin C, and eGFR using the CKD-EPI, Japanese, Berlin Initiative Study (BIS), and Caucasian and Asian pediatric and adult subjects (CAPA) equations. We evaluated equation performance using bias, precision, and two measures of accuracy. We first compared the Japanese, BIS, and CAPA equations with the CKD-EPI equations to determine the preferred equations, and then compared eGFRcr and eGFRcys with eGFRcr-cys using the preferred equations. Mean (SD) age was 80.3 (4.0) years. Median (25th, 75th) mGFR was 64 (52, 73) ml/min per 1.73 m(2), and the prevalence of decreased GFR was 39% (95% confidence interval, 35.8 to 42.5). Among 24 comparisons with the other equations, CKD-EPI equations performed better in 9, similar in 13, and worse in 2. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr in four metrics, better than eGFRcys in two metrics, and similar to eGFRcys in two metrics. In conclusion, neither the Japanese, BIS, nor CAPA equations were superior to the CKD-EPI equations in this cohort of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr or eGFRcys. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  15. An Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test with Average and Worst Case Error Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    2003-01-01

    We present an Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test (EQFT), which is related to an extends the Miller-Rabin test and the Quadratic Frobenius test (QFT) by Grantham. EQFT takes time about equivalent to 2 Miller-Rabin tests, but has much smaller error probability, namely 256/331776t for t......-Rabin tests, while only taking time equivalent to about 2 such tests. We also give bounds for the error in case a prime is sought by incremental search from a random starting point....

  16. Universal equation for estimating ideal body weight and body weight at any BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Courtney M; Thomas, Diana M; Blackburn, George L; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2016-05-01

    Ideal body weight (IBW) equations and body mass index (BMI) ranges have both been used to delineate healthy or normal weight ranges, although these 2 different approaches are at odds with each other. In particular, past IBW equations are misaligned with BMI values, and unlike BMI, the equations have failed to recognize that there is a range of ideal or target body weights. For the first time, to our knowledge, we merged the concepts of a linear IBW equation and of defining target body weights in terms of BMI. With the use of calculus and approximations, we derived an easy-to-use linear equation that clinicians can use to calculate both IBW and body weight at any target BMI value. We measured the empirical accuracy of the equation with the use of NHANES data and performed a comparative analysis with past IBW equations. Our linear equation allowed us to calculate body weights for any BMI and height with a mean empirical accuracy of 0.5-0.7% on the basis of NHANES data. Moreover, we showed that our body weight equation directly aligns with BMI values for both men and women, which avoids the overestimation and underestimation problems at the upper and lower ends of the height spectrum that have plagued past IBW equations. Our linear equation increases the sophistication of IBW equations by replacing them with a single universal equation that calculates both IBW and body weight at any target BMI and height. Therefore, our equation is compatible with BMI and can be applied with the use of mental math or a calculator without the need for an app, which makes it a useful tool for both health practitioners and the general public. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. An Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test with Average- and Worst-Case Error Estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    2006-01-01

    We present an Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test (EQFT), which is related to an extends the Miller-Rabin test and the Quadratic Frobenius test (QFT) by Grantham. EQFT takes time about equivalent to 2 Miller-Rabin tests, but has much smaller error probability, namely 256/331776t for t ite......-Rabin tests, while only taking time equivalent to about 2 such tests. We also give bounds for the error in case a prime is sought by incremental search from a random starting point.......We present an Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test (EQFT), which is related to an extends the Miller-Rabin test and the Quadratic Frobenius test (QFT) by Grantham. EQFT takes time about equivalent to 2 Miller-Rabin tests, but has much smaller error probability, namely 256/331776t for t...... for the error probability of this algorithm as well as a general closed expression bounding the error. For instance, it is at most 2-143 for k = 500, t = 2. Compared to earlier similar results for the Miller-Rabin test, the results indicates that our test in the average case has the effect of 9 Miller...

  18. An Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test with Average Case Error Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    2001-01-01

    We present an Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test (EQFT), which is related to an extends the Miller-Rabin test and the Quadratic Frobenius test (QFT) by Grantham. EQFT takes time about equivalent to 2 Miller-Rabin tests, but has much smaller error probability, namely 256/331776t for t ite......-Rabin tests, while only taking time equivalent to about 2 such tests. We also give bounds for the error in case a prime is sought by incremental search from a random starting point.......We present an Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test (EQFT), which is related to an extends the Miller-Rabin test and the Quadratic Frobenius test (QFT) by Grantham. EQFT takes time about equivalent to 2 Miller-Rabin tests, but has much smaller error probability, namely 256/331776t for t...... for the error probability of this algorithm as well as a general closed expression bounding the error. For instance, it is at most 2-143 for k = 500, t = 2. Compared to earlier similar results for the Miller-Rabin test, the results indicates that our test in the average case has the effect of 9 Miller...

  19. Fast and accurate parameter estimation by means of a semi-implicit extended Kalman filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryzlov, A.; Leskens, M.; Mudde, R.F.

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of the time-integration scheme impact on results of data assimilation based on the extended Kalman filter approach is performed. The use of the implicit Euler scheme, which is unconditionally stable for the whole range of time steps both for the model and covariance update, results in

  20. Maximum likelihood estimators for extended growth curve model with orthogonal between-individual design matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Daniel; Zezula, Ivan

    The extended growth curve model is discussed in this paper. There are two versions of the model studied in the literature, which differ in the way how the column spaces of the design matrices are nested. The nesting is applied either to the between-individual or to the within-individual design

  1. Extending the collisional fluid equations into the long mean-free-path regime in toroidal plasmas. IV. Banana regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaing, K. C.

    2007-01-01

    In Part I [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1190 (1990)] and Part II [Phys. Plasmas 12, 082508 (2005)], it was emphasized that the equilibrium plasma viscous forces when applied for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are only rigorously valid at the mode rational surface where m-nq=0. Here, m is the poloidal mode number, n is the toroidal mode number, and q is the safety factor. This important fact has been demonstrated explicitly by calculating the viscous forces in the plateau regime in Parts I and II. Here, the effective viscous forces in the banana regime are calculated for MHD modes by solving the linear drift kinetic equation that is driven by the plasma flows first derived in Part I. At the mode rational surface, the equilibrium plasma viscous forces are reproduced. However, it is found that away from the mode rational surface, the viscous forces for MHD modes decrease, a behavior similar to that observed in the viscous forces for the plateau regime. The proper form of the momentum equation that is appropriate for the modeling of the MHD modes is also discussed

  2. Modeling the Philippines' real gross domestic product: A normal estimation equation for multiple linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Jackie D.; Tampis, Razzcelle L.; Mercado, Joseph; Baygan, Aaron Vito M.; Baccay, Edcon B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this research is to formulate a mathematical model for the Philippines' Real Gross Domestic Product (Real GDP). The following factors are considered: Consumers' Spending (x1), Government's Spending (x2), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4) as the Independent Variables that can actually influence in the Real GDP in the Philippines (y). The researchers used a Normal Estimation Equation using Matrices to create the model for Real GDP and used α = 0.01.The researchers analyzed quarterly data from 1990 to 2013. The data were acquired from the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) resulting to a total of 96 observations for each variable. The data have undergone a logarithmic transformation particularly the Dependent Variable (y) to satisfy all the assumptions of the Multiple Linear Regression Analysis. The mathematical model for Real GDP was formulated using Matrices through MATLAB. Based on the results, only three of the Independent Variables are significant to the Dependent Variable namely: Consumers' Spending (x1), Capital Formation (x3) and Imports (x4), hence, can actually predict Real GDP (y). The regression analysis displays that 98.7% (coefficient of determination) of the Independent Variables can actually predict the Dependent Variable. With 97.6% of the result in Paired T-Test, the Predicted Values obtained from the model showed no significant difference from the Actual Values of Real GDP. This research will be essential in appraising the forthcoming changes to aid the Government in implementing policies for the development of the economy.

  3. A generalized estimating equations approach to quantitative trait locus detection of non-normal traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Peter C

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To date, most statistical developments in QTL detection methodology have been directed at continuous traits with an underlying normal distribution. This paper presents a method for QTL analysis of non-normal traits using a generalized linear mixed model approach. Development of this method has been motivated by a backcross experiment involving two inbred lines of mice that was conducted in order to locate a QTL for litter size. A Poisson regression form is used to model litter size, with allowances made for under- as well as over-dispersion, as suggested by the experimental data. In addition to fixed parity effects, random animal effects have also been included in the model. However, the method is not fully parametric as the model is specified only in terms of means, variances and covariances, and not as a full probability model. Consequently, a generalized estimating equations (GEE approach is used to fit the model. For statistical inferences, permutation tests and bootstrap procedures are used. This method is illustrated with simulated as well as experimental mouse data. Overall, the method is found to be quite reliable, and with modification, can be used for QTL detection for a range of other non-normally distributed traits.

  4. Modification of Turbulent Pipe Flow Equations to Estimate the Vertical Velocity Profiles Under Woody Debris Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervania, A.; Knack, I. M. W.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of woody debris (WD) jams in rivers and streams increases the risk of backwater flooding and reduces the navigability of a channel, but adds fish and macroinvertebrate habitat to the stream. When designing river engineering projects engineers use hydraulic models to predict flow behavior around these obstructions. However, the complexities of flow through and beneath WD jams are still poorly understood. By increasing the ability to predict flow behavior around WD jams, landowners and engineers are empowered to develop sustainable practices regarding the removal or placement of WD in rivers and flood plains to balance the desirable and undesirable effects to society and the environment. The objective of this study is to address some of this knowledge gap by developing a method to estimate the vertical velocity profile of flow under WD jams. When flow passes under WD jams, it becomes affected by roughness elements on all sides, similar to turbulent flows in pipe systems. Therefore, the method was developed using equations that define the velocity profiles of turbulent pipe flows: the law of the wall, the logarithmic law, and the velocity defect law. Flume simulations of WD jams were conducted and the vertical velocity profiles were measured along the centerline. A calculated velocity profile was fit to the measured profile through the calibration of eight parameters. An optimal value or range of values have been determined for several of these parameters using cross-validation techniques. The results indicate there may be some promise to using this method in hydraulic models.

  5. Generalized estimating equations to evaluate the dependence of lifetime in confined Africanized bees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Guimarães Brighenti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research with honeybee needs experimentation in cages. In laboratory bioassays to assess the lifetime of Apis mellifera, each sampling unit contained a group of bees confined in a cage. Since current is a longitudinal analysis to assess the effect of time dependence on the survival of bees fed on different diets, generalized estimating equations applied to the logit model were used to assess the viability of incorporating correlation structures that related the survival of bees observed in each cage over time, so that the mortality of a given number of bees might influence the mortality of the others. Results showed that there was time dependence between the observations of bees inside the cages, and the working correlation matrix adjusted by longitudinal analysis was ‘Non-stationary-M-dependent’ in which the number of periods of dependence must be specified. Correlations are not the same for all observations of all periods. The solution with granulated sugar and the solution with granulated sugar enriched with lemon juice proved to have the lowest level of mortality during the assessed periods. Assay showed that bees tended to die during daytime.

  6. Are traditional body fat equations and anthropometry valid to estimate body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de; Martins, Priscila Custódio; Junior, Carlos Alencar Souza Alves; Castro, João Antônio Chula de; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Petroski, Edio Luiz

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of traditional anthropometric equations and to develop predictive equations of total body and trunk fat for children and adolescents living with HIV based on anthropometric measurements. Forty-eight children and adolescents of both sexes (24 boys) aged 7-17 years, living in Santa Catarina, Brazil, participated in the study. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as the reference method to evaluate total body and trunk fat. Height, body weight, circumferences and triceps, subscapular, abdominal and calf skinfolds were measured. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter were used to estimate body fat. Multiple regression models were fitted to predict total body fat (Model 1) and trunk fat (Model 2) using a backward selection procedure. Model 1 had an R 2 =0.85 and a standard error of the estimate of 1.43. Model 2 had an R 2 =0.80 and standard error of the estimate=0.49. The traditional equations of Lohman and Slaughter showed poor performance in estimating body fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. The prediction models using anthropometry provided reliable estimates and can be used by clinicians and healthcare professionals to monitor total body and trunk fat in children and adolescents living with HIV. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Estimates for a general fractional relaxation equation and application to an inverse source problem

    OpenAIRE

    Bazhlekova, Emilia

    2018-01-01

    A general fractional relaxation equation is considered with a convolutional derivative in time introduced by A. Kochubei (Integr. Equ. Oper. Theory 71 (2011), 583-600). This equation generalizes the single-term, multi-term and distributed-order fractional relaxation equations. The fundamental and the impulse-response solutions are studied in detail. Properties such as analyticity and subordination identities are established and employed in the proof of an upper and a lower bound. The obtained...

  8. The development and validation of new equations for estimating body fat percentage among Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Sun, Qi; Sun, Liang; Zong, Geng; Lu, Ling; Liu, Gang; Rosner, Bernard; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Lin, Xu

    2015-05-14

    Equations based on simple anthropometric measurements to predict body fat percentage (BF%) are lacking in Chinese population with increasing prevalence of obesity and related abnormalities. We aimed to develop and validate BF% equations in two independent population-based samples of Chinese men and women. The equations were developed among 960 Chinese Hans living in Shanghai (age 46.2 (SD 5.3) years; 36.7% male) using a stepwise linear regression and were subsequently validated in 1150 Shanghai residents (58.7 (SD 6.0) years; 41.7% male; 99% Chinese Hans, 1% Chinese minorities). The associations of equation-derived BF% with changes of 6-year cardiometabolic outcomes and incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) were evaluated in a sub-cohort of 780 Chinese, compared with BF% measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; BF%-DXA). Sex-specific equations were established with age, BMI and waist circumference as independent variables. The BF% calculated using new sex-specific equations (BF%-CSS) were in reasonable agreement with BF%-DXA (mean difference: 0.08 (2 SD 6.64) %, P= 0.606 in men; 0.45 (2 SD 6.88) %, Pequations might be used as surrogates for DXA to estimate BF% among adult Chinese. More studies are needed to evaluate the application of our equations in different populations.

  9. Development of an equation for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass in Japanese older adults using bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Daisuke; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Park, Hyuntae; Anan, Yuya; Ito, Tadashi; Harada, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takao

    2014-10-01

    Bioelectrical impedance analysis has been reported to have high reliability and accuracy in assessing body composition. However, equations for estimating appendicular skeletal muscle mass are population-specific, and few have been developed for older Japanese adults. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to develop and validate an estimate equation for appendicular skeletal muscle mass using bioelectrical impedance analysis. A total of 250 older adults aged 65 years and older participated in this study. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and bioelectrical resistance was measured using a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Multiple regression analysis was applied to derive sex-specific estimation formulae using bioelectrical impedance analysis, and a Bland-Altman analysis was used to test agreement. The cross-validation results showed that the slopes and intercepts of the regression lines were approximately one and zero, respectively, and the coefficients of determination and standard errors of the estimate of the newly developed equations were similar between the two groups. Thus, the single sex-specific equations were developed using all participants as follows. Men: appendicular skeletal muscle mass=0.197 × (impedance index) +0.179 × (weight) -0.019 (R(2)  =0.87, standard error of the estimate=0.98 kg). Women: appendicular skeletal muscle mass=0.221 × (impedance index) +0.117 × (weight) +0.881 (R(2)  =0.89, standard error of the estimate=0.81 kg). These new equations offer a valid option for assessing appendicular skeletal muscle mass in older Japanese adults. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Generalized estimating equations: A pragmatic and flexible approach to the marginal GLM modelling of correlated data in the behavioural sciences

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pekár, S.; Brabec, Marek

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 124, č. 2 (2018), s. 86-93 ISSN 0179-1613 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : correlated data * generalized estimating equations * marginal model * regression models * statistical analysis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.398, year: 2016

  11. A new estimate of the Khirzhnits corrections to the zero temperature Thomas-Fermi equation-of-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szichman, H.; Krumbein, A.D.; Eliezer, S.

    1984-09-01

    A method is proposed for estimating the zero temperature limit of the Khirzhnits corrections to the Thomas-Fermi equation-of-state by extrapolation of the finite-temperature results. The cold curves so obtained for Ti, Fe, Cu and Ta are compared with experimental results as well as with those calculated using other variations of the Thomas-Fermi model

  12. An Optimal Error Estimates of H1-Galerkin Expanded Mixed Finite Element Methods for Nonlinear Viscoelasticity-Type Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitao Che

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a H1-Galerkin mixed finite element method for nonlinear viscoelasticity equations based on H1-Galerkin method and expanded mixed element method. The existence and uniqueness of solutions to the numerical scheme are proved. A priori error estimation is derived for the unknown function, the gradient function, and the flux.

  13. The impact of estimated glomerular filtration rate equations on chronic kidney disease staging in pediatric renal or heart transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Vroling (Aram Ben); E.M. Dorresteijn (Eiske); K. Cransberg (Karlien); Y.B. de Rijke (Yolanda)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of selected pediatric estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) equations in relation to the clinical management of children after renal or heart transplantation or post-chemotherapy treatment. Methods: This study was a

  14. ESTIMATING BASAL ENERGY EXPENDITURE IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS: THE VALUE OF THE HARRIS-BENEDICT EQUATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andressa S; Chedid, Marcio F; Guerra, Léa T; Álvares-DA-Silva, Mario R; Araújo, Alexandre de; Guimarães, Luciano S; Leipnitz, Ian; Chedid, Aljamir D; Kruel, Cleber R P; Grezzana-Filho, Tomaz J M; Kruel, Cleber D P

    2016-01-01

    Reliable measurement of basal energy expenditure (BEE) in liver transplant (LT) recipients is necessary for adapting energy requirements, improving nutritional status and preventing weight gain. Indirect calorimetry (IC) is the gold standard for measuring BEE. However, BEE may be estimated through alternative methods, including electrical bioimpedance (BI), Harris-Benedict Equation (HBE), and Mifflin-St. Jeor Equation (MSJ) that carry easier applicability and lower cost. To determine which of the three alternative methods for BEE estimation (HBE, BI and MSJ) would provide most reliable BEE estimation in LT recipients. Prospective cross-sectional study including dyslipidemic LT recipients in follow-up at a 735-bed tertiary referral university hospital. Comparisons of BEE measured through IC to BEE estimated through each of the three alternative methods (HBE, BI and MSJ) were performed using Bland-Altman method and Wilcoxon Rank Sum test. Forty-five patients were included, aged 58±10 years. BEE measured using IC was 1664±319 kcal for males, and 1409±221 kcal for females. Average difference between BEE measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and BI (1584±377 kcal) was +50 kcal (p=0.0384). Average difference between the BEE measured using IC (1534±300 kcal) and MSJ (1479.6±375 kcal) was -55 kcal (p=0.16). Average difference between BEE values measured by IC (1534±300 kcal) and HBE (1521±283 kcal) was -13 kcal (p=0.326). Difference between BEE estimated through IC and HBE was less than 100 kcal for 39 of all 43patients. Among the three alternative methods, HBE was the most reliable for estimating BEE in LT recipients. Estimativa confiável do metabolismo basal em pacientes transplantados de fígado é necessária para adaptar os requerimentos energéticos, melhorar o estado nutricional e prevenir ganho de peso. Calorimetria indireta (CI) é o padrão-ouro para a medição do metabolismo basal. No entanto, ele pode ser estimado utilizando-se métodos alternativos

  15. Estimation of peak heat flux onto the targets for CFETR with extended divertor leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chuanjia; Chen, Bin; Xing, Zhe; Wu, Haosheng; Mao, Shifeng; Luo, Zhengping; Peng, Xuebing; Ye, Minyou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the outer divertor leg in CFETR. • Density scan SOLPS simulation is done to study the peak heat flux onto target. • Attached–detached regime transition in out divertor occurs at lower puffing rate. • Unexpected delay of attached–detached regime transition occurs in inner divertor. - Abstract: China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is now in conceptual design phase. CFETR is proposed as a good complement to ITER for demonstrating of fusion energy. Divertor is a crucial component which faces the plasmas and handles huge heat power for CFETR and future fusion reactor. To explore an effective way for heat exhaust, various methods to reduce the heat flux to divertor target should be considered for CFETR. In this work, the effect of extended out divertor leg on the peak heat flux is studied. The magnetic configuration of the long leg divertor is obtained by EFIT and Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), while a hypothetical geometry is assumed to extend the out divertor leg as long as possible inside vacuum vessel. A SOLPS simulation is performed to study peak heat flux of the long leg divertor for CFETR. D 2 gas puffing is used and increasing of the puffing rate means increase of plasma density. Both peak heat flux onto inner and outer targets are below 10 MW/m 2 is achieved. A comparison between the peak heat flux between long leg and conventional divertor shows that an attached–detached regime transition of out divertor occurs at lower gas puffing gas puffing rate for long leg divertor. While for the inner divertor, even the configuration is almost the same, the situation is opposite.

  16. A new fourth-order Fourier-Bessel split-step method for the extended nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, Patrick L.

    2008-01-01

    Fourier split-step techniques are often used to compute soliton-like numerical solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Here, a new fourth-order implementation of the Fourier split-step algorithm is described for problems possessing azimuthal symmetry in 3 + 1-dimensions. This implementation is based, in part, on a finite difference approximation Δ perpendicular FDA of 1/r (∂)/(∂r) r(∂)/(∂r) that possesses an associated exact unitary representation of e i/2λΔ perpendicular FDA . The matrix elements of this unitary matrix are given by special functions known as the associated Bessel functions. Hence the attribute Fourier-Bessel for the method. The Fourier-Bessel algorithm is shown to be unitary and unconditionally stable. The Fourier-Bessel algorithm is employed to simulate the propagation of a periodic series of short laser pulses through a nonlinear medium. This numerical simulation calculates waveform intensity profiles in a sequence of planes that are transverse to the general propagation direction, and labeled by the cylindrical coordinate z. These profiles exhibit a series of isolated pulses that are offset from the time origin by characteristic times, and provide evidence for a physical effect that may be loosely termed normal mode condensation. Normal mode condensation is consistent with experimentally observed pulse filamentation into a packet of short bursts, which may occur as a result of short, intense irradiation of a medium

  17. Indomethacin solubility estimation in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures by the extended hildebrand solubility approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller A Ruidiaz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Extended Hildebrand Solubility Approach (EHSA was successfully applied to evaluate the solubility of Indomethacin in 1,4-dioxane + water mixtures at 298.15 K. An acceptable correlation-performance of EHSA was found by using a regular polynomial model in order four of the W interaction parameter vs. solubility parameter of the mixtures (overall deviation was 8.9%. Although the mean deviation obtained was similar to that obtained directly by means of an empiric regression of the experimental solubility vs. mixtures solubility parameters, the advantages of EHSA are evident because it requires physicochemical properties easily available for drugs.

  18. Extending birthday paradox theory to estimate the number of tags in RFID systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Shakiba

    Full Text Available The main objective of Radio Frequency Identification systems is to provide fast identification for tagged objects. However, there is always a chance of collision, when tags transmit their data to the reader simultaneously. Collision is a time-consuming event that reduces the performance of RFID systems. Consequently, several anti-collision algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA (DFSA is one of the most popular of these algorithms. DFSA dynamically modifies the frame size based on the number of tags. Since the real number of tags is unknown, it needs to be estimated. Therefore, an accurate tag estimation method has an important role in increasing the efficiency and overall performance of the tag identification process. In this paper, we propose a novel estimation technique for DFSA anti-collision algorithms that applies birthday paradox theory to estimate the number of tags accurately. The analytical discussion and simulation results prove that the proposed method increases the accuracy of tag estimation and, consequently, outperforms previous schemes.

  19. Extending birthday paradox theory to estimate the number of tags in RFID systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakiba, Masoud; Singh, Mandeep Jit; Sundararajan, Elankovan; Zavvari, Azam; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of Radio Frequency Identification systems is to provide fast identification for tagged objects. However, there is always a chance of collision, when tags transmit their data to the reader simultaneously. Collision is a time-consuming event that reduces the performance of RFID systems. Consequently, several anti-collision algorithms have been proposed in the literature. Dynamic Framed Slotted ALOHA (DFSA) is one of the most popular of these algorithms. DFSA dynamically modifies the frame size based on the number of tags. Since the real number of tags is unknown, it needs to be estimated. Therefore, an accurate tag estimation method has an important role in increasing the efficiency and overall performance of the tag identification process. In this paper, we propose a novel estimation technique for DFSA anti-collision algorithms that applies birthday paradox theory to estimate the number of tags accurately. The analytical discussion and simulation results prove that the proposed method increases the accuracy of tag estimation and, consequently, outperforms previous schemes.

  20. Testing for association with multiple traits in generalized estimation equations, with application to neuroimaging data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiwei; Xu, Zhiyuan; Shen, Xiaotong; Pan, Wei

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing need to develop and apply powerful statistical tests to detect multiple traits-single locus associations, as arising from neuroimaging genetics and other studies. For example, in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), in addition to genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), thousands of neuroimaging and neuropsychological phenotypes as intermediate phenotypes for Alzheimer's disease, have been collected. Although some classic methods like MANOVA and newly proposed methods may be applied, they have their own limitations. For example, MANOVA cannot be applied to binary and other discrete traits. In addition, the relationships among these methods are not well understood. Importantly, since these tests are not data adaptive, depending on the unknown association patterns among multiple traits and between multiple traits and a locus, these tests may or may not be powerful. In this paper we propose a class of data-adaptive weights and the corresponding weighted tests in the general framework of generalized estimation equations (GEE). A highly adaptive test is proposed to select the most powerful one from this class of the weighted tests so that it can maintain high power across a wide range of situations. Our proposed tests are applicable to various types of traits with or without covariates. Importantly, we also analytically show relationships among some existing and our proposed tests, indicating that many existing tests are special cases of our proposed tests. Extensive simulation studies were conducted to compare and contrast the power properties of various existing and our new methods. Finally, we applied the methods to an ADNI dataset to illustrate the performance of the methods. We conclude with the recommendation for the use of the GEE-based Score test and our proposed adaptive test for their high and complementary performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Applicability of estimating glomerular filtration rate equations in pediatric patients: comparison with a measured glomerular filtration rate by iohexol clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Fang; Finer, Gal; Haymond, Shannon; Brooks, Ellen; Langman, Craig B

    2015-03-01

    Estimating glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) has become popular in clinical medicine as an alternative to measured GFR (mGFR), but there are few studies comparing them in clinical practice. We determined mGFR by iohexol clearance in 81 consecutive children in routine practice and calculated eGFR from 14 standard equations using serum creatinine, cystatin C, and urea nitrogen that were collected at the time of the mGFR procedure. Nonparametric Wilcoxon test, Spearman correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, bias (median difference), and accuracy (P15, P30) were used to compare mGFR with eGFR. For the entire study group, the mGFR was 77.9 ± 38.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Eight of the 14 estimating equations demonstrated values without a significant difference from the mGFR value and demonstrated a lower bias in Bland-Altman analysis. Three of these 8 equations based on a combination of creatinine and cystatin C (Schwartz et al. New equations to estimate GFR in children with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009;20:629-37; Schwartz et al. Improved equations estimating GFR in children with chronic kidney disease using an immunonephelometric determination of cystatin C. Kidney Int 2012;82:445-53; Chehade et al. New combined serum creatinine and cystatin C quadratic formula for GFR assessment in children. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2014;9:54-63) had the highest accuracy with approximately 60% of P15 and 80% of P30. In 10 patients with a single kidney, 7 with kidney transplant, and 11 additional children with short stature, values of the 3 equations had low bias and no significant difference when compared with mGFR. In conclusion, the 3 equations that used cystatin C, creatinine, and growth parameters performed in a superior manner over univariate equations based on either creatinine or cystatin C and also had good applicability in specific pediatric patients with single kidneys, those with a kidney transplant, and short stature. Thus, we suggest that eGFR calculations in pediatric clinical practice

  2. Development and validation of GFR-estimating equations using diabetes, transplant and weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, L.A.; Schmid, C.H.; Zhang, Y.L.

    2009-01-01

    of this equation as well as other equations that incorporate diabetes, transplant and weight as additional predictor variables. METHODS: Linear regression was used to relate log-measured GFR (mGFR) to sex, race, diabetes, transplant, weight, various transformations of creatinine and age with and without.......5, RMSE = 0.250) among models using the four basic predictor variables. Addition of terms for diabetes and transplant did not improve performance. Equations with weight showed a small improvement in the subgroup with BMI ... and race, has been validated and is more accurate than the MDRD study equation. The addition of weight, diabetes and transplant does not significantly improve equation performance Udgivelsesdato: 2009/9/30...

  3. Finite-sample corrected generalized estimating equation of population average treatment effects in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, JoAnna M; deCamp, Allan; Juraska, Michal; Fay, Michael P; Gilbert, Peter B

    2017-04-01

    Stepped wedge designs are increasingly commonplace and advantageous for cluster randomized trials when it is both unethical to assign placebo, and it is logistically difficult to allocate an intervention simultaneously to many clusters. We study marginal mean models fit with generalized estimating equations for assessing treatment effectiveness in stepped wedge cluster randomized trials. This approach has advantages over the more commonly used mixed models that (1) the population-average parameters have an important interpretation for public health applications and (2) they avoid untestable assumptions on latent variable distributions and avoid parametric assumptions about error distributions, therefore, providing more robust evidence on treatment effects. However, cluster randomized trials typically have a small number of clusters, rendering the standard generalized estimating equation sandwich variance estimator biased and highly variable and hence yielding incorrect inferences. We study the usual asymptotic generalized estimating equation inferences (i.e., using sandwich variance estimators and asymptotic normality) and four small-sample corrections to generalized estimating equation for stepped wedge cluster randomized trials and for parallel cluster randomized trials as a comparison. We show by simulation that the small-sample corrections provide improvement, with one correction appearing to provide at least nominal coverage even with only 10 clusters per group. These results demonstrate the viability of the marginal mean approach for both stepped wedge and parallel cluster randomized trials. We also study the comparative performance of the corrected methods for stepped wedge and parallel designs, and describe how the methods can accommodate interval censoring of individual failure times and incorporate semiparametric efficient estimators.

  4. An extended Kalman-filter for regional scale inverse emission estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brunner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A Kalman-filter based inverse emission estimation method for long-lived trace gases is presented for use in conjunction with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model like FLEXPART. The sequential nature of the approach allows tracing slow seasonal and interannual changes rather than estimating a single period-mean emission field. Other important features include the estimation of a slowly varying concentration background at each measurement station, the possibility to constrain the solution to non-negative emissions, the quantification of uncertainties, the consideration of temporal correlations in the residuals, and the applicability to potentially large inversion problems. The method is first demonstrated for a set of synthetic observations created from a prescribed emission field with different levels of (correlated noise, which closely mimics true observations. It is then applied to real observations of the three halocarbons HFC-125, HFC-152a and HCFC-141b at the remote research stations Jungfraujoch and Mace Head for the quantification of emissions in Western European countries from 2006 to 2010. Estimated HFC-125 emissions are mostly consistent with national totals reported to UNFCCC in the framework of the Kyoto Protocol and show a generally increasing trend over the considered period. Results for HFC-152a are much more variable with estimated emissions being both higher and lower than reported emissions in different countries. The highest emissions of the order of 700–800 Mg yr−1 are estimated for Italy, which so far does not report HFC-152a emissions. Emissions of HCFC-141b show a continuing strong decrease as expected due to its controls in developed countries under the Montreal Protocol. Emissions from France, however, were still rather large, in the range of 700–1000 Mg yr−1 in the years 2006 and 2007 but strongly declined thereafter.

  5. Parameterized equation for the estimation of the hydraulic conductivity function not saturated in ferralsols south of Havana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Robaina, Felicita; López Seijas, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The modeling of the processes involved in the movement of water in soil solutions generally requires the general equation of water flow for the condition of saturation, or Darcy - Buckinghan approach. In this approach the hydraulic - soil moisture (K(0)) conductivity function is a fundamental property of the soil to determine for each field condition. Several methods reported in the literature for determining the hydraulic conductivity are based on simplifications of assuming unit gradient method or a fixed ratio K(0). In recent years related to the search for simple, rapid and inexpensive methods to measure this relationship in the field using a lot of work aftershocks reported. One of these methods is the parameterized equation proposed by Reichardt, using the parameters of the equations describing the process of internal drainage and explain the exponential nature of the relationship K(0). The objective of this work is to estimate the K(0), with the method of the parameterized equation. To do the test results of internal drainage on a Ferralsol area south of Havana will be used. The results show that the parameterized equation provides an estimation of K(0) for those similar to the methods that assume unit gradient conditions

  6. Using extended genealogy to estimate components of heritability for 23 quantitative and dichotomous traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Zaitlen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Important knowledge about the determinants of complex human phenotypes can be obtained from the estimation of heritability, the fraction of phenotypic variation in a population that is determined by genetic factors. Here, we make use of extensive phenotype data in Iceland, long-range phased genotypes, and a population-wide genealogical database to examine the heritability of 11 quantitative and 12 dichotomous phenotypes in a sample of 38,167 individuals. Most previous estimates of heritability are derived from family-based approaches such as twin studies, which may be biased upwards by epistatic interactions or shared environment. Our estimates of heritability, based on both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, are significantly lower than those from previous studies. We examine phenotypic correlations across a range of relationships, from siblings to first cousins, and find that the excess phenotypic correlation in these related individuals is predominantly due to shared environment as opposed to dominance or epistasis. We also develop a new method to jointly estimate narrow-sense heritability and the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs. Unlike existing methods, this approach permits the use of information from both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, thereby reducing the variance of estimates of heritability explained by genotyped SNPs while preventing upward bias. Our results show that common SNPs explain a larger proportion of the heritability than previously thought, with SNPs present on Illumina 300K genotyping arrays explaining more than half of the heritability for the 23 phenotypes examined in this study. Much of the remaining heritability is likely to be due to rare alleles that are not captured by standard genotyping arrays.

  7. Using extended genealogy to estimate components of heritability for 23 quantitative and dichotomous traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitlen, Noah; Kraft, Peter; Patterson, Nick; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Bhatia, Gaurav; Pollack, Samuela; Price, Alkes L

    2013-05-01

    Important knowledge about the determinants of complex human phenotypes can be obtained from the estimation of heritability, the fraction of phenotypic variation in a population that is determined by genetic factors. Here, we make use of extensive phenotype data in Iceland, long-range phased genotypes, and a population-wide genealogical database to examine the heritability of 11 quantitative and 12 dichotomous phenotypes in a sample of 38,167 individuals. Most previous estimates of heritability are derived from family-based approaches such as twin studies, which may be biased upwards by epistatic interactions or shared environment. Our estimates of heritability, based on both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, are significantly lower than those from previous studies. We examine phenotypic correlations across a range of relationships, from siblings to first cousins, and find that the excess phenotypic correlation in these related individuals is predominantly due to shared environment as opposed to dominance or epistasis. We also develop a new method to jointly estimate narrow-sense heritability and the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs. Unlike existing methods, this approach permits the use of information from both closely and distantly related pairs of individuals, thereby reducing the variance of estimates of heritability explained by genotyped SNPs while preventing upward bias. Our results show that common SNPs explain a larger proportion of the heritability than previously thought, with SNPs present on Illumina 300K genotyping arrays explaining more than half of the heritability for the 23 phenotypes examined in this study. Much of the remaining heritability is likely to be due to rare alleles that are not captured by standard genotyping arrays.

  8. Performance of glomerular filtration rate estimation equations in Congolese healthy adults: The inopportunity of the ethnic correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukabau, Justine B; Sumaili, Ernest K; Cavalier, Etienne; Pottel, Hans; Kifakiou, Bejos; Nkodila, Aliocha; Makulo, Jean Robert R; Mokoli, Vieux M; Zinga, Chantal V; Longo, Augustin L; Engole, Yannick M; Nlandu, Yannick M; Lepira, François B; Nseka, Nazaire M; Krzesinski, Jean Marie; Delanaye, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), ethnicity is an important determinant. However, all existing equations have been built solely from Caucasian and Afro-American populations and they are potentially inaccurate for estimating GFR in African populations. We therefore evaluated the performance of different estimated GFR (eGFR) equations in predicting measured GFR (mGFR). In a cross-sectional study, 93 healthy adults were randomly selected in the general population of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo, between June 2015 and April 2016. We compared mGFR by plasma clearance of iohexol with eGFR obtained with the Modified Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equation with and without ethnic factor, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology (CKD-EPI) serum creatinine (SCr)-based equation, with and without ethnic factor, the cystatin C-based CKD-EPI equation (CKD-EPI SCys) and with the combined equation (CKD-EPI SCrCys) with and without ethnic factor. The performance of the equations was studied by calculating bias, precision and accuracy within 30% (P30) of mGFR. There were 48 women and 45 men. Their mean age was 45.0±15.7 years and the average body surface area was 1.68±0.16m2. Mean mGFR was 92.0±17.2 mL/min/1.73m2 (range of 57 to 141 mL/min/1.73m2). Mean eGFRs with the different equations were 105.5±30.1 and 87.2±24.8 mL/min/1.73m2 for MDRD with and without ethnic factor, respectively; 108.8±24.1 and 94.3x20.9 mL/min/1.73m2 for CKD-EPI SCr with and without ethnic factor, respectively, 93.5±18.6 mL/min/1.73m2 for CKD-EPI SCys; 93.5±18.0 and 101±19.6 mL/min/ 1.73m2 for CKD-EPI SCrCys with and without ethnic factor, respectively. All equations slightly overestimated mGFR except MDRD without ethnic factor which underestimated by -3.8±23.0 mL/min /1.73m2. Both CKD-EPI SCr and MDRD with ethnic factors highly overestimated mGFR with a bias of 17.9±19.2 and 14.5±27.1 mL/min/1.73m2, respectively. There was a trend for better P30 for MDRD and CKD

  9. Reliable Quantification of the Potential for Equations Based on Spot Urine Samples to Estimate Population Salt Intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Liping; Crino, Michelle; Wu, Jason Hy

    2016-01-01

    to a standard format. Individual participant records will be compiled and a series of analyses will be completed to: (1) compare existing equations for estimating 24-hour salt intake from spot urine samples with 24-hour urine samples, and assess the degree of bias according to key demographic and clinical......BACKGROUND: Methods based on spot urine samples (a single sample at one time-point) have been identified as a possible alternative approach to 24-hour urine samples for determining mean population salt intake. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to identify a reliable method for estimating mean...... population salt intake from spot urine samples. This will be done by comparing the performance of existing equations against one other and against estimates derived from 24-hour urine samples. The effects of factors such as ethnicity, sex, age, body mass index, antihypertensive drug use, health status...

  10. Mixed-species allometric equations and estimation of aboveground biomass and carbon stocks in restoring degraded landscape in northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokria, Mulugeta; Mekuria, Wolde; Gebrekirstos, Aster; Aynekulu, Ermias; Belay, Beyene; Gashaw, Tadesse; Bräuning, Achim

    2018-02-01

    Accurate biomass estimation is critical to quantify the changes in biomass and carbon stocks following the restoration of degraded landscapes. However, there is lack of site-specific allometric equations for the estimation of aboveground biomass (AGB), which consequently limits our understanding of the contributions of restoration efforts in mitigating climate change. This study was conducted in northwestern Ethiopia to develop a multi-species allometric equation and investigate the spatial and temporal variation of C-stocks following the restoration of degraded landscapes. We harvested and weighed 84 trees from eleven dominant species from six grazing exclosures and adjacent communal grazing land. We observed that AGB correlates significantly with diameter at stump height D 30 (R 2 = 0.78 P Ethiopia over space and time. The estimated C-stocks can be used as a reference against which future changes in C-stocks can be compared.

  11. Estimated GFR (eGFR by prediction equation in staging of chronic kidney disease compared to gamma camera GFR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Masum Alam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Glomerular filtration rate is an effective tool for diagnosis and staging of chronic kidney disease. The effect ofrenal insufficiency by different method of this tool among patients with CKD is controversial.Objective: The objec­tive of this study was to evaluate the performance of eGFR in staging of CKD compared to gamma camera based GFR.Methods: This cross sectional analytical study was conducted in the Department of Biochemistry Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU with the collaboration with National Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, BSMMU during the period of January 2011 to December 2012. Gama camera based GFR was estimated from DTP A reno gram and eGFR was estimated by three prediction equations. Comparison was done by Bland Altman agree­ment test to see the agreement on the measurement of GFR between three equation based eGFR method and gama camera based GFR method. Staging comparison was done by Kappa analysis to see the agreement between the stages identified by those different methods.Results: Bland-Altman agreement analysis between GFR measured by gamma camera, CG equation ,CG equation corrected by BSA and MDRD equation shows statistically significant. CKD stages determined by CG GFR, CG GFR corrected by BSA , MDRD GFR and gamma camera based GFR was compared by Kappa statistical analysis .The kappa value was 0.66, 0.77 and 0.79 respectively.Conclusions: This study findings suggest that GFR estimation by MDRD equation in CKD patients shows good agreement with gamma camera based GFR and for staging of CKD patients, eGFR by MDRD formula may be used as very effective tool in Bangladeshi population.

  12. Shifted Legendre method with residual error estimation for delay linear Fredholm integro-differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuayip Yüzbaşı

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we suggest a matrix method for obtaining the approximate solutions of the delay linear Fredholm integro-differential equations with constant coefficients using the shifted Legendre polynomials. The problem is considered with mixed conditions. Using the required matrix operations, the delay linear Fredholm integro-differential equation is transformed into a matrix equation. Additionally, error analysis for the method is presented using the residual function. Illustrative examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency of the method. The results obtained in this study are compared with the known results.

  13. Existing equations to estimate lean body mass are not accurate in the critically ill: Results of a multicenter observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisey, Lesley L; Mourtzakis, Marina; Kozar, Rosemary A; Compher, Charlene; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-12-01

    Lean body mass (LBM), quantified using computed tomography (CT), is a significant predictor of clinical outcomes in the critically ill. While CT analysis is precise and accurate in measuring body composition, it may not be practical or readily accessible to all patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Here, we assessed the agreement between LBM measured by CT and four previously developed equations that predict LBM using variables (i.e. age, sex, weight, height) commonly recorded in the ICU. LBM was calculated in 327 critically ill adults using CT scans, taken at ICU admission, and 4 predictive equations (E1-4) that were derived from non-critically adults since there are no ICU-specific equations. Agreement was assessed using paired t-tests, Pearson's correlation coefficients and Bland-Altman plots. Median LBM calculated by CT was 45 kg (IQR 37-53 kg) and was significantly different (p equations overestimated LBM (error ranged from 7.5 to 9.9 kg), compared with LBM calculated by CT, suggesting insufficient agreement. Our data indicates a large bias is present between the calculation of LBM by CT imaging and the predictive equations that have been compared here. This underscores the need for future research toward the development of ICU-specific equations that reliably estimate LBM in a practical and cost-effective manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. On the perturbation estimates of the maximal solution for the matrix equation X+ATX−1A=P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naglaa M. El-Shazly

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the nonlinear matrix equation X+ATX−1A=P, for the existence of positive definite solutions. Bounds for ∥XL−1∥ and ∥X−1∥ are derived where XL is the maximal solution and X is any other positive definite solution of this matrix equation. A perturbation estimate for the maximal solution and an error bound for approximate solutions are derived. A numerical example is given to illustrate the reliability of the obtained results.

  15. Improved OCV Model of a Li-Ion NMC Battery for Online SOC Estimation Using the Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Baccouche

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate modeling of the nonlinear relationship between the open circuit voltage (OCV and the state of charge (SOC is required for adaptive SOC estimation during the lithium-ion (Li-ion battery operation. Online SOC estimation should meet several constraints, such as the computational cost, the number of parameters, as well as the accuracy of the model. In this paper, these challenges are considered by proposing an improved simplified and accurate OCV model of a nickel manganese cobalt (NMC Li-ion battery, based on an empirical analytical characterization approach. In fact, composed of double exponential and simple quadratic functions containing only five parameters, the proposed model accurately follows the experimental curve with a minor fitting error of 1 mV. The model is also valid at a wide temperature range and takes into account the voltage hysteresis of the OCV. Using this model in SOC estimation by the extended Kalman filter (EKF contributes to minimizing the execution time and to reducing the SOC estimation error to only 3% compared to other existing models where the estimation error is about 5%. Experiments are also performed to prove that the proposed OCV model incorporated in the EKF estimator exhibits good reliability and precision under various loading profiles and temperatures.

  16. Evaluation of various equations for estimating renal function in elderly Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo M

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mei Guo,1 Jian-Ying Niu,2 Xian-Wu Ye,2 Xiao-Jie Han,2 Ying Zha,2 Yang Hong,2 Hong Fang,3 Yong Gu2,4 1Zhongshan-Xuhui Hospital, Affiliated with Fudan University, 2The Fifth People’s Hospital of Shanghai, Fudan University, 3Shanghai Minhang Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 4Department of Nephrology, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China Background: The clinical assessment of kidney function based on the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR in older patients remains controversial. This study evaluated the concordance and feasibility of using various creatinine-based equations for estimating GFR in elderly Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 21,723 older diabetic patients (≥60 years based on electronic health records (EHR for Minhang District, Shanghai, China. The concordance of chronic kidney disease (CKD classification among different creatinine-based equations was assessed based on Kappa values, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC statistics, and the eGFR agreement between the equations was tested using Bland–Altman plots. The GFR was estimated using the Cockcroft–Gault (CG, Berlin Initiative Study 1 (BIS1, simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, MDRD modified for Chinese populations (mMDRD, chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI, CKD-EPI in Asians (CKD-EPI-Asia, and Ruijin equations.Results: Overall, the proportion of CKD stages 3–5 (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was calculated as 28.9%, 39.1%, 11.8%, 8.4%, 14.3%, 11.5%, and 12.7% by the eGFRCG, eGFRBIS1, eGFRMDRD, eGFRmMDRD, eGFRCKD-EPI, eGFRCKD-EPI-Asia, and eGFRRuijin equations, respectively. The concordance of albuminuria and decreased eGFR based on the different equations was poor by both the Kappa (<0.2 and ICC (<0.4 statistics. The CKD-EPI-Asia equation resulted in excellent concordance with the CKD-EPI (ICC =0.931, MDRD (ICC =0.963, m

  17. Using Simple Quadratic Equations to Estimate Equilibrium Concentrations of an Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilleslyper, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Application of quadratic equations to standard problem in chemistry like finding equilibrium concentrations of ions in an acid solution is explained. This clearly shows that pure mathematical analysis has meaningful applications in other areas as well.

  18. Bayesian specification analysis and estimation of simultaneous equation models using Monte Carlo methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Zellner (Arnold); L. Bauwens (Luc); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractBayesian procedures for specification analysis or diagnostic checking of modeling assumptions for structural equations of econometric models are developed and applied using Monte Carlo numerical methods. Checks on the validity of identifying restrictions, exogeneity assumptions and other

  19. New Equation for Estimating Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Humid-Tropical Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    S Sangkertadi; R Syafriny

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research focusing on thermal comfort at outdoor spaces in humid tropical climate. The study was conducted in the city of Manado, Indonesia inthe years 2011 and 2012, by way of field-experimentation and measurements of microclimate.From the results of measurements and questionnaires, it was carried out development of regression equations. Through statistical analysis it has been generated three thermal comfort equations for outdoor, which each for normal walk...

  20. Development of Equation Based on Urinary Purine Derivatives to Estimate Rumen Microbial Protein Production in Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jetana, Thongsuk; Abdullah, Norhani; Liang, Boo Juan; Syed Salim, Syed Jalaludin; Ho, Wan Yin

    2003-06-01

    Three experiments were conducted at the farm of the Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia, to establish a model as an index for estimating rumen microbial protein production. In Experiment 1, six Ferral male goats (wt. 40.2±4.6 kg) were used to determine the endogenous purine derivatives (PD) excreted in the urine by fasting. In Experiment 2, four Ferral male goats (wt. 39.6±1.8 kg) were used to measure the proportion of plasma PD excreted in the urine by using [ 14 C]-uric acid as a marker at two levels of feed intake (40% and 80% voluntary intake), using an incomplete 2x4 Latin square experimental design. The feed consisted of 40% oil palm frond and 60% concentrate (OPFC). In Experiment 3, four Ferral male goats fed (OPFC)) were slaughtered and rumen contents were taken for measurements of purine and total nitrogen contents of mixed rumen microbes. The results showed that endogenous PD (allantoin, uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine) excreted in the urine obtained by the fasting trial was 202±17 μmol/kg BW 0 . 75 d - 1. The average percentage recovery of plasma PD excretion in the urine by using [ 14 C)-uric acid as a marker was 83±2.0% (cv=6.88, ranged 76.3-91.4%, n=8). Percentage recovery was not affected by levels of feed intake. The ratio of purine N: total N in the mixed rumen liquid associated bacteria (LAB) was 0.085. In this study, a preliminary model for goats was established by using the information from the recovery of labeled PD [ 14 C]-uric acid and the fasting PD excretion. The model obtained was Y 0.83X + 0.202 x BW 0 . 75 , where Y = PD excretion in the urine (mmol/d) X PD absorption at small intestine (mmol/d) BW 0 . 75 = Metabolic body weight (kg) Thus the microbial nitrogen based on total PD (MNpd) can be calculated as follows: MNpd = 70 x X = 0.992 x X (g/d) 0.085 x 0.83 x 1000 where 0.085 is the ratio of purine-N: total N in mixed rumen microbes, 0.83 is the average of digestibility of microbial purine from published

  1. Are predictive equations for estimating resting energy expenditure accurate in Asian Indian male weightlifters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The accuracy of existing predictive equations to determine the resting energy expenditure (REE of professional weightlifters remains scarcely studied. Our study aimed at assessing the REE of male Asian Indian weightlifters with indirect calorimetry and to compare the measured REE (mREE with published equations. A new equation using potential anthropometric variables to predict REE was also evaluated. Materials and Methods: REE was measured on 30 male professional weightlifters aged between 17 and 28 years using indirect calorimetry and compared with the eight formulas predicted by Harris–Benedicts, Mifflin-St. Jeor, FAO/WHO/UNU, ICMR, Cunninghams, Owen, Katch-McArdle, and Nelson. Pearson correlation coefficient, intraclass correlation coefficient, and multiple linear regression analysis were carried out to study the agreement between the different methods, association with anthropometric variables, and to formulate a new prediction equation for this population. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients between mREE and the anthropometric variables showed positive significance with suprailiac skinfold thickness, lean body mass (LBM, waist circumference, hip circumference, bone mineral mass, and body mass. All eight predictive equations underestimated the REE of the weightlifters when compared with the mREE. The highest mean difference was 636 kcal/day (Owen, 1986 and the lowest difference was 375 kcal/day (Cunninghams, 1980. Multiple linear regression done stepwise showed that LBM was the only significant determinant of REE in this group of sportspersons. A new equation using LBM as the independent variable for calculating REE was computed. REE for weightlifters = −164.065 + 0.039 (LBM (confidence interval −1122.984, 794.854]. This new equation reduced the mean difference with mREE by 2.36 + 369.15 kcal/day (standard error = 67.40. Conclusion: The significant finding of this study was that all the prediction equations

  2. A unique finite element modeling of the periodic wave transformation over sloping and barred beaches by Beji and Nadaoka's Extended Boussinesq equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbari, Mohammad Hadi; Ghadimi, Parviz; Sayehbani, Mesbah; Reisinezhad, Arsham

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model based on one-dimensional Beji and Nadaoka's Extended Boussinesq equations for simulation of periodic wave shoaling and its decomposition over morphological beaches. A unique Galerkin finite element and Adams-Bashforth-Moulton predictor-corrector methods are employed for spatial and temporal discretization, respectively. For direct application of linear finite element method in spatial discretization, an auxiliary variable is hereby introduced, and a particular numerical scheme is offered to rewrite the equations in lower-order form. Stability of the suggested numerical method is also analyzed. Subsequently, in order to display the ability of the presented model, four different test cases are considered. In these test cases, dispersive and nonlinearity effects of the periodic waves over sloping beaches and barred beaches, which are the common coastal profiles, are investigated. Outputs are compared with other existing numerical and experimental data. Finally, it is concluded that the current model can be further developed to model any morphological development of coastal profiles.

  3. Comparing different estimated glomerular filtration rate equations in assessing glomerular function in children based on creatinine and cystatin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkar, Seçil; Mir, Sevgi; Karaslan, Fatma Nur; Hakverdi, Gülden

    2018-02-27

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is the best marker used to assess renal function. Estimated GFR (eGFR) equations have been developed, and the ideal formula is still under discussion. We wanted to find the most practical and reliable GFR in eGFR formulas. We compared serum creatinine (Scr)- and cystatin C (cysC)-based eGFR formulas in the literature. We also aimed to determine the suitability and the reliability of cysC for practical use in determining GFR in children. We have enrolled 238 children in the study. Measurement of 24-hour creatinine clearance was compared with eGFR equations which are based on Scr, cysC, and creatinine plus cysC. Of the patients (n = 238), 117 were males (49.2%), and 121 (50.8%) were females with a median age of 9.0 years. The areas under the ROC curves of Counahan-Barratt and Bedside Schwartz were equal and 0.89 (with a 95% CI 0.80-0.97). The areas under the ROC curves were not significantly different in all cystatin C-based eGFR equations. The highest AUC values for differentiating normal vs abnormal renal functions according to CrCl 24 were for the CKiD-cysC and CKiD-Scr-cysC equations. In our study, compared with creatinine-based ones, the cystatin C-based formulas did not show much superiority in predicting eGFR. Still, we think Bedside Schwartz is a good formula to provide ease of use because, in this equation, the constant k is same for all age groups. However, the most valuable equations in determining chronic kidney disease are the CKiD-cysC and CKiD-Scr-cysC equations. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Estimating bulk density of compacted grains in storage bins and modifications of Janssen's load equations as affected by bulk density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Ekramul

    2013-03-01

    Janssen created a classical theory based on calculus to estimate static vertical and horizontal pressures within beds of bulk corn. Even today, his equations are widely used to calculate static loadings imposed by granular materials stored in bins. Many standards such as American Concrete Institute (ACI) 313, American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers EP 433, German DIN 1055, Canadian Farm Building Code (CFBC), European Code (ENV 1991-4), and Australian Code AS 3774 incorporated Janssen's equations as the standards for static load calculations on bins. One of the main drawbacks of Janssen's equations is the assumption that the bulk density of the stored product remains constant throughout the entire bin. While for all practical purposes, this is true for small bins; in modern commercial-size bins, bulk density of grains substantially increases due to compressive and hoop stresses. Over pressure factors are applied to Janssen loadings to satisfy practical situations such as dynamic loads due to bin filling and emptying, but there are limited theoretical methods available that include the effects of increased bulk density on the loadings of grain transmitted to the storage structures. This article develops a mathematical equation relating the specific weight as a function of location and other variables of materials and storage. It was found that the bulk density of stored granular materials increased with the depth according to a mathematical equation relating the two variables, and applying this bulk-density function, Janssen's equations for vertical and horizontal pressures were modified as presented in this article. The validity of this specific weight function was tested by using the principles of mathematics. As expected, calculations of loads based on the modified equations were consistently higher than the Janssen loadings based on noncompacted bulk densities for all grain depths and types accounting for the effects of increased bulk densities

  5. PAF: A software tool to estimate free-geometry extended bodies of anomalous pressure from surface deformation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, A. G.; Fernández, J.; Cannavò, F.

    2018-02-01

    We present a software package to carry out inversions of surface deformation data (any combination of InSAR, GPS, and terrestrial data, e.g., EDM, levelling) as produced by 3D free-geometry extended bodies with anomalous pressure changes. The anomalous structures are described as an aggregation of elementary cells (whose effects are estimated as coming from point sources) in an elastic half space. The linear inverse problem (considering some simple regularization conditions) is solved by means of an exploratory approach. This software represents the open implementation of a previously published methodology (Camacho et al., 2011). It can be freely used with large data sets (e.g. InSAR data sets) or with data coming from small control networks (e.g. GPS monitoring data), mainly in volcanic areas, to estimate the expected pressure bodies representing magmatic intrusions. Here, the software is applied to some real test cases.

  6. Method for calculating the variance and prediction intervals for biomass estimates obtained from allometric equations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kirton, A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Often researchers are interested in obtaining estimates of variables which are quite difficult or expensive to measure. To obtain these estimates, relationships between those variables of interest and more easily measured variables are used...

  7. Improved equations estimating GFR in children with chronic kidney disease using an immunonephelometric determination of cystatin C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, George J.; Schneider, Michael F.; Maier, Paula S.; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Dharnidharka, Vikas R.; Warady, Bradley; Furth, Susan L.; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study is a cohort of about 600 children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States and Canada. The independent variable for our observations was a measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by iohexol disappearance (iGFR) at the first two visits one year apart and during alternate years thereafter. In a previous report, we had developed GFR estimating equations utilizing serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, height, gender and cystatin C measured by an immunoturbidimetric method; however the correlation coefficient of cystatin C and GFR (-0.69) was less robust than expected. Therefore, 495 samples were re-assayed using immunonephelometry. The reciprocal of immunonephelometric cystatin C was as well correlated with iGFR as was height/serum creatinine (both 0.88). We developed a new GFR estimating equation using a random 2/3 of 965 person-visits and applied it to the remaining 1/3 as a validation data set. In the validation data set, the correlation of the estimated GFR with iGFR was 0.92 with high precision and no bias; 91% and 45% of eGFR values were within 30% and 10% of iGFR, respectively. This equation works well in children with CKD in a range of GFR from 15 to 75 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Further studies are needed to establish the applicability to children of normal stature and muscle mass, and higher GFR. PMID:22622496

  8. Estimating Intelligence in Spanish: Regression Equations With the Word Accentuation Test and Demographic Variables in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Sanjurjo, Natalia; Montañes, Patricia; Sierra Matamoros, Fabio Alexander; Burin, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Spanish is the fourth most spoken language in the world, and the majority of Spanish speakers have a Latin American origin. Reading aloud infrequently accentuated words has been established as a National Adult Reading Test-like method to assess premorbid intelligence in Spanish. However, several versions have been proposed and validated with small and selected samples, in particular geographical conditions, and they seldom derive a formula for IQ estimation with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). The objective of this study was to develop equations to estimate WAIS-Third Edition (WAIS-III) FSIQ from the Word Accentuation Test-Revised (WAT-R), demographic variables, and their combination within diverse Latin American samples. Two hundred and forty participants from Argentina and Colombia, selected according to age and years of education strata, were assessed with the WAT-R, the WAIS-III, and a structured questionnaire about demographic and medical information. A combined approach including place of birth, years of education, and WAT-R provided the best equation, explaining 76% of IQ variance. These equations could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ in patients with Latin American Spanish as their birth language.

  9. Improved equations estimating GFR in children with chronic kidney disease using an immunonephelometric determination of cystatin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, George J; Schneider, Michael F; Maier, Paula S; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Dharnidharka, Vikas R; Warady, Bradley A; Furth, Susan L; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2012-08-01

    The Chronic Kidney Disease in Children study is a cohort of about 600 children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States and Canada. The independent variable for our observations was a measurement of glomerular filtration rate(GFR) by iohexol disappearance (iGFR) at the first two visits 1 year apart and during alternate years thereafter. In a previous report, we had developed GFR estimating equations utilizing serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, height, gender, and cystatin C measured by an immunoturbidimetric method; however, the correlation coefficient of cystatin C and GFR(0.69) was less robust than expected. Therefore, 495 samples were re-assayed using immunonephelometry. The reciprocal of immunonephelometric cystatin C was as well correlated with iGFR as was height/serum creatinine (both 0.88). We developed a new GFR estimating equation using a random 2/3 of 965 person-visits and applied it to the remaining 1/3 as a validation data set. In the validation dataset, the correlation of the estimated GFR with iGFR was 0.92 with high precision and no bias; 91 and 45% of eGFR values were within 30 and 10% of iGFR, respectively. This equation works well in children with CKD in a range of GFR from 15 to 75 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Further studies are needed to establish the applicability to children of normal stature and muscle mass, and higher GFR.

  10. Validity of Selected Bioimpedance Equations for Estimating Body Composition in Men and Women: A Four-Compartment Model Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickerson, Brett S; Esco, Michael R; Bishop, Phillip A; Schumacker, Randall E; Richardson, Mark T; Fedewa, Michael V; Wingo, Jonathan E; Welborn, Bailey A

    2017-07-01

    Nickerson, BS, Esco, MR, Bishop, PA, Schumacker, RE, Richardson, MT, Fedewa, MV, Wingo, JE, and Welborn, BA. Validity of selected bioimpedance equations for estimating body composition in men and women: a four-compartment model comparison. J Strength Cond Res 31(7): 1963-1972, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare body fat percentage (BF%) and fat-free mass (FFM) values from bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) equations to values determined from a 4-compartment (4C) model. Eighty-two adults (42 men and 40 women) volunteered to participate (age = 23 ± 5 years). Body fat percentage and FFM were estimated from previously developed BIA equations by Chumlea et al. (BIACH), Deurenberg et al. (BIADE), Kyle et al. (BIAKYLE), and Sun et al. (BIASUN). Four-compartment model body composition was derived from underwater weighing for body density, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for bone mineral content, and bioimpedance spectroscopy for total body water. The standard error of estimate (SEE) for group BF% and FFM ranged from 3.0 to 3.8% and 2.1 to 2.7 kg, respectively. The constant error (CE) was significantly higher and lower for BF% and FFM (p equations (BIACH, CE = 3.1% and -2.2 kg; BIADE, CE = 3.7% and -2.9 kg; BIAKYLE, CE = 2.3% and -1.9 kg), but was not significant for BF% (p = 0.702) and FFM (p = 0.677) for BIASUN (CE = -0.1% and 0.1 kg). The 95% limits of agreement were narrowest for BIACH (±5.9%; ±4.2 kg) and largest for BIADE (±7.4%; ±6.2 kg). The significant CE yielded by BIACH, BIADE, and BIAKYLE indicates these equations tend to overpredict group BF% and underestimate group FFM. However, all BIA equations produced low SEEs and fairly narrow limits of agreement. When the use of a 4C model is not available, practitioners might consider using one of the selected BIA equations, but should consider the associated CE.

  11. Allometric equations for estimating biomass in naturally established Prosopis stands in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muturi, G.M.; Kariuki, J.G.; Poorter, L.; Mohren, G.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Forty five Prosopis stems of 2.5-18.0 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) were sampled at Nadapal along the Turkwel riverine forest for development of biomass and volume prediction equations for naturally established stands. Basal diameter (D30), DBH and heights were measured, felled trees and their

  12. Equations for estimating biomass, foliage area, and sapwood of small trees in the southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven T. Brantley; Morgan L. Schulte; Paul V. Bolstad; Chelcy F. Miniat

    2016-01-01

    Small trees and shrubs play an important role in forest diversity and regeneration and may contribute substantially to ecosystem fluxes of carbon and water; however, relatively little attention is given to quantifying the contribution of small trees to forest processes. One reason for this may be that the allometric equations developed for large trees tend to...

  13. Simplified Equations to Estimate Flushline Diameter for Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A formulation of the Hazen-Williams equation is typically used to determine the diameter of the common flushline that is often used at the distal end of subsurface drip irrigation systems to aid in joint flushing of a group of driplines. Although this method is accurate, its usage is not intuitive a...

  14. Yield stress of duplex stainless steel specimens estimated using a compound Hall–Petch equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Hirota, Fuxing Yin, Tsukasa Azuma and Tadanobu Inoue

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the 0.2% yield stress of duplex stainless steel was evaluated using a compound Hall–Petch equation. The compound Hall–Petch equation was derived from four types of duplex stainless steel, which contained 0.2–64.4 wt% δ-ferrite phase, had different chemical compositions and were annealed at different temperatures. Intragranular yield stress was measured with an ultra-microhardness tester and evaluated with the yield stress model proposed by Dao et al. Grain size, volume fraction and texture were monitored by electron backscattering diffraction measurement. The kγ constant in the compound equation for duplex stainless steel agrees well with that for γ-phase SUS316L steel in the temperature range of 1323–1473 K. The derived compound Hall–Petch equation predicts that the yield stress will be in good agreement with the experimental results for the Cr, Mn, Si, Ni and N solid-solution states. We find that the intragranular yield stress of the δ-phase of duplex stainless steel is rather sensitive to the chemical composition and annealing conditions, which is attributed to the size misfit parameter.

  15. Correction Equations to Adjust Self-Reported Height and Weight for Obesity Estimates among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to generate correction equations for self-reported height and weight quartiles and to test the accuracy of the body mass index (BMI) classification based on corrected self-reported height and weight among 739 male and 434 female college students. The BMIqc (from height and weight quartile-specific, corrected…

  16. Factors and equations to estimate forest biomass in the North Central region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Brad Smith

    1985-01-01

    Green weight of wood and bark can be greatly affected by moisture content. Average moisture content percentages and green weight conversion factors are presented for 42 tree species groups. Equations are also presented to compute average green weight of tops and limbs as well as stumps.

  17. Large deviation tail estimates and related limit laws for stochastic fixed point equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collamore, Jeffrey F.; Vidyashankar, Anand N.

    2013-01-01

    We study the forward and backward recursions generated by a stochastic fixed point equation (SFPE) of the form $V \\stackrel{d}{=} A\\max\\{V, D\\}+B$, where $(A, B, D) \\in (0, \\infty)\\times {\\mathbb R}^2$, for both the stationary and explosive cases. In the stationary case (when ${\\bf E} [\\log \\: A]...

  18. Assessing the uncertainty of forest carbon estimates using the FVS family of diameter increment equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Anthony W. D’Amato

    2012-01-01

    Serving as a carbon (C) accounting tool, the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) is widely used by forest managers and researchers to forecast future forest C stocks. Assessments of the uncertainty that FVS equations provide in terms of their ability to accurately project forest biomass and C would seemingly differ, depending on the region and scale of interest to the...

  19. Parameter estimates for linear partial differential equations with fractional boundary noise

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maslowski, Bohdan; Pospíšil, J.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-20 ISSN 1526-7555 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/07/0237 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : parameter identification * ergodicity * stochastic partial differential equations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Comparison of five equations for estimating resting energy expenditure in Chinese young, normal weight healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Zhi-yong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most resting energy expenditure (REE predictive equations for adults were derived from research conducted in western populations; whether they can also be used in Chinese young people is still unclear. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the best REE predictive equation in Chinese normal weight young adults. Methods Forty-three (21 male, 22 female healthy college students between the age of 18 and 25 years were recruited. REE was measured by the indirect calorimetry (IC method. Harris-Benedict, World Health Organization (WHO, Owen, Mifflin and Liu’s equations were used to predictREE (REEe. REEe that was within 10% of measured REE (REEm was defined as accurate. Student’s t test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test, McNemar Test and the Bland-Altman method were used for data analysis. Results REEm was significantly lower (P P P  Conclusions Liu’s, Owen, and Mifflin equations are appropriate for the prediction of REE in young Chinese adults. However, the use of ideal body weight did not increase the accuracy of REEe.

  1. Complex step-based low-rank extended Kalman filtering for state-parameter estimation in subsurface transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-02-01

    The accuracy of groundwater flow and transport model predictions highly depends on our knowledge of subsurface physical parameters. Assimilation of contaminant concentration data from shallow dug wells could help improving model behavior, eventually resulting in better forecasts. In this paper, we propose a joint state-parameter estimation scheme which efficiently integrates a low-rank extended Kalman filtering technique, namely the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter, with the prominent complex-step method (CSM). The SEEK filter avoids the prohibitive computational burden of the Extended Kalman filter by updating the forecast along the directions of error growth only, called filter correction directions. CSM is used within the SEEK filter to efficiently compute model derivatives with respect to the state and parameters along the filter correction directions. CSM is derived using complex Taylor expansion and is second order accurate. It is proven to guarantee accurate gradient computations with zero numerical round-off errors, but requires complexifying the numerical code. We perform twin-experiments to test the performance of the CSM-based SEEK for estimating the state and parameters of a subsurface contaminant transport model. We compare the efficiency and the accuracy of the proposed scheme with two standard finite difference-based SEEK filters as well as with the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). Assimilation results suggest that the use of the CSM in the context of the SEEK filter may provide up to 80% more accurate solutions when compared to standard finite difference schemes and is competitive with the EnKF, even providing more accurate results in certain situations. We analyze the results based on two different observation strategies. We also discuss the complexification of the numerical code and show that this could be efficiently implemented in the context of subsurface flow models. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Estimating and correcting mie scattering in synchrotron-based microscopic fourier transform infrared spectra by extended multiplicative signal correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, A; Sulé-Suso, J; Sockalingum, G D; Tobin, M; Bahrami, F; Yang, Y; Pijanka, J; Dumas, P; Cotte, M; van Pittius, D G; Parkes, G; Martens, H

    2008-03-01

    We present an approach for estimating and correcting Mie scattering occurring in infrared spectra of single cells, at diffraction limited probe size, as in synchrotron based microscopy. The Mie scattering is modeled by extended multiplicative signal correction (EMSC) and subtracted from the vibrational absorption. Because the Mie scattering depends non-linearly on alpha, the product of the radius and the refractive index of the medium/sphere causing it, a new method was developed for estimating the Mie scattering by EMSC for unknown radius and refractive index of the Mie scatterer. The theoretically expected Mie contributions for a range of different alpha values were computed according to the formulae developed by Van de Hulst (1957). The many simulated spectra were then summarized by a six-dimensional subspace model by principal component analysis (PCA). This subspace model was used in EMSC to estimate and correct for Mie scattering, as well as other additive and multiplicative interference effects. The approach was applied to a set of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra measured for individual lung cancer cells in order to remove unwanted interferences and to estimate ranges of important alpha values for each spectrum. The results indicate that several cell components may contribute to the Mie scattering.

  3. A robust state-of-charge estimator for multiple types of lithium-ion batteries using adaptive extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Rui; Gong, Xianzhi; Mi, Chunting Chris; Sun, Fengchun

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a novel data-driven based approach for the estimation of the state of charge (SoC) of multiple types of lithium ion battery (LiB) cells with adaptive extended Kalman filter (AEKF). A modified second-order RC network based battery model is employed for the state estimation. Based on the battery model and experimental data, the SoC variation per mV voltage for different types of battery chemistry is analyzed and the parameters are identified. The AEKF algorithm is then employed to achieve accurate data-driven based SoC estimation, and the multi-parameter, closed loop feedback system is used to achieve robustness. The accuracy and convergence of the proposed approach is analyzed for different types of LiB cells, including convergence behavior of the model with a large initial SoC error. The results show that the proposed approach has good accuracy for different types of LiB cells, especially for C/LFP LiB cell that has a flat open circuit voltage (OCV) curve. The experimental results show good agreement with the estimation results with maximum error being less than 3%.

  4. Prospective Comparison of Equations Based on Creatinine and Cystatin C for the Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation in Chinese Renal Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Z; Tao, J; Sun, L; Han, Z; Chen, H; Huang, Z; Zhou, W; Zhao, C; Fei, S; Que, H; Li, Y; Tan, R; Gu, M

    Currently, there is no dedicated equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) for transplanted kidneys. This study aimed to compare the performance of serum creatinine (Scr)- and cystatin C (CysC)-based equations in Chinese renal transplant recipients. A total of 252 stable renal transplant recipients were enrolled in this study. The plasma clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA (rGFR) was used as a reference standard. The Scr, CysC, and rGFR of the patients were measured on the same day. The bias, precision, accuracy (percentage of estimates within 10%, 30%, and 50% of rGFR), and agreements of 8 Scr and 5 CysC eGFR equations were assessed. The factors affecting the accuracy were also evaluated. Among the Scr-based equations, the Japanese Society of Nephrology-Chronic Kidney Disease Initiatives (JSN-CKDI) equation had the best overall performance with a bias of -6.2 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and 96.1% of its estimates were within 30% of the rGFR. For the CysC-based equations, the Filler equation had the best performance with a bias of -3.9 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , and 93.7% of its estimates were within 30% of the rGFR. Overall, the CysC-based equations showed better performance than the Scr-based equations. In addition, significant differences were observed between bias and gender and between bias and rGFR value in some equations, whereas transplantation time and immunosuppressive regimens were not correlated with the bias. The JSN-CKDI equation provides the best estimation of the GFR equations, and the CysC-based equations performed better than the Scr-based equations in this population. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Skinfold Prediction Equations Fail to Provide an Accurate Estimate of Body Composition in Elite Rugby Union Athletes of Caucasian and Polynesian Ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemski, Adam J; Broad, Elizabeth M; Slater, Gary J

    2018-01-01

    Body composition in elite rugby union athletes is routinely assessed using surface anthropometry, which can be utilized to provide estimates of absolute body composition using regression equations. This study aims to assess the ability of available skinfold equations to estimate body composition in elite rugby union athletes who have unique physique traits and divergent ethnicity. The development of sport-specific and ethnicity-sensitive equations was also pursued. Forty-three male international Australian rugby union athletes of Caucasian and Polynesian descent underwent surface anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment. Body fat percent (BF%) was estimated using five previously developed equations and compared to DXA measures. Novel sport and ethnicity-sensitive prediction equations were developed using forward selection multiple regression analysis. Existing skinfold equations provided unsatisfactory estimates of BF% in elite rugby union athletes, with all equations demonstrating a 95% prediction interval in excess of 5%. The equations tended to underestimate BF% at low levels of adiposity, whilst overestimating BF% at higher levels of adiposity, regardless of ethnicity. The novel equations created explained a similar amount of variance to those previously developed (Caucasians 75%, Polynesians 90%). The use of skinfold equations, including the created equations, cannot be supported to estimate absolute body composition. Until a population-specific equation is established that can be validated to precisely estimate body composition, it is advocated to use a proven method, such as DXA, when absolute measures of lean and fat mass are desired, and raw anthropometry data routinely to derive an estimate of body composition change.

  6. Estimation of health effects of prenatal methylmercury exposure using structural equation models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Keiding, Niels; Grandjean, Philippe

    2002-01-01

    -mercury toxicity. RESULTS: Structural equation models were developed for assessment of the association between biomarkers of prenatal mercury exposure and neuropsychological test scores in 7 year old children. Eleven neurobehavioral outcomes were grouped into motor function and verbally mediated function...... correction for measurement error in exposure variables, incorporation of multiple outcomes and incomplete cases. This approach therefore deserves to be applied more frequently in the analysis of complex epidemiological data sets....

  7. [New topics regarding equations for GFR estimation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horio, Masaru

    2014-02-01

    Japanese GFR equations and CKD-EPI equations based on standardized serum creatinine and standardized cystatin C are recommended in recent Japanese CKD guides and KDIGO guidelines for CKD management, respectively. CKD-EPIcreat overestimates GFR in Japanese subjects, probably due to the difference in muscle mass between Japanese and Caucasians. Unlike CKD-EPIcreat, CKD-EPIcys performs well in Japanese subjects, indicating the advantages of using cystatin C as a GFR marker. KDIGO guidelines suggest measuring eGFRcys in adults with eGFRcreat of 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 who do not have markers of kidney damage if confirmation of CKD is required. Creatinine is excreted by glomerular filtration, but also secreted by the tubules. Alteration of the tubular secretion of creatinine may influence the performance of GFR equations based on serum creatinine. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR and serum albumin levels were independent parameters affecting the fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr). Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons for the bias of GFR equations based on serum creatinine. Low GFR is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a general population. However, the relationship between eGFR and the hazard risk of events is different depending on whether cystatin C or creatinine is used to calculate eGFR. The association between eGFRcys and the hazard risk is much stronger compared with eGFRcreat. Cystatin C may be a useful alternative to creatinine for detecting a high risk of complications in a general population and subjects with CKD.

  8. Localization estimates for a random discrete wave equation at high frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that at high frequencies matrix elements of the Green's function of a random discrete wave equation decay exponentially at long distances. This is the input to the proof of dense point spectrum with localized eigenfunctions in this frequency range. The proof uses techniques of Froehlich and Spencer. A sequence of renormalization transformations shows that large regions where wave propagation is easily maintained become increasingly sparse as resonance is approached

  9. Harris-Benedict Equation and Resting Energy Expenditure Estimates in Critically Ill Ventilator Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picolo, Michele Ferreira; Lago, Alessandra Fabiane; Menegueti, Mayra Gonçalves; Nicolini, Edson Antonio; Basile-Filho, Anibal; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Auxiliadora-Martins, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In routine practice, assessment of the nutritional status of critically ill patients still relies on traditional methods such as anthropometric measurements, biochemical markers, and predictive equations. To compare resting energy expenditure measured by indirect calorimetry (REEIC) with REE calculated by using the Harris-Benedict equation with 3 different sources of body weight (from bed scale, REEHB1; ideal body weight, REEHB2; and predicted body weight, REEHB3). This study included 205 critically ill patients (115 men, 90 women) evaluated within the first 48 hours of admission and undergoing mechanical ventilation. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry for 30 minutes and calculated by using the Harris-Benedict equation with the 3 sources of body weight. Data were compared by the Bland-Altman method. The values based on ideal and predicted body weight (REEHB2 and REEHB3) did not agree with REEIC. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the limits of agreement varied from +796.1 kcal/d to -559.6 kcal/d for REEHB2 and from +809.2 kcal/d to -564.7 kcal/d for REEHB3. REEIC and REEHB1 (body weight determined by bed scale) agreed the best; the bias was -18.8 kcal/d. However, REEHB1 still overestimated REEIC by +555.3 kcal/d and underestimated it by -593.0 kcal/d. For measuring REE in critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation, calculation via the Harris-Benedict equation, regardless of the source of body weight, cannot be substituted for indirect calorimetry. ©2016 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  10. Test of Sex Estimation Equations on Carpal Bones in a Northeastern Thai Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laowatthanaphong, S; Das, S; Phatsara, M; Tuamsuk, P; Mahakkanukrauh, P

    2016-01-01

    Sex assessment is an essential step in person identification, both in forensic and anthropological contexts. Many parts of skeletal remains such as skull, pelvis and long bones have been proven to be useful in determining sex. However, literature has shown that short bones such as carpal bones are also sexually dimorphic. In the last few years, there was an unpublished study using lunate, scaphoid and hamate from bone collection in Northern Thailand to create 6 discriminant equations to assess sex. The objective of this study was to investigate the application of those equations in the sample from other parts of Thailand. A sample of 50 individuals (25 males and 25 females), kindly supplied by Department of Anatomy, Khonkaen University, Khon-kaen, Thailand, was examined. The age of the individuals ranged from 48-87 years old for males and 38-87 years old for females. The classification accuracies ranged from 82%-98% with right hamate yielding the highest accuracy. These results proved the applicability of those 6 discriminant equations in a population from Northeastern Thailand. Further studies should include population from other parts of Thailand.

  11. Parameter estimation and change-point detection from Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI data using stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenod, Charles-André; Favetto, Benjamin; Genon-Catalot, Valentine; Rozenholc, Yves; Samson, Adeline

    2011-09-01

    Dynamic Contrast Enhanced imaging (DCE-imaging) following a contrast agent bolus allows the extraction of information on tissue micro-vascularization. The dynamic signals obtained from DCE-imaging are modeled by pharmacokinetic compartmental models which integrate the Arterial Input Function. These models use ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to describe the exchanges between the arterial and capillary plasma and the extravascular-extracellular space. Their least squares fitting takes into account measurement noises but fails to deal with unpredictable fluctuations due to external/internal sources of variations (patients' anxiety, time-varying parameters, measurement errors in the input function, etc.). Adding Brownian components to the ODEs leads to stochastic differential equations (SDEs). In DCE-imaging, SDEs are discretely observed with an additional measurement noise. We propose to estimate the parameters of these noisy SDEs by maximum likelihood, using the Kalman filter. In DCE-imaging, the contrast agent injected in vein arrives in plasma with an unknown time delay. The delay parameter induces a change-point in the drift of the SDE and ODE models, which is estimated also. Estimations based on the SDE and ODE pharmacokinetic models are compared to real DCE-MRI data. They show that the use of SDE provides robustness in the estimation results. A simulation study confirms these results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A constrained extended Kalman filter for the optimal estimate of kinematics and kinetics of a sagittal symmetric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, V; Dumas, R; Cappozzo, A; Joukov, V; Daune, G; Kulić, D; Fraisse, P; Andary, S; Venture, G

    2017-09-06

    This paper presents a method for real-time estimation of the kinematics and kinetics of a human body performing a sagittal symmetric motor task, which would minimize the impact of the stereophotogrammetric soft tissue artefacts (STA). The method is based on a bi-dimensional mechanical model of the locomotor apparatus the state variables of which (joint angles, velocities and accelerations, and the segments lengths and inertial parameters) are estimated by a constrained extended Kalman filter (CEKF) that fuses input information made of both stereophotogrammetric and dynamometric measurement data. Filter gains are made to saturate in order to obtain plausible state variables and the measurement covariance matrix of the filter accounts for the expected STA maximal amplitudes. We hypothesised that the ensemble of constraints and input redundant information would allow the method to attenuate the STA propagation to the end results. The method was evaluated in ten human subjects performing a squat exercise. The CEKF estimated and measured skin marker trajectories exhibited a RMS difference lower than 4mm, thus in the range of STAs. The RMS differences between the measured ground reaction force and moment and those estimated using the proposed method (9N and 10Nm) were much lower than obtained using a classical inverse dynamics approach (22N and 30Nm). From the latter results it may be inferred that the presented method allows for a significant improvement of the accuracy with which kinematic variables and relevant time derivatives, model parameters and, therefore, intersegmental moments are estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Harnack Inequalities and ABP Estimates for Nonlinear Second-Order Elliptic Equations in Unbounded Domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Amendola

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with fully nonlinear uniformly elliptic operators with a superlinear gradient term. We look for local estimates, such as weak Harnack inequality and local maximum principle, and their extension up to the boundary. As applications, we deduce ABP-type estimates and weak maximum principles in general unbounded domains, a strong maximum principle, and a Liouville-type theorem.

  14. Least Square Approach for Estimating of Land Surface Temperature from LANDSAT-8 Satellite Data Using Radiative Transfer Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouybari-Moghaddam, Y.; Saradjian, M. R.; Forati, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Land Surface Temperature (LST) is one of the significant variables measured by remotely sensed data, and it is applied in many environmental and Geoscience studies. The main aim of this study is to develop an algorithm to retrieve the LST from Landsat-8 satellite data using Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). However, LST can be retrieved from RTE, but, since the RTE has two unknown parameters including LST and surface emissivity, estimating LST from RTE is an under the determined problem. In this study, in order to solve this problem, an approach is proposed an equation set includes two RTE based on Landsat-8 thermal bands (i.e.: band 10 and 11) and two additional equations based on the relation between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and emissivity of Landsat-8 thermal bands by using simulated data for Landsat-8 bands. The iterative least square approach was used for solving the equation set. The LST derived from proposed algorithm is evaluated by the simulated dataset, built up by MODTRAN. The result shows the Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE) is less than 1.18°K. Therefore; the proposed algorithm can be a suitable and robust method to retrieve the LST from Landsat-8 satellite data.

  15. Creatinine-based equation to estimate the glomerular filtration rate in Japanese children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Osamu; Nagai, Takuhito; Ishikura, Kenji; Ito, Shuichi; Hataya, Hiroshi; Gotoh, Yoshimitsu; Fujita, Naoya; Akioka, Yuko; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Honda, Masataka

    2014-08-01

    Renal inulin clearance is the gold standard for evaluation of kidney function, but cannot be measured easily in children. Therefore, we utilize the serum creatinine (Cr)-based estimated GFR (eGFR) measuring serum Cr by the enzymatic method, and we have reported simple serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese children aged between 2 and 11 years old. Furthermore, we should use serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese adolescents as well as children with chronic kidney disease for evaluation of renal function. The inulin clearance and serum Cr level determined by an enzymatic method were measured in 131 pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients between the ages of 2 and 18 years old with no underlying disease affecting renal function except CKD to determine the serum Cr-based eGFR in Japanese children and adolescents. We offer the complex estimated GFR equation using polynomial formulae for reference serum creatinine levels with body length in Japanese children except infants, resulting in the following equation:[Formula: see text] Reference serum Cr levels (y) are shown by the following two equations of body length (x):[Formula: see text] The new polynomial eGFR formula showing the relationship with body length and serum Cr level may be applicable for clinical screening of renal function in Japanese children and adolescents aged between 2 and 18 years.

  16. Extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1993-01-01

    Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...

  17. On the pth moment estimates of solutions to stochastic functional differential equations in the G-framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizullah, Faiz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current paper is to present the path-wise and moment estimates for solutions to stochastic functional differential equations with non-linear growth condition in the framework of G-expectation and G-Brownian motion. Under the nonlinear growth condition, the pth moment estimates for solutions to SFDEs driven by G-Brownian motion are proved. The properties of G-expectations, Hölder's inequality, Bihari's inequality, Gronwall's inequality and Burkholder-Davis-Gundy inequalities are used to develop the above mentioned theory. In addition, the path-wise asymptotic estimates and continuity of pth moment for the solutions to SFDEs in the G-framework, with non-linear growth condition are shown.

  18. Estimating spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale: an extended commuting-based interaction potential model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charreire Hélène

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the study of the relationships between individual health-related behaviours (e.g. food intake and physical activity and measurements of spatial accessibility to the associated facilities (e.g. food outlets and sport facilities. The aim of this study is to propose measurements of spatial accessibility to facilities on the regional scale, using aggregated data. We first used a potential accessibility model that partly makes it possible to overcome the limitations of the most frequently used indices such as the count of opportunities within a given neighbourhood. We then propose an extended model in order to take into account both home and work-based accessibility for a commuting population. Results Potential accessibility estimation provides a very different picture of the accessibility levels experienced by the population than the more classical "number of opportunities per census tract" index. The extended model for commuters increases the overall accessibility levels but this increase differs according to the urbanisation level. Strongest increases are observed in some rural municipalities with initial low accessibility levels. Distance to major urban poles seems to play an essential role. Conclusions Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that should integrate some aspects of travel behaviour. Our work supports the evidence that the choice of appropriate accessibility indices including both residential and non-residential environmental features is necessary. Such models have potential implications for providing relevant information to policy-makers in the field of public health.

  19. Numerical simulation of temperature distribution using finite difference equations and estimation of the grain size during friction stir processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, H.S.; Singh, H.; Dhindaw, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Magnesium alloy AE42 was friction stir processed under different cooling conditions. ► Heat flow model was developed using finite difference heat equations. ► Generalized MATLAB code was developed for solving heat flow model. ► Regression equation for estimation of grain size was developed. - Abstract: The present investigation is aimed at developing a heat flow model to simulate temperature history during friction stir processing (FSP). A new approach of developing implicit form of finite difference heat equations solved using MATLAB code was used. A magnesium based alloy AE42 was friction stir processed (FSPed) at different FSP parameters and cooling conditions. Temperature history was continuously recorded in the nugget zone during FSP using data acquisition system and k type thermocouples. The developed code was validated at different FSP parameters and cooling conditions during FSP experimentation. The temperature history at different locations in the nugget zone at different instants of time was further utilized for the estimation of grain growth rate and final average grain size of the FSPed specimen. A regression equation relating the final grain size, maximum temperature during FSP and the cooling rate was developed. The metallurgical characterization was done using optical microscopy, SEM, and FIB-SIM analysis. The simulated temperature profiles and final average grain size were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. The presence of fine precipitate particles generated in situ in the investigated magnesium alloy also contributed in the evolution of fine grain structure through Zener pining effect at the grain boundaries.

  20. Computed statistics at streamgages, and methods for estimating low-flow frequency statistics and development of regional regression equations for estimating low-flow frequency statistics at ungaged locations in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Rodney E.

    2013-01-01

    located in Region 1, 120 were located in Region 2, and 10 were located in Region 3. Streamgages located outside of Missouri were selected to extend the range of data used for the independent variables in the regression analyses. Streamgages included in the regression analyses had 10 or more years of record and were considered to be affected minimally by anthropogenic activities or trends. Regional regression analyses identified three characteristics as statistically significant for the development of regional equations. For Region 1, drainage area, longest flow path, and streamflow-variability index were statistically significant. The range in the standard error of estimate for Region 1 is 79.6 to 94.2 percent. For Region 2, drainage area and streamflow variability index were statistically significant, and the range in the standard error of estimate is 48.2 to 72.1 percent. For Region 3, drainage area and streamflow-variability index also were statistically significant with a range in the standard error of estimate of 48.1 to 96.2 percent. Limitations on the use of estimating low-flow frequency statistics at ungaged locations are dependent on the method used. The first method outlined for use in Missouri, power curve equations, were developed to estimate the selected statistics for ungaged locations on 28 selected streams with multiple streamgages located on the same stream. A second method uses a drainage-area ratio to compute statistics at an ungaged location using data from a single streamgage on the same stream with 10 or more years of record. Ungaged locations on these streams may use the ratio of the drainage area at an ungaged location to the drainage area at a streamgage location to scale the selected statistic value from the streamgage location to the ungaged location. This method can be used if the drainage area of the ungaged location is within 40 to 150 percent of the streamgage drainage area. The third method is the use of the regional regression equations

  1. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate survival in patients with colorectal cancer: cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2017-06-15

    Objective  To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate absolute and conditional survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Design  Cohort study. Setting  General practices in England providing data for the QResearch database linked to the national cancer registry. Participants  44 145 patients aged 15-99 with colorectal cancer from 947 practices to derive the equations. The equations were validated in 15 214 patients with colorectal cancer from 305 different QResearch practices and 437 821 patients with colorectal cancer from the national cancer registry. Main outcome measures  The primary outcome was all cause mortality and secondary outcome was colorectal cancer mortality. Methods  Cause specific hazards models were used to predict risks of colorectal cancer mortality and other cause mortality accounting for competing risks, and these risk estimates were combined to obtain risks of all cause mortality. Separate equations were derived for men and women. Several variables were tested: age, ethnicity, deprivation score, cancer stage, cancer grade, surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, smoking status, alcohol consumption, body mass index, family history of bowel cancer, anaemia, liver function test result, comorbidities, use of statins, use of aspirin, clinical values for anaemia, and platelet count. Measures of calibration and discrimination were determined in both validation cohorts at 1, 5, and 10 years. Results  The final models included the following variables in men and women: age, deprivation score, cancer stage, cancer grade, smoking status, colorectal surgery, chemotherapy, family history of bowel cancer, raised platelet count, abnormal liver function, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic renal disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, prescribed aspirin at diagnosis, and prescribed statins at diagnosis. Improved survival in women was associated with younger age, earlier stage of cancer, well or

  2. An extended Kalman filter approach to non-stationary Bayesian estimation of reduced-order vocal fold model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadwin, Paul J; Peterson, Sean D

    2017-04-01

    The Bayesian framework for parameter inference provides a basis from which subject-specific reduced-order vocal fold models can be generated. Previously, it has been shown that a particle filter technique is capable of producing estimates and associated credibility intervals of time-varying reduced-order vocal fold model parameters. However, the particle filter approach is difficult to implement and has a high computational cost, which can be barriers to clinical adoption. This work presents an alternative estimation strategy based upon Kalman filtering aimed at reducing the computational cost of subject-specific model development. The robustness of this approach to Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise is discussed. The extended Kalman filter (EKF) approach is found to perform very well in comparison with the particle filter technique at dramatically lower computational cost. Based upon the test cases explored, the EKF is comparable in terms of accuracy to the particle filter technique when greater than 6000 particles are employed; if less particles are employed, the EKF actually performs better. For comparable levels of accuracy, the solution time is reduced by 2 orders of magnitude when employing the EKF. By virtue of the approximations used in the EKF, however, the credibility intervals tend to be slightly underpredicted.

  3. Dispersion estimates for spherical Schrödinger equations: the effect of boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Holzleitner

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the dependence of the \\(L^1\\to L^{\\infty}\\ dispersive estimates for one-dimensional radial Schrödinger operators on boundary conditions at \\(0\\. In contrast to the case of additive perturbations, we show that the change of a boundary condition at zero results in the change of the dispersive decay estimates if the angular momentum is positive, \\(l\\in (0,1/2\\. However, for nonpositive angular momenta, \\(l\\in (-1/2,0]\\, the standard \\(O(|t|^{-1/2}\\ decay remains true for all self-adjoint realizations.

  4. Development of Anthropometry-Based Equations for the Estimation of the Total Body Water in Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seoung Woo; Kim, Gyeong A; Lim, Hee Jung; Lee, Sun Young; Park, Geun Ho; Song, Joon Ho

    2005-01-01

    For developing race-specific anthropometry-based total body water (TBW) equations, we measured TBW using bioelectrical impedance analysis (TBWBIA) in 2,943 healthy Korean adults. Among them, 2,223 were used as a reference group. Two equations (TBWK1 and TBWK2) were developed based on age, sex, height, and body weight. The adjusted R2 was 0.908 for TBWK1 and 0.910 for TBWK2. The remaining 720 subjects were used for the validation of our results. Watson (TBWW) and Hume-Weyers (TBWH) formulas were also used. In men, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWH, followed by TBWK1, TBWK2 and TBWW. TBWK1 and TBWK2 showed the lower root mean square errors (RMSE) and mean prediction errors (ME) than TBWW and TBWH. On the Bland-Altman plot, the correlations between the differences and means were smaller for TBWK2 than for TBWK1. On the contrary, TBWBIA showed the highest correlation with TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1, and TBWH in females. RMSE was smallest in TBWW, followed by TBWK2, TBWK1 and TBWH. ME was closest to zero for TBWK2, followed by TBWK1, TBWW and TBWH. The correlation coefficients between the means and differences were highest in TBWW, and lowest in TBWK2. In conclusion, TBWK2 provides better accuracy with a smaller bias than the TBWW or TBWH in males. TBWK2 shows a similar accuracy, but with a smaller bias than TBWW in females. PMID:15953867

  5. A Comparison of Methods for Estimating Quadratic Effects in Nonlinear Structural Equation Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harring, Jeffrey R.; Weiss, Brandi A.; Hsu, Jui-Chen

    2012-01-01

    Two Monte Carlo simulations were performed to compare methods for estimating and testing hypotheses of quadratic effects in latent variable regression models. The methods considered in the current study were (a) a 2-stage moderated regression approach using latent variable scores, (b) an unconstrained product indicator approach, (c) a latent…

  6. Performance of Creatinine-Based GFR Estimating Equations in Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaffi, Kamran; Uhlig, Katrin; Perrone, Ronald D.; Ruthazer, Robin; Rule, Andrew; Lieske, John C.; Navis, Gerjan; Poggio, Emilio D.; Inker, Lesley A.; Levey, Andrew S.

    Background: Accurate assessment of kidney function is important for the management of solid-organ transplant recipients. In other clinical populations, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) most commonly is estimated using the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) creatinine or the

  7. Accuracy of the Common Predictive Equations for Estimating Resting Energy Expenditure among Normal and Overweight Girl University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazi, Nazli; Aliasgharzadeh, Soghra; Mahdavi, Reza; Kolahdooz, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the accuracy of commonly used predictive formulas of resting metabolic rate (RMR) compared to measured RMR in normal and overweight young females. In this cross-sectional study, 98 female university students aged 18-30 years with body mass index 18 to 30 kg/m(2) were recruited. Anthropometric indices and body compositions were measured. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry (FitMate, Cosmed, Rome, Italy) and estimated by 11 predictive formulas. The accuracy of the RMR formulas and mean percentage differences between estimated and measured values were calculated. Paired t test was used to compare estimated and measured RMRs. There were no significant differences between measured and estimated RMR by the 4 commonly used formulas (Mifflin, Cunningham, and World Health Organization [WHO]/Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO]). Among all of the equations, the Mifflin formula showed the lowest bias (-2.97 ± 116.43 kcal/day) at the group level and was the most accurate formula (80.23%) in normal and overweight participants. The over- and underestimated values were about 14% and 5.5%, respectively. In normal and overweight females, Mifflin was the most accurate formula, with 75.51% and 84.61% accuracy, respectively. Given the current lack of a standardized formula that consistently delivers accurate results, the Mifflin formula can be recommended for estimating energy requirements in normal and overweight females in clinical practice.

  8. Pose Estimation of a Mobile Robot Based on Fusion of IMU Data and Vision Data Using an Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B. Alatise

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a single sensor to determine the pose estimation of a device cannot give accurate results. This paper presents a fusion of an inertial sensor of six degrees of freedom (6-DoF which comprises the 3-axis of an accelerometer and the 3-axis of a gyroscope, and a vision to determine a low-cost and accurate position for an autonomous mobile robot. For vision, a monocular vision-based object detection algorithm speeded-up robust feature (SURF and random sample consensus (RANSAC algorithms were integrated and used to recognize a sample object in several images taken. As against the conventional method that depend on point-tracking, RANSAC uses an iterative method to estimate the parameters of a mathematical model from a set of captured data which contains outliers. With SURF and RANSAC, improved accuracy is certain; this is because of their ability to find interest points (features under different viewing conditions using a Hessain matrix. This approach is proposed because of its simple implementation, low cost, and improved accuracy. With an extended Kalman filter (EKF, data from inertial sensors and a camera were fused to estimate the position and orientation of the mobile robot. All these sensors were mounted on the mobile robot to obtain an accurate localization. An indoor experiment was carried out to validate and evaluate the performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast in computation, reliable and robust, and can be considered for practical applications. The performance of the experiments was verified by the ground truth data and root mean square errors (RMSEs.

  9. Pose Estimation of a Mobile Robot Based on Fusion of IMU Data and Vision Data Using an Extended Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatise, Mary B; Hancke, Gerhard P

    2017-09-21

    Using a single sensor to determine the pose estimation of a device cannot give accurate results. This paper presents a fusion of an inertial sensor of six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) which comprises the 3-axis of an accelerometer and the 3-axis of a gyroscope, and a vision to determine a low-cost and accurate position for an autonomous mobile robot. For vision, a monocular vision-based object detection algorithm speeded-up robust feature (SURF) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) algorithms were integrated and used to recognize a sample object in several images taken. As against the conventional method that depend on point-tracking, RANSAC uses an iterative method to estimate the parameters of a mathematical model from a set of captured data which contains outliers. With SURF and RANSAC, improved accuracy is certain; this is because of their ability to find interest points (features) under different viewing conditions using a Hessain matrix. This approach is proposed because of its simple implementation, low cost, and improved accuracy. With an extended Kalman filter (EKF), data from inertial sensors and a camera were fused to estimate the position and orientation of the mobile robot. All these sensors were mounted on the mobile robot to obtain an accurate localization. An indoor experiment was carried out to validate and evaluate the performance. Experimental results show that the proposed method is fast in computation, reliable and robust, and can be considered for practical applications. The performance of the experiments was verified by the ground truth data and root mean square errors (RMSEs).

  10. Precision measurement of refractive index of air based on laser synthetic wavelength interferometry with Edlén equation estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong; Zhang, Enzheng; Zhang, Shihua; Yang, Ye

    2015-08-01

    A novel method for the precision measurement of refractive index of air (n(air)) based on the combining of the laser synthetic wavelength interferometry with the Edlén equation estimation is proposed. First, a n(air_e) is calculated from the modified Edlén equation according to environmental parameters measured by low precision sensors with an uncertainty of 10(-6). Second, a unique integral fringe number N corresponding to n(air) is determined based on the calculated n(air_e). Then, a fractional fringe ε corresponding to n(air) with high accuracy can be obtained according to the principle of fringe subdivision of laser synthetic wavelength interferometry. Finally, high accurate measurement of n(air) is achieved according to the determined fringes N and ε. The merit of the proposed method is that it not only solves the problem of the measurement accuracy of n(air) being limited by the accuracies of environmental sensors, but also avoids adopting complicated vacuum pumping to measure the integral fringe N in the method of conventional laser interferometry. To verify the feasibility of the proposed method, comparison experiments with Edlén equations in short time and in long time were performed. Experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of n(air) is better than 2.5 × 10(-8) in short time tests and 6.2 × 10(-8) in long time tests.

  11. PIV-based estimation of unsteady loads on a flat plate at high angle of attack using momentum equation approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissart, A.; Bernal, L. P.; Dimitriadis, G.; Terrapon, V. E.

    2017-05-01

    This work presents, compares and discusses results obtained with two indirect methods for the calculation of aerodynamic forces and pitching moment from 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements. Both methodologies are based on the formulations of the momentum balance: the integral Navier-Stokes equations and the "flux equation" proposed by Noca et al. (J Fluids Struct 13(5):551-578, 1999), which has been extended to the computation of moments. The indirect methods are applied to spatio-temporal data for different separated flows around a plate with a 16:1 chord-to-thickness ratio. Experimental data are obtained in a water channel for both a plate undergoing a large amplitude imposed pitching motion and a static plate at high angle of attack. In addition to PIV data, direct measurements of aerodynamic loads are carried out to assess the quality of the indirect calculations. It is found that indirect methods are able to compute the mean and the temporal evolution of the loads for two-dimensional flows with a reasonable accuracy. Nonetheless, both methodologies are noise sensitive, and the parameters impacting the computation should thus be chosen carefully. It is also shown that results can be improved through the use of dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) as a pre-processing step.

  12. Effect of Correlation Structure in Generalized Estimating Equation and Quasi Least Square: An Application in Type 2 Diabetes Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip C Nath

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Quasi-Least Squares (QLS is useful for different correlation structure with attachment of Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE. The purpose of this work is to compare the regression parameter in the presence of different correlation structure with respect to GEE and QLS method. The comparison of estimated regression parameter has been performed in clinical trial data set; studying the effect of drug treatment (metformin with pioglitazone Vs (gliclazide with pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients. In case of QLS, the correlation coefficient of post-parandinal blood sugar (PPBS under tridiagonal correlation is 0.008 while it failed to produce by GEE. It has been found that the combination of metformin with pioglitazone is more effective as compared to the combination of gliclazide with pioglitazone.

  13. Effect of Correlation Structure in Generalized Estimating Equation and Quasi Least Square: An Application in Type 2 Diabetes Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip C Nath

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Quasi-Least Squares (QLS is useful for different correlation structure with attachment of Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE. The purpose of this work is to compare the regression parameter in the presence of different correlation structure with respect to GEE and QLS method. The comparison of estimated regression parameter has been performed in clinical trial data set; studying the effect of drug treatment (metformin with pioglitazone Vs (gliclazide with pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes patients. In case of QLS, the correlation coefficient of post-parandinal blood sugar (PPBS under tridiagonal correlation is 0.008 while it failed to produce by GEE. It has been found that the combination of metformin with pioglitazone is more effective as compared to the combination of gliclazide with pioglitazone.

  14. Method for estimating closed-form solutions of the light diffusion equation for turbid media of any boundary shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasemi, Umar; Salehi, Hassan S; Zhu, Quing

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports a method of estimating an approximate closed-form solution to the light diffusion equation for any type of geometry involving Dirichlet's boundary condition with known source location. It is based on estimating the optimum locations of multiple imaginary point sources to cancel the fluence at the extrapolated boundary by constrained optimization using a genetic algorithm. The mathematical derivation of the problem to approach the optimum solution for the direct-current type of diffuse optical systems is described in detail. Our method is first applied to slab geometry and compared with a truncated series solution. After that, it is applied to hemispherical geometry and compared with Monte Carlo simulation results. The method provides a fast and sufficiently accurate fluence distribution for optical reconstruction.

  15. Estimation of the thermophysical and mechanical properties and the equation of state of Li2O. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krikorian, O.H.

    1984-12-01

    In this study we develop correlation methods based on Knoop microhardness and melting points for estimating tensile strength, Young's modulus, and Poisson's ratio for Li 2 O as a function of grain size, porosity, and temperature. We develop generalized expressions for extrapolating the existing data on thermal conductivity and thermal expansivity. These derived thermophysical data are combined to predict thermal stress factors for Li 2 O. Based on the available vapor pressure data on Li 2 O and empirical correlations for the liquid and vapor equation of state of Li 2 O, we also make estimates of the critical properties of Li 2 O and obtain a critical temperature of approximately 6800 +- 800 0 K

  16. Expected estimating equation using calibration data for generalized linear models with a mixture of Berkson and classical errors in covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapsoba, Jean de Dieu; Lee, Shen-Ming; Wang, Ching-Yun

    2014-02-20

    Data collected in many epidemiological or clinical research studies are often contaminated with measurement errors that may be of classical or Berkson error type. The measurement error may also be a combination of both classical and Berkson errors and failure to account for both errors could lead to unreliable inference in many situations. We consider regression analysis in generalized linear models when some covariates are prone to a mixture of Berkson and classical errors, and calibration data are available only for some subjects in a subsample. We propose an expected estimating equation approach to accommodate both errors in generalized linear regression analyses. The proposed method can consistently estimate the classical and Berkson error variances based on the available data, without knowing the mixture percentage. We investigated its finite-sample performance numerically. Our method is illustrated by an application to real data from an HIV vaccine study. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Determination of the equation parameters of carbon flow curves and estimated carbon flow and CO2 emissions from broiler production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, J D; Bockor, L; Borille, R; Coldebella, A; Ribeiro, A M L; Kessler, A M

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the equation parameters of carbon (i.e., C) flow curves and to estimate C flow and carbon dioxide (i.e., CO2) emissions from the production of 1- to 49-day-old broilers from different genetic strains. In total, 384 1-day-old chicks were used, distributed into 4 groups: high-performance males (Cobb-M) and females (Cobb-F), and intermediate-performance males (C44-M) and females (C44-F), with 6 replicates/treatment according to a completely randomized study design. Carbon intake and retention were calculated based on diet and body C composition, and expired C was stoichiometrically estimated as digestible C intake-C retention-C in the urine. Litter C emission was estimated as initial litter C+C in the excreta-final litter C. Carbon flow curves were determined fitting data by nonlinear regression using the Gompertz function. Expired CO2 was calculated based on expired C. The applied nonlinear model presented goodness-of-fit for all responses (R2>0.99). Carbon dioxide production was highly correlated with growth rate. At 42 d age, CO2 expiration (g/bird) was 3,384.4 for Cobb-M, 2,947.9 for Cobb-F, 2,512.5 for C44-M, and 2185.1 for C44-F. Age also significantly affected CO2 production: to achieve 2.0 kg BW, CO2 expiration (g/bird) was 1,794.3 for Cobb-M, 2,016.5 for Cobb-F, 2617.7 for C44-M, and 3,092.3 for C44-F. The obtained equations present high predictability to estimate individual CO2 emissions in strains of Cobb and C44 broilers of any weight, or age, reared between 1 and 49 d age. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. External validation of equations to estimate resting energy expenditure in 14952 adults with overweight and obesity and 1948 adults with normal weight from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Giorgio; Bertoli, Simona; Leone, Alessandro; De Amicis, Ramona; Lucchetti, Elisa; Agosti, Fiorenza; Marazzi, Nicoletta; Battezzati, Alberto; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2017-11-24

    We cross-validated 28 equations to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a very large sample of adults with overweight or obesity. 14952 Caucasian men and women with overweight or obesity and 1498 with normal weight were studied. REE was measured using indirect calorimetry and estimated using two meta-regression equations and 26 other equations. The correct classification fraction (CCF) was defined as the fraction of subjects whose estimated REE was within 10% of measured REE. The highest CCF was 79%, 80%, 72%, 64%, and 63% in subjects with normal weight, overweight, class 1 obesity, class 2 obesity, and class 3 obesity, respectively. The Henry weight and height and Mifflin equations performed equally well with CCFs of 77% vs. 77% for subjects with normal weight, 80% vs. 80% for those with overweight, 72% vs. 72% for those with class 1 obesity, 64% vs. 63% for those with class 2 obesity, and 61% vs. 60% for those with class 3 obesity. The Sabounchi meta-regression equations offered an improvement over the above equations only for class 3 obesity (63%). The accuracy of REE equations decreases with increasing values of body mass index. The Henry weight & height and Mifflin equations are similarly accurate and the Sabounchi equations offer an improvement only in subjects with class 3 obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  19. Allometric Equations for Estimating Biomass of Euterpe precatoria, the Most Abundant Palm Species in the Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Da Silva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allometric models to estimate biomass components such as stem mass Ms, foliage mass Ml, root mass Mr and aboveground mass Ma, were developed for the palm species Euterpe precatoria Mart., which is the most abundant tree species in the Amazon. We harvested twenty palms including above- and below-ground parts in an old growth Amazonian forest in Brazil. The diameter at breast height D ranged from 3.9–12.7 cm, and the stem height H ranged from 2.3–16.4 m. The D, diameter at ground basis D0, crown diameter CD, H, stem specific gravity ρ, and number of fronds Nf were considered as independent variables and incorporated into a power function model. The best predictors were D2Hρ for Ms and Ma, D2HNf for Ml, and D for Mr. Slender index (H/D ranged from 0.56–1.46 m·cm−1, and the D-H relationship suggested that the stem shape becomes more slender with increasing D. On the other hand, ρ increased with D implying a stiffening of stem tissue. The average root/shoot ratio was estimated as 0.29 which was higher than that reported for the non-palm tree species in the Amazon. Comparisons of several models to estimate Ma of different palm species, suggested that the variations of the D-H relationship and ρ should be considered to develop allometric models for estimating biomass in palm species. In particular the ρ largely varied depending on individual size, which should be important to consider, when developing the allometric models for palms.

  20. The Effect of Off-Farm Employment on Forestland Transfers in China: A Simultaneous-Equation Tobit Model Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available China’s new round tenure reform has devolved collective forests to individuals on an egalitarian basis. To balance the equity–efficiency dilemma, forestland transfers are highly advocated by policymakers. However, the forestland rental market is still inactive after the reform. To examine the role of off-farm employment in forestland transfers, a simultaneous Tobit system of equations was employed to account for the endogeneity, interdependency, and censoring issues. Accordingly, the Nelson–Olson two-stage procedure, embedded with a multivariate Tobit estimator, was applied to a nationally representative dataset. The estimation results showed that off-farm employment plays a significantly negative role in forestland rent-in, at the 5% risk level. However, off-farm activities had no significant effect on forestland rent-out. Considering China’s specific situation, a reasonable explanation is that households hold forestland as a crucial means of social security against the risk of unemployment. In both rent-in and rent-out equations, high transaction costs are one of the main obstacles impeding forestland transfer. A remarkable finding was that forestland transactions occurred with a statistically significant factor equalization effect, which would be helpful to adjust the mismatched labor–land ratio and improve the land-use efficiency.

  1. Shear strength estimation of the concrete beams reinforced with FRP; comparison of artificial neural network and equations of regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Akbari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, numerous experimental tests were done on the concrete beams reinforced with the fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. In this way, some equations were proposed to estimate the shear strength of the beams reinforced with FRP. The aim of this study is to explore the feasibility of using a feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN model to predict the ultimate shear strength of the beams strengthened with FRP composites. For this purpose, a database consists of 304 reinforced FRP concrete beams have been collected from the available articles on the analysis of shear behavior of these beams. The inputs to the ANN model consists of the 11 variables including the geometric dimensions of the section, steel reinforcement amount, FRP amount and the properties of the concrete, steel reinforcement and FRP materials while the output variable is the shear strength of the FRP beam. To assess the performance of the ANN model for estimating the shear strength of the reinforced beams, the outputs of the ANN are compared to those of equations of the Iranian code (Publication No. 345 and the American code (ACI 440. The comparisons between the outputs of Iran and American regulations with those of the proposed model indicates that the predictive power of this model is much better than the experimental codes. Specifically, for under study data, mean absolute relative error (MARE criteria is 13%, 34% and 39% for the ANN model, the American and the Iranian codes, respectively.

  2. Analysis of a HP-refinement method for solving the neutron transport equation using two error estimators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, D.; Le Tellier, R.; Suteau, C., E-mail: damien.fournier@cea.fr, E-mail: romain.le-tellier@cea.fr, E-mail: christophe.suteau@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DER/SPRC/LEPh, Cadarache, Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Herbin, R., E-mail: raphaele.herbin@cmi.univ-mrs.fr [Laboratoire d' Analyse et de Topologie de Marseille, Centre de Math´ematiques et Informatique (CMI), Universit´e de Provence, Marseille Cedex (France)

    2011-07-01

    The solution of the time-independent neutron transport equation in a deterministic way invariably consists in the successive discretization of the three variables: energy, angle and space. In the SNATCH solver used in this study, the energy and the angle are respectively discretized with a multigroup approach and the discrete ordinate method. A set of spatial coupled transport equations is obtained and solved using the Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DGFEM). Within this method, the spatial domain is decomposed into elements and the solution is approximated by a hierarchical polynomial basis in each one. This approach is time and memory consuming when the mesh becomes fine or the basis order high. To improve the computational time and the memory footprint, adaptive algorithms are proposed. These algorithms are based on an error estimation in each cell. If the error is important in a given region, the mesh has to be refined (h−refinement) or the polynomial basis order increased (p−refinement). This paper is related to the choice between the two types of refinement. Two ways to estimate the error are compared on different benchmarks. Analyzing the differences, a hp−refinement method is proposed and tested. (author)

  3. Analysis of a HP-refinement method for solving the neutron transport equation using two error estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, D.; Le Tellier, R.; Suteau, C.; Herbin, R.

    2011-01-01

    The solution of the time-independent neutron transport equation in a deterministic way invariably consists in the successive discretization of the three variables: energy, angle and space. In the SNATCH solver used in this study, the energy and the angle are respectively discretized with a multigroup approach and the discrete ordinate method. A set of spatial coupled transport equations is obtained and solved using the Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method (DGFEM). Within this method, the spatial domain is decomposed into elements and the solution is approximated by a hierarchical polynomial basis in each one. This approach is time and memory consuming when the mesh becomes fine or the basis order high. To improve the computational time and the memory footprint, adaptive algorithms are proposed. These algorithms are based on an error estimation in each cell. If the error is important in a given region, the mesh has to be refined (h−refinement) or the polynomial basis order increased (p−refinement). This paper is related to the choice between the two types of refinement. Two ways to estimate the error are compared on different benchmarks. Analyzing the differences, a hp−refinement method is proposed and tested. (author)

  4. Integral-equation based methods for parameter estimation in output pulses of radiation detectors: Application in nuclear medicine and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadian-Behbahani, Mohammad-Reza; Saramad, Shahyar

    2018-04-01

    Model based analysis methods are relatively new approaches for processing the output data of radiation detectors in nuclear medicine imaging and spectroscopy. A class of such methods requires fast algorithms for fitting pulse models to experimental data. In order to apply integral-equation based methods for processing the preamplifier output pulses, this article proposes a fast and simple method for estimating the parameters of the well-known bi-exponential pulse model by solving an integral equation. The proposed method needs samples from only three points of the recorded pulse as well as its first and second order integrals. After optimizing the sampling points, the estimation results were calculated and compared with two traditional integration-based methods. Different noise levels (signal-to-noise ratios from 10 to 3000) were simulated for testing the functionality of the proposed method, then it was applied to a set of experimental pulses. Finally, the effect of quantization noise was assessed by studying different sampling rates. Promising results by the proposed method endorse it for future real-time applications.

  5. Comparing the measured basal metabolic rates in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness to the estimated basal metabolic rate calculated from common predictive equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guizhen; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Wang, Ziwen; Chen, Yan; Jiang, Mengliu; Ni, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qinxian; Murong, Min; Guo, Yequn; Qiu, Xiaowen; Yu, Ronghao

    2017-10-01

    Accurately predicting the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of patients in a vegetative state (VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is critical to proper nutritional therapy, but commonly used equations have not been shown to be accurate. Therefore, we compared the BMR measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) to BMR values estimated using common predictive equations in VS and MCS patients. Body composition variables were measured using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) technique. BMR was measured by IC in 82 patients (64 men and 18 women) with VS or MCS. Patients were classified by body mass index as underweight (BMR was estimated for each group using the Harris-Benedict (H-B), Schofield, or Cunningham equations and compared to the measured BMR using Bland-Altman analyses. For the underweight group, there was a significant difference between the measured BMR values and the estimated BMR values calculated using the H-B, Schofield, and Cunningham equations (p BMR values estimated using the H-B and Cunningham equations were different significantly from the measured BMR (p BMR in the normal-weight group. The Schofield equation showed the best concordance (only 41.5%) with the BMR values measured by IC. None of the commonly used equations to estimate BMR were suitable for the VS or MCS populations. Indirect calorimetry is the preferred way to avoid either over or underestimate of BMR values. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. An upscaled approach for transport in media with extended tailing due to back-diffusion using analytical and numerical solutions of the advection dispersion equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jack C; Kim, Ungtae

    2015-11-01

    The mono-continuum advection-dispersion equation (mADE) is commonly regarded as unsuitable for application to media that exhibit rapid breakthrough and extended tailing associated with diffusion between high and low permeability regions. This paper demonstrates that the mADE can be successfully used to model such conditions if certain issues are addressed. First, since hydrodynamic dispersion, unlike molecular diffusion, cannot occur upstream of the contaminant source, models must be formulated to prevent "back-dispersion." Second, large variations in aquifer permeability will result in differences between volume-weighted average concentration (resident concentration) and flow-weighted average concentration (flux concentration). Water samples taken from wells may be regarded as flux concentrations, while soil samples may be analyzed to determine resident concentrations. While the mADE is usually derived in terms of resident concentration, it is known that a mADE of the same mathematical form may be written in terms of flux concentration. However, when solving the latter, the mathematical transformation of a flux boundary condition applied to the resident mADE becomes a concentration type boundary condition for the flux mADE. Initial conditions must also be consistent with the form of the mADE that is to be solved. Thus, careful attention must be given to the type of concentration data that is available, whether resident or flux concentrations are to be simulated, and to boundary and initial conditions. We present 3-D analytical solutions for resident and flux concentrations, discuss methods of solving numerical models to obtain resident and flux concentrations, and compare results for hypothetical problems. We also present an upscaling method for computing "effective" dispersivities and other mADE model parameters in terms of physically meaningful parameters in a diffusion-limited mobile-immobile model. Application of the latter to previously published studies of

  7. Scour depth estimation using an equation based on wind tunnel experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutsui Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Scour is the result of degradation and aggradation by wind or moving fluid in the front and back of a pole standing in sand, respectively, and is often observed at the bottom of bridge piers in rivers. In this study, we propose a method of estimating the scour depth around a cylindrical structure standing in sand. The relationships among the depth of the scour, the aspect ratio of the structure (= height/diameter), the fluid velocity, and the sand properties (particle size and density) were d...

  8. Comparison of Generalized Estimating Equations and Quadratic Inference Functions in superior versus inferior Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajeh-Kazemi, Razieh; Golestan, Banafsheh; Mohammad, Kazem; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Pakravan, Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    The celebrated generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach is often used in longitudinal data analysis While this method behaves robustly against misspecification of the working correlation structure, it has some limitations on efficacy of estimators, goodness-of-fit tests and model selection criteria The quadratic inference functions (QIF) is a new statistical methodology that overcomes these limitations. We administered the use of QIF and GEE in comparing the superior and inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation, while our focus was on the efficiency of estimation and using model selection criteria, we compared the effect of implant location on intraocular pressure (IOP) in refractory glaucoma patients We modeled the relationship between IOP and implant location, patient's sex and age, best corrected visual acuity, history of cataract surgery, preoperative IOP and months after surgery with assuming unstructured working correlation. 63 eyes of 63 patients were included in this study, 28 eyes in inferior group and 35 eyes in superior group The GEE analysis revealed that preoperative IOP has a significant effect on IOP (p = 0 011) However, QIF showed that preoperative IOP, months after surgery and squared months are significantly associated with IOP after surgery (p < 0 05) Overall, estimates from QIF are more efficient than GEE (RE = 1 272). In the case of unstructured working correlation, the QIF is more efficient than GEE There were no considerable difference between these locations, our results confirmed previously published works which mentioned it is better that glaucoma patients undergo superior AGV implantation.

  9. Estimating forest net primary production under changing climate: adding pests into the equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkard, E A; Battaglia, M; Roxburgh, S; O'Grady, A P

    2011-07-01

    The current approach to modelling pest impacts on forest net primary production (NPP) is to apply a constant modifier. This does not capture the large spatial and temporal variability in pest abundance and activity that can occur, meaning that overestimates or underestimates of pest impacts on forest NPP are likely. Taking a more mechanistic approach that incorporates an understanding of how physiology is influenced by pest attack, enables us to better capture system feedbacks and dynamics, thereby improving the capacity to predict into novel situations such as changing climate, and to account for both changes in pest activity and host responses to the growing environment now and into the future. We reviewed the effects of pests on forest NPP and found a range of responses and physiological mechanisms underlying those responses. Pest outbreaks can clearly be a major perturbation to forest NPP, and it seems likely that the frequency and intensity of pest outbreaks, and the ways in which host species respond to pest damage, will change in the future. We summarized these impacts in the form of a conceptual model at leaf, tree and stand scales, and compared the physiological processes embedded within that framework with the capacity of a representative range of NPP models to capture those processes. We found that some models can encapsulate some of the processes, but no model can comprehensively account for the range of physiological responses to pest attack experienced by trees. This is not surprising, given the paucity of empirical data for most of the world's forests, and that the models were developed primarily for other purposes. We conclude with a list of the key physiological processes and pathways that need to be included in forest growth models in order to adequately capture pest impacts on forest NPP under current and future climate scenarios, the equations that might enable this and the empirical data required to support them.

  10. The estimation of calibration equations for variables with heteroscedastic measurement errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lu; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramón A; Myers, Gary; Brooks, Steve; Sarafin, Kurtis; Sempos, Christopher T

    2014-11-10

    In clinical chemistry and medical research, there is often a need to calibrate the values obtained from an old or discontinued laboratory procedure to the values obtained from a new or currently used laboratory method. The objective of the calibration study is to identify a transformation that can be used to convert the test values of one laboratory measurement procedure into the values that would be obtained using another measurement procedure. However, in the presence of heteroscedastic measurement error, there is no good statistical method available for estimating the transformation. In this paper, we propose a set of statistical methods for a calibration study when the magnitude of the measurement error is proportional to the underlying true level. The corresponding sample size estimation method for conducting a calibration study is discussed as well. The proposed new method is theoretically justified and evaluated for its finite sample properties via an extensive numerical study. Two examples based on real data are used to illustrate the procedure. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Identification of dominant interactions between climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics and agricultural activities on Budyko-type equation parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Wanqiu; Wang, Weiguang; Shao, Quanxi; Yong, Bin

    2018-01-01

    Quantifying precipitation (P) partition into evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (Q) is of great importance for global and regional water availability assessment. Budyko framework serves as a powerful tool to make simple and transparent estimation for the partition, using a single parameter, to characterize the shape of the Budyko curve for a "specific basin", where the single parameter reflects the overall effect by not only climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics (e.g., soil, topography and vegetation) but also agricultural activities (e.g., cultivation and irrigation). At the regional scale, these influencing factors are interconnected, and the interactions between them can also affect the single parameter of Budyko-type equations' estimating. Here we employ the multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) model to estimate the Budyko curve shape parameter (n in the Choudhury's equation, one form of the Budyko framework) of the selected 96 catchments across China using a data set of long-term averages for climatic seasonality, catchment characteristics and agricultural activities. Results show average storm depth (ASD), vegetation coverage (M), and seasonality index of precipitation (SI) are three statistically significant factors affecting the Budyko parameter. More importantly, four pairs of interactions are recognized by the MARS model as: The interaction between CA (percentage of cultivated land area to total catchment area) and ASD shows that the cultivation can weaken the reducing effect of high ASD (>46.78 mm) on the Budyko parameter estimating. Drought (represented by the value of Palmer drought severity index 0.23) tend to enhance the Budyko parameter reduction by large SI (>0.797). Low vegetation coverage (34.56%) is likely to intensify the rising effect on evapotranspiration ratio by IA (percentage of irrigation area to total catchment area). The Budyko n values estimated by the MARS model reproduce the calculated ones by the observation well

  12. Comparison of glomerular filtration rate estimating equations derived from creatinine and cystatin C: validation in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik elderly cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Jonas; Grubb, Anders; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Indridason, Olafur S; Levey, Andrew S; Palsson, Runolfur; Nyman, Ulf

    2017-10-05

    Validation studies comparing glomerular filtration rate (GFR) equations based on standardized creatinine and cystatin C assays in the elderly are needed. The Icelandic Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Kidney cohort was used to compare two pairs of recently developed GFR equations, the revised Lund-Malmö creatinine equation (LMRCr) and the arithmetic mean of the LMRCr and Caucasian, Asian, Paediatric and Adult cystatin C equations (MEANLMR+CAPA), as well as the Full Age Spectrum creatinine equation (FASCr) and its combination with cystatin C (FASCr+Cys), with the corresponding pair of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (CKD-EPICr and CKD-EPICr+Cys). A total of 805 individuals, 74-93 years of age, underwent measurement of GFR (mGFR) using plasma clearance of iohexol. Four metrics were used to compare the performance of the GFR equations: bias, precision, accuracy [including the percentage of participants with estimated GFR (eGFR) within 30% of mGFR (P30)] and the ability to detect mGFR equations had a P30 >90%. LMRCr and FASCr yielded significantly higher precision and P30 than CKD-EPICr, while bias was significantly worse. LMRCr, FASCr and CKD-EPICr showed similar ability to detect mGFR equations. None of the creatinine-based equations was clearly superior overall in this community-dwelling elderly cohort. The addition of cystatin C improved all of the creatinine-based equations.

  13. Nonlinear Schrödinger equations with spatio-temporal dispersion in Kerr, parabolic, power and dual power law media: A novel extended Kudryashov’s algorithm and soliton solutions

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    Yakup Yıldırım

    Full Text Available In this study, we perform the extended Kudryashov method to nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE with spatio-temporal dispersion that arises in a propagation of light in nonlinear optical fibers, planar waveguides, Bose–Einstein condensate theory. Four types of nonlinearity – Kerr law, power law, parabolic law and dual-power law – are being considered for the model. By using this scheme, the topological, singular soliton and rational solutions are obtained. In addition, some graphical simulations of solutions are provided.It is demonstrated that the proposed algorithm is effective and can be handled for many other nonlinear complex differential equations. Keywords: Solitons, Nonlinear Schrödinger equation with spatio-temporal dispersion, Extended Kudryashov’s method

  14. Optical flow computation using extended constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bimbo, A; Nesi, P; Sanz, J C

    1996-01-01

    Several approaches for optical flow estimation use partial differential equations to model changes in image brightness throughout time. A commonly used equation is the so-called optical flow constraint (OFC), which assumes that the image brightness is stationary with respect to time. More recently, a different constraint referred to as the extended optical flow constraint (EOFC) has been introduced, which also contains the divergence of the flow field of image brightness. There is no agreement in the literature about which of these constraints provides the best estimation of the velocity field. Two new solutions for optical flow computation are proposed, which are based on an approximation of the constraint equations. The two techniques have been used with both EOFC and OFC constraint equations. Results achieved by using these solutions have been compared with several well-known computational methods for optical flow estimation in different motion conditions. Estimation errors have also been measured and compared for different types of motion.

  15. Behavior of sensitivities in the one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation: Implications for parameter estimation and sampling design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopman, Debra S.; Voss, Clifford I.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability of sensitivities has a significant impact on parameter estimation and sampling design for studies of solute transport in porous media. Physical insight into the behavior of sensitivities is offered through an analysis of analytically derived sensitivities for the one-dimensional form of the advection-dispersion equation. When parameters are estimated in regression models of one-dimensional transport, the spatial and temporal variability in sensitivities influences variance and covariance of parameter estimates. Several principles account for the observed influence of sensitivities on parameter uncertainty. (1) Information about a physical parameter may be most accurately gained at points in space and time with a high sensitivity to the parameter. (2) As the distance of observation points from the upstream boundary increases, maximum sensitivity to velocity during passage of the solute front increases and the consequent estimate of velocity tends to have lower variance. (3) The frequency of sampling must be “in phase” with the S shape of the dispersion sensitivity curve to yield the most information on dispersion. (4) The sensitivity to the dispersion coefficient is usually at least an order of magnitude less than the sensitivity to velocity. (5) The assumed probability distribution of random error in observations of solute concentration determines the form of the sensitivities. (6) If variance in random error in observations is large, trends in sensitivities of observation points may be obscured by noise and thus have limited value in predicting variance in parameter estimates among designs. (7) Designs that minimize the variance of one parameter may not necessarily minimize the variance of other parameters. (8) The time and space interval over which an observation point is sensitive to a given parameter depends on the actual values of the parameters in the underlying physical system.

  16. A guide to developing resource selection functions from telemetry data using generalized estimating equations and generalized linear mixed models

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    Nicola Koper

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Resource selection functions (RSF are often developed using satellite (ARGOS or Global Positioning System (GPS telemetry datasets, which provide a large amount of highly correlated data. We discuss and compare the use of generalized linear mixed-effects models (GLMM and generalized estimating equations (GEE for using this type of data to develop RSFs. GLMMs directly model differences among caribou, while GEEs depend on an adjustment of the standard error to compensate for correlation of data points within individuals. Empirical standard errors, rather than model-based standard errors, must be used with either GLMMs or GEEs when developing RSFs. There are several important differences between these approaches; in particular, GLMMs are best for producing parameter estimates that predict how management might influence individuals, while GEEs are best for predicting how management might influence populations. As the interpretation, value, and statistical significance of both types of parameter estimates differ, it is important that users select the appropriate analytical method. We also outline the use of k-fold cross validation to assess fit of these models. Both GLMMs and GEEs hold promise for developing RSFs as long as they are used appropriately.

  17. Allometric equations for estimating belowground biomass ofAndrostachys johnsoniiPrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Tarquinio Mateus

    2015-12-01

    The belowground component of the trees is still poorly known because it needs labour- and time-intensive in situ measurements. However, belowground biomass (BGB) constitutes a significant share of the total forest biomass. I analysed the BGB allocation patterns, fitted models for estimating root components and root system biomasses, and called attention for its possible use in predicting anchoring functions of the different root components. More than half and almost one third of BGB is allocated to the lateral roots and to the root collar, respectively. More than 80% of the BGB is found at a depth range of 9.6-61.2 cm. As the tree size increased, the proportion of BGB allocated to taproots decreased and that allocated to lateral roots increased. All independent models performed almost equally, with the predictors explaining, on average, 98% of the variation in the BGB. It was hypothesised that BGB allocation patterns are a response of the anchoring functions of the tap and lateral roots and therefore, root component biomass models can be used as a methodology to predict anchoring functions of the different root components. Based on the fact that all models performed almost equally, the models using either diameter at breast height (DBH) exclusively as a predictor should be preferred, as tree height is difficult to measure. Models using the root collar diameter (RCD) only should be preferred when the tree is found cut down, as sometimes the RCD is affected by root buttress. Given the large sample size, the validation results, and the coverage of a wide geographical, soil and climatic range, the models fitted can be applied in all A. johnsonii stands in Mozambique.

  18. Cystatin C Based Equation Accurately Estimates Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children With Solid and Central Nervous System Tumours: Enough Evidence to Change Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgshun, Andrew J; Quinlan, Catherine; Sullivan, Michael J

    2016-09-01

    Assessing the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of paediatric patients receiving nephrotoxic chemotherapy is a vital element of clinical practice. Isotopically measured GFR is the gold standard in terms of accuracy but requires injection of tracer followed by several hours of blood tests. Estimation of GFR using creatinine is widely used but inaccurate, and there is increasing concern regarding its usage for paediatric oncology patients. Cystatin C (CysC) based equations are increasingly used in other paediatric specialities to estimate GFR, and their usefulness in paediatric oncology practice is becoming evident. We assessed the renal function of children with solid tumours and CNS tumours receiving nephrotoxic chemotherapy over a 1-year period using paired CysC and isotopic GFR. Fifty-six sets of measurements were reviewed with estimated GFR predicted using CysC-based and creatinine-based equations. The best performing equation was the 'new CKiD' equation, which estimated GFR within 30% of the measured GFR on 86% of occasions, outperforming the Schwartz equation. If estimated GFR using this equation was >100 ml/min/1.73 m(2) , all values of measured GFR were normal at >90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) , a category containing two-thirds of all measurements. The new CKiD equation predicts GFR in paediatric oncology patients with more accuracy than creatinine-based equations. When the estimated GFR is >100 ml/min/1.73 m(2) , isotopic GFR can be safely omitted. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An Introduction to Generalized Estimating Equations and an Application to Assess Selectivity Effects in a Longitudinal Study on Very Old Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisletta, Paolo; Spini, Dario

    2004-01-01

    Correlated data are very common in the social sciences. Most common applications include longitudinal and hierarchically organized (or clustered) data. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are a convenient and general approach to the analysis of several kinds of correlated data. The main advantage of GEE resides in the unbiased estimation of…

  20. Assessment of renal function in geriatric palliative care patients – comparison of creatinine-based estimation equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deskur-Smielecka, Ewa; Kotlinska-Lemieszek, Aleksandra; Chudek, Jerzy; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Background Renal function impairment is common in geriatric palliative care patients. Accurate assessment of renal function is necessary for appropriate drug dosage. Several equations are used to estimate kidney function. Aims 1) To investigate the differences (Δ) in kidney function assessed with simplified Modifi-cation of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Berlin Initiative Study (BIS1), and Cockcroft–Gault (C-G) formulas in geriatric palliative care patients, and 2) to assess factors that may influence these differences. Methods A retrospective analysis of data of patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a palliative care in-patient unit. The agreement between C-G, MDRD, and BIS1 equations was assessed with Bland–Altman analysis. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze factors influencing the discordance. Results A total of 174 patients (67 men; mean age 77.9±5.8 years) were enrolled. The mean Δ MDRD and C-G was 18.6 (95% limits of agreement 55.3 and −18.2). The mean Δ BIS1 and C-G was 6.1 (25.7 and −13.5), and the mean Δ MDRD and BIS1 was 12.5 (40.6 and −15.6). According to the National Kidney Foundation classification, 61 (35.1%) patients were differently staged using MDRD and C-G, whilê20% of patients were differently staged with BIS1 and C-G and MDRD and BIS1. Serum creatinine (SCr) and body mass index (BMI) had the most important influence on variability of Δ MDRD and C-G (partial R2 37.7% and 28.4%). Variability of Δ BIS1 and C-G was mostly influenced by BMI (34.8%) and variability of Δ MDRD and BIS1 by SCr (42.2%). Age had relatively low influence on differences between equations (3.1%–9.5%). Conclusion There is a considerable disagreement between renal function estimation formulas, especially MDRD and C-G in geriatric palliative care patients, which may lead to errors in drug dosage adjustment. The magnitude of discrepancy increases with lower SCr, lower BMI, and higher age. PMID:28694691

  1. The predictive performances of equations used to estimate unbound phenytoin concentrations in a medical ICU population and the impact of exogenous albumin administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Labdhi; MacLaren, Robert

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluated the predictive performances of four equations (Sheiner-Tozer [ST], Kane-modified ST, Anderson-modified ST, and Cheng-modified ST) used to estimate free phenytoin concentrations in a medical intensive care unit (MICU) and assessed the impact of exogenously administered albumin. Thirty MICU subjects receiving phenytoin were retrospectively evaluated. Predictive performances were assessed by mean absolute error (MAE), mean prediction error (MPE), and root mean squared error (RMSE); linear regression of predicted vs. actual unbound concentrations; and Bland-Altman plots. Parameters were further delineated by recent exogenous albumin administration. The measured unbound phenytoin concentration was 2.14±0.84μg/mL for all 90 levels, 1.89±0.92μg/mL for the 58 levels without albumin, and 2.58±0.83μg/mL (pequations. The ST equation over-predicted unbound concentrations whereas all other equations under-estimated unbound concentrations. All equations possessed bias and lacked precision. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated greatest bias with the ST equation. Albumin administration introduced additional bias, limited precision, reduced R 2 values, and completely negated the performances of the ST and Kane-modified ST equations. Estimating unbound concentrations with equations in the MICU population is discouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Generalized Estimating Equations and Quadratic Inference Functions in superior versus inferior Ahmed Glaucoma Valve implantation

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    Razieh Khajeh-Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The celebrated generalized estimating equations (GEE approach is often used in longitudinal data analysis While this method behaves robustly against misspecification of the working correlation structure, it has some limitations on efficacy of estimators, goodness-of-fit tests and model selection criteria The quadratic inference functions (QIF is a new statistical methodology that overcomes these limitations Methods : We administered the use of QIF and GEE in comparing the superior and inferior Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV implantation, while our focus was on the efficiency of estimation and using model selection criteria, we compared the effect of implant location on intraocular pressure (IOP in refractory glaucoma patients We modeled the relationship between IOP and implant location, patient′s sex and age, best corrected visual acuity, history of cataract surgery, preoperative IOP and months after surgery with assuming unstructured working correlation Results : 63 eyes of 63 patients were included in this study, 28 eyes in inferior group and 35 eyes in superior group The GEE analysis revealed that preoperative IOP has a significant effect on IOP (p = 0 011 However, QIF showed that preoperative IOP, months after surgery and squared months are significantly associated with IOP after surgery (p < 0 05 Overall, estimates from QIF are more efficient than GEE (RE = 1 272 Conclusions : In the case of unstructured working correlation, the QIF is more efficient than GEE There were no considerable difference between these locations, our results confirmed previously published works which mentioned it is better that glaucoma patients undergo superior AGV implantation

  3. Development of prediction equations to estimate the apparent digestible energy content of lipids when fed to lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero, D S; Odle, J; Arellano, C; Boyd, R D; van Heugten, E

    2015-03-01

    Two studies were conducted 1) to determine the effects of free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations and the degree of saturation of lipids (unsaturated to saturated fatty acids ratio [U:S]) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and DE content of lipids and 2) to derive prediction equations to estimate the DE content of lipids when added to lactating sow diets. In Exp. 1, 85 lactating sows were assigned randomly to a 4 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatments plus a control diet with no added lipid. Factors included 1) FFA concentrations of 0, 18, 36, and 54% and 2) U:S of 2.0, 2.8, 3.5, 4.2, and 4.9. Diets were corn-soybean meal based and lipid was supplemented at 6%. Concentrations of FFA and U:S were obtained by blending 4 lipid sources: choice white grease (CWG; FFA = 0.3% and U:S = 2.0), soybean oil (FFA = 0.1% and U:S = 5.5), CWG acid oil (FFA = 57.8% and U:S = 2.1), and soybean-cottonseed acid oil (FFA = 67.5% and U:S = 3.8). Titanium dioxide was added to diets (0.5%) as a digestibility marker. Treatments started on d 4 of lactation and fecal samples were collected after 6 d of adaptation to diets on a daily basis from d 10 to 13. The ATTD of added lipid and DE content of lipids were negatively affected (linear, quadratic, = 0.001), but these improvements were less pronounced when the FFA concentration was less than 36%. Digestible energy content of added lipid was described by DE (kcal/kg) = [8,381 - (80.6 × FFA) + (0.4 × FFA) + (248.8 × U:S) - (28.1 × U:S) + (12.8 × FFA × U:S)] ( = 0.74). This prediction equation was validated in Exp. 2, in which 24 lactating sows were fed diets supplemented with 6% of either an animal-vegetable blend (A-V; FFA = 14.5% and U:S = 2.3) or CWG (FFA = 3.7% and U:S = 1.5) plus a control diet with no added lipids. Digestible energy content of A-V (8,317 and 8,127 kcal/kg for measured and predicted values, respectively) and CWG (8,452 and 8,468 kcal/kg for measured and predicted values, respectively) were accurately

  4. Comparison of generalized estimating equations and quadratic inference functions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY database

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    Browne Dillon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The generalized estimating equations (GEE technique is often used in longitudinal data modeling, where investigators are interested in population-averaged effects of covariates on responses of interest. GEE involves specifying a model relating covariates to outcomes and a plausible correlation structure between responses at different time periods. While GEE parameter estimates are consistent irrespective of the true underlying correlation structure, the method has some limitations that include challenges with model selection due to lack of absolute goodness-of-fit tests to aid comparisons among several plausible models. The quadratic inference functions (QIF method extends the capabilities of GEE, while also addressing some GEE limitations. Methods We conducted a comparative study between GEE and QIF via an illustrative example, using data from the "National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY" database. The NLSCY dataset consists of long-term, population based survey data collected since 1994, and is designed to evaluate the determinants of developmental outcomes in Canadian children. We modeled the relationship between hyperactivity-inattention and gender, age, family functioning, maternal depression symptoms, household income adequacy, maternal immigration status and maternal educational level using GEE and QIF. Basis for comparison include: (1 ease of model selection; (2 sensitivity of results to different working correlation matrices; and (3 efficiency of parameter estimates. Results The sample included 795, 858 respondents (50.3% male; 12% immigrant; 6% from dysfunctional families. QIF analysis reveals that gender (male (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10 to 2.71, family dysfunctional (OR = 2.84, 95% CI of 1.58 to 5.11, and maternal depression (OR = 2.49, 95% CI of 1.60 to 2.60 are significantly associated with higher odds of hyperactivity-inattention. The results remained robust

  5. Comparison of generalized estimating equations and quadratic inference functions using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY) database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odueyungbo, Adefowope; Browne, Dillon; Akhtar-Danesh, Noori; Thabane, Lehana

    2008-05-09

    The generalized estimating equations (GEE) technique is often used in longitudinal data modeling, where investigators are interested in population-averaged effects of covariates on responses of interest. GEE involves specifying a model relating covariates to outcomes and a plausible correlation structure between responses at different time periods. While GEE parameter estimates are consistent irrespective of the true underlying correlation structure, the method has some limitations that include challenges with model selection due to lack of absolute goodness-of-fit tests to aid comparisons among several plausible models. The quadratic inference functions (QIF) method extends the capabilities of GEE, while also addressing some GEE limitations. We conducted a comparative study between GEE and QIF via an illustrative example, using data from the "National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth (NLSCY)" database. The NLSCY dataset consists of long-term, population based survey data collected since 1994, and is designed to evaluate the determinants of developmental outcomes in Canadian children. We modeled the relationship between hyperactivity-inattention and gender, age, family functioning, maternal depression symptoms, household income adequacy, maternal immigration status and maternal educational level using GEE and QIF. Basis for comparison include: (1) ease of model selection; (2) sensitivity of results to different working correlation matrices; and (3) efficiency of parameter estimates. The sample included 795, 858 respondents (50.3% male; 12% immigrant; 6% from dysfunctional families). QIF analysis reveals that gender (male) (odds ratio [OR] = 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10 to 2.71), family dysfunctional (OR = 2.84, 95% CI of 1.58 to 5.11), and maternal depression (OR = 2.49, 95% CI of 1.60 to 2.60) are significantly associated with higher odds of hyperactivity-inattention. The results remained robust under GEE modeling. Model selection was

  6. Performance of the creatinine and cystatin C-based equations for estimation of GFR in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Xu, Guang; Ling, Lilu; Niu, Jianying; Lu, Tong; Du, Xin; Gu, Yong

    2017-04-01

    Currently, creatinine- or cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation equation has been recommended to assess GFR in CKD patients. However, it is still obscure whether those equations performed consistently outstandingly in Chinese population. The equations were validated in a population totaling 632 participants (mean age 61.6 ± 12.3 years). The estimated GFR (eGFR) calculated separately by six equations (C-MDRD, C cys , C scr-cys , CKD-EPI scr , CKD-EPI cys , and CKD-EPI scr-cys equations) was compared with the reference GFR (rGFR) measured by the 99m Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging method. Participants were divided into age and rGFR specific subgroups. CKD-EPI scr-cys equation had a larger area under receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC AUC ) and relative higher sensitivity (79.8 %) and specificity (93 %) to diagnose CKD. CKD-EPI scr-cys and CKD-EPI cys equations appeared to be more accurate with higher proportion of eGFR within 30 % of rGFR (P 30 ) value. Those two equations performed as well in older people as in the younger population. The CKD-EPI scr-cys equation acquired the highest P 30 (80.9 %) in subgroups with rGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , while the CKD-EPI cys equation yielded the best performance in the rGFR equations may be the optimal one for patients of moderately to severely injured GFR. Considering the accuracy in the entire range of participants less ideally, the additional of the Chinese racial factor is assumed to be essential.

  7. Meta-Analysis of the Structural Equation Models' Parameters for the Estimation of Brain Connectivity with fMRI

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    Joan Guàrdia-Olmos

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural Equation Models (SEM is among of the most extensively applied statistical techniques in the study of human behavior in the fields of Neuroscience and Cognitive Neuroscience. This paper reviews the application of SEM to estimate functional and effective connectivity models in work published since 2001. The articles analyzed were compiled from Journal Citation Reports, PsycInfo, Pubmed, and Scopus, after searching with the following keywords: fMRI, SEMs, and Connectivity.Results: A 100 papers were found, of which 25 were rejected due to a lack of sufficient data on basic aspects of the construction of SEM. The other 75 were included and contained a total of 160 models to analyze, since most papers included more than one model. The analysis of the explained variance (R2 of each model yields an effect of the type of design used, the type of population studied, the type of study, the existence of recursive effects in the model, and the number of paths defined in the model. Along with these comments, a series of recommendations are included for the use of SEM to estimate of functional and effective connectivity models.

  8. Comparison of the Schwartz and CKD-EPI Equations for Estimating Glomerular Filtration Rate in Children, Adolescents, and Adults: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selistre, Luciano; Rabilloud, Muriel; Cochat, Pierre; de Souza, Vandréa; Iwaz, Jean; Lemoine, Sandrine; Beyerle, Françoise; Poli-de-Figueiredo, Carlos E; Dubourg, Laurence

    2016-03-01

    Estimating kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is of utmost importance in many clinical conditions. However, very few studies have evaluated the performance of GFR estimating equations over all ages and degrees of kidney impairment. We evaluated the reliability of two major equations for GFR estimation, the CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations, with urinary clearance of inulin as gold standard. The study included 10,610 participants referred to the Renal and Metabolic Function Exploration Unit of Edouard Herriot Hospital (Lyon, France). GFR was measured by urinary inulin clearance (only first measurement kept for analysis) then estimated with isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-traceable CKD-EPI and Schwartz equations. The participants' ages ranged from 3 to 90 y, and the measured GFRs from 3 to 160 ml/min/1.73 m2. A linear mixed-effects model was used to model the bias (mean ratio of estimated GFR to measured GFR). Equation reliability was also assessed using precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the ratio) and accuracy (percentage of estimated GFRs within the 10% [P10] and 30% [P30] limits above and below the measured GFR). In the whole sample, the mean ratio with the CKD-EPI equation was significantly higher than that with the Schwartz equation (1.17 [95% CI 1.16; 1.18] versus 1.08 [95% CI 1.07; 1.09], p Schwartz equation were closer to 1 than the mean ratios with the CKD-EPI equation whatever the age class (1.02 [95% CI 1.01; 1.03] versus 1.15 [95% CI 1.13; 1.16], p Schwartz equation had a better precision and was also more accurate than the CKD-EPI equation at GFR values under 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (IQR: 0.32 [95% CI 0.28; 0.33] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.36; 0.44]; P30: 81.4 [95% CI 78.1; 84.7] versus 63.8 [95% CI 59.7; 68.0]) and also at GFR values of 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2. In all patients aged ≥65 y, the CKD-EPI equation performed better than the Schwartz equation (IQR: 0.33 [95% CI 0.31; 0.34] versus 0.40 [95% CI 0.38; 0.41]; P30: 77.6 [95% CI 75.7; 79

  9. Estimation of abraham solvation equation coefficients for hydrogen bond formation from abraham solvation parameters for solute activity and basicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, van P.C.M.

    2013-01-01

    Abraham solvation equations find widespread use in environmental chemistry and pharmaco-chemistry. The coefficients in these equations, which are solvent (system) descriptors, are usually determined by fitting experimental data. To simplify the determination of these coefficients in Abraham

  10. Body composition estimation from selected slices: equations computed from a new semi-automatic thresholding method developed on whole-body CT scans

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    Alizé Lacoste Jeanson

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices. Methods We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT and lean tissue (LT in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR. Results and Discussion The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single slice located between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5 and produced lower prediction errors (|PE| = 1.86 liters, %PE = 8.77 than previous equations also based on CT scans. The LT area of the mid-thigh provided the lowest prediction errors (|PE| = 2.52 liters, %PE = 7.08 for estimating whole-body LT volume. We also present equations to predict total body AT and LT masses from a slice located at L4-L5 that resulted in reduced error compared with the previously published equations based on CT scans. The multislice SVMR predictor gave the theoretical upper limit for prediction precision of volumes and cross-validated the results.

  11. Assessment of renal function in geriatric palliative care patients – comparison of creatinine-based estimation equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deskur-Smielecka E

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ewa Deskur-Smielecka,1,2 Aleksandra Kotlinska-Lemieszek,1,2 Jerzy Chudek,3,4 Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis1,2 1Department of Palliative Medicine, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, 2Palliative Medicine Unit, University Hospital of Lord’s Transfiguration, Poznan, 3Pathophysiology Unit, Department of Pathophysiology, 4Department of Internal Medicine and Oncological Chemotherapy, Medical Faculty in Katowice, Medical University of Silesia, Katowice, Poland Background: Renal function impairment is common in geriatric palliative care patients. Accurate assessment of renal function is necessary for appropriate drug dosage. Several equations are used to estimate kidney function. Aims: 1 To investigate the differences (Δ in kidney function assessed with simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD, Berlin Initiative Study (BIS1, and Cockcroft–Gault (C-G formulas in geriatric palliative care patients, and 2 to assess factors that may influence these differences. Methods: A retrospective analysis of data of patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a palliative care in-patient unit. The agreement between C-G, MDRD, and BIS1 equations was assessed with Bland–Altman analysis. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze factors influencing the discordance. Results: A total of 174 patients (67 men; mean age 77.9±5.8 years were enrolled. The mean Δ MDRD and C-G was 18.6 (95% limits of agreement 55.3 and -18.2. The mean Δ BIS1 and C-G was 6.1 (25.7 and -13.5, and the mean Δ MDRD and BIS1 was 12.5 (40.6 and -15.6. According to the National Kidney Foundation classification, 61 (35.1% patients were differently staged using MDRD and C-G, while ~20% of patients were differently staged with BIS1 and C-G and MDRD and BIS1. Serum creatinine (SCr and body mass index (BMI had the most important influence on variability of Δ MDRD and C-G (partial R2 37.7% and 28.4%. Variability of Δ BIS1 and C-G was mostly influenced by BMI (34.8% and

  12. Study on characteristic frequencies of ELF emissions and estimation of ion constituents in the vicinity of magnetic equator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, S.; Kasahara, Y.; Goto, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The AKEBONO satellite has been operated continuously over 2 cycles of solar activity. Long-term observation data obtained by the AKEBONO satellite is very valuable to clarify plasma dynamics in the magnetosphere. Recently, the mechanism of wave-particle interaction around the radiation belt has attracted considerable attention. The ELF receiver, which is a sub-system of the VLF instruments onboard AKEBONO, measures waveforms below 50Hz for one component of electric field and three components of magnetic field, or waveforms below 100Hz for one component of electric and magnetic field, respectively. It was reported that ion cyclotron waves were observed near magnetic equator by the receiver [1] . It is well known that ion cyclotron wave generally propagates with a left-handed circularly polarization, but there exists right-handed polarized ion cyclotron wave below a characteristic frequency called 'crossover' in the presence of two or more kinds of ions such as oxygen and helium ions besides proton. As the crossover frequency can be derived theoretically from relative constituents of ions in plasma, it is possible to estimate the ion constituents by identifying the crossover frequency observationally. In this study, we analyze polarization of the ion cyclotron waves observed around the magnetic equator by the ELF receiver onboard AKEBONO, and report an example of ion cyclotron wave whose polarization changes from left-handed to right-handed at crossover frequency. As a next step, we estimate the ion constituents according to the polarization analysis. Furthermore, these phenomena sometimes have characteristic lower cut-off frequencies changing along the trajectories of Akebono. According to our work, it was found that the cutoff frequency is frequently in agreement with 1/n of proton's cyclotron frequency, where "n" is integer. The lower cut-off of ion cyclotron wave can be theoretically derived considering certain ion constituents of the background cold plasma

  13. Live above- and belowground biomass of a Mozambican evergreen forest: a comparison of estimates based on regression equations and biomass expansion factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarquinio Mateus Magalhães

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Biomass regression equations are claimed to yield the most accurate biomass estimates than biomass expansion factors (BEFs. Yet, national and regional biomass estimates are generally calculated based on BEFs, especially when using national forest inventory data. Comparison of regression equations based and BEF-based biomass estimates are scarce. Thus, this study was intended to compare these two commonly used methods for estimating tree and forest biomass with regard to errors and biases. Methods The data were collected in 2012 and 2014. In 2012, a two-phase sampling design was used to fit tree component biomass regression models and determine tree BEFs. In 2014, additional trees were felled outside sampling plots to estimate the biases associated with regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates; those estimates were then compared in terms of the following sources of error: plot selection and variability, biomass model, model parameter estimates, and residual variability around model prediction. Results The regression equation based below-, aboveground and whole tree biomass stocks were, approximately, 7.7, 8.5 and 8.3 % larger than the BEF-based ones. For the whole tree biomass stock, the percentage of the total error attributed to first phase (random plot selection and variability was 90 and 88 % for regression- and BEF-based estimates, respectively, being the remaining attributed to biomass models (regression and BEF models, respectively. The percent bias of regression equation based and BEF-based biomass estimates for the whole tree biomass stock were −2.7 and 5.4 %, respectively. The errors due to model parameter estimates, those due to residual variability around model prediction, and the percentage of the total error attributed to biomass model were larger for BEF models (than for regression models, except for stem and stem wood components. Conclusions The regression equation based biomass stocks were found to

  14. Application of the Backward-Smoothing Extended Kalman Filter to Attitude Estimation and Prediction using Radar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    coordinates is constant. Therefore, it is preferable to work in the body-fixed referenced frame, where the inertia tensor will be invariable over...Bayesian least squared error (BLSE) estimator, also known as the minimum mean-square error ( MMSE ) estimator, are equivalent when process and measurement...likelihood estimator (MLE) described previously. For random parameters, the counterpart of the LS estimator is the minimum mean square error ( MMSE

  15. Estimates of the stabilization rate as t→∞ of solutions of the first mixed problem for a quasilinear system of second-order parabolic equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozhevnikova, L M; Mukminov, F Kh

    2000-01-01

    A quasilinear system of parabolic equations with energy inequality is considered in a cylindrical domain {t>0}xΩ. In a broad class of unbounded domains Ω two geometric characteristics of a domain are identified which determine the rate of convergence to zero as t→∞ of the L 2 -norm of a solution. Under additional assumptions on the coefficients of the quasilinear system estimates of the derivatives and uniform estimates of the solution are obtained; they are proved to be best possible in the order of convergence to zero in the case of one semilinear equation

  16. Hui and Walter's latent-class model extended to estimate diagnostic test properties from surveillance data: a latent model for latent data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Mairead L; Handel, Ian G; Glass, Elizabeth J; Woolliams, John A; de Clare Bronsvoort, B Mark; McBride, Stewart H; Skuce, Robin A; Allen, Adrian R; McDowell, Stanley W J; Bishop, Stephen C

    2015-07-07

    Diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity are probabilistic estimates with far reaching implications for disease control, management and genetic studies. In the absence of 'gold standard' tests, traditional Bayesian latent class models may be used to assess diagnostic test accuracies through the comparison of two or more tests performed on the same groups of individuals. The aim of this study was to extend such models to estimate diagnostic test parameters and true cohort-specific prevalence, using disease surveillance data. The traditional Hui-Walter latent class methodology was extended to allow for features seen in such data, including (i) unrecorded data (i.e. data for a second test available only on a subset of the sampled population) and (ii) cohort-specific sensitivities and specificities. The model was applied with and without the modelling of conditional dependence between tests. The utility of the extended model was demonstrated through application to bovine tuberculosis surveillance data from Northern and the Republic of Ireland. Simulation coupled with re-sampling techniques, demonstrated that the extended model has good predictive power to estimate the diagnostic parameters and true herd-level prevalence from surveillance data. Our methodology can aid in the interpretation of disease surveillance data, and the results can potentially refine disease control strategies.

  17. Using structural equation modelling to jointly estimate maternal and fetal effects on birthweight in the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrington, Nicole M; Freathy, Rachel M; Neale, Michael C; Evans, David M

    2018-02-13

    To date, 60 genetic variants have been robustly associated with birthweight. It is unclear whether these associations represent the effect of an individual's own genotype on their birthweight, their mother's genotype, or both. We demonstrate how structural equation modelling (SEM) can be used to estimate both maternal and fetal effects when phenotype information is present for individuals in two generations and genotype information is available on the older individual. We conduct an extensive simulation study to assess the bias, power and type 1 error rates of the SEM and also apply the SEM to birthweight data in the UK Biobank study. Unlike simple regression models, our approach is unbiased when there is both a maternal and a fetal effect. The method can be used when either the individual's own phenotype or the phenotype of their offspring is not available, and allows the inclusion of summary statistics from additional cohorts where raw data cannot be shared. We show that the type 1 error rate of the method is appropriate, and that there is substantial statistical power to detect a genetic variant that has a moderate effect on the phenotype and reasonable power to detect whether it is a fetal and/or a maternal effect. We also identify a subset of birthweight-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that have opposing maternal and fetal effects in the UK Biobank. Our results show that SEM can be used to estimate parameters that would be difficult to quantify using simple statistical methods alone. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  18. Estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in children. The average between a cystatin C- and a creatinine-based equation improves estimation of GFR in both children and adults and enables diagnosing Shrunken Pore Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leion, Felicia; Hegbrant, Josefine; den Bakker, Emil; Jonsson, Magnus; Abrahamson, Magnus; Nyman, Ulf; Björk, Jonas; Lindström, Veronica; Larsson, Anders; Bökenkamp, Arend; Grubb, Anders

    2017-09-01

    Estimating glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in adults by using the average of values obtained by a cystatin C- (eGFR cystatin C ) and a creatinine-based (eGFR creatinine ) equation shows at least the same diagnostic performance as GFR estimates obtained by equations using only one of these analytes or by complex equations using both analytes. Comparison of eGFR cystatin C and eGFR creatinine plays a pivotal role in the diagnosis of Shrunken Pore Syndrome, where low eGFR cystatin C compared to eGFR creatinine has been associated with higher mortality in adults. The present study was undertaken to elucidate if this concept can also be applied in children. Using iohexol and inulin clearance as gold standard in 702 children, we studied the diagnostic performance of 10 creatinine-based, 5 cystatin C-based and 3 combined cystatin C-creatinine eGFR equations and compared them to the result of the average of 9 pairs of a eGFR cystatin C and a eGFR creatinine estimate. While creatinine-based GFR estimations are unsuitable in children unless calibrated in a pediatric or mixed pediatric-adult population, cystatin C-based estimations in general performed well in children. The average of a suitable creatinine-based and a cystatin C-based equation generally displayed a better diagnostic performance than estimates obtained by equations using only one of these analytes or by complex equations using both analytes. Comparing eGFR cystatin and eGFR creatinine may help identify pediatric patients with Shrunken Pore Syndrome.

  19. Meta-analysis of proportion estimates of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in East Africa hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonda, Tolbert; Kumburu, Happiness; van Zwetselaar, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big the prob......Background: A high proportion of Extended-Spectrum-Beta-Lactamase (ESBL) producing Enterobacteriaceae is causing common infections in all regions of the world. The burden of antibiotic resistance due to ESBL in East Africa is large but information is scarce and thus it is unclear how big...

  20. Criterion for the simultaneous selection of a working correlation structure and either generalized estimating equations or the quadratic inference function approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgate, Philip M

    2014-05-01

    Generalized estimating equations (GEE) are commonly used for the marginal analysis of correlated data, although the quadratic inference function (QIF) approach is an alternative that is increasing in popularity. This method optimally combines distinct sets of unbiased estimating equations that are based upon a working correlation structure, therefore asymptotically increasing or maintaining estimation efficiency relative to GEE. However, in finite samples, additional estimation variability arises when combining these sets of estimating equations, and therefore the QIF approach is not guaranteed to work as well as GEE. Furthermore, estimation efficiency can be improved for both analysis methods by accurate modeling of the correlation structure. Our goal is to improve parameter estimation, relative to existing methods, by simultaneously selecting a working correlation structure and choosing between GEE and two versions of the QIF approach. To do this, we propose the use of a criterion based upon the trace of the empirical covariance matrix (TECM). To make GEE and both QIF versions directly comparable for any given working correlation structure, the proposed TECM utilizes a penalty to account for the finite-sample variance inflation that can occur with either version of the QIF approach. Via a simulation study and in application to a longitudinal study, we show that penalizing the variance inflation that occurs with the QIF approach is necessary and that the proposed criterion works very well. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The Performance of Five Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis Prediction Equations against Dual X-ray Absorptiometry in Estimating Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass in an Adult Australian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Solomon C Y; Powell, Alice; Khow, Kareeann S F; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2016-03-29

    Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) is a diagnostic criterion for sarcopenia. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) offers a bedside approach to measure ASM but the performance of BIA prediction equations (PE) varies with ethnicities and body composition. We aim to validate the performance of five PEs in estimating ASM against estimation by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We recruited 195 healthy adult Australians and ASM was measured using single-frequency BIA. Bland-Altman analysis was used to assess the predictive accuracy of ASM as determined by BIA against DXA. Precision (root mean square error (RMSE)) and bias (mean error (ME)) were calculated according to the method of Sheiner and Beal. Four PEs (except that by Kim) showed ASM values that correlated strongly with ASMDXA (r ranging from 0.96 to 0.97, p < 0.001). The Sergi equation performed the best with the lowest ME of -1.09 kg (CI: -0.84--1.34, p < 0.001) and the RMSE was 2.09 kg (CI: 1.72-2.47). In men, the Kyle equation performed better with the lowest ME (-0.32 kg (CI: -0.66-0.02) and RMSE (1.54 kg (CI: 1.14-1.93)). The Sergi equation is applicable in adult Australians (Caucasian) whereas the Kyle equation can be considered in males. The need remains to validate PEs in other ethnicities and to develop equations suitable for multi-frequency BIA.

  2. Quantitative estimation of nonmonotonic residual stress depth-profiles using an extended Kypris-Jiles model of the magnetic Barkhausen noise spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaosa, Aitor; Gurruchaga, Kizkitza; Arizti, Fernando; Martínez-de-Guerenu, Ane

    2018-01-01

    Using nondestructive techniques to quantitatively estimate residual stresses along the depth is necessary to improve the ability to predict the real fatigue life of pieces for many applications. Magnetic Barkhausen noise has been proven to successfully estimate the residual stress at the surface produced by machining, plastic deformation, phase transformation or surface treatments such as shot peening, also allowing one to obtain information of the residual stress depth-profile in shot peened pieces which presented similar depth-profile shapes. However, residual stress depth-profiles with nonmonotonic or different shapes have not been successfully estimated. In the present study, an extended approach is developed in order to estimate these stresses independent of the shape of the residual stress depth-profile. The approach proposed here improves an existing model of the Barkhausen noise spectrum (Kypris-Jiles model) by adding the effect of the attenuation of the applied magnetic field on the Barkhausen noise. This extended approach is used to estimate the residual stress depth-profiles of samples with different depth-profiles using a calibration process. The approach is validated by estimating the residual stress depth-profiles, with errors smaller than 70 MPa in a depth of 130 μm, in all the samples studied.

  3. A new method to estimate doses to the normal tissues after past extended and involved field radiotherapy for Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Lundemann, Michael; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2015-01-01

    with Hodgkin lymphoma was used. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For 46 model patients, 29 organs at risk (OARs) were contoured and seven treatment fields reconstructed (mantle, mediastinal, right/left neck, right/left axillary, and spleen field). Extended and involved field RT were simulated by generating RT plans...

  4. Biorefining of wheat straw: accounting for the distribution of mineral elements in pretreated biomass by an extended pretreatment – severity equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    ) Silicon, iron, copper, aluminum correlated with lignin and cellulose levels, but the levels of these constituents showed no severity-dependent trends. For the first group, an expanded pretreatment-severity equation, containing a specific factor for each constituent, accounting for variability due...

  5. Comparative Performance of Creatinine-Based Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Equations in the Malays: A Pilot Study in Tertiary Hospital in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maisarah Jalalonmuhali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To validate the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR equations in Malay population attending our hospital in comparison with radiolabeled measured GFR. Methods. A cross-sectional study recruiting volunteered patients in the outpatient setting. Chromium EDTA (51Cr-EDTA was used as measured GFR. The predictive capabilities of Cockcroft-Gault equation corrected for body surface area (CGBSA, four-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (4-MDRD, and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equations were calculated. Results. A total of 51 subjects were recruited with mean measured GFR 42.04 (17.70–111.10 ml/min/1.73 m2. Estimated GFR based on CGBSA, 4-MDRD, and CKD-EPI were 40.47 (16.52–115.52, 35.90 (14.00–98.00, and 37.24 (14.00–121.00, respectively. Higher accuracy was noted in 4-MDRD equations throughout all GFR groups except for subgroup of GFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 where CGBSA was better. Conclusions. The 4-MDRD equation seems to perform better in estimating GFR in Malay CKD patients generally and specifically in the subgroup of GFR < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 and both BMI subgroups.

  6. Comparison of Control Approaches in Genetic Regulatory Networks by Using Stochastic Master Equation Models, Probabilistic Boolean Network Models and Differential Equation Models and Estimated Error Analyzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Mehmet Umut; Pal, Ranadip

    2011-03-01

    Central dogma of molecular biology states that ``information cannot be transferred back from protein to either protein or nucleic acid''. However, this assumption is not exactly correct in most of the cases. There are a lot of feedback loops and interactions between different levels of systems. These types of interactions are hard to analyze due to the lack of cell level data and probabilistic - nonlinear nature of interactions. Several models widely used to analyze and simulate these types of nonlinear interactions. Stochastic Master Equation (SME) models give probabilistic nature of the interactions in a detailed manner, with a high calculation cost. On the other hand Probabilistic Boolean Network (PBN) models give a coarse scale picture of the stochastic processes, with a less calculation cost. Differential Equation (DE) models give the time evolution of mean values of processes in a highly cost effective way. The understanding of the relations between the predictions of these models is important to understand the reliability of the simulations of genetic regulatory networks. In this work the success of the mapping between SME, PBN and DE models is analyzed and the accuracy and affectivity of the control policies generated by using PBN and DE models is compared.

  7. Evaluation of prediction equations to estimate gross, digestible, and metabolizable energy content of maize dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for swine based on chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to cross-validate prediction equations to estimate the concentration of gross energy (GE), digestible energy (DE), and metabolizable energy (ME) among sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with variable chemical composition in growing pigs. Publ...

  8. Extending the Riemann-Solver-Free High-Order Space-Time Discontinuous Galerkin Cell Vertex Scheme (DG-CVS) to Solve Compressible Magnetohydrodynamics Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics,” J. Com- put. Phys., Vol. 153, No. 2, 1999, pp. 334–352. [14] Tang, H.-Z. and Xu, K., “A high-order gas -kinetic method for...notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...Riemann-solver-free spacetime discontinuous Galerkin method for general conservation laws to solve compressible magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations. The

  9. Allometric Equations for Estimating Compartment Biomass and Stem Volume in Mature Hybrid Poplars: General or Site-Specific?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Fortier

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the extent to which general or site-specific allometric equations, using diameter at breast height (DBH as a predictor, are more accurate for estimating stem volume, stem biomass, branch biomass, aboveground woody biomass, and coarse root biomass in 14 year-old plantations of Populus canadensis × Populus maximowiczii (clone DN × M-915508 located along an environmental gradient in southern Québec (eastern Canada. The effect of tree size and site on stem wood basic density, moisture content, and proportion of branch biomass was also evaluated. For stem volume, stem biomass, and aboveground biomass, site-specific and general models had comparable fit and accuracy, but lower Akaike’s Information Criterion (AICc values were observed for the general models. For the branch and coarse root biomass, higher fit and accuracy and lower AICc values were observed for the site-specific models. Allometric trajectory changes (plastic allometry across sites were mainly observed for coarse root biomass, branch biomass, and stem volume. On the low fertility site, allocation was increased to coarse roots and decreased to stem volume. Site-specific tradeoffs between tree architecture and stem wood density explained the relatively invariant allometry for the whole aboveground woody biomass across the plantation sites. On the high fertility sites, basic wood density was the lowest and declined as tree DBH increased. At all sites, stem wood moisture content and the proportion of branch biomass increased with DBH. Overall, this study showed that biomass allometry, tree architecture, and biomass quality are a function of both tree size and plantation environment in hybrid poplar. Allometric model selection (site-specific or general should depend on the objective pursued (evaluation of yield, nutrient budget, carbon stocks.

  10. Rapid Estimation of Aircraft Performance Models using Differential Vortex Panel Method and Extended Kalman Filter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The problem of estimating the aerodynamic models for flight control of damaged aircraft using an innovative differential vortex lattice method tightly coupled with...

  11. Rational extended thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Ingo

    1998-01-01

    Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high­ frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...

  12. Imprecision of urinary iothalamate clearance as a gold-standard measure of GFR decreases the diagnostic accuracy of kidney function estimating equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Yuen-Ting Diana; Stevens, Lesley A; Selvin, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yaping Lucy; Greene, Tom; Van Lente, Frederick; Levey, Andrew S; Coresh, Josef

    2010-07-01

    Evaluating the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) derived from serum creatinine (SCr) and serum cystatin C (SCysC) equations requires gold-standard measures of GFR. However, the influence of imprecise measured GFRs (mGFRs) on estimates of equation error is unknown. Diagnostic test study. 1,995 participants from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study and African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) with at least 2 baseline mGFRs from iodine 125-iothalamate urinary clearances, 1 standardized SCr value, and 1 SCysC value. eGFRs calculated using the 4-variable isotope-dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS)-traceable MDRD Study equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) SCysC equation, the CKD-EPI SCr-SCysC equation, and mGFRs collected from another prerandomization visit. A single reference mGFR, average of 2, and average of 3 mGFRs; additional analysis limited to consistent mGFRs (difference gold standard (1 - P(30)). However, improving the precision of the reference test from a single mGFR to the average of 3 consistent mGFRs decreased these error estimates (1 - P(30)) to 8.0%, 12.5%, and 3.9%, respectively. Study population limited to those with CKD. Imprecision in gold-standard measures of GFR contribute to an appreciable proportion of the cases in which eGFR and mGFR differ by >30%. Reducing and quantifying errors in gold-standard measurements of GFR is critical to fully estimating the accuracy of GFR estimates.

  13. Estimating glomerular filtration rate by serum creatinine or/and cystatin C equations: An analysis of multi-centre Chinese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xiaoshuang; Liu, Xun; Song, Dan; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Zhu, Bei; Wei, Lu; Pei, Xiaohua; Wu, Jianqing; Lou, Tanqi; Zhao, Weihong

    2016-05-01

    Various equations based on serum creatinine or/and cystatin C, required further validation in a Chinese population. We compared the performance of six Chinese equations (Mascr, Peiscr, Macys, Fengcys, Mascr-cys and Fengscr-cys) with the CKD-EPI equations in multi-centre Chinese subjects and evaluated their applicability in clinical practice. A total of 1522 adult patients from four different hospitals of China were enrolled in the study. (99m) Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging was used as the reference GFR (rGFR), and serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured by standardized assays. An optimal score system was implemented in the study. The average rGFR of recruited subjects was 67.30±28.89 mL/min per 1.73m(2) . All estimated GFR (eGFR) correlated well with rGFR. In accordance with Bland-Altman analysis, the Fengscr-cys equations achieved optimal overall performance (score 14 vs 0-6), with least bias (median difference, -0.57 mL/min per 1.73m(2) ; median absolute difference, 8.83 mL/min per 1.73m(2) ), best precision (17.99 mL/min per 1.73m(2) ), highest accuracy (percentage of eGFR within 15%, 30% and 50% of the rGFR (P15 , P30 and P50 ; 49.7%, 78.7% and 91.8%, respectively); root-mean-square-error (RMSE, 16.28)). The Fengcys equation, a typical cystatin C based equation, was another well-behaved formula with an impressive performance. The Ma equations performed much poorer than the CKD-EPI equations. Consistent results can be observed in the GFR- /age- and sex-specific subgroups, while none equation yielded ideal accuracy in GFR<60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) subgroup. The Fengscr-cys equation appeared to achieve the best performance for GFR estimation in overall Chinese adult patients. However, further research is warranted to improve the accuracy of available equations in GFR less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) individuals. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  14. A Priori Estimates of Solution of a Homogeneous Boundary Value Problem for Parabolic Type Equations by the Discontinuous Galerkin Method on Staggered Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan V. Zhalnin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In this paper, we present a priori error analysis of the solution of a homogeneous boundary value problem for a second-order differential equation by the discontinuous Galerkin method on staggered grids. Materials and Methods: This study is based on the unified hp-version error analysis of local discontinuous Galerkin method proposed by Castillo et al. [Optimal a priori error estimates for the hp-version of the local discontinuous Galerkin method for convection-diffusion problems, 2002]. The purpose of this paper is to present a new approach to the error analysis of the solution of parabolic equations by the discontinuous Galerkin method on staggered grids. Results: We suggest that approximation errors depend on the characteristic size of the cells and the degree of polynomials used in the basis functions. The necessary lemmas are formulated for the problem solution. The complete proof of the lemmas formulated is carried out. We formulated and proved a theorem, in which a priori error estimates are given for solving parabolic equations using the discontinuous Galerkin method on staggered grids Discussion and Conclusions: The obtained results are consistent with similar studies of other authors and complement them. Further work on this topic involves the study of diffusion-type equations of order higher than the first and the production of a posteriori error estimates.

  15. Developing and Validating an Age-Independent Equation Using Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimation of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Establishing a Cutoff for Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Yamada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean mass (ALM estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1 to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA based on theoretical models, and (2 to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese population. Methods: We measured height (Ht, weight, and ALM obtained using DXA and a standing-posture 8-electrode MF-BIA (5, 50, 250 kHz in 756 Japanese individuals aged 18 to 86-years-old (222 men and 301 women as developing equation group and 97 men and 136 women as a cross validation group. The traditional impedance index (Ht2/Z50 and impedance ratio of high and low frequency (Z250/Z5 of hand to foot values were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with ALM as dependent variable in men and women separately. Results: We created the following equations: ALM = (0.6947 × (Ht2/Z50 + (−55.24 × (Z250/Z5 + (−10,940 × (1/Z50 + 51.33 for men, and ALM = (0.6144 × (Ht2/Z50 + (−36.61 × (Z250/Z5 + (−9332 × (1/Z50 + 37.91 for women. Additionally, we conducted measurements in 1624 men and 1368 women aged 18 to 40 years to establish sarcopenia cutoff values in the Japanese population. The mean values minus 2 standard deviations

  16. A stability estimate for an inverse problem for the Schrödinger equation in a magnetic field from partial boundary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Joud, Hajer

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study the inverse boundary value problem of determining the magnetic field and the electric potential of the magnetic Schrödinger equation from the Dirichlet to Neumann map when the boundary measurement is taken on any open subset Γ 0 of the boundary. Assuming that in a neighborhood of the boundary, the potentials coefficients are known, we prove the logarithmic stability estimate. The proofs involve the use of the complex geometrical optics solutions of the magnetic Schrödinger equation

  17. Developing and Validating an Age-Independent Equation Using Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis for Estimation of Appendicular Skeletal Muscle Mass and Establishing a Cutoff for Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Nishizawa, Miyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoka; Kasahara, Yasuhiro; Shindo, Mikio; Miyachi, Motohiko; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2017-07-19

    Background: Appendicular skeletal muscle (or lean) mass (ALM) estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is considered to be a preferred method for sarcopenia studies. However, DXA is expensive, has limited portability, and requires radiation exposure. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is inexpensive, easy to use, and portable; thus BIA might be useful in sarcopenia investigations. However, a large variety of models have been commercially supplied by different companies, and for most consumer products, the equations estimating ALM are not disclosed. It is therefore difficult to use these equations for research purposes. In particular, the BIA equation is often age-dependent, which leads to fundamental difficulty in examining age-related ALM loss. The aims of the current study were as follows: (1) to develop and validate an equation to estimate ALM using multi-frequency BIA (MF-BIA) based on theoretical models, and (2) to establish sarcopenia cutoff values using the equation for the Japanese population. Methods: We measured height (Ht), weight, and ALM obtained using DXA and a standing-posture 8-electrode MF-BIA (5, 50, 250 kHz) in 756 Japanese individuals aged 18 to 86-years-old (222 men and 301 women as developing equation group and 97 men and 136 women as a cross validation group). The traditional impedance index (Ht²/Z 50 ) and impedance ratio of high and low frequency (Z 250 /Z₅) of hand to foot values were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were conducted with ALM as dependent variable in men and women separately. Results: We created the following equations: ALM = (0.6947 × (Ht²/Z 50 )) + (-55.24 × (Z 250 /Z₅)) + (-10,940 × (1/Z 50 )) + 51.33 for men, and ALM = (0.6144 × (Ht²/Z 50 )) + (-36.61 × (Z 250 /Z₅)) + (-9332 × (1/Z 50 )) + 37.91 for women. Additionally, we conducted measurements in 1624 men and 1368 women aged 18 to 40 years to establish sarcopenia cutoff values in the Japanese population. The mean values minus 2

  18. Continuous and Lp estimates for the complex Monge-Ampère equation on bounded domains in ℂn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Darko

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous solutions with continuous data and Lp solutions with Lp data are obtained for the complex Monge-Ampère equation on bounded domains, without requiring any smoothness of the domains.

  19. Estimating the Permeability of Carbonate Rocks from the Fractal Properties of Moldic Pores using the Kozeny-Carman Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Amosu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir modeling of carbonate rocks requires a proper understanding of the pore space distribution and its relationship to permeability. Using a pigeonhole fractal model we characterize the fractal geometry of moldic pore spaces and extract the fractal dimension. We apply the Kozeny-Carman equation and equations relating the tortuosity and the porosity to the fractal dimension to derive an empirical relationship between permeability and porosity.

  20. Regression equations for estimation of annual peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas using an L-moment-based, PRESS-minimized, residual-adjusted approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2009-01-01

    Annual peak-streamflow frequency estimates are needed for flood-plain management; for objective assessment of flood risk; for cost-effective design of dams, levees, and other flood-control structures; and for design of roads, bridges, and culverts. Annual peak-streamflow frequency represents the peak streamflow for nine recurrence intervals of 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 250, and 500 years. Common methods for estimation of peak-streamflow frequency for ungaged or unmonitored watersheds are regression equations for each recurrence interval developed for one or more regions; such regional equations are the subject of this report. The method is based on analysis of annual peak-streamflow data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations (stations). Beginning in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Department of Transportation and in partnership with Texas Tech University, began a 3-year investigation concerning the development of regional equations to estimate annual peak-streamflow frequency for undeveloped watersheds in Texas. The investigation focuses primarily on 638 stations with 8 or more years of data from undeveloped watersheds and other criteria. The general approach is explicitly limited to the use of L-moment statistics, which are used in conjunction with a technique of multi-linear regression referred to as PRESS minimization. The approach used to develop the regional equations, which was refined during the investigation, is referred to as the 'L-moment-based, PRESS-minimized, residual-adjusted approach'. For the approach, seven unique distributions are fit to the sample L-moments of the data for each of 638 stations and trimmed means of the seven results of the distributions for each recurrence interval are used to define the station specific, peak-streamflow frequency. As a first iteration of regression, nine weighted-least-squares, PRESS-minimized, multi-linear regression equations are computed using the watershed

  1. External validation of a forest inventory and analysis volume equation and comparisons with estimates from multiple stem-profile models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Adam M. Saunders

    2009-01-01

    Sound estimation procedures are desideratum for generating credible population estimates to evaluate the status and trends in resource conditions. As such, volume estimation is an integral component of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program's reporting. In effect, reliable volume estimation procedures are...

  2. Estimating calibration equations for predicting Ra-226 soil concentrations using RTRAK in-situ detectors at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, Umtra site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R. O.; Meyer, H. R.; Miller, M. L.; Begley, C.

    1988-06-01

    This report describes a field study conducted at the Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, UMTRA site to obtain data for calibrating the RTRAK Sodium Iodide (NaI) detectors for estimating concentrations of Ra-226 in surface soil. The statistical analyses indicate that the data are useful for estimating the calibration equations. Several statistical models are used to evaluate which model is best as a basis for the calibration equations. A procedure is provided for using the estimated calibration equations and extensive RTRAK measurements to estimate the average Ra-226 concentration on 100-m 2 land areas to determine whether additional remedial action is needed. The UMTRA Project office proposes to use the RTRAK for cleanup verification of surface Ra-226 contamination. The system enables 100% coverage of areas having undergone remedial action. The sensitivity of the system enables verification at less than 5 pCi/g averaged over 100 m 2 , as specified by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards (40 CFR Part 192). This analysis demonstrates RTRAK's ability to meet reasonable standards of statistical accuracy, using commonly accepted procedures. 5 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  3. Creatinine-or cystatin C-based equations to estimate glomerular filtration in the general population: impact on the epidemiology of chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major issue in public health. Its prevalence has been calculated using estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by the creatinine-based equations developed in the Modified Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) study. Recently, new equations based either on cystatin C (CKD-EPI Cys) or both cystatin and creatinine (CKD-EPI mix) have been proposed by the CKD-EPI consortium. The aim of this study was to measure the difference in the prevalence of stage 3 CKD, defined as an estimated GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, in a population using these four equations. Methods CKD screening was performed in the Province of Liège, Belgium. On a voluntary basis, people aged over 50 years have been screened. GFR was estimated by the four equations. Stage 3 CKD was defined as a GFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results The population screened consisted of 4189 people (47% were men, mean age 63 ± 7y). Their mean serum creatinine and plasma cystatin C levels were 0.88 ± 0.21 mg/dL and 0.85 ± 0.17 mg/L, respectively. The prevalence of CKD in this population using the MDRD, the CKD-EPI, the CKD-EPI Cys and the CKD-EPI mix equations was 13%, 9.8%, 4.7% and 5%, respectively. The prevalence of CKD was significantly higher with the creatinine-based (MDRD and the CKD-EPI) equations compared to the new cystatin C-based equations. Conclusions Prevalence of CKD varies strongly depending on the method used to estimate GFR. Such discrepancies are of importance and must be confirmed and explained by additional studies, notably by studies using GFR measured with a reference method. Trial registration B70720071509 PMID:23496839

  4. Discrete factor approximations in simultaneous equation models: estimating the impact of a dummy endogenous variable on a continuous outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, T A

    1999-10-01

    This paper contains a Monte Carlo evaluation of estimators used to control for endogeneity of dummy explanatory variables in continuous outcome regression models. When the true model has bivariate normal disturbances, estimators using discrete factor approximations compare favorably to efficient estimators in terms of precision and bias; these approximation estimators dominate all the other estimators examined when the disturbances are non-normal. The experiments also indicate that one should liberally add points of support to the discrete factor distribution. The paper concludes with an application of the discrete factor approximation to the estimation of the impact of marriage on wages.

  5. An Estimation of a Nonlinear Dynamic Process Using Latent Class Extended Mixed Models: Affect Profiles After Terrorist Attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burro, Roberto; Raccanello, Daniela; Pasini, Margherita; Brondino, Margherita

    2018-01-01

    Conceptualizing affect as a complex nonlinear dynamic process, we used latent class extended mixed models (LCMM) to understand whether there were unobserved groupings in a dataset including longitudinal measures. Our aim was to identify affect profiles over time in people vicariously exposed to terrorism, studying their relations with personality traits. The participants were 193 university students who completed online measures of affect during the seven days following two terrorist attacks (Paris, November 13, 2015; Brussels, March 22, 2016); Big Five personality traits; and antecedents of affect. After selecting students whose negative affect was influenced by the two attacks (33%), we analysed the data with the LCMM package of R. We identified two affect profiles, characterized by different trends over time: The first profile comprised students with lower positive affect and higher negative affect compared to the second profile. Concerning personality traits, conscientious-ness was lower for the first profile compared to the second profile, and vice versa for neuroticism. Findings are discussed for both their theoretical and applied relevance.

  6. Measurement-based perturbation theory and differential equation parameter estimation for high-precision high-resolution reconstruction of the Earth's gravitational field from satellite tracking measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Peiliang

    2016-01-01

    The numerical integration method has been routinely used to produce global standard gravitational models from satellite tracking measurements of CHAMP/GRACE types. It is implemented by solving the differential equations of the partial derivatives of a satellite orbit with respect to the unknown harmonic coefficients under the conditions of zero initial values. From the mathematical point of view, satellite gravimetry from satellite tracking is the problem of estimating unknown parameters in t...

  7. Effects of graded concentrations of supplemental lead on lead concentrations in tissues of pigs and prediction equations for estimating dietary lead intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondreddy Eswar Reddy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of graded dietary lead (Pb concentrations on body weight and Pb concentrations in blood, hair, soft tissues, and urine from pigs and to generate equations for estimating daily Pb intake. Sixteen barrows with initial body weight 36.3 kg (standard deviation = 2.3 were allotted to four dietary treatments that consisted of graded supplemental Pb concentrations (0, 10, 25, and 250 mg/kg of diet. Daily feed allowances for each pig were 1 kg for first two weeks and 2 kg for last two weeks. The hair and blood of pigs were collected on d 14 and 28. At the end of experiment, the pigs were euthanized, and the liver, kidneys, muscle, and urine samples were collected. The prediction equations for estimating daily Pb intake of pigs were generated using Pb concentration of blood, hair, tissues, or urine as an independent variable. The Pb concentrations in the blood, hair, liver, kidneys, muscle, and urine linearly increased (P  0.83; P 0.83, except the equation using Pb concentration in the muscle as an independent variable. In conclusion, the dietary Pb concentration was highly correlated with Pb concentrations in the blood, hair, soft tissues, and urine of pigs. The total dietary Pb intake can be estimated from the Pb concentrations in the blood, hair, soft tissues, or urine for pigs.

  8. Is the new Mayo Clinic Quadratic equation useful for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate in type 2 diabetic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontseré, Néstor; Bonal, Jordi; Salinas, Isabel; de Arellano, Manel Ramírez; Rios, Jose; Torres, Ferran; Sanmartí, Anna; Romero, Ramón

    2008-12-01

    To test the Mayo Clinic Quadratic (MCQ) equation against isotopic glomerular filtration rate, compared with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and the Cockcroft-Gault formulas, in type 2 diabetes. Based on values obtained with iothalamate, 118 type 2 diabetic patients were divided into three groups according to renal function: hyperfiltration (26), normal function (56), or chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages 3-4 (36). ANOVA, the Bland-Altman procedure, and Lins coefficient (Rc) were performed to study accuracy. In the hyperfiltration and normal function groups, all prediction equations significantly underestimated the value obtained with isotopic glomerular filtration rate (P equations also presented significant differences with the isotopic method. However, MDRD had a bias of -5.3 (Rc 0.452), Cockcroft-Gault formula -0.2 (Rc 0.471), and the MCQ -4.5 (Rc 0.526). The MCQ and prediction equations proved inaccurate (excessive underestimation) in type 2 diabetic patients with hyperfiltration or normal renal function. With regard to CKD, the results obtained provided no evidence of superiority of the MCQ over the MDRD or the Cockcroft-Gault formula.

  9. Description of Extended Pre-Harvest Pig Salmonella Surveillance-and-Control Programme and its Estimated Effect on Food Safety Related to Pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alban, L.; Barfod, Kristen; Petersen, J. V.

    2010-01-01

    an extended surveillance-and-control programme for Salmonella in finisher pigs, which, to establish equivalence to the Swedish control programme, is intended for implementation on the Danish island, Bornholm. The effect of the programme on food safety was estimated by analysing Salmonella data from pig...... carcasses originating from herds that would have qualified for the programme during 2006–2008. Food safety was interpreted as prevalence of Salmonella on carcasses as well as the estimated number of human cases of salmonellosis related to pork produced within the programme. Data from the Danish Salmonella......Salmonella in pork can be combated during pre- or post-harvest. For large slaughterhouses, post-harvest measures like decontamination might be cost-effective while this is less likely with small-to-medium sized slaughterhouses. In this study, pre-harvest measures might be more relevant. We describe...

  10. SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfrate, A; Farah, J; Sayah, R; Clairand, I; De Marzi, L; Delacroix, S; Herault, J; Lee, C; Bolch, W

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Development of a parametric equation suitable for a daily use in routine clinic to provide estimates of stray neutron doses in proton therapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) calculations using the UF-NCI 1-year-old phantom were exercised to determine the variation of stray neutron doses as a function of irradiation parameters while performing intracranial treatments. This was done by individually changing the proton beam energy, modulation width, collimator aperture and thickness, compensator thickness and the air gap size while their impact on neutron doses were put into a single equation. The variation of neutron doses with distance from the target volume was also included in it. Then, a first step consisted in establishing the fitting coefficients by using 221 learning data which were neutron absorbed doses obtained with MC simulations while a second step consisted in validating the final equation. Results: The variation of stray neutron doses with irradiation parameters were fitted with linear, polynomial, etc. model while a power-law model was used to fit the variation of stray neutron doses with the distance from the target volume. The parametric equation fitted well MC simulations while establishing fitting coefficients as the discrepancies on the estimate of neutron absorbed doses were within 10%. The discrepancy can reach ∼25% for the bladder, the farthest organ from the target volume. Finally, the validation showed results in compliance with MC calculations since the discrepancies were also within 10% for head-and-neck and thoracic organs while they can reach ∼25%, again for pelvic organs. Conclusion: The parametric equation presents promising results and will be validated for other target sites as well as other facilities to go towards a universal method

  11. Enzymatic creatinine assays allow estimation of glomerular filtration rate in stages 1 and 2 chronic kidney disease using CKD-EPI equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuster, Nils; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Cavalier, Etienne; Bargnoux, Anne-Sophie; Halimi, Jean-Michel; Froissart, Marc; Piéroni, Laurence; Delanaye, Pierre

    2014-01-20

    The National Kidney Disease Education Program group demonstrated that MDRD equation is sensitive to creatinine measurement error, particularly at higher glomerular filtration rates. Thus, MDRD-based eGFR above 60 mL/min/1.73 m² should not be reported numerically. However, little is known about the impact of analytical error on CKD-EPI-based estimates. This study aimed at assessing the impact of analytical characteristics (bias and imprecision) of 12 enzymatic and 4 compensated Jaffe previously characterized creatinine assays on MDRD and CKD-EPI eGFR. In a simulation study, the impact of analytical error was assessed on a hospital population of 24084 patients. Ability using each assay to correctly classify patients according to chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages was evaluated. For eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m², both equations were sensitive to analytical error. Compensated Jaffe assays displayed high bias in this range and led to poorer sensitivity/specificity for classification according to CKD stages than enzymatic assays. As compared to MDRD equation, CKD-EPI equation decreases impact of analytical error in creatinine measurement above 90 mL/min/1.73 m². Compensated Jaffe creatinine assays lead to important errors in eGFR and should be avoided. Accurate enzymatic assays allow estimation of eGFR until 90 mL/min/1.73 m² with MDRD and 120 mL/min/1.73 m² with CKD-EPI equation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of estimated GFR equations based on serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine in patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğaner, Yusuf Çetin; Aydoğan, Ümit; Rohrer, James Edwin; Aydoğdu, Aydoğan; Çaycı, Tuncer; Barçın, Cem; Sağlam, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    Several new equations (GFRCKD-EPI-cr, GFRCKD-EPI-CysC, GFRCKD-EPI Cr+CysC) are used for the calculation of estimated GFR (eGFR) to evaluate renal function. These equations explicitly demonstrate the association of coronary artery disease (CAD) and severe renal impairment cases. However, these equations are considered insufficient to explain the relation with normal or mildly impaired eGFR and CAD. Our hypothesis was to indicate the inversely proportional relationship of eGFR values, calculated by the different equations, with the presence of CAD in patients with normal or mildly impaired renal function. Eighty-eight patients who underwent elective coronary angiographic intervention were enrolled into the study. The study population was divided into two groups based on angiographic documents: patients with normal coronary arteries (CAD-) and patients with CAD (CAD +). These patients were stable and decided to implement angiography for the purpose of suspicion about CAD and control. Since it is thought that eGFR equations based on creatinine are inadequate to determine chronic kidney disease (CKD) and overestimate CKD diagnosis, cystatin C-based equations are considered an alternative. Due to the potential effects of inflammatory events of the markers used in equations, patients with diabetes mellitus, severe CKD, and inflammatory bowel disease were excluded from the study. The average age of all participants was 51.93±9.31 (32-65 years); 80.7% (n=71) was male. A statistical difference was found between the CAD (-) group and the CAD (+) group in terms of the variables of age (45.46±8.48 vs. 54.95±8.11, pequations defined by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology: GFRCKD-EPI-cr (85.86±14.20 vs. 79.45±10.25, p=0.018), GFRCKD-EPI-CysC (58.61±21.87 vs. 100.82±32.00, pequation (OR, 1.059; 95% CI, 1.028 to 1.090, pequations based on cystatin C or combined with creatinine may have superiority to GFR equations based on creatinine alone in CAD patients. However, the

  13. Comparison of equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate in screening for chronic kidney disease in asymptomatic black Africans: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omuse, Geoffrey; Maina, Daniel; Mwangi, Jane; Wambua, Caroline; Kanyua, Alice; Kagotho, Elizabeth; Amayo, Angela; Ojwang, Peter; Erasmus, Rajiv

    2017-12-20

    Several equations have been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The common equations used were derived from populations predominantly comprised of Caucasians with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Some of the equations provide a correction factor for African-Americans due to their relatively increased muscle mass and this has been extrapolated to black Africans. Studies carried out in Africa in patients with CKD suggest that using this correction factor for the black African race may not be appropriate. However, these studies were not carried out in healthy individuals and as such the extrapolation of the findings to an asymptomatic black African population is questionable. We sought to compare the proportion of asymptomatic black Africans reported as having reduced eGFR using various eGFR equations. We further compared the association between known risk factors for CKD with eGFR determined using the different equations. We used participant and laboratory data collected as part of a global reference interval study conducted by the Committee of Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (C-RIDL) under the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC). Serum creatinine values were used to calculate eGFR using the Cockcroft-Gault (CG), re-expressed 4 variable modified diet in renal disease (4v-MDRD), full age spectrum (FAS) and chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equations (CKD-EPI). CKD classification based on eGFR was determined for every participant. A total of 533 participants were included comprising 273 (51.2%) females. The 4v-MDRD equation without correction for race classified the least number of participants (61.7%) as having an eGFR equivalent to CKD stage G1 compared to 93.6% for CKD-EPI with correction for race. Only age had a statistically significant linear association with eGFR across all equations after performing multiple regression analysis. The multiple correlation coefficients for CKD risk factors were higher for

  14. Volume Estimates in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients by the Watson Equation and Bioimpedance Spectroscopy and the Impact on the Kt/Vureacalculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noori, Nazanin; Wald, Ron; Sharma Parpia, Arti; Goldstein, Marc B

    2018-01-01

    Accurate assessment of total body water (TBW) is essential for the evaluation of dialysis adequacy (Kt/V urea ). The Watson formula, which is recommended for the calculation of TBW, was derived in healthy volunteers thereby leading to potentially inaccurate TBW estimates in maintenance hemodialysis recipients. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) may be a robust alternative for the measurement of TBW in hemodialysis recipients. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Watson formula-derived TBW estimates as compared with TBW measured with BIS. Second, we aimed to identify the anthropometric characteristics that are most likely to generate inaccuracy when using the Watson formula to calculate TBW. Finally, we derived novel anthropometric equations for the more accurate estimation of TBW. This was a cross-sectional study of prevalent in-center HD patients at St Michael's Hospital. One hundred eighty-four hemodialysis patients (109 men and 75 women) were evaluated in this study. Anthropometric measurements including weight, height, waist circumference, midarm circumference, and 4-site skinfold (biceps, triceps, subscapular, and suprailiac) thickness were measured; fat mass was measured using the formula by Durnin and Womersley. We measured TBW by BIS using the Body Composition Monitor (Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany). We used the Bland-Altman method to calculate the difference between the TBW derived from the Watson method and the BIS. To derive new equations for TBW estimation, Pearson's correlation coefficients between BIS-TBW (the reference test) and other variables were examined. We used the least squares regression analysis to develop parsimonious equations to predict TBW. TBW values based on the Watson method had a high correlation with BIS-TBW (correlation coefficients = 0.87 and P Watson formula overestimated TBW by 5.1 (4.5-5.8) liters and 3.8 (3.0-4.5) liters, in men and women, respectively. Higher fat mass and waist

  15. Dynamical control of accuracy in the fuzzy Runge-Kutta methods to estimate the solution of a fuzzy differential equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Fariborzi Araghi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a reliable scheme is proposed to solve fuzzy differential equations by fuzzy Runge-Kutta method of order $m$. For this purpose, the stochastic arithmetic and CESTAC method are applied to validate the results. In order to implement the C++ codes, the CADNA library is used. In this case, the optimal step size is found. The examples illustrate the efficiency and importance of using the stochastic arithmetic in place of the floating-point arithmetic.

  16. Multicenter study of creatinine- and/or cystatin C-based equations for estimation of glomerular filtration rates in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-fu Feng

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To establish equations for the estimation of glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs based on serum creatinine (SCr and/or serum cystatin C (SCysC in Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, and to compare the new equations with both the reference GFR (rGFR and the literature equations to evaluate their applicability. METHODS: The 788 Chinese CKD patients were randomly divided into two groups, the training group and the testing group, to establish new eGFR-formulas based on serum CysC and to validate the established formulas, respectively. (99mTc-DTPA clearance (as the rGFR, serum Cr, and serum CysC were determined for all patients, and GFR was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault equation (eGFR1, the MDRD formula (eGFR2, the CKD-EPI formulas (eGFR3, eGFR4, and the Chinese eGFR Investigation Collaboration formulas (eGFR5, eGFR6. The accuracy of each eGFR was compared with the rGFR. RESULTS: The training and testing groups' mean GFRs were 50.84±31.36 mL/min/1.73 m(2 and 54.16±29.45 mL/min/1.73 m(2, respectively. The two newly developed eGFR formulas were fitted using iterative computation: [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Significant correlation was observed between each eGFR and the rGFR. However, proportional errors and constant errors were observed between rGFR and eGFR1, eGFR2, eGFR4, eGFR5 or eGFR6, and constant errors were observed between eGFR3 and rGFR, as revealed by the Passing & Bablok plot analysis. The Bland-Altman analysis illustrated that the 95% limits of agreement of all equations exceeded the previously accepted limits of <60 mL/min •1.73 m(2, except the equations of eGFR7 and eGFR8. CONCLUSION: The newly developed formulas, eGFR7 and eGFR8, provide precise and accurate GFR estimation using serum CysC detection alone or in combination with serum Cr detection. Differences in detection methods should be carefully considered when choosing literature eGFR equations to avoid misdiagnosis and

  17. Journal: A Review of Some Tracer-Test Design Equations for Tracer-Mass Estimation and Sample Collection Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determination of necessary tracer mass, initial sample-collection time, and subsequent sample-collection frequency are the three most difficult aspects to estimate for a proposed tracer test prior to conducting the tracer test. To facilitate tracer-mass estimation, 33 mass-estima...

  18. Methods and equations for estimating aboveground volume, biomass, and carbon for trees in the U.S. forest inventory, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Linda S. Heath; Grant M. Domke; Michael C. Nichols

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program uses numerous models and associated coefficients to estimate aboveground volume, biomass, and carbon for live and standing dead trees for most tree species in forests of the United States. The tree attribute models are coupled with FIA's national inventory of sampled trees to produce estimates of...

  19. Predictive equations over-estimate the resting energy expenditure in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients who are dependent on invasive ventilation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siirala, Waltteri; Olkkola, Klaus T; Noponen, Tommi; Vuori, Arno; Aantaa, Riku

    2010-08-26

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a form of degenerative motor neuron disease. At the end stage of the disease artificial feeding is often required. Nevertheless, very little is known about the energy demand of those ALS patients who are chronically dependent on tracheostomy intermittent positive pressure ventilation. The objective of our study was to clarify the resting energy expenditure (REE) in mechanically ventilated ALS patients. We measured the REE of five ALS patients (four men, one female) twice during a 12 month-period using indirect calorimetry with two sampling flow settings (40 L/min and 80 L/min). The measured REEs (mREE) were compared with values calculated using five different predictive equations. The mean (± SD) of all mREEs was 1130 ± 170 kcal/d. The measurements with different flow settings and at different time instances provided similar results. The mean of mREEs was 33.6% lower, as compared to the mean calculated with five different predictive equations REE (p estimated the REE. The mREE values were significantly lower for every patient than all the predicted ones. Determination of daily nutrition with predictive equations may therefore lead in mis-estimation of energy requirements. Because ALS patients may live years with artificial ventilation their nutritional support should be based on individual measurements. However, further study is needed due to the small number of subjects.

  20. Extending the Collection Duration of Breath Samples for Enteric Methane Emission Estimation Using the SF6 Tracer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Koolaard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The daily sample collection protocol of the sulphur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique for the estimation of methane (CH4 emissions from ruminants may not be practical under extensive grazing systems. Here, under controlled conditions, we evaluated extended periods of sampling as an alternative to daily sample collections. Eight rumen-fistulated cows were housed and fed lucerne silage to achieve common daily feed intakes of 6.4 kg dry matter per cow. Following SF6 permeation tube dosing, eight sampling lines were fitted to the breath collection harness, so that a common gas mix was available to each line. Half of the lines collected samples into PVC yokes using a modified capillary system as commonly used in New Zealand (NZL, and half collected samples into stainless steel cylinders using a ball-bearing flow restrictor as used in Argentina (ARG, all within a 10-day time frame, either daily, across two consecutive 5-day periods or across one 10-day period (in duplicate. The NZL system had greater sampling success (97.3 vs. 79.5% and yielded more consistent CH4 emission estimates than the ARG system. Emission estimates from NZL daily, NZL 5-day and NZL 10-day samplings were 114, 110 and 111 g d−1, respectively. Extended sample collection protocol may be feasible, but definitive evaluation of this alternative as well as sample collection systems is required under grazing situations before a decision on recommendation can be made.

  1. The impact of different GFR estimating equations on the prevalence of CKD and risk groups in a Southeast Asian cohort using the new KDIGO guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitiyakara Chagriya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO group recommended that patients with CKD should be assigned to stages and composite relative risk groups according to GFR (G and proteinuria (A criteria. Asians have among the highest rates of ESRD in the world, but establishing the prevalence and prognosis CKD is a problem for Asian populations since there is no consensus on the best GFR estimating (eGFR equation. We studied the effects of the choice of new Asian and Caucasian eGFR equations on CKD prevalence, stage distribution, and risk categorization using the new KDIGO classification. Methods The prevalence of CKD and composite relative risk groups defined by eGFR from with Chronic Kidney Disease-Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI; standard (S or Chinese(C MDRD; Japanese CKD-EPI (J-EPI, Thai GFR (T-GFR equations were compared in a Thai cohort (n = 5526 Results There was a 7 fold difference in CKD3-5 prevalence between J-EPI and the other Asian eGFR formulae. CKD3-5 prevalence with S-MDRD and CKD-EPI were 2 - 3 folds higher than T-GFR or C-MDRD. The concordance with CKD-EPI to diagnose CKD3-5 was over 90% for T-GFR or C-MDRD, but they only assigned the same CKD stage in 50% of the time. The choice of equation also caused large variations in each composite risk groups especially those with mildly increased risks. Different equations can lead to a reversal of male: female ratios. The variability of different equations is most apparent in older subjects. Stage G3aA1 increased with age and accounted for a large proportion of the differences in CKD3-5 between CKD-EPI, S-MDRD and C-MDRD. Conclusions CKD prevalence, sex ratios, and KDIGO composite risk groupings varied widely depending on the equation used. More studies are needed to define the best equation for Asian populations.

  2. A Carleman estimate and the balancing principle in the quasi-reversibility method for solving the Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hui; Pereverzev, Sergei V; Klibanov, Michael V

    2009-01-01

    The quasi-reversibility method of solving the Cauchy problem for the Laplace equation in a bounded domain Ω is considered. With the help of the Carleman estimation technique improved error and stability bounds in a subdomain Ω σ is a subset of Ω are obtained. This paves the way for the use of the balancing principle for an a posteriori choice of the regularization parameter ε in the quasi-reversibility method. As an adaptive regularization parameter choice strategy, the balancing principle does not require a priori knowledge of either the solution smoothness or a constant K appearing in the stability bound estimation. Nevertheless, this principle allows an a posteriori parameter choice that up to a controllable constant achieves the best accuracy guaranteed by the Carleman estimate

  3. Annual estimates of recharge, quick-flow runoff, and ET for the contiguous U.S. using empirical regression equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, Meredith; Sanford, Ward E.; Senay, Gabriel; Cazenas, J.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents new data-driven, annual estimates of the division of precipitation into the recharge, quick-flow runoff, and evapotranspiration (ET) water budget components for 2000-2013 for the contiguous United States (CONUS). The algorithms used to produce these maps ensure water budget consistency over this broad spatial scale, with contributions from precipitation influx attributed to each component at 800 m resolution. The quick-flow runoff estimates for the contribution to the rapidly varying portion of the hydrograph are produced using data from 1,434 gaged watersheds, and depend on precipitation, soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, and surficial geology type. Evapotranspiration estimates are produced from a regression using water balance data from 679 gaged watersheds and depend on land cover, temperature, and precipitation. The quick-flow and ET estimates are combined to calculate recharge as the remainder of precipitation. The ET and recharge estimates are checked against independent field data, and the results show good agreement. Comparisons of recharge estimates with groundwater extraction data show that in 15% of the country, groundwater is being extracted at rates higher than the local recharge. These maps of the internally consistent water budget components of recharge, quick-flow runoff, and ET, being derived from and tested against data, are expected to provide reliable first-order estimates of these quantities across the CONUS, even where field measurements are sparse.

  4. On the use of the GRACE normal equation of inter-satellite tracking data for estimation of soil moisture and groundwater in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet; Han, Shin-Chan; Decker, Mark; Yeo, In-Young; Kim, Hyungjun

    2018-03-01

    An accurate estimation of soil moisture and groundwater is essential for monitoring the availability of water supply in domestic and agricultural sectors. In order to improve the water storage estimates, previous studies assimilated terrestrial water storage variation (ΔTWS) derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) into land surface models (LSMs). However, the GRACE-derived ΔTWS was generally computed from the high-level products (e.g. time-variable gravity fields, i.e. level 2, and land grid from the level 3 product). The gridded data products are subjected to several drawbacks such as signal attenuation and/or distortion caused by a posteriori filters and a lack of error covariance information. The post-processing of GRACE data might lead to the undesired alteration of the signal and its statistical property. This study uses the GRACE least-squares normal equation data to exploit the GRACE information rigorously and negate these limitations. Our approach combines GRACE's least-squares normal equation (obtained from ITSG-Grace2016 product) with the results from the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE) model to improve soil moisture and groundwater estimates. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an importance of using the GRACE raw data. The GRACE-combined (GC) approach is developed for optimal least-squares combination and the approach is applied to estimate the soil moisture and groundwater over 10 Australian river basins. The results are validated against the satellite soil moisture observation and the in situ groundwater data. Comparing to CABLE, we demonstrate the GC approach delivers evident improvement of water storage estimates, consistently from all basins, yielding better agreement on seasonal and inter-annual timescales. Significant improvement is found in groundwater storage while marginal improvement is observed in surface soil moisture estimates.

  5. On the use of the GRACE normal equation of inter-satellite tracking data for estimation of soil moisture and groundwater in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tangdamrongsub

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An accurate estimation of soil moisture and groundwater is essential for monitoring the availability of water supply in domestic and agricultural sectors. In order to improve the water storage estimates, previous studies assimilated terrestrial water storage variation (ΔTWS derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE into land surface models (LSMs. However, the GRACE-derived ΔTWS was generally computed from the high-level products (e.g. time-variable gravity fields, i.e. level 2, and land grid from the level 3 product. The gridded data products are subjected to several drawbacks such as signal attenuation and/or distortion caused by a posteriori filters and a lack of error covariance information. The post-processing of GRACE data might lead to the undesired alteration of the signal and its statistical property. This study uses the GRACE least-squares normal equation data to exploit the GRACE information rigorously and negate these limitations. Our approach combines GRACE's least-squares normal equation (obtained from ITSG-Grace2016 product with the results from the Community Atmosphere Biosphere Land Exchange (CABLE model to improve soil moisture and groundwater estimates. This study demonstrates, for the first time, an importance of using the GRACE raw data. The GRACE-combined (GC approach is developed for optimal least-squares combination and the approach is applied to estimate the soil moisture and groundwater over 10 Australian river basins. The results are validated against the satellite soil moisture observation and the in situ groundwater data. Comparing to CABLE, we demonstrate the GC approach delivers evident improvement of water storage estimates, consistently from all basins, yielding better agreement on seasonal and inter-annual timescales. Significant improvement is found in groundwater storage while marginal improvement is observed in surface soil moisture estimates.

  6. Regional regression equations for the estimation of selected monthly low-flow duration and frequency statistics at ungaged sites on streams in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; McHugh, Amy R.

    2014-01-01

    Regional regression equations were developed for estimating monthly flow-duration and monthly low-flow frequency statistics for ungaged streams in Coastal Plain and non-coastal regions of New Jersey for baseline and current land- and water-use conditions. The equations were developed to estimate 87 different streamflow statistics, which include the monthly 99-, 90-, 85-, 75-, 50-, and 25-percentile flow-durations of the minimum 1-day daily flow; the August–September 99-, 90-, and 75-percentile minimum 1-day daily flow; and the monthly 7-day, 10-year (M7D10Y) low-flow frequency. These 87 streamflow statistics were computed for 41 continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages) with 20 or more years of record and 167 low-flow partial-record stations in New Jersey with 10 or more streamflow measurements. The regression analyses used to develop equations to estimate selected streamflow statistics were performed by testing the relation between flow-duration statistics and low-flow frequency statistics for 32 basin characteristics (physical characteristics, land use, surficial geology, and climate) at the 41 streamgages and 167 low-flow partial-record stations. The regression analyses determined drainage area, soil permeability, average April precipitation, average June precipitation, and percent storage (water bodies and wetlands) were the significant explanatory variables for estimating the selected flow-duration and low-flow frequency statistics. Streamflow estimates were computed for two land- and water-use conditions in New Jersey—land- and water-use during the baseline period of record (defined as the years a streamgage had little to no change in development and water use) and current land- and water-use conditions (1989–2008)—for each selected station using data collected through water year 2008. The baseline period of record is representative of a period when the basin was unaffected by change in development. The current period is

  7. Joint kinematics estimation using a multi-body kinematics optimisation and an extended Kalman filter, and embedding a soft tissue artefact model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Vincent; Richard, Vincent; Camomilla, Valentina; Venture, Gentiane; Cappozzo, Aurelio; Dumas, Raphaël

    2017-09-06

    To reduce the impact of the soft tissue artefact (STA) on the estimate of skeletal movement using stereophotogrammetric and skin-marker data, multi-body kinematics optimisation (MKO) and extended Kalman filters (EKF) have been proposed. This paper assessed the feasibility and efficiency of these methods when they embed a mathematical model of the STA and simultaneously estimate the ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics and the model parameters. A STA model was used that provides an estimate of the STA affecting the marker-cluster located on a body segment as a function of the kinematics of the adjacent joints. The MKO and the EKF were implemented with and without the STA model. To assess these methods, intra-cortical pin and skin markers located on the thigh, shank, and foot of three subjects and tracked during the stance phase of running were used. Embedding the STA model in MKO and EKF reduced the average RMS of marker tracking from 12.6 to 1.6mm and from 4.3 to 1.9mm, respectively, showing that a STA model trial-specific calibration is feasible. Nevertheless, with the STA model embedded in MKO, the RMS difference between the estimated and the reference joint kinematics determined from the pin markers slightly increased (from 2.0 to 2.1deg) On the contrary, when the STA model was embedded in the EKF, this RMS difference was slightly reduced (from 2.0 to 1.7deg) thus showing a better potentiality of this method to attenuate STA effects and improve the accuracy of joint kinematics estimate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A quantum extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emzir, Muhammad F; Woolley, Matthew J; Petersen, Ian R

    2017-01-01

    In quantum physics, a stochastic master equation (SME) estimates the state (density operator) of a quantum system in the Schrödinger picture based on a record of measurements made on the system. In the Heisenberg picture, the SME is a quantum filter. For a linear quantum system subject to linear measurements and Gaussian noise, the dynamics may be described by quantum stochastic differential equations (QSDEs), also known as quantum Langevin equations, and the quantum filter reduces to a so-called quantum Kalman filter. In this article, we introduce a quantum extended Kalman filter (quantum EKF), which applies a commutative approximation and a time-varying linearization to systems of nonlinear QSDEs. We will show that there are conditions under which a filter similar to a classical EKF can be implemented for quantum systems. The boundedness of estimation errors and the filtering problem with ‘state-dependent’ covariances for process and measurement noises are also discussed. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the quantum EKF by applying it to systems that involve multiple modes, nonlinear Hamiltonians, and simultaneous jump-diffusive measurements. (paper)

  9. An equation to estimate the difference between theoretically predicted and SDS PAGE-displayed molecular weights for an acidic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Yihong; Zhu, Qinfang; Huang, Delai; Zhao, Shuyi; Jan Lo, Li; Peng, Jinrong

    2015-08-27

    The molecular weight (MW) of a protein can be predicted based on its amino acids (AA) composition. However, in many cases a non-chemically modified protein shows an SDS PAGE-displayed MW larger than its predicted size. Some reports linked this fact to high content of acidic AA in the protein. However, the exact relationship between the acidic AA composition and the SDS PAGE-displayed MW is not established. Zebrafish nucleolar protein Def is composed of 753 AA and shows an SDS PAGE-displayed MW approximately 13 kDa larger than its predicted MW. The first 188 AA in Def is defined by a glutamate-rich region containing ~35.6% of acidic AA. In this report, we analyzed the relationship between the SDS PAGE-displayed MW of thirteen peptides derived from Def and the AA composition in each peptide. We found that the difference between the predicted and SDS PAGE-displayed MW showed a linear correlation with the percentage of acidic AA that fits the equation y = 276.5x - 31.33 (x represents the percentage of acidic AA, 11.4% ≤ x ≤ 51.1%; y represents the average ΔMW per AA). We demonstrated that this equation could be applied to predict the SDS PAGE-displayed MW for thirteen different natural acidic proteins.

  10. Necessary and sufficient conditions for global-in-time existence of solutions of ordinary, stochastic, and parabolic differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for global-in-time existence of solutions of ordinary differential, stochastic differential, and parabolic equations. The conditions are formulated in terms of complete Riemannian metrics on extended phase spaces (conditions with two-sided estimates or in terms of derivatives of proper functions on extended phase spaces (conditions with one-sided estimates.

  11. Extended Phase Accordance Method: A Real-time and Accurate Technique for Estimating Position and Velocity of Moving Objects using Ultrasonic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko SATO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Phase Accordance Method, as previously proposed by the authors, shows a high level of accuracy in localizing static objects. However, its performance degrades when localizing moving objects because of the Doppler effect. In this paper, we propose an extension of the Phase Accordance Method, called the Extended Phase Accordance Method, to cancel the errors in localizing moving objects. Moreover, with this method we can obtain the velocities of objects, along with their positions, by using a combined ultrasound waveform of two different frequency carriers of a known power ratio. The fine point of the proposed method is that it uses virtually the same algorithm as the original position-only method but it can estimate positions and velocities simultaneously and hence achieve real-time tracking of moving objects. Through computer simulations and real-world experiments, we have proved that the proposed method has the same level of accuracy as the Phase Accordance Method. In real-world experiments, the Extended Phase Accordance Method achieved less than 1 mm standard deviation in the 1.0–1.8 m distance measurement of a moving object whose velocity ranged from –1.5 m/s to 1.5 m/s.

  12. Calculation of NaCl, KCl and LiCl Salts Activity Coefficients in Polyethylene Glycol (PEG4000)-Water System Using Modified PHSC Equation of State, Extended Debye-Hückel Model and Pitzer Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjani, Azam

    2016-07-01

    For biomolecules and cell particles purification and separation in biological engineering, besides the chromatography as mostly applied process, aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) are of the most favorable separation processes that are worth to be investigated in thermodynamic theoretically. In recent years, thermodynamic calculation of ATPS properties has attracted much attention due to their great applications in chemical industries such as separation processes. These phase calculations of ATPS have inherent complexity due to the presence of ions and polymers in aqueous solution. In this work, for target ternary systems of polyethylene glycol (PEG4000)-salt-water, thermodynamic investigation for constituent systems with three salts (NaCl, KCl and LiCl) has been carried out as PEG is the most favorable polymer in ATPS. The modified perturbed hard sphere chain (PHSC) equation of state (EOS), extended Debye-Hückel and Pitzer models were employed for calculation of activity coefficients for the considered systems. Four additional statistical parameters were considered to ensure the consistency of correlations and introduced as objective functions in the particle swarm optimization algorithm. The results showed desirable agreement to the available experimental data, and the order of recommendation of studied models is PHSC EOS > extended Debye-Hückel > Pitzer. The concluding remark is that the all the employed models are reliable in such calculations and can be used for thermodynamic correlation/predictions; however, by using an ion-based parameter calculation method, the PHSC EOS reveals both reliability and universality of applications.

  13. A comparison of estimated glomerular filtration rates using Cockcroft-Gault and the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration estimating equations in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, A; Nielsen, Lene Ryom; Reiss, P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI)- or Cockcroft-Gault (CG)-based estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs) performs better in the cohort setting for predicting moderate/advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end...

  14. Biomass estimates of small diameter planted and natural-origin loblolly pines show major departures from the National Biomass Estimator equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Schuler; Don C. Bragg; Kristin McElligott

    2017-01-01

    As southern pine forests (both planted and naturally regenerated) are more heavily used to provide biomass for the developing energy sectors and carbon sequestration, a better understanding of models used to characterize regional biomass estimates is needed. We harvested loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.) between 0.5 and 15 cm dbh from several...

  15. Determination of source terms in a degenerate parabolic equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannarsa, P; Tort, J; Yamamoto, M

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we prove Lipschitz stability results for inverse source problems relative to parabolic equations. We use the method introduced by Imanuvilov and Yamamoto in 1998 based on Carleman estimates. What is new here is that we study a class of one-dimensional degenerate parabolic equations. In our model, the diffusion coefficient vanishes at one extreme point of the domain. Instead of the classical Carleman estimates obtained by Fursikov and Imanuvilov for non degenerate equations, we use and extend some recent Carleman estimates for degenerate equations obtained by Cannarsa, Martinez and Vancostenoble. Finally, we obtain Lipschitz stability results in inverse source problems for our class of degenerate parabolic equations both in the case of a boundary observation and in the case of a locally distributed observation

  16. Calculation of the Aqueous Thermodynamic Properties of Citric Acid Cycle Intermediates and Precursors and the Estimation of High Temperature and Pressure Equation of State Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Schulte

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The citric acid cycle (CAC is the central pathway of energy transfer for many organisms, and understanding the origin of this pathway may provide insight into the origins of metabolism. In order to assess the thermodynamics of this key pathway for microorganisms that inhabit a wide variety of environments, especially those found in high temperature environments, we have calculated the properties and parameters for the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state for the major components of the CAC. While a significant amount of data is not available for many of the constituents of this fundamental pathway, methods exist that allow estimation of these missing data.

  17. Difference equations by differential equation methods

    CERN Document Server

    Hydon, Peter E

    2014-01-01

    Most well-known solution techniques for differential equations exploit symmetry in some form. Systematic methods have been developed for finding and using symmetries, first integrals and conservation laws of a given differential equation. Here the author explains how to extend these powerful methods to difference equations, greatly increasing the range of solvable problems. Beginning with an introduction to elementary solution methods, the book gives readers a clear explanation of exact techniques for ordinary and partial difference equations. The informal presentation is suitable for anyone who is familiar with standard differential equation methods. No prior knowledge of difference equations or symmetry is assumed. The author uses worked examples to help readers grasp new concepts easily. There are 120 exercises of varying difficulty and suggestions for further reading. The book goes to the cutting edge of research; its many new ideas and methods make it a valuable reference for researchers in the field.

  18. On the consideration of scaling properties of extreme rainfall in Madrid (Spain) for developing a generalized intensity-duration-frequency equation and assessing probable maximum precipitation estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Castillo, M. Carmen; Rodríguez-Solà, Raúl; Navarro, Xavier; Russo, Beniamino; Lastra, Antonio; González, Paula; Redaño, Angel

    2018-01-01

    The fractal behavior of extreme rainfall intensities registered between 1940 and 2012 by the Retiro Observatory of Madrid (Spain) has been examined, and a simple scaling regime ranging from 25 min to 3 days of duration has been identified. Thus, an intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) master equation of the location has been constructed in terms of the simple scaling formulation. The scaling behavior of probable maximum precipitation (PMP) for durations between 5 min and 24 h has also been verified. For the statistical estimation of the PMP, an envelope curve of the frequency factor ( k m ) based on a total of 10,194 station-years of annual maximum rainfall from 258 stations in Spain has been developed. This curve could be useful to estimate suitable values of PMP at any point of the Iberian Peninsula from basic statistical parameters (mean and standard deviation) of its rainfall series. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  19. State-of-charge inconsistency estimation of lithium-ion battery pack using mean-difference model and extended Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuejiu; Gao, Wenkai; Ouyang, Minggao; Lu, Languang; Zhou, Long; Han, Xuebing

    2018-04-01

    State-of-charge (SOC) inconsistency impacts the power, durability and safety of the battery pack. Therefore, it is necessary to measure the SOC inconsistency of the battery pack with good accuracy. We explore a novel method for modeling and estimating the SOC inconsistency of lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery pack with low computation effort. In this method, a second-order RC model is selected as the cell mean model (CMM) to represent the overall performance of the battery pack. A hypothetical Rint model is employed as the cell difference model (CDM) to evaluate the SOC difference. The parameters of mean-difference model (MDM) are identified with particle swarm optimization (PSO). Subsequently, the mean SOC and the cell SOC differences are estimated by using extended Kalman filter (EKF). Finally, we conduct an experiment on a small Li-ion battery pack with twelve cells connected in series. The results show that the evaluated SOC difference is capable of tracking the changing of actual value after a quick convergence.

  20. Development and validation of risk prediction equations to estimate future risk of heart failure in patients with diabetes: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop and externally validate risk prediction equations to estimate the 10-year risk of heart failure in patients with diabetes, aged 25–84 years. Design Cohort study using routinely collected data from general practices in England between 1998 and 2014 contributing to the QResearch and Clinical Research Practice Datalink (CPRD) databases. Setting We used 763 QResearch practices to develop the equations. We validated it in 254 different QResearch practices and 357 CPRD practices. Participants 437 806 patients in the derivation cohort; 137 028 in the QResearch validation cohort, and 197 905 in the CPRD validation cohort. Measurement Incident diagnosis of heart failure recorded on the patients’ linked electronic General Practitioner (GP), mortality, or hospital record. Risk factors included age, body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure, cholesterol/ high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), material deprivation, ethnicity, smoking, diabetes duration, type of diabetes, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, chronic renal disease, and family history of premature coronary heart disease. Methods We used Cox proportional hazards models to derive separate risk equations in men and women for evaluation at 10 years. Measures of calibration, discrimination, and sensitivity were determined in 2 external validation cohorts. Results We identified 25 480 cases of heart failure in the derivation cohort, 8189 in the QResearch validation cohort, and 11 311 in the CPRD cohort. The equations included: age, BMI, systolic blood pressure, cholesterol/HDL ratio, HbA1c, material deprivation, ethnicity, smoking, duration and type of diabetes, atrial fibrillation, cardiovascular disease, and chronic renal disease. The equations had good performance in CPRD for women (R2 of 41.2%; D statistic 1.71; and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) statistic 0.78) and men (38.7%, 1.63; and 0.77 respectively